WorldWideScience

Sample records for high cardinality attributes

  1. Efficient binning for bitmap indices on high-cardinality attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotem, Doron; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng

    2004-11-17

    Bitmap indexing is a common technique for indexing high-dimensional data in data warehouses and scientific applications. Though efficient for low-cardinality attributes, query processing can be rather costly for high-cardinality attributes due to the large storage requirements for the bitmap indices. Binning is a common technique for reducing storage costs of bitmap indices. This technique partitions the attribute values into a number of ranges, called bins, and uses bitmap vectors to represent bins (attribute ranges) rather than distinct values. Although binning may reduce storage costs, it may increase the access costs of queries that do not fall on exact bin boundaries (edge bins). For this kind of queries the original data values associated with edge bins must be accessed, in order to check them against the query constraints.In this paper we study the problem of finding optimal locations for the bin boundaries in order to minimize these access costs subject to storage constraints. We propose a dynamic programming algorithm for optimal partitioning of attribute values into bins that takes into account query access patterns as well as data distribution statistics. Mathematical analysis and experiments on real life data sets show that the optimal partitioning achieved by this algorithm can lead to a significant improvement in the access costs of bitmap indexing systems for high-cardinality attributes.

  2. From cardinal spline wavelet bases to highly coherent dictionaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrle, Miroslav; Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Wavelet families arise by scaling and translations of a prototype function, called the mother wavelet. The construction of wavelet bases for cardinal spline spaces is generally carried out within the multi-resolution analysis scheme. Thus, the usual way of increasing the dimension of the multi-resolution subspaces is by augmenting the scaling factor. We show here that, when working on a compact interval, the identical effect can be achieved without changing the wavelet scale but reducing the translation parameter. By such a procedure we generate a redundant frame, called a dictionary, spanning the same spaces as a wavelet basis but with wavelets of broader support. We characterize the correlation of the dictionary elements by measuring their 'coherence' and produce examples illustrating the relevance of highly coherent dictionaries to problems of sparse signal representation. (fast track communication)

  3. Cardinal and anti-cardinal points, equalities and chromatic dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tanya; Harris, William F

    2017-05-01

    Cardinal points are used for ray tracing through Gaussian systems. Anti-principal and anti-nodal points (which we shall refer to as the anti-cardinal points), along with the six familiar cardinal points, belong to a much larger set of special points. The purpose of this paper is to obtain a set of relationships and resulting equalities among the cardinal and anti-cardinal points and to illustrate them using Pascal's ring. The methodology used relies on Gaussian optics and the transference T. We make use of two equations, obtained via the transference, which give the locations of the six cardinal and four anti-cardinal points with respect to the system. We obtain equalities among the cardinal and anti-cardinal points. We utilise Pascal's ring to illustrate which points depend on frequency and their displacement with change in frequency. Pascal described a memory schema in the shape of a hexagon for remembering equalities among the points and illustrating shifts in these points when an aspect of the system changes. We modify and extend Pascal's ring to include the anti-cardinal points. We make use of Pascal's ring extended to illustrate which points are dependent on the frequency of light and the direction of shift of the equalities with change in frequency. For the reduced eye the principal and nodal points are independent of frequency, but the focal points and the anti-cardinal points depend on frequency. For Le Grand's four-surface model eye all six cardinal and four anti-cardinal points depend on frequency. This has implications for definitions, particularly of chromatic aberrations of the eye, that make use of cardinal points and that themselves depend on frequency. Pascal's ring and Pascal's ring extended are novel memory schema for remembering the equalities among the cardinal and anti-cardinal points. The rings are useful for illustrating changes among the equalities and direction of shift of points when an aspect of a system changes. Care should be taken

  4. Introduction to cardinal arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Holz, M; Weitz, E

    1999-01-01

    This book is an introduction into modern cardinal arithmetic in the frame of the axioms of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory together with the axiom of choice (ZFC). A first part describes the classical theory developed by Bernstein, Cantor, Hausdorff, König and Tarski between 1870 and 1930. Next, the development in the 1970s led by Galvin, Hajnal and Silver is characterized. The third part presents the fundamental investigations in pcf theory which have been worked out by Shelah to answer the questions left open in the 1970s.Reviews:'The authors aim their text at beginners in set theory. They start

  5. Cardinal scales for health evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Charles; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2010-01-01

    Policy studies often evaluate health for an individual or for a population by using measurement scales that are ordinal scales or expected-utility scales. This paper develops scales of a different type, commonly called cardinal scales, that measure changes in health. Also, we argue that cardinal...... scales provide a meaningful and useful means of evaluating health policies. Thus, we develop a means of using the perspective of early neoclassical welfare economics as an alternative to ordinalist and expected-utility perspectives....

  6. A hierarchy of Ramsey-like cardinals

    OpenAIRE

    Holy, Peter; Schlicht, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a hierarchy of large cardinals between weakly compact and measurable cardinals, that is closely related to the Ramsey-like cardinals introduced by Victoria Gitman, and is based on certain infinite filter games, however also has a range of equivalent characterizations in terms of elementary embeddings. The aim of this paper is to locate the Ramsey-like cardinals studied by Gitman, and other well-known large cardinal notions, in this hierarchy.

  7. Cardinal arithmetic in weak theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    In this paper we develop the theory of cardinals in the theory COPY. This is the theory of two total, jointly injective binary predicates in a second order version, where we may quantify over binary relations. The only second order axioms of the theory are the axiom asserting the existence of an

  8. Software attribute visualization for high integrity software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, G.M.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents a prototype tool developed to investigate the use of visualization and virtual reality technologies for improving software surety confidence. The tool is utilized within the execution phase of the software life cycle. It provides a capability to monitor an executing program against prespecified requirements constraints provided in a program written in the requirements specification language SAGE. The resulting Software Attribute Visual Analysis Tool (SAVAnT) also provides a technique to assess the completeness of a software specification.

  9. Efficient Cardinality/Mean-Variance Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, R. Pedro; Vicente, Luís Nunes

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We propose a novel approach to handle cardinality in portfolio selection, by means of a biobjective cardinality/mean-variance problem, allowing the investor to analyze the efficient tradeoff between return-risk and number of active positions. Recent progress in multiobjective optimization without derivatives allow us to robustly compute (in-sample) the whole cardinality/mean-variance efficient frontier, for a variety of data sets and mean-variance models. Our results s...

  10. Graphical matching rules for cardinality based service feature diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Kanwal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To provide efficient services to end-users, variability and commonality among the features of the product line is a challenge for industrialist and researchers. Feature modeling provides great services to deal with variability and commonality among the features of product line. Cardinality based service feature diagrams changed the basic framework of service feature diagrams by putting constraints to them, which make service specifications more flexible, but apart from their variation in selection third party services may have to be customizable. Although to control variability, cardinality based service feature diagrams provide high level visual notations. For specifying variability, the use of cardinality based service feature diagrams raises the problem of matching a required feature diagram against the set of provided diagrams.

  11. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to high blood pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To estimate the burden of disease attributable to high blood pressure (BP) in adults aged 30 years and older in South Africa in 2000. Design. World Health Organization comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology was followed. Mean systolic BP (SBP) estimates by age and sex were obtained from the 1998 ...

  12. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to high cholesterol in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To estimate the burden of disease attributable to high cholesterol in adults aged 30 years and older in South Africa in 2000. Design. World Health Organization comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology was followed. Small community studies were used to derive the prevalence by population group.

  13. The universal cardinal ordering of fixed points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Martin, Jesus; Moscoso, Ma Jose; Gonzalez Gomez, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present the theorem which determines, by a permutation, the cardinal ordering of fixed points for any orbit of a period doubling cascade. The inverse permutation generates the orbit and the symbolic sequence of the orbit is obtained as a corollary. Interestingly enough, it is important to point that this theorem needs no previous information about any other orbit; also the cardinal ordering is achieved automatically with no need to compare numerical values associated with every point of the orbit (as would be the case if kneading theory were used).

  14. Reasoning about cardinal directions between extended objects

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Weiming; Zhang, Xiaotong; Li, Sanjiang; Ying, Mingsheng

    2010-01-01

    Direction relations between extended spatial objects are important commonsense knowledge. Recently, Goyal and Egenhofer proposed a formal model, known as Cardinal Direction Calculus (CDC), for representing direction relations between connected plane regions. CDC is perhaps the most expressive qualitative calculus for directional information, and has attracted increasing interest from areas such as artificial intelligence, geographical information science, and image retrieval. Given a network ...

  15. An algorithm for reduct cardinality minimization

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2013-12-01

    This is devoted to the consideration of a new algorithm for reduct cardinality minimization. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, simplify this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. Results of computer experiments with decision tables from UCI ML Repository are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. An algorithm for reduct cardinality minimization

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Al Farhan, Mohammed; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    This is devoted to the consideration of a new algorithm for reduct cardinality minimization. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, simplify this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. Results of computer experiments with decision tables from UCI ML Repository are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Cardinals and the War of Ferrara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Fletcher

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The bestowal of a red hat can turn even the most humbly born cleric into an ecclesiastical prince, but whereas few cardinals of the modern era have been born princely, most of those created in the Renaissance period could claim to be of noble lineage and a few, from the second half of the fifteenth century onwards, were the sons of ruling princes. Those who were born to fight were obliged to become those who prayed, but where did their allegiances lie when the states of Italy were at war with a belligerent pope such as Sixtus IV? The War of Ferrara (1482–4 presents an opportunity to survey the responses of cardinals from the ruling dynasties of Mantua, Milan, Montferrat, and Naples, together with their counterparts from the republics of Genoa, Siena, and Venice.

  18. Cardinal Scales for Public Health Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Charles M.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    Policy studies often evaluate health for a population by summing the individuals' health as measured by a scale that is ordinal or that depends on risk attitudes. We develop a method using a different type of preferences, called preference intensity or cardinal preferences, to construct scales...... that measure changes in health. The method is based on a social welfare model that relates preferences between changes in an individual's health to preferences between changes in health for a population...

  19. Modeling mental spatial reasoning about cardinal directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheis, Holger; Bertel, Sven; Barkowsky, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article presents research into human mental spatial reasoning with orientation knowledge. In particular, we look at reasoning problems about cardinal directions that possess multiple valid solutions (i.e., are spatially underdetermined), at human preferences for some of these solutions, and at representational and procedural factors that lead to such preferences. The article presents, first, a discussion of existing, related conceptual and computational approaches; second, results of empirical research into the solution preferences that human reasoners actually have; and, third, a novel computational model that relies on a parsimonious and flexible spatio-analogical knowledge representation structure to robustly reproduce the behavior observed with human reasoners. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Multiple model cardinalized probability hypothesis density filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Ramona; Willett, Peter

    2011-09-01

    The Probability Hypothesis Density (PHD) filter propagates the first-moment approximation to the multi-target Bayesian posterior distribution while the Cardinalized PHD (CPHD) filter propagates both the posterior likelihood of (an unlabeled) target state and the posterior probability mass function of the number of targets. Extensions of the PHD filter to the multiple model (MM) framework have been published and were implemented either with a Sequential Monte Carlo or a Gaussian Mixture approach. In this work, we introduce the multiple model version of the more elaborate CPHD filter. We present the derivation of the prediction and update steps of the MMCPHD particularized for the case of two target motion models and proceed to show that in the case of a single model, the new MMCPHD equations reduce to the original CPHD equations.

  1. Cardinal Equivalence of Small Number in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, J.; Roelinga, U.

    1982-01-01

    Children completed three types of equivalent cardination tasks which assessed the influence of different stimulus configurations (linear, linear-nonlinear, and nonlinear), and density of object spacing. Prior results reported by Siegel, Brainerd, and Gelman and Gallistel were not replicated. Implications for understanding cardination concept…

  2. Minimum Covers of Fixed Cardinality in Weighted Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lee J.

    Reported is the result of research on combinatorial and algorithmic techniques for information processing. A method is discussed for obtaining minimum covers of specified cardinality from a given weighted graph. By the indicated method, it is shown that the family of minimum covers of varying cardinality is related to the minimum spanning tree of…

  3. 78 FR 28631 - Cardinal Health 200, LLC, a Wholly Owned Subsidiary of Cardinal Health, Inc., Medical-Presource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-82,504] Cardinal Health 200, LLC, a Wholly Owned Subsidiary of Cardinal Health, Inc., Medical-Presource Manufacturing, Monte Briner Building, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco USA, Inc., Countryside Association, and Executive Building Maintenance and Including Workers...

  4. An experimental comparison of some heuristics for cardinality constrained bin packing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Remic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bin packing is an NPhard optimization problem of packing items of given sizes into minimum number of capacitylimited bins. Besides the basic problem, numerous other variants of bin packing exist. The cardinality constrained bin packing adds an additional constraint that the number of items in a bin must not exceed a given limit Nmax. Objectives: Goal of the paper is to present a preliminary experimental study which demostrates adaptations of the new algorithms to the general cardinality constrained bin packing problem. Methods/Approach: Straightforward modifications of First Fit Decreasing (FFD, Refined First Fit (RFF and the algorithm by Zhang et al. for the bin packing problem are compared to four cardinality constrained bin packing problem specific algorithms on random lists of items with 0%, 10%, 30% and 50% of large items. The behaviour of all algorithms when cardinality constraint Nmax increases is also studied. Results: Results show that all specific algorithms outperform the general algorithms on lists with low percentage of big items. Conclusions: One of the specific algorithms performs better or equally well even on lists with high percentage of big items and is therefore of significant interest. The behaviour when Nmax increases shows that specific algorithms can be used for solving the general bin packing problem as well.

  5. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to high cholesterol in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High cholesterol is an important cardiovascular risk factor in all population groups in South Africa. S Afr Mea12007; 97: 708—715. The value of abnormal blood lipids and apo—lipoprotein levels to predict ischaemic heart disease (IHD) has been studied for decades, with the initial focus shifting from studying the relationship ...

  6. On the cardinality of smallest spanning sets of rings | Boudi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Let R = (R, +, ·) be a ring. Then Z ⊆ R is called spanning if the R-module generated by Z is equal to the ring R. A spanning set Z ⊆ R is called smallest if there is no spanning set of smaller cardinality than Z. It will be shown that the cardinality of a smallest spanning set of a ring R is not always decidable. In particular, a ring R ...

  7. Exploring cardinality in the era of touchscreen-based technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghatjou, Mina; Campbell, Stephen R.

    2017-11-01

    This paper explores how a young child (56 m) builds an understanding of the cardinality principle through communicative, touchscreen-based activities involving talk, gesture and body engagement working via multimodal, touchscreen interface using contemporary mobile technology. Drawing upon Nemirovsky's perceptuomotor integration theoretical lens and other foundational aspects of Husserlian phenomenology, we present an in-depth case study of a preschool child developing mathematical expertise and tool fluency using an iPad application called TouchCounts to operate with cardinal numbers. Overall, this study demonstrates that the one-on-one multimodal touch, sight and auditory feedback via a touchscreen device can serve to assist in a child's development of cardinality.

  8. Parenting styles, adolescents' attributions, and educational outcomes in nine heterogeneous high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, K L; Dornbusch, S M; Troyer, L; Steinberg, L; Ritter, P L

    1997-06-01

    This article examined the contemporaneous and predictive relations between parenting styles, adolescents' attributions, and 4 educational outcomes. Data were collected from adolescents attending 6 high schools in California and 3 high schools in Wisconsin during the 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 school years. The results of path analyses partially confirmed the central hypotheses. Adolescents who perceived their parents as being nonauthoritative were more likely than their peers to attribute achievement outcomes to external causes or to low ability. Furthermore, the higher the proportion of dysfunctional attributions made for academic successes and failures, the lower the levels of classroom engagement and homework 1 year later. Although adolescents' attributional style provided a bridge between parenting style and 2 educational outcomes, it did not fully explain the impact of parenting on those outcomes. Additional analyses within gender and ethnic subgroups reinforced the overall pattern of findings observed within the entire sample.

  9. Cancel the Cardinals Home Opener?! Lessons in Melting and Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Market, Patrick S.

    2005-01-01

    The St. Louis Cardinals are scheduled to play their home opener the next day and Megan Riley, a young meteorologist who works for a private weather consulting firm, is responsible for developing the weather forecast. It's looking like she may need to change her prediction from rain to snow. In this interrupted case study, students work in small…

  10. Good and Bad Objects : Cardinality-Based Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrov, D.A.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of ranking sets of objects, the members of which are mutually compatible.Assuming that each object is either good or bad, we axiomatically characterize three cardinality-based rules which arise naturally in this dichotomous setting.They are what we call the symmetric

  11. Corticosterone profiles in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis): Do levels vary through life history stages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Benjamin M; Jawor, Jodie M

    2018-04-17

    As animals move through life history stages, energy requirements for each stage will vary. Both daily and annual variation in the glucocoriticoid hormones (specifically corticosterone, or CORT, in birds) helps provide the variable energy needed through life history stages. In many bird species, CORT is higher in the breeding season when energy demands can be quite high and is often lower in the non-breeding season. Additionally, CORT has a role to play in the response to stressful stimuli and the level to which CORT is elevated following stressful events can vary through the annual cycle as well. Here we report on baseline and stress-induced CORT levels in both sexes of northern cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis, a non-migrating, year-round territorial species across life history stages. Corticosterone is overall higher in the non-breeding season than the breeding season in both sexes. Males tend to have higher levels of stress-induced CORT than females, although the observed patterns are complex. Our findings differ from one of the more common profile reported in songbirds where breeding season CORT tends to be higher than non-breeding levels. A strong influence may be the prolonged breeding season seen in cardinals; lower levels of CORT during breeding may guard against adverse maternal effects, interruptions in breeding behaviors, or egg production. Additional investigation of species with similar ecologies to northern cardinals, and more populations of cardinals, may show that annual glucocorticoid profiles are more labile than previously appreciated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding the Reading Attributes and Their Cognitive Relationships on a High-Stakes Biology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlusyk, Kevin James

    Test items used to assess learners' knowledge on high-stakes science examinations contain contextualized questions that unintentionally assess reading skill along with conceptual knowledge. Therefore, students who are not proficient readers are unable to comprehend the text within the test item to demonstrate effectively their level of science knowledge. The purpose of this quantitative study was to understand what reading attributes were required to successfully answer the Biology 30 Diploma Exam. Furthermore, the research sought to understand the cognitive relationships among the reading attributes through quantitative analysis structured by the Attribute Hierarchy Model (AHM). The research consisted of two phases: (1) Cognitive development, where the cognitive attributes of the Biology 30 Exam were specified and hierarchy structures were developed; and (2) Psychometric analysis, that statistically tested the attribute hierarchy using the Hierarchy Consistency Index (HCI), and calculate attribute probabilities. Phase one of the research used January 2011, Biology 30 Diploma Exam, while phase two accessed archival data for the 9985 examinees who took the assessment on January 24th, 2011. Phase one identified ten specific reading attributes, of which five were identified as unique subsets of vocabulary, two were identified as reading visual representations, and three corresponded to general reading skills. Four hierarchical cognitive model were proposed then analyzed using the HCI as a mechanism to explain the relationship among the attributes. Model A had the highest HCI value (0.337), indicating an overall poor data fit, yet for the top achieving examinees the model had an excellent model fit with an HCI value of 0.888, and for examinees that scored over 60% there was a moderate model fit (HCI = 0.592). Linear regressions of the attribute probability estimates suggest that there is a cognitive relationship among six of the ten reading attributes (R2 = 0.958 and 0

  13. High School Instrumental Music Students' Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Practice: An Application of Attribution Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatt, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore high school band students' perspectives of instrumental music practice from within the attribution theory paradigm and to attempt to elucidate the secondary student's attitudes toward practice. High school band students from three Midwestern school districts (N = 218) completed a survey that was used to…

  14. Computing group cardinality constraint solutions for logistic regression problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Kwon, Dongjin; Pohl, Kilian M

    2017-01-01

    We derive an algorithm to directly solve logistic regression based on cardinality constraint, group sparsity and use it to classify intra-subject MRI sequences (e.g. cine MRIs) of healthy from diseased subjects. Group cardinality constraint models are often applied to medical images in order to avoid overfitting of the classifier to the training data. Solutions within these models are generally determined by relaxing the cardinality constraint to a weighted feature selection scheme. However, these solutions relate to the original sparse problem only under specific assumptions, which generally do not hold for medical image applications. In addition, inferring clinical meaning from features weighted by a classifier is an ongoing topic of discussion. Avoiding weighing features, we propose to directly solve the group cardinality constraint logistic regression problem by generalizing the Penalty Decomposition method. To do so, we assume that an intra-subject series of images represents repeated samples of the same disease patterns. We model this assumption by combining series of measurements created by a feature across time into a single group. Our algorithm then derives a solution within that model by decoupling the minimization of the logistic regression function from enforcing the group sparsity constraint. The minimum to the smooth and convex logistic regression problem is determined via gradient descent while we derive a closed form solution for finding a sparse approximation of that minimum. We apply our method to cine MRI of 38 healthy controls and 44 adult patients that received reconstructive surgery of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) during infancy. Our method correctly identifies regions impacted by TOF and generally obtains statistically significant higher classification accuracy than alternative solutions to this model, i.e., ones relaxing group cardinality constraints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Vehicle detection from very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery using attribute belief propagation (ABP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Ying; Zhang, Li; Huang, Yuchun

    2016-10-01

    With the popularity of very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery, the shape, color, and context attribute of vehicles are better characterized. Due to the various road surroundings and imaging conditions, vehicle attributes could be adversely affected so that vehicle is mistakenly detected or missed. This paper is motivated to robustly extract the rich attribute feature for detecting the vehicles of VHR imagery under different scenarios. Based on the hierarchical component tree of vehicle context, attribute belief propagation (ABP) is proposed to detect salient vehicles from the statistical perspective. With the Max-tree data structure, the multi-level component tree around the road network is efficiently created. The spatial relationship between vehicle and its belonging context is established with the belief definition of vehicle attribute. To effectively correct single-level belief error, the inter-level belief linkages enforce consistency of belief assignment between corresponding components at different levels. ABP starts from an initial set of vehicle belief calculated by vehicle attribute, and then iterates through each component by applying inter-level belief passing until convergence. The optimal value of vehicle belief of each component is obtained via minimizing its belief function iteratively. The proposed algorithm is tested on a diverse set of VHR imagery acquired in the city and inter-city areas of the West and South China. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can detect vehicle efficiently and suppress the erroneous effectively. The proposed ABP framework is promising to robustly classify the vehicles from VHR Aerial imagery.

  16. Cardinality Estimation Algorithm in Large-Scale Anonymous Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed; Aly, Salah A.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    for cardinality estimation and topology discovery, i.e., estimating the number of node and structure of the graph, by querying a small number of nodes and performing statistical inference methods. While the cardinality estimation allows the design of more

  17. The Prevalence and Quality of Source Attribution in Middle and High School Science Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieyra, Michelle; Weaver, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is a commonly cited problem in higher education, especially in scientific writing and assignments for science courses. Students may not intentionally plagiarize, but may instead be confused about what proper source attribution entails. Much of this confusion likely stems from high school, either from lack of or inconsistent instruction…

  18. Do Social Attribution Skills Improve with Age in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Elgiz; Yerys, Benjamin E.; Sokoloff, Jennifer L.; Celano, Mark J.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Giedd, Jay N.; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related changes in social attribution skills were assessed using the "Triangles Playing Tricks" task in 7-17 year old high functioning children with ASDs (n = 41) and in typically developing (TD) children (n = 58) matched on age, IQ, and sex ratio. Children with ASDs gave responses that received lower intentionality and appropriateness ratings…

  19. Parents' Criticisms and Attributions about Their Adult Children with High Functioning Autism or Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Stephanie; Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Mundy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the criticism component of expressed emotion (EE) and attributions in parents of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (S/SA) or high functioning autism/Asperger's. Consistent with study hypotheses, parents of adults diagnosed with autism/Asperger's disorder exhibited lower levels of high…

  20. High Speed Railway Environment Safety Evaluation Based on Measurement Attribute Recognition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qizhou Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to rationally evaluate the high speed railway operation safety level, the environmental safety evaluation index system of high speed railway should be well established by means of analyzing the impact mechanism of severe weather such as raining, thundering, lightning, earthquake, winding, and snowing. In addition to that, the attribute recognition will be identified to determine the similarity between samples and their corresponding attribute classes on the multidimensional space, which is on the basis of the Mahalanobis distance measurement function in terms of Mahalanobis distance with the characteristics of noncorrelation and nondimensionless influence. On top of the assumption, the high speed railway of China environment safety situation will be well elaborated by the suggested methods. The results from the detailed analysis show that the evaluation is basically matched up with the actual situation and could lay a scientific foundation for the high speed railway operation safety.

  1. Upper bounds on minimum cardinality of exact and approximate reducts

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we consider the notions of exact and approximate decision reducts for binary decision tables. We present upper bounds on minimum cardinality of exact and approximate reducts depending on the number of rows (objects) in the decision table. We show that the bound for exact reducts is unimprovable in the general case, and the bound for approximate reducts is almost unimprovable in the general case. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. [Mortality and life expectancy that attributable to high blood pressure in Chinese people in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X Y; Liu, S W; Wang, L J; Zhang, M; Yin, P; Liu, Y N; Zhao, Z P; Wang, L M

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To estimate the deaths (mortality) and life expectancy that attributable to high blood pressure in people from different regions and gender, in China in 2013. Methods: Data was from the 'China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance 2013' and the 'China National Mortality Surveillance 2013'. According to the comparative risk assessment theory, population attributable fraction ( PAF ) of high blood pressure by gender, urban-rural, east-central-west regions was calculated before the estimations on deaths (mortality) and life expectancy attributable to high blood pressure was made. Results: In 2013, among the Chinese people aged 25 years old and above, the mean SBP was (129.48±20.27) mmHg. High blood pressure[SBP>(115±6) mmHg]caused 20.879 million deaths and accounted for 22.78% of the total deaths. SBP, deaths, mortality rate and standardized mortality rate that attributable to high blood pressure all appeared higher in men [(131.15±18.73) mmHg, 11.517 million, 165.56/100 000 and 106.97/100 000, respectively]than in women[(127.79±21.60) mmHg, 9.362 million, 141.99/100 000 and 68.93/100 000, respectively]. SBP, deaths, mortality rate and PAF were all seen higher in rural[(130.25±20.66) mmHg, 11.234 million, 178.58/100 000 and 23.59%, respectively]than in urban[(128.58±19.77) mmHg, 9.645 million, 132.87/100 000 and 21.54%, respectively]areas. However, levels of SBP were similar in the east, central or west regions, with attributable deaths, attributable mortality rate and PAF the highest as 7.658 million 179.93/100 000, and 26.72% respectively. In 2013, among the Chinese people aged 25 years old and above, deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease attributable to high blood pressure were 19.912 million and 0.966 million, accounting for 52.31% of the total deaths due to cardiovascular diseases and 62.11% to the total chronic kidney diseases. The top three deaths attributable to high blood pressure were ischemic heart disease (6

  3. Social Attribution in Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: An Exploratory Study in the Chinese Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond C. K.; Hu, Zhou-yi; Cui, Ji-fang; Wang, Ya; McAlonan, Grainne M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine social attribution in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS). A sample of 20 boys (9 with HFA and 11 with AS) and 20 age-matched controls were recruited for this study. All participated in two tasks measuring social attribution ability, the conventional Social Attribution Task…

  4. Cardinal Temperatures of Brassica sp. and How to Determine It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. SUANDA SUANDA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardinal temperatures consist of minimum, optimum and maximum of plant growth, and might beable to be determined by assessing effect of temperature on seed germination. An experiment ofseed germination was conducted in laboratory, using thermal gradient plate for ten days. To test hypothesisthat rapeseed genotypes vary in their response to temperatures. The design of this experiment was asplit plot with four replications. The main-treatments were 14 different temperatures: 0.4°C, 3.3°C,7.8°C, 11.6°C, 13.3°C, 15.0°C, 16.8°C, 18.3°C, 20.9°C, 21.1°C, 25.6°C, 29.0°C, 33.0°C and36.3°C. Sub-treatments were 6 brassica genotypes: Brassica napus genotypes (Tatyoon and Marnoo;B. campestris (Jumbuck and Chinoli B; B. juncea (No. 81797 and Zero Erusic Mustard (ZEM 2.Each treatment was using 50 seeds. Germinations were observed daily for ten days and data wereanalyzed with regression and correlation. Genotypes responded differently to temperatures with Jumbuckthe most sensitive to low temperature with minimum temperature (7.90°C, then respectively followedby Chinoli B (6.36°C, ZEM 2 (4.77°C, Tatyoon (4.63°C, No. 81797 (2.59°C, and Marnoo(1.00°C. For high temperature the most sensitive was No. 81797 with maximum temperature 38.61°C.and then respectively followed by Marnoo (39.76°C, Chinoli B (42.93°C, Tatyoon (43.79°C,Jumbuck (44.58°C and ZEM 2 (45.88°C. Optimum temperatures were for Jumbuck was 24.56°C,ZEM 2 (26.95°C, Tatyoon (27.12°C, No. 81797 (28.12°C, Chinoli B (29.74°C and Marnoo(30.48°C.

  5. Do Social Attribution Skills Improve with Age in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Elgiz; Yerys, Benjamin E; Sokoloff, Jennifer L; Celano, Mark J; Kenworthy, Lauren; Giedd, Jay N; Wallace, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    Age-related changes in social attribution skills were assessed using the "Triangles Playing Tricks" task in 7-17 year old high functioning children with ASDs (n=41) and in typically developing (TD) children (n=58) matched on age, IQ, and sex ratio. Children with ASDs gave responses that received lower intentionality and appropriateness ratings than did TD children in both the goal-directed and theory of mind (ToM) conditions. Results remained unchanged when the effects of verbal output (i.e., number of clause produced) and verbal IQ were included as covariates in the analyses. Whereas age was highly associated with ToM performance in the TD children, this relationship was not as strong among children with ASDs. These results indicate not only a diminished tendency among high functioning children with ASDs to attribute social meaning and intentionality to ambiguous visual displays of interactive forms but also an aberrant developmental trajectory. That is, children with ASDs may fall further behind their typically developing peers in social attribution abilities as they get older.

  6. Approximate number word knowledge before the cardinal principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Spaepen, Elizabet; Levine, Susan C

    2015-02-01

    Approximate number word knowledge-understanding the relation between the count words and the approximate magnitudes of sets-is a critical piece of knowledge that predicts later math achievement. However, researchers disagree about when children first show evidence of approximate number word knowledge-before, or only after, they have learned the cardinal principle. In two studies, children who had not yet learned the cardinal principle (subset-knowers) produced sets in response to number words (verbal comprehension task) and produced number words in response to set sizes (verbal production task). As evidence of approximate number word knowledge, we examined whether children's numerical responses increased with increasing numerosity of the stimulus. In Study 1, subset-knowers (ages 3.0-4.2 years) showed approximate number word knowledge above their knower-level on both tasks, but this effect did not extend to numbers above 4. In Study 2, we collected data from a broader age range of subset-knowers (ages 3.1-5.6 years). In this sample, children showed approximate number word knowledge on the verbal production task even when only examining set sizes above 4. Across studies, children's age predicted approximate number word knowledge (above 4) on the verbal production task when controlling for their knower-level, study (1 or 2), and parents' education, none of which predicted approximation ability. Thus, children can develop approximate knowledge of number words up to 10 before learning the cardinal principle. Furthermore, approximate number word knowledge increases with age and might not be closely related to the development of exact number word knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Capacitated Bounded Cardinality Hub Routing Problem: Model and Solution Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Gelareha, Shahin; Monemic, Rahimeh Neamatian; Semetd, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address the Bounded Cardinality Hub Location Routing with Route Capacity wherein each hub acts as a transshipment node for one directed route. The number of hubs lies between a minimum and a maximum and the hub-level network is a complete subgraph. The transshipment operations take place at the hub nodes and flow transfer time from a hub-level transporter to a spoke-level vehicle influences spoke- to-hub allocations. We propose a mathematical model and a branch-and-cut algor...

  8. Cardinal Basis Piecewise Hermite Interpolation on Fuzzy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vosoughi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method along with explicit construction to interpolation of fuzzy data through the extension principle results by widely used fuzzy-valued piecewise Hermite polynomial in general case based on the cardinal basis functions, which satisfy a vanishing property on the successive intervals, has been introduced here. We have provided a numerical method in full detail using the linear space notions for calculating the presented method. In order to illustrate the method in computational examples, we take recourse to three prime cases: linear, cubic, and quintic.

  9. Population prevalence, attributable risk, and attributable risk percentage for high methylmalonic acid concentrations in the post-folic acid fortification period in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganji Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum methylmalonic acid (MMA is regarded as a sensitive marker of vitamin B-12 status. Elevated circulating MMA is linked to neurological abnormalities. Contribution of age, supplement use, kidney dysfunction, and vitamin B-12 deficiency to high serum MMA in post-folic acid fortification period is unknown. Methods We investigated prevalence, population attributable risk (PAR, and PAR% for high MMA concentrations in the US. Data from 3 cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted in post-folic acid fortification period were used (n = 18569. Results Likelihood of having high serum MMA for white relative to black was 2.5 (P P P P P Conclusions Old age is the strongest determinant of PAR for high MMA. About 5 cases of high serum MMA/1000 people would be reduced if vitamin B-12 deficiency (

  10. High School Students' Attributions of Success in English Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaib, Benzehaf; Ahmadou, Bouylmani; Abdelkader, Sabil

    2018-01-01

    Research into students' attributional causes for success in language acquisition is currently receiving considerable attention. Situated within Weiner's attribution theory (1992), the present study aims to research factors contributing to success in foreign language learning with specific focus on the role of perceived causal attributions. The…

  11. Population attributable risk of overweight and obesity for high blood pressure in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Hai-Jun; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about whether eliminating overweight and obesity could effectively reduce the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) in Chinese children. This study aimed to estimate the magnitude of contribution of overweight and obesity associated with HBP in Chinese children, and assess the theoretical HBP prevalence if overweight and obesity were eliminated. Data on 197,191 participants aged 7-17 years with complete records from the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health conducted in 2010 were included. The population attributable risk of overweight and obesity for HBP was calculated. The prevalence of HBP was 6.8% and 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively. HBP in about 22.9% (95% CI 21.5, 24.2%) of boys and 14.7% (95% CI 13.5, 15.8%) of girls could be attributable to overweight and obesity. If both overweight and obesity were eliminated, the prevalence of HBP theoretically could be reduced to 5.2% in boys and 5.0% in girls. Similar results were found in different age and urban/rural area groups. Eliminating overweight and obesity could theoretically lead to a moderate reduction in the prevalence of HBP in Chinese children.

  12. Biologic History and the Cardinal Rule of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J. W.

    2004-12-01

    In broad perspective, the history of life is remarkably static -- once set, a system that has changed little over all of geological time. The basic chemistry of living systems (CHONSP, and the monomers and polymers they compose), the genetics and cellular structure of life, even the ecologic division of the biologic world into "eaters" (heterotrophs) and "eatees" (autotrophs), are innovations all dating from the Archean that have carried over to the present. Throughout Earth history, biology has followed the Cardinal Rule of Life -- avoid change, never evolve at all! Biology maintains the status quo, opportunistically responding only if conditions change. Life's credo might well be "if it ain't broken, don't fix it." Of course, biomolecules do get "broken," by mutations, but living systems have many biochemical repair mechanisms. Evolution is a result of small changes that slip through unfixed. We see the results of evolution in the fossil record only because of the vastness, the true enormity, of geological time. What events punctuated this static underpinning to produce the modern living world? Only three, each in its own way shaping the course of life's history. The earliest, photosynthesis, freed life from dependence on foodstuffs made by nonbiologic processes. The advent of the advanced form of this process, oxygenic ("green plant") photosynthesis -- also an Archean innovation -- pumped oxygen into the environment (markedly increasing energy yields), "rusted the Earth" (evidenced by banded iron-formations), and, by ˜2,300 Ma ago, led to establishment of an aerobic-anaerobic ecosystem like that today. Not surprisingly, given the Cardinal Rule of Life, the inventors of this innovation, microbial cyanobacteria, evolved little over billions of years. The second major innovation was sex. In the modern world, this reproductive process is exhibited only by nucleated (eukaryotic) cells, derived from non-sexual eukaryotic ancestors. Although eukaryotes date from ˜2

  13. Entrepreneurship in health education and health promotion: five cardinal rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, James M; Stellefson, Michael L

    2009-07-01

    The nature of health education and health promotion (HE/HP) offers a fertile ground for entrepreneurial activity. As primary prevention of chronic diseases becomes a more central component of the health and/ or medical care continuum, entrepreneurial opportunities for health educators will continue to expand. The process used to design, implement, and evaluate health promotion and disease prevention has clear articulation with entrepreneurial, marketing management, and other business processes. Thus, entrepreneurs in HE/HP must be able to utilize business process to facilitate creative, new HE/HP business ideas. The purpose of this article is to weave theory and practical application into a primer on entrepreneurial applications in HE/HP. More specifically, the authors meld their prospective experiences and expertise to provide background thoughts on entrepreneurship in HE/HP and develop a framework for establishing an entrepreneurial venture in HE/HP. Five Cardinal Rules for Entrepreneurs in HE/HP are proposed.

  14. Identification, Attribution, and Quantification of Highly Heterogeneous Methane Sources Using a Mobile Stable Isotope Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, E.; Rella, C.; Cunningham, K.

    2012-04-01

    Despite methane's importance as a potent greenhouse gas second only to carbon dioxide in the magnitude of its contribution to global warming, natural contributions to the overall methane budget are only poorly understood. A big contributor to this gap in knowledge is the highly spatially and temporally heterogeneous nature of most natural (and for that matter anthropogenic) methane sources. This high degree of heterogeneity, where the methane emission rates can vary over many orders of magnitude on a spatial scale of meters or even centimeters, and over a temporal scale of minutes or even seconds, means that traditional methods of emissions flux estimation, such as flux chambers or eddy-covariance, are difficult or impossible to apply. In this paper we present new measurement methods that are capable of detecting, attributing, and quantifying emissions from highly heterogeneous sources. These methods take full advantage of the new class of methane concentration and stable isotope analyzers that are capable of laboratory-quality analysis from a mobile field platform in real time. In this paper we present field measurements demonstrating the real-time detection of methane 'hot spots,' attribution of the methane to a source process via real-time stable isotope analysis, and quantification of the emissions flux using mobile concentration measurements of the horizontal and vertical atmospheric dispersion, combined with atmospheric transport calculations. Although these techniques are applicable to both anthropogenic and natural methane sources, in this initial work we focus primarily on landfills and fugitive emissions from natural gas distribution, as these sources are better characterized, and because they provide a more reliable and stable source of methane for quantifying the measurement uncertainty inherent in the different methods. Implications of these new technologies and techniques are explored for the quantification of natural methane sources in a variety of

  15. The conversion of the cardinal? Pride and penitence in some Tudor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, lord chancellor of England from 1515 to 1529, has inspired no small number of literary, historical, and dramatic retellings. A comprehensive study of these texts remains to be written, but this article seeks to make a start by examining how Tudor writers portrayed the cardinal's response to ...

  16. Parenting Styles, Adolescents' Attributions, and Educational Outcomes in Nine Heterogeneous High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Kristan L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examined contemporaneous and predictive relations between parenting styles, adolescents' attributions, and educational outcomes. Found that adolescents who perceived their parents as nonauthoritative were more likely than peers to attribute achievement outcomes to external causes or low ability. The higher the proportion of dysfunctional…

  17. Portable gamma-ray holdup and attributes measurements of high- and variable-burnup plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, T.R.; Russo, P.A.; Miller, M.C.; Menlove, H.O.; Takahashi, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Aoki, I.

    1991-01-01

    High burnup-plutonium holdup has been assayed quantitatively by low resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The assay was calibrated with four plutonium standards representing a range of fuel burnup and 241 Am content. Selection of a calibration standard based on its qualitative spectral similarity to gamma-ray spectra of the process material is partially responsible for the success of these holdup measurements. The spectral analysis method is based on the determination of net counts in a single spectral region of interest (ROI). However, the low-resolution gamma-ray assay signal for the high-burnup plutonium includes unknown amounts of contamination from 241 Am. For most needs, the range of calibration standards required for this selection procedure is not available. A new low-resolution gamma-ray spectral analysis procedure for assay of 239 Pu has been developed. The procedure uses the calculated isotope activity ratios and the measured net counts in three spectral ROIs to evaluate and remove the 241 Am contamination from the 239 Pu assay signal on a spectrum-by-spectrum basis. The calibration for the new procedure requires only a single plutonium standard. The procedure also provides a measure of the burnup and age attributes of holdup deposits. The new procedure has been demonstrated using portable gamma-ray spectroscopy equipment for a wide range of plutonium standards and has also been applied to the assay of 239 Pu holdup in a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on the Physical, Microbial, and Chemical Attributes of Oysters (Crassostrea virginica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingham, Talaysha; Ye, Mu; Chen, Haiqiang; Chintapenta, Lathadevi Karuna; Handy, Eunice; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Changqing; Ozbay, Gulnihal

    2016-05-01

    The change in the quality attributes (physical, microbial, and chemical) of oysters (Crassostrea virginica) after high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment at 300 MPa at room temperature (RT, 25 °C) 300, 450, and 500 MPa at 0 °C for 2 min and control oysters without treatment were evaluated over 3 wk. The texture and tissue yield percentages of oysters HHP treated at 300 MPa, RT increased significantly (P oysters reached the spoilage point of 7 log CFU/g after 15 d. Coliform counts (log MPN/g) were low during storage with total and fecal coliforms less than 3.5 and 1.0. High pressure treated oysters at 500 MPa at 0 °C were significantly higher (P oysters HHP treated at 300 MPa at 0 °C in lipid oxidation values. The highest pressure (500 MPa) treatment in this study, significantly (P oysters at 3 wk was significantly higher (P oysters [300 MPa, (RT); 450 MPa (0 °C); and 500 MPa (0 °C)]. HHP treatments of oysters were not significantly different in pH, percent salt extractable protein (SEP), and total lipid values compared to control. Based on our results, HHP prolongs the physical, microbial, and chemical quality of oysters. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Associate editors' foreword: entrepreneurship in health education and health promotion: five cardinal rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Randall R; Cooper, Hanna

    2009-07-01

    A career in health education or health promotion (HE/HP) can be developed in many ways. In past editions of this department, career development has been discussed in relation to distance (Balonna, 2001), consulting (Bookbinder, 2001), certifications (Hayden, 2005), graduate school (Cottrell & Hayden, 2007), and many other topics. This article looks at a less traditional means of career development-entrepreneurship. Health education is a field ripe with opportunities for consulting and for selling health-related products and services. Entrepreneurship can not only create financial rewards but can also provide high visibility and networking contacts that can advance one's career. This article combines both theory and practical applications to assist readers in developing entrepreneurial activities. The authors are experienced in entrepreneurial development and use that expertise to provide relevant examples and develop a framework using "five cardinal rules" for establishing an entrepreneurial enterprise in HE/HP.

  20. Cerebrovascular reactivity changes in asymptomatic female athletes attributable to high school soccer participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svaldi, Diana O; McCuen, Emily C; Joshi, Chetas; Robinson, Meghan E; Nho, Yeseul; Hannemann, Robert; Nauman, Eric A; Leverenz, Larry J; Talavage, Thomas M

    2017-02-01

    As participation in women's soccer continues to grow and the longevity of female athletes' careers continues to increase, prevention and care for mTBI in women's soccer has become a major concern for female athletes since the long-term risks associated with a history of mTBI are well documented. Among women's sports, soccer exhibits among the highest concussion rates, on par with those of men's football at the collegiate level. Head impact monitoring technology has revealed that "concussive hits" occurring directly before symptomatic injury are not predictive of mTBI, suggesting that the cumulative effect of repetitive head impacts experienced by collision sport athletes should be assessed. Neuroimaging biomarkers have proven to be valuable in detecting brain changes that occur before neurocognitive symptoms in collision sport athletes. Quantifying the relationship between changes in these biomarkers and head impacts experienced by female soccer athletes may prove valuable to developing preventative measures for mTBI. This study paired functional magnetic resonance imaging with head impact monitoring to track cerebrovascular reactivity changes throughout a season and to test whether the observed changes could be attributed to mechanical loading experienced by female athletes participating in high school soccer. Marked cerebrovascular reactivity changes were observed in female soccer athletes, relative both to non-collision sport control measures and pre-season measures and were localized to fronto-temporal aspects of the brain. These changes persisted 4-5 months after the season ended and recovered by 8 months after the season. Segregation of the total soccer cohort into cumulative loading groups revealed that population-level changes were driven by athletes experiencing high cumulative loads, although athletes experiencing lower cumulative loads still contributed to group changes. The results of this study imply a non-linear relationship between cumulative

  1. Attributing the effects of climate on phenology change suggests high sensitivity in coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyednasrollah, B.; Clark, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of climate change on spring phenology depends on many variables that cannot be separated using current models. Phenology can influence carbon sequestration, plant nutrition, forest health, and species distributions. Leaf phenology is sensitive to changes of environmental factors, including climate, species composition, latitude, and solar radiation. The many variables and their interactions frustrate efforts to attribute variation to climate change. We developed a Bayesian framework to quantify the influence of environment on the speed of forest green-up. This study presents a state-space hierarchical model to infer and predict change in forest greenness over time using satellite observations and ground measurements. The framework accommodates both observation and process errors and it allows for main effects of variables and their interactions. We used daily spaceborne remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to quantify temporal variability in the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) along a habitat gradient in the Southeastern United States. The ground measurements of meteorological parameters are obtained from study sites located in the Appalachian Mountains, the Piedmont and the Atlantic Coastal Plain between years 2000 and 2015. Results suggest that warming accelerates spring green-up in the Coastal Plain to a greater degree than in the Piedmont and Appalachian. In other words, regardless of variation in the timing of spring onset, the rate of greenness in non-coastal zones decreases with increasing temperature and hence with time over the spring transitional period. However, in coastal zones, as air temperature increases, leaf expansion becomes faster. This may indicate relative vulnerability to warming in non-coastal regions where moisture could be a limiting factor, whereas high temperatures in regions close to the coast enhance forest physiological activities. Model predictions agree with the remotely

  2. The Evolution of Hyperedge Cardinalities and Bose-Einstein Condensation in Hypernetworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-Li; Suo, Qi; Shen, Ai-Zhong; Forrest, Jeffrey

    2016-09-27

    To depict the complex relationship among nodes and the evolving process of a complex system, a Bose-Einstein hypernetwork is proposed in this paper. Based on two basic evolutionary mechanisms, growth and preference jumping, the distribution of hyperedge cardinalities is studied. The Poisson process theory is used to describe the arrival process of new node batches. And, by using the Poisson process theory and a continuity technique, the hypernetwork is analyzed and the characteristic equation of hyperedge cardinalities is obtained. Additionally, an analytical expression for the stationary average hyperedge cardinality distribution is derived by employing the characteristic equation, from which Bose-Einstein condensation in the hypernetwork is obtained. The theoretical analyses in this paper agree with the conducted numerical simulations. This is the first study on the hyperedge cardinality in hypernetworks, where Bose-Einstein condensation can be regarded as a special case of hypernetworks. Moreover, a condensation degree is also discussed with which Bose-Einstein condensation can be classified.

  3. Attribution of 12 High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes to Infection and Cervical Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joura, Elmar A.; Ault, Kevin A.; Bosch, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We estimated the prevalence and incidence of 14 human papillomavirus (HPV) types (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59) in cervicovaginal swabs, and the attribution of these HPV types in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), using predefined...

  4. Maximum Likelihood Approach for RFID Tag Set Cardinality Estimation with Detection Errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Chuyen T.; Hayashi, Kazunori; Kaneko, Megumi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Estimation schemes of Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tag set cardinality are studied in this paper using Maximum Likelihood (ML) approach. We consider the estimation problem under the model of multiple independent reader sessions with detection errors due to unreliable radio...... is evaluated under dierent system parameters and compared with that of the conventional method via computer simulations assuming flat Rayleigh fading environments and framed-slotted ALOHA based protocol. Keywords RFID tag cardinality estimation maximum likelihood detection error...

  5. The effect of high performance work systems utilization on firm performance: does human resource attribution of employees matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibiru Ayalew Melesse

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A large body of research suggests that high performance work systems (HPWSs that enhance employees’ competencies, and motivate them, leads to competitive advantage. HPWPs are radically not ‘new practices’; they have been around for many years and have already been adopted by various organizations. However, the link between HPWS adoption & firm performance is yet blurred. The aim of this paper was to examine the moderating role of employees’ HR attributions on the relationship between adoption of HPWSs and firm performance. The current paper argues that human resource (HR attribution of employees moderates the relationship between HPWS and firm performance such that the effective adoption of high performance work systems in an organization partly depends on the type of employees’ attributions (commitment versus control of HR practices in the company. More specifically, it is proposed that adoption of HPWS can be more effective in organizations where employees’ attributions of HR practices is commitment focus than in firms where employees’ attributions of HR practice is control focus. The study contributes to understanding the ‘black box’ of HRM-performance link. Theoretical and practical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  6. The role of historical and contemporary processes on phylogeographic structure and genetic diversity in the Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro-Sigüenza Adolfo G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Earth history events such as climate change are believed to have played a major role in shaping patterns of genetic structure and diversity in species. However, there is a lag between the time of historical events and the collection of present-day samples that are used to infer contemporary population structure. During this lag phase contemporary processes such as dispersal or non-random mating can erase or reinforce population differences generated by historical events. In this study we evaluate the role of both historical and contemporary processes on the phylogeography of a widespread North American songbird, the Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed deep mtDNA structure with six lineages across the species' range. Ecological niche models supported the same geographic breaks revealed by the mtDNA. A paleoecological niche model for the Last Glacial Maximum indicated that cardinals underwent a dramatic range reduction in eastern North America, whereas their ranges were more stable in México. In eastern North America cardinals expanded out of glacial refugia, but we found no signature of decreased genetic diversity in areas colonized after the Last Glacial Maximum. Present-day demographic data suggested that population growth across the expansion cline is positively correlated with latitude. We propose that there was no loss of genetic diversity in areas colonized after the Last Glacial Maximum because recent high-levels of gene flow across the region have homogenized genetic diversity in eastern North America. Conclusion We show that both deep historical events as well as demographic processes that occurred following these events are critical in shaping genetic pattern and diversity in C. cardinalis. The general implication of our results is that patterns of genetic diversity are best understood when information on species history, ecology, and demography are considered

  7. On the Relation Between Grammatical Number and Cardinal Numbers in Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara W Sarnecka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the question of how the grammatical number system of a child’s language may help the child learn the meanings of cardinal number words (e.g., ‘one’ and ‘two’. Evidence from young children learning English, Russian, Japanese, Mandarin, Slovenian or Saudi Arabic suggests that trajectories of number-word learning differ for children learning different languages. Children learning English, which distinguishes between singular and plural, seem to learn the meaning of the cardinal number ‘one’ earlier than children learning Japanese or Mandarin, which have very little singular/plural marking. Similarly, children whose languages have a singular/dual/plural system (Slovenian and Saudi Arabic learn the meaning of ‘two’ earlier than English-speaking children. This relation between grammatical and cardinal number may shed light on how humans acquire cardinal-number concepts. There is an ongoing debate about whether mental symbols for small cardinalities (concepts for ‘oneness,’ ‘twoness,’ etc. are innate or learned. Although an effect of grammatical number on number-word learning does not rule out nativist accounts, it seems more consistent with constructivist accounts, which portray the number-learning process as one that requires significant conceptual change.

  8. On the relation between grammatical number and cardinal numbers in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnecka, Barbara W

    2014-01-01

    This mini-review focuses on the question of how the grammatical number system of a child's language may help the child learn the meanings of cardinal number words (e.g., "one" and "two"). Evidence from young children learning English, Russian, Japanese, Mandarin, Slovenian, or Saudi Arabic suggests that trajectories of number-word learning differ for children learning different languages. Children learning English, which distinguishes between singular and plural, seem to learn the meaning of the cardinal number "one" earlier than children learning Japanese or Mandarin, which have very little singular/plural marking. Similarly, children whose languages have a singular/dual/plural system (Slovenian and Saudi Arabic) learn the meaning of "two" earlier than English-speaking children. This relation between grammatical and cardinal number may shed light on how humans acquire cardinal-number concepts. There is an ongoing debate about whether mental symbols for small cardinalities (concepts for "oneness," "twoness," etc.) are innate or learned. Although an effect of grammatical number on number-word learning does not rule out nativist accounts, it seems more consistent with constructivist accounts, which portray the number-learning process as one that requires significant conceptual change.

  9. Non-cardinal color perception across the retina: easy for orange, hard for burgundy and sky blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Karen L

    2014-04-01

    Cardinal color performance (reddish, greenish, bluish, yellowish, black, and white) has been shown to decline in peripheral viewing. What about non-cardinal color performance (e.g., orange, burgundy, and sky blue)? In visual search, performance on non-cardinal colors matched that of the cardinal colors in the (L-M)/(S-(L+M)) (isoluminant) color plane (Experiment 1, n=10, to 30°; Experiment 2, n=3, to 50°). However, performance in the (L-M)/(L+M) and (S-(L+M))/(L+M) color planes was worse for non-cardinal colors, at all eccentricities, even in the fovea. The implications that these results have for the existence of non-cardinal mechanisms in each color plane are discussed.

  10. Lack of cardinal symptoms of meningitis in a hospitalized patient with chronic schizophrenia: lessons to be learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Ryuhei; Hirota, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-01-01

    There are prior reports describing a diagnostic delay in medical emergencies in patients with schizophrenia. To our knowledge, this is the first case report demonstrating the risk of diagnostic delay of acute meningitis due to reduced pain perception as well as other factors related to schizophrenia and its treatment. We report a case of meningitis in a patient suffering from chronic schizophrenia and poor treatment response despite high doses of antipsychotics. Potential difficulties and pitfalls when suspecting or diagnosing meningitis as a physical comorbidity in patients with schizophrenia are discussed. A 33-year-old man with chronic and treatment-resistant schizophrenia developed acute meningitis. The definite diagnosis was delayed because the cardinal symptoms other than fever were not clearly elicited by physical examination. The characteristic symptoms of meningitis were concealed by reduced pain perception, rigidity due to the administration of antipsychotics, disorganized thinking and potentially diminished communication with health care professionals as commonly seen in patients with schizophrenia. Meningitis should not be dismissed as a possibility in patients with fever of unknown origin just because a patient with schizophrenia does not present with cardinal features of meningitis other than fever. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Computing Maximum Cardinality Matchings in Parallel on Bipartite Graphs via Tree-Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, Ariful; Buluc, Aydn; Pothen, Alex

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to obtain high performance when computing matchings on parallel processors because matching algorithms explicitly or implicitly search for paths in the graph, and when these paths become long, there is little concurrency. In spite of this limitation, we present a new algorithm and its shared-memory parallelization that achieves good performance and scalability in computing maximum cardinality matchings in bipartite graphs. This algorithm searches for augmenting paths via specialized breadth-first searches (BFS) from multiple source vertices, hence creating more parallelism than single source algorithms. Algorithms that employ multiple-source searches cannot discard a search tree once no augmenting path is discovered from the tree, unlike algorithms that rely on single-source searches. We describe a novel tree-grafting method that eliminates most of the redundant edge traversals resulting from this property of multiple-source searches. We also employ the recent direction-optimizing BFS algorithm as a subroutine to discover augmenting paths faster. Our algorithm compares favorably with the current best algorithms in terms of the number of edges traversed, the average augmenting path length, and the number of iterations. Here, we provide a proof of correctness for our algorithm. Our NUMA-aware implementation is scalable to 80 threads of an Intel multiprocessor and to 240 threads on an Intel Knights Corner coprocessor. On average, our parallel algorithm runs an order of magnitude faster than the fastest algorithms available. The performance improvement is more significant on graphs with small matching number.

  12. Expansion of direction space around the cardinal axes revealed by smooth pursuit eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowski, Anton E.; Stone, Leland S.

    2005-01-01

    It is well established that perceptual direction discrimination shows an oblique effect; thresholds are higher for motion along diagonal directions than for motion along cardinal directions. Here, we compare simultaneous direction judgments and pursuit responses for the same motion stimuli and find that both pursuit and perceptual thresholds show similar anisotropies. The pursuit oblique effect is robust under a wide range of experimental manipulations, being largely resistant to changes in trajectory (radial versus tangential motion), speed (10 versus 25 deg/s), directional uncertainty (blocked versus randomly interleaved), and cognitive state (tracking alone versus concurrent tracking and perceptual tasks). Our data show that the pursuit oblique effect is caused by an effective expansion of direction space surrounding the cardinal directions and the requisite compression of space for other directions. This expansion suggests that the directions around the cardinal directions are in some way overrepresented in the visual cortical pathways that drive both smooth pursuit and perception.

  13. Grappling the High Altitude for Safe Edible Bamboo Shoots with Rich Nutritional Attributes and Escaping Cyanogenic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayanika Devi Waikhom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of bamboo species with high level of total cyanogenic content (TCC in Asia by many ethnic groups is significantly associated with food poisoning and occasionally Konzo (a neurological disorder. Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer’s safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool. Here, we employed morphological descriptors, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, RAPD, and trnL-F intergenic spacer to characterize 15 indigenous edible bamboo species of north-east India. The study indicates that morphologically and genetically evolved edible bamboo species having large and robust bamboo-shoot texture and growing at low altitude contain high level of TCC, low antioxidant properties, and low levels of beneficial macronutrients and micronutrients. Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC. The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes.

  14. Gluon attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, T.

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of the attributes of gluons, deducible from experimental data. Particular attention is given to the photon-gluon fusion model of charm leptoproduction. The agreement with QCD and theoretical prejudice is qualitatively good

  15. Limited impact of tuberculosis control in Hong Kong: attributable to high risks of reactivation disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vynnycky, E.; Borgdorff, M. W.; Leung, C. C.; Tam, C. M.; Fine, P. E. M.

    2008-01-01

    Over 50% of the global burden of tuberculosis occurs in South East Asia and the Western Pacific. Since 1950, notification rates in high-income countries in these settings have declined slowly and have remained over ten-fold greater than those in Western populations. The reasons for the slow decline

  16. High procedural fairness heightens the effect of outcome favorability on self-evaluations : An attributional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brockner, J.; Heuer, L.; Magner, N.; Folger, R.; Umphress, E.; Bos, K. van den; Vermunt, Riël; Magner, M.; Siegel, P.

    2003-01-01

    Previous research has shown that outcome favorability and procedural fairness often interact to influence employees work attitudes and behaviors. Moreover, the form of the interaction effect depends upon the dependent variable. Relative to when procedural fairness is low, high procedural fairness:

  17. 75 FR 6414 - Cardinal Growth, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 05/75-0257] Cardinal Growth, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Cardinal Growth, L.P., 311 South Wacker Driver, Suite 5500, Chicago, IL 60606, a Federal...

  18. Cardinality Estimation Algorithm in Large-Scale Anonymous Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2017-08-30

    Consider a large-scale anonymous wireless sensor network with unknown cardinality. In such graphs, each node has no information about the network topology and only possesses a unique identifier. This paper introduces a novel distributed algorithm for cardinality estimation and topology discovery, i.e., estimating the number of node and structure of the graph, by querying a small number of nodes and performing statistical inference methods. While the cardinality estimation allows the design of more efficient coding schemes for the network, the topology discovery provides a reliable way for routing packets. The proposed algorithm is shown to produce a cardinality estimate proportional to the best linear unbiased estimator for dense graphs and specific running times. Simulation results attest the theoretical results and reveal that, for a reasonable running time, querying a small group of nodes is sufficient to perform an estimation of 95% of the whole network. Applications of this work include estimating the number of Internet of Things (IoT) sensor devices, online social users, active protein cells, etc.

  19. Isospora bocamontensis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa in captive yellow cardinal Gubernatrix cristata (Passeriformes: Emberezidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Quinto Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The yellow cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata is a passerine found in southern Brazil, especially along the border with Uruguay and Argentina. It is an endangered species and its population is decreasing. Among the parasites that affect passerines, the genus Isospora is the most easily found in both captive and free-living birds. This parasite commonly causes injury to the intestinal tissue and could occasionally affect other organs. In this work we examined the occurrence of coccidiosis in captive yellow cardinals and its association with factors such as sex, use of parasiticides, type of enclosure, contact with feces, type of food and cleaning frequency. We collected fecal samples of 45 yellow cardinals, healthy and kept in captivity, in late afternoon at the end of the reproductive period. The examination showed parasitic infection by Isospora bocamontensis in 44.5% of the birds. This infection is not influenced by the sex of birds, but is significantly affected by the type of enclosure, contact with the feces, use of parasiticides, type of food and cleaning frequency. The results indicate that to keep yellow cardinals captive, these factors must be observed.

  20. 76 FR 44924 - Cardinal Health, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Nuclear pharmacies provide radiopharmaceuticals to local hospitals and cardiology clinics, which use the... prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to... Cardinal's acquisition of Biotech's nuclear pharmacies in the Southwestern United States. Under the terms...

  1. Cardinality reasoning for bin-packing constraint : Application to a tank allocation problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaus, Pierre; Régin, Jean Charles; Van Schaeren, Rowan; Dullaert, Wout; Raa, Birger

    2012-01-01

    Flow reasoning has been successfully used in CP for more than a decade. It was originally introduced by Régin in the well-known Alldifferent and Global Cardinality Constraint (GCC) available in most of the CP solvers. The BinPacking constraint was introduced by Shaw and mainly uses an independent

  2. Li and Yorke chaos with respect to the cardinality of the scrambled sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Guirao, Juan Luis [Department of Mathematics, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 16071-Cuenca (Castilla-La Mancha) (Spain)]. E-mail: jlguirao@tel-cu.uclm.es; Lampart, Marek [Mathematical Institute, Silesian University at Opava, Na Rybnicku 1, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: marek.lampart@math.slu.cz

    2005-06-01

    In the present paper we study Li and Yorke chaos on several spaces in connection with the cardinality of its scrambled sets. We prove that there is a map on a Cantor set and a map on a two-dimensional arcwise connected continuum (with empty interior) such that each scrambled set contains exactly two points.

  3. Polyhedral combinatorics of the cardinality constrained quadratic knapsack problem and the quadratic selective travelling salesman problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Vicky; Thomadsen, Tommy

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the cardinality constrained quadratic knapsack problem (QKP) and the quadratic selective travelling salesman problem (QSTSP). The QKP is a generalization of the knapsack problem and the QSTSP is a generalization of the travelling salesman problem. Thus, both problems are NP...

  4. Place of Diversity in the Current Ethiopian Education and Training Policy: Analysis of Cardinal Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Tariku; Latchanna, Gara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate to what extent the diversity dimensions are addressed in the current Education and Training Policy. To that end, document analysis was employed. The major diversity dimensions were analyzed based on their cardinal features. The study demonstrated that there is an ambitious need to address issues of…

  5. Sources of variation in plasma corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in the male northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis): II. Effects of urbanization, food supplementation and social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sarah; Fokidis, H Bobby

    2016-09-01

    Perturbations in an organism's environment can induce significant shifts in hormone secretory patterns. In this context, the glucocorticoid (GC) steroids secreted by the adrenal cortex have received much attention from ecologists and behaviorists due to their role in the vertebrate stress response. Adrenal GCs, such as corticosterone (CORT), are highly responsive to instability in environmental and social conditions. However, little is understood about how adrenal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is influenced by changing conditions. We conducted field experiments to determine how circulating CORT and DHEA vary during restraint stress in the male northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). Specifically, we examined how four different changes in the physical (urbanization and food availability) and social (territorial conflict, distress of a mate) environment affect CORT and DHEA levels. The majority of cardinals responded to restraint stress by increasing and decreasing CORT and DHEA, respectively, however this depended on sampling context. Cardinals sampled from urban habitats had both lower initial and restraint stress CORT concentrations, but a comparable DHEA pattern to those sampled from a forest. Supplementing food to territorial males did not alter circulating initial DHEA or CORT concentrations nor did it change the response to restraint stress when compared to unsupplemented controls. Exposing cardinals to varying durations of song playback, which mimics a territorial intrusion, did not affect CORT levels, but did attenuate the DHEA response to restraint stress. Examining a larger dataset of males captured before, after or at the same time as their female mate, allowed us to address how the stress of a captured mate affected the male's CORT and DHEA response. Males showed elevated initial and restraint CORT and DHEA when their female mate was captured first. Taken together, these data demonstrate that both CORT and DHEA secretion patterns depends on

  6. Ultra High Pressure Homogenization of Soy Milk: Effect on Quality Attributes during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep S. Sidhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzed soy milk prepared from whole dehulled soybeans. The traditional method of soy milk preparation leads to wastage of about 35% of soybean solids in the form of okara, which gets filtered out. In the current study, soy milk was prepared with practically 100% recovery of soybean solids and treated with continuous flow high pressure processing (207 and 276 MPa pressure, 121 and 145 °C exit temperatures, and 0.75 and 1.25 L/min flow rates, and the changes in the physical, chemical, microbial, and sensory properties during 28 days of storage at 4 °C were analyzed. The treated soy milk remained stable for 28 days. There was a significant reduction in the particle size of soybean solids which did not change during storage. The pH of the treated soy milk was significantly lower than the untreated soy milk and it reduced further upon storage. The soy milk was pasteurized with high pressure processing coupled with preheating. No lipoxygenase activity was detected. Compared to commercial samples, there was no significant difference in the astringency, bitterness, or chalkiness of soy milk prepared in the study.

  7. Area vs. density: influence of visual variables and cardinality knowledge in early number comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Mendoza, Roberto A; Soto-Alba, Elia E; Arias-Trejo, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Current research in the number development field has focused in individual differences regarding the acuity of children's approximate number system (ANS). The most common task to evaluate children's acuity is through non-symbolic numerical comparison. Efforts have been made to prevent children from using perceptual cues by controlling the visual properties of the stimuli (e.g., density, contour length, and area); nevertheless, researchers have used these visual controls interchangeably. Studies have also tried to understand the relation between children's cardinality knowledge and their performance in a number comparison task; divergent results may in fact be rooted in the use of different visual controls. The main goal of the present study is to explore how the usage of different visual controls (density, total filled area, and correlated and anti-correlated area) affects children's performance in a number comparison task, and its relationship to children's cardinality knowledge. For that purpose, 77 preschoolers participated in three tasks: (1) counting list elicitation to test whether children could recite the counting list up to ten, (2) give a number to evaluate children's cardinality knowledge, and (3) number comparison to evaluate their ability to compare two quantities. During this last task, children were asked to point at the set with more geometric figures when two sets were displayed on a screen. Children were exposed only to one of the three visual controls. Results showed that overall, children performed above chance in the number comparison task; nonetheless, density was the easiest control, while correlated and anti-correlated area was the most difficult in most cases. Only total filled area was sensitive to discriminate cardinal principal knowers from non-cardinal principal knowers. How this finding helps to explain conflicting evidence from previous research, and how the present outcome relates to children's number word knowledge is discussed.

  8. Improving the performance of high-energy physics analysis through bitmap indices

    CERN Document Server

    Stockinger, K; Hoschek, W; Schikuta, E

    2000-01-01

    Bitmap indices are popular multi-dimensional data structures for accessing read-mostly data such as data warehouse (DW) applications, decision support systems (DSS) and online analytical processing (OLAP). One of their main strengths is that they provide good performance characteristics for complex adhoc queries and an efficient combination of multiple index dimensions in one query. Considerable research work has been done in the area of finite (and low) attribute cardinalities. However, additional complexity is imposed on the design of bitmap indices for high cardinality or even non-discrete attributes, where different optimisation techniques than the ones proposed so far have to be applied. We discuss the design and implementation of bitmap indices for high-energy physics (HEP) analysis, where the potential search space consists of hundreds of independent dimensions. A single HEP query typically covers 10 to 100 dimensions out of the whole search space. In this context we evaluated two different bitmap enco...

  9. High attributable risk due to arsenic for lung cancer in Yunnan tin mine reported by WD Hazelton et al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shiquan

    2004-01-01

    Using two-stage clonal expansion model with data-base provided by Lubin, WD Hazelton et al indicated the high risk of arsenic, but not radon, in the etiology of Yunnan tin miner's lung cancer. The author of this review iterated the problems in the data-base of Lubin, and considered that it may result in low estimate for the risk of radon in paper of Hazelton et al. Attributable risk was estimated by them with changing exposure patterns of each individual ,but the efficacy of this two-stage model will be violated by the invariability of appointed radon/arsenic exposures. Risk comparison was used to distinguish the contribution from radon/arsenic, which was hampered by the high correlation between their joint exposures. As Lubin, Hazelton et al neglected the confounding from environmental arsenic pollution in early years. From all of above, their viewpoint is worth to be deliberated

  10. Model-Based Attribution of High-Resolution Streamflow Trends in Two Alpine Basins of Western Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kormann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Several trend studies have shown that hydrological conditions are changing considerably in the Alpine region. However, the reasons for these changes are only partially understood and trend analyses alone are not able to shed much light. Hydrological modelling is one possible way to identify the trend drivers, i.e., to attribute the detected streamflow trends, given that the model captures all important processes causing the trends. We modelled the hydrological conditions for two alpine catchments in western Austria (a large, mostly lower-altitude catchment with wide valley plains and a nested high-altitude, glaciated headwater catchment with the distributed, physically-oriented WaSiM-ETH model, which includes a dynamical glacier module. The model was calibrated in a transient mode, i.e., not only on several standard goodness measures and glacier extents, but also in such a way that the simulated streamflow trends fit with the observed ones during the investigation period 1980 to 2007. With this approach, it was possible to separate streamflow components, identify the trends of flow components, and study their relation to trends in atmospheric variables. In addition to trends in annual averages, highly resolved trends for each Julian day were derived, since they proved powerful in an earlier, data-based attribution study. We were able to show that annual and highly resolved trends can be modelled sufficiently well. The results provide a holistic, year-round picture of the drivers of alpine streamflow changes: Higher-altitude catchments are strongly affected by earlier firn melt and snowmelt in spring and increased ice melt throughout the ablation season. Changes in lower-altitude areas are mostly caused by earlier and lower snowmelt volumes. All highly resolved trends in streamflow and its components show an explicit similarity to the local temperature trends. Finally, results indicate that evapotranspiration has been increasing in the lower

  11. Attributing Hacks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ziqi; Smola, Alexander J.; Soska, Kyle; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Zheng, Qinghua; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe an algorithm for estimating the provenance of hacks on websites. That is, given properties of sites and the temporal occurrence of attacks, we are able to attribute individual attacks to joint causes and vulnerabilities, as well as estimating the evolution of these vulnerabilities over time. Specifically, we use hazard regression with a time-varying additive hazard function parameterized in a generalized linear form. The activation coefficients on each feature are co...

  12. Cardinal Ratzinger’s theory of the biblical art and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kaczorowski

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In our times Joseph Ratzinger is considered as the greatest theologian among cardinals and the most prominent cardinal among theologians. As a professor of theology, but not only, he wrote many books, e.g. A New Song for the Lord: Faith in Christ and Liturgy Today, where he shows relations between liturgy and music of the church. The article by Robert Kaczorowski tells about Ratzinger’s biblical context of art and music. The author presents the analysis of Ps 47, 8 and the evolution of Hebrew’s word maskil to Greek’s word psalate. Kaczorowski adds that the biblical theory of art and music is still current.

  13. The higher infinite large cardinals in set theory from their beginnings

    CERN Document Server

    Kanamori, Akihiro

    2003-01-01

    The theory of large cardinals is currently a broad mainstream of modern set theory, the main area of investigation for the analysis of the relative consistency of mathematical propositions and possible new axioms for mathematics. The first of a projected multi-volume series, this book provides a comprehensive account of the theory of large cardinals from its beginnings and some of the direct outgrowths leading to the frontiers of contempory research. A "genetic" approach is taken, presenting the subject in the context of its historical development. With hindsight the consequential avenues are pursued and the most elegant or accessible expositions given. With open questions and speculations provided throughout the reader should not only come to appreciate the scope and coherence of the overall enterpreise but also become prepared to pursue research in several specific areas by studying the relevant sections.

  14. Constraint qualifications and optimality conditions for optimization problems with cardinality constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červinka, Michal; Kanzow, Ch.; Schwartz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 1 (2016), s. 353-377 ISSN 0025-5610 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/12/1309; GA ČR GA15-00735S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Cardinality constraints * Constraint qualifications * Optimality conditions * KKT conditions * Strongly stationary points Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.446, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/cervinka-0461165.pdf

  15. A Family of Bipartite |Cardinality Matching Problems Solvable in O(n\\^2) Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Krarup, J.

    1995-01-01

    For a given, unweighted bipartite graph G with 2n non isolated vertices, we consider the so called bipartite cardinality matching problem (BCMP) for which the time complexity of the fastest exact algorithm available is O(n/sup 5/2/ ). We devise a greedy algorithm which either finds a perfect...... matching in O(n/sup 2/ ) time or identifies cycle of length 4 in the complement G of G...

  16. Irreducible descriptive sets of attributes for information systems

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    The maximal consistent extension Ext(S) of a given information system S consists of all objects corresponding to attribute values from S which are consistent with all true and realizable rules extracted from the original information system S. An irreducible descriptive set for the considered information system S is a minimal (relative to the inclusion) set B of attributes which defines exactly the set Ext(S) by means of true and realizable rules constructed over attributes from the considered set B. We show that there exists only one irreducible descriptive set of attributes. We present a polynomial algorithm for this set construction. We also study relationships between the cardinality of irreducible descriptive set of attributes and the number of attributes in S. The obtained results will be useful for the design of concurrent data models from experimental data. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  17. The conversion of the cardinal? Pride and penitence in some Tudor histories of Thomas Wolsey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hornbeck

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The life of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, lord chancellor of England from 1515 to 1529, has inspired no small number of literary, historical, and dramatic retellings. A comprehensive study of these texts remains to be written, but this article seeks to make a start by examining how Tudor writers portrayed the cardinal’s response to his deposition and subsequent disgrace. For some authors, Wolsey’s fall only made him more proud, and he began to act erratically and disloyally, confirming the wisdom of the king’s decision to relieve him of office. For others, deposition moved Wolsey to become philosophical and penitent, and some such writers depict a cardinal who at the end of his life underwent nothing short of a conversion. This article traces both of these historiographical trajectories from their origins in writings of the late 1540s and 1550s through a range of late Tudor chronicle accounts. Elements of both narratives about the cardinal appear, prominently if not always congruously, in one of the best-known theatrical works about the events of the reign of Henry VIII, the play King Henry VIII (All Is True by William Shakespeare and John Fletcher. Understanding the interrelationships between the Tudor texts presented here is essential to grasping later portrayals of Wolsey and his contemporaries. Keywords: Thomas Wolsey; Henry VIII; English Reformation; conversion; historiography

  18. The impact of cardinal rules on employee safety behaviour at power stations in Mpumalanga / Chauke, T.L.

    OpenAIRE

    Chauke, Tinyiko Lourence

    2011-01-01

    Occupational risk management can be a catalyst in generating superior returns for all stakeholders on a sustainable basis. A number of companies in South Africa have implemented Cardinal Rules of Safety adopted from international companies to ensure the safety of their employees. The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of the cardinal rules on employee safety behaviour implemented at power stations in Mpumalanga. The empirical study was done by using a questionnaire as measurin...

  19. Detection and Attribution of Climate Change : From global mean temperature change to climate extremes and high impact weather.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    This talk will describe how evidence has grown in recent years for a human influence on climate and explain how the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that it is extremely likely (>95% probability) that human influence on climate has been the dominant cause of the observed global-mean warming since the mid-20th century. The fingerprint of human activities has also been detected in warming of the ocean, in changes in the global water cycle, in reductions in snow and ice, and in changes in some climate extremes. The strengthening of evidence for the effects of human influence on climate extremes is in line with long-held basic understanding of the consequences of mean warming for temperature extremes and for atmospheric moisture. Despite such compelling evidence this does not mean that every instance of high impact weather can be attributed to anthropogenic climate change, because climate variability is often a major factor in many locations, especially for rain...

  20. Paranormal belief and attributional style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A

    2000-06-01

    52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.

  1. Investigating copper toxicity in the tropical fish cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi) in natural Amazonian waters: Measurements, modeling, and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crémazy, Anne; Wood, Chris M.; Smith, D. Scott; Ferreira, Márcio S.; Johannsson, Ora E.; Giacomin, Marina; Val, Adalberto L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Copper toxicity to a tropical fish varied greatly in different Amazonian waters. • The biotic ligand model could not capture this variability. • Possible physiological protection was offered by natural organic matter. • Care must be used in applying BLM to fish in tropical waters. - Abstract: Copper at high concentrations is an ionoregulatory toxicant in fish and its toxicity is known to be strongly modulated by the water chemistry. The toxicity of Cu to the tropical fish cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi) was investigated in waters from two major rivers of the Amazon watershed: the Rio Negro (filtered <0.45 μm, pH 5.6, DOC = 8.4 mg L"−"1, Na = 33 μM, Ca = 8 μM) and the Rio Solimões (filtered <0.45 μm, pH 6.7, DOC = 2.8 mg L"−"1, Na = 185 μM, Ca = 340 μM), as well as in a natural “reference water” (groundwater) which was almost DOC-free (pH 6.0, DOC = 0.34 mg L"−"1, Na = 53 μM, Ca = 5 μM). Acute 96-h mortality, Cu bioaccumulation and net flux rates of Na"+, Cl"−, K"+ and total ammonia were determined in P. axelrodi exposed in each water. Copper speciation in each water was determined by two thermodynamic models and by potentiometry, and its toxicity was predicted based on the biotic ligand model (BLM) framework. Our results indicate that high Na"+ loss is the main mode of toxic action of Cu in P. axelrodi, in accordance with general theory. Cardinal tetra showed a particularly high ability to tolerate Cu and to maintain Na"+ balance, similar to the ability of this and other endemic Rio Negro species to tolerate low pH and ion-poor conditions. Cu toxicity was lower in Rio Negro than in the other two waters tested, and the free [Cu"2"+] at the LC50, as determined by any of the three speciation methods tested, was approximately 10-fold higher. This variation could not be captured by a realistic set of BLM parameters. At least in part, this observation may be due to gill physiological alterations induced by the abundant

  2. Investigating copper toxicity in the tropical fish cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi) in natural Amazonian waters: Measurements, modeling, and reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crémazy, Anne, E-mail: acremazy@zoology.ubc.ca [Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Wood, Chris M. [Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Smith, D. Scott [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5 (Canada); Ferreira, Márcio S. [Laboratory of Ecophysiology and Molecular Evolution, National Institute for Amazonian Research, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Johannsson, Ora E.; Giacomin, Marina [Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Val, Adalberto L. [Laboratory of Ecophysiology and Molecular Evolution, National Institute for Amazonian Research, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Copper toxicity to a tropical fish varied greatly in different Amazonian waters. • The biotic ligand model could not capture this variability. • Possible physiological protection was offered by natural organic matter. • Care must be used in applying BLM to fish in tropical waters. - Abstract: Copper at high concentrations is an ionoregulatory toxicant in fish and its toxicity is known to be strongly modulated by the water chemistry. The toxicity of Cu to the tropical fish cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi) was investigated in waters from two major rivers of the Amazon watershed: the Rio Negro (filtered <0.45 μm, pH 5.6, DOC = 8.4 mg L{sup −1}, Na = 33 μM, Ca = 8 μM) and the Rio Solimões (filtered <0.45 μm, pH 6.7, DOC = 2.8 mg L{sup −1}, Na = 185 μM, Ca = 340 μM), as well as in a natural “reference water” (groundwater) which was almost DOC-free (pH 6.0, DOC = 0.34 mg L{sup −1}, Na = 53 μM, Ca = 5 μM). Acute 96-h mortality, Cu bioaccumulation and net flux rates of Na{sup +}, Cl{sup −}, K{sup +} and total ammonia were determined in P. axelrodi exposed in each water. Copper speciation in each water was determined by two thermodynamic models and by potentiometry, and its toxicity was predicted based on the biotic ligand model (BLM) framework. Our results indicate that high Na{sup +} loss is the main mode of toxic action of Cu in P. axelrodi, in accordance with general theory. Cardinal tetra showed a particularly high ability to tolerate Cu and to maintain Na{sup +} balance, similar to the ability of this and other endemic Rio Negro species to tolerate low pH and ion-poor conditions. Cu toxicity was lower in Rio Negro than in the other two waters tested, and the free [Cu{sup 2+}] at the LC50, as determined by any of the three speciation methods tested, was approximately 10-fold higher. This variation could not be captured by a realistic set of BLM parameters. At least in part, this observation may be due to gill

  3. Almost all k-cop-win graphs contain a dominating set of cardinality k

    OpenAIRE

    Pralat, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    We consider $k$-cop-win graphs in the binomial random graph $G(n,1/2).$ It is known that almost all cop-win graphs contain a universal vertex. We generalize this result and prove that for every $k \\in N$, almost all $k$-cop-win graphs contain a dominating set of cardinality $k$. From this it follows that the asymptotic number of labelled $k$-cop-win graphs of order $n$ is equal to $(1+o(1)) (1-2^{-k})^{-k} {n \\choose k} 2^{n^2/2 - (1/2-\\log_2(1-2^{-k})) n}$.

  4. Box-Particle Cardinality Balanced Multi-Target Multi-Bernoulli Filter

    OpenAIRE

    L. Song; X. Zhao

    2014-01-01

    As a generalized particle filtering, the box-particle filter (Box-PF) has a potential to process the measurements affected by bounded error of unknown distributions and biases. Inspired by the Box-PF, a novel implementation for multi-target tracking, called box-particle cardinality balanced multi-target multi-Bernoulli (Box-CBMeMBer) filter is presented in this paper. More important, to eliminate the negative effect of clutters in the estimation of the numbers of targets, an improved generali...

  5. Reconsidering the use of rankings in the valuation of health states: a model for estimating cardinal values from ordinal data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Joshua A

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In survey studies on health-state valuations, ordinal ranking exercises often are used as precursors to other elicitation methods such as the time trade-off (TTO or standard gamble, but the ranking data have not been used in deriving cardinal valuations. This study reconsiders the role of ordinal ranks in valuing health and introduces a new approach to estimate interval-scaled valuations based on aggregate ranking data. Methods Analyses were undertaken on data from a previously published general population survey study in the United Kingdom that included rankings and TTO values for hypothetical states described using the EQ-5D classification system. The EQ-5D includes five domains (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression with three possible levels on each. Rank data were analysed using a random utility model, operationalized through conditional logit regression. In the statistical model, probabilities of observed rankings were related to the latent utilities of different health states, modeled as a linear function of EQ-5D domain scores, as in previously reported EQ-5D valuation functions. Predicted valuations based on the conditional logit model were compared to observed TTO values for the 42 states in the study and to predictions based on a model estimated directly from the TTO values. Models were evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC between predictions and mean observations, and the root mean squared error of predictions at the individual level. Results Agreement between predicted valuations from the rank model and observed TTO values was very high, with an ICC of 0.97, only marginally lower than for predictions based on the model estimated directly from TTO values (ICC = 0.99. Individual-level errors were also comparable in the two models, with root mean squared errors of 0.503 and 0.496 for the rank-based and TTO-based predictions, respectively. Conclusions

  6. Dietary Intakes of Urban, High Body Mass Index, African American Children: Family and Child Dietary Attributes Predict Child Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…

  7. Human papillomavirus detection in cervical neoplasia attributed to 12 high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes by region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellsagué, Xavier; Ault, Kevin A; Bosch, F Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Background: We estimated the proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) cases attributed to 14 HPV types, including quadrivalent (qHPV) (6/11/16/18) and 9-valent (9vHPV) (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine types, by region. Methods: Women ages 15-26 and 24-45 years from 5 regions were...

  8. Organochlorine chemical residues in Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) eggs from Greater Washington, DC USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Echols, Kathy R.; Peterman, Paul; Orazio, Carl; Grimm, Christiana; Tan, Shirlee; Diggs, Nora E.; Marra, Peter P.

    2018-01-01

    Northern Cardinal eggs from six neighborhoods near Washington DC were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. All compounds were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in more heavily urbanized neighborhoods. DDT (mostly as p,pʹ-DDE) was detected in all neighborhoods. p,pʹ-DDT was typically 0.5‒16 ng/g (ww) in most suburban neighborhoods but was not detected (< 0.1 ng/g) in more rural areas; however, p,pʹ-DDT was 127‒1130 ng/g in eggs from two suburban Maryland nests and comprised 65.7% of total p,pʹ-DDT isomers in the most contaminated sample, indicating recent exposure to un-weathered DDT. Total chlordane (sum of 5 compounds) was 2‒70 ng/g; concentrations were greatest in older suburban neighborhoods. Total PCB (sum of detected congeners) was < 5‒21 ng/g. Congener patterns were similar in all neighborhoods and resembled those typical of weathered mixtures. Results indicate that wildlife remains exposed to low concentrations of legacy contaminants in suburban neighborhoods and that cardinal eggs can be used to monitor localized contamination.

  9. Spatial reasoning with augmented points: Extending cardinal directions with local distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Moratz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for supplying existing qualitative direction calculi with a distance component to support fully fledged positional reasoning. The general underlying idea of augmenting points with local reference properties has already been applied in the OPRAm calculus. In this existing calculus, point objects are attached with a local reference direction to obtain oriented points and able to express relative direction using binary relations. We show how this approach can be extended to attach a granular distance concept to direction calculi such as the cardinal direction calculus or adjustable granularity calculi such as OPRAm or the Star calculus. We focus on the cardinal direction calculus and extend it to a multi-granular positional calculus called EPRAm. We provide a formal specification of EPRAm including a composition table for EPRA2 automatically determined using real algebraic geometry. We also report on an experimental performance analysis of EPRA2 in the context of a topological map-learning task proposed for benchmarking qualitative calculi. Our results confirm that our approach of adding a relative distance component to existing calculi improves the performance in realistic tasks when using algebraic closure for consistency checking.

  10. Plumage brightness as an indicator of parental care in northern cardinals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville; Breitwisch; Schilling

    1998-01-01

    Good parent and differential allocation models predict relationships between degree of sexual ornamentation and parental care, but relatively few studies have tested these models. The northern cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis, is a sexually dichromatic species in which both sexes are ornamented. Males have red plumage, and females have tan plumage with limited areas of red feathering. Cardinals were used to address the two models and determine whether plumage brightness signals level of parental care by both sexes. Absolute effort in feeding nestlings by males was not correlated with male breast plumage colour, but effort by females was positively correlated with female underwing plumage colour. Absolute feeding effort by females was also inversely related to brightness of the mate's breast colour. As a consequence, the proportion of a pair's total feedings provided by the male was positively correlated with male breast colour. Proportion of total feedings provided by the female was positively correlated with female wing colour. Feeding efforts (both per nest and per nestling) were correlated between mates, but birds did not mate assortatively in relation to colour. These results support the good parent hypothesis, suggesting colour brightness is a signal of parental care. The results also indicate that ornamentation of both members of the pair may be important determinants of relative efforts in provisioning nestlings by parent birds. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  11. Anatomy and histology of apical support: a literature review concerning cardinal and uterosacral ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanah, Rajeev; Berger, Mitchell B; Parratte, Bernard M; DeLancey, John O L

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to collect and summarize relevant literature on the anatomy, histology, and imaging of apical support of the upper vagina and the uterus provided by the cardinal (CL) and uterosacral (USL) ligaments. A literature search in English, French, and German languages was carried out with the keywords apical support, cardinal ligament, transverse cervical ligament, Mackenrodt ligament, parametrium, paracervix, retinaculum uteri, web, uterosacral ligament, and sacrouterine ligament in the PubMed database. Other relevant journal and textbook articles were sought by retrieving references cited in previous PubMed articles. Fifty references were examined in peer-reviewed journals and textbooks. The USL extends from the S2 to the S4 vertebra region to the dorsal margin of the uterine cervix and/or to the upper third of the posterior vaginal wall. It has a superficial and deep component. Autonomous nerve fibers are a major constituent of the deep USL. CL is defined as a perivascular sheath with a proximal insertion around the origin of the internal iliac artery and a distal insertion on the cervix and/or vagina. It is divided into a cranial (vascular) and a caudal (neural) portions. Histologically, it contains mainly vessels, with no distinct band of connective tissue. Both the deep USL and the caudal CL are closely related to the inferior hypogastric plexus. USL and CL are visceral ligaments, with mesentery-like structures containing vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and adipose tissue.

  12. Some types of parent number talk count more than others: relations between parents' input and children's cardinal-number knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C

    2011-09-01

    Before they enter preschool, children vary greatly in their numerical and mathematical knowledge, and this knowledge predicts their achievement throughout elementary school (e.g. Duncan et al., 2007; Ginsburg & Russell, 1981). Therefore, it is critical that we look to the home environment for parental inputs that may lead to these early variations. Recent work has shown that the amount of number talk that parents engage in with their children is robustly related to a critical aspect of mathematical development - cardinal-number knowledge (e.g. knowing that the word 'three' refers to sets of three entities; Levine, Suriyakham, Rowe, Huttenlocher & Gunderson, 2010). The present study characterizes the different types of number talk that parents produce and investigates which types are most predictive of children's later cardinal-number knowledge. We find that parents' number talk involving counting or labeling sets of present, visible objects is related to children's later cardinal-number knowledge, whereas other types of parent number talk are not. In addition, number talk that refers to large sets of present objects (i.e. sets of size 4 to 10 that fall outside children's ability to track individual objects) is more robustly predictive of children's later cardinal-number knowledge than talk about smaller sets. The relation between parents' number talk about large sets of present objects and children's cardinal-number knowledge remains significant even when controlling for factors such as parents' socioeconomic status and other measures of parents' number and non-number talk. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Determination of Cardinal Temperatures and Germination Respond to Different Temperature for Five Lawns Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hadi khavari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Germination of every plant species respond to temperature variation in particular way. Germination is critical stage in plant life cycle. Seed germination is a complex biological process that is influenced by various environmental and genetic factors. The effects of temperature on plant development are the basis for models used to predict the timing of germination. Estimation of the cardinal temperatures, including base, optimum, and maximum, is essential because rate of development increases between base and optimum, decreases between optimum and maximum, and ceases above the maximum and below the base temperatures. Usually, a linear increase in germination rate is associated with an increase in temperature from base temperature (Tb to an optimum. An increase of temperature from the optimum will reduce the germination rate to zero. To determine the best planting date for plants, it is necessary to find the base (Tb, optimum (To and maximum temperatures (Tc for seed germination. These are known as cardinal temperatures. Modelling of seed germination is considered an effective approach to determining cardinal temperatures for most plant species, although these methods have some limitations due to unpredictable biological changes. The results of fitting mechanical models are useful for evaluating seed quality, germination rate, germination percentage, germination uniformity and seed performance under different environmental stresses such as salinity, drought, and freezing. Regression models incorporating more parameters can produce more precise estimates. Cardinal temperature was determined using segmented and logistic models in millet varieties and seedling emergence of wheat. In the dent-like model at lower-than-optimum temperature, a linear relationship holds between temperature and germination rate. This relationship remains linear at higher-than-optimum temperatures, but with a reducing trend. With increasing temperature

  14. Social influence of a religious hero: the late Cardinal Stephen Kim Sou-hwan's effect on cornea donation and volunteerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyuhn-Suhck; Brown, William J; Kang, Seok

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the mediated influence of a celebrated religious hero in South Korea, Cardinal Stephen Kim, through two forms of involvement--parasocial interaction and identification--on intention toward cornea donation and volunteerism, and it investigated how the news media diffused of his death. A structural equation modeling analysis with a Web-based voluntary survey of more than 1,200 people in South Korea revealed a multistep social influence process, beginning with parasocial interaction with Cardinal Kim, leading to identification with him, which predicted intention toward cornea donation and volunteerism. Additional investigations found that news of Cardinal Kim's death diffused rapidly through media and interpersonal communication. Results of this study demonstrate that religious leaders who achieve a celebrity hero status can prompt public discussion of important issues rather quickly through extensive media coverage, enabling them to promote prosocial behavior and positively affect public health.

  15. Human papillomavirus detection in cervical neoplasia attributed to 12 high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes by region

    OpenAIRE

    Castellsagué, Xavier; Ault, Kevin A.; Bosch, F. Xavier; Brown, Darron; Cuzick, Jack; Ferris, Daron G.; Joura, Elmar A.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Giuliano, Anna R; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Huh, Warner; Iversen, Ole-Erik; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Luna, Joaquin; Monsonego, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background: We estimated the proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) cases attributed to 14 HPV types, including quadrivalent (qHPV) (6/11/16/18) and 9-valent (9vHPV) (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine types, by region Methods: Women ages 15–26 and 24–45 years from 5 regions were enrolled in qHPV vaccine clinical trials. Among 10,706 women (placebo arms), 1539 CIN1, 945 CIN2/3, and 24 adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) cases were diagnosed by pathology panel consensus. Results: Pred...

  16. Cardinal principle and application practice of 3D digital model design for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ruobing; Wu Yan

    2005-01-01

    The practical application of 3D digital model design at nuclear power plants was introduced in detail in the paper. The whole process for system choice, program constitution, model design and project practice were also summarized. By demonstrating the cardinal principal and application practice of 3D digital model design as an important sub-project of CGNPC Digital Plant, the paper validates the rationality and validity of the major architecture system and program configuration of the digital plant, carries out beneficial attempt and study in the overall power plant life engineering management and site practice, and has achieved significant engineering and social benefits. The success of practices in the project accelerates the extended and extensive application of Digital Plant in the operation and maintenance simulation of Daya Bay and Ling'ao Nuclear Power Plants, and the engineering design management for Ling'ao II and III of CGNPC on a consolidated basis. (authors)

  17. Anti-musk positive myasthenia gravis and three semiological cardinal signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André P.C. Matta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis (MG is a relatively uncommon disorder with an annual incidence of approximately 7 to 9 new cases per million. The prevalence is about 70 to 165 per million. The prevalence of the disease has been increasing over the past five decades. This is thought to be due to better recognition of the condition, aging of the population, and the longer life span of affected patients. MG causes weakness, predominantly in bulbar, facial, and extra-ocular muscles, often fluctuating over minutes to weeks, in the absence of wasting, sensory loss, or reflex changes. The picture of fluctuating, asymmetric external ophthalmoplegia with ptosis and weak eye closure is virtually diagnostic of myasthenia. We report an atypical MG case with three semiological cardinal signs.

  18. Evaluating the Stability of Feature Selectors that Optimize Feature Subset Cardinality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Somol, Petr; Novovičová, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2008, č. 5342 (2008), s. 956-966 ISSN 0302-9743. [Joint IAPR International Workshops SSPR 2008 and SPR 2008. Orlando , 04.12.2008-06.12.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/07/1594 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Feature selection * stability * relative weighted consistency measure * sequential search * floating search Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/RO/somol-evaluating the stability of feature selectors that optimize feature subset cardinality.pdf

  19. On the solution of nonconvex cardinality Boolean quadratic programming problems: a computational study

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ricardo

    2016-06-16

    This paper addresses the solution of a cardinality Boolean quadratic programming problem using three different approaches. The first transforms the original problem into six mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) formulations. The second approach takes one of the MILP formulations and relies on the specific features of an MILP solver, namely using starting incumbents, polishing, and callbacks. The last involves the direct solution of the original problem by solvers that can accomodate the nonlinear combinatorial problem. Particular emphasis is placed on the definition of the MILP reformulations and their comparison with the other approaches. The results indicate that the data of the problem has a strong influence on the performance of the different approaches, and that there are clear-cut approaches that are better for some instances of the data. A detailed analysis of the results is made to identify the most effective approaches for specific instances of the data. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  20. On the solution of nonconvex cardinality Boolean quadratic programming problems: a computational study

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ricardo; Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the solution of a cardinality Boolean quadratic programming problem using three different approaches. The first transforms the original problem into six mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) formulations. The second approach takes one of the MILP formulations and relies on the specific features of an MILP solver, namely using starting incumbents, polishing, and callbacks. The last involves the direct solution of the original problem by solvers that can accomodate the nonlinear combinatorial problem. Particular emphasis is placed on the definition of the MILP reformulations and their comparison with the other approaches. The results indicate that the data of the problem has a strong influence on the performance of the different approaches, and that there are clear-cut approaches that are better for some instances of the data. A detailed analysis of the results is made to identify the most effective approaches for specific instances of the data. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  1. Human papillomavirus detection in cervical neoplasia attributed to 12 high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes by region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellsagué, Xavier; Ault, Kevin A; Bosch, F Xavier; Brown, Darron; Cuzick, Jack; Ferris, Daron G; Joura, Elmar A; Garland, Suzanne M; Giuliano, Anna R; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Huh, Warner; Iversen, Ole-Erik; Kjaer, Susanne K; Luna, Joaquin; Monsonego, Joseph; Muñoz, Nubia; Myers, Evan; Paavonen, Jorma; Pitisuttihum, Punnee; Steben, Marc; Wheeler, Cosette M; Perez, Gonzalo; Saah, Alfred; Luxembourg, Alain; Sings, Heather L; Velicer, Christine

    2016-12-01

    We estimated the proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) cases attributed to 14 HPV types, including quadrivalent (qHPV) (6/11/16/18) and 9-valent (9vHPV) (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine types, by region METHODS: Women ages 15-26 and 24-45 years from 5 regions were enrolled in qHPV vaccine clinical trials. Among 10,706 women (placebo arms), 1539 CIN1, 945 CIN2/3, and 24 adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) cases were diagnosed by pathology panel consensus. Predominant HPV types were 16/51/52/56 (anogenital infection), 16/39/51/52/56 (CIN1), and 16/31/52/58 (CIN2/3). In regions with largest sample sizes, minimal regional variation was observed in 9vHPV type prevalence in CIN1 (~50%) and CIN2/3 (81-85%). Types 31/33/45/52/58 accounted for 25-30% of CIN1 in Latin America and Europe, but 14-18% in North America and Asia. Types 31/33/45/52/58 accounted for 33-38% of CIN2/3 in Latin America (younger women), Europe, and Asia, but 17-18% of CIN2/3 in Latin America (older women) and North America. Non-vaccine HPV types 35/39/51/56/59 had similar or higher prevalence than qHPV types in CIN1 and were attributed to 2-11% of CIN2/3. The 9vHPV vaccine could potentially prevent the majority of CIN1-3, irrespective of geographic region. Notwithstanding, non-vaccine types 35/39/51/56/59 may still be responsible for some CIN1, and to a lesser extent CIN2/3. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 78 FR 12358 - Cardinal Health, Financial Shared Services West, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... office financial services from India and the Philippines. Based on these findings, the Department is..., Financial Shared Services West, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, eXcel Staffing, Experis..., applicable to workers of Cardinal Health, Financial Shared Services West, including on-site leased workers...

  3. Serum Homocysteine Level in Parkinson's Disease and Its Association with Duration, Cardinal Manifestation, and Severity of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Payam; Ahmadi Ahangar, Alijan; Samaei, Seyed Ehsan; Firozjaie, Alireza; Abbaspour, Fatemeh; Khafri, Sorrayya; Khoddami, Azam

    2018-01-01

    Due to the high prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) in the elderly, a large financial burden is imposed on the families and health systems of countries in addition to the problems related to the mobility impairment caused by the disease for the patients. Studies on controversial issues in this disease are taken into consideration, and one of these cases is the role of serum homocysteine level in Parkinson's patients. In this study, the serum level of homocysteine and its association with various variables in relation to this disease was compared with healthy individuals. In this study, 100 patients with PD and 100 healthy individuals as control group were investigated. Serum homocysteine level and demographic and clinical data were included in the checklist. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 23. In all tests, the significance level was below 0.05. The mean level of serum homocysteine in case and control groups was 14.93 ± 8.30 and 11.52 ± 2.86  µ mol/L, respectively (95% CI: 1.68; 5.14, P level, while 15 had high serum homocysteine level. In controls, the homocysteine level was 98 and 2, respectively ( P =0.002). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, serum homocysteine level higher than 20  µ mol/L was accompanied by 8.64-fold in Parkinson's disease involvement (95% CI: 1.92; 38.90, P =0.005). Increasing serum homocysteine level elevates the rate to having PD. Serum homocysteine levels did not have any relationship with the duration of the disease, type of cardinal manifestation, and the severity of Parkinson's disease.

  4. Serum Homocysteine Level in Parkinson’s Disease and Its Association with Duration, Cardinal Manifestation, and Severity of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Saadat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Due to the high prevalence of Parkinson’s disease (PD in the elderly, a large financial burden is imposed on the families and health systems of countries in addition to the problems related to the mobility impairment caused by the disease for the patients. Studies on controversial issues in this disease are taken into consideration, and one of these cases is the role of serum homocysteine level in Parkinson’s patients. In this study, the serum level of homocysteine and its association with various variables in relation to this disease was compared with healthy individuals. Materials and Methods. In this study, 100 patients with PD and 100 healthy individuals as control group were investigated. Serum homocysteine level and demographic and clinical data were included in the checklist. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 23. In all tests, the significance level was below 0.05. Results. The mean level of serum homocysteine in case and control groups was 14.93 ± 8.30 and 11.52 ± 2.86 µmol/L, respectively (95% CI: 1.68; 5.14, P<0.001. In total patients, 85 had normal serum homocysteine level, while 15 had high serum homocysteine level. In controls, the homocysteine level was 98 and 2, respectively (P=0.002. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, serum homocysteine level higher than 20 µmol/L was accompanied by 8.64-fold in Parkinson’s disease involvement (95% CI: 1.92; 38.90, P=0.005. Conclusion. Increasing serum homocysteine level elevates the rate to having PD. Serum homocysteine levels did not have any relationship with the duration of the disease, type of cardinal manifestation, and the severity of Parkinson’s disease.

  5. It is highly unlikely that the development of an abdominal wall hernia can be attributable to a single strenuous event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Samir; Poston, Graeme J

    2006-03-01

    There is a commonly held belief that the development of a hernia can be attributed to a single strenuous or traumatic event. Hence, many litigants are successful in compensation claims, causing mounting financial burdens on employers, the courts, insurance companies and the tax-payer. However, there is very little scientific evidence to support this assertion. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether there was any causal link in this process. A total of 133 new patients with 135 abdominal herniae of all varieties (115 inguinal, 3 femoral, 9 umbilical, 4 incisional, and 4 ventral or epigastric), of which 25 were recurrent received structured questionnaires on arrival in the surgical clinic. These questionnaires covered all possible aetiological factors for hernia development (type of work, COAD, smoking, pregnancy, obesity, chronic bladder outflow obstruction, previous surgery including appendicectomy), in addition to any possible attribution to a single strenuous or traumatic event. We then reviewed the GP records in the surgery of all patients who answered positively to the latter possible cause. In the study group, 119 (89%) reported a gradual onset of symptoms. Of the 15 (12 male, 3 female; 11%) who believed that their hernia might be related to a single strenuous or traumatic event, 5 had no other aetiological factors. However, not one of the 15 was found to have contemporaneous forensic medical evidence to support their possible claim. We conclude that we are unable to find any clinical evidence to support the hypothesis that a hernia might develop as the result of one single strenuous or traumatic event. While we accept that this mechanism might still possibly occur, we believe that, at best, it is extremely uncommon. If a medical expert is preparing a report on such a case in a claim for personal injury, then they have a duty to the court to examine carefully all the contemporaneous medical records. If no clinical evidence exists to support the claim

  6. Determination of Cardinal Temperatures for Cool Season Turfgrass and Two Common Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Diayanat

    2018-02-01

    and 60% relative humidity. Seeds were considered germinated when the radicle protruded at least 2 mm from the seed coat. Germinated and rotted seeds were counted and discarded at 24 hour intervals until no germination had occurred over four consecutive days. The germination percentage was obtained by dividing the number of germinated seeds at any time by the total number of seeds germinated multiplied by 100. Data from this experiment were first subjected to analysis of variance and means of treatments were compared using the least significant difference at the 5% level of probability. The following nonlinear regression models were used to quantify the response of the germination rate to temperature and to determine cardinal temperatures. Results and Discussion The analysis of variance showed that temperature had a significant effect on all seed germination percentage and germination rates. Seed germination percentage and rate increased to a point with increasing the temperature. Germination model based on temperature can be used for the prediction of cardinal temperatures. Cardinal temperatures are required because a portion of the crop model is developed for prediction of the timing of germination. Non-linear regression models have been used to quantitatively describe development rate in many plants. Three regression models (Intersected-lines, Dent-like and Quadratic Polynomial used to predict germination rate and cardinal temperature. Root mean square of error (RMSE and R2 adjusted were used to find the appropriate model(s. Intersected-lines model was superior compared to other models in perennial ryegrass, fescue and annual sowthistle and Dent-like model was superior for prostrate knotweed. It was concluded that this model can be used to quantify response of turfgrass and common weeds of turfgrass germination to temperature and to obtain cardinal temperature of germination. Also base, optimum and maximum temperatures were for perennial ryegrass 4.12, 24.66 and 43

  7. Strategies and Attributes of Highly Productive Scholars and Contributors to the School Psychology Literature: Recommendations for Increasing Scholarly Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Rebecca S.; Floyd, Randy G.; Erichsen, Luke W.

    2011-01-01

    In all academic fields, there are scholars who contribute to the research literature at exceptionally high levels. The goal of the current study was to discover what school psychology researchers with remarkably high levels of journal publication do to be so productive. In Study 1, 94 highly productive school psychology scholars were identified…

  8. What significance can be attributed to high bone uptake of 67GA citrate in patients with HIV infection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbatini, S.; Bini, A.; Turba, E.

    1989-01-01

    The authors observed high uptake of 67 Ga citrate in the spine and in some cases also in the ribs in 15 patients with HIV infection. 12 were also carriers of opportunistic infections, 14 had anaemia with reduced Hb synthesis. 9 were undergoing treatment with antifolic drugs or AZT. The high bone uptake of the radio-indicator was related to the presence of opportunistic infections, the eventual treatment with myelotoxic drugs and the reduction of Hb values. (orig.) [de

  9. Quantifying cardinal temperatures and thermal time required for germination of Silybum marianum seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Parmoon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The response of seed germination to environmental factors can be estimated by nonlinear regression. The present study was performed to compare four nonlinear regression models (segmented, beta, beta modified, and dent-like to describe the germination rate–temperature relationships of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. at six constant temperatures, with the aim of identifying the cardinal temperatures and thermal times required to reach different germination percentiles. Models and statistical indices were calibrated using an iterative optimization method and their performance was compared by root mean square error (RMSE, coefficient of determination (R2 and Akaike information criterion correction (AICc. The beta model was found to be the best model for predicting the required time to reach 50% germination (D50, (R2 = 0.99; RMSE = 0.004; AICc = − 276.97. Based on the model outputs, the base, optimum, and maximum temperatures of seed germination were 5.19 ± 0.79, 24.01 ± 0.11, and 34.32 ± 0.36 °C, respectively. The thermal times required for 50% and 90% germination were 4.99 and 7.38 degree-days, respectively.

  10. Firefly Algorithm for Cardinality Constrained Mean-Variance Portfolio Optimization Problem with Entropy Diversity Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Portfolio optimization (selection) problem is an important and hard optimization problem that, with the addition of necessary realistic constraints, becomes computationally intractable. Nature-inspired metaheuristics are appropriate for solving such problems; however, literature review shows that there are very few applications of nature-inspired metaheuristics to portfolio optimization problem. This is especially true for swarm intelligence algorithms which represent the newer branch of nature-inspired algorithms. No application of any swarm intelligence metaheuristics to cardinality constrained mean-variance (CCMV) portfolio problem with entropy constraint was found in the literature. This paper introduces modified firefly algorithm (FA) for the CCMV portfolio model with entropy constraint. Firefly algorithm is one of the latest, very successful swarm intelligence algorithm; however, it exhibits some deficiencies when applied to constrained problems. To overcome lack of exploration power during early iterations, we modified the algorithm and tested it on standard portfolio benchmark data sets used in the literature. Our proposed modified firefly algorithm proved to be better than other state-of-the-art algorithms, while introduction of entropy diversity constraint further improved results. PMID:24991645

  11. Children acquire the later-greater principle after the cardinal principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Mathieu

    2014-06-01

    Many have proposed that the acquisition of the cardinal principle (CP) is a result of the discovery of the numerical significance of the order of the number words in the count list. However, this need not be the case. Indeed, the CP does not state anything about the numerical significance of the order of the number words. It only states that the last word of a correct count denotes the numerosity of the counted set. Here, we test whether the acquisition of the CP involves the discovery of the later-greater principle - that is, that the order of the number words corresponds to the relative size of the numerosities they denote. Specifically, we tested knowledge of verbal numerical comparisons (e.g., Is 'ten' more than 'six'?) in children who had recently learned the CP. We find that these children can compare number words between 'six' and 'ten' only if they have mapped them onto non-verbal representations of numerosity. We suggest that this means that the acquisition of the CP does not involve the discovery of the correspondence between the order of the number words and the relative size of the numerosities they denote. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Firefly algorithm for cardinality constrained mean-variance portfolio optimization problem with entropy diversity constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacanin, Nebojsa; Tuba, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Portfolio optimization (selection) problem is an important and hard optimization problem that, with the addition of necessary realistic constraints, becomes computationally intractable. Nature-inspired metaheuristics are appropriate for solving such problems; however, literature review shows that there are very few applications of nature-inspired metaheuristics to portfolio optimization problem. This is especially true for swarm intelligence algorithms which represent the newer branch of nature-inspired algorithms. No application of any swarm intelligence metaheuristics to cardinality constrained mean-variance (CCMV) portfolio problem with entropy constraint was found in the literature. This paper introduces modified firefly algorithm (FA) for the CCMV portfolio model with entropy constraint. Firefly algorithm is one of the latest, very successful swarm intelligence algorithm; however, it exhibits some deficiencies when applied to constrained problems. To overcome lack of exploration power during early iterations, we modified the algorithm and tested it on standard portfolio benchmark data sets used in the literature. Our proposed modified firefly algorithm proved to be better than other state-of-the-art algorithms, while introduction of entropy diversity constraint further improved results.

  13. The role of employee HR attributions in the relationship between high-performance work systems and employee outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Voorde, F.C.; Beijer, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Although research has shown that the use of high-performance work systems (HPWS) is associated with employee outcomes, our knowledge of the meanings employees attach to HPWS systems and how these shape employee outcomes is still limited. This study examines the signalling impact of enacted HPWS on

  14. Do Red Edge and Texture Attributes from High-Resolution Satellite Data Improve Wood Volume Estimation in a Semi-Arid Mountainous Region?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Paul; Mislimshoeva, Bunafsha; Brenning, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    to overcome this issue. However, clear recommendations on the suitability of specific proxies to provide accurate biomass information in semi-arid to arid environments are still lacking. This study contributes to the understanding of using multispectral high-resolution satellite data (RapidEye), specifically...... red edge and texture attributes, to estimate wood volume in semi-arid ecosystems characterized by scarce vegetation. LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) and random forest were used as predictive models relating in situ-measured aboveground standing wood volume to satellite data...

  15. Decree no. 2013-490/PRN from 4 December 2013 provides for the creation, organisation, attributions and operation of the Nigerian High Authority for Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issoufou, Mahamadou; Brigi, Rafin; Gandou, Zakara

    2013-01-01

    This decree concerns the creation, attributions, organization and operation of The Nigerian High Authority Atomic Energy (HANEA). The HANEA is a public service under the Office of President of the Republic. Its main tasks of supervision, coordination and promotion of all peaceful nuclear applications, including nuclear power and ionizing radiation in relation to all departments and other structures concerned. The HANEA is headed by a President to the rank of Minister and includes the following components: a cabinet of President, Secretary General, six Departments and Private Secretary. [fr

  16. What attributions do Australian high-performing general practices make for their success? Applying the clinical microsystems framework: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Annette H; Dunbar, James A; Johnson, Julie K; Fuller, Jeff; Morgan, Mark; Ford, Dale

    2018-04-10

    To identify the success attributions of high-performing Australian general practices and the enablers and barriers they envisage for practices wishing to emulate them. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and content analysis of the data. Responses were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded according to success characteristics of high-performing clinical microsystems. Primary healthcare with the participating general practices representing all Australian states and territories, and representing metropolitan and rural locations. Twenty-two general practices identified as high performing via a number of success criteria. The 52 participants were 19 general practitioners, 18 practice managers and 15 practice nurses. Participants most frequently attributed success to the interdependence of the team members, patient-focused care and leadership of the practice. They most often signalled practice leadership, team interdependence and staff focus as enablers that other organisations would need to emulate their success. They most frequently identified barriers that might be encountered in the form of potential deficits or limitations in practice leadership, staff focus and mesosystem support. Practice leaders need to empower their teams to take action through providing inclusive leadership that facilitates team interdependence. Mesosystem support for quality improvement in general practice should focus on enabling this leadership and team building, thereby ensuring improvement efforts are converted into effective healthcare provision. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. A high throughput capillary electrophoresis method to obtain pharmacokinetics and quality attributes of a therapeutic molecule in circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piparia, Reema; Ouellette, David; Stine, W. Blaine; Grinnell, Christine; Tarcsa, Edit; Radziejewski, Czeslaw; Correia, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic proteins circulating in blood are in a highly crowded, redox environment at high temperatures of ~37°C. These molecules circulate in the presence of enzymes and other serum proteins making it difficult to predict from in vitro studies the stability, aggregation or pharmacokinetics of a therapeutic protein in vivo. Here, we describe use of a high throughput capillary electrophoresis based microfluidic device (LabChip GXII) to obtain pharmacokinetics (PK) of a fluorescently labeled human mAb directly from serum. The non-labeled and labeled mAbs were evaluated in single dose rat PK studies using a traditional ELISA method or LabChip GXII, respectively. The fluorescent dye did not significantly alter clearance of this particular mAb, and PK parameters were comparable for labeled and unlabeled molecules. Further, from the CE profile we concluded that the mAb was resistant to fragmentation or aggregation during circulation. In a follow-up experiment, dimers were generated from the mAb using photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins (PICUP) and labeled with the same fluorophore. The extent of dimerization was incomplete and some monomer and higher molecular weight species were found in the preparation. In rat PK studies, the serum concentration-time profile of the three entities present in the dimer preparation could be followed simultaneously with the GXII technology. While further studies are warranted, we believe this method could be adapted to obtain PK of different forms of antibodies (oxidized, deamidated or various glycosylated species) and other proteins. PMID:22647389

  18. Differences in Food Environment Perceptions and Spatial Attributes of Food Shopping between Residents of Low and High Food Access Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohi, Inderbir; Bell, Bethany A.; Liu, Jihong; Battersby, Sarah E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore potential differences in food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions between residents living in areas with low and high food access. Design A cross-sectional telephone survey to assess food shopping behaviors and perceptions. Data from an eight-county food environment field census used to define the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) healthier food retail tract and USDA ERS (United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service) food desert measure. Participants 968 residents in eight South Carolina counties. Main Outcome Measures Residents’ food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions. Analysis Linear and logistic regression. Results Compared to residents in high food access areas, residents in low food access areas traveled further to their primary food store (USDA ERS: 8.8 vs. 7.1 miles, p=0.03; CDC: 9.2 vs. 6.1 miles, pshopping miles per week; CDC 28.0 vs. 15.4 miles, pshopping access (p<0.001). Conclusions and Implications These findings lend support to ongoing community and policy interventions aimed at reducing food access disparities. PMID:24560861

  19. Differences in food environment perceptions and spatial attributes of food shopping between residents of low and high food access areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohi, Inderbir; Bell, Bethany A; Liu, Jihong; Battersby, Sarah E; Liese, Angela D

    2014-01-01

    To explore potential differences in food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions between residents living in areas with low and high food access. A cross-sectional telephone survey to assess food shopping behaviors and perceptions. Data from an 8-county food environment field census used to define the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) healthier food retail tract and US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service food desert measure. A total of 968 residents in 8 South Carolina counties. Residents' food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions. Linear and logistic regression. Compared with residents in high food access areas, residents in low food access areas traveled farther to their primary food store (US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service: 8.8 vs 7.1 miles, P = .03; CDC: 9.2 vs 6.1 miles, P shopping miles per week (CDC: 28.0 vs 15.4 miles; P shopping access (P Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Occurrence of Drought Stress in Maternal Environment on Cardinal Temperatures and Germination Responses of Carthamus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Nazari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Safflower (Carthamustinctorius L. is one of the oldest domesticated crops, mainly grown as an oilseed in the arid and semiarid regions of the world. This study was conducted to investigate the Cardinal temperatures and to identify the effects of occurrence of drought stress in maternal environment on seed germination aspects of some Carthamus species according to a completely randomized design in 2014. To accomplish this, seeds of 13 genotypes from C. tinctorius, C. palaestinus, C. oxyacanthus, C. glaucus and C. lanatus were used which had been harvested from plants grown at normal and drought stress conditions. Seeds were subjected to 9 fixed temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45°C for germination in the growth chamber according to a factorial experiment. Results showed that the effects of genotype, species, temperature, pretreatment drought stress and some of their interactions were significant for certain germination characteristics at 0.05% probability level. Significant reductions occurred in the germination rate of seeds at temperatures below 10°C and above 30°C. Although there were significant differences in percent of seed germination among species, seeds harvested from drought stressed plants were not significantly different from the ones harvested from non-stressed plants in terms of cardinal temperatures. Hence, it is more likely that cardinal temperatures will not cause difficulties in the case of inter-specific breeding programs for drought tolerant safflower cultivar development.

  1. Semantic attributes based texture generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Huifang; Gan, Yanhai; Qi, Lin; Dong, Junyu; Madessa, Amanuel Hirpa

    2018-04-01

    Semantic attributes are commonly used for texture description. They can be used to describe the information of a texture, such as patterns, textons, distributions, brightness, and so on. Generally speaking, semantic attributes are more concrete descriptors than perceptual features. Therefore, it is practical to generate texture images from semantic attributes. In this paper, we propose to generate high-quality texture images from semantic attributes. Over the last two decades, several works have been done on texture synthesis and generation. Most of them focusing on example-based texture synthesis and procedural texture generation. Semantic attributes based texture generation still deserves more devotion. Gan et al. proposed a useful joint model for perception driven texture generation. However, perceptual features are nonobjective spatial statistics used by humans to distinguish different textures in pre-attentive situations. To give more describing information about texture appearance, semantic attributes which are more in line with human description habits are desired. In this paper, we use sigmoid cross entropy loss in an auxiliary model to provide enough information for a generator. Consequently, the discriminator is released from the relatively intractable mission of figuring out the joint distribution of condition vectors and samples. To demonstrate the validity of our method, we compare our method to Gan et al.'s method on generating textures by designing experiments on PTD and DTD. All experimental results show that our model can generate textures from semantic attributes.

  2. Les fidélités languedociennes et provençales du cardinal de Fleury à la Cour The Languedocien and Provençal loyalties of Cardinal de Fleury at court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Mormiche

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ayant vécu à la Cour depuis 1666 environ et surtout après 1680, le cardinal André Hercule de Fleury est un personnage central dans l’étude sur la longue durée du clientélisme et des réseaux utilisés par les Méridionaux afin d’obtenir des emplois à la Cour. Sa propre ascension s’appuie d’abord sur une bonne gestion des relations locales entre Lodève et Montpellier. Il est alors soutenu par les familles Bonzi et Castries qui l’accompagnent vers Paris. Modifiant ensuite ses relations en fonction des familles qui dominent à la Cour, à la Chapelle et dans le service du roi à la fin du XVIIe siècle, il parvient à l’épiscopat puis au préceptorat royal. À partir de ce moment, il se comporte comme un « patron » dont l’influence s’accroît pendant la Régence et surtout après 1722. Cet article met en évidence les liens variés que le cardinal utilise à son profit puis comme protecteur des Languedociens et des Provençaux dont certains parviennent, grâce à lui, au ministériat.Having resided at the court since around 1666 and especially after 1680, the Cardinal André Hercule de Fleury is a central figure in the study of the enduring ‘clientelism’ and networks exploited by the Méridionaux (Southerners to obtain employment at the court. His own admission to court owed initially to good management of relations between Lodève and Montpellier. He was supported at the time by the Bonzi and Castries families, who accompanied him to Paris. Later adjusting his relations according to the dominant families at court, at the chapel and in the service of the king in the late seventeenth century, he obtained the bishopric and then the royal tutorship. From that time on, he acted as a ‘patron’ whose influence grew during the Regency and especially after 1722. This article brings to light the ties used by the cardinal to his advantage and subsequently as protector of the Languedociens and Provençaux, some of whom

  3. Estimation and modeling of forest attributes across large spatial scales using BiomeBGC, high-resolution imagery, LiDAR data, and inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinkoff, Jordan Seth

    The accurate estimation of forest attributes at many different spatial scales is a critical problem. Forest landowners may be interested in estimating timber volume, forest biomass, and forest structure to determine their forest's condition and value. Counties and states may be interested to learn about their forests to develop sustainable management plans and policies related to forests, wildlife, and climate change. Countries and consortiums of countries need information about their forests to set global and national targets to deal with issues of climate change and deforestation as well as to set national targets and understand the state of their forest at a given point in time. This dissertation approaches these questions from two perspectives. The first perspective uses the process model Biome-BGC paired with inventory and remote sensing data to make inferences about a current forest state given known climate and site variables. Using a model of this type, future climate data can be used to make predictions about future forest states as well. An example of this work applied to a forest in northern California is presented. The second perspective of estimating forest attributes uses high resolution aerial imagery paired with light detection and ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing data to develop statistical estimates of forest structure. Two approaches within this perspective are presented: a pixel based approach and an object based approach. Both approaches can serve as the platform on which models (either empirical growth and yield models or process models) can be run to generate inferences about future forest state and current forest biogeochemical cycling.

  4. Effects of repeated biaxial loads on the creep properties of cardinal ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah-Dwomoh, Adwoa; De Vita, Raffaella

    2017-10-01

    The cardinal ligament (CL) is one of the major pelvic ligaments providing structural support to the vagina/cervix/uterus complex. This ligament has been studied mainly with regards to its important function in the treatment of different diseases such as surgical repair for pelvic organ prolapse and radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer. However, the mechanical properties of the CL have not been fully determined, despite the important in vivo supportive role of this ligament within the pelvic floor. To advance our limited knowledge about the elastic and viscoelastic properties of the CL, we conducted three consecutive planar equi-biaxial tests on CL specimens isolated from swine. Specifically, the CL specimens were divided into three groups: specimens in group 1 (n = 7) were loaded equi-biaxially to 1 N, specimens in group 2 (n = 8) were loaded equi-biaxially to 2N, and specimens in group 3 (n = 7) were loaded equi-biaxially to 3N. In each group, the equi-biaxial loads of 1N, 2N, or 3N were applied and kept constant for 1200s three times. The two axial loading directions were selected to be the main in-vivo loading direction of the CL and the direction that is perpendicular to it. Using the digital image correlation (DIC) method, the in-plane Lagrangian strains in these two loading directions were measured throughout the tests. The results showed that CL was elastically anisotropic, as statistical differences were found between the mean strains along the two axial loading directions for specimens in group 1, 2, or 3 when the equi-biaxial load reached 1N, 2N, or 3N, respectively. For specimens in group 1 and 2, no statistical differences were detected in the mean normalized strains (or, equivalently, the increase in strain over time) between the two axial loading directions for each creep test. For specimens in group 3, some differences were noted but, by the end of the 3rd creep test, there were no statistical differences in the mean normalized strains between

  5. IMPACT OF FISHING AND HABITAT DEGRADATION ON THE DENSITY OF BANGGAI CARDINAL FISH (Pterapogon kauderni, Koumans 1933 IN BANGGAI ARCHIPELAGO, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaluddin Kasim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Banggai cardinal fish (Pterapogonkauderni, Koumans 1933 is uncommon example of a marine fish with distributed in small range area while being in highly exploited. This fish is in high demand as an ornamental fish. However, the information on the number of density is limited. An underwater visual fish census survey was conducted in June to July 2010 at 18 fishing sites around Banggai archipelago to estimate the density of the stock and assess the impact of fishing and habitat on density. The areas are divided into three main islands, namely Banggai Island, Peleng Island, Toropot-Tumbak-Labobo Island. The lowest density index of the P. kauderni recorded at Kindandal village on Peleng Island, 0.014 fish/m2while the highest abundance index of 3.0 fish/m2 found at Toropot village at Toropot Island. In three survey sites (Bonebaru and Toropot villages where the fishing activities are still ongoing, the density has declined compared to the survey conducted in 2004. Majority of the villages in Peleng Island have lower density compared with the other islands probably due to the degradation of microhabitat of P. kauderni. In many cases, microhabitat degradation might be as a result of collection of sea urchins and sea anemone for consumption by local community.

  6. Strategies for Selecting Routes through Real-World Environments: Relative Topography, Initial Route Straightness, and Cardinal Direction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tad T Brunyé

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that route planners use several reliable strategies for selecting between alternate routes. Strategies include selecting straight rather than winding routes leaving an origin, selecting generally south- rather than north-going routes, and selecting routes that avoid traversal of complex topography. The contribution of this paper is characterizing the relative influence and potential interactions of these strategies. We also examine whether individual differences would predict any strategy reliance. Results showed evidence for independent and additive influences of all three strategies, with a strong influence of topography and initial segment straightness, and relatively weak influence of cardinal direction. Additively, routes were also disproportionately selected when they traversed relatively flat regions, had relatively straight initial segments, and went generally south rather than north. Two individual differences, extraversion and sense of direction, predicted the extent of some effects. Under real-world conditions navigators indeed consider a route's initial straightness, cardinal direction, and topography, but these cues differ in relative influence and vary in their application across individuals.

  7. Attributing illness to food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.

    2005-01-01

    source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored......Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component...

  8. Assessing the Impact of Urban Improvement on Housing Values: A Hedonic Pricing and Multi-Attribute Analysis Model for the Historic Centre of Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Rosato

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Hedonic Pricing Method is one of the principal assessment methods for evaluating services and resources not normally exchanged on the market. However, the method is often unable to account for the great variety of qualities in an urban context and faces scarce and heterogeneous market data. This paper presents a model for the valuation of benefits generated by environmental and urban improvement investments adopting a mixed hedonic-multi-attribute procedure for modeling a value function of urban real estate values. The peculiarity of the model is that the independent variables are aggregated indicators, which synthetize more detailed characteristics. Using the expertise of real estate agents, all relevant variables influencing real estate values were weighted and synthetized in a set of cardinal indicators. Next, market prices were used to calibrate a hedonic function that transforms the cardinal indicators into real estate values. The valuation model was integrated into a GIS for mapping the housing value, and its variation induced by urban investment. The proposed model pointed out plausible and robust results, in particular, the possibility to use any available information, such as location, position, technical and economic characteristics of buildings, and organize it in a flexible and transparent way, and to keep evident the role of each characteristic through the hierarchical structure of the model. The model was applied to the real estate market of Venice to test the effects of the MOSE project (Electromechanical Experimental Module for the protection of Venice from high tides. The results of the application showed a relevant increase in real estate values in the center of Venice, especially related to property in ground floor units, of about 1.4 billion €.

  9. The attribute measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  10. [THE BLADDER STONE OF CARDINAL PIETRO BASADONNA (1617-1684) IN THE WORDS OF HIS PHYSICIAN ROMOLO SPEZIOLI (1642-1723)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Raffaella; Franza, Annarita; Nesi, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    At the death of Cardinal Pietro Basadonna in 1684, his personal physician Romolo Spezioli wrote a report describing the disease, circumstances of death and autopsy findings of the illustrious prelate. This document, kept in the Biblioteca Civica at Jesi, is a significant attestation of the medical terminology and diagnostic and therapeutic procedures of the time. Even with the constraints that interpretation of a clinical account dating back over 300 years inevitably imposes, perusal of this report suggests that Cardinal Basadonna's demise could have been due to septic shock, consequent to a urinary infection caused by a bulky bladder stone.

  11. Quality Attribute Design Primitives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bass, Len

    2000-01-01

    This report focuses on the quality attribute aspects of mechanisms. An architectural mechanism is a 'structure whereby objects collaborate to provide some behavior that satisfies a requirement of the problem...

  12. Humility and 12-Step Recovery: A Prolegomenon for the Empirical Investigation of a Cardinal Virtue in Alcoholics Anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Stephen G; Pagano, Maria E; Lee, Matthew T; Johnson, Byron R

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) offers a live stage to study how humility is worn by thousands for another day of sobriety and more freedom from the bondage of self. It has been the coauthors' intent to emphasize the significance of humility as a cardinal virtue across the 12-Step program and as essential to all its key elements. The coauthors have placed this emphasis in the context of a wider theological history of thought as this converged on Bill W. and AA. In addition, the coauthors have offered a constructive developmental interpretation of the 12 Steps that relies on a model of four modulations of humility. Finally, the coauthors have reviewed in brief some approaches to the measurement of humility in this context, and suggest several aims for future research.

  13. The Counter-Reformation, Diplomacy, and Art Patronage in Portugal under Cardinal-Infant D. Henrique of Portugal: A Legacy to Serve Church and Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Pedro Dias Pacheco

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Commonly known as the Cardinal-King, Don Henrique of Portugal was a Portuguese royal-blood infant who was destined to become a prince of the Church. He was a preeminent figure of the sixteenth century: the period of the political, economic, religious, and cultural expansion of the Portuguese Empire, and of the Counter-Reformation. During his service to the Roman Catholic Church, D. Henrique occupied the seats of the three Portuguese archdioceses, was chosen to govern some of the wealthiest religious orders, and represented the Holy Office in Portugal. He was also nominated cardinal and legate a latere to Portugal. The Cardinal-Infant was responsible for an unprecedented architectural innovation in Portugal and beyond, reforming, expanding, and erecting several buildings. This study focuses on the institutional projects and material reforms in Portugal initiated by Cardinal-King D. Henrique through complex diplomatic relations between the Portuguese Crown and the Holy See during the sixteenth century. Its main objective is to create a basis for further research into his architectural patronage while occupying his several positions of ecclesiastical and lay authority.

  14. Looking For Value in All The Wrong Places. Toward Expanded Consideration of Green and High Performance Attributes in Non-residential Property Appraisals in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Large numbers of commercial buildings have sought to improve their energy and environmental performance, with half of all leasable U.S. offices now designated at some level of “green”. All proper/es fall somewhere on the green/high-­performance spectrum (above and below average) whether or not they bear a formal label or ra/ng.1 Variations in the level of performance can either positively or negatively influence value. This component of value can be shaped by many factors, from utility costs to tenant/owner preferences that translate into income (rent levels, vacancy rates, lease-­up /mes, etc.). Occupant perceptions of indoor environmental quality are another potential influence on value. While there has been little uptake of this thinking by practicing appraisers, the increased prevalence of green/HP practices combined with concerns about appraiser competency are compelling the industry to adapt their traditional techniques to this new driver of value. However, the overly narrow focus of policymakers on appraisal of labeled or rated exemplary buildings (e.g., LEED or ENERGY STAR Certified) represents a significant missed opportunity. Any level of green or energy performance can in fact influence value, including below-­average performance (a.k.a. “brown discount”), irrespec/ve of whether or not the building has been formally rated. Another surmountable challenge is the limitations to non-­appraisers’ understanding of the appraisal process (and constraints therein). A crucial byproduct of this is unrealistic expectations of what appraisers can and will do in the marketplace. This report identifies opportunities for catalyzing improvement of the green/HP appraisal process, which apply to all involved actors—from owner, report-­ordering client, the appraiser, and the appraisal reviewer—and fostering more demand for appraisals that recognize green/HP property attributes. The intended audience is primarily the public policy community and other

  15. Endorsing cellular competitiveness in aberrant epithelium of oral submucous fibrosis progression: neighbourhood analysis of immunohistochemical attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anura, Anji; Kazi, Anees; Pal, Mousumi; Paul, Ranjan Rashmi; Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2018-04-23

    Epithelial abnormality during the transformation of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) into oral squamous cell carcinoma has been well studied and documented. However, the differential contribution of atrophy and hyperplasia for malignant potentiality of OSF is yet to be resolved. Existing diagnostic conjectures lack precise diagnostic attributes which may be effectively resolved by substantiation of specific molecular pathology signatures. Present study elucidates existence of cellular competitiveness in OSF conditions using computer-assisted neighbourhood analysis in quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) framework. The concept of field cancerization was contributory in finding correspondence among neighbouring cells of epithelial layers with reference to differential expression of cardinal cancer-related genes [c-Myc (oncogene), p53 (tumour suppressor), and HIF-1α (hypoxia regulator)] which are known to be important sensors in recognizing cellular competitive interface. Our analyses indicate that different states of OSF condition may be associated with different forms of competitiveness within epithelial neighbouring cells which might be responsible to shape the present and future of the pre-malignant condition. Analytical findings indicated association of atrophic epithelium with stress-driven competitive environment having low c-Myc, high-p53, and stable HIF-1α (the looser cells) which undergo apoptosis. Whereas, the cells with high c-Myc + (winner cells) give rise to hyperplastic epithelium via possible mutation in p53. The epithelial dysplasia plausibly occurs due to clonal expansion of c-Myc and p53 positive supercompetitor cells. Present study proposes quantitative IHC along with neighbourhood analysis which might help us to dig deeper on to the interaction among epithelial cell population to provide a better understanding of field cancerization and malignant transformation of pre-malignancy.

  16. Phenomenology and Meaning Attribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    John Paley. (2017). Phenomenology as Qualitative Research: A Critical Analysis of Meaning Attribution. ... basic philosophical nature of phenomenological meaning and inquiry, and that he not ... In keeping with the title of my book, Researching. Lived Experience ...... a quantitative social science that can make generalizing.

  17. Main designations and attributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the main designations and attributions of the LNMRI - Brazilian National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation, the Cooperative Center in Radiation Protection and Medical Preparations for Accidents with Radiation; the Treaty for fully banning of nuclear tests and the Regional Center for Training of IAEA

  18. Good-to-Great Superintendents: An Examination of Jim Collins' Good-to-Great Level Five Leadership Attributes as Demonstrated by the Leadership Behaviors of Superintendents of High-Performing California Public Single-School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Collins' good-to-great Level Five leadership attributes, as demonstrated by the leadership behaviors of superintendents of high-performing California public single-school districts. Methodology: The researcher used a case study design to conduct this study. Personal interviews were conducted in…

  19. Attribute Learning for SAR Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu He

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a classification approach based on attribute learning for high spatial resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images. To explore the representative and discriminative attributes of SAR images, first, an iterative unsupervised algorithm is designed to cluster in the low-level feature space, where the maximum edge response and the ratio of mean-to-variance are included; a cross-validation step is applied to prevent overfitting. Second, the most discriminative clustering centers are sorted out to construct an attribute dictionary. By resorting to the attribute dictionary, a representation vector describing certain categories in the SAR image can be generated, which in turn is used to perform the classifying task. The experiments conducted on TerraSAR-X images indicate that those learned attributes have strong visual semantics, which are characterized by bright and dark spots, stripes, or their combinations. The classification method based on these learned attributes achieves better results.

  20. Fulminant sepsis is a cardinal sign of HP-PRRSV in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2006 a unique syndrome with high morbidity and mortality was recognized in growing pigs in China that became known as porcine high fever disease (PHFD). One consistent finding in affected pigs was the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) that had unique nsp2 ge...

  1. Attributes Heeded When Representing an Osmosis Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, June Trop

    Eighteen high school science students were involved in a study to determine what attributes in the problem statement they need when representing a typical osmosis problem. In order to realize this goal students were asked to solve problems aloud and to explain their answers. Included as a part of the results are the attributes that the students…

  2. Attribution of climate extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.; Shepherd, Theodore G.

    2015-08-01

    There is a tremendous desire to attribute causes to weather and climate events that is often challenging from a physical standpoint. Headlines attributing an event solely to either human-induced climate change or natural variability can be misleading when both are invariably in play. The conventional attribution framework struggles with dynamically driven extremes because of the small signal-to-noise ratios and often uncertain nature of the forced changes. Here, we suggest that a different framing is desirable, which asks why such extremes unfold the way they do. Specifically, we suggest that it is more useful to regard the extreme circulation regime or weather event as being largely unaffected by climate change, and question whether known changes in the climate system's thermodynamic state affected the impact of the particular event. Some examples briefly illustrated include 'snowmaggedon' in February 2010, superstorm Sandy in October 2012 and supertyphoon Haiyan in November 2013, and, in more detail, the Boulder floods of September 2013, all of which were influenced by high sea surface temperatures that had a discernible human component.

  3. Exploring Attribution Theory and Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jessica A.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: This activity can be used in a wide range of classes, including interpersonal communication, introduction to communication, and small group communication. Objectives: After completing this activity, students should be able to: (1) define attribution theory, personality attribution, situational attribution, and attribution bias; (2)…

  4. Evaluating Stability and Comparing Output of Feature Selectors that Optimize Feature Subset Cardinality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Somol, Petr; Novovičová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 11 (2010), s. 1921-1939 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593; GA ČR GA102/07/1594 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : feature selection * feature stability * stability measures * similarity measures * sequential search * individual ranking * feature subset-size optimization * high dimensionality * small sample size Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 5.027, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/RO/somol-0348726.pdf

  5. Cardinality enhancement utilizing Sequential Algorithm (SeQ code in OCDMA system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlina C. A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA has been important with increasing demand for high capacity and speed for communication in optical networks because of OCDMA technique high efficiency that can be achieved, hence fibre bandwidth is fully used. In this paper we will focus on Sequential Algorithm (SeQ code with AND detection technique using Optisystem design tool. The result revealed SeQ code capable to eliminate Multiple Access Interference (MAI and improve Bit Error Rate (BER, Phase Induced Intensity Noise (PIIN and orthogonally between users in the system. From the results, SeQ shows good performance of BER and capable to accommodate 190 numbers of simultaneous users contrast with existing code. Thus, SeQ code have enhanced the system about 36% and 111% of FCC and DCS code. In addition, SeQ have good BER performance 10-25 at 155 Mbps in comparison with 622 Mbps, 1 Gbps and 2 Gbps bit rate. From the plot graph, 155 Mbps bit rate is suitable enough speed for FTTH and LAN networks. Resolution can be made based on the superior performance of SeQ code. Thus, these codes will give an opportunity in OCDMA system for better quality of service in an optical access network for future generation's usage

  6. Cardinality enhancement utilizing Sequential Algorithm (SeQ) code in OCDMA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlina, C. A. S.; Rashidi, C. B. M.; Rahman, A. K.; Aljunid, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) has been important with increasing demand for high capacity and speed for communication in optical networks because of OCDMA technique high efficiency that can be achieved, hence fibre bandwidth is fully used. In this paper we will focus on Sequential Algorithm (SeQ) code with AND detection technique using Optisystem design tool. The result revealed SeQ code capable to eliminate Multiple Access Interference (MAI) and improve Bit Error Rate (BER), Phase Induced Intensity Noise (PIIN) and orthogonally between users in the system. From the results, SeQ shows good performance of BER and capable to accommodate 190 numbers of simultaneous users contrast with existing code. Thus, SeQ code have enhanced the system about 36% and 111% of FCC and DCS code. In addition, SeQ have good BER performance 10-25 at 155 Mbps in comparison with 622 Mbps, 1 Gbps and 2 Gbps bit rate. From the plot graph, 155 Mbps bit rate is suitable enough speed for FTTH and LAN networks. Resolution can be made based on the superior performance of SeQ code. Thus, these codes will give an opportunity in OCDMA system for better quality of service in an optical access network for future generation's usage

  7. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....

  8. Extensive cardinal parameter model to predict growth of pseudomonads in salt-reduced lightly preserved seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Dalgaard, Paw

    Interest in and demand for preserved seafood with reduced salt/sodium content is increasing. As a consequence of the reduced salt content potential growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads to unacceptable high concentration where they cause product spoilage is an increasing challenge. Innovation...... include the effect of temperatures and salt. However, these simple secondary models do not include the effect of a broader range of product characteristics and therefore they cannot be used to predict how the inhibiting effect of salt can be replaced by changes in other environmental factors The objective...... and including terms for temperature, pH, aw/NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acids (Martinez-Rios et al., Int. J. Food Microbiol. 216. 110-120, 2016). MIC-values for acetic-, benzoic- and citric acids were determined in broth and terms modelling their antimicrobial effect were added to the model. The new and expanded...

  9. Convergence of a Scholtes-type regularization method for cardinality-constrained optimization problems with an application in sparse robust portfolio optimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Branda, Martin; Bucher, M.; Červinka, Michal; Schwartz, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 2 (2018), s. 503-530 ISSN 0926-6003 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-00735S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Cardinality constraints * Regularization method * Scholtes regularization * Strong stationarity * Sparse portfolio optimization * Robust portfolio optimization Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 1.520, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/MTR/branda-0489264.pdf

  10. Conceptual Correlates of Counting: Children’s Spontaneous Matching and Tracking of Large Sets Reflects Their Knowledge of the Cardinal Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Shusterman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of counting is a major milestone for children. A central question is how children’s non-verbal number concepts change as they learn to count. We assessed children’s verbal counting knowledge using the Give-N task and identified children who had acquired the cardinal principle (Cardinal Principle Knowers, or CP-knowers and those who had not (Subset-Knowers, or SS-knowers. We compared their performance on two tests of nonverbal numerical cognition. We report comparable performance between SS- and CP-knowers for matching and tracking small sets of objects up to four, but disparate performance for sets between five and nine, with CP-knowers outperforming SS-knowers. These results indicate that the difference between CP- and SS-knowers extends beyond their knowledge of the verbal number system to their non-verbal quantitative reasoning. The findings provide support for the claim that children’s induction of cardinality represents a conceptual transition with concurrent, qualitative changes in numerical representation.

  11. Quality Attribute Techniques Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Yin Kia; Zhu, Liming; Staples, Mark

    The quality of software is achieved during its development. Development teams use various techniques to investigate, evaluate and control potential quality problems in their systems. These “Quality Attribute Techniques” target specific product qualities such as safety or security. This paper proposes a framework to capture important characteristics of these techniques. The framework is intended to support process tailoring, by facilitating the selection of techniques for inclusion into process models that target specific product qualities. We use risk management as a theory to accommodate techniques for many product qualities and lifecycle phases. Safety techniques have motivated the framework, and safety and performance techniques have been used to evaluate the framework. The evaluation demonstrates the ability of quality risk management to cover the development lifecycle and to accommodate two different product qualities. We identify advantages and limitations of the framework, and discuss future research on the framework.

  12. Attribution and reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2010-01-01

    , in turn, influence behavior. Dufwenberg and Kirchsteiger [Dufwenberg, M., Kirchsteiger, G., 2004. A theory of sequential reciprocity. Games Econ. Behav. 47 (2), 268-298] formalize this empirical finding in their ‘theory of sequential reciprocity'. This paper extends their analysis by moves of chance. More...... precisely, an extended framework is presented which allows for the analysis of strategic interactions of reciprocal agents in situations in which material outcomes also depend on chance. Moves of chance influence the attribution of responsibilities, people's perceptions about the (un)kindness of others and......, hence, their reciprocal behavior. Furthermore, with the help of two applications it is demonstrated how this framework can be used to explain experimental findings showing that people react very differently in outcomewise-identical situations depending on the moves of chance involved....

  13. Cardinal features of involuntary force variability can arise from the closed-loop control of viscoelastic afferented muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Christopher M.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2018-01-01

    Involuntary force variability below 15 Hz arises from, and is influenced by, many factors including descending neural drive, proprioceptive feedback, and mechanical properties of muscles and tendons. However, their potential interactions that give rise to the well-structured spectrum of involuntary force variability are not well understood due to a lack of experimental techniques. Here, we investigated the generation, modulation, and interactions among different sources of force variability using a physiologically-grounded closed-loop simulation of an afferented muscle model. The closed-loop simulation included a musculotendon model, muscle spindle, Golgi tendon organ (GTO), and a tracking controller which enabled target-guided force tracking. We demonstrate that closed-loop control of an afferented musculotendon suffices to replicate and explain surprisingly many cardinal features of involuntary force variability. Specifically, we present 1) a potential origin of low-frequency force variability associated with co-modulation of motor unit firing rates (i.e.,‘common drive’), 2) an in-depth characterization of how proprioceptive feedback pathways suffice to generate 5-12 Hz physiological tremor, and 3) evidence that modulation of those feedback pathways (i.e., presynaptic inhibition of Ia and Ib afferents, and spindle sensitivity via fusimotor drive) influence the full spectrum of force variability. These results highlight the previously underestimated importance of closed-loop neuromechanical interactions in explaining involuntary force variability during voluntary ‘isometric’ force control. Furthermore, these results provide the basis for a unifying theory that relates spinal circuitry to various manifestations of altered involuntary force variability in fatigue, aging and neurological disease. PMID:29309405

  14. Cardinal features of involuntary force variability can arise from the closed-loop control of viscoelastic afferented muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamori, Akira; Laine, Christopher M; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

    2018-01-01

    Involuntary force variability below 15 Hz arises from, and is influenced by, many factors including descending neural drive, proprioceptive feedback, and mechanical properties of muscles and tendons. However, their potential interactions that give rise to the well-structured spectrum of involuntary force variability are not well understood due to a lack of experimental techniques. Here, we investigated the generation, modulation, and interactions among different sources of force variability using a physiologically-grounded closed-loop simulation of an afferented muscle model. The closed-loop simulation included a musculotendon model, muscle spindle, Golgi tendon organ (GTO), and a tracking controller which enabled target-guided force tracking. We demonstrate that closed-loop control of an afferented musculotendon suffices to replicate and explain surprisingly many cardinal features of involuntary force variability. Specifically, we present 1) a potential origin of low-frequency force variability associated with co-modulation of motor unit firing rates (i.e.,'common drive'), 2) an in-depth characterization of how proprioceptive feedback pathways suffice to generate 5-12 Hz physiological tremor, and 3) evidence that modulation of those feedback pathways (i.e., presynaptic inhibition of Ia and Ib afferents, and spindle sensitivity via fusimotor drive) influence the full spectrum of force variability. These results highlight the previously underestimated importance of closed-loop neuromechanical interactions in explaining involuntary force variability during voluntary 'isometric' force control. Furthermore, these results provide the basis for a unifying theory that relates spinal circuitry to various manifestations of altered involuntary force variability in fatigue, aging and neurological disease.

  15. Seismic attribute detection of faults and fluid pathways within an active strike-slip shear zone: New insights from high-resolution 3D P-Cable™ seismic data along the Hosgri Fault, offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluesner, Jared W.; Brothers, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Poststack data conditioning and neural-network seismic attribute workflows are used to detect and visualize faulting and fluid migration pathways within a 13.7 km2 13.7 km2 3D P-Cable™ seismic volume located along the Hosgri Fault Zone offshore central California. The high-resolution 3D volume used in this study was collected in 2012 as part of Pacific Gas and Electric’s Central California Seismic Imaging Project. Three-dimensional seismic reflection data were acquired using a triple-plate boomer source (1.75 kJ) and a short-offset, 14-streamer, P-Cable system. The high-resolution seismic data were processed into a prestack time-migrated 3D volume and publically released in 2014. Postprocessing, we employed dip-steering (dip and azimuth) and structural filtering to enhance laterally continuous events and remove random noise and acquisition artifacts. In addition, the structural filtering was used to enhance laterally continuous edges, such as faults. Following data conditioning, neural-network based meta-attribute workflows were used to detect and visualize faults and probable fluid-migration pathways within the 3D seismic volume. The workflow used in this study clearly illustrates the utility of advanced attribute analysis applied to high-resolution 3D P-Cable data. For example, results from the fault attribute workflow reveal a network of splayed and convergent fault strands within an approximately 1.3 km wide shear zone that is characterized by distinctive sections of transpressional and transtensional dominance. Neural-network chimney attribute calculations indicate that fluids are concentrated along discrete faults in the transtensional zones, but appear to be more broadly distributed amongst fault bounded anticlines and structurally controlled traps in the transpressional zones. These results provide high-resolution, 3D constraints on the relationships between strike-slip fault mechanics, substrate deformation, and fluid migration along an active

  16. Cluster Based Vector Attribute Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiwanuka, Fred N.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Morphological attribute filters operate on images based on properties or attributes of connected components. Until recently, attribute filtering was based on a single global threshold on a scalar property to remove or retain objects. A single threshold struggles in case no single property or

  17. A MOX fuel attribute monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, Mary; Jordan, David V.; Barnett, Debra S.; Redding, Rebecca L.; Pearce, Stephen K.

    2007-01-01

    Euratom performs safeguards monitoring of Fresh MOX fuel for domestic power production in the European Union. Video cameras monitor the reactor storage ponds. If video surveillance is lost for a certain amount of time a measurement is required to verify that no fuel was diverted. The attribute measurement to verify the continued presence of MOX fuel is neutron emission. Ideally this measurement would be made without moving or handling the fuel rod assembly. A prototype attribute measurement system was made using scintillating neutron sensitive glass waveguides developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Short lengths (5-20 cm) of the neutron sensitive fiber were mechanically spliced to 15 m lengths of commercial high numerical aperture fiber optic cable (Ceramoptec Optran Ultra 0.44). The light detector is a Hamamatsu R7400P photomultiplier tube. An electronics package was built to use the sensors with a GBS Elektronik MCA-166 multichannel analyzer and user interface. The MCA-166 is the system most commonly used by Euratom inspectors. It can also be run from a laptop computer using Maestro (Ortec) or other software. A MCNP model was made to compare to measurements made with several neutron sources including NIST traceable 252 Cf

  18. Use of seismic attributes for sediment classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Radomille Santana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A study to understand the relationships between seismic attributes extracted from 2D high-resolution seismic data and the seafloor's sediments of the surveyed area. As seismic attributes are features highly influenced by the medium through which the seismic waves are propagated, the authors can assume that it would be possible to characterise the geological nature of the seafloor by using these attributes. Herein, a survey was performed on the continental margin of the South Shetland Islands in Antarctica, where both 2D high-resolution seismic data and sediment gravity cores samples were simultaneously acquired. A computational script was written to extract the seismic attributes from the data, which have been statistically analysed with clustering analyses, such as principal components analysis, dendrograms and k-means classification. The extracted seismic attributes are the amplitude, the instantaneous phase, the instantaneous frequency, the envelope, the time derivative of the envelope, the second derivative of the envelope and the acceleration of phase. Statistical evaluation showed that geological classification of the seafloor's sediments is possible by associating these attributes according to their coherence. The methodologies here developed seem to be appropriate for glacio-marine environment and coarse-to-medium silt sediment found in the study area and may be applied to other regions in the same geological conditions.

  19. Comparing equivalent thermal, high pressure and pulsed electric field processes for mild pasteurization of orange juice. Part I: Impact on overall quality attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Mastwijk, H.C.; Knol, J.J.; Quataert, M.C.J.; Vervoort, L.; Plancken, van der I.; Hendrickx, M.E.; Matser, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Mild heat pasteurization, high pressure processing (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing of freshly squeezed orange juice were comparatively evaluated examining their impact on microbial load and quality parameters immediately after processing and during two months of storage. Microbial

  20. Technical attributes, health attribute, consumer attributes and their roles in adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Luo, Meifen; Nie, Rui; Zhang, Yan

    2017-12-01

    This paper aims to explore factors influencing the healthcare wearable technology adoption intention from perspectives of technical attributes (perceived convenience, perceived irreplaceability, perceived credibility and perceived usefulness), health attribute (health belief) and consumer attributes (consumer innovativeness, conspicuous consumption, informational reference group influence and gender difference). By integrating technology acceptance model, health belief model, snob effect and conformity and reference group theory, hypotheses and research model are proposed. The empirical investigation (N=436) collects research data through questionnaire. Results show that the adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology is influenced by technical attributes, health attribute and consumer attributes simultaneously. For technical attributes, perceived convenience and perceived credibility both positively affect perceived usefulness, and perceived usefulness influences adoption intention. The relation between perceived irreplaceability and perceived usefulness is only supported by males. For health attribute, health belief affects perceived usefulness for females. For consumer attributes, conspicuous consumption and informational reference group influence can significantly moderate the relation between perceived usefulness and adoption intention and the relation between consumer innovativeness and adoption intention respectively. What's more, consumer innovativeness significantly affects adoption intention for males. This paper aims to discuss technical attributes, health attribute and consumer attributes and their roles in the adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology. Findings may provide enlightenment to differentiate product developing and marketing strategies and provide some implications for clinical medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Violence Tendencies of High School Students: An Examination in Terms of Exposure to Violence, Participation in Sports and Socio-Demographic Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagün, Elif

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the violence tendencies of young people studying in high school in terms of their participation in sports, status of exposure to violence and socio-demographic variables. It was also aimed to evaluate whether the identified violence tendency differed significantly by gender, grade, school success,…

  2. Metacognitive Attributes and Liberated Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mania Nosratinia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the cardinal and acknowledged importance of autonomy (AU in learning, especially second-language learning, and influenced by the importance of inspecting its nature and the way it is associated with other psychological/cognitive/metacognitive factors, this research investigated the relationship among English as a foreign language (EFL learners’ AU, creativity (CR, and critical thinking (CT. The population for this study comprised of undergraduate EFL learners, between the ages of 19 and 40 (Mage = 22 years, from which 182 male and female subjects were selected via random selection. These participants, who were receiving formal instruction mainly through English, filled out three questionnaires related to CR, CT, and AU. Pearson’s product–moment correlation coefficient was used to analyze the data obtained. The results indicated that there is a significant and positive relationship between EFL learners’ CR and AU, CR and CT, as well as their CT and AU. Considering AU as the predicted variable for this study, it was confirmed that CT makes the strongest unique contribution to explain AU. It is hoped that the results of this study will reveal the nature of AU more and will equip EFL teachers with a wider perspective on the characteristics of AU and the way CR and CT can predict and promote AU among EFL learners.

  3. Impact of high pressure processing on color, bioactive compounds, polyphenol oxidase activity, and microbiological attributes of pumpkin purée.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cebrino, Francisco; Durán, Rocío; Delgado-Adámez, Jonathan; Contador, Rebeca; Bernabé, Rosario Ramírez

    2016-04-01

    Physicochemical parameters, bioactive compounds' content (carotenoids and total phenols), total antioxidant activity, and enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated after high pressure processing (HPP) on a pumpkin purée (cv. 'Butternut'). Three pressure levels (400, 500, and 600 MPa) were combined with three holding times (200, 400, and 600 s). The applied treatments reduced the levels of total aerobic mesophilic (TAM), total psychrophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria (TPP), and molds and yeasts (M&Y). All applied treatments did not affect enzymatic activity of PPO. Pressure level increased CIE L* values, which could enhance the lightness perception of high pressure (HP)-treated purées. No differences were found between the untreated and HP-treated purées regarding total phenols and carotenoids content (lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene) and total antioxidant activity. HPP did not affect most quality parameters and maintained the levels of bioactive compounds. However, it did not achieve the complete inhibition of PPO, which could reduce the shelf-life of the pumpkin purée. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. The Influence of Place Making’s Attributes on the Resident’s Usage and Satisfaction in High-Rise Residential Community: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aflaki Ardalan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vitality and viability of open spaces in urban neighborhoods, particularly in high-density residential areas with limited buildable land, have become extremely complex phenomenon. Researchers and designers are seeking the standard of designed environment to successfully meet the human needs and desires. In order to reach this goal, limited studies have been implemented to bridge the gap between research and design and consequently improve the physical and social qualities of open spaces. This paper examines the two specific features of open space accessibility, social interactions - which contribute significantly to both the vitality and viability with a view to provide an understanding of the relative importance of these elements from users’ perceptions and satisfaction. The methods involve quantitative research with questionnaire-based survey, and case study to evaluate residents’ perceptions. The research scope is a high-density residential condominium in Kuala Lumpur where the rapid transformation of urban elements in city center has negative impacts on basic qualities of open spaces. The result is a framework for understanding the relative priority of the different elements (variables for users which vary depending on the location of the residential block they live in; in particular its proximity to the open space. The study concludes with recommendations for how the most valuable elements can be better harnessed in order to promote the satisfaction with open spaces.

  5. Essential attributes identified in the design of a Laboratory Information Management System for a high throughput siRNA screening laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Geoffrey; Graham, Ryan; Bartholomeusz, Geoffrey

    2011-11-01

    In recent years high throughput screening operations have become a critical application in functional and translational research. Although a seemingly unmanageable amount of data is generated by these high-throughput, large-scale techniques, through careful planning, an effective Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) can be developed and implemented in order to streamline all phases of a workflow. Just as important as data mining and analysis procedures at the end of complex processes is the tracking of individual steps of applications that generate such data. Ultimately, the use of a customized LIMS will enable users to extract meaningful results from large datasets while trusting the robustness of their assays. To illustrate the design of a custom LIMS, this practical example is provided to highlight the important aspects of the design of a LIMS to effectively modulate all aspects of an siRNA screening service. This system incorporates inventory management, control of workflow, data handling and interaction with investigators, statisticians and administrators. All these modules are regulated in a synchronous manner within the LIMS. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers

  6. Effect of extrinsic incentives on use of test anxiety as an anticipatory attributional defense: playing it cool when the stakes are high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J; Pyszczynski, T; Paisley, C

    1984-11-01

    We conducted an experiment to assess the effect of extrinsic incentives on the use of test anxiety as a self-handicapping strategy. We hypothesized that although reports of anxiety may be greater when such symptoms can serve a defensive function, this effect occurs only when extrinsic incentives are low and not under conditions of high extrinsic incentive. Eighty-four male undergraduates anticipated taking a test of intellectual abilities and either were led to believe that test anxiety has no effect on test performance or were given no particular information about the relation between test anxiety and performance. Subjects were offered either +5 or +25 for obtaining the highest score on the test. Consistent with predictions, no-information subjects reported greater test anxiety before the test than did those who believed that test anxiety was unrelated to performance, but only when the extrinsic incentive for performance was low. However, these subjects did not report greater cognitive interference or exhibit lower test scores than did subjects in other conditions. It is tentatively suggested that the defensive strategy used by these subjects consisted of altering perceptions of anxiety, rather than anxiety itself. The implications of the absence of self-handicapping under high incentive conditions are discussed.

  7. Isospora bocamontensis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa in captive yellow cardinal Gubernatrix cristata (Passeriformes: Emberezidae Isospora bocamontensis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa em cardeais-amarelo Gubernatrix cristata (Passeriformes: Emberezidae mantidos em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Quinto Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The yellow cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata is a passerine found in southern Brazil, especially along the border with Uruguay and Argentina. It is an endangered species and its population is decreasing. Among the parasites that affect passerines, the genus Isospora is the most easily found in both captive and free-living birds. This parasite commonly causes injury to the intestinal tissue and could occasionally affect other organs. In this work we examined the occurrence of coccidiosis in captive yellow cardinals and its association with factors such as sex, use of parasiticides, type of enclosure, contact with feces, type of food and cleaning frequency. We collected fecal samples of 45 yellow cardinals, healthy and kept in captivity, in late afternoon at the end of the reproductive period. The examination showed parasitic infection by Isospora bocamontensis in 44.5% of the birds. This infection is not influenced by the sex of birds, but is significantly affected by the type of enclosure, contact with the feces, use of parasiticides, type of food and cleaning frequency. The results indicate that to keep yellow cardinals captive, these factors must be observed.O cardeal-amarelo (Gubernatrix cristata é um pássaro que ocorre no sul do Brasil, principalmente na fronteira com Uruguai e Argentina. É uma ave ameaçada de extinção e sua população está decrescendo. Dentre, os parasitas que afetam a ordem Passeriformes, o gênero Isospora está entre o mais encontrado, tanto em aves de cativeiro quanto em aves de vida-livre. Comumente causam injúrias no tecido intestinal, podendo ocasionalmente afetar outros órgãos. Neste trabalho examinamos a ocorrência de coccidiose em cardeais mantidos em cativeiro e verificamos sua associação com fatores como sexo, uso de produtos parasiticidas, tipo de recinto, contato com fezes, tipo de alimentação e frequência de limpeza. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes, ao entardecer, de 45 cardeais-amarelos, h

  8. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    Attribute clustering has been previously employed to detect statistical dependence between subsets of variables. We propose a novel attribute clustering algorithm motivated by research of complex networks, called the Star Discovery algorithm. The algorithm partitions and indirectly discards...... inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  9. Noncognitive Attributes in Physician Assistant Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Anthony E; Goldgar, Constance; Hills, Karen J; Snyder, Jennifer H; VanderMeulen, Stephane P; Lane, Steven

    2018-03-01

    Physician assistant (PA) admissions processes have typically given more weight to cognitive attributes than to noncognitive ones, both because a high level of cognitive ability is needed for a career in medicine and because cognitive factors are easier to measure. However, there is a growing consensus across the health professions that noncognitive attributes such as emotional intelligence, empathy, and professionalism are important for success in clinical practice and optimal care of patients. There is also some evidence that a move toward more holistic admissions practices, including evaluation of noncognitive attributes, can have a positive effect on diversity. The need for these noncognitive attributes in clinicians is being reinforced by changes in the US health care system, including shifting patient demographics and a growing emphasis on team-based care and patient satisfaction, and the need for clinicians to help patients interpret complex medical information. The 2016 Physician Assistant Education Association Stakeholder Summit revealed certain behavioral and affective qualities that employers of PAs value and sometimes find lacking in new graduates. Although there are still gaps in the evidence base, some tools and technologies currently exist to more accurately measure noncognitive variables. We propose some possible strategies and tools that PA programs can use to formalize the way they select for noncognitive attributes. Since PA programs have, on average, only 27 months to educate students, programs may need to focus more resources on selecting for these attributes than teaching them.

  10. A keyword searchable attribute-based encryption scheme with attribute update for cloud storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shangping; Ye, Jian; Zhang, Yaling

    2018-01-01

    Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) scheme is a new type of data encryption primitive, which is very suitable for data cloud storage for its fine-grained access control. Keyword-based searchable encryption scheme enables users to quickly find interesting data stored in the cloud server without revealing any information of the searched keywords. In this work, we provide a keyword searchable attribute-based encryption scheme with attribute update for cloud storage, which is a combination of attribute-based encryption scheme and keyword searchable encryption scheme. The new scheme supports the user's attribute update, especially in our new scheme when a user's attribute need to be updated, only the user's secret key related with the attribute need to be updated, while other user's secret key and the ciphertexts related with this attribute need not to be updated with the help of the cloud server. In addition, we outsource the operation with high computation cost to cloud server to reduce the user's computational burden. Moreover, our scheme is proven to be semantic security against chosen ciphertext-policy and chosen plaintext attack in the general bilinear group model. And our scheme is also proven to be semantic security against chosen keyword attack under bilinear Diffie-Hellman (BDH) assumption.

  11. A New Appraisal- Lessons from the History of Efforts to Value Green and High-Performance Home Attributes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Rigorous consideration of green and high-performance (“green/HP”) features is rarely included in the property valuation process._ To help illuminate why this is the case, this report takes stock of the history of efforts to improve practices, and identifies barriers that have emerged and opportunities for overcoming them. Particular emphasis is placed on what energy and environmental policymakers and other stakeholders outside the appraisal community can contribute to the broader effort to advance professional practices. The history has unfolded in parallel with turbulent periods in the housing market for which appraisers and their customers are deemed to share responsibility, followed by cycles of regulations, siloing of appraisers in the name of professional integrity, and commoditization of the valuation process itself. This pattern has important ramifications for aspirations that appraisers engage more fully in identifying and valuing the green/HP characteristics of homes. On the one hand, it is legally and ethically incumbent on appraisers to do so, yet on the other hand it is perceived as a risky avenue to follow. Risks arise where findings can be challenged as either over- or under-stating value, together with a market environment in which the complexity of their assignments increases despite downward pressure on appraiser fees. While efforts to address green/HP considerations date back to the early 1980s, the vast majority of activity has taken place within the past five years. Many players have engaged in the efforts to promote improved valuation practices. These include the Appraisal Foundation, The Appraisal Institute, Colorado Energy Office, Earth Advantage, EcoBroker, Elevate Energy, Fannie Mae, Federal Housing Administration, Home Innovation Research Labs, The Institute for Market Transformation, Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, National Association of Homebuilders, National Association of State Energy Officials, National Association of

  12. SOA: A Quality Attribute Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    in software engineering from CMU. 6June 2011 Twitter #seiwebinar © 2011 Carnegie Mellon University Agenda Service -Oriented Architecture and... Software Architecture: Review Service -Orientation and Quality Attributes Summary and Future Challenges 7June 2011 Twitter #seiwebinar © 2011...Architecture and Software Architecture: Review Service -Orientation and Quality Attributes Summary and Future Challenges Review 10June 2011 Twitter

  13. Visuomotor mental rotation: the reaction time advantage for anti-pointing is not influenced by perceptual experience with the cardinal axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Kristina A; Heath, Matthew

    2010-03-01

    In the visuomotor mental rotation (VMR) paradigm, participants execute a center-out reaching movement to a location that deviates from a visual cue by a predetermined instruction angle. Previous work has demonstrated a linear increase in reaction time (RT) as a function of the amplitude of the instruction angle (Georgopoulos and Massey in Exp Brain Res 65:361-370, 1987). In contrast, we recently reported a RT advantage for an instruction angle of 180 degrees relative to a 90 degrees angle (Neely and Heath in Neurosci Lett 463:194-198, 2009). It is possible, however, that perceptual expertise with the cardinal axes, which are perceptually familiar reference frames, influenced the results of our previous investigation. To address this issue, we employed a VMR paradigm identical to that of our previous work, with the exception that the stimulus array was shifted 45 degrees from the horizontal and vertical meridians. Our results demonstrated that RTs were fastest and least variable when the instruction angle was 0 degrees, followed by 180 degrees, which in turn, was faster than 90 degrees. Such findings establish that the RT advantage for the 180 degrees instruction angle is not influenced by perceptual expertise with the cardinal axes. Moreover, the present results provide convergent evidence that RT is not determined by the angle of rotation; instead, they indicate that response latencies reflect computational differences in the complexity of response remapping.

  14. Do cardinal directions in different Acacia tree species affect biological activities of bruchid beetle, Bruchidius buettikeri Decelle (Bruchidae: Coleoptera), in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldawood, A S

    2009-12-15

    Biological activities of bruchid beetle: Bruchidius buettikeri Decelle (Bruchidae: Coleoptera) were studied in four cardinal directions of Acacia tree species in Huraimila and Salbouk. In Huraimila, two species of Acacia; A. grrrardii, subspecies A. g. negevensis (Iraqi) and A. g. nagednsis (Najdi); and A. ehrenbergiana (Salam) were sampled. In Salbouk, A. tortilis radiana (Samar) was sampled. No significant differences were observed for entrance and exit holes per pod and beetles emergence until 45 days on four cardinal directions of different Acacia tree species, except for entrance holes at Dam and Farm locations on Najdi in Huraimila. However, greater activities were observed in south and east direction in farm locations whereas, in the valley (Abu Gatada, Alyata and Dam locations) more bruchid activities were observed in north and south on Najdi and samar while east and west on Iraqi. Moreover, activities were greater on Acacia trees with greater number of seed per pod. Greater bruchid infestation per pod was found on East direction in the farm locations but in the valley locations no distinct trend was observed. Results showed a significant, positive correlation between bruchid activities and temperature but similar strength negative correlation was observed for rest of various abiotic factors. Moreover, a strong positive correlation was recorded between neonate entrance and number of beetle emergence.

  15. Customers' attributional judgments towards complaint handling in airline service: a confirmatory study based on attribution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2007-06-01

    Besides flight safety, complaint handling plays a crucial role in airline service. Based upon Kelley's attribution theory, in the present study customers' attributions were examined under different conditions of complaint handling by the airlines. There were 531 passengers (216 women; ages 21 to 63 years, M = 41.5, SD = 11.1) with experiences of customer complaints who were recruited while awaiting boarding. Participants received one hypothetical scenario of three attributional conditions about complaint handling and then reported their attributional judgments. The findings indicated that the passengers were most likely to attribute the company's complaint handling to unconditional compliance when the airline company reacted to customer complaints under low distinctiveness, high consistency, and when consensus among the airlines was low. On the other hand, most passengers attributed the company's complaint handling to conditional compliance under the conditions in which distinctiveness, consistency, and consensus were all high. The results provide further insights into how different policies of complaint management affect customers' attributions. Future directions and managerial implications are also discussed.

  16. Memory for Recently Accessed Visual Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Shupe, Joshua M.; Swallow, Khena M.; Tan, Deborah H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that the attended features of an item may be rapidly forgotten once they are no longer relevant for an ongoing task (attribute amnesia). This finding relies on a surprise memory procedure that places high demands on declarative memory. We used intertrial priming to examine whether the representation of an item's…

  17. Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ...... is presented in the thesis. Methods from abstract interpretation can also be used in correctness proofs of attribute grammars. This proof technique introduces a new class of attribute grammars based on domain theory. This method is illustrated with examples....

  18. Main attributes influencing spent nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreescu, N.; Ohai, D.

    1997-01-01

    All activities regarding nuclear fuel, following its discharge from the NPP, constitute the spent fuel management and are grouped in two possible back end variants, namely reprocessing (including HLW vitrification and geological disposal) and direct disposal of spent fuel. In order to select the appropriate variant it is necessary to analyse the aggregate fulfillment of the imposed requirements, particularly of the derived attributes, defined as distinguishing characteristics of the factors used in the decision making process. The main identified attributes are the following: - environmental impact, - availability of suitable sites, - non-proliferation degree, -strategy of energy, - technological complexity and technical maturity, -possible further technical improvements, - size of nuclear programme, - total costs, - public acceptance, - peculiarity of CANDU fuel. The significance of the attributes in the Romanian case, taking into consideration the present situation, as a low scenario and a high scenario corresponding to an important development of the nuclear power, after the year 2010, is presented. According to their importance the ranking of attributes is proposed . Subsequently, the ranking could be used for adequate weighing of attributes in order to realize a multi-criteria analysis and a relevant comparison of back end variants. (authors)

  19. Effects of Cardinal Direction on Distribution and Populational Dynamism of Oak Leaf Roller (Tortrix viridana L. on Quercus infectoria Oliv. and Q. libani Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammadreza zargaran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Various pests attack oak trees and in most cases heavily damage them. The European oak leaf roller is one of the important oak pests in some provinces of the Zagros, and it is an important pest of oak forests in some European and North African countries, as well as in Iraq and other regions of Iran. In Iran, it is scattered in the Zagros oak forests, especially in Kohkiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad, Lorestan, Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari, Fars, and West Azarbaijan Provinces. Repeated removal of oak leaves, particularly by herbivores such as T. viridana in spring, reduces stored photosynthates in trees leading to their decreased diametrical growth. Materials and Methods The Ghabre-Hossein region (Piranshahr was selected as the field operations region because it is one of the most important infestation centers of the European oak leaf roller in the oak forests of West-Azerbaijan. The research was carried out in two consecutive years. Samples of larval instars were taken in early May. Since the sample plot in sampling methods can be points or lines (transects, the four cardinal directions were selected in this study and transects at 100 m intervals were located in each direction.To reduce sampling error, Aleppo (Quercus infectoria and Lebanon (Q. libani oak trees were selected for measurements that were similar in appearance and almost uniform with crowns or trunks aligned along the transects. In each studied tree, four suitable branches were selected (one in each cardinal direction, and the number of larvae from the tip of each branch to a length of 50 cm inwards was counted and recorded in forms prepared beforehand. Considering studies that were carried out regarding the biology of the pest, the larvae were counted in mid-May when all larvae were in their last (fifth instar. In all, 30 Aleppo and 30 Lebanon oak trees were selected in each cardinal direction, and four branches in each direction of these trees were measured. The survey method

  20. Quality attributes for mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, João M.; Ferreira, André Leite

    2016-01-01

    A mobile application is a type of software application developed to run on a mobile device. The chapter discusses the main characteristics of mobile devices, since they have a great impact on mobile applications. It also presents the classification of mobile applications according to two main types: native and web-based applications. Finally, this chapter identifies the most relevant types of quality attributes for mobile applications. It shows that the relevant quality attributes for mobile ...

  1. Belief attribution despite verbal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck

    2011-05-01

    False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.

  2. A Chance for Attributable Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briegel, Hans J; Müller, Thomas

    Can we sensibly attribute some of the happenings in our world to the agency of some of the things around us? We do this all the time, but there are conceptual challenges purporting to show that attributable agency, and specifically one of its most important subspecies, human free agency, is incoherent. We address these challenges in a novel way: rather than merely rebutting specific arguments, we discuss a concrete model that we claim positively illustrates attributable agency in an indeterministic setting. The model, recently introduced by one of the authors in the context of artificial intelligence, shows that an agent with a sufficiently complex memory organization can employ indeterministic happenings in a meaningful way. We claim that these considerations successfully counter arguments against the coherence of libertarian (indeterminism-based) free will.

  3. Flexible goal attribution in early mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, John; Christensen, Wayne

    2016-03-01

    The 2-systems theory developed by Apperly and Butterfill (2009; Butterfill & Apperly, 2013) is an influential approach to explaining the success of infants and young children on implicit false-belief tasks. There is extensive empirical and theoretical work examining many aspects of this theory, but little attention has been paid to the way in which it characterizes goal attribution. We argue here that this aspect of the theory is inadequate. Butterfill and Apperly's characterization of goal attribution is designed to show how goals could be ascribed by infants without representing them as related to other psychological states, and the minimal mindreading system is supposed to operate without employing flexible semantic-executive cognitive processes. But research on infant goal attribution reveals that infants exhibit a high degree of situational awareness that is strongly suggestive of flexible semantic-executive cognitive processing, and infants appear moreover to be sensitive to interrelations between goals, preferences, and beliefs. Further, close attention to the structure of implicit mindreading tasks--for which the theory was specifically designed--indicates that flexible goal attribution is required to succeed. We conclude by suggesting 2 approaches to resolving these problems. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Attribute Obfuscation with Gradient Reversal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmery, Chris; Manjavacas, Enrique; Chrupala, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in computational stylometry have demonstrated that automatically inferring quite an extensive set of personal attributes from text alone (e.g. gender, age, education, socio-economic status, mental health issues) is not only feasible, but can often rely on little supervision. This

  5. k-visit Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Skyum, S.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that any well-defined attribute grammar is k-visit for some k. Furthermore, it is shown that given a well-defined grammar G and an integer k, it is decidable whether G is k-visit. Finally it is shown that the k-visit grammars specify a proper hierarchy with respect to translations...

  6. Morphosemantic Attributes of Meetei Proverbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lourembam Surjit

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes to investigate the functions of morphosemantic in Meetei proverbs, particularly the attribution of different meanings of the lexical items in Meetei Proverbial verbs. Meetei society has been using proverbs in the all ages, stages of development, social changes, and cultural diversifications to mark their wisdom of social…

  7. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...

  8. Communication Deviance in parents of families with adoptees at a high or low risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and its associations with attributes of the adoptee and the adoptive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisko, Riikka; Wahlberg, Karl-Erik; Hakko, Helinä; Wynne, Lyman; Tienari, Pekka

    2011-01-30

    Communication Deviance (CD) in rearing parents is a known indicator of a psychopathology risk in the offspring, but the direction of the effects of these two factors on each other has remained an unresolved question. The purpose of the present study was to clarify this issue by assessing the relationship of CD in adoptive parents with certain attributes of the adoptee and adoptive parents themselves. The subjects were 109 adoptees at a high or low risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and their adoptive parents. Communication Deviance was measured in individual, spouse and family Rorschach situations. Thought disorders in the adoptees were assessed using the Thought Disorder Index. The variability of CD in the adoptive parents in individual Rorschach situations was not significantly explained by any characteristics of the child. The variability in parental CD in family Rorschach situations was most closely associated with the characteristics of the parents themselves. The results strongly support the hypotheses that the frequency of Communication Deviance is an enduring trait rather than a fluctuating state and that frequent CD in parent's speech may impair the growing child's cognitive development and predispose him/her to schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Organizational Attributes, Market Growth, and Product Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that organizational attributes affect product innovation. Extending this literature, this article delimits two general categories of organizational attributes and relates them to product innovation. Organizational attributes can be either control oriented or flexibility

  10. Attribution style, theory and empirical findings

    OpenAIRE

    Krohn, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Master i læring i komplekse systemer Attribution theory is a long-standing and widely discussed theory that addresses individuals’ explanation of causes of events. People attribute events of success and failure individually. Previous studies indicate that performance in sporting events may be improved by changing individuals’ attribution style. Article one describes attribution and attribution theory as state of the art. The article addresses the most important findings within attribution ...

  11. Disease proportions attributable to environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineis Paolo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several issues surrounding the estimation of attributable proportions, particularly with reference to environmental causes of cancers, and critically examines two recently published papers. These issues encompass potential biases as well as the very definition of environment and of environmental agent. The latter aspect is not just a semantic question but carries implications for the focus of preventive actions, whether centred on the material and social environment or on single individuals.

  12. Mathematicians, Attributional Complexity, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Daniel R.

    Given indirect indications in sex role and soda! psychology research that mathematical-deductive reasoning may negatively relate to social acuity, Study 1 investigated whether mathematicians were less attributionally complex than nonmathematicians. Study 1 administered the Attributional Complexity Scale, a measure of social acuity, to female and male faculty members and graduate students in four Midwestern schools. Atlrihutional complexity (AC) is the ability and motivation to give complex explanations for behavior. Study 1 found a significant interaction between field and gender. Only among women did mathematicians score lower on AC. In addition, an established gender difference in AC (that women score higher than men) was present only among nonmathematicians. Studies 2 and 3 offered some preliminary support for the possibility that it is generally female students who score tow on AC who aspire to he mathematicians and for the underlying view that female students' perceived similarity to mathematicians can influence their vocational choices.

  13. Temporal context for authorship attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Dalum; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    A study of temporal aspects of authorship attribution - a task which aims to distinguish automatically between texts written by different authors by measuring textual features. This task is important in a number of areas, including plagiarism detection in secondary education, which we study...... world data from Danish secondary school students show 84% prediction accuracy when using all available material and 71.9% prediction accuracy when using only the five most recent writing samples from each student....

  14. Attribution methodologies for mobility impacts

    OpenAIRE

    KOTELNIKOVA WEILER, Natalia; LEURENT, Fabien; POULHES, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Motorized transportation modes all consume energy and emit local pollutants ? chemical and noise. Congestion can also be considered as a local pollution caused by some emitters onto some receivers. Various methods have been designed to evaluate impacts and relate them to emitters and/or receivers. Called ?attribution? in environmental evaluation or ?imputation? in economic analysis, these schemes? purpose is to identify the causes of impacts and to design management or compensation schemes to...

  15. AcquisitionFootprintAttenuationDrivenbySeismicAttributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuellar-Urbano Mayra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition footprint, one of the major problems that PEMEX faces in seismic imaging, is noise highly correlated to the geometric array of sources and receivers used for onshore and offshore seismic acquisitions. It prevails in spite of measures taken during acquisition and data processing. This pattern, throughout the image, is easily confused with geological features and misguides seismic attribute computation. In this work, we use seismic data from PEMEX Exploración y Producción to show the conditioning process for removing random and coherent noise using linear filters. Geometric attributes used in a workflow were computed for obtaining an acquisition footprint noise model and adaptively subtract it from the seismic data.

  16. Zirconium-barrier cladding attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, H.S.; Rand, R.A.; Tucker, R.P.; Cheng, B.; Adamson, R.B.; Davies, J.H.; Armijo, J.S.; Wisner, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    This metallurgical study of Zr-barrier fuel cladding evaluates the importance of three salient attributes: (1) metallurgical bond between the zirconium liner and the Zircaloy substrate, (2) liner thickness (roughly 10% of the total cladding wall), and (3) softness (purity). The effect that each of these attributes has on the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) resistance of the Zr-barrier fuel was studied by a combination of analytical model calculations and laboratory experiments using an expanding mandrel technique. Each of the attributes is shown to contribute to PCI resistance. The effect of the zirconium liner on fuel behavior during off-normal events in which steam comes in contact with the zirconium surface was studied experimentally. Simulations of loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) showed that the behavior of Zr-barrier cladding is virtually indistinguishable from that of conventional Zircaloy cladding. If steam contacts the zirconium liner surface through a cladding perforation and the fuel rod is operated under normal power conditions, the zirconium liner is oxidized more rapidly than is Zircaloy, but the oxidation rate returns to the rate of Zircaloy oxidation when the oxide phase reaches the zirconium-Zircaloy metallurgical bond

  17. Social attribution in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldershaw, Anna; DeJong, Hannah; Hambrook, David; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2018-05-01

    People with anorexia nervosa (AN) report socioemotional difficulties; however, measurement has been criticised for lacking ecological validity and the state or trait nature of difficulties remains unclear. Participants (n = 122) were recruited across 3 groups: people who are currently ill with AN (n = 40); people who recovered (RecAN, n = 18); healthy-control participants (n = 64). Participants completed clinical questionnaires and the Social Attribution Task. The Social Attribution Task involves describing an animation of moving shapes, scored for number of propositions offered, accuracy, and social relevance. Groups were compared cross-sectionally. Those with current AN were assessed prepsychological and postpsychological treatments. People with AN provided fewer propositions than other groups and fewer salient social attributions than healthy-control participants. Those who recovered scored intermediately and not significantly different from either group. Following treatment, people with AN demonstrated (nonsignificant) improvements, and no significance between group differences were observed. Findings suggest difficulties for people with AN in providing spontaneous social narrative and in identifying social salience. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. Morphosemantic Attributes of Meetei Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourembam Surjit Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to investigate the functions of morphosemantic in Meetei proverbs, particularly the attribution of different meanings of the lexical items in Meetei Proverbial verbs. Meetei society has been using proverbs in the all ages, stages of development, social changes, and cultural diversifications to mark their wisdom of social expertise. Meetei used proverbs as an important aspect of verbal discourses within the socio-cultural and ethno-civilization contexts in which skills, knowledge, ideas, emotion, and experiences are communicating. The language used in proverbs reflects the Meetei’s status of life, food habits, belief systems, philosophy, cultural and social orientations. At the same time, various meanings attribute in Meetei proverbs in the forms of figurative, witty, pithy, didactic etc. The construction of these forms are grammatically insightful thereby creating spaces for a whole range of possibilities for investigating the features, functions and structure of verbal inflectional markers occurred in Meetei proverbial sentences. Keywords: Proverbs, morphosemantics, features of lexical items, attributes of meanings and language

  19. Attribute importance segmentation of Norwegian seafood consumers: The inclusion of salient packaging attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Tuu, Ho Huu; Grunert, Klaus G

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of this study is to identify consumer segments based on the importance of product attributes when buying seafood for homemade meals on weekdays. There is a particular focus on the relative importance of the packaging attributes of fresh seafood. The results are based on a representative survey of 840 Norwegian consumers between 18 and 80 years of age. This study found that taste, freshness, nutritional value and naturalness are the most important attributes for the home consumption of seafood. Except for the high importance of information about expiration date, most other packaging attributes have only medium importance. Three consumer segments are identified based on the importance of 33 attributes associated with seafood: Perfectionists, Quality Conscious and Careless Consumers. The Quality Conscious consumers feel more self-confident in their evaluation of quality, and are less concerned with packaging, branding, convenience and emotional benefits compared to the Perfectionists. Careless Consumers are important as regular consumers of convenient and pre-packed seafood products and value recipe information on the packaging. The seafood industry may use the results provided in this study to strengthen their positioning of seafood across three different consumer segments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The portrait miniature of Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki on a letter of indulgence issued in 1449 for the Church of All Saints in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Walczak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A particularly interesting example of illuminated document is the indulgence granted to all who would visit the parish church of All Saints in Cracow on the major feasts of the liturgical year, issued by the Cracow Bishop, Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki (1423–1450 in 1449. A piece of parchment is decorated with the miniature composed of two juxtaposed fields, of which the upper one shows Christ with St Peter on His right, surrounded by the community of saints; the bottom field depicts the Pope seated between St Jerome and Cardinal Oleśnicki. This hierarch had been raised to the purple no fewer than three times. For the first time, Pope Eugene IV granted him this dignity with the accompanying title of St Prisca, but Oleśnicki did not accept it. Then Antipope Felix V, elected by the Council of Basle, elevated Oleśnicki to the cardinalate (with the title of St Anastasia, but the Cracow prelate likely did not accept the cardinal’s hat again and did not use the title, abiding by the orders of King Ladislaus the Jagiellon who was reluctant towards the Council. It was only in 1447 that Oleśnicki had relinquished the camp of the Council’s supporters, regarded by Rome as schismatics, and endorsed the rightful pope, Nicholas V. Oleśnicki received the cardinal’s hat sent from Rome in Cracow Cathedral, on 1 October 1449. The portrait composition on the Cracow miniature is complex and combining a few iconographic solutions popular in the late Middle Ages. Of particular significance seem to be the representation of the pope enthroned, the Traditio legis and Traditio clavium, as well as the juxtaposition of ecclesiastical hierarchy with the heavenly one. The Cracow miniature fitted perfectly in the then current problems of Church discussed anew in the mid-fifteenth century. Commissioned shortly after Oleśnicki had pledged obedience to Nicholas V and had received his cardinal’s hat, it is a public declaration by the former conciliarist of his new

  1. Attribute amnesia is greatly reduced with novel stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijia Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Attribute amnesia is the counterintuitive phenomenon where observers are unable to report a salient aspect of a stimulus (e.g., its colour or its identity immediately after the stimulus was presented, despite both attending to and processing the stimulus. Almost all previous attribute amnesia studies used highly familiar stimuli. Our study investigated whether attribute amnesia would also occur for unfamiliar stimuli. We conducted four experiments using stimuli that were highly familiar (colours or repeated animal images or that were unfamiliar to the observers (unique animal images. Our results revealed that attribute amnesia was present for both sets of familiar stimuli, colour (p < .001 and repeated animals (p = .001; but was greatly attenuated, and possibly eliminated, when the stimuli were unique animals (p = .02. Our data shows that attribute amnesia is greatly reduced for novel stimuli.

  2. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Wayne D.; Acevedo, Horacio; Green, Aaron; Len, Shawn; Minavea, Anastasia; Wood, James; Xie, Deyi

    2002-01-29

    This project has completed the initially scheduled third year of the contract, and is beginning a fourth year, designed to expand upon the tech transfer aspects of the project. From the Stratton data set, demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along `phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the Boonsville data set , developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Teal South data set provided a surprising set of data, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines.

  3. Consumer Preferences for Hearing Aid Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lataille, Angela T.; Buttorff, Christine; White, Sharon; Niparko, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Low utilization of hearing aids has drawn increased attention to the study of consumer preferences using both simple ratings (e.g., Likert scale) and conjoint analyses, but these two approaches often produce inconsistent results. The study aims to directly compare Likert scales and conjoint analysis in identifying important attributes associated with hearing aids among those with hearing loss. Seven attributes of hearing aids were identified through qualitative research: performance in quiet settings, comfort, feedback, frequency of battery replacement, purchase price, water and sweat resistance, and performance in noisy settings. The preferences of 75 outpatients with hearing loss were measured with both a 5-point Likert scale and with 8 paired-comparison conjoint tasks (the latter being analyzed using OLS [ordinary least squares] and logistic regression). Results were compared by examining implied willingness-to-pay and Pearson’s Rho. A total of 56 respondents (75%) provided complete responses. Two thirds of respondents were male, most had sensorineural hearing loss, and most were older than 50; 44% of respondents had never used a hearing aid. Both methods identified improved performance in noisy settings as the most valued attribute. Respondents were twice as likely to buy a hearing aid with better functionality in noisy environments (p < .001), and willingness to pay for this attribute ranged from US$2674 on the Likert to US$9000 in the conjoint analysis. The authors find a high level of concordance between the methods—a result that is in stark contrast with previous research. The authors conclude that their result stems from constraining the levels on the Likert scale. PMID:22514094

  4. Towards A New Reading of the Political Thought of the Dévot Faction: The Opposition to Cardinal Richelieu’s Ministériat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Maillet-Rao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, historiography has considered the political thought of the dévot party, led by Mathieu de Morgues and Michel de Marillac, to be supportive of a traditional monarchy, Catholicism and the extermination of Protestants, while being opposed to the Thirty Years War. This faction’s political thought has been looked upon as being in contrast to that of Cardinal Richelieu, which was comparatively regarded as profoundly absolutist and modern. Such an understanding of the dévots’ political thought, albeit disputed, continues to prevail. The present article intends to demonstrate that the dévots were in fact on the side of the absolutists, which explains their opposition to Richelieu. Indeed, they never criticized absolutism, but rather, the illegitimate leadership of the government by an all-powerful premier ministre, namely, Richelieu. According to the dévots, the ministériat actually betrayed the very essence of absolute monarchy. Before proposing a new perspective on its political thought, it is important to reflect upon the definition of the dévot party. This will be followed by an overview of the lives and work of the principal representatives of this faction, Mathieu de Morgues (1582–1670 and Michel de Marillac (1560–1632. An examination of the historiography on this subject enables this article’s conclusions to be situated in a broader context.

  5. Health Costs Attributable to Smoking in Viet Nam | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Health Costs Attributable to Smoking in Viet Nam ... and the government has a particular interest in the economic costs associated with high tobacco consumption. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  6. Postdetonation nuclear debris for attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, A J; Zeissler, C J; Newbury, D E; Davis, J; Lindstrom, R M

    2010-11-23

    On the morning of July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was exploded in New Mexico on the White Sands Proving Ground. The device was a plutonium implosion device similar to the device that destroyed Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9 of that same year. Recently, with the enactment of US public law 111-140, the "Nuclear Forensics and Attribution Act," scientists in the government and academia have been able, in earnest, to consider what type of forensic-style information may be obtained after a nuclear detonation. To conduct a robust attribution process for an exploded device placed by a nonstate actor, forensic analysis must yield information about not only the nuclear material in the device but about other materials that went into its construction. We have performed an investigation of glassed ground debris from the first nuclear test showing correlations among multiple analytical techniques. Surprisingly, there is strong evidence, obtainable only through microanalysis, that secondary materials used in the device can be identified and positively associated with the nuclear material.

  7. Source attribution of tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this study we describe the implementation into a global chemistry-climate model of a scheme for tagging emissions of NOx and VOC with an arbitrary number of labels, which are followed through the chemical reactions of tropospheric ozone production in order to perform attribution of tropospehric ozone to its emitted precursors. Attribution is performed to both

  8. The critical attributes of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C A

    1992-11-01

    The final decade of this century is a period of unprecedented change that by all indicators will continue unabated well into the next millennium. This article explored some elemental and immutable truths about leadership, management, communication, and negotiation essential to organizational success, particularly during periods of accelerated change. The case is made for a level of integrity, ethical conduct, and self-control to match the technical competence essential for managerial success in a technologically intensive work environment. These attributes and skills coupled with a widening scope of institutional vision are critical to sustained leadership and growth in an unstable world. Those without these abilities will be diminished in their capacity to communicate or negotiate. Hence, they will be thwarted or powerless to create task attraction, to effect change, or to promote excellence. These lessons are applicable to the dynamic changes occurring within the health care industrial complex, including health information management.

  9. Fuzzy Linguistic Optimization on Multi-Attribute Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Syung Lan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Most existing multi-attribute optimization researches for the modern CNC (computer numerical control turning industry were either accomplished within certain manufacturing circumstances, or achieved through numerous equipment operations. Therefore, a general deduction optimization scheme proposed is deemed to be necessary for the industry. In this paper, four parameters (cutting depth, feed rate, speed, tool nose runoff with three levels (low, medium, high are considered to optimize the multi-attribute (surface roughness, tool wear, and material removal rate finish turning. Through FAHP (Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process with eighty intervals for each attribute, the weight of each attribute is evaluated from the paired comparison matrix constructed by the expert judgment. Additionally, twenty-seven fuzzy control rules using trapezoid membership function with respective to seventeen linguistic grades for each attribute are constructed. Considering thirty input and eighty output intervals, the defuzzifierion using center of gravity is thus completed. The TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution is moreover utilized to integrate and evaluate the multiple machining attributes for the Taguchi experiment, and thus the optimum general deduction parameters can then be received. The confirmation experiment for optimum general deduction parameters is furthermore performed on an ECOCA-3807 CNC lathe. It is shown that the attributes from the fuzzy linguistic optimization parameters are all significantly advanced comparing to those from benchmark. This paper not only proposes a general deduction optimization scheme using orthogonal array, but also contributes the satisfactory fuzzy linguistic approach for multiple CNC turning attributes with profound insight.

  10. Causal attribution of mental illness in South-Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikwuka, Ugo; Galbraith, Niall; Nyatanga, Lovemore

    2014-05-01

    Understanding of mental illness in sub-Saharan Africa has remained under-researched in spite of the high and increasing neuropsychiatric burden of disease in the region. This study investigated the causal beliefs that the Igbo people of south-eastern Nigeria hold about schizophrenia, with a view to establishing the extent to which the population makes psychosocial, biological and supernatural attributions. Multi-stage sampling was used to select participants (N = 200) to which questionnaires were administered. Mean comparison of the three causal models revealed a significant endorsement of supernatural causation. Logistic regressions revealed significant contributions of old age and female gender to supernatural attribution; old age, high education and Catholic religious denomination to psychosocial attributions; and high education to biological attributions. It is hoped that the findings would enlighten, augment literature and enhance mental health care service delivery.

  11. “De pugna virtutum adversus vitia”: os pecados capitais na obra de Isidoro de Sevilha = The cardinal sins in the work of Isidore of Seville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alberto Feldman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste artigo é analisar a concepção dos pecados capitais na produção de Isidoro de Sevilha, a partir de sua obra magna o “Livro das Sentenças”, na qual descreve sua visão de mundo, sob a ótica da Cristandade e da teleologia agostiniana. O foco central éa construção de uma sociedade cristã que almeja combater o mal encarnado no diabo e em seus aliados, pela extirpação do pecado e pela construção de uma vanguarda de fiéis que se engajariam na luta das virtudes contra os vícios. O eixo da saúde pública permeia esseprojeto que visa a atingir a redenção e a segunda vinda de Cristo sob o Milênio redentor. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the conception of the cardinal sins in the work of Isidore of Seville, from his magnum opus "The Book of Sentences," which describes his world’s vision from theperspective of Christianity and Augustinian teleology. The main focus is the building of a Christian society that aims to combat evil in the devil incarnate and its allies through the removal of sin and the construction of a vanguard of believers who would engage in thestruggle of virtue against vices. The axis of this public health project aims to achieve the redemption and the second coming of Christ in the redeemer Millennium.

  12. Le Sacré Collège en villégiature : le palais d’un cardinal au temps de la papauté avignonnaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Sournia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Lieu de villégiature cardinalice au temps de la papauté avignonnaise, Villeneuve-lès-Avignon conserve quelques vestiges des palais de plusieurs membres du Sacré Collège. Le palais de Thurroye est l'un d'eux, successivement habité par Bertrand de Deaux, Guy de Boulogne et Pierre de Thury, aujourd'hui très morcelé et profondément bouleversé. Le présent article propose une restitution de cette résidence à la lumière de descriptions anciennes d'autres palais semblables de la banlieue avignonnaise, à la lumière notamment de la relation toscane d'une fête donnée dans l'un des palais en 1353 en présence de Clément VI. L'analyse fait apparaître le schéma type de ces demeures avec leur cour et leur portique, leur distribution à double grand-salle etc.During the Avignon papacy, Villeneuve-lès-Avignon was a place of summer retreat for the cardinals. Today, the town still has some vestiges of the palaces of several members of the Holy College. The Thurroye palace is one of these, successively occupied by Bertrand de Deaux, Guy de Boulogne and Pierre de Thury. It is now considerably altered. The present article proposes a restitution of the residence, based on old descriptions of similar palaces in the region of Avignon and, in particular, on the Tuscan account of a fete given at one of these palaces in 1353, in the presence of Pope Clément VI. The analysis depicts a typical layout for these residences with a courtyard and a gateway and their interior distribution with two large chambers.

  13. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Attributes and descriptors for building performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopikrishnan

    2017-12-01

    In order to obtain the right feedback in levels of satisfaction with respect to these attributes, there is a need to have appropriate descriptors for incorporation in a survey instrument. This paper identifies attributes that indicate building performance and provides simple description of these attributes based on which items can be generated for a questionnaire. Such items can enable any user/occupant to easily understand the characteristics of these attributes and offer an objective feedback during questionnaire survey.

  15. Attribution Theory and Crisis Intervention Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilbeck, William M.

    It was proposed that existing therapeutic procedures may influence attributions about emotional states. Therefore an attributional analysis of crisis intervention, a model of community-based, short-term consultation, was presented. This analysis suggested that crisis intervention provides attributionally-relevant information about both the source…

  16. Using genetic algorithms for attribute grouping in multivariate microaggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Balasch Masoliver, Jordi; Muntés Mulero, Víctor; Nin Guerrero, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Anonymization techniques that provide k-anonymity suffer from loss of quality when data dimensionality is high. Microaggregation techniques are not an exception. Given a set of records, attributes are grouped into non-intersecting subsets and microaggregated independently. While this improves quality by reducing the loss of information, it usually leads to the loss of the k-anonymity property, increasing entity disclosure risk. In spite of this, grouping attributes is still a common practice ...

  17. Detection and attribution of extreme weather disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Stone, Dáithí; Hansen, Gerrit

    2014-05-01

    Single disasters related to extreme weather events have caused loss and damage on the order of up to tens of billions US dollars over the past years. Recent disasters fueled the debate about whether and to what extent these events are related to climate change. In international climate negotiations disaster loss and damage is now high on the agenda, and related policy mechanisms have been discussed or are being implemented. In view of funding allocation and effective risk reduction strategies detection and attribution to climate change of extreme weather events and disasters is a key issue. Different avenues have so far been taken to address detection and attribution in this context. Physical climate sciences have developed approaches, among others, where variables that are reasonably sampled over climatically relevant time periods and related to the meteorological characteristics of the extreme event are examined. Trends in these variables (e.g. air or sea surface temperatures) are compared between observations and climate simulations with and without anthropogenic forcing. Generally, progress has been made in recent years in attribution of changes in the chance of some single extreme weather events to anthropogenic climate change but there remain important challenges. A different line of research is primarily concerned with losses related to the extreme weather events over time, using disaster databases. A growing consensus is that the increase in asset values and in exposure are main drivers of the strong increase of economic losses over the past several decades, and only a limited number of studies have found trends consistent with expectations from climate change. Here we propose a better integration of existing lines of research in detection and attribution of extreme weather events and disasters by applying a risk framework. Risk is thereby defined as a function of the probability of occurrence of an extreme weather event, and the associated consequences

  18. Modeling Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Richness Using Landscape Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia S. Meixler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a rapid, repeatable, and inexpensive geographic information system (GIS approach to predict aquatic macroinvertebrate family richness using the landscape attributes stream gradient, riparian forest cover, and water quality. Stream segments in the Allegheny River basin were classified into eight habitat classes using these three landscape attributes. Biological databases linking macroinvertebrate families with habitat classes were developed using life habits, feeding guilds, and water quality preferences and tolerances for each family. The biological databases provided a link between fauna and habitat enabling estimation of family composition in each habitat class and hence richness predictions for each stream segment. No difference was detected between field collected and modeled predictions of macroinvertebrate families in a paired t-test. Further, predicted stream gradient, riparian forest cover, and total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment classifications matched observed classifications much more often than by chance alone. High gradient streams with forested riparian zones and good water quality were predicted to have the greatest macroinvertebrate family richness and changes in water quality were predicted to have the greatest impact on richness. Our findings indicate that our model can provide meaningful landscape scale macroinvertebrate family richness predictions from widely available data for use in focusing conservation planning efforts.

  19. Which Personality Attributes Are Most Important in the Workplace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Paul R; Walmsley, Philip T

    2014-09-01

    Employees face a variety of work demands that place a premium on personal attributes, such as the degree to which they can be depended on to work independently, deal with stress, and interact positively with coworkers and customers. We examine evidence for the importance of these personality attributes using research strategies intended to answer three fundamental questions, including (a) how well does employees' standing on these attributes predict job performance?, (b) what types of attributes do employers seek to evaluate in interviews when considering applicants?, and (c) what types of attributes are rated as important for performance in a broad sampling of occupations across the U.S. economy? We summarize and integrate results from these three strategies using the Big Five personality dimensions as our organizing framework. Our findings indicate that personal attributes related to Conscientiousness and Agreeableness are important for success across many jobs, spanning across low to high levels of job complexity, training, and experience necessary to qualify for employment. The strategies lead to differing conclusions about the relative importance of Emotional Stability and Extraversion. We note implications for job seekers, for interventions aimed at changing standing on these attributes, and for employers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Parenting Attributions and Attitudes in Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This article used the Parenting Across Cultures Project to evaluate similarities and differences in mean levels and relative agreement between mothers’ and fathers’ attributions and attitudes in parenting in 9 countries. Design Mothers and fathers reported their perceptions of causes of successes and failures in caregiving and their progressive versus authoritarian childrearing attitudes. Gender and cultural similarities and differences in parents’ attributions and attitudes in 9 countries were analyzed: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, or the United States. Results Although mothers and fathers did not differ in any attribution, mothers reported more progressive parenting attitudes and modernity of childrearing attitudes than did fathers, and fathers reported more authoritarian attitudes than did mothers. Country differences also emerged in all attributions and attitudes that were examined. Mothers’ and fathers’ attributions and their attitudes were moderately correlated, but parenting attitudes were more highly correlated in parents than were attributions. Conclusions We draw connections among the findings across the 9 countries and outline implications for understanding similarities and differences in mothers’ and fathers’ parenting attributions and attitudes. PMID:21927591

  1. Evolutionary Influences on Attribution and Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Brown

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory was applied to Reeder and Brewer's schematic theory and Trafimow's affect theory to extend this area of research with five new predictions involving affect and ability attributions, comparing morality and ability attributions, gender differences, and reaction times for affect and attribution ratings. The design included a 2 (Trait Dimension Type: HR, PR × 2 (Behavior Type: morality, ability × 2 (Valence: positive, negative × 2 (Replication: original, replication × 2 (Sex: female or male actor × 2 (Gender: female or male participant × 2 (Order: attribution portion first, affect portion first mixed design. All factors were within participants except the order and participant gender. Participants were presented with 32 different scenarios in which an actor engaged in a concrete behavior after which they made attributions and rated their affect in response to the behavior. Reaction times were measured during attribution and affect ratings. In general, the findings from the experiment supported the new predictions. Affect was related to attributions for both morality and ability related behaviors. Morality related behaviors received more extreme attribution and affect ratings than ability related behaviors. Female actors received stronger attribution and affect ratings for diagnostic morality behaviors compared to male actors. Male and female actors received similar attribution and affect ratings for diagnostic ability behaviors. Diagnostic behaviors were associated with lower reaction times than non-diagnostic behaviors. These findings demonstrate the utility of evolutionary theory in creating new hypotheses and empirical findings in the domain of attribution.

  2. Amateur boxing: physical and physiological attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabène, Helmi; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Franchini, Emerson; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Raja Bouguezzi; Hachana, Younés

    2015-03-01

    Boxing is one of the oldest combat sports. The aim of the current review is to critically analyze the amateur boxer's physical and physiological characteristics and to provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research. High-level male and female boxers show a propensity for low body fat levels. Although studies on boxer somatotypes are limited, the available information shows that elite-level male boxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorphy with a well-developed muscle mass and a low body fat level. To help support the overall metabolic demands of a boxing match and to accelerate the recovery process between rounds, athletes of both sexes require a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness. International boxers show a high peak and mean anaerobic power output. Muscle strength in both the upper and lower limbs is paramount for a fighter's victory and is one of the keys to success in boxing. As boxing punches are brief actions and very dynamic, high-level boxing performance requires well-developed muscle power in both the upper and lower limbs. Albeit limited, the available studies reveal that isometric strength is linked to high-level boxing performance. Future investigations into the physical and physiological attributes of boxers are required to enrich the current data set and to help create a suitable training program.

  3. Research on Big Data Attribute Selection Method in Submarine Optical Fiber Network Fault Diagnosis Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ganlang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, in the fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network, the attribute selection of large data is completed by detecting the attributes of the data, the accuracy of large data attribute selection cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, a large data attribute selection method based on support vector machines (SVM for fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network is proposed. Mining large data in the database of optical fiber network fault diagnosis, and calculate its attribute weight, attribute classification is completed according to attribute weight, so as to complete attribute selection of large data. Experimental results prove that ,the proposed method can improve the accuracy of large data attribute selection in fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network, and has high use value.

  4. Otoconia biogenesis, phylogeny, composition and functional attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Lychakov, D.; Campos, A.; Hara, H.; Sondag, E.; Jones, T.; Jones, S.; Taylor, M.; Meza-Ruiz, G.; Martin, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    This work consolidates data about these interesting organic crystals of vertebrate inner ears. It addresses 5 aspects of inner ear otoliths not completely understood to date: 1) embryological data that explains the formation of the crystals, 2) the significance of the organic and the inorganic phase of the otolith and the changing patterns of otoconia formation along the evolutionary tree, 3) otoliths contribution for detecting linear acceleration, 4) the effect that altered gravity and aminoglycosides have on the development and adult shape of the crystals, and the evolutionary significance of a changing shape of the crystals from primitive forms (lamprey) to high vertebrate birds and mammals is discussed, 5) functional attributes of the otolithic organs and morphological modifications of the otoliths by physical and chemical insults are presented with an extensive discussion of the most relevant literature published and available to us.

  5. Nickel toxicity to cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi) differs seasonally and among the black, white and clear river waters of the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Aleicia; Wood, Chris M; Smith, D Scott; Correia, Tiago Gabriel; Val, Adalberto L

    2017-10-15

    This study investigated the acute toxicity of nickel (Ni) to cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi), within the three main water types of the Amazon basin: black (Rio Negro), white (Rio Solimões) and clear (Rio Tapajós) during the wet and dry season at pH 7 (representative of white and clear rivers) and pH 4 (representative of black waters). The influence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quality on Ni toxicity within the three waters was also explored via the use of DOC isolates. Differences in water chemistry, DOC quality and ion concentrations were shown between waters and between seasons. Toxicity of Ni was shown to vary between river waters, seasons, and pHs. Ni was significantly less toxic during the dry season at pH 4 in all three river waters; for example, black water during the wet season had an LC 50 of 9.72 mg Ni/L compared to 41.5 mg Ni/L during the dry season. At pH 7, contrasting effects in toxicity between seasons were shown between black and clear waters (black: wet = 28.9 mg/L, dry = 17.3 mg/L; clear: wet = 13.8 mg/L, dry = 24.1 mg/L). There were no significant differences in Ni toxicity for white waters at pH 7 (white: wet = 22.2 mg/L, dry = 21.8). Overall, Ni was shown to be more toxic at pH 7 than at pH 4 except in black water during the wet season. Toxicity of Ni at pH 4 was positively related to DOC concentration and amount of humic-like and fulvic-like DOC and negatively related to fluorescence index. Therefore, at pH 4, Ni is more toxic in waters containing more allochthonous DOC, consisting of higher amounts of humic-like and fulvic-like components. LC 50 values for the different DOC concentrates at the same DOC concentration of 4.5 mg/L (black: 26.8 mg/L; white: 73.3 mg/L; clear: 49.2) support the river water findings at pH 4 (Ni more toxic in presence of black DOC) indicating that DOC quality alone can influence Ni toxicity at this pH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating symptom outcomes in gastroparesis clinical trials: validity and responsiveness of the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index-Daily Diary (GCSI-DD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revicki, D A; Camilleri, M; Kuo, B; Szarka, L A; McCormack, J; Parkman, H P

    2012-05-01

    Patient-reported symptom scales are needed to evaluate treatments for gastroparesis. The Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index-Daily Diary (GCSI-DD) was developed to assess daily symptoms of gastroparesis. This study evaluated the validity and responsiveness of the GCSI-DD in patients with gastroparesis. Symptomatic patients were started with a new treatment for gastroparesis. Patients completed the GCSI-DD each evening during a baseline week and for 8 weeks of treatment. Responders were defined based on patient and clinician global rating of change. Minimal important differences (MID) were estimated based on baseline to 4 week changes in symptoms scores for small improvements. Of 69 patients participating, 46 had idiopathic, 19 diabetic, and four postfundoplication gastroparesis. Excellent test-retest reliability was seen for GCSI-DD scores, and there were significant correlations between GCSI-DD scores and clinician ratings of symptom severity. Responders to treatment reported improvements in nausea [effect size (ES) = 0.42, P < 0.001], postprandial fullness, ES = 0.83, P < 0.001), bloating (ES = 0.34, P < 0.001), early satiety (ES = 0.53, P < 0.001), but lower responses for upper abdominal pain (ES = 0.29), and vomiting (ES = 0.22; P = 0.119). MIDs were 0.55 for nausea, 0.97 for excessive fullness, 0.63 for bloating, 0.77 for postprandial fullness, and 0.30 for abdominal pain. A composite score of four symptoms (Composite-1; nausea, bloating, excessive fullness, postprandial fullness) had ES of 0.61 and MID of 0.73. Composite-2 score (nausea, early satiety, bloating, abdominal pain) had a lower ES of 0.47. Symptoms of early satiety, nausea, postprandial fullness, and bloating were responsive to treatment for gastroparesis. A composite of these symptoms also demonstrates validity and responsiveness to treatment for gastroparesis, and may represent an acceptable endpoint for evaluating the effectiveness of medical treatments in clinical trials for gastroparesis.

  7. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Pennington

    2002-09-29

    developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines. The Teal South data set has provided a surprising set of results, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. Additional results were found using the public-domain Waha and Woresham-Bayer data set, and some tests of technologies were made using 2D seismic lines from Michigan and the western Pacific ocean.

  8. CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Pennington; Horacio Acevedo; Aaron Green; Joshua Haataja; Shawn Len; Anastasia Minaeva; Deyi Xie

    2002-10-01

    productive and non-productive subfacies, and we developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines. The Teal South data set has provided a surprising set of results, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. Additional results were found using the public-domain Waha and Woresham-Bayer data set, and some tests of technologies were made using 2D seismic lines from Michigan and the western Pacific ocean.

  9. Epistemological limitation for attributing health effects to natural radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Abel J.

    2010-01-01

    The attribution of health effects to prolonged radiation exposure situations, such as those experienced in nature, is a challenging problem. The paper describes the epistemological limitations for such attribution it demonstrate that in most natural exposure situations, the theory of radiation-related sciences is not capable to provide the scientific evidence that health effects actually occur (or do not occur) and, therefore, that radiation effects are attributable to natural exposure situations and imputable to nature. Radiation exposure at high levels is known to provoke health effects as tissue reactions. If individuals experience these effects they can be attributed to the specific exposure with a high degree of confidence under the following conditions: the dose incurred have been higher that the relevant dose-threshold for the specific effect; and an unequivocal pathological diagnosis is attainable ensuring that possible competing causes have been eliminated. Only under these conditions, the occurrence of the effect may be properly attested and attributed to the exposure. However, even high levels of natural radiation exposure are lower than relevant dose-thresholds for tissue reactions and, therefore, natural radiation exposure is generally unable to cause these type of effects. One exception to this general rule could be situations of high levels of natural radiation exposure that might be sufficient to induce opacities in the lens of the eyes (which could be considered a tissue-reaction type of effect)

  10. Attributional and relational processing in pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis eGarlick

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Six pigeons were trained using a matching-to-sample procedure where sample and rewarded comparisons matched on both attributional (color and relational (horizontal or vertical orientation dimensions. Probes then evaluated the pigeons’ preference to comparisons that varied in these dimensions. A strong preference was found for the attribute of color. The discrimination was not found to transfer to novel colors, however, suggesting that a general color rule had not been learned. Further, when color could not be used to guide responding, some influence of other attributional cues such as shape, but not relational cues, was found. We conclude that pigeons based their performance on attributional properties of but not on relational properties between elements in our matching-to-sample procedure.. Future studies should look at examining other attributes to compare attributional versus relational processing.

  11. Privacy Protection on Multiple Sensitive Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Ye, Xiaojun

    In recent years, a privacy model called k-anonymity has gained popularity in the microdata releasing. As the microdata may contain multiple sensitive attributes about an individual, the protection of multiple sensitive attributes has become an important problem. Different from the existing models of single sensitive attribute, extra associations among multiple sensitive attributes should be invested. Two kinds of disclosure scenarios may happen because of logical associations. The Q&S Diversity is checked to prevent the foregoing disclosure risks, with an α Requirement definition used to ensure the diversity requirement. At last, a two-step greedy generalization algorithm is used to carry out the multiple sensitive attributes processing which deal with quasi-identifiers and sensitive attributes respectively. We reduce the overall distortion by the measure of Masking SA.

  12. Wireless-Delimited Secure Zones with Encrypted Attribute-Based Broadcast for Safe Firearms

    OpenAIRE

    Portnoi, Marcos; Shen, Chien-Chung

    2014-01-01

    This work presents an application of the highly expressive Attribute-Based Encryption to implement wireless-delimited Secure Zones for firearms. Within these zones, radio-transmitted local policies based on attributes of the consumer and the firearm are received by embedded hardware in the firearms, which then advises the consumer about safe operations. The Secure Zones utilize Attribute-Based Encryption to encode the policies and consumer or user attributes, and providing privacy and securit...

  13. Attributional Style and Depression in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Several etiologic theories have been proposed to explain depression in the general population. Studying these models and modifying them for use in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population may allow us to better understand depression in MS. According to the reformulated learned helplessness (LH) theory, individuals who attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes are more vulnerable to depression. This study differentiated attributional style that was or was not related to MS in 52 patients with MS to test the LH theory in this population and to determine possible differences between illness-related and non-illness-related attributions. Patients were administered measures of attributional style, daily stressors, disability, and depressive symptoms. Participants were more likely to list non-MS-related than MS-related causes of negative events on the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and more-disabled participants listed significantly more MS-related causes than did less-disabled individuals. Non-MS-related attributional style correlated with stress and depressive symptoms, but MS-related attributional style did not correlate with disability or depressive symptoms. Stress mediated the effect of non-MS-related attributional style on depressive symptoms. These results suggest that, although attributional style appears to be an important construct in MS, it does not seem to be related directly to depressive symptoms; rather, it is related to more perceived stress, which in turn is related to increased depressive symptoms. PMID:24453767

  14. Key attributes of expert NRL referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gavin; O'Connor, Donna

    2017-05-01

    Experiential knowledge of elite National Rugby League (NRL) referees was investigated to determine the key attributes contributing to expert officiating performance. Fourteen current first-grade NRL referees were asked to identify the key attributes they believed contributed to their expert refereeing performance. The modified Delphi method involved a 3-round process of an initial semi-structured interview followed by 2 questionnaires to reach consensus of opinion. The data revealed 25 attributes that were rated as most important that underpin expert NRL refereeing performance. Results illustrate the significance of the cognitive category, with the top 6 ranked attributes all cognitive skills. Of these, the referees ranked decision-making accuracy as the most important attribute, followed by reading the game, communication, game understanding, game management and knowledge of the rules. Player rapport, positioning and teamwork were the top ranked game skill attributes underpinning performance excellence. Expert referees also highlighted a number of psychological attributes (e.g., concentration, composure and mental toughness) that were significant to performance. There were only 2 physiological attributes (fitness, aerobic endurance) that were identified as significant to elite officiating performance. In summary, expert consensus was attained which successfully provided a hierarchy of the most significant attributes of expert NRL refereeing performance.

  15. Quality Attributes and Service-Oriented Architectures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, Liam; Bass, Len; Merson, Paulo

    2005-01-01

    .... Because software architecture is the bridge between mission/business goals and a software-intensive system, and quality attribute requirements drive software architecture design, it is important...

  16. Qualitative analysis of MTEM response using instantaneous attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayemi, Olalekan; Di, Qingyun

    2017-11-01

    This paper introduces new technique for qualitative analysis of multi-transient electromagnetic (MTEM) earth impulse response over complex geological structures. Instantaneous phase and frequency attributes were used in place of the conventional common offset section for improved qualitative interpretation of MTEM data by obtaining more detailed information from the earth impulse response. The instantaneous attributes were used to describe the lateral variation in subsurface resistivity and the visible geological structure with respect to given offsets. Instantaneous phase attribute was obtained by converting the impulse response into a complex form using the Hilbert transform. Conversely, the polynomial phase difference (PPD) estimator was favored over the center finite difference (CFD) approximation method in calculating the instantaneous frequency attribute because it is computationally efficient and has the ability to give a smooth variation of the instantaneous frequency over a common offset section. The observed results from the instantaneous attributes were in good agreement with both the subsurface model used and the apparent resistivity section obtained from the MTEM earth impulse response. Hence, this study confirms the capability of both instantaneous phase and frequency attributes as highly effective tools for MTEM qualitative analysis.

  17. Mental disease-related emergency admissions attributable to hot temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suji; Lee, Hwanhee; Myung, Woojae; Kim, E Jin; Kim, Ho

    2018-03-01

    The association between high temperature and mental disease has been the focus of several studies worldwide. However, no studies have focused on the mental disease burden attributable to hot temperature. Here, we aim to quantify the risk attributed to hot temperatures based on the exposure-lag-response relationship between temperature and mental diseases. From data on daily temperature and emergency admissions (EA) for mental diseases collected from 6 major cities (Seoul, Incheon, Daejeon, Daegu, Busan, and Gwangju in South Korea) over a period of 11years (2003-2013), we estimated temperature-disease associations using a distributed lag non-linear model, and we pooled the data by city through multivariate meta-analysis. Cumulative relative risk and attributable risks were calculated for extreme hot temperatures, defined as the 99th percentile relative to the 50th percentile of temperatures. The strongest association between mental disease and high temperature was seen within a period of 0-4days of high temperature exposure. Our results reveal that 14.6% of EA for mental disease were due to extreme hot temperatures, and the elderly were more susceptible (19.1%). Specific mental diseases, including anxiety, dementia, schizophrenia, and depression, also showed significant risk attributed to hot temperatures. Of all EA for anxiety, 31.6% were attributed to extremely hot temperatures. High temperature was responsible for an attributable risk for mental disease, and the burden was higher in the elderly. This finding has important implications for designing appropriate public health policies to minimize the impact of high temperature on mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Accounting Students' Perceptions of Effective Faculty Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfraih, Mishari M.; Alanezi, Faisal S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the attributes of an effective accounting faculty from the student perspective. It also examines similarities and differences in the perceived importance of these attributes between bachelor's and associate's accounting degree students in two public higher education institutions in Kuwait, namely, Kuwait…

  19. Anonymous Credential Schemes with Encrypted Attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guajardo Merchan, J.; Mennink, B.; Schoenmakers, B.

    2011-01-01

    In anonymous credential schemes, users obtain credentials on certain attributes from an issuer, and later show these credentials to a relying party anonymously and without fully disclosing the attributes. In this paper, we introduce the notion of (anonymous) credential schemes with encrypted

  20. Attributional Models of Depression and Marital Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneffer, Karen J.; Fincham, Frank D.

    1996-01-01

    Compares attributional models presented in depression and marital literatures by examining simultaneously their prediction of depressive symptoms and marital distress with 150 married couples. Findings show that a model including paths from depressogenic and distress-maintaining marital attributions to both depressive symptoms and marital distress…

  1. Crisis Workers' Attributions for Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Margaret E.

    Attributions affect coping with victimization. Battered women who blame their husbands' moods are less likely to leave than are women who blame their husbands' permanent characteristics for the violence. Abused women often have repeated contacts with crisis intervention workers and the attitudes of those workers may affect the attributions made by…

  2. An Exploration of EFL Teachers' Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh; Ghazanfari, Mohammad; Ghabanchi, Zargham

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' attributions of success and failure. It also set out to investigate whether these attributions vary by teachers' age, teaching experience, gender and educational level. To do so, 200 EFL teachers were selected according to convenience sampling among EFL teachers teaching…

  3. Implicational Schemata and the Attribution of Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Glenn D.; Spores, John M.

    Attribution of a disposition or trait to a person asserts information about the pattern of that person's behavior. Past research has suggested that a moral disposition implies only moral behavior, while an immoral disposition implies both moral and immoral behavior. The effect of these implicational schemata on attributions of morality was…

  4. Attribute-Based Digital Signature System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibraimi, L.; Asim, Muhammad; Petkovic, M.

    2011-01-01

    An attribute-based digital signature system comprises a signature generation unit (1) for signing a message (m) by generating a signature (s) based on a user secret key (SK) associated with a set of user attributes, wherein the signature generation unit (1) is arranged for combining the user secret

  5. Detection and attribution of observed impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, W.; Yohe, G.W.; Auffhammer, M.; Huggel, C.; Molau, U.; Dias, M.A.F.S.; Leemans, R.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter synthesizes the scientific literature on the detection and attribution of observed changes in natural and human systems in response to observed recent climate change. For policy makers and the public, detection and attribution of observed impacts will be a key element to determine the

  6. Cerebral infarction attributable to cerebrovascular fibromuscular dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, Haruo

    2008-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a noninflammatory, nonatheromatous segmental angiopathy. The renal arteries are affected most commonly, followed by the internal carotid and vertebral arteries. FMD of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries usually occurs in the extracranial portions and is mostly observed at the level of the second cervical vertebra. FMD of the intracranial arteries is rare, but tends to occur in children and young adults. FMD is more common in females than in males, and it is often observed in middle-aged women. Although the etiology of FMD is not well understood, several mechanisms have been proposed, such as genetic predisposition, hormonal factors, and arterial wall ischemia. The pathology of FMD is characterized by smooth muscle hyperplasia or thinning, elastic fiber destruction, fibrous tissue proliferation, and arterial wall disorganization. Cerebrovascular fibromuscular dysplasia (cFMD) is relatively rare in Japan but is regarded as one of the cardinal causes of stroke in the younger population. cFMD without complications causes nonspecific symptoms such as headache or vertigo, but when it results in an arterial dissection or aneurysm, it leads to cerebral infarction or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Conventional angiographic findings mostly reveal a pattern called the 'string of beads', which is pathologically correlated to medial fibromuscular dysplasia. Doppler echography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) may be useful for detecting cFMD lesions in some cases. MRA should be performed to rule out the presence of intracranial aneurysms. Antiplatelet and anticoagulation agents are prophylactics against cFMD complications. Surgical treatments such as graduated intraluminal dilatation had previously been the mainstays for treating cFMD. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with or without stenting has now become the preferred invasive treatment for symptomatic cFMD. (author)

  7. Temperaturas cardeais e efeito da luz na germinação de sementes de mutamba Cardinal temperatures and effect of light on Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. de Araújo Neto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Guazuma ulmifolia Lam., conhecida como mutamba, é uma espécie arbórea característica dos estádios iniciais da sucessão secundária, com ampla ocorrência natural no Brasil. Possui grande potencial para recuperação ambiental de áreas degradadas. Neste trabalho, conduziram-se dois experimentos, nos quais as sementes foram extraídas e escarificadas antes da instalação dos testes de germinação. O primeiro experimento foi desenvolvido com sementes colhidas em outubro de 1995 e teve por objetivo definir as temperaturas cardeais para a germinação das sementes. Foram testadas as temperaturas de 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 e 45 ºC, sob fotoperíodo de oito horas. Os resultados mostraram que a temperatura mínima é próxima de 10 ºC, a máxima se situa entre 35 e 40 ºC e as temperaturas de 25 e 30 ºC encontram-se dentro da faixa ótima. No segundo experimento, visou-se avaliar o requerimento fotoblástico de sementes recém-colhidas (colheita de outubro de 1996 e armazenadas em câmara seca por um ano (colheita de outubro de 1995. Os testes de germinação foram conduzidos a 30 ºC e as sementes recém-colhidas tiveram a germinação promovida pelas luzes branca e vermelha, mas inibida pela luz vermelha-extrema e ausência de luz. As sementes armazenadas, entretanto, revelaram-se insensíveis à luz.Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae is a typical tree species of the initial stages of secondary succession in Brazil, with potential for use in restoring degraded areas. Two experiments were carried out in this work, in which seeds were extracted and scarified before conducting the germination tests. The first experiment was conducted with seeds harvested in October 1995 and aimed to determine the cardinal temperatures for seed germination. Constant temperatures of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 ºC were tested under an eight hour photoperiod. The results showed that the minimum temperature is around 10 ºC, the maximum between 35 and

  8. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Mortality (SAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) is the number of deaths caused by cigarette...

  9. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Expenditures (SAE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable expenditures (SAEs) are excess health care expenditures...

  10. Discriminative power of visual attributes in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotis, Ioannis; Visser, Margaretha; Jonkman, Marcel; Petkov, Nicolai

    2013-02-01

    Visual characteristics such as color and shape of skin lesions play an important role in the diagnostic process. In this contribution, we quantify the discriminative power of such attributes using an information theoretical approach. We estimate the probability of occurrence of each attribute as a function of the skin diseases. We use the distribution of this probability across the studied diseases and its entropy to define the discriminative power of the attribute. The discriminative power has a maximum value for attributes that occur (or do not occur) for only one disease and a minimum value for those which are equally likely to be observed among all diseases. Verrucous surface, red and brown colors, and the presence of more than 10 lesions are among the most informative attributes. A ranking of attributes is also carried out and used together with a naive Bayesian classifier, yielding results that confirm the soundness of the proposed method. proposed measure is proven to be a reliable way of assessing the discriminative power of dermatological attributes, and it also helps generate a condensed dermatological lexicon. Therefore, it can be of added value to the manual or computer-aided diagnostic process. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Quality Attributes of Fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayustaningwarno, Fitriyono; Dekker, Matthijs; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Verkerk, Ruud

    2018-01-01

    Vacuum frying of fruits enables frying at lower temperatures compared to atmospheric frying, thereby improving quality attributes of the fried product, such as oil content, texture, retention of nutrients, and color. Producing high-quality vacuum-fried fruit is a challenge, especially because of the

  12. Inheritance of fresh-cut fruit quality attributes in Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fresh-cut fruit and vegetable industry has expanded rapidly during the past decade, due to freshness, convenience and the high nutrition that fresh-cut produce offers to consumers. The current report evaluates the inheritance of postharvest attributes that contribute to pepper fresh-cut product...

  13. Extending Attribution Theory: Considering Students' Perceived Control of the Attribution Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Evan J.; Husman, Jenefer

    2017-01-01

    Research in attribution theory has shown that students' causal thinking profoundly affects their learning and motivational outcomes. Very few studies, however, have explored how students' attribution-related beliefs influence the causal thought process. The present study used the perceived control of the attribution process (PCAP) model to examine…

  14. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Vázquez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors" and Spanish ("observers" undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ. Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are differences about the perception of the incidence of the different causes in that situation. Nicaraguan students consider, as causes of poverty, more dispositional attributes about the population in those countries.

  15. The Role of Empathy in Mental Attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunsteins, Patricia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This work examines in what extent a notion of empathy may clarify mindreading’s debate. Taking into account an interdisciplinary and integrative notion of empathy, compatibility with mental attribution strategies both mental simulation and theory-theory, in non pure versions, is evaluated. Firstly, new empirical research is supposed to contribute strengthening an integrative empathy instead of theory-theory or mental simulation `s points of view. Secondly, new empirical research will bring better tools to distinguish between empathy and simulation. Consequently, the relationship between empathy and mental attribution theories may be better delimited and a full mental attribution theory may possibly be proposed.

  16. MELA: Modelling in Ecology with Location Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovica Luisa Vissat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecology studies the interactions between individuals, species and the environment. The ability to predict the dynamics of ecological systems would support the design and monitoring of control strategies and would help to address pressing global environmental issues. It is also important to plan for efficient use of natural resources and maintenance of critical ecosystem services. The mathematical modelling of ecological systems often includes nontrivial specifications of processes that influence the birth, death, development and movement of individuals in the environment, that take into account both biotic and abiotic interactions. To assist in the specification of such models, we introduce MELA, a process algebra for Modelling in Ecology with Location Attributes. Process algebras allow the modeller to describe concurrent systems in a high-level language. A key feature of concurrent systems is that they are composed of agents that can progress simultaneously but also interact - a good match to ecological systems. MELA aims to provide ecologists with a straightforward yet flexible tool for modelling ecological systems, with particular emphasis on the description of space and the environment. Here we present four example MELA models, illustrating the different spatial arrangements which can be accommodated and demonstrating the use of MELA in epidemiological and predator-prey scenarios.

  17. On the Relationship between Visual Attributes and Convolutional Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Castillo, Victor; Ghanem, Bernard; Niebles, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    One of the cornerstone principles of deep models is their abstraction capacity, i.e. their ability to learn abstract concepts from ‘simpler’ ones. Through extensive experiments, we characterize the nature of the relationship between abstract concepts (specifically objects in images) learned by popular and high performing convolutional networks (conv-nets) and established mid-level representations used in computer vision (specifically semantic visual attributes). We focus on attributes due to their impact on several applications, such as object description, retrieval and mining, and active (and zero-shot) learning. Among the findings we uncover, we show empirical evidence of the existence of Attribute Centric Nodes (ACNs) within a conv-net, which is trained to recognize objects (not attributes) in images. These special conv-net nodes (1) collectively encode information pertinent to visual attribute representation and discrimination, (2) are unevenly and sparsely distribution across all layers of the conv-net, and (3) play an important role in conv-net based object recognition.

  18. On the Relationship between Visual Attributes and Convolutional Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Castillo, Victor

    2015-06-02

    One of the cornerstone principles of deep models is their abstraction capacity, i.e. their ability to learn abstract concepts from ‘simpler’ ones. Through extensive experiments, we characterize the nature of the relationship between abstract concepts (specifically objects in images) learned by popular and high performing convolutional networks (conv-nets) and established mid-level representations used in computer vision (specifically semantic visual attributes). We focus on attributes due to their impact on several applications, such as object description, retrieval and mining, and active (and zero-shot) learning. Among the findings we uncover, we show empirical evidence of the existence of Attribute Centric Nodes (ACNs) within a conv-net, which is trained to recognize objects (not attributes) in images. These special conv-net nodes (1) collectively encode information pertinent to visual attribute representation and discrimination, (2) are unevenly and sparsely distribution across all layers of the conv-net, and (3) play an important role in conv-net based object recognition.

  19. Improved sample size determination for attributes and variables sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirpe, D.; Picard, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Earlier INMM papers have addressed the attributes/variables problem and, under conservative/limiting approximations, have reported analytical solutions for the attributes and variables sample sizes. Through computer simulation of this problem, we have calculated attributes and variables sample sizes as a function of falsification, measurement uncertainties, and required detection probability without using approximations. Using realistic assumptions for uncertainty parameters of measurement, the simulation results support the conclusions: (1) previously used conservative approximations can be expensive because they lead to larger sample sizes than needed; and (2) the optimal verification strategy, as well as the falsification strategy, are highly dependent on the underlying uncertainty parameters of the measurement instruments. 1 ref., 3 figs

  20. Toward an Automated Labeling of Event Log Attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbad Andaloussi, Amine; Burattin, Andrea; Weber, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    information systems often do not comply with the required maturity level, since they lack the notion of process instance, also referred in process mining as “case id”. Without a proper identification of the case id attribute in log files, the outcome of process mining algorithms is unpredictable. This paper...... proposes a new approach that aims to overcome this challenge by automatically inferring the case id attribute from log files. The approach has been implemented as a ProM plugin and evaluated with several real-world event logs. The results demonstrate a high accuracy in inferring the case id attribute.......Process mining aims at exploring the data produced by executable business processes to mine the underlying control-flow and dataflow. Most of the process mining algorithms assume the existence of an event log with a certain maturity level. Unfortunately, the logs provided by process unaware...

  1. Attribution of precipitation changes in African rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, F. E. L.; Allen, M. R.; Bowery, A.; Imbers, J.; Jones, R.; Massey, N.; Miller, J.; Rosier, S.; Rye, C.; Thurston, M.; Wilson, S.; Yamazaki, H.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate change is almost certainly affecting the magnitude and frequency of extreme weather and hydrological events. However, whether and to what extend the occurrence of such an event can be attributed to climate change remains a challenge that relies on good observations as well as climate modelling. A number of recent studies have attempted to quantify the role of human influence on climate in observed weather events as e.g. the 2010 Russian heat wave (Dole et al, 2011; Rahmstorf and Coumou, 2011; Otto et al, 2012). The overall approach is to simulate, with as realistic a model as possible and accounting as far as possible for modelling uncertainties, both the statistics of observed weather and the statistics of the weather that would have obtained had specific external drivers of climate change been absent. This approach requires a large ensemble size to provide results from which the statistical significance and the shape of the distribution of key variables can be assessed. Also, a sufficiently long period of time must be simulated to evaluate model bias and whether the model captures the observed distribution. The weatherathome.net within the climateprediction.net projects provides such an ensemble with many hundred ensemble members per year via volunteer distributed computing. Most previous attribution studies have been about European extreme weather events but the most vulnerable regions to climate change are in Asia and Africa. One of the most complex hydrological systems is the tropical rainforest, which is expected to react highly sensible to a changing climate. Analysing the weatherathome.net results we find that conditions which are too dry for rainforests to sustain without damages occurred more frequently and more severe in recent years. Furthermore the changes in precipitation in that region can be linked to El Nino/ La Nina events. Linking extreme weather events to large-scale teleconnections helps to understand the occurrence of this

  2. Assessing students' beliefs, emotions and causal attribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: academic emotion; belief; causal attribution; statistical validation; students' conceptions of learning ... Sadi & Lee, 2015), through their effect on motivation and learning strategies .... to understand why they may or may not be doing.

  3. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Wayne D.

    2002-05-29

    This project is intended to enhance the ability to use seismic data for the determination of rock and fluid properties through an improved understanding of the physics underlying the relationships between seismic attributes and formation.

  4. Object attributes combine additively in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, R T; Arun, S P

    2016-01-01

    We perceive objects as containing a variety of attributes: local features, relations between features, internal details, and global properties. But we know little about how they combine. Here, we report a remarkably simple additive rule that governs how these diverse object attributes combine in vision. The perceived dissimilarity between two objects was accurately explained as a sum of (a) spatially tuned local contour-matching processes modulated by part decomposition; (b) differences in internal details, such as texture; (c) differences in emergent attributes, such as symmetry; and (d) differences in global properties, such as orientation or overall configuration of parts. Our results elucidate an enduring question in object vision by showing that the whole object is not a sum of its parts but a sum of its many attributes.

  5. Design-Build Partnership Attributes Survey Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pyle, Raymond

    1998-01-01

    Two basic hypotheses were investigated: 1. Finding these attributes for success for a design-build partnership may be accomplished by transferring concepts and ideas from business research on partnership formation. 2...

  6. Architectural patterns and quality attributes interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Me, G.; Calero Munoz, C.; Lago, P.; Muccini, H.

    2016-01-01

    Architectural patterns and styles represent common solutions to recurrent problems. They encompass architectural knowledge about how to achieve holistic system quality. The relation between patterns (or styles) and quality attributes has been regularly addressed in the literature. However, there is

  7. Attributable causes of colorectal cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Meng-Jia; Huang, Qiu-Chi; Bao, Cheng-Zhen; Li, Ying-Jun; Li, Xiao-Qin; Ye, Ding; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Kun; Wang, Jian-Bing

    2018-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the 4th common cancer in China. Most colorectal cancers are due to modifiable lifestyle factors, but few studies have provided a systematic evidence-based assessment of the burden of colorectal cancer incidence and mortality attributable to the known risk factors in China. Methods We estimated the population attributable faction (PAF) for each selected risk factor in China, based on the prevalence of exposure around 2000 and relative risks from cohort studies a...

  8. Object attributes combine additively in visual search

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod, R. T.; Arun, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    We perceive objects as containing a variety of attributes: local features, relations between features, internal details, and global properties. But we know little about how they combine. Here, we report a remarkably simple additive rule that governs how these diverse object attributes combine in vision. The perceived dissimilarity between two objects was accurately explained as a sum of (a) spatially tuned local contour-matching processes modulated by part decomposition; (b) differences in in...

  9. Corporate apologia and the attribution of guilt

    OpenAIRE

    Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that in the difficult disciplines of crisis communication and image restoration, attribution theory has explanatory value. Corporate apologia – the explanations that an organisation offers after an attack on – differs with the type of crisis it is designed to diffuse, and if the crisis concerns legitimacy, the art is to shift the public attribution of guilt or responsibility. The case of Arla vs Hirtshals is used to demonstrate how a concerted effort in impression management...

  10. Language Learner Beliefs from an Attributional Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gabillon, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This qualitative study, aimed to analyze eight French-speaking learners' beliefs about English and English language learning. The data were obtained via semi-structured interviews. The study drew on Weiner's attribution theory of achievement motivation and Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The novelty about this research is the employment of an attributional analysis framework to study and explain the learners' stated beliefs about English and English language learning.

  11. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    José Juan Vázquez; Sonia Panadero

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors") and Spanish ("observers") undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ). Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are difference...

  12. Improving the Accuracy of Attribute Extraction using the Relatedness between Attribute Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollegala, Danushka; Tani, Naoki; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    Extracting attribute-values related to entities from web texts is an important step in numerous web related tasks such as information retrieval, information extraction, and entity disambiguation (namesake disambiguation). For example, for a search query that contains a personal name, we can not only return documents that contain that personal name, but if we have attribute-values such as the organization for which that person works, we can also suggest documents that contain information related to that organization, thereby improving the user's search experience. Despite numerous potential applications of attribute extraction, it remains a challenging task due to the inherent noise in web data -- often a single web page contains multiple entities and attributes. We propose a graph-based approach to select the correct attribute-values from a set of candidate attribute-values extracted for a particular entity. First, we build an undirected weighted graph in which, attribute-values are represented by nodes, and the edge that connects two nodes in the graph represents the degree of relatedness between the corresponding attribute-values. Next, we find the maximum spanning tree of this graph that connects exactly one attribute-value for each attribute-type. The proposed method outperforms previously proposed attribute extraction methods on a dataset that contains 5000 web pages.

  13. Attributional processes in the learned helplessness paradigm: behavioral effects of global attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulincer, M

    1986-12-01

    Following the learned helplessness paradigm, I assessed in this study the effects of global and specific attributions for failure on the generalization of performance deficits in a dissimilar situation. Helplessness training consisted of experience with noncontingent failures on four cognitive discrimination problems attributed to either global or specific causes. Experiment 1 found that performance in a dissimilar situation was impaired following exposure to globally attributed failure. Experiment 2 examined the behavioral effects of the interaction between stable and global attributions of failure. Exposure to unsolvable problems resulted in reduced performance in a dissimilar situation only when failure was attributed to global and stable causes. Finally, Experiment 3 found that learned helplessness deficits were a product of the interaction of global and internal attribution. Performance deficits following unsolvable problems were recorded when failure was attributed to global and internal causes. Results were discussed in terms of the reformulated learned helplessness model.

  14. Attribution bias and social anxiety in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie M. Achim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia have produced mixed results, whereas such biases have been more consistently reported in people with anxiety disorders. Anxiety comorbidities are frequent in schizophrenia, in particular social anxiety disorder, which could influence their patterns of attribution biases. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if individuals with schizophrenia and a comorbid social anxiety disorder (SZ+ show distinct attribution biases as compared with individuals with schizophrenia without social anxiety (SZ− and healthy controls. Attribution biases were assessed with the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire in 41 individual with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Results revealed the lack of the normal externalizing bias in SZ+, whereas SZ− did not significantly differ from healthy controls on this dimension. The personalizing bias was not influenced by social anxiety but was in contrast linked with delusions, with a greater personalizing bias in individuals with current delusions. Future studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia should carefully document symptom presentation, including social anxiety.

  15. Labeled experimental choice design for estimating attribute and availability cross effects with N attributes and specific brand attribute levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien

    2011-01-01

    Experimental designs are required in widely used techniques in marketing research, especially for preference-based conjoint analysis and discrete-choice studies. Ideally, marketing researchers prefer orthogonal designs because this technique could give uncorrelated parameter estimates. However, o...... for implementing designs that is efficient enough to estimate model with N brands, each brand have K attributes, and brand attribute has specific levels. The paper also illustrates an example in food consumption study.......Experimental designs are required in widely used techniques in marketing research, especially for preference-based conjoint analysis and discrete-choice studies. Ideally, marketing researchers prefer orthogonal designs because this technique could give uncorrelated parameter estimates. However......, orthogonal design is not available for every situation. Instead, efficient design based on computerized design algorithm is always available. This paper presents the method of efficient design for estimating brand models having attribute and availability cross effects. The paper gives a framework...

  16. Attribute Framing and Goal Framing Effects in Health Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Parthasarathy; Carter, Patrick; Blair, Edward

    2001-07-01

    Levin, Schneider, and Gaeth (LSG, 1998) have distinguished among three types of framing-risky choice, attribute, and goal framing-to reconcile conflicting findings in the literature. In the research reported here, we focus on attribute and goal framing. LSG propose that positive frames should be more effective than negative frames in the context of attribute framing, and negative frames should be more effective than positive frames in the context of goal framing. We test this framework by manipulating frame valence (positive vs negative) and frame type (attribute vs goal) in a unified context with common procedures. We also argue that the nature of effects in a goal-framing context may depend on the extent to which the research topic has "intrinsic self-relevance" to the population. In the context of medical decision making, we operationalize low intrinsic self-relevance by using student subjects and high intrinsic self-relevance by using patients. As expected, we find complete support for the LSG framework under low intrinsic self-relevance and modified support for the LSG framework under high intrinsic self-relevance. Overall, our research appears to confirm and extend the LSG framework. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. Health professionals’ familiarity and attributions to mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghukwa Nkereuwem Chikaodiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A few months from the time of this survey, the nearly completed inpatient psychiatric facility within the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital’s complex would be ready for admissions. Understanding the health workers’ level of experience of mental illness and their likely behavioural responses towards people with psychiatric illness, therefore, should be a good baseline to understanding their likely reactions towards admitting such patients within a general hospital setting. The study, which used a pre-tested and adapted attribution questionnaire, was pro­spective and cross-sectional. Randomly selected health workers in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital had their level of familiarity and attributions towards psychiatric patients assessed. The respondents showed a high level of experience with mental illness, with more than 3 in 5 of them having watched movies on mental illness before. More than half of them held positive (favorable attributions towards persons with mental illness on nine of the ten assessed attribution factors. Almost all held negative (unfavourable opinion towards intimate relationships with such persons. Attribution factors, “Responsibility, “Anger”, “Dangerousness”, “Fear” and “Segregation” were significantly related to the respondents’ level of education (P less than 0.05. Marital status of the respondents related significantly to “Pity” and “Avoidance” factors (P less than 0.05. Having watched movies on mental illness significantly related to “Responsibility” and “Fear” factors (P less than 0.05. Programs designed to improve the health workers mental health literacy, and increased positive professional contacts with mentally ill persons on treatment, would further enhance their perceived positive attributions towards them.

  18. Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change Attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Katherine [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-31

    A report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concludes it is now possible to estimate the influence of climate change on some types of extreme events. The science of extreme event attribution has advanced rapidly in recent years, giving new insight to the ways that human-caused climate change can influence the magnitude or frequency of some extreme weather events. This report examines the current state of science of extreme weather attribution, and identifies ways to move the science forward to improve attribution capabilities. Confidence is strongest in attributing types of extreme events that are influenced by climate change through a well-understood physical mechanism, such as, the more frequent heat waves that are closely connected to human-caused global temperature increases, the report finds. Confidence is lower for other types of events, such as hurricanes, whose relationship to climate change is more complex and less understood at present. For any extreme event, the results of attribution studies hinge on how questions about the event's causes are posed, and on the data, modeling approaches, and statistical tools chosen for the analysis.

  19. Searchable attribute-based encryption scheme with attribute revocation in cloud storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shangping; Zhao, Duqiao; Zhang, Yaling

    2017-01-01

    Attribute based encryption (ABE) is a good way to achieve flexible and secure access control to data, and attribute revocation is the extension of the attribute-based encryption, and the keyword search is an indispensable part for cloud storage. The combination of both has an important application in the cloud storage. In this paper, we construct a searchable attribute-based encryption scheme with attribute revocation in cloud storage, the keyword search in our scheme is attribute based with access control, when the search succeeds, the cloud server returns the corresponding cipher text to user and the user can decrypt the cipher text definitely. Besides, our scheme supports multiple keywords search, which makes the scheme more practical. Under the assumption of decisional bilinear Diffie-Hellman exponent (q-BDHE) and decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) in the selective security model, we prove that our scheme is secure.

  20. The origin of high-Mg magmas in Mt Shasta and Medicine Lake volcanoes, Cascade Arc (California): higher and lower than mantle oxygen isotope signatures attributed to current and past subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Bindeman, I.; Grove, T. L.

    2011-11-01

    We report the oxygen isotope composition of olivine and orthopyroxene phenocrysts in lavas from the main magma types at Mt Shasta and Medicine Lake Volcanoes: primitive high-alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT), basaltic andesites (BA), primitive magnesian andesites (PMA), and dacites. The most primitive HAOT (MgO > 9 wt%) from Mt. Shasta has olivine δ18O (δ18OOl) values of 5.9-6.1‰, which are about 1‰ higher than those observed in olivine from normal mantle-derived magmas. In contrast, HAOT lavas from Medicine Lake have δ18OOl values ranging from 4.7 to 5.5‰, which are similar to or lower than values for olivine in equilibrium with mantle-derived magmas. Other magma types from both volcanoes show intermediate δ18OOl values. The oxygen isotope composition of the most magnesian lavas cannot be explained by crustal contamination and the trace element composition of olivine phenocrysts precludes a pyroxenitic mantle source. Therefore, the high and variable δ18OOl signature of the most magnesian samples studied (HAOT and BA) comes from the peridotitic mantle wedge itself. As HAOT magma is generated by anhydrous adiabatic partial melting of the shallow mantle, its 1.4‰ range in δ18OOl reflects a heterogeneous composition of the shallow mantle source that has been influenced by subduction fluids and/or melts sometime in the past. Magmas generated in the mantle wedge by flux melting due to modern subduction fluids, as exemplified by BA and probably PMA, display more homogeneous composition with only 0.5‰ variation. The high-δ18O values observed in magnesian lavas, and principally in the HAOT, are difficult to explain by a single-stage flux-melting process in the mantle wedge above the modern subduction zone and require a mantle source enriched in 18O. It is here explained by flow of older, pre-enriched portions of the mantle through the slab window beneath the South Cascades.

  1. Homogeneity of Prototypical Attributes in Soccer Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zepp

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes influences several intragroup processes. The aim of the present study was to describe the homogeneous perception of the prototype and to identify specific prototypical subcategories, which are perceived as homogeneous within sport teams. The sample consists of N = 20 soccer teams with a total of N = 278 athletes (age M = 23.5 years, SD = 5.0 years. The results reveal that subcategories describing the cohesiveness of the team and motivational attributes are mentioned homogeneously within sport teams. In addition, gender, identification, team size, and the championship ranking significantly correlate with the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes. The results are discussed on the basis of theoretical and practical implications.

  2. Controlling attribute effect in linear regression

    KAUST Repository

    Calders, Toon; Karim, Asim A.; Kamiran, Faisal; Ali, Wasif Mohammad; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2013-01-01

    In data mining we often have to learn from biased data, because, for instance, data comes from different batches or there was a gender or racial bias in the collection of social data. In some applications it may be necessary to explicitly control this bias in the models we learn from the data. This paper is the first to study learning linear regression models under constraints that control the biasing effect of a given attribute such as gender or batch number. We show how propensity modeling can be used for factoring out the part of the bias that can be justified by externally provided explanatory attributes. Then we analytically derive linear models that minimize squared error while controlling the bias by imposing constraints on the mean outcome or residuals of the models. Experiments with discrimination-aware crime prediction and batch effect normalization tasks show that the proposed techniques are successful in controlling attribute effects in linear regression models. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. Controlling attribute effect in linear regression

    KAUST Repository

    Calders, Toon

    2013-12-01

    In data mining we often have to learn from biased data, because, for instance, data comes from different batches or there was a gender or racial bias in the collection of social data. In some applications it may be necessary to explicitly control this bias in the models we learn from the data. This paper is the first to study learning linear regression models under constraints that control the biasing effect of a given attribute such as gender or batch number. We show how propensity modeling can be used for factoring out the part of the bias that can be justified by externally provided explanatory attributes. Then we analytically derive linear models that minimize squared error while controlling the bias by imposing constraints on the mean outcome or residuals of the models. Experiments with discrimination-aware crime prediction and batch effect normalization tasks show that the proposed techniques are successful in controlling attribute effects in linear regression models. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Corporate apologia and the attribution of guilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie

    This paper argues that in the difficult disciplines of crisis communication and image restoration, attribution theory has explanatory value. Corporate apologia - the explanations that an organisation offers after an attack - differs with the type of crisis it is designed to diffuse, and if the cr......, and if the crisis concerns legitimacy, the art is to shift the public attribution of guilt or responsibility. The case of Arla vs Hirtshals is used to demonstrate how a concerted effort in impression management succeeded in just such a shift.......This paper argues that in the difficult disciplines of crisis communication and image restoration, attribution theory has explanatory value. Corporate apologia - the explanations that an organisation offers after an attack - differs with the type of crisis it is designed to diffuse...

  5. Attribute And-Or Grammar for Joint Parsing of Human Pose, Parts and Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seyoung; Nie, Xiaohan; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2017-07-25

    This paper presents an attribute and-or grammar (A-AOG) model for jointly inferring human body pose and human attributes in a parse graph with attributes augmented to nodes in the hierarchical representation. In contrast to other popular methods in the current literature that train separate classifiers for poses and individual attributes, our method explicitly represents the decomposition and articulation of body parts, and account for the correlations between poses and attributes. The A-AOG model is an amalgamation of three traditional grammar formulations: (i)Phrase structure grammar representing the hierarchical decomposition of the human body from whole to parts; (ii)Dependency grammar modeling the geometric articulation by a kinematic graph of the body pose; and (iii)Attribute grammar accounting for the compatibility relations between different parts in the hierarchy so that their appearances follow a consistent style. The parse graph outputs human detection, pose estimation, and attribute prediction simultaneously, which are intuitive and interpretable. We conduct experiments on two tasks on two datasets, and experimental results demonstrate the advantage of joint modeling in comparison with computing poses and attributes independently. Furthermore, our model obtains better performance over existing methods for both pose estimation and attribute prediction tasks.

  6. Process attributes in bio-ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade André Q

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical processes can provide essential information about the (mal- functioning of an organism and are thus frequently represented in biomedical terminologies and ontologies, including the GO Biological Process branch. These processes often need to be described and categorised in terms of their attributes, such as rates or regularities. The adequate representation of such process attributes has been a contentious issue in bio-ontologies recently; and domain ontologies have correspondingly developed ad hoc workarounds that compromise interoperability and logical consistency. Results We present a design pattern for the representation of process attributes that is compatible with upper ontology frameworks such as BFO and BioTop. Our solution rests on two key tenets: firstly, that many of the sorts of process attributes which are biomedically interesting can be characterised by the ways that repeated parts of such processes constitute, in combination, an overall process; secondly, that entities for which a full logical definition can be assigned do not need to be treated as primitive within a formal ontology framework. We apply this approach to the challenge of modelling and automatically classifying examples of normal and abnormal rates and patterns of heart beating processes, and discuss the expressivity required in the underlying ontology representation language. We provide full definitions for process attributes at increasing levels of domain complexity. Conclusions We show that a logical definition of process attributes is feasible, though limited by the expressivity of DL languages so that the creation of primitives is still necessary. This finding may endorse current formal upper-ontology frameworks as a way of ensuring consistency, interoperability and clarity.

  7. Attribute correlates of hospital outpatient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueckeberg, H F; Hubbert, A

    1995-01-01

    Customer satisfaction (patient satisfaction) with hospital outpatient or ambulatory services is an important factor in influencing patient patronage and loyalty. Based on an empirical study, this article examines the attributes of the ambulatory care experience which were significantly associated with the level of satisfaction resulting from the most recent hospital ambulatory visit. This study focuses on identifying attributes of ambulatory services. This article brings to the health care marketing literature information on ambulatory satisfaction comparable to that which has been contributed to the literature regarding satisfaction with physician and hospital experiences.

  8. Attributions of responsibility and affective reactions to decision outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, M; van der Pligt, J; de Vries, N K

    2000-06-01

    Immediate affective reactions to outcomes are more intense following decisions to act than following decisions not to act. This finding holds for both positive and negative outcomes. We relate this "actor-effect" to attribution theory and argue that decision makers are seen as more responsible for outcomes when these are the result of a decision to act as compared to a decision not to act. Experiment 1 (N = 80) tests the main assumption underlying our reasoning and shows that affective reactions to decision outcomes are indeed more intense when the decision maker is seen as more responsible. Experiment 2 (N = 40) tests whether the actor effect can be predicted on the basis of differential attributions following action and inaction. Participants read vignettes in which active and passive actors obtained a positive or negative outcome. Action resulted in more intense affect than inaction, and positive outcomes resulted in more intense affect than negative outcomes. Experiment 2 further shows that responsibility attributions and affective reactions to outcomes are highly correlated; that is, more extreme affective reactions are associated with more internal attributions. We discuss the implications for research on post-decisional reactions.

  9. Detecting Hotspot Information Using Multi-Attribute Based Topic Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available Microblogging as a kind of social network has become more and more important in our daily lives. Enormous amounts of information are produced and shared on a daily basis. Detecting hot topics in the mountains of information can help people get to the essential information more quickly. However, due to short and sparse features, a large number of meaningless tweets and other characteristics of microblogs, traditional topic detection methods are often ineffective in detecting hot topics. In this paper, we propose a new topic model named multi-attribute latent dirichlet allocation (MA-LDA, in which the time and hashtag attributes of microblogs are incorporated into LDA model. By introducing time attribute, MA-LDA model can decide whether a word should appear in hot topics or not. Meanwhile, compared with the traditional LDA model, applying hashtag attribute in MA-LDA model gives the core words an artificially high ranking in results meaning the expressiveness of outcomes can be improved. Empirical evaluations on real data sets demonstrate that our method is able to detect hot topics more accurately and efficiently compared with several baselines. Our method provides strong evidence of the importance of the temporal factor in extracting hot topics.

  10. A neuroimaging investigation of attribute framing and individual differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Kevin B.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the neural basis of framing effects. We tested the reflexive and reflective systems model of social cognition as it relates to framing. We also examined the relationships among frame susceptibility, intelligence and personality measures. Participants evaluated whether personal attributes applied to themselves from multiple perspectives and in positive and negative frames. Participants rated whether each statement was descriptive or not and endorsed positive frames more than negative frames. Individual differences on frame decisions enabled us to form high and low frame susceptibility groups. Endorsement of frame-consistent attributes was associated with personality factors, cognitive reflection and intelligence. Reflexive brain regions were associated with positive frames while reflective areas were associated with negative frames. Region of Interest analyses showed that frame-inconsistent responses were associated with increased activation within reflective cognitive control regions including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC and left ventrolateral PFC. Frame-consistent responses were associated with increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that individual differences in frame susceptibility influence personal attribute evaluations. Overall, this study clarifies the neural correlates of the reflective and reflexive systems of social cognition as applied to decisions about social attributions. PMID:23988759

  11. Identifying attributes of food literacy: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo Perry, Elsie; Thomas, Heather; Samra, H Ruby; Edmonstone, Shannon; Davidson, Lyndsay; Faulkner, Amy; Petermann, Lisa; Manafò, Elizabeth; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I

    2017-09-01

    An absence of food literacy measurement tools makes it challenging for nutrition practitioners to assess the impact of food literacy on healthy diets and to evaluate the outcomes of food literacy interventions. The objective of the present scoping review was to identify the attributes of food literacy. A scoping review of peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted and attributes of food literacy identified. Subjects included in the search were high-risk groups. Eligible articles were limited to research from Canada, USA, the UK, Australia and New Zealand. The search identified nineteen peer-reviewed and thirty grey literature sources. Fifteen identified food literacy attributes were organized into five categories. Food and Nutrition Knowledge informs decisions about intake and distinguishing between 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' foods. Food Skills focuses on techniques of food purchasing, preparation, handling and storage. Self-Efficacy and Confidence represent one's capacity to perform successfully in specific situations. Ecologic refers to beyond self and the interaction of macro- and microsystems with food decisions and behaviours. Food Decisions reflects the application of knowledge, information and skills to make food choices. These interdependent attributes are depicted in a proposed conceptual model. The lack of evaluated tools inhibits the ability to assess and monitor food literacy; tailor, target and evaluate programmes; identify gaps in programming; engage in advocacy; and allocate resources. The present scoping review provides the foundation for the development of a food literacy measurement tool to address these gaps.

  12. A neuroimaging investigation of attribute framing and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Kevin B; Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2014-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the neural basis of framing effects. We tested the reflexive and reflective systems model of social cognition as it relates to framing. We also examined the relationships among frame susceptibility, intelligence and personality measures. Participants evaluated whether personal attributes applied to themselves from multiple perspectives and in positive and negative frames. Participants rated whether each statement was descriptive or not and endorsed positive frames more than negative frames. Individual differences on frame decisions enabled us to form high and low frame susceptibility groups. Endorsement of frame-consistent attributes was associated with personality factors, cognitive reflection and intelligence. Reflexive brain regions were associated with positive frames while reflective areas were associated with negative frames. Region of Interest analyses showed that frame-inconsistent responses were associated with increased activation within reflective cognitive control regions including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC and left ventrolateral PFC. Frame-consistent responses were associated with increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that individual differences in frame susceptibility influence personal attribute evaluations. Overall, this study clarifies the neural correlates of the reflective and reflexive systems of social cognition as applied to decisions about social attributions. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Detecting Hotspot Information Using Multi-Attribute Based Topic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Li; Tan, Feng; Zhu, Ying; Feng, Weisi

    2015-01-01

    Microblogging as a kind of social network has become more and more important in our daily lives. Enormous amounts of information are produced and shared on a daily basis. Detecting hot topics in the mountains of information can help people get to the essential information more quickly. However, due to short and sparse features, a large number of meaningless tweets and other characteristics of microblogs, traditional topic detection methods are often ineffective in detecting hot topics. In this paper, we propose a new topic model named multi-attribute latent dirichlet allocation (MA-LDA), in which the time and hashtag attributes of microblogs are incorporated into LDA model. By introducing time attribute, MA-LDA model can decide whether a word should appear in hot topics or not. Meanwhile, compared with the traditional LDA model, applying hashtag attribute in MA-LDA model gives the core words an artificially high ranking in results meaning the expressiveness of outcomes can be improved. Empirical evaluations on real data sets demonstrate that our method is able to detect hot topics more accurately and efficiently compared with several baselines. Our method provides strong evidence of the importance of the temporal factor in extracting hot topics. PMID:26496635

  14. Growth and reproductive attributes of radionuclide phytoremediators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reveals that growth attributes including relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf are index and specific leaf area, dry matter allocated to stem and leaves and number of reproductive organs decreased with the increase of radionuclide content of the plant, while the dry matter allocated to root and reproductive ...

  15. Development of the Attributed Dignity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacelon, Cynthia S; Dixon, Jane; Knafl, Kathleen A

    2009-07-01

    A sequential, multi-method approach to instrument development beginning with concept analysis, followed by (a) item generation from qualitative data, (b) review of items by expert and lay person panels, (c) cognitive appraisal interviews, (d) pilot testing, and (e) evaluating construct validity was used to develop a measure of attributed dignity in older adults. The resulting positively scored, 23-item scale has three dimensions: Self-Value, Behavioral Respect-Self, and Behavioral Respect-Others. Item-total correlations in the pilot study ranged from 0.39 to 0.85. Correlations between the Attributed Dignity Scale (ADS) and both Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (0.17) and Crowne and Marlowe's Social Desirability Scale (0.36) were modest and in the expected direction, indicating attributed dignity is a related but independent concept. Next steps include testing the ADS with a larger sample to complete factor analysis, test-retest stability, and further study of the relationships between attributed dignity and other concepts.

  16. On defining semantics of extended attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1980-01-01

    Knuth has introduced attribute grammars (AGs) as a tool to define the semanitcs of context-free languages. The use of AGs in connection with programming language definitions has mostly been to define the context-sensitive syntax of the language and to define a translation in code for a hypothetic...

  17. Parent-Child Agreement on Attributional Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashmore, Judith A.; Goodnow, Jacqueline J.

    1986-01-01

    Explores extent to which parents and their adolescent children agree with respect to their attributional beliefs. First-born Australian children of Anglo and Italian backgrounds and their parents ranked talent, effort, and teaching according to relative importance in the development of six skill areas. Variations in patterns of attributions…

  18. Consumer preferences for pork supply chain attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lans, van der I.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Based on an extensive customized conjoint analysis with 24 attributes of pork production, covering issues from feed to fork, we identified six consumer segments: ecologists (17%), tradition-minded consumers (17%), animal friends (16%), health-concerned consumers (18%), economists (12%) and

  19. Source attribution of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, L; Rosenquist, H; Larsson, J T; Nielsen, E M; Sørensen, G; Nordentoft, S; Hald, T

    2014-08-01

    SUMMARY This study assesses the contribution of different sources of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark using two different source-attribution approaches. In total, 794 non-human isolates and 406 isolates from human cases (domestic, travel related, and cases with unknown travel history) were collected. Isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing, flaA typing and susceptibility to antibiotics. Both models used indicate that the major burden of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark originates from the domestic broiler chicken reservoir. The second most important reservoir was found to be cattle. The Asymmetric Island model attributed 52% [95% credibility interval (CrI) 37-67] to Danish chicken, 17% (95% CrI 3-33) to imported chicken, and 17% (95% CrI 7-28) to cattle. Similarly, the Campylobacter source-attribution model apportioned 38% (95% CrI 28-47) to Danish chicken, 14% (95% CrI 10-18) to imported chicken, and 16% (95% CrI 7-25) to cattle. The addition of flaA type as an extra discriminatory typing parameter did not change the attribution of cases markedly.

  20. 1 Evaluating Biophysical Attributes of Environmentally Degraded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol.4 No. 1 2011. 1 Department of .... land cover types and other physical attributes. (soils and landform ..... Natural water bodies (Rivers). Figure 4: .... permanent or ephemeral rivers. .... evaluating land use/land cover change using participatory ... First Edition.

  1. Predictive user modeling with actionable attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zliobaite, I.; Pechenizkiy, M.

    2013-01-01

    Different machine learning techniques have been proposed and used for modeling individual and group user needs, interests and preferences. In the traditional predictive modeling instances are described by observable variables, called attributes. The goal is to learn a model for predicting the target

  2. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Dalgaard, P.; Heijungs, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim and scope Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle

  3. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, Marlies A.; Dalgaard, Randi; Heijungs, Reinout; De Boer, Imke

    Background, aim and scope: Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle

  4. Beyond OCR: Handwritten manuscript attribute understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the author, date and location of handwritten historical documents is very important for historians to completely understand and reveal the valuable information they contain. In this thesis, three attributes, such as writer, date and geographical location, are studied by analyzing the

  5. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire: A Conceptual Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Daniel

    The rich complexity of the concepts of masculinity and femininity has been reflected in personality measures in at least two different ways: by employing a variety of subscales with comparatively homogeneous items or by using a single scale with comparatively heterogeneous items. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) was the subject of an…

  6. FAT-miner: mining frequent attribute trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijf, de J.; Cho, Y.; Wainwright, R.L.; Haddad, H.; Shin, S.Y.; Koo, Y.W.

    2007-01-01

    Data that can conceptually be viewed as tree structures abounds in domains such as bio-informatics, web logs, XML databases and multi-relational databases. Besides structural information such as nodes and edges, tree structured data also often contains attributes, that represent properties of nodes.

  7. Distress attributed to negative symptoms in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selten, JP; Wiersma, D; van den Bosch, RJ

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine (1) to which negative symptoms schizophrenia patients attribute distress and (2) whether clinical variables can predict the levels of reported distress. With the help of a research assistant, 86 hospitalized patients completed a self-rating scale for negative

  8. Attribution of Negative Intention in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbee, Kali; Porter, Melanie A.

    2013-01-01

    People with Williams syndrome (WS) are said to have sociable and extremely trusting personalities, approaching strangers without hesitation. This study investigated whether people with WS are less likely than controls to attribute negative intent to others when interpreting a series of ambiguous pictures. This may, at least partially, explain…

  9. Discriminative power of visual attributes in dermatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giotis, Ioannis; Visser, Margaretha; Jonkman, Marcel; Petkov, Nicolai

    Background/purpose: Visual characteristics such as color and shape of skin lesions play an important role in the diagnostic process. In this contribution, we quantify the discriminative power of such attributes using an information theoretical approach. Methods: We estimate the probability of

  10. Identifying Key Attributes for Protein Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Lopetcharat, K; Bastian, E; Drake, M A

    2015-06-01

    This study identified key attributes of protein beverages and evaluated effects of priming on liking of protein beverages. An adaptive choice-based conjoint study was conducted along with Kano analysis to gain insight on protein beverage consumers (n = 432). Attributes evaluated included label claim, protein type, amount of protein, carbohydrates, sweeteners, and metabolic benefits. Utility scores for levels and importance scores for attributes were determined. Subsequently, two pairs of clear acidic whey protein beverages were manufactured that differed by age of protein source or the amount of whey protein per serving. Beverages were evaluated by 151 consumers on two occasions with or without priming statements. One priming statement declared "great flavor," the other priming statement declared 20 g protein per serving. A two way analysis of variance was applied to discern the role of each priming statement. The most important attribute for protein beverages was sweetener type, followed by amount of protein, followed by type of protein followed by label claim. Beverages with whey protein, naturally sweetened, reduced sugar and ≥15 g protein per serving were most desired. Three consumer clusters were identified, differentiated by their preferences for protein type, sweetener and amount of protein. Priming statements positively impacted concept liking (P 0.05). Consistent with trained panel profiles of increased cardboard flavor with higher protein content, consumers liked beverages with 10 g protein more than beverages with 20 g protein (6.8 compared with 5.7, P appeal. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Credit in Acceptance Sampling on Attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Chris A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Credit is introduced in acceptance sampling on attributes and a Credit Based Acceptance sampling system is developed that is very easy to apply in practice.The credit of a producer is defined as the total number of items accepted since the last rejection.In our sampling system the sample size for a

  12. Defining Hardwood Veneer Log Quality Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Michael Wiemann; Delton Alderman; John Baumgras; William Luppold

    2004-01-01

    This publication provides a broad spectrum of information on the hardwood veneer industry in North America. Veneer manufacturers and their customers impose guidelines in specifying wood quality attributes that are very discriminating but poorly defined (e.g., exceptional color, texture, and/or figure characteristics). To better understand and begin to define the most...

  13. Personal attributes influencing school burnout among graduating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questionnaires administered on participants contained scales that measured school burnout, academic self-efficacy, perception of teacher support, sex and age. The study predicted that personal attributes and demographics will significantly influence school burnout. The hypothesis was confirmed as predicted as result ...

  14. A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Army Advertising Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    ARMY ADVERTISING ATTRIBUTES EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Research Requirement: In order to assess the impact of the Army’s advertising strategy and campaigns...Sample sizes varied from 4,875 to 4,926 for the NRS and from 3,569 to 3,602 for ACOMS. Improvement type themes. This advertising strategy would make...and college. I recommend that the Army focus advertising strategy on the Army as a positive step between high school and college in addition to work

  15. Gender Attributions of Science and Academic Attributes: AN Examination of Undergraduate Science, Mathematics, and Technology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, W. Jay

    Questionnaire data (n = 297) examined the relationship between gender attributions of science and academic attributes for undergraduate science, mathematics, and technology majors from the perspective of gender schema theory. Female and male respondents perceived that (a) the role of scientist was sex typed as masculine, (b) their majors were more valuable for members of their gender than for those of the opposite gender, (c) their majors were more valuable for themselves than for members of their gender in general. Androgynous attributions of scientists and the value of one's major for women predicted value for oneself, major confidence, and career confidence, and masculine attributions of scientists predicted class participation for female respondents. Feminine attributions of scientists predicted graduate school intent; value for women predicted major confidence and subjective achievement, and value for men predicted value for oneself, course confidence, and career confidence for male respondents.

  16. Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikku, Laura; Soimakallio, Sampo; Pingoud, Kim

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: ► CO 2 emissions from land use changes are highly important. ► Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. ► Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

  17. Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikku, Laura, E-mail: laura.saikku@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, P.O Box 65, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo, E-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Pingoud, Kim, E-mail: kim.pingoud@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions from land use changes are highly important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

  18. Space Archaeology: Attribute, Object, Task and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyuan; Guo, Huadong; Luo, Lei; Liu, Chuansheng

    2017-04-01

    Archaeology takes the material remains of human activity as the research object, and uses those fragmentary remains to reconstruct the humanistic and natural environment in different historical periods. Space Archaeology is a new branch of the Archaeology. Its study object is the humanistic-natural complex including the remains of human activities and living environments on the earth surface. The research method, space information technologies applied to this complex, is an innovative process concerning archaeological information acquisition, interpretation and reconstruction, and to achieve the 3-D dynamic reconstruction of cultural heritages by constructing the digital cultural-heritage sphere. Space archaeology's attribute is highly interdisciplinary linking several areas of natural and social and humanities. Its task is to reveal the history, characteristics, and patterns of human activities in the past, as well as to understand the evolutionary processes guiding the relationship between human and their environment. This paper summarizes six important aspects of space archaeology and five crucial recommendations for the establishment and development of this new discipline. The six important aspects are: (1) technologies and methods for non-destructive detection of archaeological sites; (2) space technologies for the protection and monitoring of cultural heritages; (3) digital environmental reconstruction of archaeological sites; (4) spatial data storage and data mining of cultural heritages; (5) virtual archaeology, digital reproduction and public information and presentation system; and (6) the construction of scientific platform of digital cultural-heritage sphere. The five key recommendations for establishing the discipline of Space Archaeology are: (1) encouraging the full integration of the strengths of both archaeology and museology with space technology to promote the development of space technologies' application for cultural heritages; (2) a new

  19. Scientists' Views about Attribution of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2015-04-01

    What do scientists think? That is an important question when engaging in science communication, in which an attempt is made to communicate the scientific understanding to a lay audience. To address this question we undertook a large and detailed survey among scientists studying various aspects of climate change , dubbed "perhaps the most thorough survey of climate scientists ever" by well-known climate scientist and science communicator Gavin Schmidt. Among more than 1800 respondents we found widespread agreement that global warming is predominantly caused by human greenhouse gases. This consensus strengthens with increased expertise, as defined by the number of self-reported articles in the peer-reviewed literature. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), agreed that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are the dominant cause of recent global warming, i.e. having contributed more than half of the observed warming. With this survey we specified what the consensus position entails with much greater specificity than previous studies. The relevance of this consensus for science communication will be discussed. Another important result from our survey is that the main attribution statement in IPCC's fourth assessment report (AR4) may lead to an underestimate of the greenhouse gas contribution to warming, because it implicitly includes the lesser known masking effect of cooling aerosols. This shows the importance of the exact wording in high-profile reports such as those from IPCC in how the statement is perceived, even by fellow scientists. The phrasing was improved in the most recent assessment report (AR5). Respondents who characterized the human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change. This shows that contrarian opinions are amplified in the media in relation to their prevalence in the scientific community. This

  20. 5-D interpolation with wave-front attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yujiang; Gajewski, Dirk

    2017-11-01

    Most 5-D interpolation and regularization techniques reconstruct the missing data in the frequency domain by using mathematical transforms. An alternative type of interpolation methods uses wave-front attributes, that is, quantities with a specific physical meaning like the angle of emergence and wave-front curvatures. In these attributes structural information of subsurface features like dip and strike of a reflector are included. These wave-front attributes work on 5-D data space (e.g. common-midpoint coordinates in x and y, offset, azimuth and time), leading to a 5-D interpolation technique. Since the process is based on stacking next to the interpolation a pre-stack data enhancement is achieved, improving the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of interpolated and recorded traces. The wave-front attributes are determined in a data-driven fashion, for example, with the Common Reflection Surface (CRS method). As one of the wave-front-attribute-based interpolation techniques, the 3-D partial CRS method was proposed to enhance the quality of 3-D pre-stack data with low S/N. In the past work on 3-D partial stacks, two potential problems were still unsolved. For high-quality wave-front attributes, we suggest a global optimization strategy instead of the so far used pragmatic search approach. In previous works, the interpolation of 3-D data was performed along a specific azimuth which is acceptable for narrow azimuth acquisition but does not exploit the potential of wide-, rich- or full-azimuth acquisitions. The conventional 3-D partial CRS method is improved in this work and we call it as a wave-front-attribute-based 5-D interpolation (5-D WABI) as the two problems mentioned above are addressed. Data examples demonstrate the improved performance by the 5-D WABI method when compared with the conventional 3-D partial CRS approach. A comparison of the rank-reduction-based 5-D seismic interpolation technique with the proposed 5-D WABI method is given. The comparison reveals that

  1. Privacy Protection Method for Multiple Sensitive Attributes Based on Strong Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, most studies on data publishing only considered single sensitive attribute, and the works on multiple sensitive attributes are still few. And almost all the existing studies on multiple sensitive attributes had not taken the inherent relationship between sensitive attributes into account, so that adversary can use the background knowledge about this relationship to attack the privacy of users. This paper presents an attack model with the association rules between the sensitive attributes and, accordingly, presents a data publication for multiple sensitive attributes. Through proof and analysis, the new model can prevent adversary from using the background knowledge about association rules to attack privacy, and it is able to get high-quality released information. At last, this paper verifies the above conclusion with experiments.

  2. Concurrent computation of attribute filters on shared memory parallel machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, Michael H.F.; Gao, Hui; Hesselink, Wim H.; Jonker, Jan-Eppo; Meijster, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Morphological attribute filters have not previously been parallelized mainly because they are both global and nonseparable. We propose a parallel algorithm that achieves efficient parallelism for a large class of attribute filters, including attribute openings, closings, thinnings, and thickenings,

  3. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to high cholesterol in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monte Carlo simulation-modelling techniques were used for uncertainty .... risk factor is estimated by comparing current local health status with a theoretical .... Normal probability distributions were specified around the mean TC levels by age, ...

  4. Academic Self-Attributions for Success and Failure in Mathematics and School Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, Carolina; Sanmartín, Ricardo; Vicent, María; Inglés, Cándido J.; Aparicio-Flores, M. Pilar; García-Fernández, José M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is twofold: to analyze the mean differences scores in mathematic self-attributions based on school refusal and to verify its predictive capability on high scores in school refusal. The Sydney Attribution Scale and the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised were administered to 1078 Spanish students (50.8% boys) aged…

  5. Examining Achievement Goals and Causal Attributions Together as Predictors of Academic Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Christopher A.; Fan, Weihua; Daugherty, Stacy G.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to forge stronger theoretical and empirical links between achievement goal theory and attribution theory. High school students ("N" = 224) completed a self-report survey that assessed 3 types of achievement goals, 7 types of attributions, and self-efficacy. Results indicated that students' adoption of achievement…

  6. ANALISIS PERSEPSI AUDITOR MENGENAI FAKTOR PENENTU AUDIT FEE BERDASARKAN CLIENT ATTRIBUTES, AUDITOR ATTRIBUTES, DAN ENGAGEMENT ATRTRIBUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Faturachman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research purposes to know how perception auditors about determining factors of audit fee based on Client Attributes, Auditor Attributes, and Engagement Attributes at The Public Accountant Firm residing in Bandung. In this research, the indicator that is used to characterize the Client Attributes are size, complexity, inherent risk, profitability, leverage and liquidity, and industry. While the indicator to characterize the Auditor Attributes are auditor’s specialization, audit tenure, and location. And the indicators to characterize the Engagement Attributes are audit problems, audit report lag, busy season, and number of reports. The Method that is used in this research is a descriptive method. The population in this research is a public accountant in Bandung. Based on sampling techniques that saturated and qualified then it take about 11 offices of public accountant. SmartPLS ver 2.0 M3 are used as a Statistical analysis. The result of this research with count the loading factor and bootstrapping method are, the first one that the perception of the auditor based on client attributes of audit fee determinants from which is very important to not important is size, complexity, profitability, inherent risk,  industry, and leverage & liquidty, the second states that perception based on auditor attributes audit fee determinants from which is very important to not important is audit tenure, location, and specialization. And the third states that the perception of auditor engagement attributes based determinants of audit fee which is very important to not important audit report lag, busy season, audit problems and number of reports.

  7. Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm, based on temporal intervals and attributes. We then show how the plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and show that the process of planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we de ne compatibilities, a compact mechanism for describing planning domains. We describe how this framework can incorporate the use of constraint reasoning technology to improve planning. Finally, we describe EUROPA, an implementation of the CAIP framework.

  8. Transfer and use of generation attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.

    2005-06-01

    Key issues regarding generation attribute accounting are being considered in the U.S., following similar discussions related to their use in Europe. Strict substantiation, environmental additionality and consistency criteria should be enshrined in nascent legislation being developed regarding claims over (electricity) generation attributes, and suitable standardization of disclosure labels should be mandated for electricity offerings to end users. In this way, the issue of multiple counting can be addressed effectively, consumer protection in the electricity market reliably ensured, and confidence in the integrity of green power products enhanced. For the time being, non-hydro renewable electricity cannot gain substantial market share without specific policy stimulation. Yet, both in Europe and in the U.S., credible facilitation of the consumer's choice in the electricity market is set to unleash considerable addition

  9. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Marlies A; Dalgaard, Randi; Heijungs, Reinout

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim and scope  Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle co......-products. Insight is needed in the effect of choice on results of environmental analyses of agricultural products, such as milk. The main goal of this study was to demonstrate and compare ALCA and CLCA of an average conventional milk production system in The Netherlands. Materials and methods  ALCA describes...... the pollution and resource flows within a chosen system attributed to the delivery of a specified amount of the functional unit. CLCA estimates how pollution and resource flows within a system change in response to a change in output of the functional unit. For an average Dutch conventional milk production...

  10. Quality-Attribute-Based Economic Valuation of Architectural Patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ozkaya, Ipek; Kazman, Rick; Klein, Mark

    2007-01-01

    .... Architectural patterns can be used to achieve quality attribute requirements. Consequently, architectural patterns generate value based on the present and future utility of the quality attributes they achieve...

  11. Group and Topic Discovery from Relations and Their Attributes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Xuerui; Mohanty, Natasha; McCallum, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The authors present a probabilistic generative model of entity relationships and their attributes that simultaneously discovers groups among the entities and topics among the corresponding textual attributes...

  12. Attribution Theory and Judgment under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-13

    that every- cuy learning experiences are typically not structured to develop cognitive control. Much of the problem appears to be related to...people do and should explain past events may be found in the ruminations of historians over the state and nature of their craft (e.g.. Beard, 1935...8217 P- N- Psychology of Reasoning: Structure and Content . London: Bacsford, 19727 gcruccure - Attribution Theory 51 Wyer, R. S. CoRnitive

  13. A calculus for attribute-based communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrahman, Yehia Abd; De Nicola, Rocco; Loreti, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The notion of attribute-based communication seems promising to model and analyse systems with huge numbers of interacting components that dynamically adjust and combine their behaviour to achieve specific goals. A basic process calculus, named AbC, is introduced that has as primitive construct...... of how well-established process calculi could be encoded into AbC is given by considering the translation into AbC of a proto-typical π-calculus process....

  14. Valuing Attributes of Fluid Milk in Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Won Lee; Taeyoon Kim; Viengsakoun Napasirth

    2017-01-01

    This study estimates the random utility function of fluid milk using 1,165 survey responses in Laos. It finds that both products’ attributes and individual characteristics affect consumers’ preference for the milk and the hypothetical brand of Laos-Korea has a potential compared to four real dairy products. Results also show that calories have a positive relationship with consumer’s preference while the price and fat content have a negative one. The decision for choosing each brand is signifi...

  15. Attribution of polar warming to human influence

    OpenAIRE

    Gillett, NP; Stone, DA; Stott, PA; Nozawa, T; Karpechko, AY; Hegerl, GC; Wehner, MF; Jones, PD

    2008-01-01

    The polar regions have long been expected to warm strongly as a result of anthropogenic climate change, because of the positive feedbacks associated with melting ice and snow. Several studies have noted a rise in Arctic temperatures over recent decades, but have not formally attributed the changes to human influence, owing to sparse observations and large natural variability. Both warming and cooling trends have been observed in Antarctica, which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ...

  16. Toward Deriving Software Architectures from Quality Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    administration of Its orograms on the basis of religion creec ancestry. belief, age veteran status sexuai orientation or rn violation of federal state or Ioca...environments rely on the notion of a "tool bus" or an explicit shared repository [ Wasser - man 89] to allow easy integration of tools. 4.7 Unit...attributed parse tree and symbol table that the compiler cre- ates and annotates during its various phases. This results in a very different software

  17. Quality Model Based on Cots Quality Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Jawad Alkhateeb; Khaled Musa

    2013-01-01

    The quality of software is essential to corporations in making their commercial software. Good or poorquality to software plays an important role to some systems such as embedded systems, real-time systems,and control systems that play an important aspect in human life. Software products or commercial off theshelf software are usually programmed based on a software quality model. In the software engineeringfield, each quality model contains a set of attributes or characteristics that drives i...

  18. Attribution models and the Cooperative Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Berlanga, Sebastian; Vilella, Cori

    2017-01-01

    The current paper studies the attribution model used by Google Analytics. Precisely, we use the Cooperative Game Theory to propose a fair distribution of the revenues among the considered channels, in order to facilitate the cooperation and to guarantee stability. We define a transferable utility convex cooperative game from the observed frequencies and we use the Shapley value to allocate the revenues among the di erent channels. Furthermore, we evaluate the impact of an advertising...

  19. Experimental functional realization of attribute grammar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Attali

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an experimental functional realization of attribute grammar(AG system for personal computers. For AG system functioning only Turbo Prolog compiler is required. The system functioning is based on a specially elaborated metalanguage for AG description, universal syntactic and semantic constructors. The AG system provides automatic generation of target compiler (syntax--oriented software using Turbo Prolog as object language.

  20. Hooke's figurations: a figural drawing attributed to Robert Hooke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Matthew C

    2010-09-20

    The experimental philosopher Robert Hooke (1635-1703) is known to have apprenticed to the leading painter Peter Lely on his first arrival in London in the late 1640s. Yet the relevance of Hooke's artistic training to his mature draughtsmanship and identity has remained unclear. Shedding light on that larger interpretive problem, this article argues for the attribution to Hooke of a figural drawing now in Tate Britain (T10678). This attributed drawing is especially interesting because it depicts human subjects and bears Hooke's name functioning as an artistic signature, both highly unusual features for his draughtsmanship. From evidence of how this drawing was collected and physically placed alongside images by leading artists in the early eighteenth century, I suggest how it can offer new insight into the reception of Hooke and his graphic work in the early Enlightenment.

  1. Investigation of Chinese University Students’ Attributions of English Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjin Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of developing students’ learning autonomy in Chinese schools similar to Western cultured schools, many concerns are raised regarding the influence and effectiveness that learner autonomy has on students’ academic achievements. The aim of this study was to identify the attribution patterns of Chinese university students for success and failure toward students who learnt through autonomy learning (student-centered approaches compared with students who learnt through teacher-centered approaches. Within this study, mixed research methods were adopted, and students used a reflective method to distinguish whether they were taught English through a traditional or student-centered method. The findings of the study reveal that there are no significant differences in attributional patterns between students who had learnt in high school through autonomous learning and those who learnt through teacher-centered approaches. The findings have implications for policy and practice in the Chinese Ministry of Education system and recommendations for future research.

  2. Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Program is to develop the technical capability for the nation to rapidly, accurately, and credibly attribute the origins and pathways of interdicted or collected materials, intact nuclear devices, and radiological dispersal devices. A robust attribution capability contributes to threat assessment, prevention, and deterrence of nuclear terrorism; it also supports the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its investigative mission to prevent and respond to nuclear terrorism. Development of the capability involves two major elements: (1) the ability to collect evidence and make forensic measurements, and (2) the ability to interpret the forensic data. The Program leverages the existing capability throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory complex in a way that meets the requirements of the FBI and other government users. At the same time the capability is being developed, the Program also conducts investigations for a variety of sponsors using the current capability. The combination of operations and R and D in one program helps to ensure a strong linkage between the needs of the user community and the scientific development

  3. STUDENTS’ ATTRIBUTIONS ON THEIR ENGLISH SPEAKING ENHANCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustinus Mali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Attribution refers to explanations and reasons that people provide for progress, achievement, and even failure towards something they have experienced, particularly in their language learning. This study aimed to investigate the attributions that students had for their English-speaking enhancement. The participants of the study were eighteen students at Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata Ambarukmo Yogyakarta (STIPRAM. Open-ended questionnaire and interview were used as the instruments to collect the data. On the questionnaire, the participants were specifically asked to provide written responses to three statements, while in the interview process, the researcher involved three participants to provide further clarification toward their written responses on the questionnaire. The data analysis revealed that a clear purpose of doing particular English speaking activities, strategy, and the positive motivation/encouragement from friends as well as from the teacher became the major students’ attributions on their English-speaking enhancement. Besides, this study would seem to indicate that a teacher took an essential role in the enhancement of the students’ English speaking skill. Eventually, this study proposed some pedagogical implications for the development of teaching and learning in English speaking classes specifically in Indonesian context.

  4. [Disability attributable to excess weight in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ramiro, José Javier; Alvarez-Martín, Elena; Gil-Prieto, Ruth

    2014-08-19

    To estimate the disability attributable to higher than optimal body mass index in the Spanish population in 2006. Excess body weight prevalence data were obtained from the 2006 National Health Survey (NHS), while the prevalence of associated morbidities was extracted from the 2006 NHS and from a national hospital data base. Population attributable fractions were applied and disability attributable was expressed as years life with disability (YLD). In 2006, in the Spanish population aged 35-79 years, 791.650 YLD were lost due to higher than optimal body mass index (46.7% in males and 53.3% in females). Overweight (body mass index 25-29.9) accounted for 45.7% of total YLD. Males YLD were higher than females under 60. The 35-39 quinquennial group showed a difference for males of 16.6% while in the 74-79 group the difference was 23.8% for women. Osteoarthritis and chronic back pain accounted for 60% of YLD while hypertensive disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus were responsible of 37%. Excess body weight is a health risk related to the development of various diseases with an important associated disability burden and social and economical cost. YLD analysis is a useful monitor tool for disease control interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research's Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric and Related Sciences (UCAR-SOARS) program: A paradigm case for a research based analysis of elements and attributes of a highly successful research experience for undergraduate (REU) program designed to broaden participation in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, T. L.

    2011-12-01

    REU (research experience for undergraduate) programs in science serve as a centerpiece for: recruitment improved learning, retention and increased graduation rates among students in STEM fields. Structured REUs are highly effective programs for broadening participation and remedying inequities, to increase and diversify the STEM talent pool and professional workforce. Now in its 16th year, SOARS is dedicated to broadening participation in the atmospheric and related sciences. SOARS is an undergraduate through graduate program built on the structure of: a summer research internship, mentoring by professional scientists, and a supportive learning community. SOARS is an exemplar. Its structure serves as a paradigm case for the recruitment, retention, and graduation of students from underserved populations. This research-based examination of SOARS explores its program elements and identifies attributes and practices that contribute to its impact and lasting outcomes.

  6. Attribution of irreversible loss to anthropogenic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Bresch, David; Hansen, Gerrit; James, Rachel; Mechler, Reinhard; Stone, Dáithí; Wallimann-Helmer, Ivo

    2016-04-01

    The Paris Agreement (2015) under the UNFCCC has anchored loss and damage in a separate article which specifies that understanding and support should be enhanced in areas addressing loss and damage such as early warning, preparedness, insurance and resilience. Irreversible loss is a special category under loss and damage but there is still missing clarity over what irreversible loss actually includes. Many negative impacts of climate change may be handled or mitigated by existing risk management, reduction and absorption approaches. Irreversible loss, however, is thought to be insufficiently addressed by risk management. Therefore, countries potentially or actually affected by irreversible loss are calling for other measures such as compensation, which however is highly contested in international climate policy. In Paris (2015) a decision was adopted that loss and damage as defined in the respective article of the agreement does not involve compensation and liability. Nevertheless, it is likely that some sort of mechanism will eventually need to come into play for irreversible loss due to anthropogenic climate change, which might involve compensation, other forms of non-monetary reparation, or transformation. Furthermore, climate litigation has increasingly been attempted to address negative effects of climate change. In this context, attribution is important to understand the drivers of change, what counts as irreversible loss due to climate change, and, possibly, who or what is responsible. Here we approach this issue by applying a detection and attribution perspective on irreversible loss. We first analyze detected climate change impacts as assessed in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. We distinguish between irreversible loss in physical, biological and human systems, and accordingly identify the following candidates of irreversible loss in these systems: loss of glaciers and ice sheets, loss of subsurface ice (permafrost) and related loss of lake systems; loss

  7. Maturation of social attribution skills in typically developing children: an investigation using the social attribution task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhouyi; Chan, Raymond C K; McAlonan, Grainne M

    2010-02-03

    The assessment of social attribution skills in children can potentially identify and quantify developmental difficulties related to autism spectrum disorders and related conditions. However, relatively little is known about how these skills develop in typically developing children. Therefore the present study aimed to map the trajectory of social attribution skill acquisition in typically developing children from a young age. In the conventional social attribution task (SAT) participants ascribe feelings to moving shapes and describe their interaction in social terms. However, this format requires that participants understand both, that an inanimate shape is symbolic, and that its action is social in nature. This may be challenging for young children, and may be a potential confounder in studies of children with developmental disorders. Therefore we developed a modified SAT (mSAT) using animate figures (e.g. animals) to simplify the task. We used the SAT and mSAT to examine social attribution skill development in 154 healthy children (76 boys, 78 girls), ranging in age from 6 to 13 years and investigated the relationship between social attribution ability and executive function. The mSAT revealed a steady improvement in social attribution skills from the age of 6 years, and a significant advantage for girls compared to boys. In contrast, children under the age of 9 years performed at baseline on the conventional format and there were no gender differences apparent. Performance on neither task correlated with executive function after controlling for age and verbal IQ, suggesting that social attribution ability is independent of cognitive functioning. The present findings indicate that the mSAT is a sensitive measure of social attribution skills from a young age. This should be carefully considered when choosing assessments for young children and those with developmental disorders.

  8. Maturation of social attribution skills in typically developing children: an investigation using the social attribution task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond CK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of social attribution skills in children can potentially identify and quantify developmental difficulties related to autism spectrum disorders and related conditions. However, relatively little is known about how these skills develop in typically developing children. Therefore the present study aimed to map the trajectory of social attribution skill acquisition in typically developing children from a young age. Methods In the conventional social attribution task (SAT participants ascribe feelings to moving shapes and describe their interaction in social terms. However, this format requires that participants understand both, that an inanimate shape is symbolic, and that its action is social in nature. This may be challenging for young children, and may be a potential confounder in studies of children with developmental disorders. Therefore we developed a modified SAT (mSAT using animate figures (e.g. animals to simplify the task. We used the SAT and mSAT to examine social attribution skill development in 154 healthy children (76 boys, 78 girls, ranging in age from 6 to 13 years and investigated the relationship between social attribution ability and executive function. Results The mSAT revealed a steady improvement in social attribution skills from the age of 6 years, and a significant advantage for girls compared to boys. In contrast, children under the age of 9 years performed at baseline on the conventional format and there were no gender differences apparent. Performance on neither task correlated with executive function after controlling for age and verbal IQ, suggesting that social attribution ability is independent of cognitive functioning. The present findings indicate that the mSAT is a sensitive measure of social attribution skills from a young age. This should be carefully considered when choosing assessments for young children and those with developmental disorders.

  9. Cancers Attributable to Alcohol Consumption in Nigeria: 2012–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kolawole Odutola

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAlcohol consumption has been identified as a risk factor for many cancers but less attention has been paid to the fraction of those cancers that are attributable to alcohol consumption. In this study, we evaluated the incidence and population attributable fraction (PAF of cancers associated with alcohol consumption in Nigeria.MethodsWe obtained data on incidence of cancers from two population-based cancer registries (PBCRs in Nigeria and identified cancer sites for which there is strong evidence of an association with alcohol consumption based on the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph 100E. We computed the PAF for each cancer site by age and sex, using prevalence and relative risk estimates from previous studies.ResultsBetween 2012 and 2014 study period, the PBCRs reported 4,336 cancer cases of which 1,627 occurred in males, and 2,709 occurred in females. Of these, a total of 1,808 cancer cases, 339 in males and 1,469 in females, were associated with alcohol intake. The age standardized incidence rate (ASR of alcohol associated cancers was 77.3 per 100,000. Only 4.3% (186/4,336 of all cancer cases or 10.3% (186/1,808 of alcohol associated cancers were attributable to alcohol consumption. Some 42.5% (79/186 of these cancers occurred in males while 57.5% (107/186 occurred in females. The ASR of cancers attributable to alcohol in this population was 7.2 per 100,000. The commonest cancers attributable to alcohol consumption were cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx in men and cancer of the breast in women.ConclusionOur study shows that 4.3% of incident cancers in Nigeria can be prevented by avoiding alcohol consumption. While the incidence of cancers associated with alcohol intake is high, the proportion attributable to alcohol consumption is much lower suggesting that the number of cancers that may be prevented by eliminating alcohol intake in this population is relatively low.

  10. Attributional biases about the origins of attitudes: externality, emotionality, and rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Jared B; Miller, Norman

    2002-05-01

    Pilot work and 3 studies investigated the ways people explain the origins of attitudes. Study I examined the use of 3 dimensions (externality, rationality, emotionality) to explain the origin of people's own, in-group, and out-group attitudes. Attributions for own attitudes were the least externally and emotionally based and the most rationally based. By comparison with the out-group, less externality, less emotionality, and more rationality also were attributed to in-group attitudes. Studies 2 and 3 examined the effects of intergroup threat on attributions for in- and out-group attitude positions. Under high threat, more externality and emotionality but less rationality were attributed to out-group attitudes than under low threat. Intergroup differentiation mediated the difference between out-group attributions under high and low threat.

  11. Advanced GPR imaging of sedimentary features: integrated attribute analysis applied to sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenke; Forte, Emanuele; Fontolan, Giorgio; Pipan, Michele

    2018-04-01

    We evaluate the applicability and the effectiveness of integrated GPR attribute analysis to image the internal sedimentary features of the Piscinas Dunes, SW Sardinia, Italy. The main objective is to explore the limits of GPR techniques to study sediment-bodies geometry and to provide a non-invasive high-resolution characterization of the different subsurface domains of dune architecture. On such purpose, we exploit the high-quality Piscinas data-set to extract and test different attributes of the GPR trace. Composite displays of multi-attributes related to amplitude, frequency, similarity and textural features are displayed with overlays and RGB mixed models. A multi-attribute comparative analysis is used to characterize different radar facies to better understand the characteristics of internal reflection patterns. The results demonstrate that the proposed integrated GPR attribute analysis can provide enhanced information about the spatial distribution of sediment bodies, allowing an enhanced and more constrained data interpretation.

  12. Sensory Attribute Identification Time Cannot Explain the Common Temporal Limit of Binding Different Attributes and Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waka Fujisaki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An informative performance measure of the brain's integration across different sensory attributes/modalities is the critical temporal rate of feature alternation (between, eg, red and green beyond which observers could not identify the feature value specified by a timing signal from another attribute (eg, a pitch change. Interestingly, this limit, which we called the critical crowding frequency (CCF, is fairly low and nearly constant (∼2.5 Hz regardless of the combination of attributes and modalities (Fujisaki & Nishida, 2010, IMRF. One may consider that the CCF reflects the processing time required for the brain to identify the specified feature value on the fly. According to this idea, the similarity in CCF could be ascribed to the similarity in identification time for the attributes we used (luminance, color, orientation, pitch, vibration. To test this idea, we estimated the identification time of each attribute from [Go/ No-Go choice reaction time – simple reaction time]. In disagreement with the prediction, we found significant differences among attributes (eg, ∼160 ms for orientation, ∼70 ms for pitch. The results are more consistent with our proposal (Fujisaki & Nishida, Proc Roy Soc B that the CCF reflects the common rate limit of specifying what happens when (timing-content binding by a central, presumably postdictive, mechanism.

  13. Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection Based on Surveillance Attributes in RSU Haji Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spica Redina Vebrilian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance system is instrumental in reducing the incidence of nosocomial infection. The implementation of this surveillance system is necessary in the hospital. Surveillance CAUTI is one of the focus prevention and infection control program in RSU Haji Surabaya 2015. The success of surveillance system highly depends on the association of attributes inside it. Surveillance attributes are indicator that describes the characteristics ofsurveillance system. In 2015, there was a delay in the collection of data reports which exceeds the prescribed time limit and there was also a lot of blank space in the confi rmation sheet. It affects the surveillance system in RSU Haji Surabaya. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the surveillance CAUTI based on the surveillance attributes in RSU Haji Surabaya2015. This research is a descriptive evaluative research. Subjects in this study are the surveillance attributes (simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, sensitivity, positive predictive value, representativeness, timeliness, data quality, and stability CAUTI in RSU Haji Surabaya, while survey respondents are IPCN, IPCLN, and head nurse. Data collected by interview and documentation study. The results showed that the attributes of surveillance is already has simplicity, high acceptability, high sensitivity, high positive predictive value, representative, and high stability. However, other attributes were not fl exible, not timeliness, and has a low data quality. Alternative solutions that can be done are to improve the regulatory function in every unit, establish standardization of hospital data, and manage reward and punishment system. Keywords: surveillance system, surveillance attributes, evaluation, nosocomial infections, CAUTI

  14. Detection and Attribution of Anthropogenic Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Neofotis, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Human-influenced climate change is an observed phenomenon affecting physical and biological systems across the globe. The majority of observed impacts are related to temperature changes and are located in the northern high- and midlatitudes. However, new evidence is emerging that demonstrates that impacts are related to precipitation changes as well as temperature, and that climate change is impacting systems and sectors beyond the Northern Hemisphere. In this paper, we highlight some of this new evidence-focusing on regions and sectors that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4) noted as under-represented-in the context of observed climate change impacts, direct and indirect drivers of change (including carbon dioxide itself), and methods of detection. We also present methods and studies attributing observed impacts to anthropogenic forcing. We argue that the expansion of methods of detection (in terms of a broader array of climate variables and data sources, inclusion of the major modes of climate variability, and incorporation of other drivers of change) is key to discerning the climate sensitivities of sectors and systems in regions where the impacts of climate change currently remain elusive. Attributing such changes to human forcing of the climate system, where possible, is important for development of effective mitigation and adaptation. Current challenges in documenting adaptation and the role of indigenous knowledge in detection and attribution are described.

  15. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, Wayne D.; Acevedo, Horacio; Green, Aaron; Len, Shawn; Minavea, Anastasia; Wood, James; Xie, Deyi

    2002-01-01

    This project has completed the initially scheduled third year of the contract, and is beginning a fourth year, designed to expand upon the tech transfer aspects of the project. From the Stratton data set, demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the Boonsville data set , developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Teal South data set provided a surprising set of data, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines

  16. : Light Steering Projection Systems and Attributes for HDR Displays

    KAUST Repository

    Damberg, Gerwin

    2017-06-02

    New light steering projectors in cinema form images by moving light away from dark regions into bright areas of an image. In these systems, the peak luminance of small features can far exceed full screen white luminance. In traditional projectors where light is filtered or blocked in order to give shades of gray (or colors), the peak luminance is fixed. The luminance of chromatic features benefit in the same way as white features, and chromatic image details can be reproduced at high brightness leading to a much wider overall color gamut coverage than previously possible. Projectors of this capability are desired by the creative community to aid in and enhance storytelling. Furthermore, reduced light source power requirements of light steering projectors provide additional economic and environmental benefits. While the dependency of peak luminance level on (bright) image feature size is new in the digital cinema space, display technologies with identical characteristics such as OLED, LED LCD and Plasma TVs are well established in the home. Similarly, direct view LED walls are popular in events, advertising and architectural markets. To enable consistent color reproduction across devices in today’s content production pipelines, models that describe modern projectors and display attributes need to evolve together with HDR standards and available metadata. This paper is a first step towards rethinking legacy display descriptors such as contrast, peak luminance and color primaries in light of new display technology. We first summarize recent progress in the field of light steering projectors in cinema and then, based on new projector and existing display characteristics propose the inclusion of two simple display attributes: Maximum Average Luminance and Peak (Color) Primary Luminance. We show that the proposed attributes allow a better prediction of content reproducibility on HDR displays. To validate this assertion, we test professional content on a commercial HDR

  17. Variable precision rough set for multiple decision attribute analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai; Kin; Keung

    2008-01-01

    A variable precision rough set (VPRS) model is used to solve the multi-attribute decision analysis (MADA) problem with multiple conflicting decision attributes and multiple condition attributes. By introducing confidence measures and a β-reduct, the VPRS model can rationally solve the conflicting decision analysis problem with multiple decision attributes and multiple condition attributes. For illustration, a medical diagnosis example is utilized to show the feasibility of the VPRS model in solving the MADA...

  18. CANCER RISKS ATTRIBUTABLE TO LOW DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION - ASSESSING WHAT WE REALLY KNOW?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Risks Attributable to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation - What Do We Really Know?AbstractHigh doses of ionizing radiation clearly produce deleterious consequences in humans including, but not exclusively, cancer induction. At very low radiation doses the situatio...

  19. Nonintrusive verification attributes for excess fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, N.J.; Eccleston, G.W.; Fearey, B.L.

    1997-10-01

    Under US initiatives, over two hundred metric tons of fissile materials have been declared to be excess to national defense needs. These excess materials are in both classified and unclassified forms. The US has expressed the intent to place these materials under international inspections as soon as practicable. To support these commitments, members of the US technical community are examining a variety of nonintrusive approaches (i.e., those that would not reveal classified or sensitive information) for verification of a range of potential declarations for these classified and unclassified materials. The most troublesome and potentially difficult issues involve approaches for international inspection of classified materials. The primary focus of the work to date has been on the measurement of signatures of relevant materials attributes (e.g., element, identification number, isotopic ratios, etc.), especially those related to classified materials and items. The authors are examining potential attributes and related measurement technologies in the context of possible verification approaches. The paper will discuss the current status of these activities, including their development, assessment, and benchmarking status

  20. First Reported Case of Bacterial Endocarditis Attributable to Actinomyces meyeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Moffatt

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented to the Victoria General Hospital, Halifax, Nova Scotia in severe congestive heart failure. Echocardiographic studies revealed significant aortic valve insufficiency. Two anaerobic blood cultures performed two weeks apart were both positive for Actinomyces meyeri. The patient was treated with high dose intravenous penicillin. Three weeks after antibiotics were begun, he underwent aortic valve replacement. Intraoperative cultures were negative. Histopathological examination revealed findings in keeping with subacute bacterial endocarditis. The patient completed a six-week course of penicillin and was doing well three months after surgery. This is the first case of endocarditis attributable to A meyeri reported in the literature.

  1. HESS Opinions "More efforts and scientific rigour are needed to attribute trends in flood time series"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hundecha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The question whether the magnitude and frequency of floods have changed due to climate change or other drivers of change is of high interest. The number of flood trend studies is rapidly rising. When changes are detected, many studies link the identified change to the underlying causes, i.e. they attribute the changes in flood behaviour to certain drivers of change. We propose a hypothesis testing framework for trend attribution which consists of essential ingredients for a sound attribution: evidence of consistency, evidence of inconsistency, and provision of confidence statement. Further, we evaluate the current state-of-the-art of flood trend attribution. We assess how selected recent studies approach the attribution problem, and to which extent their attribution statements seem defendable. In our opinion, the current state of flood trend attribution is poor. Attribution statements are mostly based on qualitative reasoning or even speculation. Typically, the focus of flood trend studies is the detection of change, i.e. the statistical analysis of time series, and attribution is regarded as an appendix: (1 flood time series are analysed by means of trend tests, (2 if a significant change is detected, a hypothesis on the cause of change is given, and (3 explanations or published studies are sought which support the hypothesis. We believe that we need a change in perspective and more scientific rigour: detection should be seen as an integral part of the more challenging attribution problem, and detection and attribution should be placed in a sound hypothesis testing framework.

  2. Cancers attributable to excess body weight in Canada in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Zakaria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Excess body weight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25.00 kg/m2 is an established risk factor for diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, but its relationship to cancer is lesser-known. This study used population attributable fractions (PAFs to estimate the cancer burden attributable to excess body weight in Canadian adults (aged 25+ years in 2010. Methods: We estimated PAFs using relative risk (RR estimates from the World Cancer Research Fund International Continuous Update Project, BMI-based estimates of overweight (25.00 kg/m2–29.99 kg/m2 and obesity (30.00+ kg/m2 from the 2000–2001 Canadian Community Health Survey, and cancer case counts from the Canadian Cancer Registry. PAFs were based on BMI corrected for the bias in self-reported height and weight. Results: In Canada in 2010, an estimated 9645 cancer cases were attributable to excess body weight, representing 5.7% of all cancer cases (males 4.9%, females 6.5%. When limiting the analysis to types of cancer associated with high BMI, the PAF increased to 14.9% (males 17.5%, females 13.3%. Types of cancer with the highest PAFs were esophageal adenocarcinoma (42.2%, kidney (25.4%, gastric cardia (20.7%, liver (20.5%, colon (20.5% and gallbladder (20.2% for males, and esophageal adenocarcinoma (36.1%, uterus (35.2%, gallbladder (23.7% and kidney (23.0% for females. Types of cancer with the greatest number of attributable cases were colon (1445, kidney (780 and advanced prostate (515 for males, and uterus (1825, postmenopausal breast (1765 and colon (675 for females. Irrespective of sex or type of cancer, PAFs were highest in the Prairies (except Alberta and the Atlantic region and lowest in British Columbia and Quebec. Conclusion: The cancer burden attributable to excess body weight is substantial and will continue to rise in the near future because of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in Canada.

  3. Fundamental(ist) attribution error: Protestants are dispositionally focused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yexin Jessica; Johnson, Kathryn A; Cohen, Adam B; Williams, Melissa J; Knowles, Eric D; Chen, Zhansheng

    2012-02-01

    Attribution theory has long enjoyed a prominent role in social psychological research, yet religious influences on attribution have not been well studied. We theorized and tested the hypothesis that Protestants would endorse internal attributions to a greater extent than would Catholics, because Protestantism focuses on the inward condition of the soul. In Study 1, Protestants made more internal, but not external, attributions than did Catholics. This effect survived controlling for Protestant work ethic, need for structure, and intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity. Study 2 showed that the Protestant-Catholic difference in internal attributions was significantly mediated by Protestants' greater belief in a soul. In Study 3, priming religion increased belief in a soul for Protestants but not for Catholics. Finally, Study 4 found that experimentally strengthening belief in a soul increased dispositional attributions among Protestants but did not change situational attributions. These studies expand the understanding of cultural differences in attributions by demonstrating a distinct effect of religion on dispositional attributions.

  4. The WOMBAT Attack Attribution Method: Some Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacier, Marc; Pham, Van-Hau; Thonnard, Olivier

    In this paper, we present a new attack attribution method that has been developed within the WOMBAT project. We illustrate the method with some real-world results obtained when applying it to almost two years of attack traces collected by low interaction honeypots. This analytical method aims at identifying large scale attack phenomena composed of IP sources that are linked to the same root cause. All malicious sources involved in a same phenomenon constitute what we call a Misbehaving Cloud (MC). The paper offers an overview of the various steps the method goes through to identify these clouds, providing pointers to external references for more detailed information. Four instances of misbehaving clouds are then described in some more depth to demonstrate the meaningfulness of the concept.

  5. Assessment of Andragogical Attributes of Distance Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Rugayah Gy; Ahmad, Hashim; Ahmad, Nor'aini

    The purpose of this research was to assess the andragogical attribute of adult students engaged in distance learning, specifically, with regards to the main construct, cognitive engagement versus academic achievement. Five hundred students were sampled and the response rate was 33.8%. From the analyses, the overall mean score for cognitive engagement is 3.75 from a scale of one to seven. The results indicated that knowledge gained through the e-distance learning is low and this evidence correlates to the average academic performance or CGPA of the respondents, which is between 2.50-2.99. The findings indicated a low level of integration and motivation in learning and consequently it is suggested that training programs and additional course revisions be integrated into the curriculum to ensure the chances of student success and reduce attrition rate.

  6. A comparison of attribute sampling plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanning, B.M.

    1997-05-01

    This report describes, compares, and provides sample size selection criteria for the most common sampling plans for attribute data (i.e., data that is qualitative in nature such as Pass-Fail, Yes-No, Defect-Nondefect data). This report is being issued as a guide in prudently choosing the correct sampling plan to meet statistical plan objectives. The report discusses three types of sampling plans: AQL (Acceptable Quality Level expressed as a percent), RQL (Rejectable Quality Level as a percent), and the AQL/RQL plan which emphasizes both risks simultaneously. These plans are illustrated with six examples, one of which is an inventory of UF 6 cans whose weight must agree within 100 grams of its listed weight to be acceptable

  7. Inflated applicants: attribution errors in performance evaluation by professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Swift

    Full Text Available When explaining others' behaviors, achievements, and failures, it is common for people to attribute too much influence to disposition and too little influence to structural and situational factors. We examine whether this tendency leads even experienced professionals to make systematic mistakes in their selection decisions, favoring alumni from academic institutions with high grade distributions and employees from forgiving business environments. We find that candidates benefiting from favorable situations are more likely to be admitted and promoted than their equivalently skilled peers. The results suggest that decision-makers take high nominal performance as evidence of high ability and do not discount it by the ease with which it was achieved. These results clarify our understanding of the correspondence bias using evidence from both archival studies and experiments with experienced professionals. We discuss implications for both admissions and personnel selection practices.

  8. Packaging design as communicator of product attributes: Effects on consumers’ attribute inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, I.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation will focus on two types of attribute inferences that result from packaging design cues. First, the effects of product packaging design on quality related inferences are investigated. Second, the effects of product packaging design on healthiness related inferences are examined (See

  9. A Mouse Model that Recapitulates Cardinal Features of the 15q13.3 Microdeletion Syndrome Including Schizophrenia- and Epilepsy-Related Alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejgin, Kim; Nielsen, Jacob; Birknow, Michelle R.

    2014-01-01

    to develop myoclonic and absence-like seizures but decreased propensity for clonic and tonic seizures. Furthermore, they had impaired long-term spatial reference memory and a decreased theta frequency in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Electroencephalogram characterization revealed auditory processing......Background: Genome-wide scans have uncovered rare copy number variants conferring high risk of psychiatric disorders. The 15q13.3 microdeletion is associated with a considerably increased risk of idiopathic generalized epilepsy, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia. Methods: A 15q13.......3 microdeletion mouse model (Df[h15q13]/) was generated by hemizygous deletion of the orthologous region and characterized with focus on schizophrenia- and epilepsy-relevant parameters. Results: Df(h15q13)/ mice showed marked changes in neuronal excitability in acute seizure assays, with increased propensity...

  10. Attributability of health effects at low radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Abel

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A controversy still persists on whether health effects can be alleged from radiation exposure situations involving low radiation doses (e.g. below the international dose limits for the public). Arguments have evolved around the validity of the dose-response representation that is internationally used for radiation protection purposes, namely the so-called linear-non-threshold (LNT) model. The debate has been masked by the intrinsic randomness of radiation interaction at the cellular level and also by gaps in the relevant scientific knowledge on the development and expression of health effects. There has also been a vague use, abuse, and misuse of radiation-related risk concepts and quantities and their associated uncertainties. As a result, there is some ambiguity in the interpretation of the phenomena and a general lack of awareness of the implications for a number of risk-causation qualities, namely its attributes and characteristics. In particular, the LNT model has been used not only for protection purposes but also for blindly attributing actual effects to specific exposure situations. The latter has been discouraged as being a misuse of the model, but the supposed incorrectness has not been clearly proven. The paper will endeavour to demonstrate unambiguously the following thesis in relation to health effects due to low radiation doses: 1) Their existence is highly plausible. A number of epidemiological statistical assessments of sufficiently large exposed populations show that, under certain conditions, the prevalence of the effects increases with dose. From these assessments, it can be hypothesized that the occurrence of the effects at any dose, however small, appears decidedly worthy of belief. While strictly the evidence does not allow to conclude that a threshold dose level does not exist either. In fact, a formal quantitative uncertainty analysis, combining the different uncertain components of estimated radiation-related risk, with and

  11. Attributability of Health Effects at Low Radiation Doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A controversy still persists on whether health effects can be alleged from radiation exposure situations involving low radiation doses (e.g. below the international dose limits for the public). Arguments have evolved around the validity of the dose response representation that is internationally used for radiation protection purposes, namely the so-called linear-non-threshold (LNT) model. The debate has been masked by the intrinsic randomness of radiation interaction at the cellular level and also by gaps in the relevant scientific knowledge on the development and expression of health effects. There has also been a vague use, abuse, and misuse of radiation-related risk concepts and quantities and their associated uncertainties. As a result, there is some ambiguity in the interpretation of the phenomena and a general lack of awareness of the implications for a number of risk-causation qualities, namely its attributes and characteristics. In particular, the LNT model has been used not only for protection purposes but also for blindly attributing actual effects to specific exposure situations. The latter has been discouraged as being a misuse of the model, but the supposed incorrectness has not been clearly proven. The paper will endeavour to demonstrate unambiguously the following thesis in relation to health effects due to low radiation doses: (i) Their existence is highly plausible. A number of epidemiological statistical assessments of sufficiently large exposed populations show that, under certain conditions, the prevalence of the effects increases with dose. From these assessments, it can be hypothesized that the occurrence of the effects at any dose, however small, appears decidedly worthy of belief. While strictly the evidence does not allow to conclude that a threshold dose level does not exist either In fact, a formal quantitative uncertainty analysis, combining the different uncertain components of estimated radiation-related risk, with and

  12. Qualitative analysis of patient-centered decision attributes associated with initiating hepatitis C treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchowski, Jessica L; Hamilton, Alison B; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Clark, Jack A; Naik, Aanand D; Smith, Donna L; Kanwal, Fasiha

    2015-10-01

    In this era of a constantly changing landscape of antiviral treatment options for chronic viral hepatitis C (CHC), shared clinical decision-making addresses the need to engage patients in complex treatment decisions. However, little is known about the decision attributes that CHC patients consider when making treatment decisions. We identify key patient-centered decision attributes, and explore relationships among these attributes, to help inform the development of a future CHC shared decision-making aid. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with CHC patients at four Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals, in three comparison groups: contemplating CHC treatment at the time of data collection (Group 1), recently declined CHC treatment (Group 2), or recently started CHC treatment (Group 3). Participant descriptions of decision attributes were analyzed for the entire sample as well as by patient group and by gender. Twenty-nine Veteran patients participated (21 males, eight females): 12 were contemplating treatment, nine had recently declined treatment, and eight had recently started treatment. Patients on average described eight (range 5-13) decision attributes. The attributes most frequently reported overall were: physical side effects (83%); treatment efficacy (79%), new treatment drugs in development (55%); psychological side effects (55%); and condition of the liver (52%), with some variation based on group and gender. Personal life circumstance attributes (such as availability of family support and the burden of financial responsibilities) influencing treatment decisions were also noted by all participants. Multiple decision attributes were interrelated in highly complex ways. Participants considered numerous attributes in their CHC treatment decisions. A better understanding of these attributes that influence patient decision-making is crucial in order to inform patient-centered clinical approaches to care (such as shared decision-making augmented

  13. New paradigms for Salmonella source attribution based on microbial subtyping.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Franz, Eelco; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    Microbial subtyping is the most common approach for Salmonella source attribution. Typically, attributions are computed using frequency-matching models like the Dutch and Danish models based on phenotyping data (serotyping, phage-typing, and antimicrobial resistance profiling). Herewith, we

  14. Global economic cost of smoking-attributable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Mark; Nargis, Nigar; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2018-01-01

    The detrimental impact of smoking on health has been widely documented since the 1960s. Numerous studies have also quantified the economic cost that smoking imposes on society. However, these studies have mostly been in high income countries, with limited documentation from developing countries. The aim of this paper is to measure the economic cost of smoking-attributable diseases in countries throughout the world, including in low- and middle-income settings. The Cost of Illness approach is used to estimate the economic cost of smoking attributable-diseases in 2012. Under this approach, economic costs are defined as either 'direct costs' such as hospital fees or 'indirect costs' representing the productivity loss from morbidity and mortality. The same method was applied to 152 countries, which had all the necessary data, representing 97% of the world's smokers. The amount of healthcare expenditure due to smoking-attributable diseases totalled purchasing power parity (PPP) $467 billion (US$422 billion) in 2012, or 5.7% of global health expenditure. The total economic cost of smoking (from health expenditures and productivity losses together) totalled PPP $1852 billion (US$1436 billion) in 2012, equivalent in magnitude to 1.8% of the world's annual gross domestic product (GDP). Almost 40% of this cost occurred in developing countries, highlighting the substantial burden these countries suffer. Smoking imposes a heavy economic burden throughout the world, particularly in Europe and North America, where the tobacco epidemic is most advanced. These findings highlight the urgent need for countries to implement stronger tobacco control measures to address these costs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. AVal: an Extensible Attribute-Oriented Programming Validator for Java

    OpenAIRE

    Noguera , Carlos; Pawlak , Renaud

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Attribute Oriented Programming (@OP ) permits programmers to extend the semantics of a base program by annotating it with attributes that are related to a set of concerns. Examples of this are applications that rely on XDoclet (such as Hibernate) or, with the release of Java5's annotations, EJB3. The set of attributes that implements a concern defines a Domain Specific Language, and as such, imposes syntactic and semantic rules on the way that attributes are included i...

  16. The moderating role of objective and subjective numeracy in attribute framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamliel, Eyal; Kreiner, Hamutal; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has found that objective numeracy moderates framing effects: People who are less numerate were found to be more susceptible to goal-framing and attribute-framing effects than people who are highly numerate. This study examined the possibility that subjective numeracy likewise moderates attribute framing in contexts where participants are presented with percentages of success or failure. The results show that compared with highly numerate participants, less numerate participants were more susceptible to the effect of attribute framing. Interestingly, this moderating effect was revealed only when using objective numeracy measures, and not when subjective numeracy measures were used. Future research is suggested to replicate these findings, to establish the generalizability of numeracy as a moderator of other cognitive biases, and to examine several possible theoretical explanations for the differential moderation of attribute-framing bias. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. Matematicas Para El Primer Ciclo Secundario, Volumen I (Parte 1). Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion Inglesa Revisada. (Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume I, Part 1, Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part one of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Topics included are numbers; cardinal numbers; geometry of lines, points, and planes; geometry of angles,…

  18. The hopelessness theory of depression: attributional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, L B; Abramson, L Y; Metalsky, G I; Hartlage, S

    1988-02-01

    In this article, we clarify, expand and revise the basic postulates of the hopelessness theory of depression (Abramson, Alloy & Metalsky, 1988a; Abramson, Metalsky & Alloy, 1987, 1988b; previously referred to as the reformulated helplessness theory of depression: Abramson, Seligman & Teasdale, 1978) and place the theory more explicitly in the context of work in descriptive psychiatry about the heterogeneity among the depressive disorders. We suggest that the hopelessness theory hypothesizes the existence in nature of an, as yet, unidentified subtype of depression--'hopelessness depression'--defined, in part, by its cause. We then give a critique of work conducted to test the hopelessness theory and explicate the limitations in research strategy associated with this line of work. Our critique includes a logical analysis that deduces the conceptual and methodological inadequacies of the research strategies used to test the theory. Finally, we suggest more adequate research strategies for testing the hopelessness theory and discuss conceptual and assessment issues that will arise in conducting such tests with special emphasis on attributional styles.

  19. Valuing Attributes of Fluid Milk in Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the random utility function of fluid milk using 1,165 survey responses in Laos. It finds that both products’ attributes and individual characteristics affect consumers’ preference for the milk and the hypothetical brand of Laos-Korea has a potential compared to four real dairy products. Results also show that calories have a positive relationship with consumer’s preference while the price and fat content have a negative one. The decision for choosing each brand is significantly affected by individual characteristics such as gender, age, whether or not respondents live with their children, the level of education, income, the frequency of purchasing milk per week, and the region where they live. The preference for five brands appears in the order of Foremost, Nabong, Thai-Danish, Meiji, and Lao-Korea, and probabilities of purchasing each brand at the mean level are 30.9%, 17.48%, 21.48%, 15.0% and 10.39%, respectively. Nabong that was Lao national milk brand still has a significant market power even though it was closed in 2008. The policies to promote milk industry by implementing its national milk brand again would be more effective if it focuses on the young generation, female consumers, families with children, quality of dairy products, and Vientiane capital areas.

  20. Spontaneously emerging cortical representations of visual attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenet, Tal; Bibitchkov, Dmitri; Tsodyks, Misha; Grinvald, Amiram; Arieli, Amos

    2003-10-01

    Spontaneous cortical activity-ongoing activity in the absence of intentional sensory input-has been studied extensively, using methods ranging from EEG (electroencephalography), through voltage sensitive dye imaging, down to recordings from single neurons. Ongoing cortical activity has been shown to play a critical role in development, and must also be essential for processing sensory perception, because it modulates stimulus-evoked activity, and is correlated with behaviour. Yet its role in the processing of external information and its relationship to internal representations of sensory attributes remains unknown. Using voltage sensitive dye imaging, we previously established a close link between ongoing activity in the visual cortex of anaesthetized cats and the spontaneous firing of a single neuron. Here we report that such activity encompasses a set of dynamically switching cortical states, many of which correspond closely to orientation maps. When such an orientation state emerged spontaneously, it spanned several hypercolumns and was often followed by a state corresponding to a proximal orientation. We suggest that dynamically switching cortical states could represent the brain's internal context, and therefore reflect or influence memory, perception and behaviour.

  1. Scientists' views about attribution of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2014-08-19

    Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global warming. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent warming. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global warming; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change.

  2. Female Sex Offenders: Public Awareness and Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Calli M; Anderson, Amy L

    2016-12-01

    Traditional gender roles, sex scripts, and the way female sex offenders are portrayed in the media may lead to misconceptions about who can commit sexual offenses. Sexual crimes by women may go unnoticed or unreported if there is a general lack of awareness that females commit these crimes. Data from the 2012 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey were used to determine whether the public perceives women as capable sex offenders and the perceived causes of female sex offending. The traditional focus on male sex offenders by researchers, media, and politicians, in addition to gender stereotypes, introduces the possibility of group differences (e.g., between men and women) in perceptions of female sex offenders. Consequently, two secondary analyses were conducted that tested for group differences in both the public's perception of whether females can commit sex offenses and the explanations selected for why females sexually offend. The findings suggest that the public does perceive women as capable sex offenders, although there were group differences in the causal attributions for female sex offending.

  3. A Seven Nations Study of Leadership Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mączyński Jerzy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The overall purpose of this paper was to compare a representative sample of Polish middle managers with a representative sample of chief executive officers (CEOs from six chosen countries, in regard to selected leadership traits and behaviors. We present a small portion of data collected under the GLOBE project, Phase 3, and longitudinal research findings concerning subordinates′ assessments of Polish middle managers in relation to their attributes from 2008 to 2012. The GLOBE, Phase 3 research is the first study to investigate several thousands of CEOs and senior management teams in 24 countries, to empirically and directly assess the relationship between culture and leadership traits and behaviors. We provide research evidence that the investigated CEOs from the United States, Austria, Germany, China, and Taiwan (with the exception of Russian CEOs and Polish middle managers were generally positively evaluated by their direct staff in regard to: inspirational, visionary, integrity, and performance-oriented leadership behaviors (constituents of charismatic leadership, team-oriented behavior, and participative leadership style. Empirical findings under the GLOBE project, Phase 3 revealed that the charismatic leadership behavior of CEOs has a huge influence on top management teams′ (TMTs dedication to organizational goals, and is the most predictive of all leadership behaviors for TMT commitment to organizations. The analyzed research findings indicate that CEOs in Russia and Polish middle managers display strong similarities. They tend to behave in less charismatic, team-oriented, and participative ways than CEOs in the remaining countries.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SAFETY ATTRIBUTES GEOSTRATEGIC HEGEMONY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bohan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with modern aspects of manifestation geostrategic hegemony in the context of its environmental and safety attributes that determine the appearance of new determinants of economic development and progress of the world. Specificity of the geopolitical sphere in the context of a retrospective and prospects of development of civilization, which requires the use of new system-methodological approaches to its study. Defined mechanisms to enhance the status of the hegemon, which by their nature are accompanied by threats and challenges of globalization and conflict-military factors in the fight for resources and ecological imbalance in the world. The space competition geopolitical actors are increasingly extended to third countries, thus causing their economic instability, environmental vulnerability and permanent conflict. The factors, causes and conditions for the identification of new measurements geostrategic hegemony, which can affect the configuration of world order, the balance of economic power and the establishment of constructive international dialogue aimed at security, sustainable development and well-being of all mankind.

  5. An Attributional Analysis of Reactions to Negative Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Kaori

    1995-01-01

    Three studies examined observers' attributions and reactions to negative emotional displays, as well as expressers' expectations about others' reactions. Analysis revealed that people attribute others' negative emotions equally to situational factors and dispositions, whereas their own emotions are attributed to the situation more than to…

  6. Attributes of ethical employees in Malaysian public sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to explore the attributes of ethical employees in public sector and to pattern match the attributes with human behavior, social and ethics theories. A qualitative research is used by focusing on first-order attributes (through interviews) and second-order concepts (using theories to explain the facts). This study ...

  7. Multi-Attribute Vickrey Auctions when Utility Functions are Unknown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Máhr, T.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-attribute auctions allow negotiations over multiple attributes besides price. For example in task allocation, service providers can define their service by means of multiple attributes, such as quality of service, deadlines, or delay penalties. Auction mechanisms assume that the players have

  8. Linearly Ordered Attribute Grammar Scheduling Using SAT-Solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bransen, Jeroen; van Binsbergen, L.Thomas; Claessen, Koen; Dijkstra, Atze

    2015-01-01

    Many computations over trees can be specified using attribute grammars. Compilers for attribute grammars need to find an evaluation order (or schedule) in order to generate efficient code. For the class of linearly ordered attribute grammars such a schedule can be found statically, but this problem

  9. A Pure Object-Oriented Embedding of Attribute Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloane, A.M.; Kats, L.C.L.; Visser, E.

    2010-01-01

    Attribute grammars are a powerful specification paradigm for many language processing tasks, particularly semantic analysis of programming languages. Recent attribute grammar systems use dynamic scheduling algorithms to evaluate attributes by need. In this paper, we show how to remove the need for a

  10. Identity and attribution as lenses to understand the relationship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irrespective of social class, those who attributed academic performance to factors outside their control performed less well. Conclusion. The study suggests that interventions are required that help all students to control their academic performance. Attributional retraining (AR) has the potential to assist students who attribute ...

  11. Development and Validation of the Poverty Attributions Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Raiz, Lisa; Davis, Tamara S.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing and testing the Poverty Attribution Survey (PAS), a measure of poverty attributions. The PAS is theory based and includes original items as well as items from previously tested poverty attribution instruments. The PAS was electronically administered to a sample of state-licensed professional social…

  12. Factors Relating to Staff Attributions of Control over Challenging Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Jennifer A.; Phillips, Neil; Rose, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research has suggested that severity of intellectual disability (ID) and topography of behaviour may influence staff causal attributions regarding challenging behaviour. Subsequently, these causal attributions may influence helping behaviours. This study investigated the relationship between attributions of control over…

  13. Consumer Preference Towards Fruit Leather Attributes of Madurese Exotic Tropical Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Elys Fauziyah

    2018-01-01

    Madura island has high potential for producing tropical fruits, but it still not being well managed especially concerning with the value added Fruit leather is a product created by using various fruits and simple technology application. Fruit leather is categorized as new product on the market, therefore it is important to know consumer preference towards fruit leather attributes so that producer can design an acceptable product in the market. The research investigated attributes within the l...

  14. Walk and Learn: Facial Attribute Representation Learning from Egocentric Video and Contextual Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing; Cheng, Yu; Feris, Rogerio Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    The way people look in terms of facial attributes (ethnicity, hair color, facial hair, etc.) and the clothes or accessories they wear (sunglasses, hat, hoodies, etc.) is highly dependent on geo-location and weather condition, respectively. This work explores, for the first time, the use of this contextual information, as people with wearable cameras walk across different neighborhoods of a city, in order to learn a rich feature representation for facial attribute classification, without the c...

  15. Attributing the Human Influence on Precipitation Changes over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, D.; Achutarao, K. M.; Thanigachalam, A.

    2017-12-01

    Variations in rainfall over India -much of which is received during the summer monsoon season (June-September) - influences the economy of the country as nearly 50% of the population is engaged in the agricultural sector which constitutes 17.4% of the GDP of India. The agriculture and economy of India is highly vulnerable to any changes in the monsoon rainfall is well recognised. Recent decades have seen decreasing monsoon rainfall in various parts of India. Whether these are a consequence of natural monsoon variations or are caused by specific anthropogenic factors is an important question to answer in formulating the right policy response to these changes. Understanding the physical changes is also a first step towards being able to attribute downstream impacts due to rainfall changes. We have carried out an optimal fingerprint based Detection & Attribution analysis to study the changing rainfall patterns. We make use of outputs from 7 models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase-5 (CMIP5) database that carried out single forcing experiments with, Natural, GHG, Anthropogenic Aerosols, and historical (All) forcings. We use multiple observational datasets of rainfall (CRU 3.22 and IMD gridded) to account for observational uncertainty to analyse seasonal (JJA and DJF) and annual mean rainfall over the 1906-2005 period. Our analysis shows the dominant role of GHG and Anthropogenic Aerosol forcings on the observed rainfall changes.

  16. Ambient assisted living healthcare frameworks, platforms, standards, and quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Mukhtiar; Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Pedersen, Christian Fischer; Beevi, Femina Hassan Aysha; Hansen, Finn Overgaard

    2014-03-04

    Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is an emerging multi-disciplinary field aiming at exploiting information and communication technologies in personal healthcare and telehealth systems for countering the effects of growing elderly population. AAL systems are developed for personalized, adaptive, and anticipatory requirements, necessitating high quality-of-service to achieve interoperability, usability, security, and accuracy. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the AAL field with a focus on healthcare frameworks, platforms, standards, and quality attributes. To achieve this, we conducted a literature survey of state-of-the-art AAL frameworks, systems and platforms to identify the essential aspects of AAL systems and investigate the critical issues from the design, technology, quality-of-service, and user experience perspectives. In addition, we conducted an email-based survey for collecting usage data and current status of contemporary AAL systems. We found that most AAL systems are confined to a limited set of features ignoring many of the essential AAL system aspects. Standards and technologies are used in a limited and isolated manner, while quality attributes are often addressed insufficiently. In conclusion, we found that more inter-organizational collaboration, user-centered studies, increased standardization efforts, and a focus on open systems is needed to achieve more interoperable and synergetic AAL solutions.

  17. Ambient Assisted Living Healthcare Frameworks, Platforms, Standards, and Quality Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtiar Memon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Assisted Living (AAL is an emerging multi-disciplinary field aiming at exploiting information and communication technologies in personal healthcare and telehealth systems for countering the effects of growing elderly population. AAL systems are developed for personalized, adaptive, and anticipatory requirements, necessitating high quality-of-service to achieve interoperability, usability, security, and accuracy. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the AAL field with a focus on healthcare frameworks, platforms, standards, and quality attributes. To achieve this, we conducted a literature survey of state-of-the-art AAL frameworks, systems and platforms to identify the essential aspects of AAL systems and investigate the critical issues from the design, technology, quality-of-service, and user experience perspectives. In addition, we conducted an email-based survey for collecting usage data and current status of contemporary AAL systems. We found that most AAL systems are confined to a limited set of features ignoring many of the essential AAL system aspects. Standards and technologies are used in a limited and isolated manner, while quality attributes are often addressed insufficiently. In conclusion, we found that more inter-organizational collaboration, user-centered studies, increased standardization efforts, and a focus on open systems is needed to achieve more interoperable and synergetic AAL solutions.

  18. Improvement attributes in healthcare: implications for integrated care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Patrick John

    2018-04-16

    Purpose Healthcare quality improvement is a key concern for policy makers, regulators, carers and service users. Despite a contemporary consensus among policy makers that integrated care represents a means to substantially improve service outcomes, progress has been slow. Difficulties achieving sustained improvement at scale imply that methods employed are not sufficient and that healthcare improvement attributes may be different when compared to prior reference domains. The purpose of this paper is to examine and synthesise key improvement attributes relevant to a complex healthcare change process, specifically integrated care. Design/methodology/approach This study is based on an integrative literature review on systemic improvement in healthcare. Findings A central theme emerging from the literature review indicates that implementing systemic change needs to address the relationship between vision, methods and participant social dynamics. Practical implications Accommodating personal and professional network dynamics is required for systemic improvement, especially among high autonomy individuals. This reinforces the need to recognise the change process as taking place in a complex adaptive system where personal/professional purpose/meaning is central to the process. Originality/value Shared personal/professional narratives are insufficiently recognised as a powerful change force, under-represented in linear and rational empirical improvement approaches.

  19. [A study of relation between hopelessness and causal attribution in school-aged children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, S

    1989-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the relation between hopelessness and causal attribution in Japanese school-aged children. In Study 1, the Japanese edition of hopelessness scale for children developed by Kazdin, French, Unis, Esveldt-Dawsan, and Sherick (1983) was constructed. Seventeen original items were translated into Japanese and they were administrated to 405 fifth- and sixth-graders. All of the items could be included to the Japanese edition of hopelessness scale. The reliability and validity was examined. In Study 2, the relation between hopelessness and causal attribution in children were investigated. The causal attribution questionnaire developed by Higuchi, Kambare, and Otsuka (1983) and the hopelessness scale developed by Study 1 were administered to 188 sixth-graders. Children with high scores in hopelessness scale significantly attributed negative events to much more effort factor than children with low scores. It supports neither the reformulated learned helplessness model nor the causal attribution theory of achievement motivation. It was explained mainly from points of self-serving attribution, cultural difference, and social desirability. Some questions were discussed for developing studies on depression and causal attribution in Japan.

  20. Attribute-based classification for zero-shot visual object categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Christoph H; Nickisch, Hannes; Harmeling, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    We study the problem of object recognition for categories for which we have no training examples, a task also called zero--data or zero-shot learning. This situation has hardly been studied in computer vision research, even though it occurs frequently; the world contains tens of thousands of different object classes, and image collections have been formed and suitably annotated for only a few of them. To tackle the problem, we introduce attribute-based classification: Objects are identified based on a high-level description that is phrased in terms of semantic attributes, such as the object's color or shape. Because the identification of each such property transcends the specific learning task at hand, the attribute classifiers can be prelearned independently, for example, from existing image data sets unrelated to the current task. Afterward, new classes can be detected based on their attribute representation, without the need for a new training phase. In this paper, we also introduce a new data set, Animals with Attributes, of over 30,000 images of 50 animal classes, annotated with 85 semantic attributes. Extensive experiments on this and two more data sets show that attribute-based classification indeed is able to categorize images without access to any training images of the target classes.

  1. Regularization of Instantaneous Frequency Attribute Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedlin, M. J.; Margrave, G. F.; Van Vorst, D. G.; Ben Horin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    We compare two different methods of computation of a temporally local frequency:1) A stabilized instantaneous frequency using the theory of the analytic signal.2) A temporally variant centroid (or dominant) frequency estimated from a time-frequency decomposition.The first method derives from Taner et al (1979) as modified by Fomel (2007) and utilizes the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the analytic signal. The second method computes the power centroid (Cohen, 1995) of the time-frequency spectrum, obtained using either the Gabor or Stockwell Transform. Common to both methods is the necessity of division by a diagonal matrix, which requires appropriate regularization.We modify Fomel's (2007) method by explicitly penalizing the roughness of the estimate. Following Farquharson and Oldenburg (2004), we employ both the L curve and GCV methods to obtain the smoothest model that fits the data in the L2 norm.Using synthetic data, quarry blast, earthquakes and the DPRK tests, our results suggest that the optimal method depends on the data. One of the main applications for this work is the discrimination between blast events and earthquakesFomel, Sergey. " Local seismic attributes." , Geophysics, 72.3 (2007): A29-A33.Cohen, Leon. " Time frequency analysis theory and applications." USA: Prentice Hall, (1995).Farquharson, Colin G., and Douglas W. Oldenburg. "A comparison of automatic techniques for estimating the regularization parameter in non-linear inverse problems." Geophysical Journal International 156.3 (2004): 411-425.Taner, M. Turhan, Fulton Koehler, and R. E. Sheriff. " Complex seismic trace analysis." Geophysics, 44.6 (1979): 1041-1063.

  2. Selection of key terrain attributes for SOC model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Mogens Humlekrog; Adhikari, Kabindra; Chellasamy, Menaka

    As an important component of the global carbon pool, soil organic carbon (SOC) plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. SOC pool is the basic information to carry out global warming research, and needs to sustainable use of land resources. Digital terrain attributes are often use...... was selected, total 2,514,820 data mining models were constructed by 71 differences grid from 12m to 2304m and 22 attributes, 21 attributes derived by DTM and the original elevation. Relative importance and usage of each attributes in every model were calculated. Comprehensive impact rates of each attribute...

  3. Improved Conflict Detection for Graph Transformation with Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géza Kulcsár

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In graph transformation, a conflict describes a situation where two alternative transformations cannot be arbitrarily serialized. When enriching graphs with attributes, existing conflict detection techniques typically report a conflict whenever at least one of two transformations manipulates a shared attribute. In this paper, we propose an improved, less conservative condition for static conflict detection of graph transformation with attributes by explicitly taking the semantics of the attribute operations into account. The proposed technique is based on symbolic graphs, which extend the traditional notion of graphs by logic formulas used for attribute handling. The approach is proven complete, i.e., any potential conflict is guaranteed to be detected.

  4. Attributes of God: Conceptual Foundations of a Foundational Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtulman, Andrew; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2016-04-01

    Anthropomorphism, or the attribution of human properties to nonhuman entities, is often posited as an explanation for the origin and nature of God concepts, but it remains unclear which human properties we tend to attribute to God and under what conditions. In three studies, participants decided whether two types of human properties-psychological (mind-dependent) properties and physiological (body-dependent) properties-could or could not be attributed to God. In Study 1 (n = 1,525), participants made significantly more psychological attributions than physiological attributions, and the frequency of those attributions was correlated both with participants' religiosity and with their attribution of abstract, theological properties. In Study 2 (n = 99) and Study 3 (n = 138), participants not only showed the same preference for psychological properties but were also significantly faster, more consistent, and more confident when attributing psychological properties to God than when attributing physiological properties. And when denying properties to God, they showed the reverse pattern-that is, they were slower, less consistent, and less confident when denying psychological properties than when denying physiological properties. These patterns were observed both in a predominantly Christian population (Study 2) and a predominantly Hindu population (Study 3). Overall, we argue that God is conceptualized not as a person in general but as an agent in particular, attributed a mind by default but attributed a body only upon further consideration. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Alcoholics' and nonalcoholics' attributions of control of future life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M H; Obitz, F W

    1984-03-01

    Alcoholic and nonalcoholic subjects rated the degree of control that they and others possess over future life events. Alcoholics attributed less personal control over events to themselves than nonalcoholics did. Alcoholics also attributed less control to themselves than to others, whereas nonalcoholics attributed more control to themselves than to others. These differences prevailed despite the similar socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, recent life experiences and beliefs concerning the general controllability of events of both alcoholics and nonalcoholics. The attributions of alcoholics were consistent with others' notions of self-handicapping. The attributions of nonalcoholics were consistent with control motivation. Alcoholics who attributed less control to themselves than to others more frequently failed to complete treatment than did alcoholics who attributed more control to themselves.

  6. Were Nietzsche's Cardinal Ideas – Delusions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-05-01

    May 1, 2008 ... being false beliefs, delusions are a true expression of one's innermost .... 'truth' derives from the Old English trēow (loyalty, ... Perhaps delusion is best viewed not as a ..... heavy price to be paid; eventually the bow snapped.

  7. Cardinal Coordinate Independence for Expected Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.

    1984-01-01

    A representation theorem for binary relations on (Re)n is derived. It is interpreted in the context of decision making under uncertainty. There we consider the existence of a subjective expected utility model to represent a preference relation of a person on the set of bets for money on a finite

  8. Cardinal Coordinate Independence for Expected Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractA representation theorem for binary relations on n is derived. It is interpreted in the context of decision making under uncertainty. There we consider the existence of a subjective expected utility model to represent a preference relation of a person on the set of bets for money on a

  9. The Hyperbolic Sine Cardinal and the Catenary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Reyes, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The hyperbolic function sinh(x)/x receives scant attention in the literature. We show that it admits a clear geometric interpretation as the ratio between length and chord of a symmetric catenary segment. The inverse, together with the use of dimensionless parameters, furnishes a compact, explicit construction of a general catenary segment of…

  10. A Statistical Framework for Microbial Source Attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velsko, S P; Allen, J E; Cunningham, C T

    2009-04-28

    This report presents a general approach to inferring transmission and source relationships among microbial isolates from their genetic sequences. The outbreak transmission graph (also called the transmission tree or transmission network) is the fundamental structure which determines the statistical distributions relevant to source attribution. The nodes of this graph are infected individuals or aggregated sub-populations of individuals in which transmitted bacteria or viruses undergo clonal expansion, leading to a genetically heterogeneous population. Each edge of the graph represents a transmission event in which one or a small number of bacteria or virions infects another node thus increasing the size of the transmission network. Recombination and re-assortment events originate in nodes which are common to two distinct networks. In order to calculate the probability that one node was infected by another, given the observed genetic sequences of microbial isolates sampled from them, we require two fundamental probability distributions. The first is the probability of obtaining the observed mutational differences between two isolates given that they are separated by M steps in a transmission network. The second is the probability that two nodes sampled randomly from an outbreak transmission network are separated by M transmission events. We show how these distributions can be obtained from the genetic sequences of isolates obtained by sampling from past outbreaks combined with data from contact tracing studies. Realistic examples are drawn from the SARS outbreak of 2003, the FMDV outbreak in Great Britain in 2001, and HIV transmission cases. The likelihood estimators derived in this report, and the underlying probability distribution functions required to calculate them possess certain compelling general properties in the context of microbial forensics. These include the ability to quantify the significance of a sequence 'match' or &apos

  11. Key acceptability attributes of orodispersible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Mariagiovanna; Paudel, Amrit; Kloprogge, Frank; Hsiao, Wen Kai; Bresciani, Massimo; Gaisford, Simon; Orlu, Mine

    2018-04-01

    The features rendering orodispersible films (ODFs) patient-centric formulations are widely discussed in the scientific literature. However there is a lack of research studies exploring ODF characteristics with a potential impact on end-user acceptability. The aim of this study was to identify the key ODF characteristics affecting end-user acceptability by developing in vitro test methods for the prediction of ODFs acceptability and correlate these formulation characteristics with the data obtained from a human panel study. Four drug-free single-polymer films were prepared by solvent casting. Solutions of poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVOH) 39 KDa (P1), PVOH 197 KDa (P2), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) 395 KDa (C1), and CMC 725 KDa (C2) were prepared. Texture analysis and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) were used to assess film tack. Petri dish and drop methods were used to assess disintegration time. A human panel of 24 healthy young adults was employed to identify end-user acceptability criteria of the four study film samples. Texture analysis data of ODF tack were not found to be in agreement with the in vivo perceived stickiness in the mouth. However, measurement of the area under the adhesive force curve obtained by DMA correlated with in vivo perceived stickiness data for all samples. The disintegration times obtained by drop method were more comparable to human panel data than the petri dish method. Hence DMA and drop methods proved to be promising methodologies for the prediction of the end-user acceptability. The type and molecular weight of the film-forming polymer had a strong influence on stickiness perception, whereas only polymeric molecular weight influenced perceived disintegration time. The human panel study showed that Participant Reported Outcomes (PROs) for the perceived stickiness in the mouth and disintegration time of test films received significantly different scores between samples, and thus were identified as the key attributes with the

  12. Social distance and behavioral attributes of developmentally handicapped and normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, L W; Burgess, D E

    1985-12-01

    20 behavioral attributes predicting social distance were examined among 101 junior high school students in six classrooms. The sample included 8 developmentally handicapped students, of whom at least one of each was mainstreamed into each classroom. Subjects were predominantly white, middle-class, suburban midwesterners. A sociometric nomination measure was used to obtain behavioral attribute profiles of the students which were then used to predict a psychometric measure of social distance. Handicapped students were not more socially distant than their normal peers. Factor analysis of the 20 behavioral attributes yielded four factors, three of which were significant predictors of classroom social distance, accounting for better than half the variance in social distance. These were described as Incompetent/Unassertive, Positive/Active/Assertive, and Passive/Unassertive. Social rejection in mainstreamed classrooms is more a function of perceived behavioral attributes than the label developmentally handicapped.

  13. Direct estimation of patient attributes from anatomical MRI based on multi-atlas voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Ceritoglu, Can; Miller, Michael I; Mori, Susumu

    MRI brain atlases are widely used for automated image segmentation, and in particular, recent developments in multi-atlas techniques have shown highly accurate segmentation results. In this study, we extended the role of the atlas library from mere anatomical reference to a comprehensive knowledge database with various patient attributes, such as demographic, functional, and diagnostic information. In addition to using the selected (heavily-weighted) atlases to achieve high segmentation accuracy, we tested whether the non-anatomical attributes of the selected atlases could be used to estimate patient attributes. This can be considered a context-based image retrieval (CBIR) approach, embedded in the multi-atlas framework. We first developed an image similarity measurement to weigh the atlases on a structure-by-structure basis, and then, the attributes of the multiple atlases were weighted to estimate the patient attributes. We tested this concept first by estimating age in a normal population; we then performed functional and diagnostic estimations in Alzheimer's disease patients. The accuracy of the estimated patient attributes was measured against the actual clinical data, and the performance was compared to conventional volumetric analysis. The proposed CBIR framework by multi-atlas voting would be the first step toward a knowledge-based support system for quantitative radiological image reading and diagnosis.

  14. Direct estimation of patient attributes from anatomical MRI based on multi-atlas voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MRI brain atlases are widely used for automated image segmentation, and in particular, recent developments in multi-atlas techniques have shown highly accurate segmentation results. In this study, we extended the role of the atlas library from mere anatomical reference to a comprehensive knowledge database with various patient attributes, such as demographic, functional, and diagnostic information. In addition to using the selected (heavily-weighted atlases to achieve high segmentation accuracy, we tested whether the non-anatomical attributes of the selected atlases could be used to estimate patient attributes. This can be considered a context-based image retrieval (CBIR approach, embedded in the multi-atlas framework. We first developed an image similarity measurement to weigh the atlases on a structure-by-structure basis, and then, the attributes of the multiple atlases were weighted to estimate the patient attributes. We tested this concept first by estimating age in a normal population; we then performed functional and diagnostic estimations in Alzheimer's disease patients. The accuracy of the estimated patient attributes was measured against the actual clinical data, and the performance was compared to conventional volumetric analysis. The proposed CBIR framework by multi-atlas voting would be the first step toward a knowledge-based support system for quantitative radiological image reading and diagnosis.

  15. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest risk attributable to temperature in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have estimated the associations between extreme temperatures and mortality and morbidity; however, few have investigated the attributable fraction for a wide range of temperatures on the risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We obtained daily records of OHCA cases in the 47 Japanese prefectures between 2005 and 2014. We examined the relationship between OHCA and temperature for each prefecture using a Poisson regression model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model. The estimated prefecture-specific associations were pooled at the nationwide level using a multivariate random-effect meta-analysis. A total of 659,752 cases of OHCA of presumed-cardiac origin met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 23.93% (95% empirical confidence interval [eCI]: 20.15-26.19) of OHCA was attributable to temperature. The attributable fraction to low temperatures was 23.64% (95% eCI: 19.76-25.87), whereas that of high temperatures was 0.29% (95% eCI: 0.21-0.35). The attributable fraction for OHCA was related to moderate low temperature with an overall estimate of 21.86% (95% eCI: 18.10-24.21). Extreme temperatures were responsible for a small fraction. The majority of temperature-related OHCAs were attributable to lower temperatures. The attributable risk of extremely low and high temperatures was markedly lower than that of moderate temperatures.

  16. Spectral Decomposition and Other Seismic Attributes for Gas Hydrate Prospecting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Dan

    2018-02-25

    Studying the sediments at the base of gas hydrate stability is ideal for determining the seismic response to gas hydrate saturation. First, assuming gas migration to the shallow section, this area is more likely to have concentrated gas hydrate because it encompasses the zone in which upward moving buoyant gas transitions to form immobile gas hydrate deposits. Second, this zone is interesting because these areas have the potential to show a hydrate filled zone and a gas filled zone within the same sediments. Third, the fundamental measurement within seismic data is impedance contrasts between velocity*density layers. High saturation gas hydrates and free gas inhabit opposite ends of these measurements making the study of this zone ideal for investigating the seismic characteristics of gas hydrate and, hence, the investigation of other seismic attributes that may indicate gas hydrate fill.

  17. Biochemical profile of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis and its nutritional attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Asha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oysters are highly esteemed sea food and considered a delicacy throughout the world. Yet this resource is not optimally utilised in several parts of the world. The aim of this study is to highlight its nutritional importance. Biochemical composition and nutritional attributes of oyster meat are discussed. Proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profiles and mineral content were determined in oysters (Crassostrea madrasensis. Moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash contents in the oyster were 82.64%, 9.41%, 3.25% 3.2% and 1.01%, respectively and it was rich in macro-minerals and trace elements especially selenium. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA were highest of the total lipids among which eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and linoleic acid were the prominent fatty acids. The n-3/n-6 index was high indicating a predominance of n-3 fatty acids in the species. Total amino acid content was 99.33 g/100 g crude protein, of which, essential amino acid lysine was the most abundant. Valine had the lowest essential amino acid score (EAAS (0.17 while threonine had the highest EAAS of 3.62. Chemical score was 17% and the lowest limiting amino acid was valine. Protein efficiency ratio, essential amino acid index and biological value of oyster were 3.92, 120.2 and 174.0, respectively which indicates that the protein is of superior quality. Data on biochemical composition, nutritional attributes and quality indices of C. madrasensis protein may prove important for future policies regarding exploitation of this species and for inducing favourable changes in consumer preferences.

  18. Attribution of floods in the Okavango basin, Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Piotr; Stone, Dáithí; Tadross, Mark; Wehner, Michael; Hewitson, Bruce

    2014-04-01

    In the charismatic wetlands of the Okavango Delta, Botswana, the annual floods of 2009-2011 reached magnitudes last seen 20-30 years ago, considerably affecting life of local populations and the economically important tourism industry. In this study, we analyse results from an attribution modelling system designed to examine how anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions have contributed to weather and flood risk in our current climate. The system is based on comparison of real world climate and hydrological simulations with parallel counterfactual simulations of the climate and hydrological responses under conditions that might have been had human activities not emitted greenhouse gases. The analyses allow us to address the question of whether anthropogenic climate change contributed to increasing the risk of these high flood events in the Okavango system. Results show that the probability of occurrence of high floods during 2009-2011 in the current climate is likely lower than it would have been in a climate without anthropogenic greenhouse gases. This result is robust across the two climate models and various data processing procedures, although the exact figures for the associated decrease in risk differ. Results also differ between the three years examined, indicating that the “time-slice” method used here needs to be applied to multiple years in order to accurately estimate the contribution of emissions to current risk. Simple sensitivity analyses indicate that the reduction in flood risk is attributed to higher temperatures (and thus evaporation) in the current world, with little difference in the analysed domain's rainfall simulated in the two scenarios.

  19. Combining product attributes with recommendation and shopping location attributes to assess consumer preferences for insect-based food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    into consumers' preferences for termite-based food products (TBFPs) using data from a choice experiment survey in Kenya. A novel feature of this paper is that it investigates the combined effects of product-related and contextual attributes, as well as consumer attitudes on preferences for TBFPs. In addition......, the paper focuses on the extent to which preferences may be affected depending on the meal formats, i.e. whether the termites are introduced either as whole insects or as a processed component in a typical daily meal. The results suggest that consumers prefer TBFPs with high nutritional value and especially...... when they are recommended by officials. Results further indicate that affirmative recommendations are particularly important for the processed TBFP, and consumers prefer to buy this type of product in kiosks or supermarkets than at local marketplaces. Despite a considerable degree of preference...

  20. Culture, attribution and automaticity: a social cognitive neuroscience view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Malia F; Morris, Michael W

    2010-06-01

    A fundamental challenge facing social perceivers is identifying the cause underlying other people's behavior. Evidence indicates that East Asian perceivers are more likely than Western perceivers to reference the social context when attributing a cause to a target person's actions. One outstanding question is whether this reflects a culture's influence on automatic or on controlled components of causal attribution. After reviewing behavioral evidence that culture can shape automatic mental processes as well as controlled reasoning, we discuss the evidence in favor of cultural differences in automatic and controlled components of causal attribution more specifically. We contend that insights emerging from social cognitive neuroscience research can inform this debate. After introducing an attribution framework popular among social neuroscientists, we consider findings relevant to the automaticity of attribution, before speculating how one could use a social neuroscience approach to clarify whether culture affects automatic, controlled or both types of attribution processes.

  1. Interactive Contributions of Attribution Biases and Emotional Intensity to Child-Friend Interaction Quality During Preadolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; McElwain, Nancy L; Lansford, Jennifer E

    2017-12-20

    Using data from a subsample of 913 study children and their friends who participated in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the interactive contributions of child-reported attribution biases and teacher-reported child emotional intensity (EI) at Grade 4 (M = 9.9 years) to observed child-friend interaction at Grade 6 (M = 11.9 years) were examined. Study children's hostile attribution bias, combined with high EI, predicted more negative child-friend interaction. In contrast, benign attribution bias, combined with high EI, predicted more positive child-friend interaction. The findings are discussed in light of the "fuel" interpretation of EI, in which high-intensity emotions may motivate children to act on their cognitive biases for better or for worse. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. Consumer valuation of health attributes in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    estimate a hedonic model of consumers’ valuation of food characteristics that allows nutrients to influence utility both through their perceived effects on health and through their effects on the taste and consumption experience. We find that the most highly educated have the same or lower revealed...

  3. The Attribute for Hydrocarbon Prediction Based on Attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermana, Maman; Harith, Z Z T; Sum, C W; Ghosh, D P

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon prediction is a crucial issue in the oil and gas industry. Currently, the prediction of pore fluid and lithology are based on amplitude interpretation which has the potential to produce pitfalls in certain conditions of reservoir. Motivated by this fact, this work is directed to find out other attributes that can be used to reduce the pitfalls in the amplitude interpretation. Some seismic attributes were examined and studies showed that the attenuation attribute is a better attribute for hydrocarbon prediction. Theoretically, the attenuation mechanism of wave propagation is associated with the movement of fluid in the pore; hence the existence of hydrocarbon in the pore will be represented by attenuation attribute directly. In this paper we evaluated the feasibility of the quality factor ratio of P-wave and S-wave (Qp/Qs) as hydrocarbon indicator using well data and also we developed a new attribute based on attenuation for hydrocarbon prediction -- Normalized Energy Reduction Stack (NERS). To achieve these goals, this work was divided into 3 main parts; estimating the Qp/Qs on well log data, testing the new attribute in the synthetic data and applying the new attribute on real data in Malay Basin data. The result show that the Qp/Qs is better than Poisson's ratio and Lamda over Mu as hydrocarbon indicator. The curve, trend analysis and contrast of Qp/Qs is more powerful at distinguishing pore fluid than Poisson ratio and Lamda over Mu. The NERS attribute was successful in distinguishing the hydrocarbon from brine on synthetic data. Applying this attribute on real data on Malay basin, the NERS attribute is qualitatively conformable with the structure and location where the gas is predicted. The quantitative interpretation of this attribute for hydrocarbon prediction needs to be investigated further

  4. Interpersonal reactivity and the attribution of emotional reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Brian W; Anderson, Ian W; Filkowski, Megan M

    2015-06-01

    The ability to identify the cause of another person's emotional reaction is an important component associated with improved success of social relationships and survival. Although many studies have investigated the mechanisms involved in emotion recognition, very little is currently known regarding the processes involved during emotion attribution decisions. Research on complementary "emotion understanding" mechanisms, including empathy and theory of mind, has demonstrated that emotion understanding decisions are often made through relatively emotion- or cognitive-based processing streams. The current study was designed to investigate the behavioral and brain mechanisms involved in emotion attribution decisions. We predicted that dual processes, emotional and cognitive, are engaged during emotion attribution decisions. Sixteen healthy adults completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index to characterize individual differences in tendency to make emotion- versus cognitive-based interpersonal decisions. Participants then underwent functional MRI while making emotion attribution decisions. We found neuroimaging evidence that emotion attribution decisions engage a similar brain network as other forms of emotion understanding. Further, we found evidence in support of a dual processes model involved during emotion attribution decisions. Higher scores of personal distress were associated with quicker emotion attribution decisions and increased anterior insula activity. Conversely, higher scores in perspective taking were associated with delayed emotion attribution decisions and increased prefrontal cortex and premotor activity. These findings indicate that the making of emotion attribution decisions relies on dissociable emotional and cognitive processing streams within the brain. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Detection and Attribution of Regional Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, G; Mirin, A

    2007-01-19

    We developed a high resolution global coupled modeling capability to perform breakthrough studies of the regional climate change. The atmospheric component in our simulation uses a 1{sup o} latitude x 1.25{sup o} longitude grid which is the finest resolution ever used for the NCAR coupled climate model CCSM3. Substantial testing and slight retuning was required to get an acceptable control simulation. The major accomplishment is the validation of this new high resolution configuration of CCSM3. There are major improvements in our simulation of the surface wind stress and sea ice thickness distribution in the Arctic. Surface wind stress and ocean circulation in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current are also improved. Our results demonstrate that the FV version of the CCSM coupled model is a state of the art climate model whose simulation capabilities are in the class of those used for IPCC assessments. We have also provided 1000 years of model data to Scripps Institution of Oceanography to estimate the natural variability of stream flow in California. In the future, our global model simulations will provide boundary data to high-resolution mesoscale model that will be used at LLNL. The mesoscale model would dynamically downscale the GCM climate to regional scale on climate time scales.

  6. Attribution of mental illness to work: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M G P; Poole, C J M; Agius, R

    2015-07-01

    Clinicians may be asked whether mental ill-health has been caused by work but there is no guidance on how this judgement should be made. To seek a consensus on the factors that should be considered and how they should be sought when attributing mental ill-health to work. A three-round Delphi study involving expert academics, occupational physicians, psychiatrists and psychologists. We deemed consensus had been reached when 66% or more of the experts were in agreement. Of 54 invited experts, 35 (65%) took part in the first round, 30 of these 35 (86%) in the second and 29 of these 30 (97%) in the final round. Consensus was reached for 11 workplace stressors: high job strain; effort-reward imbalance; major trauma; interpersonal conflict; inadequate support; role ambiguity; person-job mismatch; organizational injustice; organizational culture; work scheduling and threats to job security. Seven personal factors were identified as being important: previous mental illness; personality traits of neuroticism; adverse life events or social circumstances; resilience; a family history of mental illness and secondary gain. The worker, manager and co-workers were thought to be the most useful sources of workplace information. Consensus was reached for a definition of occupational mental illness but not for a threshold of work-relatedness. The attribution of mental ill-health to work is complex and involves the consideration of both workplace stressors and personal factors of vulnerability. Clinical consultation with an occupational physician who is familiar with the workplace is central to the process. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Attributable risk of Capillaria species in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Qamar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fecal samples were collected from 120 domestic pigeons to determine the Attributable risk of Capillaria spp. The Capillaria spp. was observed in 64 out of 120 (51% pigeons (70 males and 50 females under this study. A total of 64 (39 males and 25 females were found naturally infected with Capillaria spp. with infection percentage of 51% and 50% in males and females respectively. Qualitative examinations include the direct microscopy and faecal floatation while quantitative examination includes McMaster technique (worms load was calculated per gram of the faeces. Month wise Attributable risk showed that eggs of the worms were found to be abundant in the month of July during the present study (60% to 73% because of high humidity. Very high and very low temperature is not suitable for the proper development of the eggs. Qualitative and quantitative examination revealed that Capillaria spp. was more prevalent in males (51% than females (50% but overall there was no significant difference (P>0.05 in the male and female because both individuals invest equal amount of energy in search of food and incubating the eggs. Different breeds of pigeons gave different Attributable risk in different months during the study. Groups of pigeons from different locations showed different variable Attributable risk. Areas with high humidity were more suitable for the development of eggs, which is the reason why higher Attributable risk was observed in Shahdara (75% area of Lahore, Pakistan.

  8. Parental Health Attributions of Childhood Health and Illness: Development of the Pediatric Cultural Health Attributions Questionnaire (Pedi-CHAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Lisa M; McLinden, Daniel J; Shellmer, Diana; Baker, Raymond C

    2011-01-01

    The causes attributed to childhood health and illness across cultures (cultural health attributions) are key factors that are now more frequently identified as affecting the health outcomes of children. Research suggests that the causes attributed to an event such as illness are thought to affect subsequent motivation, emotional response, decision making, and behavior. To date, there is no measure of health attributions appropriate for use with parents of pediatric patients. Using the Many-Facets approach to Rasch analysis, this study assesses the psychometrics of a newly developed instrument, the Pediatric Health Attributions Questionnaire (Pedi-CHAQ), a measure designed to assess the cultural health attributions of parents in diverse communities. Results suggest acceptable Rasch model statistics of fit and reliability for the Pedi-CHAQ. A shortened version of the questionnaire was developed as a result of this study and next steps are discussed.

  9. Changing US Attributes After CS-US Pairings Changes CS-Attribute-Assessments: Evidence for CS-US Associations in Attribute Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förderer, Sabine; Unkelbach, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Attribute Conditioning (AC) refers to people's changed assessments of stimuli's (CSs) attributes due to repeated pairing with stimuli (USs) possessing these attributes; for example, when an athletic person (US) is paired with a neutral person (CS), the neutral person is judged to be more athletic after the pairing. We hypothesize that this AC effect is due to CSs' associations with USs rather than direct associations with attributes. Three experiments test this hypothesis by changing US attributes after CS-US pairings. Experiments 1 and 2 conditioned athleticism by pairing neutral men (CSs) with athletic and non-athletic USs. Post-conditioning, USs' athleticism was reversed, which systematically influenced participants' assessment of CS athleticism. Experiment 3 conditioned athleticism and changed USs' musicality after CS-US pairings. This post-conditioning change affected musicality assessments of CSs but did not influence athleticism-assessments. The results indicate that AC effects are based on an associative CS-US-attribute structure. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. Climate Central World Weather Attribution (WWA) project: Real-time extreme weather event attribution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, Karsten; Otto, Friederike; Uhe, Peter; Allen, Myles; Cullen, Heidi

    2015-04-01

    Extreme weather detection and attribution analysis has emerged as a core theme in climate science over the last decade or so. By using a combination of observational data and climate models it is possible to identify the role of climate change in certain types of extreme weather events such as sea level rise and its contribution to storm surges, extreme heat events and droughts or heavy rainfall and flood events. These analyses are usually carried out after an extreme event has occurred when reanalysis and observational data become available. The Climate Central WWA project will exploit the increasing forecast skill of seasonal forecast prediction systems such as the UK MetOffice GloSea5 (Global seasonal forecasting system) ensemble forecasting method. This way, the current weather can be fed into climate models to simulate large ensembles of possible weather scenarios before an event has fully emerged yet. This effort runs along parallel and intersecting tracks of science and communications that involve research, message development and testing, staged socialization of attribution science with key audiences, and dissemination. The method we employ uses a very large ensemble of simulations of regional climate models to run two different analyses: one to represent the current climate as it was observed, and one to represent the same events in the world that might have been without human-induced climate change. For the weather "as observed" experiment, the atmospheric model uses observed sea surface temperature (SST) data from GloSea5 (currently) and present-day atmospheric gas concentrations to simulate weather events that are possible given the observed climate conditions. The weather in the "world that might have been" experiments is obtained by removing the anthropogenic forcing from the observed SSTs, thereby simulating a counterfactual world without human activity. The anthropogenic forcing is obtained by comparing the CMIP5 historical and natural simulations

  11. Measuring diversity in medical reports based on categorized attributes and international classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Přečková Petra

    2012-04-01

    impossible to map values of attributes (terms to codes of known classification systems. A high diversity in narrative medical reports terminology leads to more difficult computer processing than in structured medical reports and some information may be lost during this process. Setting a standardized terminology would help healthcare providers to have complete and easily accessible information about patients that would result in better healthcare.

  12. Relação entre acidez e outros atributos químicos em solos com teores elevados de matéria orgânica Relationship between acidity and other chemical attributes of soils with high organic matter content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adierson Gilvani Ebeling

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O elevado teor de matéria orgânica dos Organossolos confere-lhes características edáficas próprias, que podem ser contrastantes em relação ao observado em solos minerais. Devido à forte interação entre a matéria orgânica e os elementos a ela adsorvidos, os métodos de rotina em fertilidade do solo podem não avaliar de forma adequada a acidez nos Organossolos. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram caracterizar e estabelecer relações entre atributos do complexo sortivo e a acidez em solos com alto teor de carbono. Foram avaliados doze perfis, onze Organossolos e um Cambissolo, de diferentes Estados brasileiros, coletados de 2000 a 2002. Os perfis foram separados em ambientes de várzeas e planícies litorâneas e solos de ambiente altimontano e planalto. Além da caracterização dos perfis, segundo métodos da Embrapa, o pH foi analisado por diferentes métodos e foram determinados os teores de C, usando um analisador elementar (C_CHN, e a matéria orgânica pelo método da mufla (MO_mufla. Pelos resultados, verificase que os métodos de determinação de pH em água, em KCl e o pH SMP podem ser usados para expressar a acidez desses solos. Observou-se alta correlação entre o pH SMP e a acidez potencial. Os teores de C_CHN e de MO_mufla tiveram correlação significativa, porém negativa, com o pH em água e positiva com os valores T e H. O comportamento diferenciado da acidez dos solos, em função do ambiente de formação, indica ser importante esta separação no manejo da acidez e na avaliação da fertilidade em Organossolos.The high levels of organic matter in Histosols grant them peculiar characteristics that are contrasting when compared to mineral soils. Due to the strong interaction between organic matter and adsorbed elements, the routine methods in soil fertility may not evaluate properly Histosols soil acidity. The objectives of this study were to characterize and establish relationships between attributes of the

  13. Probabilistic attribution of individual unprecedented extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2016-12-01

    The last decade has seen a rapid increase in efforts to understand the influence of global warming on individual extreme climate events. Although trends in the distributions of climate observations have been thoroughly analyzed, rigorously quantifying the contribution of global-scale warming to individual events that are unprecedented in the observed record presents a particular challenge. This paper describes a method for leveraging observations and climate model ensembles to quantify the influence of historical global warming on the severity and probability of unprecedented events. This approach uses formal inferential techniques to quantify four metrics: (1) the contribution of the observed trend to the event magnitude, (2) the contribution of the observed trend to the event probability, (3) the probability of the observed trend in the current climate and a climate without human influence, and (4) the probability of the event magnitude in the current climate and a climate without human influence. Illustrative examples are presented, spanning a range of climate variables, timescales, and regions. These examples illustrate that global warming can influence the severity and probability of unprecedented extremes. In some cases - particularly high temperatures - this change is indicated by changes in the mean. However, changes in probability do not always arise from changes in the mean, suggesting that global warming can alter the frequency with which complex physical conditions co-occur. Because our framework is transparent and highly generalized, it can be readily applied to a range of climate events, regions, and levels of climate forcing.

  14. Valuing labelling attributes with hedonic price analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    The market share of New World wines sold in many European countries has increased dramatically over the past decade. More aggressive marketing, together with a more distinct and recognizable labeling scheme, are often regarded as the keys to the marketing success of these new wines. This article...... employs hedonic price analysis to identify the values that marketers and consumers place on the information carried by the label of Australian wines in the British wine retail market. Although many grape varieties are given a highly distinct valuation by market participants, our results also suggest...... that consumers consider regions jointly with grape varieties as proxies for brands. This contrasts with the general observation that grape varietal labeling is the distinctive feature of New World wines. Marketing implications are examined by considering the revenue impact of changes in labeling at the retail...

  15. Attribution of Blame for Wife Abuse by Alcoholics and Nonalcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Bernardo J.; McNeely, Judith A.

    Several researchers have explored the role of alcohol in domestic violence and attributions of blame. To compare the amount of blame attributed to an incident of wife abuse, alcoholic (N=52) and nonalcoholic (N=159) subjects read an account of wife abuse and distributed a percentage of the blame to the man, the woman, and the situation.…

  16. Linkages between biodiversity attributes and ecosystem services: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, P.A.; Berry, P.M.; Simpson, G.; Haslett, J.R.; Blicharska, M.; Bucur, M.; Dunford, R.; Egoh, B.; Garcia-llorente, M.; Geamănă, N.; Geertsema, W.; Lommelen, E.; Meiresonne, L.; Turkelboom, F.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic literature review was undertaken to analyse the linkages between different biodiversity attributes and 11 ecosystem services. The majority of relationships between attributes and ecosystem services cited in the 530 studies were positive. For example, the services of water quality

  17. Teachers' Attributions for Stress and Their Relationships with Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, John; Barnett, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: It may be argued that some shared psychological mechanisms (attribution) and structures (schemas) are likely to play a role in how individuals perceive stress. This paper seeks to propose and test some hypothesised relationships between stress attribution domains and burnout dimensions. Design/methodology/approach: The participants were…

  18. The self-attribution bias and paranormal beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elk, M.

    The present study investigated the relation between paranormal beliefs, illusory control and the self-attribution bias, i.e., the motivated tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself while negative outcomes are externalized. Visitors of a psychic fair played a card guessing game and

  19. Attributes of Students Graduating from Schools and Colleges of Optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optometric Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This report by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry identifies desired attributes of students graduating from schools and colleges of optometry. Introductory information includes information on the report's development and assumptions. Personal and professional attributes are then listed followed by a list of 10 knowledge-area…

  20. Linearly Ordered Attribute Grammars : With Automatic Augmenting Dependency Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Binsbergen, L. Thomas; Bransen, Jeroen; Dijkstra, Atze

    2015-01-01

    Attribute Grammars (AGs) extend Context-Free Grammars with attributes: information gathered on the syntax tree that adds semantics to the syntax. AGs are very well suited for describing static analyses, code-generation and other phases incorporated in a compiler. AGs are divided into classes based

  1. Development and Validation of an Attributional Style Questionnaire for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Naranjo, Carmen; Cano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We describe the development and psychometric characteristics of a new version of the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ; Seligman, Abramson, Semmell, & Von Baeyer, 1979)--a version called the Attributional Style Questionnaire for Adolescents (ASQ-A)--using 3 samples (Ns = 547, 438, and 240) of Spanish secondary school students. In Study 1,…

  2. Real-time hostile attribution measurement and aggression in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaros, Anna; Lochman, John E; Rosenbaum, Jill; Jimenez-Camargo, Luis Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Hostile attributions are an important predictor of aggression in children, but few studies have measured hostile attributions as they occur in real-time. The current study uses an interactive video racing game to measure hostile attributions while children played against a presumed peer. A sample of 75 children, ages 10-13, used nonverbal and verbal procedures to respond to ambiguous provocation by their opponent. Hostile attributions were significantly positively related to parent-rated reactive aggression, when controlling for proactive aggression. Hostile attributions using a nonverbal response procedure were negatively related to proactive aggression, when controlling for reactive aggression. Results suggest hostile attributions in real-time occur quickly and simultaneously with social interaction, which differs from the deliberative, controlled appraisals measured with vignette-based instruments. The relation between real-time hostile attributions and reactive aggression could be accounted for by the impulsive response style that is characteristic of reactive aggression, whereas children exhibiting proactive aggression may be more deliberate and intentional in their responding, resulting in a negative relation with real-time hostile attributions. These findings can be used both to identify children at risk for aggression and to enhance preventive interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. An Experimental Investigation of Peer Influences on Adolescent Hostile Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Kim; Hadwin, Julie A.; Halligan, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Aggression in young people has been associated with a bias toward attributing hostile intent to others. However, little is known about the origin of biased social information processing. The current study explored the potential role of peer contagion in the emergence of hostile attribution in adolescents. One hundred thirty-four adolescents (M age…

  4. Verification of classified fissile material using unclassified attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, N.J.; Fearey, B.L.; Puckett, J.M.; Tape, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the most recent efforts of US technical experts to explore verification by IAEA of unclassified attributes of classified excess fissile material. Two propositions are discussed: (1) that multiple unclassified attributes could be declared by the host nation and then verified (and reverified) by the IAEA in order to provide confidence in that declaration of a classified (or unclassified) inventory while protecting classified or sensitive information; and (2) that attributes could be measured, remeasured, or monitored to provide continuity of knowledge in a nonintrusive and unclassified manner. They believe attributes should relate to characteristics of excess weapons materials and should be verifiable and authenticatable with methods usable by IAEA inspectors. Further, attributes (along with the methods to measure them) must not reveal any classified information. The approach that the authors have taken is as follows: (1) assume certain attributes of classified excess material, (2) identify passive signatures, (3) determine range of applicable measurement physics, (4) develop a set of criteria to assess and select measurement technologies, (5) select existing instrumentation for proof-of-principle measurements and demonstration, and (6) develop and design information barriers to protect classified information. While the attribute verification concepts and measurements discussed in this paper appear promising, neither the attribute verification approach nor the measurement technologies have been fully developed, tested, and evaluated

  5. Relative Importance of Common Bean Attributes and Variety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work assessed the relative importance of production and consumption attributes of different wealth groups of households and tested the effect of attribute preference and that of other factors on common bean variety demand in the drought areas of Eastern Kenya. Variety demand was conceptualized within the ...

  6. Physico-chemical, functional and processing attributes of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was generated from six commercial potato varieties and studied for their physical, chemical, functional and processing attributes. Lady Rosetta followed by Hermes was the most appreciable varieties concerning their physical attributes. A positive correlation (R = 0.765) existed between tuber firmness and specific ...

  7. Stated Preference Methods for Valuation of Forest Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Kevin J. Boyle

    2003-01-01

    The valuation methods described in this chapter are based on the idea that forest ecosystems produce a wide variety of goods and services that are valued by people. Rather than focusing attention on the holistic value of forest ecosystems as is done in contingent valuation studies, attribute-based valuation methods (ABMs) focus attention on a set of attributes that...

  8. Multiattribute perceptual mapping with idiosyncratic brand and attribute sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; van de Velden, Michel

    This article proposes an extremely flexible procedure for perceptual mapping based on multiattribute ratings, such that the respondent freely generates sets of both brands and attributes. Therefore, the brands and attributes are known and relevant to each participant. Collecting and analyzing such

  9. Multiattribute perceptual mapping with idiosyncratic brand and attribute sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.H.A. Bijmolt (Tammo); M. van de Velden (Michel)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis article proposes an extremely flexible procedure for perceptual mapping based on multiattribute ratings, such that the respondent freely generates sets of both brands and attributes. Therefore, the brands and attributes are known and relevant to each participant. Collecting and

  10. The Validity of Attribute-Importance Measurement: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van K.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Wansink, B.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    A critical review of the literature demonstrates a lack of validity among the ten most common methods for measuring the importance of attributes in behavioral sciences. The authors argue that one of the key determinants of this lack of validity is the multi-dimensionality of attribute importance.

  11. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To estimate the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) by age group for South Africa in 2000. Design. World Health Organization comparative risk assessment methodology was used to estimate the disease burden attributable to an exposure by comparing the observed risk ...

  12. Attributions for Pride, Anger, and Guilt among Incarcerated Minority Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudley-Paul, Cynthia A.

    Two studies investigate causal attributions among minority adolescents. The first investigates attributions for the emotions of anger, pride, and guilt among 26 incarcerated male adolescents. Relatively few causes are found for anger and guilt, and a larger variety of causes are cited for pride. A follow-up study then compares causal attributions…

  13. Joint Attributes and Event Analysis for Multimedia Event Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhigang; Chang, Xiaojun; Xu, Zhongwen; Sebe, Nicu; Hauptmann, Alexander G

    2017-06-15

    Semantic attributes have been increasingly used the past few years for multimedia event detection (MED) with promising results. The motivation is that multimedia events generally consist of lower level components such as objects, scenes, and actions. By characterizing multimedia event videos with semantic attributes, one could exploit more informative cues for improved detection results. Much existing work obtains semantic attributes from images, which may be suboptimal for video analysis since these image-inferred attributes do not carry dynamic information that is essential for videos. To address this issue, we propose to learn semantic attributes from external videos using their semantic labels. We name them video attributes in this paper. In contrast with multimedia event videos, these external videos depict lower level contents such as objects, scenes, and actions. To harness video attributes, we propose an algorithm established on a correlation vector that correlates them to a target event. Consequently, we could incorporate video attributes latently as extra information into the event detector learnt from multimedia event videos in a joint framework. To validate our method, we perform experiments on the real-world large-scale TRECVID MED 2013 and 2014 data sets and compare our method with several state-of-the-art algorithms. The experiments show that our method is advantageous for MED.

  14. Irreducible descriptive sets of attributes for information systems

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail; Skowron, Andrzej; Suraj, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    . An irreducible descriptive set for the considered information system S is a minimal (relative to the inclusion) set B of attributes which defines exactly the set Ext(S) by means of true and realizable rules constructed over attributes from the considered set B

  15. Gender Attribution and Gender Agreement in French Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boloh, Yves; Ibernon, Laure; Royer, Stephanie; Escudier, Frederique; Danillon, Aurelia

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies on grammatical gender in French individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have led to conflicting findings and interpretations regarding keys abilities--gender attribution and gender agreement. New production data from a larger SW sample (N = 24) showed that gender attribution scores in SW participants exactly mirrored those of…

  16. Online Game Addiction among Chinese College Students Measurement and Attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuqiong; Li, Zhitian

    2009-01-01

    This study made an initial attempt to measure and attribute online game addiction among Chinese college students. We generated three factors of online game addiction: Control Disorder, Conflict, and Injury, as well as proposed a comprehensive model that attributed online game addiction to three groups of driving forces: environmental influences (most significant), characteristics of online games, and personal reasons.

  17. "What Happened?" Teaching Attribution Theory through Ambiguous Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, John

    2011-01-01

    The concept of attribution, "the act of explaining why something happens or why a person acts a particular way," is typically an abstract concept. This 35-50-minute activity invites students to make a series of attributions by asking them "What happened?" in ambiguous scenes presented in class. Then, students retrospectively identify what…

  18. Teacher Judgment, Student Motivation, and the Mediating Effect of Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Urhahne, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Based on Weiner's attributional theory of intrapersonal motivation, the mediating effect of attributions between teacher judgment and student motivation was examined. In two studies, 144 German and 272 Chinese fourth-grade elementary school students were tested on their mathematical achievement, causal ascriptions for success and failure,…

  19. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water and lack of sanitation and hygiene in South Africa in 2000. ... Disease burden from diarrhoeal diseases, intestinal parasites and schistosomiasis, measured by deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Results. 13 434 deaths were attributable to unsafe ...

  20. Attention to Attributes and Objects in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson; Blume, Christopher L.; Saults, J. Scott

    2013-01-01

    It has been debated on the basis of change-detection procedures whether visual working memory is limited by the number of objects, task-relevant attributes within those objects, or bindings between attributes. This debate, however, has been hampered by several limitations, including the use of conditions that vary between studies and the absence…

  1. Attributes of Spirituality Described by Survivors of Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Gregory P.; Martsolf, Donna S.; Draucker, Claire B.; Strickland, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on what aspects of attributes of spirituality as defined by Martsolf and Mickley (1998) are most salient for female and male survivors of sexual violence. Content analysis of secondary narrative data, provided by 50 participants in a study of women's and men's responses to sexual violence, was coded to the five attributes of…

  2. Self-Handicapping by Task Choice: An Attribute Ambiguity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, Mitchell M.; And Others

    Self-handicapping strategies are behaviors or choices of performance settings which allow people to maintain self-esteem by avoiding negative self-relevant attributions. People will behave in such a way that accurate, nonambiguous attributions about their performance cannot be made. Research on self-handicapping has focused on clinically relevant…

  3. Semantic Differential Comparisons of Attributions and Dimensions among Seven Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Theodore A.; Spies, Carl J.

    The classifications of 11 attributions according to dimensions of locus, stability, controllability, predictability, and globality by participants in 7 countries (China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Israel, Spain, and the United States) were compared in a cross-cultural study. The attributions were: (1) bias; (2) help; (3) luck; (4) ability; (5)…

  4. 26 CFR 1.826-5 - Attribution of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) § 1.826-5 Attribution of tax. (a) In general. Section 826(e) provides that a reciprocal making the election allowed by section 826(a) shall be credited with so much of the tax paid by the attorney-in-fact as is attributable to the income received by the attorney-in-fact from the reciprocal in such taxable...

  5. Rich Man, Poor Man: Developmental Differences in Attributions and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    In an examination guided by cognitive developmental and attribution theory of how explanations of wealth and poverty and perceptions of rich and poor people change with age and are interrelated, 6-, 10-, and 14-year-olds (N = 88) were asked for their causal attributions and trait judgments concerning a rich man and a poor man. First graders, like…

  6. Integrating the Development of Graduate Attributes through Constructive Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treleaven, Lesley; Voola, Ranjit

    2008-01-01

    The importance of graduate attributes is increasingly recognized internationally in higher education and by industry, government, and accrediting bodies. However, integrating the development of graduate attributes, such as critical thinking and critical reflection, has proved challenging in business education. This article demonstrates the value…

  7. OZONE CONCENTRATION ATTRIBUTABLE PREMATURE DEATH IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone in the lower part of the atmosphere (troposphere, strong photochemical oxidant, is not directly emitted to the atmosphere but formed through a series of complex reactions. Ozone concentrations depends on ozone precursors air contamination (mainly nitrogen dioxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds and meteorological conditions (temperature and solar radiation. The main sectors emitted ozone precursors are road transport, power and heat generation plants, household (heating, industry, and petrol storage and distribution. Ozone and some of its precursors are also transported long distances in the atmosphere and are therefore considered a transboundary problem. As a result, the ozone concentrations are often low in busy urban areas and higher in suburban and rural areas. Nowadays, instead of particulate matter, ozone is one of the most widespread global air pollution problems. In and around urban areas, relatively large gradients of ozone can be observed. Because of its high reactivity in elevated concentrations ozone causes serious health problems and damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. Main ill-health endpoints as a results of ozone concentrations can be characterised as an effect of pulmonary and cardiovascular system, time morbidity and mortality series, development of atherosclerosis and asthma and finally reduction in life expectancy. The associations with increased daily mortality due to ozone concentrations are confirmed by many researches and epidemiological studies. Estimation of the level selected ill-health endpoints (mortality in total and due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes as a result of the short-term ozone exposure in Poland was the main aim of the project. Final results have been done based on estimation method elaborated by WHO, ozone measurements from National Air Quality Monitoring System and statistical information such as mortality rate and populations. All analysis have been done in

  8. EXPERIMENTAL SUBSTANTIATION OF ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLE IN TRAFFIC POLICE OFFICERS’ BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Merkusheva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article prepared for the ‘Psychological and Methodological Aspects of Professional Personnel Training at Internal Affairs Bodies of the Russian Federation’ scholar tradition looks at the applied aspect of handling security issues by traffic police officers. It presents the results of empirical study of the employees’ psychological characteristics conducted to substantiate their attributional style, which determines the specific character as well as the qua-lity and reliability of traffic police officers’ performance. Traffic police officers’ attributional style of behavior is researched with the help of attributional cognitive techniques for hazard phenomena detection as well as social perception and attribution technique and is viewed as the most stable entity, which reflects the employee’s personal and professional focus.Goal: to provide empirical substantiation of attributional style in traffic police officers’ behavior as an integral personality characteristic that ensures timely detection of hazard phenomena.

  9. Uncertain multi-attribute decision making methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zeshui

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces methods for uncertain multi-attribute decision making including uncertain multi-attribute group decision making and their applications to supply chain management, investment decision making, personnel assessment, redesigning products, maintenance services, military system efficiency evaluation. Multi-attribute decision making, also known as multi-objective decision making with finite alternatives, is an important component of modern decision science. The theory and methods of multi-attribute decision making have been extensively applied in engineering, economics, management and military contexts, such as venture capital project evaluation, facility location, bidding, development ranking of industrial sectors and so on. Over the last few decades, great attention has been paid to research on multi-attribute decision making in uncertain settings, due to the increasing complexity and uncertainty of supposedly objective aspects and the fuzziness of human thought. This book can be used as a ref...

  10. Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lei; Chen, Bin-Bin; Ji, Lin Qin

    2011-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study examined mothers' and fathers' attributions and attitudes related to parenting in China. DESIGN: Interviews were conducted with 241 pairs of parents to obtain maternal and paternal reports of attributions regarding successes and failures in parent-child interactions and on progressive versus authoritarian attitudes about parenting. RESULTS: Mothers' mean levels of attributions and attitudes did not differ significantly from fathers' mean levels of attributions and attitudes. Significant correlations were found between mothers' and fathers' attributions regarding uncontrollable success, authoritarian attitudes, and modernity of attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Supporting the cultural evolutionary view that drastic social changes bring about non-conforming and individualistic behavioral tendencies, these findings rectify and expand the existing literature portraying Chinese parenting as uniformly Confucian and traditional.

  11. Attributional "Tunnel Vision" in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Lisa; Moritz, Steffen; Schneider, Brooke; Bierbrodt, Julia; Nagel, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to examine the profile of interpersonal attributions in BPD. We hypothesized that patients show more mono-causal and internal attributions than healthy controls. A revised version of the Internal, Personal, Situational and Attributions Questionnaire was assessed in 30 BPD patients and 30 healthy controls. BPD patients and controls differed significantly in their attributional pattern. Patients displayed more mono-causal inferences, that is, they had difficulties considering alternative explanatory factors. For negative events, patients made more internal attributions compared to healthy controls. We concluded that mono-causal "trapped" thinking might contribute to (interpersonal) problems in BPD patients by fostering impulsive consequential behaviors, for example, harming one's self or others. A self-blaming tendency likely promotes depressive symptoms and low self-esteem.

  12. Acute headache and persistent headache attributed to cervical artery dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik W; Ashina, Messoud; Magyari, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    for Headache or facial or neck pain attributed to cervical carotid or vertebral artery dissection or Headache attributed to intracranial arterial dissection. Six months after dissection five of 19 patients still reported persistent headache attributed to dissection. The study demonstrates that the ICHD......The criteria for headache attributed to cervical artery dissection have been changed in the new third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III beta). We have retrospectively investigated 19 patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2006 with cervical artery dissection......-III beta criteria for cervical artery dissection are useful for classifying patients at the first encounter. We show for the first time that persistent headache attributed to arterial dissection is frequent....

  13. Multiplicative mixing of object identity and image attributes in single inferior temporal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratan Murty, N Apurva; Arun, S P

    2018-04-03

    Object recognition is challenging because the same object can produce vastly different images, mixing signals related to its identity with signals due to its image attributes, such as size, position, rotation, etc. Previous studies have shown that both signals are present in high-level visual areas, but precisely how they are combined has remained unclear. One possibility is that neurons might encode identity and attribute signals multiplicatively so that each can be efficiently decoded without interference from the other. Here, we show that, in high-level visual cortex, responses of single neurons can be explained better as a product rather than a sum of tuning for object identity and tuning for image attributes. This subtle effect in single neurons produced substantially better population decoding of object identity and image attributes in the neural population as a whole. This property was absent both in low-level vision models and in deep neural networks. It was also unique to invariances: when tested with two-part objects, neural responses were explained better as a sum than as a product of part tuning. Taken together, our results indicate that signals requiring separate decoding, such as object identity and image attributes, are combined multiplicatively in IT neurons, whereas signals that require integration (such as parts in an object) are combined additively. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  14. Development and Validation of the Masculine Attributes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junhan; Kogan, Steven M

    2017-07-01

    The present study describes the development and validation of the Masculine Attributes Questionnaire (MAQ). The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretically and empirically grounded measure of masculine attributes for sexual health research with African American young men. Consistent with Whitehead's theory, the MAQ items were hypothesized to comprise two components representing reputation-based and respect-based attributes. The sample included 505 African American men aged 19 to 22 years ( M = 20.29, SD = 1.10) living in resource-poor communities in the rural South. Convergent and discriminant validity of the MAQ were assessed by examining the associations of masculinity attributes with psychosocial factors. Criterion validity was assessed by examining the extent to which the MAQ subscales predicted sexual risk behavior outcomes. Consistent with study hypotheses, the MAQ was composed of (a) reputation-based attributes oriented toward sexual prowess, toughness, and authority-defying behavior and (b) respect-based attributes oriented toward economic independence, socially approved levels of hard work and education, and committed romantic relationships. Reputation-based attributes were associated positively with street code and negatively related to academic orientation, vocational engagement, and self-regulation, whereas respect-based attributes were associated positively with academic and vocational orientations and self-regulation. Finally, reputation-based attributes predicted sexual risk behaviors including concurrent sexual partnerships, multiple sexual partners, marijuana use, and incarceration, net of the influence of respect-based attributes. The development of the MAQ provides a new measure that permits systematic quantitative investigation of the associations between African American men's masculinity ideology and sexual risk behavior.

  15. Valuing the attributes of renewable energy investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, Ariel; Hanley, Nick; Wright, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Increasing the proportion of power derived from renewable energy sources is becoming an increasingly important part of many countries' strategies to achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. However, renewable energy investments can often have external costs and benefits, which need to be taken into account if socially optimal investments are to be made. This paper attempts to estimate the magnitude of these external costs and benefits for the case of renewable technologies in Scotland, a country which has set particularly ambitious targets for expanding renewable energy. The external effects we consider are those on landscape quality, wildlife and air quality. We also consider the welfare implications of different investment strategies for employment and electricity prices. The methodology used to do this is the choice experiment technique. Renewable technologies considered include hydro, on-shore and off-shore wind power and biomass. Welfare changes for different combinations of impacts associated with different investment strategies are estimated. We also test for differences in preferences towards these impacts between urban and rural communities, and between high- and low-income households. (author)

  16. Valuing the attributes of renewable energy investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Ariel [Economics Department, University of Glasgow, Adam Smith Building, Glasgow G12 8RT (United Kingdom); Hanley, Nick; Wright, Robert [Economics Department, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    Increasing the proportion of power derived from renewable energy sources is becoming an increasingly important part of many countries' strategies to achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. However, renewable energy investments can often have external costs and benefits, which need to be taken into account if socially optimal investments are to be made. This paper attempts to estimate the magnitude of these external costs and benefits for the case of renewable technologies in Scotland, a country which has set particularly ambitious targets for expanding renewable energy. The external effects we consider are those on landscape quality, wildlife and air quality. We also consider the welfare implications of different investment strategies for employment and electricity prices. The methodology used to do this is the choice experiment technique. Renewable technologies considered include hydro, on-shore and off-shore wind power and biomass. Welfare changes for different combinations of impacts associated with different investment strategies are estimated. We also test for differences in preferences towards these impacts between urban and rural communities, and between high- and low-income households. (author)

  17. Attributing Predictable Signals at Subseasonal Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, A.; Norton, W.; Rowlands, D.; Beech-Brandt, J.

    2016-12-01

    Subseasonal forecasts offer significant economic value in the management of energy infrastructure and through the associated financial markets. Models are now accurate enough to provide, for some occasions, good forecasts in the subseasonal range. However, it is often not clear what the drivers of these subseasonal signals are and if the forecasts could be more accurate with better representation of physical processes. Also what are the limits of predictability in the subseasonal range? To address these questions, we have run the ECMWF monthly forecast system over the 2015/16 winter with a set of 6 week ensemble integrations initialised every week over the period. In these experiments, we have relaxed the band 15N to 15S to reanalysis fields. Hence, we have a set of forecasts where the tropics is constrained to actual events and we can analyse the changes in predictability in middle latitudes - in particular in regions of high energy consumption like North America and Europe. Not surprisingly, the forecast of some periods are significantly improved while others show no improvement. We discuss events/patterns that have extended range predictability and also the tropical forecast errors which prevent the potential predictability in middle latitudes from being realised.

  18. Global source attribution of sulfate aerosol and its radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, H.; Smith, S.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P. L.; Qian, Y.; Li, C.; Yu, H.; Rasch, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate is an important aerosol that poses health risks and influences climate. Due to long-range atmospheric transport, local sulfate pollution could result from intercontinental influences, making domestic efforts of improving air quality inefficient. Accurate understanding of source attribution of sulfate and its radiative forcing is important for both regional air quality improvement and global climate mitigation. In this study, for the first time, a sulfur source-tagging capability is implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) to quantify the global source-receptor relationships of sulfate and its direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF). Near-surface sulfate concentrations are mostly contributed by local emissions in regions with high emissions, while over regions with relatively low SO2 emissions, the near-surface sulfate is primarily attributed to non-local sources from long-range transport. The export of SO2 and sulfate from Europe contributes 20% of sulfate concentrations over North Africa, Russia and Central Asia. Sources from the Middle East account for 20% of sulfate over North Africa, Southern Africa and Central Asia in winter and autumn, and 20% over South Asia in spring. East Asia accounts for about 50% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in winter and autumn, 15% over Russia in summer, and 10% over North America in spring. South Asia contributes to 25% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in spring. Lifetime of aerosols, together with regional export, is found to determine regional air quality. The simulated global total sulfate DRF is -0.42 W m-2, with 75% contributed by anthropogenic sulfate and 25% contributed by natural sulfate. In the Southern Hemisphere tropics, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contributes the most to the total DRF. East Asia has the largest contribution of 20-30% over the Northern Hemisphere mid- and high-latitudes. A 20% perturbation of sulfate and its precursor emissions gives a sulfate IRF of -0.44 W m-2. DMS has the

  19. Income inequality and alcohol attributable harm in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikritzhs Tanya N

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little research on the relationship between key socioeconomic variables and alcohol related harms in Australia. The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between income inequality and the rates of alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and death at a local-area level in Australia. Method We conducted a cross sectional ecological analysis at a Local Government Area (LGA level of associations between data on alcohol caused harms and income inequality data after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. The main outcome measures used were matched rate ratios for four measures of alcohol caused harm; acute (primarily related to the short term consequences of drinking and chronic (primarily related to the long term consequences of drinking alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and acute and chronic alcohol-attributable death. Matching was undertaken using control conditions (non-alcohol-attributable at an LGA level. Results A total of 885 alcohol-attributable deaths and 19467 alcohol-attributable hospitalisations across all LGAs were available for analysis. After weighting by the total number of cases in each LGA, the matched rate ratios of acute and chronic alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and chronic alcohol-attributable death were associated with the squared centred Gini coefficients of LGAs. This relationship was evident after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. For both measures of hospitalisation the relationship was curvilinear; increases in income inequality were initially associated with declining rates of hospitalisation followed by large increases as the Gini coefficient increased beyond 0.15. The pattern for chronic alcohol-attributable death was similar, but without the initial decrease. There was no association between income inequality and acute alcohol-attributable death, probably due to the relatively small number of these types of death

  20. Assessing brand image through communalities and asymmetries in brand-to-attribute and attribute-to-brand associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, Anna; Bijmolt, Tarnmo H. A.

    2009-01-01

    Brand image is a key component of customer-based brand equity, and refers to the associations a consumer holds in memory. Such associations are often directional; one should distinguish between brand-to-attribute and attribute-to-brand associations, Information on these associations arise from two