WorldWideScience

Sample records for high carbon burnout

  1. Sharp burnout failure observed in high current-carrying double-walled carbon nanotube fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; Toth, Geza; Wei, Jinquan; Liu, Zheng; Gao, Wei; Ci, Lijie; Vajtai, Robert; Endo, Morinobu; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the current-carrying capability and the high-current-induced thermal burnout failure modes of 5-20 µm diameter double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT) fibers made by an improved dry-spinning method. It is found that the electrical conductivity and maximum current-carrying capability for these DWNT fibers can reach up to 5.9 × 105 S m - 1 and over 1 × 105 A cm - 2 in air. In comparison, we observed that standard carbon fiber tended to be oxidized and burnt out into cheese-like morphology when the maximum current was reached, while DWNT fiber showed a much slower breakdown behavior due to the gradual burnout in individual nanotubes. The electron microscopy observations further confirmed that the failure process of DWNT fibers occurs at localized positions, and while the individual nanotubes burn they also get aligned due to local high temperature and electrostatic field. In addition a finite element model was constructed to gain better understanding of the failure behavior of DWNT fibers.

  2. First observations of power MOSFET burnout with high energy neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberg, D.L.; Wert, J.L.; Normand, E.; Majewski, P.P.; Wender, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Single event burnout was seen in power MOSFETs exposed to high energy neutrons. Devices with rated voltage ≥400 volts exhibited burnout at substantially less than the rated voltage. Tests with high energy protons gave similar results. Burnout was also seen in limited tests with lower energy protons and neutrons. Correlations with heavy-ion data are discussed. Accelerator proton data gave favorable comparisons with burnout rates measured on the APEX spacecraft. Implications for burnout at lower altitudes are also discussed

  3. Carbon burnout project-coal fineness effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Celechin [Powergen UK plc, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this DTI project is to establish good quality plant and rig data to demonstrate the effect of changing coal fineness on carbon burnout in a controlled manner, which can then be used to support computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and engineering models of the process. The modelling elements of the project were completed by Mitsui Babcock Energy Ltd., and validated using the data produced by the other partners. The full scale plant trials were successfully completed at Powergen's Kingsnorth Power Station and a full set of tests were also completed on Powergen's CTF. During these test both carbon-in-ash and NOx levels were seen to increase with increasing fuel particle size. Laboratory analysis of fly ash produced during the plant and rig trials revealed that only small differences in char morphology and reactivity could be detected in samples produced under significantly different operating conditions. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was also undertaken on a range of PF size fractions collected form mills operating at different conditions. 3 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Burnout among Low and High Experienced Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedehhava Mousavy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Burnout is a serious psychological syndrome that can affect not only an individual’s well-being, but also the functioning of whole organisations, such as schools. It is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment.The level of burnout among teachers in the field of education has a negative impact on student success. The present investigation examines the level of burn out among high and low experienced teachers. It focused on a group of English teachers from different nationalities: Iranian, and Malaysian at UPM to examine if there is any relation between burnout and experience level. The sample consisted of 30 English teachers. Two instruments namely, The Maslach Burnout Inventory and Demographic Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in depersonalization and personal accomplishment scores between low and high experienced teachers. But the result of this study also revealed that there is a significant difference in Emotional Exhaustion scores between low and high experienced teachers. Further research is required to explore the roots and the causes of burnout.

  5. Burnout

    OpenAIRE

    Woitsch, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This Thesis deals with the issue of the burnout syndrome and with relationship between burnout syndrome and social support. The aim of this work is based on knowledge from the literature and from experience of clinical psychiatrists to assess the significance of social support for individuals suffering from the burnout syndrome. In the Thesis, there are first defined terms burnout syndrome and social support. Consequently, there are presented the most important knowledge of social support, it...

  6. Burnout Syndrome in High School Teachers' in Bilecik, Bozuyuk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Topuzoglu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Burnout syndrome is manifested by physical exhaustion, long lasting tiredness and feelings of hopelessness. And also it consists of individual’s negative attitudes towards to life, occupation and the other persons. Burnout frequently seen in the occupations who work face to face with people like doctors, polices, nurses and managers. Generally teachers’ burnout level is higher than other occupations. Our aim is to determine the burnout levels and related factors of teachers working in high school of Bilecik Bozuyuk. METHODS: Totally 228 teachers participated to this cross sectional study (participating rate is %90.4. To find out the burnout level in these teachers Maslach Burnout Inventory was used. RESULTS: Of the total participants 52.1% were women, median age of participants were 33.0 years (Quartiles: 28.0–40.0 years There was no relation between the burnout level and the years in the occupation, weekly working time and the school that they educated. Occupational high school teachers, unwilingly occupation choosing, bad physical work environment, violence experience in the school significantly had higher points from burn out scale. CONCLUSION: Burnout level was higher in high school teachers, who didn’t want to be a teacher and who were working at bad physical environment and who had violence experience. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 217-222

  7. Carbon burnout of pulverised coal in power station furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.I. Backreedy; L.M. Fletcher; J.M. Jones; L. Ma; M. Pourkashanian; A. Williams; K. Johnson; D.J. Waldron; P. Stephenson [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    The degree of carbon burnout in pulverised fuel fired power stations is important because it is linked with power plant efficiency and coal ash suitability for construction purposes. The use of computational methods to calculate carbon burnout in such systems has been aided by the increasing availability of fast computers and improvements in computational methodologies. Despite recent advances in fluid flow, coal devolatilisation and coal combustion models, the use of CFD methods for detailed design purposes or for the selection of commercial coals is still limited. In parallel, industrial engineering codes, which combine simplified thermal models with advanced coal combustion models, are still undergoing development since they provide economic advantages over detailed CFD analysis. Although the major coal combustion processes are well established, an understanding regarding the role of coal macerals and the influence of ash on the combustion process is still lacking. A successful coal model must be able to handle all the complexities of combustion, from the details of the burner geometry through to the formation of unburnt carbon as well as NOx. The development of such a model is described here.

  8. Effect of large aspect ratio of biomass particles on carbon burnout in a utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Gera; M.P. Mathur; M.C. Freeman; Allen Robinson [Fluent, Inc./NETL, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2002-12-01

    This paper reports on the development and validation of comprehensive combustion sub models that include the effect of large aspect ratio of biomass (switchgrass) particles on carbon burnout and temperature distribution inside the particles. Temperature and carbon burnout data are compared from two different models that are formulated by assuming (i) the particles are cylindrical and conduct heat internally, and (ii) the particles are spherical without internal heat conduction, i.e., no temperature gradient exists inside the particle. It was inferred that the latter model significantly underpredicted the temperature of the particle and, consequently, the burnout. Additionally, some results from cofiring biomass (10% heat input) with pulverized coal (90% heat input) are compared with the pulverized coal (100% heat input) simulations and coal experiments in a tangentially fired 150 MW{sub e} utility boiler. 26 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Psychological and biographical differences between secondary school teachers experiencing high and low levels of burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, C M; Molloy, G N

    1990-02-01

    A total of 750 teachers from 16 government and non-government schools from areas of contrasted socio-economic status (SES) responded to a questionnaire designed to investigate associations between selected aspects of burnout among teachers working in secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. By comparing high and low burnout groups on biographic, psychological and work pattern variables, differences between teachers experiencing high and low levels of burnout were identified. Multiple regression analyses assessed the relative importance of these variables in accounting for the variance in each of the three burnout subscales. School type was related to perceptions of stress and burnout. Higher levels of burnout were associated with poorer physical health, higher rates of absenteeism, lower self-confidence and more frequent use of regressive coping strategies. Teachers classified as experiencing high levels of burnout attributed most of the stress in their lives to teaching and reported low levels of career commitment and satisfaction. Further, teachers who recorded high levels of burnout were characterised by lower levels of the personality disposition of hardiness, lower levels of social support, higher levels of role stress and more custodial pupil control ideologies than their low-burnout counterparts. Psychological variables were found to be more significant predictors of burnout than biographical variables.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF CARBON BURNOUT ON SUBMICRON PARTICLE FORMATION FROM EMULSIFIED FUEL OIL COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an examination of particle behavior and particle size distributions from the combustion of different fuel oils and emulsified fuels in three experimental combusators. Results indicate that improved carbon (C) burnout from fule oil combustion, either by...

  11. KINETICS OF FLY ASH BENEFICIATION BY CARBON BURNOUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Joseph N.D. Dodoo; Dr. Joseph M. Okoh

    2000-11-01

    Surface area analyses performed on fly ash samples reveal that the surface area is controlled by carbon content. The higher surface areas found in large particles are due to the presence of highly porous carbonaceous particles. Adsorption-desorption isotherms and t-plots of fly ash samples indicate that fly ash is porous. BJH Adsorption/Desorption pore size analysis reveal that pore diameters are independent of sieve size. They appear to be dependent only on the nature of the material which confers porosity. Based on the results of Brown and Dykstra (41) it is reasonable to assume that calculations of reaction rates at temperatures above 550 C were confounded by weight losses from processes other than carbon oxidation and, therefore, are not useful in determination of the temperature dependence of carbon oxidation in fly ash. The results of the present study indicate that temperatures below 550 C should be used for future studies in order to satisfactorily assess the temperature dependence of carbon oxidation in fly ash. Furthermore, it is also advisable that percent carbon determinations be performed on fly ash samples after the oxidation reactions to determine whether all carbon present in fly ash is oxidized. This will ensure that reaction rates are representative of the complete oxidation of carbon. An inverse relationship was determined between reaction rates and oxygen concentration for this study. As discussed, this may be due to volatilization of volatiles from fly ash and ease of transport of products away from the reaction sites by the action of the vacuum applied to the samples. A more accurate determination of oxygen dependence of carbon oxidation can be accomplished by the use of specialty gases containing different concentrations of oxygen which could eliminate the need to apply vacuum to the samples.

  12. Combustion studies of coal derived solid fuels by thermogravimetric analysis. III. Correlation between burnout temperature and carbon combustion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J.A.; Chen, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    Burning profiles of 35-53 ??m size fractions of an Illinois coal and three partially devolatilized coals prepared from the original coal were obtained using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The burning profile burnout temperatures were higher for lower volatile fuels and correlated well with carbon combustion efficiencies of the fuels when burned in a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor. Fuels with higher burnout temperatures had lower carbon combustion efficiencies under various time-temperature conditions in the laboratory-scale reactor. ?? 1990.

  13. The Study of Relations between Life Satisfaction, Burnout, Work Engagement and Hopelessness of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapri, Burhan; Gündüz, Bülent; Akbay, Sinem Evin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the relations between high school students' life satisfaction, burnout, work engagement and hopelessness scores and examine the contribution of their burnout, work engagement and hopelessness scores in the prediction of their life satisfaction scores. The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Maslach…

  14. A Study of Turkish High School Students' Burnout and Proficiency Levels in Relation to Their Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeni Palabiyik, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines high school students' burnout levels. The main aims of the study are to investigate whether their burnout levels vary according to gender and grade levels, and to check the correlation between overall burnout levels and their English language proficiency attained with a specific test. The study followed a quantitative…

  15. Interventions to prevent burnout in high risk individuals: evidence review

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnall, A-M; Jones, R; Akter, H; Woodall, J

    2016-01-01

    Although there is existing evidence on what works to treat burnout and work-related stress, there is less on what works to prevent it from occurring in the first place.\\ud \\ud This report provides an overview of literature covering how to prevent burnout and work-related stress in individuals and within organisations.

  16. CHAR CRYSTALLINE TRANSFORMATIONS DURING COAL COMBUSTION AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR CARBON BURNOUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROBERT H. HURT

    1998-09-08

    Recent work at Sandia National Laboratories, Imperial College, and the U.K. utility PowerGen, has identified an important mechanism believed to have a large influence on unburned carbon levels from pulverized coal-fired boilers. That mechanism is char carbon crystalline rearrangements on subsecond times scales at temperatures of 1800 - 2500 K, which lead to char deactivation in the flame zones of furnaces. The so-called thermal annealing of carbons is a well known phenomenon, but its key role in carbon burnout has only recently been appreciated, and there is a lack of quantitative data in this time/temperature range. In addition, a new fundamental tool has recently become available to study crystalline transformations, namely high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) fringe imaging, which provides a wealth of information on the nature and degree of crystallinity in carbon materials such as coal chars. Motivated by these new developments, this University Coal Research project has been initiated with the following two goals:  to determine transient, high-temperature, thermal deactivation kinetics as a function of parent coal and temperature history.  to characterize the effect of this thermal treatment on carbon crystalline structure through high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and specialized, quantitative image analysis. Work is currently underway on the following three tasks: Task 1 Experimental technique development. The goal of this task is to develop and demonstrate an apparatus and procedure for measuring transient, high-temperature, thermal deactivation of coal chars. While peak gas temperatures in boilers are often in the range 1800 - 2000 K, peak particle temperatures can be much higher due to high rates of heat release at the particle surface due to exothermic carbon oxidation. The prototype transient heat treatment apparatus is based on an inert-gas purged graphite-rod sample holder that is subjected to rapid Joule heating to

  17. Association between low empathy and high burnout among primary care physicians and nurses in Lleida, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuguero, Oriol; Ramon Marsal, Josep; Esquerda, Montserrat; Vivanco, Luis; Soler-González, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    Burnout is a growing problem among healthcare professionals and may be mitigated and even prevented by measures designed to promote empathy and resilience. We studied the association between burnout and empathy in primary care practitioners in Lleida, Spain and investigated possible differences according to age, sex, profession, and place of practice (urban versus rural). All general practitioners (GPs) and family nurses in the health district of Lleida (population 366 000) were asked by email to anonymously complete the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) between May and July 2014. Tool consistency was evaluated by Cronbach's α, the association between empathy and burnout by Spearman's correlation coefficient, and the association between burnout and empathy and sociodemographic variables by the χ 2 test. One hundred and thirty-six GPs and 131 nurses (52.7% response rate) from six urban and 16 rural practices participated (78.3% women); 33.3% of respondents had low empathy, while 3.7% had high burnout. The MBI and JSPE were correlated (P empathy (P empathy. Although burnout was relatively uncommon in our sample, it was associated with low levels of empathy. This finding and our observation of lower empathy levels in rural settings require further investigation. [Box: see text].

  18. High rate of burnout among anaesthesiologists in Belgrade teaching hospitals: Results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenović, Miodrag; Matejić, Bojana; Vasić, Vladimir; Frost, Elizabeth; Petrović, Nataša; Simić, Dušica

    2016-03-01

    Decisions by anaesthesiologists directly impact the treatment, safety, recovery and quality of life of patients. Physical or mental collapse due to overwork or stress (burnout) in anaesthesiologists may, therefore, be expected to negatively affect patients, departments, healthcare facilities and families. To evaluate the prevalence of burnout among anaesthesiologists in Belgrade public teaching hospitals. A cross-sectional survey. Anaesthesiologists in 10 Belgrade teaching hospitals. Burnout was assessed using Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey. The response rate was 76.2% (205/272) with the majority of respondents women (70.7%). The prevalence of total burnout among anaesthesiologists in Belgrade teaching hospitals was 6.34%. Measured level of burnout as assessed by high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalisation and low personal accomplishment was 52.7, 12.2 and 28.8%, respectively. More than a quarter of the studied population responded in each category with symptoms of moderate burnout. We detected that sex, additional academic education, marital status and working conditions were risk factors for emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Ageing increased the likelihood of burnout by 21.3% with each additional year. Shorter professional experience and increased educational accomplishment increased the risk of total burnout by 272%. Burnout rates in Belgrade teaching hospitals among anaesthesiologists are higher than in foreign hospitals. Emotional and/or physical breakdowns can have serious effects when these individuals care for patients in extremely stressed situations that may occur perioperatively. Causes for burnout should be examined more closely and means implemented to reverse this process.

  19. Burnout in boiling heat transfer. Part III. High-quality forced-convection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergles, A.E.

    1979-01-01

    This is the final part of a review of burnout during boiling heat transfer. The status of burnout in high-quality forced-convection systems is reviewed, and recent developments are summarized in detail. A general guide to the considerable literature is given. Parametric effects and correlations for water in circular and noncircular ducts are presented. Other topics discussed include transients, steam-generator applications, correlations for other fluids, fouling, and augmentation

  20. Chinese Anesthesiologists Have High Burnout and Low Job Satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hange; Zuo, Mingzhang; Gelb, Adrian W; Zhang, Biao; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yao, Dongdong; Xia, Di; Huang, Yuguang

    2018-03-01

    The Chinese health care system must meet the needs of 19% of the world's population. Despite recent economic growth, health care resources are unevenly distributed. This creates the potential for job stress and burnout. We therefore conducted a survey among anesthesiologists in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region focusing on job satisfaction and burnout to determine the incidence and associated factors. A large cross-sectional study was performed in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China. The anonymous questionnaire was designed to collect and analyze the following information: (1) demographic characteristics and employer information; (2) job satisfaction assessed by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire; (3) burnout assessed by Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey; and (4) sleep pattern and physician-patient communication. Surveys were completed and returned from 211 hospitals (response rate 74%) and 2873 anesthesiologists (response rate 70%) during the period of June to August 2015. The overall job satisfaction score of Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire was 65.3 ± 11.5. Among the participants, 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67%-71%) met the criteria for burnout. The prevalence of high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment was 57% (95% CI, 55%-59%), 49% (95% CI, 47%-51%), and 57% (95% CI, 55%-58%), respectively. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found that age, hospital category, working hours per week, caseload per day, frequency of perceived challenging cases, income, and sleep quality were independent variables associated with burnout. Anesthesiologists with a high level of depersonalization tended to engage in shorter preoperative conversations with patients, provide less information about pain or the procedure, and to have less empathy with them. The anesthesiologists in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China expressed a below-average level of job satisfaction, and suffered a

  1. Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, H; Sagar, S S; Stenling, A

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fear of failure in highly competitive junior athletes and the association with psychological stress and burnout. In total 258 athletes (152 males and 108 females) ranged in age from 15 to 19 years (M = 17.4 years, SD = 1.08) participated. Athletes competed in variety of sports including both team and individual sports. Results showed in a variable-oriented approach using regression analyses that one dimension, fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment had a statistically significant effect on perceived psychological stress and one dimension of burnout, reduced sense of accomplishment. However, adopting a person-oriented approach using latent class analysis, we found that athletes with high levels of fear failure on all dimensions scored high on burnout. We also found another class with high scores on burnout. These athletes had high scores on the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure and low scores on the other oriented fear of failure dimensions. The findings indicate that fear of failure is related to burnout and psychological stress in athletes and that this association is mainly associated with the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effects of job-related stress and burnout on asthenopia among high-tech workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Anat; Ribak, Joseph; Pereg, Avihu; Gaton, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Eye- and vision-related symptoms are the most frequent health problems among computer users. The findings of eye strain, tired eyes, eye irritation, burning sensation, redness, blurred vision and double vision, when appearing together, have recently been termed 'computer vision syndrome', or asthenopia. To examine the frequency and intensity of asthenopia among individuals employed in research and development departments of high-tech firms and the effects of job stress and burnout on ocular complaints, this study included 106 subjects, 42 high-tech workers (study group) and 64 bank employees (control group). All participants completed self-report questionnaires covering demographics, asthenopia, satisfaction with work environmental conditions, job-related stress and burnout. There was a significant between-group difference in the intensity of asthenopia, but not in its frequency. Burnout appeared to be a significant contributing factor to the intensity and frequency of asthenopia. This study shows that burnout is a significant factor in asthenopic complaints in high-tech workers. This manuscript analyses the effects of psychological environmental factors, such as job stress and burnout, on ocular complaints at the workplace of computer users. The findings may have an ergonomic impact on how to improve health, safety and comfort of the working environment among computer users, for better perception of the job environment, efficacy and production.

  3. Job satisfaction and cortisol awakening response in teachers scoring high and low on burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Albiol, Luis; Serrano, Miguel Angel; Salvador, Alicia

    2010-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is an important psychosocial risk in the job context, especially in professions with a strong social interaction, as in the case of teaching. High levels of burnout have been related to negative psychological indicators and hormonal alterations. This study compares job satisfaction and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in teachers scoring high (HB) and low (LB) on burnout. HB teachers showed lower job satisfaction and no significant differences in the CAR when compared with the LB group. The results of the study suggest a general dissatisfaction with work along with a different functioning of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in HB teachers. Although non significantly, they showed a lower magnitude of the CAR than LB teachers. When considering the whole sample, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization correlated negatively and personal accomplishment positively with each subscale of the job satisfaction questionnaire whereas cortisol levels or CAR did not correlate significantly with both burnout subscales and job satisfaction. These results should be taken into account when working to prevent burnout in teachers, as the modified parameters could be considered indicators of the onset or development of the syndrome.

  4. Highly stretchable carbon aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fan; Jiang, Yanqiu; Xu, Zhen; Xiao, Youhua; Fang, Bo; Liu, Yingjun; Gao, Weiwei; Zhao, Pei; Wang, Hongtao; Gao, Chao

    2018-02-28

    Carbon aerogels demonstrate wide applications for their ultralow density, rich porosity, and multifunctionalities. Their compressive elasticity has been achieved by different carbons. However, reversibly high stretchability of neat carbon aerogels is still a great challenge owing to their extremely dilute brittle interconnections and poorly ductile cells. Here we report highly stretchable neat carbon aerogels with a retractable 200% elongation through hierarchical synergistic assembly. The hierarchical buckled structures and synergistic reinforcement between graphene and carbon nanotubes enable a temperature-invariable, recoverable stretching elasticity with small energy dissipation (~0.1, 100% strain) and high fatigue resistance more than 10 6 cycles. The ultralight carbon aerogels with both stretchability and compressibility were designed as strain sensors for logic identification of sophisticated shape conversions. Our methodology paves the way to highly stretchable carbon and neat inorganic materials with extensive applications in aerospace, smart robots, and wearable devices.

  5. A Positive Model for Reducing and Preventing School Burnout in High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aypay, Ayse

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to develop and test the validity of a model limited to attitude towards the future and subjective well-being for reducing and preventing the school burnout that high school students can experience. The study is designed as a relational screening model conducted over 389 high school students. The data in this study are analyzed…

  6. Burnout in a high heat-flux boiling system with an impinging jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monde, M.; Katto, Y.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study has been made on the fully-developed nucleate boiling at atmospheric pressure in a simple forced-convection boiling system, which consists of a heated flat surface and a small, high-speed jet of water or of freon-113 impinging on the heated surface. A generalized correlation for burnout heat flux data, that is applied to either water or freon-113 is successfully evolved, and it is shown that surface tension has an important role for the onset of burnout phenomenon, not only in the ordinary pool boiling, but also in the present boiling system with a forced flow. (author)

  7. Burnout among High-School Students and Cannabis Use, Consumption Frequencies, Abuse and Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walburg, Vera; Moncla, Dany; Mialhes, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cannabis is a substance frequently consumed by adolescents, which is a risk factor for many psychopathological disorders. At the same time, adolescents in high-schools are likely to be exposed to significant stress from school that can sometimes lead to a burnout syndrome. Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the impact…

  8. Burnout: Recognize and Reverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne, Samantha

    2014-07-01

    Physician burnout may be underrecognized and can cause significant detrimental effects on personal health and job satisfaction. Burnout has been associated with medical errors, alcohol and drug abuse, and neglect and abandonment of career goals. With self-awareness, development of coping mechanisms, and the adoption of a strong social and professional support network, burnout can be combated. This article focuses on recognizing characteristics of burnout and providing strategies to cope to avoid reaching a high degree of burnout. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  9. [Professional burnout among university and high school teachers--comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swietochowski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    Professional burnout is a set of negative emotional and behavioral symptoms, observed in workers of widely understood human service occupations, including teachers. In spite of the considerable number of studies of burnout in teachers, a few of them concern university teachers. The aim of the article was to estimate the degree of burning threat in this professional group and to analyze individual determinants and dynamics of burning out in academic teachers. Gender, age, personality traits and temperament traits were given the status of main factors in the study. The role of the perceived social support was also analyzed. 97 academic workers of three state universities (University, Medical University and Technical University) in Łódź took part in the study; 100 teachers of high schools formed a comparative group. MBI General Survey was applied to measure dependent variables (burnout and its three components: Emotional Exhaustion, Cinicism and Professional Efficacy). The level of factors was measured with standard psychological tests: NEO-FFI and FCZ-KT. The Scale of Perceived Social Support was also applied. The results show considerably lower threat of the burning out syndrome in university than in high school teachers. Among individual factors only two temperament traits (emotional reactivity and perseveration) and one personality trait (extroversion) seem to be important determinants of professional burnout. The perceived social support does not prevent the progress of burnout syndrome. Based on the obtained results several practical conclusions were formulated. They refer mainly to preventive training for beginners in teaching and changes in the organization of academic teachers' work.

  10. Burnout mechanizms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kh'yuitt, G.

    1980-01-01

    Different causes of the burnout are reviewed. Possible burnout mechanism are enumerated. Burnout at pool boaling is compared with burnout under forced convection. Experiments on burnout visualization and measurement of the consumption in the film at burnout are described. The entrainment diagram is introduced, and its analytical presentation is discussed. Different burnout zones are considered and the notion of controlled precipitation is mentioned. The application of the technique of annular flows modelling is described [ru

  11. [Burnout in physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzthaler, Ilsemarie; Kemmler, Georg; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    Burnout is a syndrome characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment. The primary objective of this study was to investigate both the prevalence and severity of burnout symptoms in a sample of clinical physicians from different speciality disciplines. A total of 69 clinical physicians ≤55 years who are working at the Medical University/regional Hospital Innsbruck were included into a cross-sectional study. Next to the assessment of sociodemographic and work-related variables the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to investigate burnout symtoms. Overall, 8.8% of the study population showed high emotional exhaustion with high or moderate depersonalization and low personal accomplishment and therefore had a high risk to develop a burnout syndrom. 11.8% showed a moderade burnout risk. Neither sociodemographic variables nor the degree of educational qualification or speciality discipline had an influence on burnout symptoms. However, there was a positive correlation between scientific activity and personal accomplihment. Our results suggest that the dimension of burnout symtoms among clinical physicians in Austria has be taken seriously. Further research is needed to develop specific programs in terms of burnout prevention and burnout therapy.

  12. Burnout among physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Romani, Maya; Ashkar, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Burnout is a common syndrome seen in healthcare workers, particularly physicians who are exposed to a high level of stress at work; it includes emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. Burnout among physicians has garnered significant attention because of the negative impact it renders on patient care and medical personnel. Physicians who had high burnout levels reportedly committed more medical errors. Stress management programs that range from relaxation to ...

  13. A Photographic study of subcooled flow boiling burnout at high heat flux and velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celata, G.P.; Mariani, A.; Zummo, G. [ENEA, National Institute of Thermal-Fluid Dynamics, Rome (Italy); Cumo, M. [University of Rome (Italy); Gallo, D. [University of Palermo (Italy). Department of Nuclear Engineering

    2007-01-15

    The present paper reports the results of a visualization study of the burnout in subcooled flow boiling of water, with square cross section annular geometry (formed by a central heater rod contained in a duct characterized by a square cross section). The coolant velocity is in the range 3-10m/s. High speed movies of flow pattern in subcooled flow boiling of water from the onset of nucleate boiling up to physical burnout of the heater are recorded. From video images (single frames taken with a stroboscope light and an exposure time of 1{mu}s), the following general behaviour of vapour bubbles was observed: when the rate of bubble generation is increasing, with bubbles growing in the superheated layer close to the heating wall, their coalescence produces a type of elongated bubble called vapour blanket. One of the main features of the vapour blanket is that it is rooted to the nucleation site on the heated surface. Bubble dimensions are given as a function of thermal-hydraulic tested conditions for the whole range of velocity until the burnout region. A qualitative analysis of the behaviour of four stainless steel heater wires with different macroscopic surface finishes is also presented, showing the importance of this parameter on the dynamics of the bubbles and on the critical heat flux. (author)

  14. Burnout in a high heat flux boiling system with forced supply of liquid through a plane jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katto, Yoshiro; Ishii, Kazunori.

    1978-01-01

    As for pool boiling, the non-dimensional formula for the burnout heat flux of a simple, basic boiling system has been obtained. On the other hand, in forced convection boiling, the studies on the burnout in forced flow boiling in a channel have been continued, but the derivation of a non-dimensional formula applicable generally is far away from the realization because the phenomena are too complex. Accordingly, in this study, the result of the experiment on the burnout of a boiling system to which liquid is supplied by the plane jet flowing out of a thin rectangular nozzle installed near the front edge of a rectangular heating surface is reported. The experimental apparatus is described, and the experiment was carried out in the ranges of two jet thicknesses at the nozzle outlet, two incident angles of jet and from 1.5 to 15 m/s of jet velocity. Burnout occurs under the situation of sufficiently developed nuclear boiling. A part of the liquid supplied from a plane jet is blown apart by the vapor blowing out of the nuclear boiling liquid layer covering the heating surface in the nuclear boiling with sufficiently developed high heat flux. However, the nuclear boiling liquid layer itself continues to exist on the heating surface till burnout occurs. Only the entering velocity of the plane jet affects burnout heat flux. (Kako, I.)

  15. Burnout, work engagement and workaholism among highly educated employees: Profiles, antecedents and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hely Innanen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the longitudinal profiles of burnout, engagement and workaholism among highly educated employees. First, the latent profile modeling indicated two latent classes: Engaged and Exhausted-Workaholic. Second, the results revealed that employees with the Engaged profile experienced high levels of energy and dedication, whereas employees with the Exhausted-Workaholic profile experienced exhaustion, cynicism and workaholism. Social pessimism in the transition from high education to work predicted poor subjective well-being at work. Further, workaholism decreased during the career among members of the Exhausted-Workaholic profile suggesting positive direction during career. Finally, Engaged employees experienced detachment and relaxation, life satisfaction and rewards.

  16. Char crystalline transformations during coal combustion and their implications for carbon burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, R.H.

    1999-03-11

    Residual, or unburned carbon in fly ash affects many aspects of power plant performance and economy including boiler efficiency, electrostatic precipitator operation, and ash as a salable byproduct. There is a large concern in industry on the unburned carbon problem due to a variety of factors, including low-NOx combustion system and internationalization of the coal market. In recent work, it has been found that residual carbon extracted from fly ash is much less reactive than the laboratory chars on which the current kinetics are based. It has been suggested that thermal deactivation at the peak temperature in combustion is a likely phenomenon and that the structural ordering is one key mechanism. The general phenomenon of carbon thermal annealing is well known, but there is a critical need for more data on the temperature and time scale of interest to combustion. In addition, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) fringe imaging, which provides a wealth of information on the nature and degree of crystallinity in carbon materials such as coal chars, has become available. Motivated by these new developments, this University Coal Research project has been initiated with the following goals: to determine transient, high-temperature, thermal deactivation kinetics as a function of parent coal and temperature history; and to characterize the effect of this thermal treatment on carbon crystalline structure through high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and specialized, quantitative image analysis.

  17. Char crystalline transformations during coal combustion and their implications for carbon burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, R.H.

    1999-07-07

    Residual, or unburned carbon in fly ash affects many aspects of power plant performance and economy including boiler efficiency, electrostatic precipitator operation, and ash as a salable byproduct. There is a large concern in industry on the unburned carbon problem due to a variety of factors, including low-NOx combustion system and internationalization of the coal market. In recent work, it has been found that residual carbon extracted from fly ash is much less reactive than the laboratory chars on which the current kinetics are based. It has been suggested that thermal deactivation at the peak temperature in combustion is a likely phenomenon and that the structural ordering is one key mechanism. The general phenomenon of carbon thermal annealing is well known, but there is a critical need for more data on the temperature and time scale of interest to combustion. In addition, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) fringe imaging, which provides a wealth of information on the nature and degree of crystallinity in carbon materials such as coal chars, has become available. Motivated by these new developments, this University Coal Research project has been initiated with the following goals: (1) To determine transient, high-temperature, thermal deactivation kinetics as a function of parent coal and temperature history. (2) To characterize the effect of the thermal treatment on carbon crystalline structure through high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and specialized, quantitative image analysis.

  18. Burnout in Premedical Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christina; Fang, Daniel; Golshan, Shah; Moutier, Christine; Zisook, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    Background: There has been growing recognition that medical students, interns, residents and practicing physicians across many specialties are prone to burnout, with recent studies linking high rates of burnout to adverse mental health issues. Little is known about the trajectory and origins of burnout or whether its roots may be traced to earlier…

  19. Do perceived high performance work systems influence the relationship between emotional labour, burnout and intention to leave? A study of Australian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Timothy; Casimir, Gian; Djurkovic, Nick; Leggat, Sandra G; Stanton, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this article was to explore the relationships between perceived high performance work systems, emotional labour, burnout and intention to leave among nurses in Australia. Previous studies show that emotional labour and burnout are associated with an increase in intention to leave of nurses. There is evidence that high performance work systems are in association with a decrease in turnover. There are no previous studies that examine the relationship between high performance work systems and emotional labour. A cross-sectional, correlational survey. The study was conducted in Australia in 2008 with 183 nurses. Three hypotheses were tested with validated measures of emotional labour, burnout, intention to leave, and perceived high performance work systems. Principal component analysis was used to examine the structure of the measures. The mediation hypothesis was tested using Baron and Kenny's procedure and the moderation hypothesis was tested using hierarchical regression and the product-term. Emotional labour is positively associated with both burnout and intention to leave. Burnout mediates the relationship between emotional labour and intention to leave. Perceived high performance work systems negatively moderates the relationship between emotional labour and burnout. Perceived high performance work systems not only reduces the strength of the negative effect of emotional labour on burnout but also has a unique negative effect on intention to leave. Ensuring effective human resource management practice through the implementation of high performance work systems may reduce the burnout associated with emotional labour. This may assist healthcare organizations to reduce nurse turnover. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Factors Affecting Burnout and School Engagement among High School Students: Study Habits, Self- Efficacy Beliefs, and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Filiz; Tuzgol Dost, Meliha; Cetin, Bayram

    2014-01-01

    This study examines high school students' levels of burnout and school engagement with respect to academic success, study habits, and self-efficacy beliefs. The data were gathered during the 2011-2012 school year from 633 students attending six high schools located in Ankara, Turkey. The analyses were conducted on responses from 605 students. The…

  1. Study of mechanism of burnout in a high heat-flux boiling system with an impinging jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katto, Y.; Monde, M.

    1974-01-01

    Nucleate boiling at very high heat fluxes was created on a heated surface covered with a flowing film of saturated water at atmospheric pressure being maintained by a small circular jet of water held at the center of the heated surface. It was found that increasing the heat flux led to a limiting state of flow where the splashing of droplets from the heated surface was no longer increased being kept constant until burnout appeared; and that there was a close relation between the burnout heat flux and the jet velocity. A flow model, which can explain the characteristics of this boiling system, is proposed. It is suggested that the burnout may be connected with the separation of a liquid flow from the heated surface accompanied with the effusion of vapor. (U.S.)

  2. Effect of Solution Focused Group Counseling for High School Students in Order to Struggle with School Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Bünyamin

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the effect of solution focused group counseling upon high school students struggling with school burnout was analyzed. The research was an experimental study in which a pre-test post-test control group random design was used, depending upon the real experimental model. The study group included 30 students that volunteered from…

  3. Burnout experiment in subcooled forced-convection boiling of water for beam dumps of a high power neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiike, Hiroshi; Kuriyama, Masaaki; Morita, Hiroaki

    1982-01-01

    Experimental studies were made on burnout heat flux in highly subcooled forced-convection boiling of water for the design of beam dumps of a high power neutral beam injector for Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokamak-60. These dumps are composed of many circular tubes with two longitudinal fins. The tube was irradiated with nonuniformly distributed hydrogen ion beams of 120 to 200 kW for as long as 10 s. The coolant water was circulated at flow velocities of 3 to 7.5 m/s at exit pressures of 0.4 to 0.9 MPa. The burnout and film-boiling data were obtained at local heat fluxes of 8 to 15 MW/m 2 . These values were as high as 2.5 times larger than those for the circumferentially uniform heat flux case with the same parameters. These data showed insensitivity to local subcooling as well as to pressure, and simple burnout correlations were derived. From these results, the beam dumps have been designed to receive energetic beam fluxes of as high as 5 MW/m 2 with a margin of a factor of 2 for burnout

  4. A collaborative project on the effects of coal quality on NO{sub x} emissions and carbon burnout in pulverised coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilley, H.A.; O`Connor, M.; Stephenson, P.L.; Whitehouse, M.; Richards, D.G.; Hesselmann, G.; MacPhail, J.; Lockwood, F.C.; Williamson, J.; Williams, A.; Pourkashanian, M. [ETSU, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a UK Department of Trade and Industry-supported collaborative project entitled `The Effects of Coal Quality on Emission of Oxides of Nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and Carbon Burnout in Pulverised Coal-fired Utility Boilers`. The project involved extensive collaboration between the UK power generators, boiler and burner manufacturers and research groups in both industry and academia, together with several of the world`s leading computational fluid dynamics (CFD) `software houses`. The prime objectives of the project were to assess the relationship between NO{sub x} emissions and carbon burnout and to develop and validate predictive tools for assessing coals. Experimental work was carried out on various laboratory-scale apparatus and on single burner test facilities ranging from 160 kW{sub th} to 40 MW{sub th} in size and measurements were obtained from full-scale 500 MW{sub e} utility boiler trials. This data and basic coal data were then used to develop mathematical models to predict full-scale boiler performance with respect to NO{sub x} emissions and carbon-in-ash. Results showed good correlations for NO{sub x} and carbon burnout when comparing data from full-scale and large-scale rig trials. Laboratory-scale tests were found to be useful but the influence of burner aerodynamics was more difficult to quantify. Modelling showed that predicted NO{sub x} emissions were encouragingly close to measured emissions but predicting carbon burnout was less successful. 24 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. The effects of coal quality on NO{sub x} emissions and carbon burnout in pulverised coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, M. [National Power plc, Swindon (United Kingdom)

    1999-04-01

    A comprehensive study is reported on the impact of coal quality on nitrogen oxides emissions and carbon burnout in utility boilers, with the aim of assessing their relationship and developing predictive tools for assessing coals. Experimental work was carried out on various laboratory-scale apparatus and on single burner test facilities ranging from 160 kW{sub th} to 40 MW{sub th} in size and measurements were obtained from full-scale 500 MW{sub e} utility boiler trials. This data and basic coal data were then used to develop mathematical models to predict full-scale boiler performance with respect to NO{sub x} emissions and carbon burnout. Power station trials demonstrated that coal quality effects nitrogen oxides and burnout. The variability in boiler conditions also impacted on these factors. Lower nitrogen and higher volatile coals generally produced less NO{sub x}. Volatile content was the most important generic coal property for predicting burnout. Modelling rig tests, using data from advanced laboratory-scale tests, were found to be just as successful as using rig tests for predicting NO{sub x} performance of different coals. Laboratory-scale tests were found to be successful in providing accurate predictions of burnout for the coals studied. Mathematical models, however, were found to be less successful in this area and further work to develop this is required. A major achievement was CFD solutions of full-scale utility boiler furnaces in a single mesh. 32 refs., 15 figs., 33 tabs., 2 apps.

  6. Burnout: need help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Azade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burnout syndrome is a psychological situation induced with working, especially in high-risk parts of the hospitals that affects the physical and mental conditions of the staff. The aim is to identify the characteristics of the staff related to Burnout Syndrome in the Emergency Department (ED. Methods The study includes the Maslach Burnout Inventory and other new individual research questions. The responders were the volunteers and comprised physicians, nurses, nurses' aides from EDs of all urban state hospitals of Adana (43.3%. Burnout scores were analyzed with regard to individual characteristics; supplementary work, marital status, the number of children, occupation, salary, career satisfaction, satisfaction in private life. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskall-Wallis test were performed using SPSS 15.00. Results There were no relation between Burnout scores and supplementary work, marital status, number of children, occupation, salary, private life satisfaction, except for career satisfaction. Conclusion Presence and severity of Burnout syndrome were linked to career satisfaction without personal features and salaries. All branches of healthcare occupations in ED seem to have been affected by Burnout Syndrome similarly.

  7. Burnout: need help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulalp, Betul; Karcioglu, Ozgur; Sari, Azade; Koseoglu, Zikret

    2008-12-05

    Burnout syndrome is a psychological situation induced with working, especially in high-risk parts of the hospitals that affects the physical and mental conditions of the staff. The aim is to identify the characteristics of the staff related to Burnout Syndrome in the Emergency Department (ED). The study includes the Maslach Burnout Inventory and other new individual research questions. The responders were the volunteers and comprised physicians, nurses, nurses' aides from EDs of all urban state hospitals of Adana (43.3%). Burnout scores were analyzed with regard to individual characteristics; supplementary work, marital status, the number of children, occupation, salary, career satisfaction, satisfaction in private life. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskall-Wallis test were performed using SPSS 15.00. There were no relation between Burnout scores and supplementary work, marital status, number of children, occupation, salary, private life satisfaction, except for career satisfaction. Presence and severity of Burnout syndrome were linked to career satisfaction without personal features and salaries. All branches of healthcare occupations in ED seem to have been affected by Burnout Syndrome similarly.

  8. Burnout calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.

    1980-01-01

    Reviewed is the effect of heat flux of different system parameters on critical density in order to give an initial view on the value of several parameters. A thorough analysis of different equations is carried out to calculate burnout is steam-water flows in uniformly heated tubes, annular, and rectangular channels and rod bundles. Effect of heat flux density distribution and flux twisting on burnout and storage determination according to burnout are commended [ru

  9. [Burnout in nursing residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gianfábio Pimentel; de Barros, Alba Lúcia Bottura Leite; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; Zeitoun, Sandra Salloum

    2011-03-01

    Nursing residents may experience physical and emotional exhaustion from the daily life of attending the Program. The aim of this study was to determine the Burnout incidence among Nursing Residents. An investigative, descriptive, analytical, longitudinal-prospective study was conducted with 16 Residents over two years. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, translated and validated for Brazil, as well as a sociodemographic/occupational data tool. Of all residents, 17.2% showed high rates in Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization; 18.8% showed impaired commitment in Personal Accomplishment, 75% of which belonged to specialty areas, such as Emergency Nursing, Adult and Pediatric Intensive Care. Age and specialty area were positively correlated with Personal Accomplishment. One of the Residents was identified with changes in three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, thus characterized as a Burnout Syndrome patient. Nursing Residents have profiles of disease. Knowing these factors can minimize health risks of these workers.

  10. Calidad de vida y estrés laboral: la incidencia del Burnout en el deporte de alto rendimiento madrileño. Quality of life and job stress: Burnout among high performance sport professionals from Madrid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez del Castillo, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn la literatura sobre la psicología de la salud en las organizaciones es generalmente aceptado que el Burnout (Síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo aparece como consecuencia de un estrés laboral crónico excesivo que provoca una disminución de la habilidad en el desempeño de la actividad profesional y la aparición de diferentes problemas de salud en quien lo padece. El Burnout (Síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo ha sido conceptualizado como un síndrome psicológico tridimensional de agotamiento emocional, despersonalización y baja realización personal en el trabajo. El propósito de este estudio es evaluar la presencia del Burnout en el colectivo de los profesionales del Alto Rendimiento Deportivo. Para ello se utilizó una muestra de 102 profesionales en activo empleados en 20 organizaciones representativas del fenómeno del Alto Rendimiento Deportivo de la ciudad de Madrid, España. Para medir la incidencia del Burnout (Síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo se utilizó el Inventario de Burnout de Maslach. Los resultados obtenidos en este colectivo fueron de un 37,25% con altos niveles de Burnout (Síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo, 50% con nivel intermedio y 12,75% con bajo nivel. Estos profesionales presentan mayores niveles de baja realización personal en el trabajo (26,47% y menores niveles de despersonalización (11,76% y agotamiento emocional (10,78%. También se encontraron diferencias en los niveles cuando fueron comparados con otros profesionales del deporte.AbstractIt is widely accepted in organizational and health psychology literatures that burnout is a consequence of chronic job stress wh+ºich causes an array of negative work related performance and health outcomes. Burnout was conceptualized as a 3-dimensional psychological syndrome consisting of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and decreased personal accomplishment. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of Burnout syndrome in High

  11. Teacher Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    USA Today, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Teacher burnout is characterized by three factors: emotional exhaustion and fatigue; negative, cynical attitudes towards students; and the loss of feelings of accomplishment on the job. Important predictors of burnout include a lack of participation in decision-making, inappropriate job expectations, a lack of teacher autonomy, and role conflict.…

  12. Job burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslach, C; Schaufeli, W B; Leiter, M P

    2001-01-01

    Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job, and is defined by the three dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. The past 25 years of research has established the complexity of the construct, and places the individual stress experience within a larger organizational context of people's relation to their work. Recently, the work on burnout has expanded internationally and has led to new conceptual models. The focus on engagement, the positive antithesis of burnout, promises to yield new perspectives on interventions to alleviate burnout. The social focus of burnout, the solid research basis concerning the syndrome, and its specific ties to the work domain make a distinct and valuable contribution to people's health and well-being.

  13. Effect of ash components on the ignition and burnout of high ash coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, B.; Yan, R.; Zheng, C.G. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). National Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    1998-11-01

    The effect of the ash components on the ignition and burnout of four Chinese high ash coals were studied by thermogravimetric analysis. To investigate the influence of the ash components, comparative experiments were carried out with original, deashed and impregnated coals. Eleven types of ash components, such as SiO{sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, MgO, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeS{sub 2}, NH{sub 4}Fe(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}12H{sub 2}O and FeSO{sub 4},(NH{sub 4}){center_dot}6H{sub 2}O were used in the present study. It was found that most of the ash components have negative effects. The strong influence of some ash components suggests that the combustion characteristics of high ash coal may be determined by the ash composition. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. [Emotional burnout syndrome and pedagogical styles in teachers of a medical high school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, E I; Ivanov, I V; Serdakova, K G

    2011-01-01

    The study involved 20 teachers of medical institutions who gave consent to be examined for emotional burnout syndrome (EBS). Diagnosis of moderate EBS was confirmed by relevant clinical tests and analysis of pedagogical communication style in 30% of the participants. The pedagogical style of teachers exhibiting no signs of burnout is characterized by personality-oriented model of communication with differential attitudes toward students and active interaction with them. Teachers presenting with EBS relied on the disciplinary model of communication prevailed by authoritarian and dictatorial behaviour lacking communicability and flexibility; these persons showed pronounced hyperreflexia.

  15. Kinetics of fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodoo, J.N.D.; Okoh, J.M.; Diaz, A.

    1998-08-01

    Oxidation studies of coal fly ash have been carried out at partial pressures in the range 1 atmosphere down to 400 torr. The studies have also been carried out at 1 atmosphere for different temperatures in the range 500 to 750 C. The equipment used was a state-of-the-art Cann Thermogravimetric analyzer having sensitive microbalance that permitted measurements to .1 {micro}g. The analyzer is part of a GC/MS/TG setup in this laboratory. The fly ash was supplied by Delmarva Power Indian River Plant, DE. The samples were dried and stored in a desiccator to ensure that they remained dry prior to combustion. The combustion process inside the TGA is continuous and the heat released can be related to the percent of carbon consumed. The setup provided easy identification of the elements in the fly ash. The elemental analysis was also augmented by use of an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. In the X-ray analysis the carbon in the fly ash was compared with that in a dolomite (CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}) standard obtained from the US Bureau of Mines (USBOM). Preliminary data show encouraging results in the rate of reduction of the residual carbon. Both analyses show reduction of carbon after burning.

  16. Burnout and Work Engagement Among US Dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Jean Marie; Kwatra, Japneet; Yansane, Alfa; Tokede, Oluwabunmi; Gorter, Ronald C; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2017-06-30

    Burnout is a threat to patient safety. It relates to emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment. Work engagement conversely composed of levels of vigor, dedication, and absorption in one's profession. The aim of this study was to examine burnout and work engagement among US dentists. This study used the extensively validated Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale to measure burnout in a self-administered survey of 167 US dentists who attended continuing education courses held in Boston, Pittsburg, Iowa City, and Las Vegas. The mean scores on the 3 subscales of Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were computed. The interscale correlations between the components of burnout and work engagement were assessed using Pearson correlations. We used 1-way analysis of variance and independent 2 sample t tests to examine the relationship between burnout and work engagement across sex and various age categories. Prevalence of burnout in our study population was also computed. We observed that 13.2% of our study population experienced burnout and 16.2% of our study population was highly work engaged. There was a statistically significant, unadjusted association between burnout risk and work engagement (χ = 22.51, P work engagement. In this preliminary study, we observed some evidence of burnout among practicing US dentists. It is imperative that the dental profession understands this and works to promote professional practices that increase work engagement and decrease burnout.

  17. Low burnout risk and high engagement levels among oral and maxillofacial surgeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, R.C.; Jacobs, B.L.T.H.; Allard, R.H.B.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the well-being of oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The aim of this study was to measure the levels of burnout risk and the demanding work aspects of Dutch oral and maxillofacial surgeons, as well as the levels of positive work engagement and stimulating aspects of the work

  18. Nursing burnout interventions: what is being done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Barbara J

    2014-04-01

    Many studies have documented high prevalence of burnout and compassion fatigue in oncology nurses. Burnout has detrimental effects on nurses, patients, and healthcare organizations. However, burnout interventions have been shown to improve the physical and mental health of nurses, patient satisfaction, and the organizational bottom line by reducing associated costs of burnout. Although treatment centers may prevent and correct burnout in oncology nurses by providing various interventions, few articles focus on those interventions. This article compiles and describes interventions that will serve as a reference to nurses and healthcare organization leaders interested in implementing similar programs.

  19. Burnout in premedical undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Daniel Z; Fang, Daniel; Young, Christina B; Young, Christina; Golshan, Shah; Moutier, Christine; Zisook, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    There has been growing recognition that medical students, interns, residents and practicing physicians across many specialties are prone to burnout, with recent studies linking high rates of burnout to adverse mental health issues. Little is known about the trajectory and origins of burnout or whether its roots may be traced to earlier in medical training, specifically, during undergraduate studies. Here, the authors surveyed undergraduates at UC San Diego (UCSD) to assess the relationship of burnout to premedical status while controlling for depression severity. Undergraduate students at UCSD were invited to participate in a web-based survey, consisting of demographic questions; the Maslach Burnout Inventory Student Survey (MBI-SS), which gauged the three dimensions of burnout; and the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), to assess depression severity. A total of 618 premedical students and 1,441 non-premedical students completed the questionnaire. Premedical students had greater depression severity and emotional exhaustion than non-premedical students, but they also exhibited a greater sense of personal efficacy. The burnout differences were persistent even after adjusting for depression. Also, premedical women and Hispanic students had especially high levels of burnout, although differences between groups became nonsignificant after accounting for depression. Despite the limitations of using a burnout questionnaire not specifically normed for undergraduates, the unique ethnic characteristics of the sample, and the uncertain response rate, the findings highlight the importance of recognizing the unique strains and mental health disturbances that may be more common among premedical students than non-premedical students. Results also underscore the close relationship between depression and burnout, and point the way for subsequent longitudinal, multi-institutional studies that could help identify opportunities for prevention and intervention.

  20. [Burnout syndrome: diagnosis, principles of treatment, prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Yu V; Palchenkova, M V; Kalachev, O V

    2015-07-01

    Burnout syndrome is a socio-psychological phenomenon of emotional, motivational, and physical exhaustion as a result of chronic occupational stress. It is manifested as long-term emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and diminished personal and professional achievements. Burnout syndrome is common among health care workers, 'due to their high dedication, empathy for suffering patients, and decision-making related to life and health of patients. Personal, role and organizational factors influence on development of burnout. The clinical picture of burnout is multifactorial and can be described as a set of psychosomatic and somatic disorders, symptoms of social dysfunction. Diversity and non-specific symptoms of burnout syndrome determine the need for an interdisciplinary approach to its diagnosis. The leading role in solving problems related to stress and emotional burnout plays psychotherapy. The paper presents diagnostic criteria, risk factors, and methods of prevention and treatment of emotional burnout.

  1. Burnout and Doctors: Prevalence, Prevention and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailesh

    2016-01-01

    Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper. PMID:27417625

  2. Burnout and Doctors: Prevalence, Prevention and Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper.

  3. Nurse Burnout and Patient Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahey, Doris C.; Aiken, Linda H.; Sloane, Douglas M.; Clarke, Sean P.; Vargas, Delfino

    2010-01-01

    Background Amid a national nurse shortage, there is growing concern that high levels of nurse burnout could adversely affect patient outcomes. Objectives This study examines the effect of the nurse work environment on nurse burnout, and the effects of the nurse work environment and nurse burnout on patients' satisfaction with their nursing care. Research Design/Subjects We conducted cross-sectional surveys of nurses (N = 820) and patients (N = 621) from 40 units in 20 urban hospitals across the United States. Measures Nurse surveys included measures of nurses' practice environments derived from the revised Nursing Work Index (NWI-R) and nurse outcomes measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and intentions to leave. Patients were interviewed about their satisfaction with nursing care using the La Monica-Oberst Patient Satisfaction Scale (LOPSS). Results Patients cared for on units that nurses characterized as having adequate staff, good administrative support for nursing care, and good relations between doctors and nurses were more than twice likely as other patients to report high satisfaction with their care, and their nurses reported significantly lower burnout. The overall level of nurse burnout on hospital units also affected patient satisfaction. Conclusions Improvements in nurses' work environments in hospitals have the potential to simultaneously reduce nurses' high levels of job burnout and risk of turnover and increase patients' satisfaction with their care. PMID:14734943

  4. Reducing teacher stress and burnout in high-risk secondary schools in South Africa using transactional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Mary Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of a number of articles arising from PhD research, this paper focuses on the results of applying transactional analysis as one of three approaches to reducing stress and burnout for teachers in high-risk secondary schools in the gangland areas of the Cape Flats, Western Cape, South Africa. The other approaches were Trauma Release Exercises (TRE and Transpersonal Psychology (TP, and related articles on these and on the quantitative statistical analysis elements of this research are being disseminated elsewhere. A total of 43 teachers in three different schools took part in one intervention held weekly over 10 weeks for one and a half hours (15 hours in total at their school as part of staff development, with a control group of 20 teachers at a fourth school. Qualitative TA intervention questionnaire coding analysis and focus group post-intervention thematic analysis of the mixed-methods study are presented. Coding analysis focused on the intra- and inter-individual tools that impacted teachers, and it was found that TA generated self-awareness, self-help tools and a strong group connection. Thematic analysis gave insights into the physical, emotional and cognitive responses to stress and burnout interventions on the individual, interpersonal and organisational levels and revealed new perspectives on classroom competency, with teachers taking more responsibility for discipline in the classroom. The study gave insights into the well-being and coping of educators who survive in these challenging contexts, and it is proposed that TRE, TP and TA approaches can be incorporated, and possibly combined, into integrative and eclectic ways of dealing with complex psychological challenges of stress and burnout reduction in traumatic environments.

  5. Promoting an equitable and supportive school climate in high schools: the role of school organizational health and staff burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottiani, Jessika H; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Mendelson, Tamar

    2014-12-01

    In response to persistent racial disparities in academic and behavioral outcomes between Black and White students, equitable school climate has drawn attention as a potential target for school reform. This study examined differences in Black and White students' experiences of school climate and explored whether indicators of school organizational health and staff burnout moderated differences in students' school experiences by race. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling with a sample of 18,397 Black students (n=6228) and White students (n=12,169) and 2391 school staff in 53 schools, we found a consistent pattern of racial inequalities, such that Black students reported less positive experiences than White students across three indicators of school climate (caring γ=-0.08, porganizational health and student-reported school climate (e.g., staff affiliation and student-perceived equity, γ=0.07, porganizational health indicators were more strongly associated with positive perceptions of school climate among White students than Black students, translating into greater racial disparities in perceived school climate at schools with greater organizational health (e.g., supportive leadership by race on student-perceived engagement, γ=-0.03, p=.042). We also found negative associations between staff-reported burnout and students' experience of equity, such that the racial gap was smaller in schools with high ratings of burnout (γ=0.04, p=.002). These findings have implications for educators and education researchers interested in promoting school social contexts that equitably support student engagement and success. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Maslach Burnout Inventory and a Self-Defined, Single-Item Burnout Measure Produce Different Clinician and Staff Burnout Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Margae; Willard-Grace, Rachel; Huang, Beatrice; Grumbach, Kevin

    2018-06-04

    Clinicians and healthcare staff report high levels of burnout. Two common burnout assessments are the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and a single-item, self-defined burnout measure. Relatively little is known about how the measures compare. To identify the sensitivity, specificity, and concurrent validity of the self-defined burnout measure compared to the more established MBI measure. Cross-sectional survey (November 2016-January 2017). Four hundred forty-four primary care clinicians and 606 staff from three San Francisco Aarea healthcare systems. The MBI measure, calculated from a high score on either the emotional exhaustion or cynicism subscale, and a single-item measure of self-defined burnout. Concurrent validity was assessed using a validated, 7-item team culture scale as reported by Willard-Grace et al. (J Am Board Fam Med 27(2):229-38, 2014) and a standard question about workplace atmosphere as reported by Rassolian et al. (JAMA Intern Med 177(7):1036-8, 2017) and Linzer et al. (Ann Intern Med 151(1):28-36, 2009). Similar to other nationally representative burnout estimates, 52% of clinicians (95% CI: 47-57%) and 46% of staff (95% CI: 42-50%) reported high MBI emotional exhaustion or high MBI cynicism. In contrast, 29% of clinicians (95% CI: 25-33%) and 31% of staff (95% CI: 28-35%) reported "definitely burning out" or more severe symptoms on the self-defined burnout measure. The self-defined measure's sensitivity to correctly identify MBI-assessed burnout was 50.4% for clinicians and 58.6% for staff; specificity was 94.7% for clinicians and 92.3% for staff. Area under the receiver operator curve was 0.82 for clinicians and 0.81 for staff. Team culture and atmosphere were significantly associated with both self-defined burnout and the MBI, confirming concurrent validity. Point estimates of burnout notably differ between the self-defined and MBI measures. Compared to the MBI, the self-defined burnout measure misses half of high-burnout clinicians and more

  7. BURNOUT SYNDROM AMONG PUBLIC AMBULANCE STAFF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorga, Magdalena; Dascalu, Neonila; Soponaru, Camelia; Ioan, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare professionals are frequently confronted with urgent situations and a high-risk human intervention. They are usually exposed to what is called burnout syndrome. To identify the effects of burnout syndrome on the professional conduct and attitudes of doctors and nurses who work in the Romanian public ambulance service. Secondary, the causal relationships between burnout and various socio-demographic variables were analyzed. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS- 20), Maslach Burnout Inventory and Job Satisfaction Questionnaire were administered to 122 ambulance doctors, nurses and drivers (62 females and 60 males). The degree of job satisfaction is the most important indicator of burnout syndrome. Significant differences were found between low and high alexithymic subjects. Women are more susceptible to experience higher levels of burnout than men. The level of burnout is influenced by the combined effect of job satisfaction and alexithymia. Burnout syndrome is a common problem among people working in the emergency medical system. The causes of job-related burnout have to be identified in order to apply an appropriate level of burnout intervention program and to increase the efficiency of coping strategies.

  8. Burnout Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Panova, Gordana; Panov, Nenad; Stojanov, H; Sumanov, Gorgi; Panova, Blagica; Stojanovski, Angel; Nikolovska, Lence; Jovevska, Svetlana; Trajanovski, D; Asanova, D

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing work responsibilities, allocation of duties, loss of energy and motivation in everyday activities, emotional exhaustion, lack of time for themselves, insuffi cient time for rest and recreation, dissatisfaction in private life. All these symptoms can be cause of Burnout Syndrome. Aim: To see the importance of this syndrome, the consequences of job dissatisfaction, the environment, family and expression in drastic chan...

  9. Regulating low-NOx and high-burnout deep-air-staging combustion under real-furnace conditions in a 600 MWe down-fired supercritical boiler by strengthening the staged-air effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Wang, Zhihua; Zhu, Yanqun; Ling, Zhongqian; Li, Zhengqi

    2014-10-21

    A 600 MW(e) down-fired pulverized-coal supercritical boiler, which was equipped with a deep-air-staging combustion system for reducing the particularly high NOx emissions, suffered from the well-accepted contradiction between low NOx emissions and high carbon in fly ash, in addition to excessively high gas temperatures in the hopper that jeopardized the boiler's safe operations. Previous results uncovered that under low-NOx conditions, strengthening the staged-air effect by decreasing the staged-air angle and simultaneously increasing the staged-air damper opening alleviated the aforementioned problems to some extent. To establish low-NOx and high-burnout circumstances and control the aforementioned hopper temperatures, a further staged-air retrofit with horizontally redirecting staged air through an enlarged staged-air slot area was performed to greatly strengthen the staged-air effect. Full-load industrial-size measurements were performed to confirm the availability of this retrofit. The present data were compared with those published results before the retrofit. High NOx emissions, low carbon in fly ah, and high hopper temperatures (i.e., levels of 1036 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 3.72%, and about 1300 °C, respectively) appeared under the original conditions with the staged-air angle of 45° and without overfire air (OFA) application. Applying OFA and reducing the angle to 20° achieved an apparent NOx reduction and a moderate hopper temperature decrease while a sharp increase in carbon in fly ash (i.e., levels of 878 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, about 1200 °C, and 9.81%, respectively). Fortunately, the present staged-air retrofit was confirmed to be applicable in regulating low-NOx, high-burnout, and low hopper temperature circumstances (i.e., levels of 867 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 5.40%, and about 1100 °C, respectively).

  10. Burnout in medical students: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Waguih; Nikravesh, Rose; Lederer, Sara; Perry, Robert; Ogunyemi, Dotun; Bernstein, Carol

    2013-08-01

    Burnout is a state of mental and physical exhaustion related to work or care-giving activities. Distress during medical school can lead to burnout, with significant consequences, particularly if burnout continues into residency and beyond. The authors reviewed literature pertaining to medical student burnout, its prevalence, and its relationship to personal, environmental, demographic and psychiatric factors. We ultimately offer some suggestions to address and potentially ameliorate the current dilemma posed by burnout during medical education. A literature review was conducted using a PubMed/Medline, and PsycInfo search from 1974 to 2011 using the keywords: 'burnout', 'stress', 'well-being', 'self-care', 'psychiatry' and 'medical students'. Three authors agreed independently on the studies to be included in this review. The literature reveals that burnout is prevalent during medical school, with major US multi-institutional studies estimating that at least half of all medical students may be affected by burnout during their medical education. Studies show that burnout may persist beyond medical school, and is, at times, associated with psychiatric disorders and suicidal ideation. A variety of personal and professional characteristics correlate well with burnout. Potential interventions include school-based and individual-based activities to increase overall student well-being. Burnout is a prominent force challenging medical students' well-being, with concerning implications for the continuation of burnout into residency and beyond. To address this highly prevalent condition, educators must first develop greater awareness and understanding of burnout, as well as of the factors that lead to its development. Interventions focusing on generating wellness during medical training are highly recommended. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Chronic job burnout and daily functioning: A theoretical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold B. Bakker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the individual employee's role in the development of his/her job burnout. We review the antecedents and consequences of burnout, and propose a model with chronic burnout as a moderator of daily functioning in the workplace. Specifically, we argue that chronic burnout strengthens the loss cycle of daily job demands, daily exhaustion, and daily self-undermining. Additionally, we argue that chronic burnout weakens the gain cycle of daily job resources, daily work engagement, and daily job crafting. We conclude that employees with high levels of burnout need help in structurally changing their working conditions and health status.

  12. Commitment to Classroom Model Philosophy and Burnout Symptoms among High Fidelity Teachers Implementing Preschool Programs for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Drew; Alessandri, Michael; Gutierrez, Anibal; Novotny, Stephanie; Boyd, Brian; Hume, Kara; Sperry, Laurie; Odom, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Teacher commitment to classroom model philosophy and burnout were explored in a sample of 53 teachers implementing three preschool models at high levels of fidelity for students with autism: Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH); Learning Experiences and Alternative Program for Preschoolers and…

  13. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  14. From Teacher Burnout to Student Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    PP, Noushad

    2008-01-01

    Originally, Burnout was a common work related phenomena resulting of severe stress. Burnout is considered to be a long-term stress reaction that particularly occurs among professionals who work with people in some capacity--like teachers, nurses, or social workers. Although various definitions of burnout exist, it is most commonly described as a…

  15. Differential diagnostic of the burnout syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Dieter; Huber, Beate; Kister, Christine

    2010-07-05

    There is no consistent definition of burnout. It is neither a defined diagnosis in ICD-10 nor in DSM-IV. Yet it is diagnosed by office-based doctors and clinicians. Mainly due to reimbursement reasons, diagnoses like depression are used instead of burnout diagnoses. Therefore burnout has a very high individual, social and economic impact. How is burnout diagnosed? Which criteria are relevant? How valid and reliable are the used tools?What kind of disorders in case of burnout are relevant for a differential diagnosis?What is the economic effect of a differential diagnosis for burnout?Are there any negative effects of persons with burnout on patients or clients?Can stigmatization of burnout-patients or -clients be observed? Based on a systematic literature research in 36 databases, studies in English or German language, published since 2004, concerning medical and differential diagnoses, economic impact and ethical aspects of burnout, are included and evaluated. 852 studies are identified. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria and after reviewing the full texts, 25 medical and one ethical study are included. No economic study met the criteria. The key result of this report is that so far no standardized, general and international valid procedure exists to obtain a burnout diagnosis. At present, it is up to the physician's discretion to diagnose burnout. The overall problem is to measure a phenomenon that is not exactly defined. The current available burnout measurements capture a three dimensional burnout construct. But the cutoff points do not conform to the standards of scientifically valid test construction. It is important to distinguish burnout from depression, alexithymia, feeling unwell and the concept of prolonged exhaustion. An intermittent relation of the constructs is possible. Furthermore, burnout goes along with various ailments like sleep disturbance. Through a derogation of work performance it can have also negative effects on

  16. Differential diagnostic of the burnout syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kister, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is no consistent definition of burnout. It is neither a defined diagnosis in ICD-10 nor in DSM-IV. Yet it is diagnosed by office-based doctors and clinicians. Mainly due to reimbursement reasons, diagnoses like depression are used instead of burnout diagnoses. Therefore burnout has a very high individual, social and economic impact. Objectives: How is burnout diagnosed? Which criteria are relevant? How valid and reliable are the used tools? What kind of disorders in case of burnout are relevant for a differential diagnosis? What is the economic effect of a differential diagnosis for burnout? Are there any negative effects of persons with burnout on patients or clients? Can stigmatization of burnout-patients or -clients be observed? Methods: Based on a systematic literature research in 36 databases, studies in English or German language, published since 2004, concerning medical and differential diagnoses, economic impact and ethical aspects of burnout, are included and evaluated. Results: 852 studies are identified. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria and after reviewing the full texts, 25 medical and one ethical study are included. No economic study met the criteria.The key result of this report is that so far no standardized, general and international valid procedure exists to obtain a burnout diagnosis. At present, it is up to the physician’s discretion to diagnose burnout. The overall problem is to measure a phenomenon that is not exactly defined. The current available burnout measurements capture a three dimensional burnout construct. But the cutoff points do not conform to the standards of scientifically valid test construction. It is important to distinguish burnout from depression, alexithymia, feeling unwell and the concept of prolonged exhaustion. An intermittent relation of the constructs is possible. Furthermore, burnout goes along with various ailments like sleep disturbance. Through a

  17. A New Approach to Identify High Burnout Medical Staffs by Kernel K-Means Cluster Analysis in a Regional Teaching Hospital in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yii-Ching; Huang, Shian-Chang; Huang, Chih-Hsuan; Wu, Hsin-Hung

    2016-01-01

    This study uses kernel k-means cluster analysis to identify medical staffs with high burnout. The data collected in October to November 2014 are from the emotional exhaustion dimension of the Chinese version of Safety Attitudes Questionnaire in a regional teaching hospital in Taiwan. The number of effective questionnaires including the entire staffs such as physicians, nurses, technicians, pharmacists, medical administrators, and respiratory therapists is 680. The results show that 8 clusters are generated by kernel k-means method. Employees in clusters 1, 4, and 5 are relatively in good conditions, whereas employees in clusters 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 need to be closely monitored from time to time because they have relatively higher degree of burnout. When employees with higher degree of burnout are identified, the hospital management can take actions to improve the resilience, reduce the potential medical errors, and, eventually, enhance the patient safety. This study also suggests that the hospital management needs to keep track of medical staffs' fatigue conditions and provide timely assistance for burnout recovery through employee assistance programs, mindfulness-based stress reduction programs, positivity currency buildup, and forming appreciative inquiry groups. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. A New Approach to Identify High Burnout Medical Staffs by Kernel K-Means Cluster Analysis in a Regional Teaching Hospital in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yii-Ching Lee PhD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study uses kernel k-means cluster analysis to identify medical staffs with high burnout. The data collected in October to November 2014 are from the emotional exhaustion dimension of the Chinese version of Safety Attitudes Questionnaire in a regional teaching hospital in Taiwan. The number of effective questionnaires including the entire staffs such as physicians, nurses, technicians, pharmacists, medical administrators, and respiratory therapists is 680. The results show that 8 clusters are generated by kernel k-means method. Employees in clusters 1, 4, and 5 are relatively in good conditions, whereas employees in clusters 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 need to be closely monitored from time to time because they have relatively higher degree of burnout. When employees with higher degree of burnout are identified, the hospital management can take actions to improve the resilience, reduce the potential medical errors, and, eventually, enhance the patient safety. This study also suggests that the hospital management needs to keep track of medical staffs’ fatigue conditions and provide timely assistance for burnout recovery through employee assistance programs, mindfulness-based stress reduction programs, positivity currency buildup, and forming appreciative inquiry groups.

  19. Factors Influencing Teacher Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raquepaw, Jayne; deHaas, Patricia A.

    Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion and cynicism frequently occurring among human services professionals. Education is one profession whose members are particularly susceptible to burnout. There is a need to identify causes of burnout and possible ameliorative strategies, as perceived by teachers. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), a…

  20. Burnout Syndrome of Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Semrádová, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis covers burnout syndrome of teachers. Defines burnout syndrome, describes its causes and symptoms. Describes teaching as helping profession and focousing on stressful situations at school. In the last chapter described different prevention strategies burnout syndrome. Key words: burnout syndrome, teaching, teacher, helping professions, beginning teacher, stress

  1. Passion and Burnout in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Bryan K.; Bureau, Alex; Eckenrode, Claire; Maley, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    Previous research on passion and burnout has shown that teachers, including college faculty, who show high levels of harmonious passion toward their work experience lower burnout than teachers who have high levels of obsessive passion. In the present study, we extended this line of research to college students. We found that students who were…

  2. Occupational burnout among nursing personel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Wieder-Huszla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Occupational stress and the related burnout syndrome is undoubtedly one of the most important challenges for public health. Objectives . The objective of the study was identifying occupational burnout among nurses. Material and methods . The questionnaire was responded by 408 professionally active male and female nurses, working in the territory of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. In the evaluation of occupational burnout the standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was applied. Results . Mean values of the level of occupational burnout for the study group amounted to 39.3 ± 30.9 with regard to emotional exhaustion, 30.64 ± 27.89 with respect to the depersonalization subscale and 66.26 ± 27.94 – the lowered level of job satisfaction. Conclusions . 1. The studied nursing personnel showed symptoms of occupational burnout in all dimensions of the syndrome, i.e. high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization as well as low job satisfaction. 2. Individuals with higher education scored lower on the emotional exhaustion scale. 3. Emotional exhaustion is influenced by workplace and position.

  3. Burnout syndrome among dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini; Jordani, Paula Cristina; Zucoloto, Miriane Lucindo; Bonafé, Fernanda Salloume Sampaio; Maroco, João

    2012-03-01

    The burnout syndrome is characterized by professional exhaustion and has been reported in college students. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome among dentistry students from a public university, and its relationship to socio-demographic characteristics. All students (n = 300) were invited to participate. We used the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Version (MBI-SS). We carried out an analysis of the MBI-SS' psychometric properties. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was performed, followed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post-hoc tests to compare the mean scores of burnout dimensions. Of the 235 participants, 72.8% were women and the mean age was 21.0 ± 1.8 years. The MBI-SS was reliable and valid. Of the students, 17.0% had Burnout Syndrome. There was a significant relation between Burnout Syndrome and a student's performance during the course (F = 4.433, p students most affected were those with poor performance, those who took medication because of studies, and those with thoughts of dropping the course. We concluded that the prevalence of the syndrome among dentistry students was high, with a significant relation between the syndrome and a student's academic performance, use of medication because of studies, and thoughts of dropping the course.

  4. High-Melt Carbon-Carbon Coating for Nozzle Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies, Inc. (C-CAT), has developed a high-melt coating for use in nozzle extensions in next-generation spacecraft. The coating is composed primarily of carbon-carbon, a carbon-fiber and carbon-matrix composite material that has gained a spaceworthy reputation due to its ability to withstand ultrahigh temperatures. C-CAT's high-melt coating embeds hafnium carbide (HfC) and zirconium diboride (ZrB2) within the outer layers of a carbon-carbon structure. The coating demonstrated enhanced high-temperature durability and suffered no erosion during a test in NASA's Arc Jet Complex. (Test parameters: stagnation heat flux=198 BTD/sq ft-sec; pressure=.265 atm; temperature=3,100 F; four cycles totaling 28 minutes) In Phase I of the project, C-CAT successfully demonstrated large-scale manufacturability with a 40-inch cylinder representing the end of a nozzle extension and a 16-inch flanged cylinder representing the attach flange of a nozzle extension. These demonstrators were manufactured without spalling or delaminations. In Phase II, C-CAT worked with engine designers to develop a nozzle extension stub skirt interfaced with an Aerojet Rocketdyne RL10 engine. All objectives for Phase II were successfully met. Additional nonengine applications for the coating include thermal protection systems (TPS) for next-generation spacecraft and hypersonic aircraft.

  5. Investigations into NOx emissions and burnout for coals with high ash content in a bench scale test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greul, U.; Kluger, F.; Peter, G.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    2000-07-01

    At the Stuttgart University's Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology (IVD) investigations of in-furnace DeNOx technologies with regard to their NOx reduction efficiency are carried out using an electrically heated bench-scale test facility to evaluate the effect of different process parameters independently. The DeNOx technologies of air and fuel staging have been demonstrated to be effective control techniques to reduce NOx from stationary sources. For a wide range of brown and hard coals from Europe, South Africa and Australia test runs with air-staged combustion have been carried out. The ash content of the hard coals used was in the range between 8 and 28%. The investigated parameters were temperature (1000-1300{degree}C), stoichiometry (1.25-0.55), and residence time (1-6 s) in the fuel rich primary zone. With increasing temperatures and residence times in fuel-rich conditions in air-staged combustion NOx emissions below 300 mg/m{sup 3} can be achieved even with hard coals. For a few brown coals NOx values lower than 100 mg/m{sup 3} are possible. Dependent on the coal rank individual parameters are more important than others. For low and medium volatile hard coals the increasing of the residence time is more effective than higher temperature or lower air ratios in the primary zone. However, with high volatile hard coal or brown coal as primary fuel the influence of temperature and stoichiometry in the primary zone plays a key role for NOx reduction effectiveness. The burnout led to restrictions in large scale applications for air-staged combustion especially with hard coals as primary fuel. Investigations at different primary air ratios and temperatures show the effect of these parameters on the burnout values along the course of combustion. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. High performance carbon nanocomposites for ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen

    2012-10-02

    The present invention relates to composite electrodes for electrochemical devices, particularly to carbon nanotube composite electrodes for high performance electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors.

  7. Family medicine residency training and burnout: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Rutherford

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The high level of burnout in family medicine residents in BC is a multifactorial and complex phenomenon. Training programs and faculty should be aware of burnout risk factors and strive to implement changes to reduce burnout, including allowing residents increased control over scheduling, access to counseling services and training for resident mentors.

  8. The Associations Between Long Working Hours, Physical Inactivity, and Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nien-Chih; Chen, Jong-Dar; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2016-05-01

    To examine the correlations between long working hours, physical activity, and burnout. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1560 full-time employees, who underwent periodic health examinations in the year 2013. The subjects were divided into upper, middle, and lower tertiles according to the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) score. The comparison of the high- and low-burnout groups revealed that long working hours were significantly correlated with burnout in a dose-dependent manner. Long working hours were more significantly associated with burnout among individuals younger than 50 years, females, and physically inactive employees. Long working hours are correlated with burnout when working over 40 hours per week and is even stronger when working over 60 hours per week. Limiting working hours to 40 weekly may be beneficial for the prevention of burnout. Physical activity helps reduce the risk of burnout.

  9. Burnout in perioperative context

    OpenAIRE

    Galvão, Ana Maria; Gonçalves, Ana Rita Veloso; Certo, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Companies in a global context are going through moments of great development of information and technologies. In these environments Burnout is highly prevalent, this syndrome is considered as one of physical and emotional stress that leads to a lack of motivation to work, leading to a progressive sense of inadequacy and failure. Objectives: What level of stress Perioperative nurses for nurses in the Region of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro. Methods: Non-experimental study,...

  10. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  11. Suicidal Thoughts Among Medical Residents with Burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Frank; Dillingh, Gea; Bakker, Arnold; Prins, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Recent research showed that medical residents have a high risk for developing burnout. The present study investigates the prevalence of burnout and its relationship with suicidal thoughts among medical residents. Methods: All Dutch medical residents (n = 5126) received a self-report

  12. Is caseload midwifery a healthy work-form? - A survey of burnout among midwives in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ingrid; Juul, Svend; Foureur, Maralyn

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the level of burnout among midwives working in caseloading practices compared to other models of midwifery care. Study design and setting: In this survey the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory was used to measure burnout among midwives working in a tertiary maternity unit...... Denmark. Main outcome measures: Mean burnout scores and the proportion of midwives with high burnout scores (a score >= 50). Results: The response rate was 82.0% as 50 out of 61 midwives answered the questionnaire. In caseload midwifery the burnout scores in personal, work-related and client......-related burnout were significantly lower when compared to ‘‘other models of care”. Among caseloading midwives, none had high scores of burnout in any of the measured domains. The proportions of high burnout scores among all of the participating midwives were 22% (95% CI: 12%–36%) in personal burnout, 20% (95% CI...

  13. Burnout among family and general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaida M.J. Al-Shoraian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Job burnout is an important syndrome that can deplete the emotional health aspects of physicians. Its impacts are reflected both on the physicians and their patients through undermining the performance of physicians and degrading the quality of the administered medical care leading to dissatisfaction of the patients about the medical service. Objectives: This study is formulated to compare the prevalence of high burnout among family physicians and general practitioners and reveal the predictors of high grades of burnout among physicians. Subjects and methods: A cross sectional study was carried out. Out of 378 physicians working in two health regions in Kuwait, 200 physicians returned a filled questionnaire, of these 105 were family physicians and the rest were primary health care physicians. Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Service Survey tool was used to estimate high degree of burnout on three domains, namely emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Results: General practitioners were more likely to suffer from high grades of emotional exhaustion (63.2% than family physicians (19.0%. They also suffered from high grade of depersonalization (65.3% compared with family physicians (27.6%. Those suffering from high grades of personal accomplishment burnout (inverse score constituted 61.1% of primary health care physicians and 33.3% of family physicians. Those suffering from grades for the three burnout domain constituted more than one third of primary health care physicians (36.8% compared with only 5.7% of family physicians. Type of physician job and marital status proved to be significant predictors of high grades of burnout. Conclusion: Burnout is more common among primary care than family physicians. Searching for and eliminating all sources of stress in the primary health care centers in addition to training of these physicians on coping strategies to deal with stress at work seems to be an important

  14. Experimental investigation on NO{sub x} emission and carbon burnout from a radially biased pulverized coal whirl burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Shan; Hui, Shi' en; Zhou, Qulan; Xu, Tongmo; Hu, Hongli [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Taisheng [Dongfang Boiler Group Co., Ltd., Zigong, Sichuan 643001 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Experiments have been performed on 1 MW pulverized coal (pc) furnace in order to investigate the characteristics of coal combustion and NO{sub x} emission from a new type of radially biased dual register whirl burner. The burner is characterized by a primary air pipe with a continuously changing cross-section and an impact ring. The mixture of pulverized coal and air inside the primary pipe is split into two streams, which are the outer pc rich annular jet and the inner pc lean annular jet respectively. Three Chinese coals, which are high rank bituminous coal, low rank bituminous coal and meager coal respectively, are used in the experiments. We examine the influences of various parameters such as the relative position of the over-fire air (OFA) nozzle, over-fire air ratio (19.1%), primary air ratio, inner secondary air ratio, outer secondary air ratio, inner secondary air swirling intensity, and outer secondary air swirling intensity on NO{sub x} formation and unburned carbon in fly ash. With the primary air ratio increasing from 13.4% to 23.4%, the value of the NO{sub x} emission of the SH coal decreases by 26.7% at first, and then increases by 21.7%. In contrast, the value of the carbon in fly ash (C{sub FA}) increases by 40.1% at first, and then decreases by 58.3%. According to the experimental results, the influence of each individual parameter on NO{sub x} formation and unburned carbon in fly ash agrees well with the existing literature. In this study, the influences of various combinations of these parameters are also examined, thus providing some reference for the design of the radial biased whirl burner, the configuration of the furnace and the distribution of the air. (author)

  15. Nurses and burnout syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarema Obradović

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The work of nurses is human. They help people in protection against diseases. Nurses are the largest group of health workers and all problems that appear in the health system are first recognized among them. Burnout syndrome appears among nurses very frequently. We present the leading factors for burnout among nurses in RMC „Dr Safet Mujic“ in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina.Methods: It is a cross sectional descriptive study. We used an anonymous questionnaire with 20 questions. Our sample was random with 30% of all nurses which were working in this Medical Center in January-February 2012.Results: In our study 77.9% nurses work in the hospital. 52% have over 16 years of work experience. 34.6% of examinees are satisfi ed with interpersonal relationships, 31.7 % are satisfi ed with relationships with the superior. Motivation for work have 51% of examinees, a big number comes unwilling on work.For 83.7% overtime work is the reason for dissatisfaction 71.2% examinees think that they can't make progress on work. A high percentage of examinees doesn't think about problems related to work outside working hours, a good sleep have 38.5% and 56.7% wakes up tired. Many of examinees are not satisfiedwith workplace, and 58.7% would like to change it.Conclusion: Nurses employed in RMC „Dr Safet Mujic“ Mostar are exposed to many factors during work which can cause the burnout syndrome. It is necessary to expand the study on a larger group of nurses and to implement the measures for reducing risks of burnout syndrome.

  16. Job satisfaction and burnout among paediatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Ozlem; Ozturk, Candan; Bektas, Murat; Ayar, Dijle; Armstrong, Merry A

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to determine factors of job satisfaction and burnout levels of paediatric nurses. A total of 165 nurses working in paediatric clinics completed the Minnesota job satisfaction scale and the Maslach burnout scale. Average scores of the emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation score were low, while personal accomplishment scores were high. A high level of job satisfaction, being married, increased age and a decreased number of assigned patients were significantly associated with a low level of burnout. Paediatric nurses experience burnout at significant levels. The most important variable that affected job satisfaction was income. The results of the study could guide development of strategies that might prevent or alleviate burnout of paediatric nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Carbon nanomaterials for high-performance supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Chen; Liming Dai

    2013-01-01

    Owing to their high energy density and power density, supercapacitors exhibit great potential as high-performance energy sources for advanced technologies. Recently, carbon nanomaterials (especially, carbon nanotubes and graphene) have been widely investigated as effective electrodes in supercapacitors due to their high specific surface area, excellent electrical and mechanical properties. This article summarizes the recent progresses on the development of high-performance supercapacitors bas...

  18. Burnout syndrome prevalence in physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Blanca; López-Arza, María Victoria González; Montanero-Fernández, Jesús; Varela-Donoso, Enrique; Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan; Mingote-Adán, José Carlos

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate burnout syndrome in its three aspects, jointly as well as independently, in physiotherapists from the Extremadura region (Spain). Analytic descriptive epidemiological transversal trial in primary care and institutional practice, with physiotherapists practicing in Extremadura who met the inclusion criteria, after having signed an informed consent form. Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional accomplishment were the outcomes measured. Physiotherapists from Extremadura show a 65.23 point level of burnout syndrome, according to the Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire. Therefore, they are positioned in the middle of the rating scale for the syndrome, and very near to the high level at starting score of 66 points. Physiotherapists in Extremadura present moderate scores for the three dimensions of burnout syndrome, namely, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional accomplishment. For this reason, they are in the moderate level of the syndrome and very near to the high level, which starts at a score of 66 points. No relation between burnout syndrome and age has been found in our study.

  19. Burnout among physicians and nursing staff working in the emergency hospital of Tanta University, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, S A M; El-Sallamy, R M; El-Sherbiny, A A M; Kabbash, I A

    2016-03-15

    Little is known about professional burnout among health-care workers in Egypt. The current study aimed to reveal the extent of burnout among physicians and nursing staff working in the emergency hospital of Tanta University and to identify some of its determinants. A cross-sectional study was carried out on all physicians (n = 266) and a systematic random sample of nurses (n = 284). Burnout was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and its subscales. Most of the participants (66.0%)had a moderate level of burnout and 24.9% of them had high burnout. Multivariate analysis of variables affecting burnout showed that age, sex, frequency of exposure to work-related violence, years of experience, work burden, supervision and work activities were significant predictors of burnout among the respondents. The authors recommend health education interventions during pre-employment training programmes for prevention of burnout syndrome and periodic screening for early detection and management of burnout.

  20. Meta-Analysis of Surgeon Burnout Syndrome and Specialty Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Alex J; Houk, Anna K; Pulcrano, Marisa; Shara, Nawar M; Kwagyan, John; Jackson, Patrick G; Sosin, Michael

    2018-02-27

    Surgeon burnout compromises the quality of life of physicians and the delivery of care to patients. Burnout rates and interpretation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) complicates the interpretation of surgeon burnout. The purpose of this study is to apply a standardized interpretation of severe surgeon burnout termed, "burnout syndrome" to analyze inherent variation within surgical specialties. A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE to identify studies reporting MBI data by surgical specialty. Data extraction was performed to isolate surgeon specific data. A meta-analysis was performed. A total of 16 cross-sectional studies were included in this meta-analysis, totaling 3581 subjects. A random effects model approximated burnout syndrome at 3.0% (95% CI: 2.0%-5.0%; I 2 = 78.1%). Subscale analysis of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment indicated subscale burnout in 30.0% (CI: 25.0%-36.0%; I 2 = 93.2%), 34.0% (CI: 25.0%-43.0%; I 2 = 96.9%), and 25.0% (CI: 18.0%-32.0%; I 2 = 96.5%) of surgeons, respectively. Significant differences (p burnout termed "burnout syndrome," although surgeon burnout may occur in up to 34% of surgeons, characterized by high burnout in 1 of 3 subscales. Surgical specialties have significantly different rates of burnout subscales. Future burnout studies should target the specialty-specific level to understand inherent differences in an effort to better understand methods of improving surgeon burnout. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrahigh Ductility, High-Carbon Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shengwei; Liu, Yu; Hao, Qingguo; Zuo, Xunwei; Rong, Yonghua; Chen, Nailu

    2016-10-01

    Based on the proposed design idea of the anti-transformation-induced plasticity effect, both the additions of the Nb element and pretreatment of the normalization process as a novel quenching-partitioning-tempering (Q-P-T) were designed for Fe-0.63C-1.52Mn-1.49Si-0.62Cr-0.036Nb hot-rolled steel. This high-carbon Q-P-T martensitic steel exhibits a tensile strength of 1890 MPa and elongation of 29 pct accompanied by the excellent product of tensile and elongation of 55 GPa pct. The origin of ultrahigh ductility for high-carbon Q-P-T martensitic steel is revealed from two aspects: one is the softening of martensitic matrix due to both the depletion of carbon in the matensitic matrix during the Q-P-T process by partitioning of carbon from supersaturated martensite to retained austenite and the reduction of the dislocation density in a martensitic matrix by dislocation absorption by retained austenite effect during deformation, which significantly enhances the deformation ability of martensitic matrix; another is the high mechanical stability of considerable carbon-enriched retained austenite, which effectively reduces the formation of brittle twin-type martensite. This work verifies the correctness of the design idea of the anti-TRIP effect and makes the third-generation advanced high-strength steels extend to the field of high-carbon steels from low- and medium-carbon steels.

  2. Burnout for Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Lískovcová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis has theoretical as well as empirical character. Its content focuses on the issue of burnout syndrome in nurses. The theoretical part of the thesis focuses on personality profile of a general nurse. I first characterize her personality, characters, psychological problems related to the profession. The next chapter focused on burnout syndrome deals with the causes of burnout syndrome, its symptoms in the individual phases of burning out and the results of burnout together wi...

  3. Burnout and depression

    OpenAIRE

    入江, 正洋

    2017-01-01

    Recently, according to the increase in physical and psychological fatigue due to overwork and/or emotional labor, burnout has been received broad attention and widely infiltrated the popular culture. Despite an extended concept of burnout, however, the distinction between burnout and depression remains inconclusive. Furthermore, in spite of a rapid increase in research dedicated physical and biological aspects in addition to symptomatic and psychosocial ones of burnout, a clear difference bet...

  4. Occupational Burnout among Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Mary; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Outlines stages of occupational burnout (enthusiasm, stagnation, frustration, apathy) and begins empirical assessment of burnout syndrome among librarians and other information professionals. Results of pilot survey conducted at one-day conference on reference service using two measures (Staff Burnout Scale for Health Professionals, projective…

  5. High-surface-area active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Grady, T.M.; Wennerberg, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and properties of a unique active carbon having exceptionally high surface areas, over 2500 m 2 /gm, and extraordinary adsorptive capacities. The carbon is made by a direct chemical activation route in which petroleum coke or other carbonaceous sources are reacted with excess potassium hydroxide at 400 0 to 500 0 C to an intermediate product that is subsequently pyrolyzed at 800 0 to 900 0 C to active carbon containing potassium salts. These are removed by water washing and the carbon is dried to produce a powdered product. A granular carbon can also be made by further processing the powdered carbon by using specialized granulation techniques. Typical properties of the carbon include Iodine Numbers of 3000 to 3600, methylene blue adsorption of 650 to 750 mg/gm, pore volumes of 2.0 to 2.6 cc/gm and less than 3.0% ash. This carbon's high adsorption capacities make it uniquely suited for numerous demanding applications in the medical area, purifications, removal of toxic substances, as catalyst carriers, etc

  6. Burnout and Its Contributing Factors Among Midlevel Academic Nurse Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Linda; Ironside, Pamela M

    2018-01-01

    Amid concerns regarding administrator shortages, a survey conducted by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing indicates that 10% of all vacant faculty positions are those that include administrative responsibilities. This study was designed to determine the frequency, predictors, and potential retention consequences of burnout among midlevel academic nurse leaders, such as assistant deans, associate deans, and others. The sample consisted of 146 midlevel academic nurse leaders from 29 schools of nursing. Burnout was measured by the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Logistic regression models were estimated to determine effects of study variables on burnout and intent to leave. Dissatisfaction with workload, dissatisfaction with work-life balance, and hours typically worked per week increased odds of burnout. Burnout was associated with intent to leave. High workloads and long work weeks are increasing the odds of burnout among midlevel academic nurse leaders. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(1):28-34.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Continuing medical education and burnout among Danish GPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndt, Anders; Sokolowski, Ineta; Olesen, Frede

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been minimal research into continuing medical education (CME) and its association with burnout among GPs. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between participating in CME and experiencing burnout in a sample of Danish GPs. DESIGN OF STUDY: Cross......-sectional questionnaire study. SETTING: All 458 active GPs in 2004, in the County of Aarhus, Denmark were invited to participate. METHOD: Data on CME activities were obtained for all GPs and linked to burnout which was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey. The relationship between CME...... activity and burnout was calculated as prevalence ratios (PR) in a generalised linear model. RESULTS: In total, 379 (83.5%) GPs returned the questionnaire. The prevalence of burnout was about 25%, and almost 3% suffered from 'high burnout'. A total of 344 (92.0%) GPs were members of a CME group...

  8. On high temperature strength of carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Manabu; Kanero, Takahiro; Ihara, Yoshihito

    1977-01-01

    In the steels for high temperature use, the oxidation resistance is regarded as important, but carbon steels show enough oxidation resistance to be used continuously at the temperature up to 500 deg. C if the strength is left out of consideration, and up to 450 deg. C even when the strength is taken into account. Moreover, the production is easy, the workability and weldability are good, and the price is cheap in carbon steels as compared with alloy steels. In the boilers for large thermal power stations, 0.15-0.30% C steels are used for reheater tubes, main feed water tubes, steam headers, wall water tubes, economizer tubes, bypass pipings and others, and they account for 70% of all steel materials used for the boilers of 350 MW class and 30% in 1000 MW class. The JIS standard for the carbon steels for high temperature use and the related standards in foreign countries are shown. The high temperature strength of carbon steels changes according to the trace elements, melting and heat treatment as well as the main compositions of C, Si and Mn. Al and N affect the high temperature strength largely. The characteristics of carbon steels after the heating for hours, the factors controlling the microstructure and high temperature strength, and the measures to improve the high temperature strength of carbon steels are explained. (Kako, I.)

  9. High value carbon materials from PET recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET), has become one of the major post-consumer plastic waste. In this work special attention was paid to minimising PET residues and to obtain a high value carbon material. Pyrolysis and subsequent activation of PET from post-consumer soft-drink bottles was performed. Activation was carried out at 925 deg. C under CO 2 atmosphere to different burn-off degrees. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N 2 adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. The obtained carbons materials were mainly microporous, presenting low meso and macroporosity, and apparent BET surface areas of upto 2500 m 2 g -1 . The capacity of these materials for phenol adsorption and PAHs removal from aqueous solutions was measured and compared with that attained with commercial active carbons. Preliminary tests also showed high hydrogen uptake values, as good as the results obtained with high-tech carbon materials

  10. Nursing specialty and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Laura; Ryan, Carey S; Thomas, Scott; Greenberg, Martin; Rolniak, Susan

    2007-03-01

    We examined the relationship between perceived control and burnout among three nursing specialties: nurse practitioners, nurse managers, and emergency nurses. Survey data were collected from 228 nurses from 30 states. Findings indicated that emergency nurses had the least control and the highest burnout, whereas nurse practitioners had the most control and the least burnout. Mediational analyses showed that expected control, hostility, and stressor frequency explained differences between specialties in burnout. The implications of these findings for interventions that reduce burnout and promote nursing retention are discussed.

  11. Magneto-carbonization method for production of carbon fiber, and high performance carbon fibers made thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Ozcan, Soydan; Eberle, Claude C.; Abdallah, Mohamed Gabr; Mackiewicz, Ludtka Gail; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Paulauskas, Felix Leonard; Rivard, John Daniel Kennedy

    2017-08-08

    Method for the preparation of carbon fiber from fiber precursor, wherein the fiber precursor is subjected to a magnetic field of at least 3 Tesla during a carbonization process. The carbonization process is generally conducted at a temperature of at least 400.degree. C. and less than 2200.degree. C., wherein, in particular embodiments, the carbonization process includes a low temperature carbonization step conducted at a temperature of at least or above 400.degree. C. or 500.degree. C. and less than or up to 1000.degree. C., 1100.degree. C., or 1200.degree. C., followed by a high temperature carbonization step conducted at a temperature of at least or above 1200.degree. C. In particular embodiments, particularly in the case of a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber precursor, the resulting carbon fiber may possess a minimum tensile strength of at least 600 ksi, a tensile modulus of at least 30 Msi, and an ultimate elongation of at least 1.5%.

  12. Cubic martensite in high carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulin; Xiao, Wenlong; Jiao, Kun; Ping, Dehai; Xu, Huibin; Zhao, Xinqing; Wang, Yunzhi

    2018-05-01

    A distinguished structural characteristic of martensite in Fe-C steels is its tetragonality originating from carbon atoms occupying only one set of the three available octahedral interstitial sites in the body-centered-cubic (bcc) Fe lattice. Such a body-centered-tetragonal (bct) structure is believed to be thermodynamically stable because of elastic interactions between the interstitial carbon atoms. For such phase stability, however, there has been a lack of direct experimental evidence despite extensive studies of phase transformations in steels over one century. In this Rapid Communication, we report that the martensite formed in a high carbon Fe-8Ni-1.26C (wt%) steel at room temperature induced by applied stress/strain has actually a bcc rather than a bct crystal structure. This finding not only challenges the existing theories on the stability of bcc vs bct martensite in high carbon steels, but also provides insights into the mechanism for martensitic transformation in ferrous alloys.

  13. Behaviour and burnout in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Jo; McHale, Calum; Hart, Jo; Laidlaw, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Burnout is prevalent in doctors and can impact on job dissatisfaction and patient care. In medical students, burnout is associated with poorer self-rated health; however, it is unclear what factors influence its development. This study investigated whether health behaviours predict burnout in medical students. Medical students (n=356) at the Universities of St Andrews and Manchester completed an online questionnaire assessing: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalisation (DP), personal accomplishment (PA), alcohol use, physical activity, diet, and smoking. Approximately 55% (54.8%) of students reported high levels of EE, 34% reported high levels of DP, and 46.6% reported low levels of PA. Linear regression analysis revealed that year of study, physical activity, and smoking status significantly predicted EE whilst gender, year of study, and institution significantly predicted DP. PA was significantly predicted by alcohol binge score, year of study, gender, and physical activity. Burnout is present in undergraduate medical students in the United Kingdom, and health behaviours, particularly physical activity, predict components of burnout. Gender, year of study, and institution also appear to influence the prevalence of burnout. Encouraging medical students to make healthier lifestyle choices early in their medical training may reduce the likelihood of the development of burnout.

  14. National Survey of Burnout among US General Surgery Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Leisha C; Jeffe, Donna B; Jin, Linda; Awad, Michael M; Turnbull, Isaiah R

    2017-01-01

    Background Burnout is a complex syndrome of emotional distress that can disproportionately affect individuals who work in healthcare professions. Study Design For a national survey of burnout in US general surgery residents, we asked all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited general surgery program directors to email their general surgery residents an invitation to complete an anonymous, online survey. Burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory; total scores for Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Depersonalization (DP), and Personal Accomplishment (PA) subscales were calculated. Burnout was defined as having a score in the highest tertile for EE or DP or lowest tertile for PA. Chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance were used to test associations between burnout tertiles for each subscale and various resident and training-program characteristics as appropriate. Results From April–December, 2014, 665 residents actively engaged in clinical training had data for analysis; 69% met the criterion for burnout on at least one subscale. Higher burnout on each subscale was reported by residents planning private practice compared with academic careers. A greater proportion of women than men reported burnout on EE and PA. Higher burnout on EE and DP was associated with greater work hours per week. Having a structured mentoring program was associated with lower burnout on each subscale. Conclusions The high rates of burnout among general surgery residents are concerning given the potential impact of burnout on the quality of patient care. Efforts to identify at-risk populations and to design targeted interventions to mitigate burnout in surgical trainees are warranted. PMID:27238875

  15. Burnout Among Anesthetists and Intensive Care Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikalauskas, Audrius; Benetis, Rimantas; Širvinskas, Edmundas; Andrejaitienė, Judita; Kinduris, Šarūnas; Macas, Andrius; Padaiga, Žilvinas

    2018-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and low personal accomplishment. Little is known about burnout in physicians. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of burnout among anesthetists and intensive care physicians, and associations between burnout and personal, as well as professional, characteristics. In total, 220 anesthetists and intensive care physicians were contacted by email, asking them to participate in the study. For depression screening the PHQ-2 questionnaire, for problem drinking, CAGE items were used. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Overall, 34% anesthetists and intensive care physicians indicated high levels of emotional exhaustion, 25% indicated high levels of depersonalization, and 38% showed low personal accomplishment. Burnout was found more frequent among subjects with problem drinking (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.5-6.8), depressiveness (OR 10.2, 95% CI 4.6-22.6), cardiovascular disorders (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.7-7.1), and digestive disorders (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0). Some favorite after-work activities positively correlated with burnout, such as sedative medications abuse (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.8-12.5), alcohol abuse (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.5), eating more than usual (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), and transferring the accumulated stress to relatives (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.5). In contrast, reading of non-medical literature seemed to have a protective effect (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-0.9). Burnout was highly prevalent among anesthetists and intensive care physicians with two fifths of them meeting diagnostic criteria. It was strongly correlated with problem drinking, depressiveness, cardiovascular and digestive disorders, use of sedatives and overeating.

  16. Burnout, job satisfaction, and medical malpractice among physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Yu; Yang, Che-Ming; Lien, Che-Hui; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Lin, Mau-Roung; Chang, Hui-Ru; Chiu, Wen-Ta

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to estimate the incidence of recent burnout in a large sample of Taiwanese physicians and analyze associations with job related satisfaction and medical malpractice experience. We performed a cross-sectional survey. Physicians were asked to fill out a questionnaire that included demographic information, practice characteristics, burnout, medical malpractice experience, job satisfaction, and medical error experience. There are about 2% of total physicians. Physicians who were members of the Taiwan Society of Emergency Medicine, Taiwan Surgical Association, Taiwan Association of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Taiwan Pediatric Association, and Taiwan Stroke Association, and physicians of two medical centers, three metropolitan hospitals, and two local community hospitals were recruited. There is high incidence of burnout among Taiwan physicians. In our research, Visiting staff (VS) and residents were more likely to have higher level of burnout of the emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (PA). There was no difference in burnout types in gender. Married had higher-level burnout in EE. Physicians who were 20~30 years old had higher burnout levels in EE, those 31~40 years old had higher burnout levels in DP, and PA. Physicians who worked in medical centers had a higher rate in EE, DP, and who worked in metropolitan had higher burnout in PA. With specialty-in-training, physicians had higher-level burnout in EE and DP, but lower burnout in PA. Physicians who worked 13-17hr continuously had higher-level burnout in EE. Those with ≥41 times/week of being on call had higher-level burnout in EE and DP. Physicians who had medical malpractice experience had higher-level burnout in EE, DP, and PA. Physicians who were not satisfied with physician-patient relationships had higher-level burnout than those who were satisfied. Physicians in Taiwan face both burnout and a high risk in medical malpractice. There is high

  17. Burnout in the working population: relations to psychosocial work factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Karin M; Linton, Steven J; Fedeli, Cecilia; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated levels of burnout in the general population irrespective of occupation and relations between burnout and psychosocial work factors. A cross-sectional survey featuring sleep problems, psychological distress, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey), and psychosocial factors at work, was mailed to a random sample of 3,000 participants, aged 20-60. Response rate was 61%. A high level (18%), a low level (19%), and an intermediate group (63%) for burnout were constructed. The high level group was associated with those who were > 50 years old, women, those experiencing psychological distress, and those with a poor psychosocial work climate. The analyses on variables significant in previous analyses showed that the high level group was strongly related to high demands, low control, lack of social support, and disagreeing about values at the workplace even when accounting for age, gender, and psychological distress. We conclude that psychosocial work factors are important in association to burnout regardless of occupation.

  18. Low heart rate variability in patients with clinical burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg; Sjörs, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have shown that acute psychosocial stress and chronic psychosocial stress reduce heart rate variability (HRV). It is likely that individuals suffering from burnout have reduced HRV, as a consequence of the long-term stress exposure. This study investigated HRV in 54 patients with clinical burnout (40 women and 14 men) and in 55 individuals reporting low burnout scores (healthy; 24 women and 31 men) and 52 individuals reporting high burnout scores (non-clinical burnout; 33 women and 19 men). The participants underwent a 300s ECG recording in the supine position. Standard deviation of normal R-R intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive normal interval differences (RMSSD) were derived from time domain HRV analysis. Frequency domain HRV measures; total power (TP), low frequency power (LF), high frequency power (HF), and LF/HF ratio were calculated. All HRV measures, except LF/HF ratio, were lower in the clinical burnout patients compared to both the non-clinical burnout group and the healthy group. The difference was larger between the patients and the healthy group than between the patients and the non-clinical burnout group. HRV did not differ significantly between the non-clinical burnout group and the healthy group. Low HRV in burnout patients may constitute one of the links to associated adverse health, since low HRV reflects low parasympathetic activity - and accordingly low anabolic/regenerative activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. For Caregivers: Coping with Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Community Advocate Get Involved Donate Coping With Burnout Being a caregiver of someone with ALS is ... Solutions in Dealing with Burnout Common Causes of Burnout Perfectionism: A perfectionist continually focuses on what needs ...

  20. High frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abukari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on theoretical analysis of high frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes. Using the kinetic equation with constant relaxation time, an analytical expression for the complex conductivity is obtained. The real part of the complex conductivity is initially negative at zero frequency and become more negative with increasing frequency, until it reaches a resonance minimum at ω ∼ ωB for metallic zigzag CNs and ω < ωB for armchair CNs. This resonance enhancement is indicative for terahertz gain without the formation of current instabilities induced by negative dc conductivity. We noted that due to the high density of states of conduction electrons in metallic zigzag carbon nanotubes and the specific dispersion law inherent in hexagonal crystalline structure result in a uniquely high frequency conductivity than the corresponding values for metallic armchair carbon nanotubes. We suggest that this phenomenon can be used to suppress current instabilities that are normally associated with a negative dc differential conductivity.

  1. Association of adaptive and maladaptive narcissism with personal burnout: findings from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VON Känel, Roland; Herr, Raphael Manfred; VAN Vianen, Annelies Elizabeth Maria; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2017-06-08

    Burnout is associated with poor mental and physical functioning and high costs for societies. Personality attributes may critically increase the risk of personal burnout. We specifically examined whether narcissism associates with personal burnout in a working population. We studied n=1,461 employees (mean age 41.3 ± 9.4 yr, 52% men) drawn from a random sample of a pharmaceutical company in Germany. All participants completed the personal burnout subscale of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory to assess maladaptive (entitlement/exploitativeness) and adaptive (leadership/authority) narcissism. In linear regression analysis, when mutually adjusting for the maladaptive and adaptive narcissism scales, higher adaptive narcissism was associated with lower burnout scores (ß=-0.04, pnarcissism was associated with higher burnout scores (ß=0.04, pnarcissism was associated with increased levels of burnout symptoms, adaptive narcissism was associated with fewer burnout symptoms.

  2. Therapy of the burnout syndrome [Therapie des Burnout-Syndroms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available [english] The prevalence, diagnostics and therapy of the burnout syndrome are increasingly discussed in the public. The unclear definition and diagnics of the burnout syndrome are scientifically criticized. There are several therapies with unclear evidence for the treatment of burnout in existence.The health technology assessment (HTA report deals with the question of usage and efficacy of different burnout therapies.For the years 2006 to 2011, a systematic literature research was done in 31 electronic databases (e.g. EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO. Important inclusion criteria are burnout, therapeutic intervention and treatment outcome.17 studies meet the inclusion criteria and are regarded for the HTA report. The studies are very heterogeneous (sample size, type of intervention, measuring method, level of evidence. Due to their study design (e.g. four reviews, eight randomized controlled trials the studies have a comparable high evidence: three times 1A, five times 1B, one time 2A, two times 2B and six times 4. 13 of the 17 studies are dealing with the efficacy of psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions for the reduction of burnout (partly in combination with other techniques. Cognitive behaviour therapy leads to the improvement of emotional exhaustion in the majority of the studies. The evidence is inconsistent for the efficacy of stress management and music therapy. Two studies regarding the efficacy of Qigong therapy do not deliver a distinct result. One study proves the efficacy of roots of Rhodiola rosea (evidence level 1B. Physical therapy is only in one study separately examined and does not show a better result than standard therapy.Despite the number of studies with high evidence the results for the efficacy of burnout therapies are preliminary and do have only limited reach. The authors of the studies complain about the low number of skilled studies for the therapy of burnout. Furthermore, they point to the insufficient evaluation of

  3. Job stressors, personality and burnout in primary school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M

    2007-03-01

    Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation. Burnout is a negative affective response occurring as a result of chronic work stress. While the early theories of burnout focused exclusively on work-related stressors, recent research adopts a more integrative approach where both environmental and individual factors are studied. Nevertheless, such studies are scarce with teacher samples. The present cross-sectional study sought to investigate the association between burnout, personality characteristics and job stressors in primary school teachers from Cyprus. The study also investigates the relative contribution of these variables on the three facets of burnout - emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. A representative sample of 447 primary school teachers participated in the study. Teachers completed measures of burnout, personality and job stressors along with demographic and professional data. Surveys were delivered by courier to schools, and were distributed at faculty meetings. Results showed that both personality and work-related stressors were associated with burnout dimensions. Neuroticism was a common predictor of all dimensions of burnout although in personal accomplishment had a different direction. Managing student misbehaviour and time constraints were found to systematically predict dimensions of burnout. Teachers' individual characteristics as well as job related stressors should be taken into consideration when studying the burnout phenomenon. The fact that each dimension of the syndrome is predicted by different variables should not remain unnoticed especially when designing and implementing intervention programmes to reduce burnout in teachers.

  4. Burnout and the learning environment of anaesthetic trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanelli, D J; Wickramaarachchi, S A; Wallis, S

    2017-11-01

    Burnout has a high prevalence among healthcare workers and is increasingly recognised as an environmental problem rather than reflecting a personal inability to cope with work stress. We distributed an electronic survey, which included the Maslach Burnout Inventory Health Services Survey and a previously validated learning environment instrument, to 281 Victorian anaesthetic trainees. The response rate was 50%. We found significantly raised rates of burnout in two of three subscales. Ninety-one respondents (67%) displayed evidence of burnout in at least one domain, with 67 (49%) reporting high emotional exhaustion and 57 (42%) reporting high depersonalisation. The clinical learning environment tool demonstrated a significant negative correlation with burnout (r=-0.56, P Burnout was significantly more common than when previously measured in Victoria in 2008 (62% versus 38%). Trainees rated examination preparation the most stressful aspect of the training program. There is a high prevalence of burnout among Victorian anaesthetic trainees. We have shown a significant correlation exists between the clinical learning environment measure and the presence of burnout. This correlation supports the development of interventions to improve the clinical learning environment, as a means to improve trainee wellbeing and address the high prevalence of burnout.

  5. [Burnout syndrome among physiotherapists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Krzysztof; Wojtowicz, Stanisław; Pawłowski, Witold; Białoszewski, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment. Symptoms of burnout include mental and physical exhaustion, accompanied by psychosomatic disorders and emotional problems. Burnout occurs most often in people employed in occupations requiring working with people (human services) as a result of coping with stress and experience numerous failures at work. The aim of the research is the analysis of burnout among physiotherapists and demographic factors and conditions that may contribute to the burnout. 212 (137 woman and 75 man) physiotherapists completed an anonymous questionnaire to assess burnout created by Owczarek and Olczyk. The age of respondents ranged between 20 to 56 years, with work experience from several months to more than 30 years. Total score of burnout was 115,66 (SD 21,78). On the scale of attitude to work 36,82 was achieved, workload - 34,76, contact with the patient - 27,54, and an attitude towards stress - 16,54, which means that the result obtained fit in the lower zone including average results concerning the level of burnout. Women had a higher level of professional burnout than men. Respondents who reported that their working conditions are not conducive to achieving therapeutic success (quality of equipment, size of treatment rooms, treatment technologies), exhibited a higher level of burnout. The average result of the level of burnout among physiotherapists is lower than all the results obtained in other occupational groups of health care workers, lead with the same diagnostic tool. Burnout syndrome among practicing physiotherapists require further study, taking into account the type and quality of jobs, but also the level of referral among professional physiotherapists.

  6. Situational Factors Associated With Burnout Among Emergency Department Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozo, Jose Andres; Olson, DaiWai M; Thu, Hlaing Sue; Stutzman, Sonja E

    2017-06-01

    Emergency departments are high-stress environments for patients and clinicians. As part of the clinical team, nurses experience this stress daily and are subject to high levels of burnout, which has been shown to lead to hypertension, depression, and anxiety. Presence of these diseases may also contribute to burnout, creating a cycle of stress and illness. This prospective qualitative study used a phenomenological approach to better understand factors associated with burnout among emergency department nurses. Burnout manifests itself in multiple modes, can affect nurses' decisions to leave the profession, and must be addressed to mitigate the phenomenon.

  7. Therapy of the burnout syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Dieter; Wastian, Monika; Schneider, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence, diagnostics and therapy of the burnout syndrome are increasingly discussed in the public. The unclear definition and diagnostics of the burnout syndrome are scientifically criticized. There are several therapies with unclear evidence for the treatment of burnout in existence. The health technology assessment (HTA) report deals with the question of usage and efficacy of different burnout therapies. For the years 2006 to 2011, a systematic literature research was done in 31 electronic databases (e.g. EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO). Important inclusion criteria are burnout, therapeutic intervention and treatment outcome. 17 studies meet the inclusion criteria and are regarded for the HTA report. The studies are very heterogeneous (sample size, type of intervention, measuring method, level of evidence). Due to their study design (e.g. four reviews, eight randomized controlled trials) the studies have a comparable high evidence: three times 1A, five times 1B, one time 2A, two times 2B and six times 4. 13 of the 17 studies are dealing with the efficacy of psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions for the reduction of burnout (partly in combination with other techniques). Cognitive behaviour therapy leads to the improvement of emotional exhaustion in the majority of the studies. The evidence is inconsistent for the efficacy of stress management and music therapy. Two studies regarding the efficacy of Qigong therapy do not deliver a distinct result. One study proves the efficacy of roots of Rhodiola rosea (evidence level 1B). Physical therapy is only in one study separately examined and does not show a better result than standard therapy. Despite the number of studies with high evidence the results for the efficacy of burnout therapies are preliminary and do have only limited reach. The authors of the studies complain about the low number of skilled studies for the therapy of burnout. Furthermore, they point to the insufficient evaluation of the therapy

  8. Burnout among Swedish school teachers - a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Inger; Håkansson, Carita; Karlson, Björn; Björk, Jonas; Persson, Roger

    2016-08-18

    Teachers are at high risk of stress-related disorders. This study aimed to examine the occurrence of burnout in a sample of Swedish school-teachers, to test a combined measure of three burnout dimensions on the individual level, to characterize associations between burnout and factors encountered during work and leisure time, and to explore any differences between the genders. A questionnaire of occupational, sociodemographic and life-style factors was answered by 490 teachers in school years 4-9. Outcome measures were (a) the single burnout dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy (Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey), and (b) a combined measure based on high or low values in the three dimensions. The combined measure was used to stratify the study population into four levels (0-3) of burnout. Multivariable Poisson regression was applied on level 2 + 3 vs. level 0 + 1, for variables that we considered as relevant risk factors for burn out. Half of the teachers reported low values in all three dimensions (level 0), whereas 15 were classified as having high burnout in at least two out of the three dimensions (level 2 + 3), and 4 % in all three dimensions (level 3). Almost all psychosocial factors were incrementally more unfavourably reported through the rising levels of burnout, and so were dissatisfaction with the computer workstation, pain, sleep problems and lack of personal recovery. There was no association between gender and rising levels of overall burnout (p > 0.30). Low self-efficacy, poor leadership, high job demands and teaching in higher grades were the variables most clearly associated with burnout in multivariable Poisson regression. Even if circa 50 % of the teachers appear do well with respect to burnout, the results points to the need of implementing multifaceted countermeasures that may serve to reduce burnout.

  9. How does burnout affect physician productivity? A systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Loong, Desmond; Bonato, Sarah; Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Jacobs, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Background Interest in the well-being of physicians has increased because of their contributions to the healthcare system quality. There is growing recognition that physicians are exposed to workplace factors that increase the risk of work stress. Long-term exposure to high work stress can result in burnout. Reports from around the world suggest that about one-third to one-half of physicians experience burnout. Understanding the outcomes associated with burnout is critical to understanding it...

  10. Synthesis of high luminescent carbon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdyuk, Alina A.; Petrova, Polina S.; Goryacheva, Irina Y.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.

    2017-03-01

    In this article we report an effective and simple method for synthesis of high luminescent carbon nanodots (CDs). In our work as a carbon source sodium dextran sulfate (DS) was used because it is harmless, its analogs are used in medicine as antithrombotic compounds and blood substitutes after hemorrhage. was used as a substrate We investigated the influence of temperature parameters of hydrothermal synthesis on the photoluminescence (PL) intensity and position of emission maxima. We discovered that the PL intensity can be tuned by changing of synthesis temperature and CD concentration.

  11. Teacher Burnout: Causes and Projected Preventative and Curative Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrad, Mohammad I.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined how teachers at Valley High School internalize the phenomenon of teacher burnout. Teachers at Valley High School are suffering from teacher burnout on a daily basis with little to no support. The teachers at Valley High School were asked to participate in a survey, semi-structured interviews, and class…

  12. Nurse burnout and the working environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Nuria

    2011-09-01

    This article examines levels of burnout experienced by emergency nurses and the characteristics of their work environment to determine if there is a relationship between the two. A literature review of recent articles on emergency nurses' burnout and contributing factors was undertaken. A quantitative study, in which nurses were asked to indicate the extent of their agreement with a series of statements on burnout and the working environment, was then undertaken, and the results were analysed to ascertain the extent to which the two topic are related. The results indicate that 52 per cent of nurses in an emergency department in Ireland experience high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, which are significantly related to the nature of their work environment. Improvements to the environment and to education are required to reduce the risk of nurses developing burnout in the future.

  13. High value carbon materials from PET recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J

    2004-11-15

    Poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET), has become one of the major post-consumer plastic waste. In this work special attention was paid to minimising PET residues and to obtain a high value carbon material. Pyrolysis and subsequent activation of PET from post-consumer soft-drink bottles was performed. Activation was carried out at 925 deg. C under CO{sub 2} atmosphere to different burn-off degrees. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. The obtained carbons materials were mainly microporous, presenting low meso and macroporosity, and apparent BET surface areas of upto 2500 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The capacity of these materials for phenol adsorption and PAHs removal from aqueous solutions was measured and compared with that attained with commercial active carbons. Preliminary tests also showed high hydrogen uptake values, as good as the results obtained with high-tech carbon materials.

  14. Professional burnout among studying nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Bielan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Burnout is a response to stress, the source of which is the situation at work. This phenomenon concerns mainly representatives of professions whose essence is to work with people, including doctors, nurses, paramedics and others; their close committed interactions with others constitute the core of professional activity and determine the success and development. Participants of the study were 281 students of extramural complementary nursing course at the University of Warmia and Mazury, mostly aged 40-60 years, employed in hospital wards and with employment contracts. In the study, the authors’ demographic questionnaire of structuralized interview and the MBI questionnaire, developed by Maslach and Jackson, in the Polish version by Pasikowski (2004, were used. The obtained results were statistically analysed. The performed analysis of burnout has confirmed that emotional exhaustion is associated with the length of employment, the number of days off and the number of institutions where nurses were employed. We did not observe, however, any correlation with these variables between depersonalisation and a sense of the lack of achievements. Furthermore, no dependence of the severity of the professional burnout symptoms on the surveyed groups’ age was found. It turned out that the persons working in shifts system felt much stronger depletion of emotion than nurses working in a daily system. It was also observed that nurses employed in hospitals felt much stronger symptoms in both areas of occupational burnout than those working in other institutions. Furthermore, it was not confirmed that the absence of the sense of achievement depended on where the respondents were employed. Taking into account the reference levels of the three dimensions of burnout acc. to MBI it was found out that most respondents were characterized by a low value within the emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation and a high value in terms of a sense of the lack of

  15. Statewide improvement approach to clinician burnout: Findings from the baseline year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather R. Britt

    2017-12-01

    We propose a socio-ecological framework for acting on burnout, using a data-driven quality improvement paradigm enabled by a statewide coalition, to ensure that continued efforts do not rest solely at the feet of individuals or systems. Despite high burnout levels, engagement and satisfaction with work are also high, suggesting there is still hope for stemming the tide of burnout.

  16. Mindful meditation: healing burnout in critical care nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, William Richard

    2008-01-01

    The nursing profession is experiencing a crisis in both manpower and the ability to fend off the deleterious effects of burnout. Nursing professionals face extraordinary stress in our present medical environment, and studies have frequently found moderate-to-high levels of burnout among nurses. Nurses experience burnout for a variety of reasons, some inherent to the profession and others related to our 21st-century values that have necessitated multiple breadwinners within the household. Mindful meditation represents a complementary therapy that has shown promise in the reduction of negative stress and those extraneous factors that lead to burnout. A mindful, meditative practice can be another tool with which critical care nurses can regain the control of their careers and personal lives. The purpose of this article is to describe nurse burnout, identify those factors that contribute to burnout, and offer a solution to a continuing problem for nurses.

  17. [Burnout in Dutch medical students: prevalence and causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conijn, Maartjie; Boersma, Henri J M V; van Rhenen, Willem

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of burnout in Dutch medical students. Questionnaire survey. All 14,570 student members of the KNMG (Royal Dutch Medical Association) were invited to fill in a digital survey. Burnout was determined with the Utrecht Burnout Scale (UBOS). Triggering and protective factors for burnout were also investigated . 2,739 medical students (18.8%) completed the survey and 14.5 per cent of all respondents met the burnout criteria. 17.8 per cent of the hospital interns who responded and 11.6 per cent of the preclinical students who responded met these criteria. Work-home interference and high levels of emotional pressure had the strongest link to burn-out, while a sufficient amount of support from family, friends and peers reduced the risk of burnout in both undergraduates and hospital interns. Our exploratory research suggests that the prevalence of burnout is high, particularly among the hospital interns who responded. The most important contributory factors are high levels of emotional pressure and work-home interference. The low percentage of respondents makes it difficult to make any statement about the prevalence and causes of burnout among all Dutch medical students.

  18. Application of high energy accelerator to study of single event burn-out (SEB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hada, Takashi; Aoki, Shiro; Nakamura, Masao; Matsuda, Sumio [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Hirao, Toshio; Nashiyama, Isamu; Hirose, Takayuki; Ohira, Hideharu; Nagai, Yuki

    1996-12-01

    Hitherto, as nuclear fission fragments of 252-Cf, one of radioactive matters have been used for elucidation of single event mechanism, this method has a limit for analysis of power MOSFET with long charge collection region (generally, empty layer) and is difficult to form the experiment simulating the space environment, because of their wide LET (Linear Energy Transfer) range and of short flying distance of about 15 micrometer. As a result, some irradiation experiments using an accelerator capable of forming charged particle beam with long flying distance and single energy became essential to elucidate the SEB mechanism. In this paper, an experiment result of SEB phenomenon using high energy accelerator was reported. As a result, following items were found: (1) With increase of impressed charge, collected charge shows two peaks, and also increases, (2) commercial power MOSFET shows about 280 V in SEB resistance, and power MOSFET developed for the space use shows about 320 V, which is improved about 40 V for the commercial one, and so forth. (G.K.)

  19. Occupational stress and burnout among Hong Kong dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, H B; Wong, M Cm

    2017-10-01

    Professional burnout has been described as a gradual erosion of a person and may be one of the possible consequences of chronic occupational stress. Although occupational stress has been surveyed among dentists in Hong Kong, no study has been published about burnout in the profession. This study aimed to evaluate burnout among Hong Kong dentists and its association with occupational stress. We surveyed a random sample of 1086 registered dentists in Hong Kong, which formed 50% of the local profession. They were mailed an anonymous questionnaire about burnout and occupational stress in 2015. The questionnaire assessed occupational stress, coping strategies, effects of stress, level of burnout, and socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. Occupational stress assessment concerned 33 stressors in five groups: patient-related, time-related, income-related, job-related, and staff-/technically related. Level of burnout was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (22 items) with three scores: emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and personal accomplishment. Completed questionnaires were received from 301 dentists (response rate, 28.3%), of whom 25.4% had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 17.2% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 39.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Only 7.0% of respondents, however, had a high level of overall burnout (high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalisation, and low personal accomplishment). A high level of overall burnout was significantly associated with a higher mean score for job-related stressors and lack of postgraduate qualifications (Poccupational stressors experienced by dentists in Hong Kong. In spite of this, a low proportion of dentists have a high level of overall burnout. There was a positive association between occupational stress and level of burnout.

  20. Family medicine residency training and burnout: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Kimberly; Oda, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Background Almost three-quarters of family practice residents in British Columbia (BC) meet criteria for burnout. We sought to understand how burnout is perceived and experienced by family medicine residents, and to identify both contributory and protective factors for resident burnout. Method Two semi-structured focus groups were conducted with ten family practice residents from five distinct University of British Columbia training sites. Participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Seventy percent of the focus group participants met criteria for burnout using the MBI. The experience of burnout was described as physical and emotional exhaustion, loss of motivation, isolation from loved ones, and disillusionment with the medical profession. Contributory factors included high workload, burned-out colleagues, perceived undervaluing of family medicine, lack of autonomy, and inability to achieve work-life balance. Protective factors included strong role models in medicine, feeling that one’s work is valued and rotations in family medicine. Conclusions The high level of burnout in family medicine residents in BC is a multifactorial and complex phenomenon. Training programs and faculty should be aware of burnout risk factors and strive to implement changes to reduce burnout, including allowing residents increased control over scheduling, access to counseling services and training for resident mentors. PMID:26451218

  1. Family medicine residency training and burnout: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Kimberly; Oda, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Almost three-quarters of family practice residents in British Columbia (BC) meet criteria for burnout. We sought to understand how burnout is perceived and experienced by family medicine residents, and to identify both contributory and protective factors for resident burnout. Two semi-structured focus groups were conducted with ten family practice residents from five distinct University of British Columbia training sites. Participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Seventy percent of the focus group participants met criteria for burnout using the MBI. The experience of burnout was described as physical and emotional exhaustion, loss of motivation, isolation from loved ones, and disillusionment with the medical profession. Contributory factors included high workload, burned-out colleagues, perceived undervaluing of family medicine, lack of autonomy, and inability to achieve work-life balance. Protective factors included strong role models in medicine, feeling that one's work is valued and rotations in family medicine. The high level of burnout in family medicine residents in BC is a multifactorial and complex phenomenon. Training programs and faculty should be aware of burnout risk factors and strive to implement changes to reduce burnout, including allowing residents increased control over scheduling, access to counseling services and training for resident mentors.

  2. Personal risk factors associated with burnout among psychotherapists: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionato, Gabrielle K; Simpson, Susan

    2018-03-24

    Emotionally taxing job demands place psychotherapists at risk for burnout, often to the detriment of the therapist, clients, and the profession of psychotherapy (Maslach, 2007). The aim of the present systematic review was to (a) explore the levels of both burnout and job stress in psychotherapists, (b) identify tools used to measure work-related stress and burnout, and (c) identify personal risk factors for developing burnout among psychotherapists. Databases PsycINFO, Medline, EMBASE, ASSIA, and CINHAL were searched. Forty articles met inclusion criteria. Over half of sampled psychotherapists reported moderate-high levels of burnout, with the majority of results based on quantitative cross-sectional self-report surveys. Younger age, having less work experience, and being overinvolved in client problems were the most common personal risk factors for moderate-high levels of stress and burnout among psychotherapists. It appears that psychotherapists commonly experience some burnout, and personal factors influence burnout development. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Depression-Burnout Overlap in Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Walter; Vogel, Katrin; Holl, Anna; Ebner, Christoph; Bayer, Dietmar; Mörkl, Sabrina; Szilagyi, Istvan-Szilard; Hotter, Erich; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether burnout is a distinct phenomenon rather than a type of depression and whether it is a syndrome, limited to three “core” components (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment) are subjects of current debate. We investigated the depression-burnout overlap, and the pertinence of these three components in a large, representative sample of physicians. Methods In a cross-sectional study, all Austrian physicians were invited to answer a questionnaire that included the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), the Hamburg Burnout Inventory (HBI), as well as demographic and job-related parameters. Of the 40093 physicians who received an invitation, a total of 6351 (15.8%) participated. The data of 5897 participants were suitable for analysis. Results Of the participants, 10.3% were affected by major depression. Our study results suggest that potentially 50.7% of the participants were affected by symptoms of burnout. Compared to physicians unaffected by burnout, the odds ratio of suffering from major depression was 2.99 (95% CI 2.21–4.06) for physicians with mild, 10.14 (95% CI 7.58–13.59) for physicians with moderate, 46.84 (95% CI 35.25–62.24) for physicians with severe burnout and 92.78 (95% CI 62.96–136.74) for the 3% of participants with the highest HBI_sum (sum score of all ten HBI components). The HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment and Detachment (representing depersonalization) tend to correlate more highly with the main symptoms of major depression (sadness, lack of interest and lack of energy) than with each other. A combination of the HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium (adj.R2 = 0.92) explained more HBI_sum variance than the three “core” components (adj.R2 = 0.85) of burnout combined. Cronbach’s alpha for Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium combined was 0.90 compared to α = 0.54 for the combination of the three

  4. Depression-Burnout Overlap in Physicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Wurm

    Full Text Available Whether burnout is a distinct phenomenon rather than a type of depression and whether it is a syndrome, limited to three "core" components (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment are subjects of current debate. We investigated the depression-burnout overlap, and the pertinence of these three components in a large, representative sample of physicians.In a cross-sectional study, all Austrian physicians were invited to answer a questionnaire that included the Major Depression Inventory (MDI, the Hamburg Burnout Inventory (HBI, as well as demographic and job-related parameters. Of the 40093 physicians who received an invitation, a total of 6351 (15.8% participated. The data of 5897 participants were suitable for analysis.Of the participants, 10.3% were affected by major depression. Our study results suggest that potentially 50.7% of the participants were affected by symptoms of burnout. Compared to physicians unaffected by burnout, the odds ratio of suffering from major depression was 2.99 (95% CI 2.21-4.06 for physicians with mild, 10.14 (95% CI 7.58-13.59 for physicians with moderate, 46.84 (95% CI 35.25-62.24 for physicians with severe burnout and 92.78 (95% CI 62.96-136.74 for the 3% of participants with the highest HBI_sum (sum score of all ten HBI components. The HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment and Detachment (representing depersonalization tend to correlate more highly with the main symptoms of major depression (sadness, lack of interest and lack of energy than with each other. A combination of the HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium (adj.R2 = 0.92 explained more HBI_sum variance than the three "core" components (adj.R2 = 0.85 of burnout combined. Cronbach's alpha for Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium combined was 0.90 compared to α = 0.54 for the combination of the three "core" components.This study demonstrates the

  5. Factors associated to Burnout Syndrome in High School Teachers in Cali, Colombia [Factores asociados al síndrome de burnout en docentes de colegios de la ciudad de Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Díaz Bambula

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to locate factors related to burnout syndrome in teachers of two formal private and public educational institutions from Cali, Colombia. The syndrome’s dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced sense of personal accomplishment and their relation to organizational factors, the stress of the role and socio-demographic characteristics of the teachers were described. The Modified Burnout in teachers Questionnaire [CBP-M] was applied to a sample of 82 teachers from one public and one private school. Results show a low level of burnout syndrome in both institutions. An association with the levels of stress of role and organizational factors such as supervision, job conditions and professional worries was found. The socio-demographic characteristics did not show significant relations with the syndrome, with the exception of the level of education in which the teachers give classes

  6. Student Perspectives on Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.

    2011-01-01

    Context: While burnout has received a great deal of attention within the athletic training profession, there is little data on how it affects athletic training students (ATSs). Objective: To determine what factors influence burnout among ATSs enrolled in accredited athletic training education programs. Design and Setting: Basic, interpretive…

  7. Aerobic exercise training and burnout: a pilot study with male participants suffering from burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational burnout is associated with severe negative health effects. While stress management programs proved to have a positive influence on the well-being of patients suffering from burnout, it remains unclear whether aerobic exercise alleviates burnout severity and other parameters related to occupational burnout. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to pilot-test the potential outcomes of a 12-week exercise training to generate hypotheses for future larger scale studies. Methods The sample consisted of 12 male participants scoring high on the MBI emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales. The training program took place in a private fitness center with a 17.5 kcal/kg minimum requirement of weekly energy expenditure. Results The key findings are that increased exercise reduced overall perceived stress as well as symptoms of burnout and depression. The magnitude of the effects was large, revealing changes of substantial practical relevance. Additionally, profiles of mood states improved considerably after single exercise sessions with a marked shift towards an iceberg profile. Conclusion Among burnout patients, the findings provide preliminary evidence that exercise has the potential to reduce stress and prevent the development of a deeper depression. This has important health implications given that burnout is considered an antecedent of depressive disorders. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ISRNCT01575743 PMID:23497731

  8. Utilisation of high carbon pulverised fuel ash

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmud, Maythem Naji

    2011-01-01

    Coal combustion by-products generated from coal-fired power plant and cause enormous problems for disposal unless a way can be found to utilize these by-products through resource recovery programs. The implementation of air act regulations to reduce NOx emission have resulted millions of tonnes of pulverised fuel ash (PFA) accumulated with high percentage of unburned carbon made it un-saleable for the cement industry. Moreover, alternative fuels such as biomass and import coals were suggested...

  9. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Bretland, Rachel Judith; Thorsteinsson, Einar Baldvin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness ag...

  10. Interrelations between Principals' Risk of Burnout Profiles and Proactive Self-Regulation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Lotta; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Pietarinen, Janne; Soini, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    School leadership is a demanding job. Those involved in school leadership have shown to experience high levels of work stress that may, if prolonged, result in burnout. The purpose of this study was to examine school leaders' risks of burnout in terms of work stress and burnout symptoms, and their relationship with proactive self-regulation…

  11. Philosophy of Music Education and the Burnout Syndrome: Female Viewpoints on a Male School World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Burnout is a risk for many music teachers, particularly the highly successful and effective teachers. Burnout is more than a personal feeling of discomfort or fatigue. It is an attack on professional efficiency and personal integrity. Burnout is affecting male and female music teachers in different ways, because women tend to react to stress in…

  12. Rumination, Age, and Years of Experience: A Predictive Study of Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffy, Moriel S.

    2016-01-01

    This study used a non-experimental design to examine whether job satisfaction, rumination, age and years of experience predict burnout among human service workers serving high-risk populations. The study also used a stepwise regression to assess whether job satisfaction, rumination, age, or years of experience predict burnout equally. Burnout was…

  13. Relationship among Self-Efficacy, Social Support, Job Satisfaction, and Teacher-Related Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Gannon J.

    2014-01-01

    Human-service professions are at high-risk for burnout including the teaching profession. Work-related burnout is a gradual process widespread among many professionals and is in response to stressful events. Some of the current research has been focused on teachers with work-related burnout. An area of limited research has been the potential…

  14. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  15. Special Education Teacher Burnout: A Synthesis of Research from 1979 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsting, Nelson C.; Sreckovic, Melissa A.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Teacher burnout occurs when teachers undergoing stress for long periods of time experience emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment (Maslach, 2003). Outcomes associated with burnout include teacher attrition, teacher health issues, and negative student outcomes. Special educators are at high risk for burnout as…

  16. Burnout and Stress Among US Surgery Residents: Psychological Distress and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebares, Carter C; Guvva, Ekaterina V; Ascher, Nancy L; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Harris, Hobart W; Epel, Elissa S

    2018-01-01

    Burnout among physicians affects mental health, performance, and patient outcomes. Surgery residency is a high-risk time for burnout. We examined burnout and the psychological characteristics that can contribute to burnout vulnerability and resilience in a group of surgical trainees. An online survey was distributed in September 2016 to all ACGME-accredited general surgery programs. Burnout was assessed with an abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory. Stress, anxiety, depression, resilience, mindfulness, and alcohol use were assessed and analyzed for prevalence. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to determine the magnitude of presumed risk and resilience factors. Among 566 surgical residents who participated in the survey, prevalence of burnout was 69%, equally driven by emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Perceived stress and distress symptoms (depression, suicidal ideation, and anxiety) were notably high across training levels, but improved during lab years. Higher burnout was associated with high stress (OR 7.8; p burnout (OR 0.24; p stress (OR 0.15; p burnout, severe stress, and distress symptoms are experienced throughout general surgery training, with some improvement during lab years. In this cross-sectional study, trainees with burnout and high stress were at increased risk for depression and suicidal ideation. Higher dispositional mindfulness was associated with lower risk of burnout, severe stress, and distress symptoms, supporting the potential of mindfulness training to promote resilience during surgery residency. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Evolution of burnout and associated factors in primary care physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matía Cubillo, Angel Carlos; Cordero Guevara, José; Mediavilla Bravo, José Javier; Pereda Riguera, Maria José; González Castro, Maria Luisa; González Sanz, Ana

    2012-09-01

    To analyse the course of burnout and develop an explanatory model. Prospective cohort dynamics. SITE: All primary health care centres in Burgos. All physicians except medical emergencies, paediatrics and residents. Anonymous self-report questionnaire: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and related variables. An analysis was performed using the Student-t, X(2) test and logistic regression. The response rate was 47.76% in 2007, which was lower than that of 2005. There were significant differences between 2005 and 2007, for increases in the percentage of physicians who smoked, postgraduate training, residency, and those who believe that coordination with nursing and specialist care and institutional communication is appropriate. There was an increase in the prevalence of burnout by almost one point compared with 2005, a decrease in maximum burnout and emotional exhaustion (EC), and an increase in depersonalisation (DP) and personal accomplishment (RP). The incidence density of burnout was 1/113. 5 primary care physicians per year. The existence of burnout is associated with the use of chronic medication and inadequate coordination between nursing and EC, and also with the high workload. The increase in the prevalence found is consistent with the idea of burnout as a dynamic development and the theoretical model described. Stable and quality employment is one way to indirectly mitigate (by encouraging internal communication) professional burnout. In the multivariate analysis, the most critical variable in the onset of burnout is the inadequate coordination with nursing. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Resident burnout: evaluating the role of the learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vendeloo, Stefan N; Godderis, Lode; Brand, Paul L P; Verheyen, Kees C P M; Rowell, Suria A; Hoekstra, Harm

    2018-03-27

    Although burnout is viewed as a syndrome rooted in the working environment and organizational culture, the role of the learning environment in the development of resident burnout remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the association between burnout and the learning environment in a cohort of Belgian residents. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among residents in a large university hospital in Belgium. We used the Dutch version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (UBOS-C) to assess burnout and the Dutch Residency Educational Climate Test (D-RECT) to assess the learning environment. A total of 236 residents (29 specialties) completed the survey (response rate 34.6%), of which 98 (41.5%) met standard criteria for burnout. After multivariate regression analysis adjusting for hours worked per week, quality of life and satisfaction with work-life balance, we found an inverse association between D-RECT scores and the risk of burnout (adjusted odds ratio; 0.47 for each point increase in D-RECT score; 95% CI, 0.23 - 0.95; p = 0.01). Resident burnout is highly prevalent in our cohort of Belgian residents. Our results suggest that the learning environment plays an important role in reducing the risk of burnout among residents.

  19. Burnout in Customer Service Representatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Jalees

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and aim of this research was to (1 identify the factors that contributes towards job burnout in sales service representative (2 What are the relationships of these factors (3 To empirically test the relationships of the determinants relating to burnout in customer service representatives. Based on literature survey six different variables related to burnout were identified. The variables were (1 Emotional exhaustion.(2 Reduced personal accomplishment.(3 Job induced tension.(4 Job satisfaction.(5 Workload (6 Job satisfaction.Each of the variables contained 3 sub-variables. Five different hypotheses were developed and tested through techniques such as Z-test, F-test and regression analysis. The questionnaire administered for the study contained 15 questions including personal data. The subject was Moblink company customers sales service representative in Karachi.The valid sample size was 98 drawn through multi-cluster technique. Techniques such as measure of dispersion and measure of central tendencies were used for analyzing the data. Regression, Z-test, and F-test were used for testing the developed hypothesis.According to the respondents’ opinions, the reduced personal accomplishment had a high rating with a mean of 3.75 and job induced tension has the lowest mean of 3.58. The standard deviation of respondents’ opinions was highest for dimension depersonalization and least for dimension work load. This indicates that there is a high polarization of the respondents’ opinions on the dimension depersonalization moral and least on the dimension work load.The Skew nesses for all the dimensions were in negative except the determinants emotional exhaustion and workload. This indicates that the majority of respondents’ opinions on all the dimensions were below the mean except in the case of emotional exhaustion and workload.Five hypotheses were developed and tested:a The hypothesis relating to low level of burnout in customers

  20. [Burnout and teamwork in primary care teams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà Falgueras, Maite; Cruzate Muñoz, Carlota; Orfila Pernas, Francesc; Creixell Sureda, Joan; González López, María Pilar; Davins Miralles, Josep

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of burnout and the perception of teamwork in Primary Care teams from Barcelona. Multicenter cross-sectional. Primary Health Care Teams from Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut. All permanent employees or temporary professionals of all categories from 51 teams (N=2398). A total of 879 responses (36.7%) were obtained. The Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire, with 3 dimensions, was sent by emotional exhaustion (AE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (RP). Burnout is considered present when two or more dimensions scored high marks. Perception of teamwork and evaluation of leaders was evaluated using an ad hoc questionnaire. The prevalence of burnout was17.2% (two or more dimensions affected), and 46.2% had at least one of the three dimensions with a high level. A high level of AE was found in 38.2%, of DP in 23.8%, and 7.7% had low RP. Almost half (49.2%) believe that teamwork is encouraged in their workplace. Social workers overall, have a higher average of dimensions affected at a high level, followed by administrative personnel, dentists, doctors and nurses (p<0.001). Permanent staff have a greater degree of emotional exhaustion (p<0.002). Those who rated their leaders worst and least rated teamwork had more emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and higher level of burnout in general (p<0.001). The level of burnout among professionals is considerable, with differences existing between occupational categories. Teamwork and appreciating their leaders protect from burnout. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. High activity carbon sorbents for mercury capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavropoulos George G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency activated carbons have been prepared for removing mercury from gas streams. Starting materials used were petroleum coke, lignite, charcoal and olive seed waste, and were chemically activated with KOH. Produced adsorbents were primarily characterized for their porosity by N2 adsorption at 77 K. Their mercury retention capacity was characterized based on the breakthrough curves. Compared with typical commercial carbons, they have exhibited considerably enhanced mercury adsorption capacity. An attempt has been made to correlate mercury entrapment and pore structure. It has been shown that physical surface area is increased during activation in contrast to the mercury adsorption capacity that initially increases and tends to decrease at latter stages. Desorption of active sites may be responsible for this behavior.

  2. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  3. Burnout in United States Academic Chairs of Radiation Oncology Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusano, Aaron S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Thomas, Charles R., E-mail: thomasch@ohsu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Knight Cancer Institute/Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Bonner, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama (United States); DeWeese, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Mittal, Bharat B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Ilinois (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the self-reported prevalence of burnout in chairs of academic radiation oncology departments, to identify factors contributing to burnout, and to compare the prevalence of burnout with that seen in other academic chair groups. Methods and Materials: An anonymous online survey was administered to the membership of the Society of Chairs of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). Results: Questionnaires were returned from 66 of 87 chairs (76% response rate). Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported satisfaction with their current positions. Common major stressors were budget deficits and human resource issues. One-quarter of chairs reported that it was at least moderately likely that they would step down in the next 1 to 2 years; these individuals demonstrated significantly higher emotional exhaustion. Twenty-five percent of respondents met the MBI-HSS criteria for low burnout, 75% for moderate burnout, and none for high burnout. Group MBI-HSS subscale scores demonstrated a pattern of moderate emotional exhaustion, low depersonalization, and moderate personal accomplishment, comparing favorably with other specialties. Conclusions: This is the first study of burnout in radiation oncology chairs with a high response rate and using a validated psychometric tool. Radiation oncology chairs share similar major stressors to other chair groups, but they demonstrate relatively high job satisfaction and lower burnout. Emotional exhaustion may contribute to the anticipated turnover in coming years. Further efforts addressing individual and institutional factors associated with burnout may improve the relationship with work of chairs and other department members.

  4. Burnout in United States Academic Chairs of Radiation Oncology Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Aaron S.; Thomas, Charles R.; Bonner, James A.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Formenti, Silvia C.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Mittal, Bharat B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the self-reported prevalence of burnout in chairs of academic radiation oncology departments, to identify factors contributing to burnout, and to compare the prevalence of burnout with that seen in other academic chair groups. Methods and Materials: An anonymous online survey was administered to the membership of the Society of Chairs of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). Results: Questionnaires were returned from 66 of 87 chairs (76% response rate). Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported satisfaction with their current positions. Common major stressors were budget deficits and human resource issues. One-quarter of chairs reported that it was at least moderately likely that they would step down in the next 1 to 2 years; these individuals demonstrated significantly higher emotional exhaustion. Twenty-five percent of respondents met the MBI-HSS criteria for low burnout, 75% for moderate burnout, and none for high burnout. Group MBI-HSS subscale scores demonstrated a pattern of moderate emotional exhaustion, low depersonalization, and moderate personal accomplishment, comparing favorably with other specialties. Conclusions: This is the first study of burnout in radiation oncology chairs with a high response rate and using a validated psychometric tool. Radiation oncology chairs share similar major stressors to other chair groups, but they demonstrate relatively high job satisfaction and lower burnout. Emotional exhaustion may contribute to the anticipated turnover in coming years. Further efforts addressing individual and institutional factors associated with burnout may improve the relationship with work of chairs and other department members

  5. Burnout among physicians | Romani | Libyan Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burnout is a common syndrome seen in healthcare workers, particularly physicians who are exposed to a high level of stress at work; it includes emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. Burnout among physicians has garnered significant attention because of the negative impact it ...

  6. Burnout in Turkish Computer Teachers: Problems and Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryakulu, Deniz

    2006-01-01

    Burnout is known to be a job-related syndrome. Freudenberger (1974) introduced the term "burnout" to describe the inability to function effectively in one's job as a consequence of prolonged and extensive job-related stress. Teaching has been identified as a highly stressful job. Selye (1974, as cited in Iwanicki, 1983) used the terms…

  7. Burnout among paramedic students at a university in Johannesburg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Burnout has been studied in several emergency medical services contexts and has been found to be high compared with that found in other health professions. Although burnout among students has been described in several healthcare disciplines, this has not been done in the field of prehospital emergency ...

  8. A multicenter study on the validation of the Burnout Battery: a new visual analog scale to screen job burnout in oncology professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yao-Tiao; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Bo-Yan; Yi, Ting-Wu; Wang, Yu-Qing; Zheng, Bo; Luo, Di; Du, Pei-Xin; Jiang, Yu

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the study is to develop a novel tool-the Burnout Battery-for briefly screening burnout among oncology professionals in China and assessing its validity. A multicenter study was conducted in doctors and nurses of the oncology departments in China from November 2014 to May 2015. The Burnout Battery was administered with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and the Doctors' Job Burnout Questionnaire. Of 538 oncology doctors and nurses who completed all the survey, using MBI-HSS as the standard tool for measuring burnout, 52% had emotional exhaustion, 39.4% had depersonalization, and 59.3% had a low sense of personal accomplishment. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that the best cut-off of the Burnout Battery was the battery with 3 bars, which yielded best sensitivity and specificity against all the 3 subscales of MBI-HSS. With this cut-off, nearly half of Chinese oncology professionals (46.8%) had burnout. The Burnout Battery correlated significantly with subscales of the MBI-HSS and the Doctors' Job Burnout Questionnaire. In multiple logistic regression analysis, those who worked more than 60 hours per week and who thought clinical work was the most stressful part of their job were more likely to experience burnout. Chinese oncology professionals exhibit high levels of burnout. The Burnout Battery appears to be a simple and useful tool for screening burnout. Working long hours and perceiving clinical work as the most stressful part of the job were the main factors associated with burnout. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Burnout em Cuidadores Formais

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Juliana Marisa Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do grau de Mestre em Psicologia, ramo de Psicologia Clínica e da Saúde Este estudo é sobre a Síndrome de Burnout e teve como objetivo geral compreender se o Burnout está presente nos cuidadores formais da Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Castelo de Paiva e quais as variáveis socioprofissionais que poderão exercer influência no seu aparecimento. Pretendeu-se avaliar o Burnout dos cuidadores a tr...

  10. Carbon nanotubes for high-performance logic

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhihong; Wong, H.S. Phillip; Mitra, Subhasish; Bol, Aggeth; Peng, Lianmao; Hills, Gage; Thissen, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were discovered in 1993 and have been an area of intense research since then. They offer the right dimensions to explore material science and physical chemistry at the nanoscale and are the perfect system to study low-dimensional physics and transport. In the past decade, more attention has been shifted toward making use of this unique nanomaterial in real-world applications. In this article, we focus on potential applications of CNTs in the high-performanc...

  11. Fabrication of low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) chip couplers for high frequencies : I. Effect of binder burnout process on the formation of electrode line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, N.T.; Shim, K.B.; Lee, S.W. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Koo, K.D. [K-Cera Inc., Yongin (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    In the fabrication of ceramic chip couplers for high frequency applications such as the mobile communication equipment, the formation of electrode lines and Ag diffusion were investigated with heat treatment conditions for removing organic binders. The deformation and densification of the electrode line greatly depended on the binder burnout process due to the overlapped temperature zone near 400{sup o} C of the binder dissociation and the solid phase sintering of the silver electrode. Ag ions were diffused into the glass ceramic substrate. The Ag diffusion was led by the glassy phase containing Pb ions rather than by the crystalline phase containing Ca ions. The fact suggests that the Ag diffusion could be controlled by managing the composition of the glass ceramic substrate. 9 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Incivility from patients and their families: can organisational justice protect nurses from burnout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Kristie L; Hammoud, Sammira

    2015-09-01

    To determine whether interpersonal and informational justice influence the association between daily experiences of incivility and burnout among nurses. Research has suggested that incivility is a concern for managers. Nurses regularly experience incivility, particularly from their patients and patients' families. Incivility, in turn, can increase symptoms of burnout. Seventy-five nurses provided data on interpersonal and informational justice within their organisation. During five working days, nurses completed a twice-daily survey assessing incivility and burnout. Hierarchical linear modelling analyses examined the main effects and interaction effects of the three variables on burnout. Incivility was positively associated with burnout. In addition, interpersonal justice strengthened the incivility-burnout relationship. Informational justice did not significantly affect the incivility-burnout relationship. Incivility is associated with more burnout. The work environment also influences burnout; when organisations provide informational justice, nurses experience less burnout. In organisations where interpersonal justice is high, nurses are more likely to experience burnout. Nursing managers can help employees by ensuring that management's decisions are transparent. In addition, managers should be aware that in organisations with higher interpersonal justice, nurses might be more likely to experience symptoms of burnout as a result of incivility from patients and their families. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Burnout in Orthopaedic Surgeons: A Challenge for Leaders, Learners, and Colleagues: AOA Critical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, S Elizabeth; Cowan, James B; Kenter, Keith; Emery, Sanford; Halsey, David

    2017-07-19

    Burnout, depression, suicidal ideation, and dissatisfaction with work-life balance have been reported in all medical specialties and at all stages of medical education and practice experience. Burnout consists of progressive emotional, attitudinal, and physical exhaustion. Physicians with burnout may treat patients as objects and feel emotionally depleted. Burnout is characterized by a loss of enthusiasm for work (emotional exhaustion), feelings of cynicism (depersonalization), and a low sense of personal accomplishment. The most complete study of emotional burnout among different medical specialties demonstrated that orthopaedic surgery is one of the specialties with the highest burnout rate. Qualitative descriptive studies are available. There was a 45.8% burnout rate among physicians in the U.S. in 2012, and a 2014 update suggested even higher rates. Burnout has a correlation with medical education. Burnout rates are similar to those in the general population when medical students enter school, and increase steadily through medical education prior to residency. Burnout rates in residents are high, reported to be between 41% and 74% across multiple specialties. This impacts our young physician workforce in orthopaedics. The purpose of this review is to provide the available information that characterizes burnout and addresses the issues inherent to preventing burnout, and to build awareness in orthopaedic surgeons. Wellness "goes beyond merely the absence of distress and includes being challenged, thriving, and achieving success in various aspects of personal and professional life." The challenge for the orthopaedic community is to develop interventions and strategies that are personalized to the individuals in this specialty.

  14. Study of transient burnout under flow reduction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi

    1986-09-01

    Transient burnout characteristics of a fuel rod under a rapid flow reduction condition of a light water reactor were experimentally and analytically studied. The test sections were uniformly heated vertical tube and annulus with the heated length of 800 mm. Test pressures ranged 0.5 ∼ 3.9 MPa, heat fluxes 2,160 ∼ 3,860 KW/m 2 , and flow reduction rates 0.44 ∼ 770 %/s. The local flow condition during flow reduction transients were calculated with a separate flow model. The two-fluid/three-field thermal-hydraulic code, COBRA/TRAC, was also used to investigate the liquid film behavior on the heated surface. The major results obtained in the present study are as follows: The onset of burnout under a rapid flow reduction condition was caused by a liquid film dryout on the heated surface. With increasing flow reduction rate beyond a threshold, the burnout mass velocity at the inlet became lower than the steady-state burnout mass velocity. This is explained by the fact that the vapor flow rate continues to increase due to the delay of boiling boundary movement and the resultant high vapor velocity sustains the liquid film flow after the inlet flow rate reaches the steady-state burnout flow rate. The ratio of inlet burnout mass velocities between flow reduction transient and steady-state became smaller with increasing system pressure because of the lower vapor velocity due to the lower vapor specific volume. Flow reduction burnout occurred when the outlet quality agreed with the steady-state burnout quality within 10 %, suggesting that the local condition burnout model can be used for flow reduction transients. Based on this model, a method to predict the time to burnout under a flow reduction condition in a uniformly heated tube was developed. The calculated times to burnout agreed well with some experimental results obtained by the Author, Cumo et al., and Moxon et al. (author)

  15. Burnout in the intensive care unit professionals: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chien-Huai; Tseng, Pei-Chi; Lin, Chun-Yu; Lin, Kuan-Han; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-12-01

    Burnout has been described as a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stress on the job that is often the result of a period of expending excessive effort at work while having too little recovery time. Healthcare workers who work in a stressful medical environment, especially in an intensive care unit (ICU), may be particularly susceptible to burnout. In healthcare workers, burnout may affect their well-being and the quality of professional care they provide and can, therefore, be detrimental to patient safety. The objectives of this study were: to determine the prevalence of burnout in the ICU setting; and to identify factors associated with burnout in ICU professionals. The original articles for observational studies were retrieved from PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Science in June 2016 using the following MeSH terms: "burnout" and "intensive care unit". Articles that were published in English between January 1996 and June 2016 were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers evaluated the abstracts identified using our search criteria prior to full text review. To be included in the final analysis, studies were required to have employed an observational study design and examined the associations between any risk factors and burnout in the ICU setting. Overall, 203 full text articles were identified in the electronic databases after the exclusion of duplicate articles. After the initial review, 25 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of burnout in ICU professionals in the included studies ranged from 6% to 47%. The following factors were reported to be associated with burnout: age, sex, marital status, personality traits, work experience in an ICU, work environment, workload and shift work, ethical issues, and end-of-life decision-making. The impact of the identified factors on burnout remains poorly understood. Nevertheless, this review presents important information, suggesting that ICU professionals may suffer from a high level

  16. Burnout in Oncology: a study of Nursing professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kitze

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify if licensed practical nurses and Nursing technicians working at an Oncology department present burnout syndrome. Methods: Data of 21 licensed practical nurses and Nursing technicians who had worked for, at least, one year at the Oncology department of a large hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were collected. The burnout inventory developed by Maslach and Jackson was used. Rresults: The studied population presented burnout based on scores in each of its three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment. As to burnout symptoms, this study showed that 28.6% of the sample presented high scores in “emotional exhaustion”; 28.6% had high scores in “depersonalization” and 19.1% in lack of “personal accomplishment”. Cconclusions: When compared to other studies with nurses, this sample presented greater burnout.

  17. [Risk factors and burnout levels in Primary Care nurses: A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Urquiza, Jose L; Monsalve-Reyes, Carolina S; San Luis-Costas, Concepción; Fernández-Castillo, Rafael; Aguayo-Estremera, Raimundo; Cañadas-de la Fuente, Guillermo A

    2017-02-01

    To determine the risk factors and levels of burnout in Primary Care nurses. A systematic review was performed. CINAHL, CUIDEN, LILACS, PubMed, ProQuest, ScienceDirect and Scopus databases were consulted. Search equations were 'burnout AND community health nursing' and 'burnout AND primary care nursing'. The search was performed in October 2015. The final sample was n=12 studies. Quantitative primary studies that used Maslach Burnout Inventory for burnout assessment in Primary Care nurses were included without restriction by publication date. The main variables were the mean and standard deviation of the three burnout dimensions, high, medium and low prevalence rates of each dimension, and socio-demographic, occupational and psychological variables that potentially influence burnout level. Studies show high prevalence rates, generally between 23% and 31%, of emotional exhaustion. The prevalence rates of high depersonalisation and low personal accomplishment show heterogeneity, varying between 8%-32% and 4%-92% of the sample, respectively. Studies show that older nurses with more seniority, anxiety and depression, among other variables, have higher burnout levels, while nurses with higher salary, high job satisfaction, organisational support, and good self-concept have less burnout. High emotional exhaustion is the main affected dimension of burnout in Primary Care nursing. There is heterogeneity in depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Burnout must be prevented in these professionals, by increasing protective factors and monitoring its appearance in those with risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. [Psychiatrist burnout or psychiatric assistance burnout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Vincenzo; Dicuonzo, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, mature industrial countries are rapidly changing from production economies to service economies. In this new socio-economic context, particular attention has been paid to mental health problems in the workplace. The risk of burnout is significantly higher for certain occupations, in particular for health workers. Doctors and psychiatrists, in particular, quite frequently have to make quick decisions by dealing with a huge amount of requests, which often require considerable assumptions of responsibility. In Italy, the process of corporateization and regionalization of the National Health Service has oriented clinical practice, in psychiatry, towards the rationalization and optimization of available resources, to ensure appropriateness and fairness of performances. The challenge that will soon be faced in health policy, with the progressive aging of the population, will be the growing burden of chronicity, in a context of limited resources, which will necessarily require a managerial approach in structuring and delivering services. The management of change in psychiatric assistance, today in Italy, can not be separated from a deep motivating involvement ( engagement) of professionals. In other words, it is desirable, in the effort to contain expenditure and rationalize welfare processes, to shift from burnout to the engagement of psychiatrists, investing economic and human resources in mental health services. In this review, through a selective search of the relevant literature 2010-2017 conducted on PubMed (key words: stress, burnout, psychiatry, mental health), the information from original articles, reviews and book chapters was analyzed and summarized. about the presence of burnout syndrome among psychiatrists. This article examines the concept of burnout, its causes and the most appropriate preventive and therapeutic interventions applicable to psychiatrists.

  19. A burnout prediction model based around char morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Wu; E. Lester; M. Cloke [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Energy and Fuel Centre

    2005-07-01

    Poor burnout in a coal-fired power plant has marked penalties in the form of reduced energy efficiency and elevated waste material that can not be utilized. The prediction of coal combustion behaviour in a furnace is of great significance in providing valuable information not only for process optimization but also for coal buyers in the international market. Coal combustion models have been developed that can make predictions about burnout behaviour and burnout potential. Most of these kinetic models require standard parameters such as volatile content, particle size and assumed char porosity in order to make a burnout prediction. This paper presents a new model called the Char Burnout Model (ChB) that also uses detailed information about char morphology in its prediction. The model can use data input from one of two sources. Both sources are derived from image analysis techniques. The first from individual analysis and characterization of real char types using an automated program. The second from predicted char types based on data collected during the automated image analysis of coal particles. Modelling results were compared with a different carbon burnout kinetic model and burnout data from re-firing the chars in a drop tube furnace operating at 1300{sup o}C, 5% oxygen across several residence times. An improved agreement between ChB model and DTF experimental data proved that the inclusion of char morphology in combustion models can improve model predictions. 27 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. High surface area carbon and process for its production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter; Rash, Tyler; Shah, Parag; Suppes, Galen

    2016-12-13

    Activated carbon materials and methods of producing and using activated carbon materials are provided. In particular, biomass-derived activated carbon materials and processes of producing the activated carbon materials with prespecified surface areas and pore size distributions are provided. Activated carbon materials with preselected high specific surface areas, porosities, sub-nm (<1 nm) pore volumes, and supra-nm (1-5 nm) pore volumes may be achieved by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process.

  1. 'Burnout' among Dutch midwives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.H.C.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Jabaaij, L.; Meijer, W.; Sixma, H.; Veer, A. de

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to determine the effect of workload on 'burnout' having considered work capacity. DESIGN: cross-sectional study. SETTING: Dutch community midwives in independent practice. PARTICIPANTS: 200 Dutch community midwives. MEASUREMENTS: three-week diary recordings, a questionnaire on practice

  2. [Burnout syndrome in general practitioners of Avila].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos-Llanes, R; Jiménez-Blanco, S; Blanco-Montagut, L E

    2014-10-01

    To determine the level of burnout in general practitioners of Avila and the influence of social, occupational and health factors. A descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted and aimed at all Primary Care medical staff of Avila during the first half of 2011, using two questionnaires: the Maslach Burnout Inventory and other sociodemographic, health and occupational variables. A response rate of 51.8% was obtained. The mean age was 48.55±8.16, and 52% were male, 77% married, 45% with tenure, 78% worked in rural centres, and, 82% performed out of hours home visits plus clinics. The prevalence of severe burn out was low (16%) in our study was low. A high prevalence (68%) of moderate/severe level of the condition was found. Being married (P=.012), do not guards (P<.0001), working in rural areas (P=.008), and to be an area doctor (p=.03), predisposes to suffer burnout in severe or moderate/severe burnout. A moderate level of burnout was found. Contrary to what many doctors thought, the prevalence of the condition in its severe form was low, but was high when taking the severe and moderate/severe forms together. Therefore, measures should be extended to reduce occupational stress of doctors, in order to improve working practices and professional efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. [Stress and burnout among Tunisian teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennoufi, L; Ellouze, F; Cherif, W; Mersni, M; M'rad, M F

    2012-12-01

    Burnout, or professional exhaustion syndrome, is defined as a state of emotional, mental and physical exhaustion caused by excessive and prolonged stress at work. Despite the fact that it is not a recognized disorder in the DSM-IV, burnout has been widely described among medical and paramedical staff. In Tunisia, all the studies about this syndrome have only considered populations of doctors. However, professional exhaustion syndrome is not only limited to the medical sector, but can also be seen in any profession involving a relation of help. Thus, the teaching profession seems to be concerned with this syndrome. In fact, in our clinical practice, we are increasingly confronted with teachers' suffering. The latter face increasing difficulties in their work and moreover some of them can no longer resist and thus become vulnerable to the professional exhaustion syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate burnout among a population of Tunisian teachers and to examine the professional stressors associated with teachers' burnout. Our study was a transversal study conducted over five months (from October 2009 to February 2010) and it concerned teachers working in the public high schools of Manouba (Tunisia). The participants completed a self-questionnaire dealing with professional stressors. Five types of professional stressors were identified in the literature: bad working conditions, work overload, administrative difficulties, organizational factors and difficulties with pupils and their relatives. They were also explored by the scale of the burnout: the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), which is the best-studied measurement of burnout in the literature. We used the French version of the MBI adapted to educational settings. It is a scale composed of 22 items and three dimensions: emotional exhaustion (nine items), dehumanization (five items) and reduced personal accomplishment (eight items). In our study, we considered a teacher was suffering from burnout when at

  4. Burnout en estudiantes universitarios

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Carmen Cecilia; Bresó Esteve, Edgar; González Gutiérrez, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a better understanding and characterization of the nature of academic burnout in university students, a review of the concept, its evolution and extrapolation of the work context to the university academic context is performed. It is proposed its delimitation, differentiation and relationship with comorbid clinical conditions like depression and anxiety. Additionally, this paper reviews empirical research that establishes relationships of the academic burnout with th...

  5. Burn-out

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia van Echtelt

    2014-01-01

    Deze publicatie is alleen elektronisch verkrijgbaar (downloaden van deze site) Burn-out (ofwel: emotionele uitputting) komt relatief vaak voor: ongeveer één op de acht werknemers in Nederland heeft er last van. Het wordt dan ook gezien als een serieus maatschappelijk probleem dat beleidsmatig aandacht vergt. Dit rapport presenteert de resultaten van twee specifieke analyses over burn-out. Ten eerste gaan we na wat het effect is van emotionele uitputting op de loopbaan van werknemers. Ten twee...

  6. Sense of meaning as a predictor of burnout in emergency physicians in Israel: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Itzhak, Shulamit; Dvash, Jonathan; Maor, Maya; Rosenberg, Noa; Halpern, Pinchas

    2015-12-01

    Burnout is common in physicians and particularly acute in emergency physicians. Physician burnout may adversely affect physicians' lives and the quality of care they provide, but much remains unknown about its main contributing factors. The present study evaluated burnout rates and contributing factors in emergency physicians in Israel, specifically focusing on the role of a sense of meaning, which has received little attention in the literature concerning burnout in emergency physicians. A multicenter study, involving a convenience sample of physicians working full-time in the emergency departments of 16 general hospitals in Israel, was conducted. Questionnaires were used to assess burnout, demographic characteristics, professional stress, emotional distress, satisfaction, and quality of professional life, and open-ended questions were used to evaluate subjective perception of job satisfaction. Seventy physicians completed the questionnaires; 71.4% reported significant burnout levels in at least one of the burnout measures, while 82% also reported medium or high levels of competency. Burnout levels were associated with work-life balance, work satisfaction, social support, depressive symptoms, stress, and preoccupying thoughts. Regression analysis yielded two significant factors associated with burnout: worry and a sense of existential meaning derived from work. In addition, 61%, 51%, and 17% of participants exhibited high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalization, and a low sense of personal accomplishment, respectively. These results indicate a high burnout rate in emergency physicians in Israel and highlight relevant positive and negative factors including the importance of addressing existential meaning in designing specific intervention programs to counter burnout.

  7. Nitrogen in highly crystalline carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducati, C; Koziol, K; Stavrinadis, A; Friedrichs, S; Windle, A H; Midgley, P A

    2006-01-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with an unprecedented degree of internal order were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) adding a nitrogen-containing compound to the hydrocarbon feedstock. Ferrocene was used as the metal catalyst precursor. The remarkable crystallinity of these nanotubes lies both in the isochirality and in the crystallographic register of their walls, as demonstrated by electron diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy experiments. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that the walls of the nanotubes consist of truncated stacked cones, instead of perfect cylinders, with a range of apex angles that appears to be related to the nitrogen concentration in the synthesis process. The structure of armchair, zigzag and chiral nanotubes is modelled and discussed in terms of density of topological defects, providing an interesting comparison with our microscopy experiments. A growth mechanism based on the interplay of base- and tip-growth is proposed to account for our experimental observations

  8. Burnout Among Cardiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jeffrey B; Sangha, Denisse M; Erwin, John P

    2017-03-15

    Burnout is a loss of enthusiasm for work, cynicism, and a low sense of accomplishment. Loss of autonomy and authority, complex regulatory requirements, report cards, quality metrics, the rise of large integrated health care systems, and the demise of solo practice are just a few realities of medical practice that contribute to physician burnout. Physicians suffering burnout often focus on compensation and perceived status as antidotes, although evidence suggests they play no role. Randomized controlled trials suggest that interventions designed to improve coping and resiliency including cognitive behavioral therapy and physical and mental relaxations to reduce stress can be effective. Reduced work hours have also been shown to mitigate burnout. Successful prevention and management requires adaptations by both physicians and the health care systems in which they work. We believe that burnout also involves a loss of faith in the practice of medicine itself. Advances in cardiovascular medicine have led to large reductions in mortality and morbidity. However, the disruptive changes to health care that accompanied this success have contributed to physician alienation. In conclusion, we believe that to overcome burnout, cardiologists should dedicate themselves to a collective mission of patient care and work to restore faith in their profession. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk of burnout among early career mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, U; Luciano, M; Palumbo, C; Sampogna, G; Del Vecchio, V; Fiorillo, A

    2014-01-01

    Burnout is a stress-related syndrome that often affects mental health professionals (MHPs) and may have serious consequences on personal well-being as well as on the quality of provided psychiatric care. Established literature shows a high risk to develop burnout among MHPs. Few data are available on the incidence and on the clinical implications of the burnout syndrome in the early phases of MHP professional career. We confirmed the presence of burnout among early career MHPs: early career psychiatrists showed a lower sense of personal accomplishment, while non-medical MHPs tended to have more depersonalization and suffered from higher levels of depression. Specific programmes to identify the presence of the burnout syndrome and to cope with it should be taught within mental health training curricula. Burnout is a stress-related syndrome that often affects professionals working in emotionally loaded and highly interpersonal environments. Mental health professionals (MHPs) are long known to be at high risk to develop the burnout syndrome, but this has rarely been investigated in professionals in an early phase of career. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of the burnout syndrome and of depressive symptoms among early career psychiatrists and 'non-medical' MHPs. One hundred MHPs (including 50 psychiatrists and 50 non-medical MHPs) were screened for the presence of burnout and depression, with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory - revised, respectively. The relationships of burnout with socio-demographical and professional characteristics were also explored. We confirmed the presence of burnout among both groups of early career MHPs, but psychiatrists had a significantly higher degree of emotional exhaustion and a lower sense of personal accomplishment, while non-medical MHPs adopted more frequently depersonalization as a coping strategy and had higher scores for depression, which is associated with higher level of

  10. J. Edward Berk distinguished lecture: avoiding burnout: finding balance between work and everything else.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawicz, Christina M

    2014-04-01

    Burnout has been defined as "a state of mental exhaustion caused by one's professional life." Increasing evidence shows high rates of burnout among medical professionals, including gastroenterologists. Factors that contribute to burnout include work-home conflict and longer work hours. Among gastroenterologists, the risk for burnout seems to be highest during the first three years on the job after fellowship. Strategies to treat and prevent burnout include identifying and balancing personal and professional goals, shaping one's career to optimize meaning, identifying stressors, and nurturing wellness strategies.

  11. Failure Modes of a Unidirectional Ultra-High-Modulus Carbon-Fiber/Carbon-Matrix Composite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaldivar, R

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the effects of various microstructural features on the in situ, room-temperature tensile fracture behavior of an ultra-high-modulus, unidirectional carbon/carbon (C/C...

  12. Work stress, poor recovery and burnout in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluschkoff, K; Elovainio, M; Kinnunen, U; Mullola, S; Hintsanen, M; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Hintsa, T

    2016-10-01

    Both work stress and poor recovery have been shown to contribute to the development of burnout. However, the role of recovery as a mediating mechanism that links work stress to burnout has not been sufficiently addressed in research. To examine recovery as a mediator in the relationship between work stress and burnout among teachers. A cross-sectional study of Finnish primary school teachers, in whom burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey and work stress was conceptualized using the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model. Recovery was measured with the Recovery Experience Questionnaire and the Jenkins Sleep Problems Scale. Multiple linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses adjusted for age, gender and total working hours were performed. Among the 76 study subjects, high ERI was associated with burnout and its dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy. Poor recovery experiences, in terms of low relaxation during leisure time, partially mediated the relationship between ERI and reduced professional efficacy. Sleep problems, in the form of non-restorative sleep, partially mediated the relationship between ERI and both burnout and exhaustion. Supporting a balance between effort and reward at work may enhance leisure time recovery and improve sleep quality, as well as help to reduce burnout rates. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Exploring the relationship between hope and burnout in competitive sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Henrik; Hassmén, Peter; Podlog, Leslie

    2010-12-01

    Researchers have postulated that hope may be an important factor associated with burnout. Consistent with hope theory contentions, low-hope individuals may be susceptible to burnout because they are prone to experience goal blockage, frustration, and negative affect, all of which likely increase the risk of burnout. We examined the relationship between hope and athlete burnout among 178 competitive athletes (63 females and 115 males) aged 15-20 years. Hope was significantly and negatively correlated with all three burnout subscales: emotional/physical exhaustion, a reduced sense of accomplishment, and sport devaluation. Moreover, results of a multivariate analysis of variance showed that low-hope athletes scored significantly higher than medium- and high-hope athletes on all three burnout dimensions. Finally, results revealed that agency thinking was a significant predictor of all burnout dimensions. Frustration over unmet goals and a perceived lack of agency, a characteristic of low-hope athletes, might pose a risk factor in athlete burnout, whereas being able to maintain hope appears to be associated with health and well-being.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of burnout in health professionals in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Marina R; Otero, Patricia; Blanco, Vanessa; Ontaneda, Mercy P; Díaz, Olga; Vázquez, Fernando L

    2018-04-01

    Although burnout is a widespread phenomenon among healthcare professionals, there are no studies about its prevalence in Ecuador. This study assesses the prevalence of burnout syndrome among Ecuadorian healthcare professionals and examine the relationship with their personal and organizational characteristics. A total of 2404 healthcare professionals (average age 40.0years; 68.4% women) from the capitals of all 24 provinces in Ecuador participated in this study. Trained psychologists assessed the presence of burnout by applying the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Sociodemographic variables, emotional distress, social support and coping styles as well as organizational variables were also collected. Of all healthcare professionals surveyed, 2.6% presented burnout syndrome. By dimensions, 17.2% of the participants presented a high level of emotional exhaustion, 13.5% of depersonalization, and 18.2% had reduced personal accomplishment. Being non-mestizo, being classified as a probable case of mental disorder and using more passive coping were associated with a greater probability of presenting burnout; having >10years of experience was associated with a lower probability of burnout. A significant number of active health professionals suffer from burnout. It is necessary to develop effective psychotherapeutic interventions for those who have the syndrome and to evaluate potential prevention strategies in those who have not yet developed it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Burnout syndrome indices in Greek intensive care nursing personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikola, Maria N K; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D E; Mpouzika, Meropi; Lemonidou, Chrysoula

    2012-01-01

    Burnout symptoms in Greek intensive care unit (ICU) nurses have not been explored adequately. The aim of this descriptive, correlational study was to investigate the prevalence and intensity of burnout symptoms in Greek ICU nursing personnel and any potential associations with professional satisfaction, as well as with demographic, educational, and vocational characteristics. Findings showed that the overall burnout level reported by Greek ICU nursing personnel was at a moderate to high degree. The most pronounced symptom of burnout was depersonalization, whereas emotional exhaustion was found to be a strong predictor of job satisfaction. This is a factor connected with the nurses' intention to quit the job. It appears that work factors have a more powerful influence over the development of burnout in comparison to personality traits.

  16. [Organizational climate and burnout syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubrańska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of organizational climate and burnout syndrome. It has been assumed that burnout syndrome is dependent on work climate (organizational climate), therefore, two concepts were analyzed: by D. Kolb (organizational climate) and by Ch. Maslach (burnout syndrome). The research involved 239 persons (122 woman, 117 men), aged 21-66. In the study Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Inventory of Organizational Climate were used. The results of statistical methods (correlation analysis, one-variable analysis of variance and regression analysis) evidenced a strong relationship between organizational climate and burnout dimension. As depicted by the results, there are important differences in the level of burnout between the study participants who work in different types of organizational climate. The results of the statistical analyses indicate that the organizational climate determines burnout syndrome. Therefore, creating supportive conditions at the workplace might reduce the risk of burnout.

  17. Effects of Non-Guidance Activities, Supervision, and Student-to-Counselor Ratios on School Counselor Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    School counselors, like all mental health professionals are at high risk for burnout. High caseloads, job role ambiguity, and lack of supervision increase their propensity for burnout. Three areas were selected for study in this article due to their potential impact on burnout: supervision, student-to-counselor-ratios, and non-guidance related…

  18. Thermal Oxidation of a Carbon Condensate Formed in High-Frequency Carbon and Carbon-Nickel Plasma Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churilov, G. N.; Nikolaev, N. S.; Cherepakhin, A. V.; Dudnik, A. I.; Tomashevich, E. V.; Trenikhin, M. V.; Bulina, N. G.

    2018-02-01

    We have reported on the comparative characteristics of thermal oxidation of a carbon condensate prepared by high-frequency arc evaporation of graphite rods and a rod with a hollow center filled with nickel powder. In the latter case, along with different forms of nanodisperse carbon, nickel particles with nickel core-carbon shell structures are formed. It has been found that the processes of the thermal oxidation of carbon condensates with and without nickel differ significantly. Nickel particles with the carbon shell exhibit catalytic properties with respect to the oxidation of nanosized carbon structures. A noticeable difference between the temperatures of the end of the oxidation process for various carbon nanoparticles and nickel particles with the carbon shell has been established. The study is aimed at investigations of the effect of nickel nanoparticles on the dynamics of carbon condensate oxidation upon heating in the argon-oxygen flow.

  19. A simple numerical model to estimate the effect of coal selection on pulverized fuel burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.K.; Hurt, R.H.; Niksa, S.; Muzio, L.; Mehta, A.; Stallings, J. [Brown University, Providence, RI (USA). Division Engineering

    2003-06-01

    The amount of unburned carbon in ash is an important performance characteristic in commercial boilers fired with pulverized coal. Unburned carbon levels are known to be sensitive to fuel selection, and there is great interest in methods of estimating the burnout propensity of coals based on proximate and ultimate analysis - the only fuel properties readily available to utility practitioners. A simple numerical model is described that is specifically designed to estimate the effects of coal selection on burnout in a way that is useful for commercial coal screening. The model is based on a highly idealized description of the combustion chamber but employs detailed descriptions of the fundamental fuel transformations. The model is validated against data from laboratory and pilot-scale combustors burning a range of international coals, and then against data obtained from full-scale units during periods of coal switching. The validated model form is then used in a series of sensitivity studies to explore the role of various individual fuel properties that influence burnout.

  20. Teachers` and medics' burnout syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    VOPELKOVÁ, Kateřina

    2010-01-01

    The bachelor thesis offers an overview of information related to problems of stress and burnout syndrome. I deal mainly with causes, symptoms, risk factors, prevention and getting stress and burnout syndrome under control. The aim of my bachelor thesis is to find out symptoms of burnout syndrome at teachers and health service employees. I supposed different manifestations of the burnout syndrome due to different demands put on these people in their professions. Another aim was to establish th...

  1. Highly thermal conductive carbon fiber/boron carbide composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Akio; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Goto, Sumitaka; Saito, Yukio; Jinbo, Ryutaro; Ogiwara, Norio; Saido, Masahiro.

    1996-01-01

    In a composite member for use in walls of a thermonuclear reactor, if carbon fibers and boron carbide are mixed, since they are brought into contact with each other directly, boron is reacted with the carbon fibers to form boron carbide to lower thermal conductivity of the carbon fibers. Then, in the present invention, graphite or amorphous carbon is filled between the carbon fibers to provide a fiber bundle of not less than 500 carbon fibers. Further, the surface of the fiber bundle is coated with graphite or amorphous carbon to suppress diffusion or solid solubilization of boron to carbon fibers or reaction of them. Then, lowering of thermal conductivity of the carbon fibers is prevented, as well as the mixing amount of the carbon fiber bundles with boron carbide, a sintering temperature and orientation of carbon fiber bundles are optimized to provide a highly thermal conductive carbon fiber/boron carbide composite material. In addition, carbide or boride type short fibers, spherical graphite, and amorphous carbon are mixed in the boron carbide to prevent development of cracks. Diffusion or solid solubilization of boron to carbon fibers is reduced or reaction of them if the carbon fibers are bundled. (N.H.)

  2. Burnout contagion among general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.

    2001-01-01

    This study used a representative sample of 507 general practitioners (GPs) to test the hypothesis that burnout is contagious. Following a two-dimensional conceptualization of burnout, it is assumed that burnout is comprised of emotional exhaustion and negative attitudes (i.e., depersonalization and

  3. Life Stress and Academic Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hui; Huang, Yun-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Stress has been shown to negatively affect learning. Academic burnout is a significant problem associated with poor academic performance. Although there has been increased attention on these two issues, literature on the relationship between students' life stress and burnout is relatively limited. This study surveys academic burnout and life…

  4. Burnout among Dutch medical residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.T.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.; Van De Wiel, H.B.; Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Sprangers, F.; Jaspers, F.C.; van der Heijden, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined levels of burnout and relationships between burnout, gender, age, years in training, and medical specialty in 158 medical residents working at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. Thirteen percent of the residents met the criteria for burnout, with the highest

  5. Organizational Communication and Burnout Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hoeven, C.L.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Peper, Bram

    2006-01-01

    Job burnout is a psychological response to work stress. Many studies have been conducted measuring burnout and its causes and consequences. The research into causes of burnout brings up various communication-related constructs, but the relationships with feedback employees receive and communication

  6. High thermal performance divertor plate optimization of the monobloc divertor plate by the use of ultra-high thermal conductivity carbon fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matera, R.; Merola, M.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual study of an advanced divertor plate is presented. The essential feature of the new concept, apart from the use of ultrahigh conductivity carbon fibres, is the use of a single material, a CFC composite, for the whole structure. The coolant is helium gas. The main advantages of this solutions are: elimination of the severe joint-interface problems inherent in other multimaterial solutions, avoidance of the risk of burn-out, no damage caused by run-away electrons, low-activation properties, great tolerance towards off-normal operating conditions, great reduction of mechanical stresses induced by electromagnetic transient and the ease of baking at high temperature. The maximum computed temperature is about 1000 C and the required pumping power is approximately only 30 % higher than a corresponding cooling performed by water in swirl-tubes

  7. The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory: A new tool for the assessment of burnout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tage S.; Borritz, Marianne; Villadsen, Ebbe

    2005-01-01

    Burnout; CBI; Copenhagen Burnout Inventory; exhaustion;fatigue; human service work; psychosocial work environment; PUMA study; questionnaire validity......Burnout; CBI; Copenhagen Burnout Inventory; exhaustion;fatigue; human service work; psychosocial work environment; PUMA study; questionnaire validity...

  8. The effects of exercise program on burnout and metabolic syndrome components in banking and insurance workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Han Hui; Yeh, Ching Ying; Su, Chien Tien; Chen, Chiou Jong; Peng, Shu Mei; Chen, Ruey Yu

    2013-01-01

    To explore the effectiveness of exercise program for banking and insurance workers and clarify the association between exercise, burnout, and metabolic syndrome components. In the process of the study, a practicable worksite exercise program was developed for bank and insurance enterprises. A three-month (12-wk) exercise course was conducted, and its benefits evaluated. Levels of burnout and metabolic syndrome components were analyzed after exercise intervention. After intervention, the indicators of burnout and metabolic syndrome components were significantly improved in both low and high intensity groups, and the improvement were expressed in reduction of waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, person burnout and work-related burnout. A dose-response of burnouts and metabolic syndrome components with exercise intensity are shown (psyndrome components were independently associated with burnout and exercise intensity in the crude model. After adjustment for potential confounders, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure differences showed significant associations with exercise intensity (pburnouts and metabolic syndrome components.

  9. [Asthenic syndrome in patients with burnout syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutko, L S; Surushkina, S Iu; Rozhkova, A V; Nikishena, I S; Iakovenko, E A

    2013-01-01

    The authors present the results of a survey of 103 patients aged 25 to 45 years with burnout syndrom. The results showed that most patients with the syndrome of burnout have clinical manifestations of asthenia, varying degrees of severity. According to psychological and psychophysiological examination in this group of patients were found attention and memory dysfunction. This study evaluated the efficacy of memoplant in the treatment of this pathology. The high efficiency of memoplant (improvement in 69.7% of cases) was detected, confirmed by the data of the clinical, psychological and neuropsychological research.

  10. Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Erin

    2017-01-01

    NICU nurses have seen a dramatic increase in cases of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). The care needs of infants with NAS are highly demanding and can lead to feelings of frustration and emotional exhaustion among NICU nurses. Although studies have examined the experiences of nurses caring for NAS patients, none have specifically addressed the risk for compassion fatigue and burnout. Nurses need practical strategies to reduce their risk for compassion fatigue and burnout when caring for these patients. Improved education and implementation of self-care measures can help nurses more effectively manage stress and positively impact care of these infants and their families.

  11. Professional burnout syndrome among correctional facility officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harizanova, Stanislava N; Tarnovska, Tanya H

    2013-01-01

    Correctional facilities present unique work places--the employees there work in tough, demanding and hazardous working conditions, in real life-threatening environment, subjected to physical and mental fatigue, risk of infectious diseases, work in shifts, with inadequate pay, etc. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence and level of burnout syndrome among employees working in the District Prison of the town of Plovdiv. The study included all employees that had direct contact with the inmates in the prison. We recruited 106 employees that participated in the study anonymously and voluntarily. The main instrument we used was the questionnaire designed according to the methods developed by V. Boiko, which allows identification of professional burnout syndrome in its three phases with four symptoms in each of the phases. We found a high prevalence of burnout syndrome among the staff in the District Prison in Plovdiv (74.53%). All three phases of burnout were found to have a high prevalence rate--the stress phase: 48.11%, the resistance phase: 66.98%, the exhaustion phase: 41.51%. The rank in the service hierarchy was found to be a predictor in the stress phase, B = 0.701, p = 0.048, Exp(B) = 2.106, 95%CI [1.00; 4.04]. The single officers (83.33% of the divorced and 55.56% of the single employees) and those of the staff that were more highly educated (78.72%) had elevated levels of burnout syndrome, and these manifested during the first 5 years of their service in the prison (77.78%). In Bulgaria at present the burnout syndrome has not been studied among employees working in correctional facilities. We found a high prevalence of the syndrome among the employees of the District Prison - Plovdiv. The younger, the single and the more educated employees had greater levels of burnout syndrome, which manifest during the first 5 years of their service. The results suggest that there is a need to develop and implement effective strategies to reduce and prevent

  12. ENGAGEMENT AND BURNOUT AMONG NURSING AND PSYCHOLOGY STUDENTS IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Škodová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the differences in engagement and burnout syndrome in students of nursing/midwifery and psychology in Slovakia. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Methods: 171 university students on a baccalaureate program participated in the research (90.9% females; age 20.6 ± 1.3; 80 psychology students, 91 nursing/midwifery students. The School Burnout Inventory (SBI and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES were employed as measurement methods. Results: A significant negative association between levels of burnout and engagement (R = 0.42; p < 0.01 was found. A linear regression model showed a significant effect of engagement on burnout (β = -0.34; 95% CI: -0.50; -0.19. However, the total explained variance was only 19.4%. Students of psychology scored higher in engagement compared to nursing and midwifery students (t = 6.89; p < 0.001. Conversely, midwifery and nursing students had higher levels of burnout compared to the group of psychology students (t = -4.55; p < 0,001. Conclusion: Nursing is considered to be a high risk profession in terms of development of burnout, which was demonstrated in this study by the higher burnout, and lower engagement levels in nursing and midwifery students. Higher attention to coping mechanisms for stress and burnout symptoms among students of healthcare professions is required in the school curriculum, especially in nursing programs. Keywords: burnout syndrome, engagement, students of nursing, midwifery, students of psychology, School Burnout Inventory (SBI, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES.

  13. Gendered Pathways to Burnout: Results from the SALVEO Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, Nancy; Marchand, Alain; Bilodeau, Jaunathan; Durand, Pierre; Demers, Andrée; Haines, Victor Y

    2018-02-19

    Burnout is a pervasive mental health problem in the workforce, with mounting evidence suggesting ties with occupational and safety outcomes such as work injuries, critical events and musculoskeletal disorders. While environmental [work and non-work, work-to-family conflict (WFC)] and individual (personality) pathways to burnout are well documented, little is known about how gender comes to influence such associative patterns. The aim of the study consisted in examining gendered pathways to burnout. Data were derived from the SALVEO study, a cross-sectional study of 2026 workers from 63 workplaces from the province of Québec (Canada). Data were analyzed using multilevel path analysis. Direct effects of gendered pathways were evidenced for work (e.g. decision latitude) and non-work (e.g. child-related strains) environmental pathways, as well as for individual pathways (i.e. internal locus of control). Indirect effects of gendered pathways were also evidenced, with women reporting higher levels of burnout compared to men due to lower levels of decision latitude and of self-esteem, as well as higher levels of WFC. Women also reported lower burnout levels through investing more time into domestic tasks, which could represent a recovery strategy to highly demanding work. WFC further mediated the associations between working hours and burnout, as well as the between irregular work schedules and burnout. These result suggest than men distinctively reported higher levels of burnout due to the specific nature of their work contract negatively impacting on WFC, and incidentally, on their mental health. Study results supported our hypotheses positing that gender distinctively shapes environmental and individual pathways to burnout. OHS prevention efforts striving for better mental health outcomes in the workforce could relevantly be informed by a gendered approach to burnout.

  14. Risk factors for burnout among caregivers working in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandelman, Nadia; Mazars, Thierry; Levy, Antonin

    2018-01-01

    (i) To assess the level of burnout in nursing home caregivers within a unique healthcare network in France and (ii) to evaluate potential risk factors in this population. Burnout syndrome occurs frequently among nursing home caregivers and has strong detrimental effects on the quality of health care for residents. We used an observational survey to study burnout in nursing home caregivers. The survey was used to quantify burnout level (Maslach Burnout Inventory) and potential risk factors and was implemented from October 2013-April 2014. A logistic regression was used to explore the association between burnout and its risk factors. Three hundred and sixty questionnaires were delivered to caregivers in 14 nursing homes within a unique healthcare network. The response rate was 37% (132/360), and 124/132 (94%) surveys were analysed. Caregiver burnout rate was 40% (49/124). Median age was 41 years (range, 20-70) and most caregivers were female. The most common profession (n = 54; 44%) was nurse caregiver and 90% (n = 112) had an antecedent of bullying by a resident. Risk factors identified were as follows: the presence of institutional protocols (death announcement [OR: 3.7] and pain assessment [OR: 2.8]), working in a profit-making establishment (OR: 2.6) and the antecedent of bullying by a resident (OR: 6.2). Factors most negatively associated with burnout included: practising pastimes (OR: 0.4) and working as a nurse (OR: 0.3). The only significant risk factor in the multivariate analysis was the antecedent of bullying by a resident (OR: 5.3). Several specific risk factors for burnout in nursing home caregivers were identified. In high-risk populations of healthcare professionals, screening and management of risk factors is crucial for preventing burnout. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Burnout in Tunisian medical residents: About 149 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Zid, A; Homri, W; Ben Romdhane, I; Bram, N; Labbane, R

    2017-09-01

    Burnout is a professional psychological chronic stress-induced syndrome defined by three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. This syndrome concerns all professions but especially healthcare staff. Numerous studies have attempted to document the impact of work activities on the doctor's mental health. According to the literature, junior doctors are more vulnerable to develop this syndrome. Are to determine the prevalence of severe burnout among residents of different specialties: anesthesiology, general surgery, emergency medicine, psychiatry, basic sciences. The secondary end points are to analyze risk factors, causes and consequences associated with burnout. A cross-sectional study conducted among medical residents working in hospitals located in the governorates of Tunis. Three instruments were used: an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to assess burnout, and Abstract Beck Depression Inventory to evaluate the intensity of depression. Severe burnout was defined as a severely high level of both emotional exhaustion and depersonalization associated with a severely low level of personal accomplishment. A total of 149 participants (response rate=76.8%) participated in the survey. Among participants, 17.14% (n=26) had a severe burnout. The emergency medicine residents had the highest rate of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and severe depression. Overall, resident respondents, 31% (n=46), had moderate to severe depression. Among stress factors, those significantly correlated to burnout were: lack of hobbies (Pburnout were: Antecedents of specialty change (P=0.017) and desire for a specialty change (Pburnout was not found. Medical residents in all specialties are at risk of burnout. Nevertheless, this study revealed that some specialties are more exhausting, which is consistent with the results reported in the literature. Moreover, it is shown that several stress factors

  16. Carbon Dioxide Mitigation Benefit of High-Speed Railway in Terms of Carbon Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yanbing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper calculates the carbon dioxide mitigation benefit of high-speed railway based on the carbon dioxide tax policy. We define the carbon dioxide emission system boundary for high-speed railway in its whole life cycle and estimate the life cycle carbon dioxide inventories during its construction, application, and recovery stages. And then we establish a theoretical model to calculate the life cycle carbon dioxide mitigation quantity for high-speed railway when compared with road transport and then calculate its carbon dioxide mitigation benefit. The numerical example shows that the carbon dioxide mitigation benefit of high-speed railway is better than that of road transport from the whole life cycle perspective.

  17. High-strength porous carbon and its multifunctional applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A; Rubenstein, Eric P; Serio, Michael A; Cosgrove, Joseph E

    2013-12-31

    High-strength porous carbon and a method of its manufacture are described for multifunctional applications, such as ballistic protection, structural components, ultracapacitor electrodes, gas storage, and radiation shielding. The carbon is produced from a polymer precursor via carbonization, and optionally by surface activation and post-treatment.

  18. A multi-institutional study exploring the impact of positive mental health on medical students' professionalism in an era of high burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Harper, William; Moutier, Christine; Durning, Steven J; Power, David V; Massie, F Stanford; Eacker, Anne; Thomas, Matthew R; Satele, Daniel; Sloan, Jeff A; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2012-08-01

    Although burnout is associated with erosion of professionalism and serious personal consequences, whether positive mental health can enhance professionalism and how it shapes personal experience remain poorly understood. The study simultaneously explores the relationship between positive mental health and burnout with professionalism and personal experience. The authors surveyed 4,400 medical students at seven U.S. medical schools in 2009 to assess mental health (categorized as languishing, moderate, and flourishing) and burnout. Additional items explored professional behaviors, beliefs, suicidal ideation, and serious thoughts of dropping out. A total of 2,682/4,400 (61%) responded. Prevalence of suicidal ideation (55/114 [48.2%], 281/1,128 [24.9%], and 127/1,409 [9.1%]) and serious thoughts of dropping out (15/114 [13.2%], 30/1,128 [2.7%], and 14/1,409 [1.0%]) decreased as mental health improved from languishing, moderate, and flourishing, respectively (all P mental health persisted independent of burnout (all P mental health improved, the prevalence of unprofessional behaviors (i.e., cheating and dishonest behaviors) also declined, whereas students' altruistic beliefs regarding physicians' responsibility toward society improved. For example, 33/113 (29.2%), 426/1,120 (38.0%), and 718/1,391 (51.6%) of students with languishing, moderate, and flourishing mental health endorsed all five altruistic professional beliefs (P mental health persisted among students with burnout, whereas fewer relationships were found among students without burnout. Findings suggest that positive mental health attenuates some adverse consequences of burnout. Medical student wellness programs should aspire to prevent burnout and promote mental health.

  19. Determinants and prevalence of burnout in emergency nurses: a systematic review of 25 years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaenssens, Jef; De Gucht, Véronique; Maes, Stan

    2015-02-01

    Burnout is an important problem in health care professionals and is associated with a decrease in occupational well-being and an increase in absenteeism, turnover and illness. Nurses are found to be vulnerable to burnout, but emergency nurses are even more so, since emergency nursing is characterized by unpredictability, overcrowding and continuous confrontation with a broad range of diseases, injuries and traumatic events. This systematic review aims (1) to explore the prevalence of burnout in emergency nurses and (2) to identify specific (individual and work related) determinants of burnout in this population. A systematic review of empirical quantitative studies on burnout in emergency nurses, published in English between 1989 and 2014. The databases NCBI PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, Informa HealthCare, Picarta, Cinahl and Scielo were searched. Seventeen studies were included in this review. On average 26% of the emergency nurses suffered from burnout. Individual factors such as demographic variables, personality characteristics and coping strategies were predictive of burnout. Work related factors such as exposure to traumatic events, job characteristics and organizational variables were also found to be determinants of burnout in this population. Burnout rates in emergency nurses are high. Job demands, job control, social support and exposure to traumatic events are determinants of burnout, as well as several organizational variables. As a consequence specific action targets for hospital management are formulated to prevent turnover and burnout in emergency nurses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Burnout em residentes de enfermagem Burnout en residentes de enfermería Burnout in nursing residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfábio Pimentel Franco

    2011-03-01

    Adultos y Pediátrica. Edad y especialidad se correlacionaron positivamente con Incompetencia/falta de Realización Profesional. Se identificó a un Residente de Enfermería con alteración en las tres sub-escalas del Maslach Burnout Inventory, caracterizándoselo como portador de Síndrome de Burnout. Los Residentes de Enfermería poseen perfiles de sufrimiento. Conocer tales factores puede minimizar los transtornos de salud de dichos trabajadores.Nursing residents may experience physical and emotional exhaustion from the daily life of attending the Program. The aim of this study was to determine the Burnout incidence among Nursing Residents. An investigative, descriptive, analytical, longitudinal-prospective study was conducted with 16 Residents over two years. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, translated and validated for Brazil, as well as a sociodemographic/occupational data tool. Of all residents, 17.2% showed high rates in Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization; 18.8% showed impaired commitment in Personal Accomplishment, 75% of which belonged to specialty areas, such as Emergency Nursing, Adult and Pediatric Intensive Care. Age and specialty area were positively correlated with Personal Accomplishment. One of the Residents was identified with changes in three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, thus characterized as a Burnout Syndrome patient. Nursing Residents have profiles of disease. Knowing these factors can minimize health risks of these workers.

  1. BURNOUT AND OCCUPATIONAL PARTICIPATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Hakan; Huri, Meral; Bağış, Nilsun; Başıbüyük, Onur; Şahin, Sedef; Umaroğlu, Mutlu; Orhan, Kaan

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of burnout and occupational participation limitation among dental students in a dental school in Turkey. Four hundred fifty-eight dental students (females=153; males=305) were included in the study. The age range varied from 17-to-38 years. Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Version (MBI-SV) and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) were used to gather data. Descriptive analyses, t-test, and Kruskall-Wallis test for independent groups were used for data analyses. The results indicated that 26% of all the students have burnout in terms of emotional exhaustion (25%), cynicism (18%), and academic efficacy (14%). The results showed that burnout is statistically significant in relation to demographics (pstudents showed considerably decreased occupational performance and satisfaction scores, which suggested occupational participation limitations. Occupational performance and satisfaction scores were inversely correlated with emotional exhaustion and cynicism, while directly correlated with reduced academic efficacy (pburnout and occupational participation limitation can be seen among dental students. Students with burnout may also have occupational participation limitation. Enriching dental education programs with different psychological strategies may be useful for education of healthy dentists and improve the quality of oral and dental health services.

  2. Burnout and Associated Factors among Iranian Emergency Medicine Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mohammad; Sadeghipour Roodsari, Gholamreza; Bassir Nia, Anahita

    2013-09-01

    Emergency physicians are at risk of burnout, which can affect their mental health, as well as patient care. We assessed burnout level among Iranian emergency physicians and investigated demographic, work-related factors and stressors associated with higher burnout. In a cross-sectional study, we surveyed all 188 emergency medicine residents and practitioners in Iran. We measured burnout using 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory assessing emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment, also demographic factors, work related factors and sources of stress in emergency department using anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, univariate analysis to evaluate association with higher score of burnout, and multivariate logistic regression analysis to predict high burnout in 3 subscales was performed. Totally, 165 questionnaires were filled (response rate: 88%; mean age: 33.6 years, 91% male). Mean burnout scores were 22.94 for emotional exhaustion (95% CI=20.78-25.01; moderate), 9.3 for depersonalization (95% CI=8.24-10.36; moderate to high), and 31.47 for personal accomplishment (95% CI=29.87-33.07; moderate to high). Frequent reported sources of stress were shortage of equipment, problem with work physical environment, and relationship with other services. All 19 sources of stress were associated with higher score of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; while twelve out of 19 were significantly associated with lower level of personal accomplishment. In logistic regression model, the significant predictors for high emotional exhaustion were work overload, feeling of insecurity for future career and difficulties to balance professional and private life. Burnout is high among Iranian emergency medicine practitioners and some interventions can be proposed to reduce stress.

  3. [Burnout and perceived health in Critical Care nursing professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos Risquez, M I; Peñalver Hernández, F; Godoy Fernández, C

    2008-01-01

    To assess the level of burnout syndrome in a sample of critical care nursing professionals and analyze its relation with the perception of general health and other sociodemographic and work characteristics. Cross-sectional descriptive study. SITE: Intensive Care Unit of the University Hospital Morales Meseguer, Murcia-Spain. Three evaluation tools were used. These included a sociodemographic and work survey, the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) questionnaires and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) in order to assess professional burnout and the general health condition perceived, respectively. Only 42 out of the 56 questionnaires included in the study were valid. This means an answering rate of 75%. The mean score obtained on the emotional tiredness dimension (25.45 6 11.15) stands out. About 42.9% of the sample presented psychological or psychosomatic symptoms that could require specialized care. Correlation between burnout and general health perception was statistically significant (r = 0.536; p burnout found was moderate to high among critical care nursing professionals. A total of 11.9% of the studied sample had a high score in the 3 dimensions of the burnout syndrome: emotional tiredness, depersonalization, and lack of personal job performance. Burnout and health levels found indicate high vulnerability in the sample studied and the need to establish prevention/intervention programs in this work context.

  4. Work environment, job satisfaction, stress and burnout among haemodialysis nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Bronwyn; Douglas, Clint; Bonner, Ann

    2015-07-01

    To examine the relationships among nurse and work characteristics, job satisfaction, stress, burnout and the work environment of haemodialysis nurses. Haemodialysis nursing is characterised by frequent and intense contact with patients in a complex and intense environment. A cross-sectional online survey of 417 haemodialysis nurses that included nurse and work characteristics, the Brisbane Practice Environment Measure, Index of Work Satisfaction, Nursing Stress Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Haemodialysis nurses reported an acceptable level of job satisfaction and perceived their work environment positively, although high levels of burnout were found. Nurses who were older and had worked in haemodialysis the longest had higher satisfaction levels, experienced less stress and lower levels of burnout than younger nurses. The in-centre type of haemodialysis unit had greater levels of stress and burnout than home training units. Greater satisfaction with the work environment was strongly correlated with job satisfaction, lower job stress and emotional exhaustion. Haemodialysis nurses experienced high levels of burnout even though their work environment was favourable and they had acceptable levels of job satisfaction. Targeted strategies are required to retain and avoid burnout in younger and less experienced nurses in this highly specialised field of nursing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The prevalence of burnout syndrome in Polish anaesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiołek, Aleksandra; Gorczyca, Piotr; Misiołek, Hanna; Gierlotka, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Burnout syndrome is a psychological response to chronic work-related stress characterized by low enthusiasm towards the job, high psychological exhaustion, indolence and guilt. Being a medical doctor, both in Poland and in other countries, is one of the most stressful occupations and anaesthesiology is considered one of the most stressful specializations, which justify carrying out of the study on Polish anaesthesiologists. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome in Polish anaesthesiologists Non-randomized cross-sectional study was carried out and data were gathered through a self-administrated questionnaire. The sample consisted of 373 Polish anaesthesiologists, 57.6% were women and 42.4% were men. A 66% response rate was achieved. The Burnout Syndrome was measured by the Spanish Burnout Inventory. The prevalence burnout risk was almost 70%. The percentage of participants who indicated very high levels of burnout was 18%; 5.9% of whom fell into profile 2 considered to be clinical. The instrument applied was reliable with Cronbach's alphas exceeding 0.70. The sample is characterized by high burnout risk with 5.9% of clinical cases. Participation in prevention programs is recommended.

  6. Development of burnout over time and the causal order of the three dimensions of burnout among male and female GPs. A three-wave panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twellaar Mascha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A good understanding of the aetiology and development of burnout facilitates its early recognition, prevention and treatment. Since the prevalence and onset of this health problem is thought to differ between men and women, sex must be taken into account. This study aims to assess the prevalence and development of burnout among General Practitioners (GPs. In this population the prevalence of burnout is high. Methods We performed a three-wave longitudinal study (2002, 2004, 2006 in a random sample of Dutch GPs. Data were collected by means of self-report questionnaires including the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Our final sample consisted of 212 GPs of which 128 were male. Data were analyzed by means of SPSS and LISREL. Results Results indicate that about 20% of the GPs is clinically burned out (but still working. For both sexes, burnout decreased after the first wave, but increased again after the second wave. The prevalence of depersonalization is higher among men. With regard to the process of burnout we found that for men burnout is triggered by depersonalization and by emotional exhaustion for women. Conclusions As regards the developmental process of burnout, we found evidence for the fact that the aetiological process of burnout, that is the causal order of the three burnout dimensions, differs between men and women. These sex differences should be taken into account in vocational training and policy development, especially since general practice is feminizing rapidly.

  7. Mindfulness, burnout, and effects on performance evaluations in internal medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sarah E; Auerbach, Stephen M; Rybarczyk, Bruce; Lee, Bennett; Call, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Burnout has been documented at high levels in medical residents with negative effects on performance. Some dispositional qualities, like mindfulness, may protect against burnout. The purpose of the present study was to assess burnout prevalence among internal medicine residents at a single institution, examine the relationship between mindfulness and burnout, and provide preliminary findings on the relation between burnout and performance evaluations in internal medicine residents. Residents (n = 38) completed validated measures of burnout at three time points separated by 2 months and a validated measure of dispositional mindfulness at baseline. Program director end-of-year performance evaluations were also obtained on 22 milestones used to evaluate internal medicine resident performance; notably, these milestones have not yet been validated for research purposes; therefore, the investigation here is exploratory. Overall, 71.1% (n = 27) of the residents met criteria for burnout during the study. Lower scores on the "acting with awareness" facet of dispositional mindfulness significantly predicted meeting burnout criteria χ 2 (5) = 11.88, p = 0.04. Lastly, meeting burnout criteria significantly predicted performance on three of the performance milestones, with positive effects on milestones from the "system-based practices" and "professionalism" domains and negative effects on a milestone from the "patient care" domain. Burnout rates were high in this sample of internal medicine residents and rates were consistent with other reports of burnout during medical residency. Dispositional mindfulness was supported as a protective factor against burnout. Importantly, results from the exploratory investigation of the relationship between burnout and resident evaluations suggested that burnout may improve performance on some domains of resident evaluations while compromising performance on other domains. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  8. Palygorskite Hybridized Carbon Nanocomposite as a High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TEM and XRD results showed that acid treatment had an effective impact on ... The electrochemical results showed that the addition of palygorskite into the carbon facilitated the formation of OHads or Oads on the ... and cost-efficient way to improve the electrocatalytic performance of carbon ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Effect of high pressurized carbon dioxide on Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon dioxide at high pressure can retard microbial growth and sometimes kill microorganisms depending on values of applied pressure, temperature and exposure time. In this study the effect of high pressurised carbon dioxide (HPCD) on Escherichia coli was investigated. Culture of E. coli was subjected to high ...

  10. From Burnout to Wellness: A Professional Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Justin S; Johns, Michael M

    2018-03-01

    Professional burnout is a barrier to physician wellness. Burnout is prevalent across medicine, and otolaryngology as a specialty ranks near the mean. We review burnout levels in various subgroups of otolaryngology, including academic chairs, faculty, and residents. Risk factors of burnout are discussed, which differ by subgroup. Finally, we propose measures that could help minimize burnout and promote healthy and satisfying careers.

  11. Bonding Unidirectional Carbon Nanotube with Carbon for High Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-24

    samples in a dilute aqueous solution of AgNO3 and placing them under a UV lamp . After 30 minutes of UV exposure, an obvious color change from black...purposefully avoided due to the potential damages to CNTs and the uncertainty on their effect on carbonization. Millimeter-long CNTs were used to develop...inter-connected network of the sheet, which led to foam-like recovery of the structure after compression. The ACNT/C foams can be tuned by changing

  12. The relationship between teacher burnout and student motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex; Kulik, Noel; Fahlman, Mariane

    2015-12-01

    Teacher burnout is regarded as a serious problem in school settings. To date, studies on teachers' stress and burnout have largely centred on teachers' own characteristics, socialization, and behaviours, but few have explored the connection between teachers' burnout and students' motivation via their own perceptions of teachers' behaviour and emotional well-being. This study adopted Maslach et al.'s (2001, Annu. Rev. Psychol., 52, 397) job burnout construct and self-determination theory to investigate the relationships between teachers' burnout and students' autonomous motivation over one-semester physical education classes. A total of 1,302 high school students and their 33 physical education teachers in 20 high schools from two school districts in a major Midwest metropolitan area in the United States. The two school districts were demographically similar. Students and physical education teachers completed questionnaires assessing relevant psychological constructs. There were two time points for collecting students' data. One was at the beginning of a fall semester, and the other was at the end of that semester. Hierarchical linear modelling analyses were conducted. It was revealed that teachers' emotional exhaustion was negatively related to students' perceived teacher autonomy support (TAS); in turn, there was a negative relationship between teachers' feeling of depersonalization and students' autonomous motivation development even when controlling for inadequate TAS. The dimensions of teachers' burnout might play different roles in the transmission from teachers to students. Teachers' status of burnout is an important environmental factor associated with students' quality of motivation. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Burnout After Patient Death: Challenges for Direct Care Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Kathrin; Gleason, Hayley; Jopp, Daniela S

    2017-09-01

    Direct care workers in long-term care can develop close relationships with their patients and subsequently experience significant grief after patient death. Consequences of this experience for employment outcomes have received little attention. To investigate staff, institutional, patient, and grief factors as predictors of burnout dimensions among direct care workers who had experienced recent patient death; determine which specific aspects of these factors are of particular importance; and establish grief as an independent predictor of burnout dimensions. Participants were 140 certified nursing assistants and 80 homecare workers who recently experienced patient death. Data collection involved comprehensive semistructured in-person interviews. Standardized assessments and structured questions addressed staff, patient, and institutional characteristics, grief symptoms and grief avoidance, as well as burnout dimensions (depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment). Hierarchical regressions revealed that grief factors accounted for unique variance in depersonalization, over and above staff, patient, and institutional factors. Supervisor support and caregiving benefits were consistently associated with higher levels on burnout dimensions. In contrast, coworker support was associated with a higher likelihood of depersonalization and emotional exhaustion. Findings suggest that grief over patient death plays an overlooked role in direct care worker burnout. High supervisor support and caregiving benefits may have protective effects with respect to burnout, whereas high coworker support may constitute a reflection of burnout. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nurses’ Burnout in Oncology Hospital Critical Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz İrem Tunçel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Burnout is common in intensive care units (ICU because of high demands and difficult working conditions. The aim of this study was to analyse nurses’ burnout in our oncology ICU and to determine which factors are associated with. Material and Method: The study was carried out in Ankara Oncology Hospital ICU. A self- reporting questionnaire in an envelope was used for the evaluation of burnout (Turkish- language version of Maslach Burnout Inventory and depression (Beck Depression Scale. Results: From a total of 37 ICU nurses, 35 participated in the study (%94,5 response rate. High levels of emotional exhaustion in 82% and depersonalization in 51,4% of nurses was determined. Personal accomplishment was higher at 80%. Mild to moderate emotional state and mild anxiety was revealed. Years in profession,finding salary insufficient, finding the profession in its proper, choosing the profession of his own accord, work environment satisfaction and finding the social activity adequate were associated with burnout (p≤0.05. Conclusion: In our study, intensive care unit nurses’ burnout scores were found to be higher. Burnout was rare in nurses that choose the profession of his own accord, find the nursing profession in its proper, and social activity adequate and are satisfied with the work environment. Therefore, we believe that attention should be given to individual needs and preferences in the selection of ICU staff.

  15. Burnout Among the Clinical Dental Students in the Jordanian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Wala Majid; Al-Ali, Muna H.; Duaibis, Ramzi B.; Oweis, Tamara; Badran, Darwish H.

    2009-01-01

    Background The study aimed to evaluate the level of burnout among the clinical dental students in two Jordanian universities. Methods A total of 307 students from the two schools were surveyed using Maslach Burnout Inventory survey. Scores for the inventory’s subscales were calculated and the mean values for the students’ groups were computed separately. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were carried out and the results were compared at 95% confidence level. Results The results showed that the dental students in both Jordanian universities suffered high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization compared to reported levels for dental students in other countries. The dental students of the University of Jordan demonstrated a significantly higher (p < 0.05) level of emotional exhaustion than their counterparts in the Jordan University of Science and Technology. Conclusions The findings indicated that dental students in the Jordanian universities presented considerable degrees of burnout manifested by high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Studies targeting students health and psychology should be carried out to determine the causes of burnout among dental students. The curricula of the dental schools in the two universities should be accordingly improved to minimize burnout among the students. Keywords Burnout; Emotional exhaustion; Depersonalization; Personal accomplishment; Maslach Burnout Inventory PMID:22461870

  16. Longitudinal assessment of depression, stress, and burnout in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Akhil D; Akarte, Sulbha V; Agrawal, Sumita P; Yadav, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Medical students can and do suffer from mental disorders is a concept yet to get wide acceptance. There are few studies comprehensively evaluating depression, stress, and burnout in medical students, especially in a longitudinal way in India. The current study aims to assess the impact of medical education on the development of psychological morbidities and the role of personality. First-year medical students of a leading medical college of India were enrolled on admission and given anonymized, validated, self-administered questionnaires assessing depression, stress, burnout, and personality. This was repeated at the end of 1 st year. Data were analyzed independently as questionnaires were anonymized. We found that 1 st year of medical college showed a significantly increasing depression ( P stress ( P burnout did not increase significantly. However, only disengagement dimension of burnout increased significantly. Personalities with weak capacity to adjust had a significant positive correlation with depression ( r = 0.277, P stress scores ( r = 0.210, P = 0.008). However, burnout did not correlate with any of the personality dimensions. Right from the 1 st year of medical education students perceive high-stress levels and have a high risk of depression. Burnout starts to creep in at least in the form of disengagement. This study provides a sound groundwork for planning interventions to reduce student's mental morbidity and avoid burnout.

  17. Health behaviors and personality in burnout: a third dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of burnout among healthcare professionals warrants a thorough examination aimed at improving the current understanding of its predictors and preventive measures. Cecil et al. have underscored the alarming prevalence of burnout among medical students and assessed its association with demographic, lifestyle, and behavioral factors. Of interest, health behaviors were found to be predictive of burnout. The study suggests certain behaviors (such as high physical activity to be protective, and thus, calls for their establishment early in college life to prevent the development of this professionally-disabling mental state. Although the adoption of advisable health behaviors may independently reduce the risk of burnout, recognition of the existence and influence of closely related factors allows for an enhanced understanding and a greater precision for any conclusions to be made. Personality, through deductive and inductive reasoning, is likely to exert significant influence on both the student's behavior and his/her susceptibility to burnout. Thus, with personality representing – in and of itself – a principal model for prediction of burnout risk, controlling for personality traits when addressing health behaviors’ influence per se on burnout is essential.

  18. High-Flux Carbon Molecular Sieve Membranes for Gas Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hannes; Voss, Hartwig; Kaltenborn, Nadine; Kämnitz, Susanne; Wollbrink, Alexander; Feldhoff, Armin; Caro, Jürgen; Roitsch, Stefan; Voigt, Ingolf

    2017-06-26

    Carbon membranes have great potential for highly selective and cost-efficient gas separation. Carbon is chemically stable and it is relative cheap. The controlled carbonization of a polymer coating on a porous ceramic support provides a 3D carbon material with molecular sieving permeation performance. The carbonization of the polymer blend gives turbostratic carbon domains of randomly stacked together sp 2 hybridized carbon sheets as well as sp 3 hybridized amorphous carbon. In the evaluation of the carbon molecular sieve membrane, hydrogen could be separated from propane with a selectivity of 10 000 with a hydrogen permeance of 5 m 3 (STP)/(m 2 hbar). Furthermore, by a post-synthesis oxidative treatment, the permeation fluxes are increased by widening the pores, and the molecular sieve carbon membrane is transformed from a molecular sieve carbon into a selective surface flow carbon membrane with adsorption controlled performance and becomes selective for carbon dioxide. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Burnout and study engagement among medical students at Sun Yat-sen University, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongchun; Yansane, Alfa Ibrahim; Zhang, Yurong; Fu, Haijun; Hong, Nanrui; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to investigate burnout and study engagement among medical students at Sun Yat-sen University, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students of Sun Yat-sen University, China. A total of 453 undergraduate students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire between January and February, 2016. Burnout and study engagement were measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) and the UTRECHT Work Engagement Scale-Students (UWES-S), respectively. Subjects who scored high in emotional exhaustion subscale, high in cynicism subscale, and low in professional efficacy subscale simultaneously were graded as having high risk of burnout. Independent sample t tests and chi-square tests were used to compare the differences in burnout and work engagement between genders, majors, and grade levels. The means (standard deviations) of the MBI-SS subscales were 3.42 (1.45) for emotional exhaustion, 2.34 (1.64) for cynicism, and 3.04 (1.30) for professional efficacy. The means (standard deviations) of the UWES-S subscales were 3.13 (1.49) for vigor, 3.44 (1.47) for dedication and 3.00 (1.51) for absorption. Approximately 1 in 11 students experienced a high risk of burnout. There were no statistically significant gender differences in burnout and study engagement. There were also no statistically significant differences in burnout and study engagement subscales according to student major. Students in higher grades displayed increased burnout risk, higher mean burnout subscale score of cynicism, lower mean burnout subscale score of professional efficacy, and decreased mean study engagement subscale scores of dedication and absorption. There were strong correlations within study engagement subscales. Chinese medical students in this university experience a high level of burnout. Students at higher-grade level experience more burnout and decreased study engagement compared with students in lower

  20. Factors associated with burnout among US neurosurgery residents: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenello, Frank J; Buchanan, Ian A; Wen, Timothy; Donoho, Daniel A; McCartney, Shirley; Cen, Steven Y; Khalessi, Alexander A; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Cheng, Joseph S; Mack, William J; Schirmer, Clemens M; Swartz, Karin R; Prall, J Adair; Stroink, Ann R; Giannotta, Steven L; Klimo, Paul

    2018-02-09

    OBJECTIVE Excessive dissatisfaction and stress among physicians can precipitate burnout, which results in diminished productivity, quality of care, and patient satisfaction and treatment adherence. Given the multiplicity of its harms and detriments to workforce retention and in light of the growing physician shortage, burnout has garnered much attention in recent years. Using a national survey, the authors formally evaluated burnout among neurosurgery trainees. METHODS An 86-item questionnaire was disseminated to residents in the American Association of Neurological Surgeons database between June and November 2015. Questions evaluated personal and workplace stressors, mentorship, career satisfaction, and burnout. Burnout was assessed using the previously validated Maslach Burnout Inventory. Factors associated with burnout were determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS The response rate with completed surveys was 21% (346/1643). The majority of residents were male (78%), 26-35 years old (92%), in a stable relationship (70%), and without children (73%). Respondents were equally distributed across all residency years. Eighty-one percent of residents were satisfied with their career choice, although 41% had at some point given serious thought to quitting. The overall burnout rate was 67%. In the multivariate analysis, notable factors associated with burnout included inadequate operating room exposure (OR 7.57, p = 0.011), hostile faculty (OR 4.07, p = 0.008), and social stressors outside of work (OR 4.52, p = 0.008). Meaningful mentorship was protective against burnout in the multivariate regression models (OR 0.338, p = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS Rates of burnout and career satisfaction are paradoxically high among neurosurgery trainees. While several factors were predictive of burnout, including inadequate operative exposure and social stressors, meaningful mentorship proved to be protective against burnout. The documented negative effects of

  1. High efficiency carbon nanotube thread antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram Bengio, E.; Senic, Damir; Taylor, Lauren W.; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Chen, Peiyu; Holloway, Christopher L.; Babakhani, Aydin; Long, Christian J.; Novotny, David R.; Booth, James C.; Orloff, Nathan D.; Pasquali, Matteo

    2017-10-01

    Although previous research has explored the underlying theory of high-frequency behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and CNT bundles for antennas, there is a gap in the literature for direct experimental measurements of radiation efficiency. These measurements are crucial for any practical application of CNT materials in wireless communication. In this letter, we report a measurement technique to accurately characterize the radiation efficiency of λ/4 monopole antennas made from the CNT thread. We measure the highest absolute values of radiation efficiency for CNT antennas of any type, matching that of copper wire. To capture the weight savings, we propose a specific radiation efficiency metric and show that these CNT antennas exceed copper's performance by over an order of magnitude at 1 GHz and 2.4 GHz. We also report direct experimental observation that, contrary to metals, the radiation efficiency of the CNT thread improves significantly at higher frequencies. These results pave the way for practical applications of CNT thread antennas, particularly in the aerospace and wearable electronics industries where weight saving is a priority.

  2. A burnout prediction model based around char morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Wu; Edward Lester; Michael Cloke [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2006-05-15

    Several combustion models have been developed that can make predictions about coal burnout and burnout potential. Most of these kinetic models require standard parameters such as volatile content and particle size to make a burnout prediction. This article presents a new model called the char burnout (ChB) model, which also uses detailed information about char morphology in its prediction. The input data to the model is based on information derived from two different image analysis techniques. One technique generates characterization data from real char samples, and the other predicts char types based on characterization data from image analysis of coal particles. The pyrolyzed chars in this study were created in a drop tube furnace operating at 1300{sup o}C, 200 ms, and 1% oxygen. Modeling results were compared with a different carbon burnout kinetic model as well as the actual burnout data from refiring the same chars in a drop tube furnace operating at 1300{sup o}C, 5% oxygen, and residence times of 200, 400, and 600 ms. A good agreement between ChB model and experimental data indicates that the inclusion of char morphology in combustion models could well improve model predictions. 38 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Burnout and psychological distress among nurses in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... high rates of burnout among maternal health staff in. Malawi reported that .... recruitment and retention of nurses in the country. They therefore suggested that ..... married women whose husbands help in housework and family ...

  4. A high-performance carbon derived from polyaniline for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jun [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China). Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology; College of Automation, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Wei, Tong; Fan, Zhuangjun; Li, Tianyou [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China). Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology; Qiao, Wenming [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China). Coll. of Material Science and Chemical Engineering; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Qiankun [College of Automation, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2010-10-15

    Activated carbon derived from rod-shaped polyaniline (the diameter of 170 nm) was synthesized by carbonization and subsequent activation with KOH. The obtained activated carbon exhibits a high specific capacitance (455 F g{sup -1}) and remarkable rate capability due to its high specific surface area (1976 m{sup 2}g{sup -1}), narrow pore size distribution (< 3 nm) as well as short diffusion length. It is indicated that the promising synthetic method used in this work can pave the way for designing new carbon based materials from different polymers for high-performance energy applications. (author)

  5. Perceived collective burnout: a multilevel explanation of burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Morales, M Gloria; Peiró, José M; Rodríguez, Isabel; Bliese, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    Building up on the socially induced model of burnout and the job demands-resources model, we examine how burnout can transfer without direct contagion or close contact among employees. Based on the social information processing approach and the conservation of resources theory, we propose that perceived collective burnout emerges as an organizational-level construct (employees' shared perceptions about how burned out are their colleagues) and that it predicts individual burnout over and above indicators of demands and resources. Data were gathered during the first term and again during the last term of the academic year among 555 teachers from 100 schools. The core dimensions of burnout, exhaustion, and cynicism were measured at the individual and collective level. Random coefficient models were computed in a lagged effects design. Results showed that perceived collective burnout at Time 1 was a significant predictor of burnout at Time 2 after considering previous levels of burnout, demands (workload, teacher-student ratio, and absenteeism rates), and resources (quality of school facilities). These findings suggest that perceived collective burnout is an important characteristic of the work environment that can be a significant factor in the development of burnout.

  6. Exploring the Association Between Electronic Health Record Use and Burnout Among Psychiatry Residents and Faculty: a Pilot Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaney, Nicholas M; Torous, John; Greenberg, William E

    2018-05-21

    Burnout is a phenomenon with profound negative effects on the US healthcare system. Little is known about the relationship between time spent working on electronic health record (EHR) and burnout among psychiatry residents. The purpose of this study is to generate preliminary data on EHR use and burnout among psychiatry residents and faculty. In August 2017, psychiatry residents and faculty at an academic medical center were given the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), a standardized measurement tool for burnout, and a survey of factors related to EHR use and potential risk factors for burnout. MBI data along with selected burnout risk and protective factors were analyzed with R Studio software. Responses were obtained from 40 psychiatry residents (73%) and 12 clinical faculty members (40%). Residents reported 22 h per week using EHR on average. Mean score of residents surveyed in postgraduate year (PGY)-1-4 met criteria for high emotional exhaustion associated with burnout. The magnitude of correlation between EHR use and emotional exhaustion was stronger than for other burnout factors including sleep, exercise, and clinical service. Psychiatry residents show signs of high emotional exhaustion, which is associated with burnout. Results demonstrate a strong positive correlation between EHR use and resident burnout. Time spent on EHR use may be an area of importance for psychiatry program directors and other psychiatric educators to consider when seeking to minimize burnout and promote wellness.

  7. Burnout and Physical Activity in Minnesota Internal Medicine Resident Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Shawn M.; Odo, Nnaemeka U.; Duran, Alisa M.; Pereira, Anne G.; Mandel, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity plays an important role in the amelioration of several mental health disorders; however, its relationship with burnout has not yet been clarified. Objective To determine the association between achievement of national physical activity guidelines and burnout in internal medicine resident physicians. Methods A Web-based survey of internal medicine resident physicians at the University of Minnesota and Hennepin County Medical Center was conducted from September to October 2012. Survey measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Of 149 eligible residents, 76 (51.0%) completed surveys, which were used in the analysis. Burnout prevalence, determined by the Maslach Burnout Inventory, was 53.9% (41 of 76). Prevalence of failure to achieve US Department of Health and Human Services physical activity guidelines was 40.8% (31 of 76), and 78.9% (60 of 76) of residents reported that their level of physical activity has decreased since they began medical training. Residents who were able to meet physical activity guidelines were less likely to be burned out than their fellow residents (OR, 0.38, 95% CI 0.147–0.99). Conclusions Among internal medicine resident physicians, achievement of national physical activity guidelines appears to be inversely associated with burnout. Given the high national prevalence of burnout and inactivity, additional investigation of this relationship appears warranted. PMID:26140116

  8. Faculty Wellness: Educator Burnout among Otolaryngology Graduate Medical Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Katherine R; Spiro, Jeffrey

    2018-06-01

    Objectives Burnout is a well-described psychological construct with 3 aspects: exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment. The objective of this study was to assess whether faculty members of an otolaryngology residency program exhibit measurable signs and symptoms of burnout with respect to their roles as medical educators. Study Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residency program. Subjects and Methods Faculty members from an otolaryngology residency program, all of whom are involved in resident education, completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES). The surveys were completed anonymously and scored with the MBI-ES scoring key. Results Twenty-three faculty members completed the MBI-ES, and 16 (69.6%) showed symptoms of burnout, as evidenced by unfavorable scores on at least 1 of the 3 indices (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, or low personal accomplishment). The faculty consistently reported moderate to high personal accomplishment and low depersonalization. There were variable responses in the emotional exhaustion subset, which is typically the first manifestation of the development of burnout. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first application of the MBI-ES to investigate burnout among otolaryngology faculty members as related to their role as medical educators. Discovering symptoms of burnout at an early stage affords a unique and valuable opportunity to intervene. Future investigation is underway into potential causes and solutions.

  9. The prevalence of burnout syndrome in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson de Cavalcante Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burnout syndrome (BS is a set of psychological symptoms resulting from the interaction between chronic occupational stress and individual factors. These symptoms include emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and decreased professional satisfaction. BS is manifested in a variety of professions and is prevalent in contexts in which health professionals are required to interact directly with the public. Objective To determine the prevalence of BS among medical students at a university in Ceará State, Brazil. Methods Of the 517 students enrolled in their first to eighth semester in 2013, 376 (72.7% were contacted. A socio-economic evaluation questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory – Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS were administered. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 20.0. Two groups – burnout/risk and non-burnout – were compared using the chi-square and likelihood ratio tests with a significance level of 5%. Variables with p < 0.20 were included in a multivariate analysis logistical regression model. Results Burnout was detected in 14.9% of the students, and 57.7% showed a risk of developing the syndrome. Logistic regressions showed an association between burnout and “have failed examinations” and “have considered abandoning the course”, p = 0.047 and p < 0.0001, respectively. Discussion Psychopedagogy should be implemented to address the high prevalence of burnout in medical students.

  10. The prevalence and effect of burnout on graduate healthcare students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Garrett; Kraft, Lynnea; Amsden, Katherine; Gore, Whitney; Prengle, Bobby; Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Ledbetter, Leila; Covington, Kyle; Goode, Adam

    2017-06-01

    Burnout is a growing epidemic among professional healthcare students. Unaddressed burnout has been shown to have psychological and performance related detriments. The purpose of this scoping literature review was to investigate the prevalence of burnout and its effects on the psychological, professional, empathetic ability, and academic acuity of graduate healthcare students. Inclusion criteria included English language papers published within the last 10 years and subjects in graduate healthcare professional programs. This search encompassed 8,214 articles. After title and abstract screening, 127 articles remained and were sorted into five domains of interest: etiology, professionalism, mental health, empathy, and academic performance. After duplicates were removed, 27 articles remained for the scoping review. Graduate level healthcare students had higher levels of burnout than age matched peers and the general population. The high prevalence of burnout within graduate healthcare students can have an effect on their mental health, empathy, and professional conduct. Understanding the occurrence and effects of burnout within graduate healthcare programs allows faculty and administration to plan curriculum, and provide information to students to understand, recognize, and create opportunities to decrease burnout in order to create long lasting quality clinicians.

  11. Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage in a Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A highly order mesoporous carbon has been synthesized through a strongly acidic, aqueous cooperative assembly route. The structure and morphology of the carbon material were investigated using TEM, SEM and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The carbon was proven to be meso-structural and consisted of graphitic micro-domain with larger interlayer space. AC impedance and electrochemical measurements reveal that the synthesized highly ordered mesoporous carbon exhibits a promoted electrochemical hydrogen insertion process and improved capacitance and hydrogen storage stability. The meso-structure and enlarged interlayer distance within the highly ordered mesoporous carbon are suggested as possible causes for the enhancement in hydrogen storage. Both hydrogen capacity in the carbon and mass diffusion within the matrix were improved.

  12. Incidence and Factors Associated with Burnout in Anesthesiology: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Sanfilippo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Burnout syndrome has reached epidemic levels among physicians (reported around 50%. Anesthesiology is among the most stressful medical disciplines but there is paucity of literature as compared with others. Analysis of burnout is essential because it is associated with safety and quality of care. We summarize evidence on burnout in anesthesiology. Methods. We conducted a systematic review (MEDLINE up to 30.06.2017. We included studies reporting burnout in anesthesiology with no restriction on role or screening test used. Results. Fifteen surveys/studies described burnout in anesthesiology, including different workers profiles (nurses, residents, consultants, and directors. All studies used the Maslach Burnout Inventory test but with significant differences for risk stratification. Burnout prevalence greatly varied across studies (10%–41% high risk, up to 59% at least moderate risk. Factors most consistently associated with burnout were strained working pattern, working as younger consultant, and having children. There was no consistent relationship between burnout and hospital characteristics, gender, or marital status. Conclusions. Burnout prevalence among anesthesiologists is relatively high across career stages, and some risk factors are reported frequently. However, the small number of studies as well as the large differences in their methodology and in reporting approach warrants further research in this field.

  13. How can educators support general practice (GP) trainees to develop resilience to prevent burnout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Bryony; Macdonald, Alexandra; Scallan, Samantha; Crane, Sue

    2016-11-01

    Burnout impacts adversely on professional and personal life, and holds implications for patient care. Current research on burnout mainly focuses on established general practitioners but it is unclear how early the signs of burnout really start. This work seeks to identify whether specific GP trainee groups are particularly at risk of burnout and the aspects of training they find stressful. A longitudinal cohort study, collecting qualitative and quantitative data through a single mode of data collection (questionnaire) took place with trainees from all GP training years (ST1-3), across a vocational training scheme (n = 48). Data gathered included the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI). Higher than anticipated levels of burnout were displayed by all trainees. A sub-group self reporting higher levels of burnout comprised all-female, UK-trained-at-undergraduate GP trainees, with a partner but no children. Top reported stressors included knowledge/uncertainty, workload/time pressures and ePortfolio. Less than 50% of trainees perceived their burnout levels to be as high as their OLBI showing potential lack of insight. This research demonstrates that high levels of burnout are experienced in GP trainees as early as the first year of training. Early identification of burnout amongst trainees is essential by GP educators to help protect the future GP workforce.

  14. Incidence and Factors Associated with Burnout in Anesthesiology: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Filippo; Noto, Alberto; Foresta, Grazia; Santonocito, Cristina; Palumbo, Gaetano J.; Arcadipane, Antonio; Maybauer, Dirk M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Burnout syndrome has reached epidemic levels among physicians (reported around 50%). Anesthesiology is among the most stressful medical disciplines but there is paucity of literature as compared with others. Analysis of burnout is essential because it is associated with safety and quality of care. We summarize evidence on burnout in anesthesiology. Methods We conducted a systematic review (MEDLINE up to 30.06.2017). We included studies reporting burnout in anesthesiology with no restriction on role or screening test used. Results Fifteen surveys/studies described burnout in anesthesiology, including different workers profiles (nurses, residents, consultants, and directors). All studies used the Maslach Burnout Inventory test but with significant differences for risk stratification. Burnout prevalence greatly varied across studies (10%–41% high risk, up to 59% at least moderate risk). Factors most consistently associated with burnout were strained working pattern, working as younger consultant, and having children. There was no consistent relationship between burnout and hospital characteristics, gender, or marital status. Conclusions Burnout prevalence among anesthesiologists is relatively high across career stages, and some risk factors are reported frequently. However, the small number of studies as well as the large differences in their methodology and in reporting approach warrants further research in this field. PMID:29318155

  15. Incidence and Factors Associated with Burnout in Anesthesiology: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Filippo; Noto, Alberto; Foresta, Grazia; Santonocito, Cristina; Palumbo, Gaetano J; Arcadipane, Antonio; Maybauer, Dirk M; Maybauer, Marc O

    2017-01-01

    Burnout syndrome has reached epidemic levels among physicians (reported around 50%). Anesthesiology is among the most stressful medical disciplines but there is paucity of literature as compared with others. Analysis of burnout is essential because it is associated with safety and quality of care. We summarize evidence on burnout in anesthesiology. We conducted a systematic review (MEDLINE up to 30.06.2017). We included studies reporting burnout in anesthesiology with no restriction on role or screening test used. Fifteen surveys/studies described burnout in anesthesiology, including different workers profiles (nurses, residents, consultants, and directors). All studies used the Maslach Burnout Inventory test but with significant differences for risk stratification. Burnout prevalence greatly varied across studies (10%-41% high risk, up to 59% at least moderate risk). Factors most consistently associated with burnout were strained working pattern, working as younger consultant, and having children. There was no consistent relationship between burnout and hospital characteristics, gender, or marital status. Burnout prevalence among anesthesiologists is relatively high across career stages, and some risk factors are reported frequently. However, the small number of studies as well as the large differences in their methodology and in reporting approach warrants further research in this field.

  16. Burnout Syndrome in Pediatric Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem A. Al-Youbi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Burnout is a common work-related syndrome consisting of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and diminished feelings of personal accomplishment. Burnout influences the performance and efficiency of the healthcare professionals and therefore the quality of the care provided. This study aims to assess the burnout rates and potential determinants in pediatrics.Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study involving physicians practicing pediatrics in the Jeddah area of Saudi Arabia was conducted utilizing the Maslach Burnout Inventory in addition to questions regarding work-related and lifestyle-related factors.Results: One hundred and thirty pediatricians (55% females were included with age ranging between 25 and 45 years (mean: 30. Most (46% were consultants and 54% practiced in a university based setting. Burnout scores were abnormal in 107 (82% and in 45 (34% the syndrome was severe. Males were more likely to reach a severe burnout category compared to females (40% vs. 31%; p=0.012. Academic pediatricians working in a university setting were much more likely to experience severe burnout compared to their counterparts working in other hospitals (50% vs. 19%; p=0.0005. Consultants were also more likely to experience severe burnout compared to residents and assistants (46% vs. 27%; p=0.03.Conclusion: At least one third of practicing pediatricians suffer from burnout syndrome. Specific strategies should be developed and implemented to limit and prevent professional burnout.

  17. Burnout syndrome in pediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Youbi, Reem A; Jan, Mohammed M

    2013-07-01

    Burnout is a common work-related syndrome consisting of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and diminished feelings of personal accomplishment. Burnout influences the performance and efficiency of the healthcare professionals and therefore the quality of the care provided. This study aims to assess the burnout rates and potential determinants in pediatrics. A cross-sectional, descriptive study involving physicians practicing pediatrics in the Jeddah area of Saudi Arabia was conducted utilizing the Maslach Burnout Inventory in addition to questions regarding work-related and lifestyle-related factors. One hundred and thirty pediatricians (55% females) were included with age ranging between 25 and 45 years (mean: 30). Most (46%) were consultants and 54% practiced in a university based setting. Burnout scores were abnormal in 107 (82%) and in 45 (34%) the syndrome was severe. Males were more likely to reach a severe burnout category compared to females (40% vs. 31%; p=0.012). Academic pediatricians working in a university setting were much more likely to experience severe burnout compared to their counterparts working in other hospitals (50% vs. 19%; p=0.0005). Consultants were also more likely to experience severe burnout compared to residents and assistants (46% vs. 27%; p=0.03). At least one third of practicing pediatricians suffer from burnout syndrome. Specific strategies should be developed and implemented to limit and prevent professional burnout.

  18. Burnout in Cardiac Anesthesiologists: Results From a National Survey in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Filippo; Noto, Alberto; Palumbo, Gaetano J; Ippolito, Mariachiara; Gagliardone, Mariapia; Scarlata, Maria; Bignami, Elena; Sangalli, Fabio; Cattaneo, Sergio; Blangetti, Ilaria; Scolletta, Sabino; Locatelli, Alessandro; Tritapepe, Luigi; Lorini, Ferdinando L; Arcadipane, Antonio

    2018-05-16

    There is increasing burnout incidence among medical disciplines, and physicians working in emergency settings seem at higher risk. Cardiac anesthesiology is a stressful anesthesiology subspecialty dealing with high-risk patients. The authors hypothesized a high risk of burnout in cardiac anesthesiologists. National survey conducted on burnout SETTING: Italian cardiac centers. Cardiac anesthesiologists. The authors administered via email an anonymous questionnaire divided into 3 parts. The first 2 parts evaluated workload and private life. The third part consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory test with its 3 constituents: high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. The authors measured the prevalence and risk of burnout through the Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire and analyzed factors influencing burnout. Among 670 contacts from 71 centers, 382 cardiac anesthesiologists completed the survey (57%). The authors found the following mean Maslach Burnout Inventory values: 14.5 ± 9.7 (emotional exhaustion), 9.1 ± 7.1 (depersonalization), and 33.7 ± 8.9 (personal accomplishment). A rate of 34%, 54%, and 66% of respondents scored in "high" or "moderate-high" risk of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment, respectively). The authors found that, if offered to change subspecialty, 76% of respondents would prefer to remain in cardiac anesthesiology. This preference and parenthood were the only 2 investigated factors with a protective effect against all components of burnout. Significantly lower burnout scores were found in more experienced anesthesiologists. A relatively high incidence of burnout was found in cardiac anesthesiologists, especially regarding high depersonalization and low personal accomplishment. Nonetheless, most of the respondents would choose to remain in cardiac anesthesiology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Burnout among public doctors in Hong Kong: cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Christina F Y; Yuen, S K; Cheung, Andy

    2012-06-01

    The stressful life of doctors makes them prone to burnout. We evaluated the prevalence of burnout among Hong Kong public hospital doctors and correlated burnout with job characteristics, working hours, stressors, and stress-relieving strategies. Cross-sectional survey. Hong Kong. One thousand doctors were randomly sampled from the Hong Kong Public Doctors' Association registry. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires with postage-paid envelopes were mailed twice in early 2009. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey was used for burnout assessment. According to this scale, burnout is defined as emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment. Correlation analysis, as well as univariate and multivariate analyses, were performed to assess factors associated with high degrees of burnout. RESULTS. A total of 226 questionnaires were analysed, of which 31.4% of the respondents satisfied the criteria for high burnout. They were younger and needed to work shifts, and their median year of practice was 8.5. High-burnout doctors worked similar hours per week to non-high-burnout doctors (mean ± standard deviation, 56.2 ± 12.7 vs 54.7 ± 10.9; P=0.413) and reported suicidal thoughts more often (9.9% vs 2.6%; P=0.033). Moreover, 52.2% of high-burnout doctors were dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with their jobs. 'Excessive stress due to global workload' and 'feeling that their own work was not valued by others' were the most significant stressors associated with high emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, while 'feeling that their own work was not valued by others' and 'poor job security' correlated with low personal accomplishment. A high proportion of public doctors who responded to our survey endured high burnout. Trainees with some experience were at heightened risk. Stressors identified in this study should be addressed, so as to improve job satisfaction.

  20. Ion heating, burnout of the high-frequency field, and ion sound generation under the development of a modulation instability of an intense Langmuir wave in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichok, A. V.; Kuklin, V. M.; Pryimak, A. V.; Zagorodny, A. G.

    2015-09-01

    The development of one-dimensional parametric instabilities of intense long plasma waves is considered in terms of the so-called hybrid models, with electrons being treated as a fluid and ions being regarded as particles. The analysis is performed for both cases when the average plasma field energy is lower (Zakharov's hybrid model—ZHM) or greater (Silin's hybrid model—SHM) than the plasma thermal energy. The efficiency of energy transfer to ions and to ion perturbations under the development of the instability is considered for various values of electron-to-ion mass ratios. The energy of low-frequency oscillations (ion-sound waves) is found to be much lower than the final ion kinetic energy. We also discuss the influence of the changes in the damping rate of the high-frequency (HF) field on the instability development. The decrease of the absorption of the HF field inhibits the HF field burnout within plasma density cavities and gives rise to the broadening of the HF spectrum. At the same time, the ion velocity distribution tends to the normal distribution in both ZHM and SHM.

  1. Ion heating, burnout of the high-frequency field, and ion sound generation under the development of a modulation instability of an intense Langmuir wave in a plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirichok, A. V., E-mail: sandyrcs@gmail.com; Kuklin, V. M.; Pryimak, A. V. [Institute for High Technologies, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4 Svobody Sq., Kharkiv 61022 (Ukraine); Zagorodny, A. G. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 14-b, Metrolohichna str., Kiev 03680 (Ukraine)

    2015-09-15

    The development of one-dimensional parametric instabilities of intense long plasma waves is considered in terms of the so-called hybrid models, with electrons being treated as a fluid and ions being regarded as particles. The analysis is performed for both cases when the average plasma field energy is lower (Zakharov's hybrid model—ZHM) or greater (Silin's hybrid model—SHM) than the plasma thermal energy. The efficiency of energy transfer to ions and to ion perturbations under the development of the instability is considered for various values of electron-to-ion mass ratios. The energy of low-frequency oscillations (ion-sound waves) is found to be much lower than the final ion kinetic energy. We also discuss the influence of the changes in the damping rate of the high-frequency (HF) field on the instability development. The decrease of the absorption of the HF field inhibits the HF field burnout within plasma density cavities and gives rise to the broadening of the HF spectrum. At the same time, the ion velocity distribution tends to the normal distribution in both ZHM and SHM.

  2. Burnout and Light Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Y.; Waslander, M.

    The core symptom of the burnout syndrome is emotional exhaustion, which leads to impaired functioning on the job. Studies of sufferers of seasonal affective disorders and of healthy people show that energy levels can be improved by exposing them to bright light. It is hypothesized that energy levels

  3. The effects of pf grind quality on coal burnout in a 1 MW combustion test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richelieu Barranco; Michael Colechin; Michael Cloke; Will Gibb; Edward Lester [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering, Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre

    2006-05-15

    A study was carried out to determine the effect of pf particle size distribution on coal burnout propensity in a 1 MW pulverised fuel burner. The specific aim of the work was to assess the improvement in combustion performance achievable by retrofitting commercially available high performance static or dynamic classifiers to existing plants. Two coals were used and were selected as representative of extremes in fuel characteristics experienced by coal importing utilities in Europe. Each coal was fired in the unit at a range of grind sizes to determine the overall impact of a variable performance from a mill. The levels of unburnt carbon in the resultant flyashes for the two coals showed significantly different behaviour. For the higher volatile coal, the unburnt carbon was found to be insensitive to grind quality. However, the coarser grinds of the other coal produced significantly lower unburnt carbon than expected when compared with the finest grinds. Generally the results indicate that the installation of improved classification technology, leading to a finer product, will help to lower unburnt carbon levels. Nevertheless, further work will be necessary to establish the levels of diminishing returns for grind size, burnout performance and grind costs. 21 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. [Academic achievement, engagement and burnout among first year medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez H, Paula; Pérez V, Cristhian; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; McColl C, Peter; Torres A, Graciela; Meyer K, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    Stress may affect the sense of wellbeing and academic achievement of university students. To assess the relationship of academic engagement and burnout with academic achievement among first year medical students. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student and Maslach Burnout Inventory Student Survey (MBI-SS) were applied to 277 first year medical students of four universities. Their results were correlated with the grades obtained in the different courses. Moderately high engagement and low burnout levels were detected. There was a high level of satisfaction with studies and a moderate exhaustion level. Academic achievement was associated with the degree of engagement with studies but not with burnout. Conglomerate analysis detected a group of students with high levels of wellbeing, characterized by high levels of academic engagement and low burnout. Other group had moderate levels of engagement and lack of personal fulfilment. Other group, identified as extenuated, had high levels of personal exhaustion and depersonalization. Finally the disassociated group had a low academic engagement, low emotional exhaustion, high levels of depersonalization and lack of personal fulfillment. Academic achievement is associated with the level of engagement with studies but not with burnout.

  5. Empathy, Burnout, Demographic Variables and their Relationships in Oncology Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani, Fariba; Ashouri, Elaheh; Saburi, Morteza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Development of nurse–patient empathic communication in the oncology ward is of great importance for the patients to relieve their psychological stress, however, nursing care of cancer patients is accompanied with high stress and burnout. The present study aimed to define the level of empathy and its association with burnout and some demographic characteristics of oncology nurses. Materials and Methods: This descriptive/correlation study was conducted in a professional cancer treatment center in Isfahan. Through census sampling, 67 oncology nurses were selected. The data collection tools were Jefferson Scale of Nursing Empathy, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Results: Mean nurses’ empathy and overall burnout scores were 62.28 out of 100 and 38.8 out of 100, respectively. Score of empathy showed an inverse correlation with overall burnout score (r = −0.189, P = 0.04), depersonalization (r = −0.218, P = 0.02), and personal accomplishment (r = −0.265, P = 0.01). Multiple regression test was used to detect which dimension of burnout was a better predictor for the reduction of empathy score. Results showed that the best predictors were lack of personal accomplishment (P = 0.02), depersonalization (P = 0.04), and emotional exhaustion (P = 0.14), respectively. The most influential demographic factor on empathy was work experience (r = 0.304, P = 0.004). One-way analysis of variance showed that official staff had a higher empathy score (f = 2.39, P = 0.045) and their burnout was lower (f = 2.56, P = 0.04). Conclusions: Results showed a negative relationship between empathy and burnout in oncology nurses. Therefore, nursing support from managers to reduce burnout increases empathic behavior of nurses. PMID:28382057

  6. Empathy, burnout, demographic variables and their relationships in oncology nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Taleghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Development of nurse–patient empathic communication in the oncology ward is of great importance for the patients to relieve their psychological stress, however, nursing care of cancer patients is accompanied with high stress and burnout. The present study aimed to define the level of empathy and its association with burnout and some demographic characteristics of oncology nurses. Materials and Methods: This descriptive/correlation study was conducted in a professional cancer treatment center in Isfahan. Through census sampling, 67 oncology nurses were selected. The data collection tools were Jefferson Scale of Nursing Empathy, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Results: Mean nurses' empathy and overall burnout scores were 62.28 out of 100 and 38.8 out of 100, respectively. Score of empathy showed an inverse correlation with overall burnout score (r = −0.189, P = 0.04, depersonalization (r = −0.218, P = 0.02, and personal accomplishment (r = −0.265, P = 0.01. Multiple regression test was used to detect which dimension of burnout was a better predictor for the reduction of empathy score. Results showed that the best predictors were lack of personal accomplishment (P = 0.02, depersonalization (P = 0.04, and emotional exhaustion (P = 0.14, respectively. The most influential demographic factor on empathy was work experience (r = 0.304, P = 0.004. One-way analysis of variance showed that official staff had a higher empathy score (f = 2.39, P = 0.045 and their burnout was lower (f = 2.56, P = 0.04. Conclusions: Results showed a negative relationship between empathy and burnout in oncology nurses. Therefore, nursing support from managers to reduce burnout increases empathic behavior of nurses.

  7. Empathy, Burnout, Demographic Variables and their Relationships in Oncology Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani, Fariba; Ashouri, Elaheh; Saburi, Morteza

    2017-01-01

    Development of nurse-patient empathic communication in the oncology ward is of great importance for the patients to relieve their psychological stress, however, nursing care of cancer patients is accompanied with high stress and burnout. The present study aimed to define the level of empathy and its association with burnout and some demographic characteristics of oncology nurses. This descriptive/correlation study was conducted in a professional cancer treatment center in Isfahan. Through census sampling, 67 oncology nurses were selected. The data collection tools were Jefferson Scale of Nursing Empathy, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Mean nurses' empathy and overall burnout scores were 62.28 out of 100 and 38.8 out of 100, respectively. Score of empathy showed an inverse correlation with overall burnout score ( r = -0.189, P = 0.04), depersonalization ( r = -0.218, P = 0.02), and personal accomplishment ( r = -0.265, P = 0.01). Multiple regression test was used to detect which dimension of burnout was a better predictor for the reduction of empathy score. Results showed that the best predictors were lack of personal accomplishment ( P = 0.02), depersonalization ( P = 0.04), and emotional exhaustion ( P = 0.14), respectively. The most influential demographic factor on empathy was work experience ( r = 0.304, P = 0.004). One-way analysis of variance showed that official staff had a higher empathy score ( f = 2.39, P = 0.045) and their burnout was lower ( f = 2.56, P = 0.04). Results showed a negative relationship between empathy and burnout in oncology nurses. Therefore, nursing support from managers to reduce burnout increases empathic behavior of nurses.

  8. Systematic review: Factors associated with return to work in burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärkkäinen, R; Saaranen, T; Hiltunen, S; Ryynänen, O P; Räsänen, K

    2017-08-01

    Professional burnout predicts sick leave and even permanent withdrawal from the labour force. However, knowledge of the barriers to and facilitators of return to work (RTW) in such burnout is limited. To identify factors associated with RTW of burned-out individuals to inform occupational health care (OHC) RTW policy. A systematic search of peer-reviewed quantitative and mixed-method studies published from January 2005 to July 2016 in English and Finnish in ARTO, CINAHL (EBSCO), Medic, PsycINFO (ProQuest), PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases, followed by a manual search. We included studies that identify burnout with valid burnout measures and measure the degree of RTW or sick leave as outcomes. We excluded studies with heterogeneous samples without subgroup analyses of RTW in burnout cases. We included 10 studies (three experimental and seven observational) of the initial 1345 identified. The studies reported work-related factors; enhanced communication (positive association) and low control at work (negative association) and individual-related factors; male gender (positive association), covert coping (negative association), high over-commitment to work (positive association) and burnout-related factors; unimpaired sleep (positive association), duration of sick leave over 6 months (negative association) and part-time sick leave (positive association) associated with RTW in burnout. Associations between burnout rehabilitation and RTW, and the level of symptoms and cognitive impairment and RTW remained unclear. Few quantitative studies, of varied methodological quality, explore factors associated with RTW in burnout. Further research is needed to build an evidence base and develop guidelines for supportive OHC actions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Impact of Burnout on Self-Reported Patient Care Among Emergency Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave W. Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burnout is a syndrome of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and sense of low personal accomplishment. Emergency physicians (EPs experience the highest levels of burnout among all physicians. Burnout is associated with greater rates of self-reported suboptimal care among surgeons and internists. The association between burnout and suboptimal care among EPs is unknown. The objective of the study was to evaluate burnout rates among attending and resident EPs and examine their relationship with self-reported patient care practices. Methods: In this cross-sectional study burnout was measured at two university-based emergency medicine residency programs with the Maslach Burnout Inventory. We also measured depression, quality of life (QOL and career satisfaction using validated questionnaires. Six items assessed suboptimal care and the frequency with which they were performed. Results: We included 77 out of 155 (49.7% responses. The EP burnout rate was 57.1%, with no difference between attending and resident physicians. Residents were more likely to screen positive for depression (47.8% vs 18.5%, p=0.012 and report lower QOL scores (6.7 vs 7.4 out of 10, p=0.036 than attendings. Attendings and residents reported similar rates of career satisfaction (85.2% vs 87.0%, p=0.744. Burnout was associated with a positive screen for depression (38.6% vs 12.1%, p=0.011 and lower career satisfaction (77.3% vs 97.0%, p=0.02. EPs with high burnout were significantly more likely to report performing all six acts of suboptimal care. Conclusion: A majority of EPs demonstrated high burnout. EP burnout was significantly associated with higher frequencies of self-reported suboptimal care. Future efforts to determine if provider burnout is associated with negative changes in actual patient care are necessary.

  10. Relationship between burnout and PTSD symptoms in firefighters: the moderating effects of a sense of calling to firefighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Insung; Lee, Songhee; Sung, Gyhye; Kim, Minkyoung; Lee, Sanghyuk; Park, Jooeon; Lee, Kangsoo

    2018-01-01

    Firefighting has been reported to lead to burnout and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, burnout and PTSD symptoms may vary depending on personal characteristics, such as having a sense of calling. This study examined the role of calling in the association between burnout and PTSD symptoms. We hypothesized that burnout would be associated with more severe PTSD symptoms and calling would buffer the relationship between burnout and PTSD symptoms. The Korean version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, Sense of Calling Subscale of the Professionalism Scale, and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised-Korean version were used to measure burnout, calling, and PTSD symptoms. Data from 109 of 127 firefighters from Gyeonggi-do, South Korea were analyzed using hierarchical linear regression. Burnout was a significant predictor of PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, the interaction term between burnout and calling accounted for a significant variance in PTSD symptoms. Higher burnout was associated with severe PTSD symptoms, but this relationship differed by the level of calling. The increase in PTSD symptoms due to increased burnout in the high calling group was relatively higher than in the low and average calling groups. Calling, though perceived as a positive variable, can be hazardous to exhausted people. A sense of calling as part of one's job identity should not be encouraged until personal circumstances and characteristics, such burnout symptoms, are evaluated. Identifying context and variables associated with PTSD for interventions with firefighters and persons in other dangerous occupations should aid in their recovery from trauma exposure.

  11. [Influence of sociodemographic, occupational and life style factors on the levels of burnout in palliative care health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Sánchez, J C; Pérez Mármol, J M; Peralta Ramírez, M I

    2017-12-29

    Palliative care health professionals have reported high levels of burnout. An understanding of factors associated with this syndrome in this population could foster new prevention and intervention strategies. The objectives were to evaluate the levels of burnout in each of its dimensions in a sample of palliative care health professionals and to analyze the relationship between levels of burnout and sociodemographic, occupational and lifestyle characteristics in this sample. The total sample was composed of 92 palliative care health professionals. Sociodemographic, occupational and lifestyle characteristics were registered. The levels of burnout syndrome were evaluated by the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). The total sample was divided into three groups, depending on the level of burnout (non-burnout group, burnout group meeting one criterion, and burnout group meeting two or three criteria). Comparisons were performed amongst groups for all characteristics evaluated. The non-burnout professionals were significantly older and slept more than the professionals with more than one altered dimension; in addition, they had greater job seniority in the unit than those with a single altered dimension and did physical exercise more frequently than either of the burnout groups. The younger professionals, with more job seniority in the units of palliative care, and less hours of sleep and physical activity showed higher levels of burnout. Therefore, these factors should be considered for enhancing prevention and intervention strategies for these health professionals.

  12. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PATENTED HIGH-CARBON WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ju. Borisenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of bainite structure on mechanical characteristics of wire of steel 80 after patenting is studied. The quantity and structure state of bainite, providing high complex of mechanical characteristics of high-carbon wire, is determined.

  13. CARBON FIBER COMPOSITES IN HIGH VOLUME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Das, Sujit [ORNL; Jeon, Dr. Saeil [Volvo Trucks North America

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle lightweighting represents one of several design approaches that automotive and heavy truck manufacturers are currently evaluating to improve fuel economy, lower emissions, and improve freight efficiency (tons-miles per gallon of fuel). With changes in fuel efficiency and environmental regulations in the area of transportation, the next decade will likely see considerable vehicle lightweighting throughout the ground transportation industry. Greater use of carbon fiber composites and light metals is a key component of that strategy. This paper examines the competition between candidate materials for lightweighting of heavy vehicles and passenger cars. A 53-component, 25 % mass reduction, body-in-white cost analysis is presented for each material class, highlighting the potential cost penalty for each kilogram of mass reduction and then comparing the various material options. Lastly, as the cost of carbon fiber is a major component of the elevated cost of carbon fiber composites, a brief look at the factors that influence that cost is presented.

  14. Carbon in high-purity germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.; Hansen, W.L.; Luke, P.; McMurray, R.; Jarrett, B.

    1981-10-01

    Using 14 C-spiked pyrolytic graphite-coated quartz crucibles for the growth of nine ultra-pure germanium single crystals, we have determined the carbon content and distribution in these crystals. Using autoradiography, we observe a rapidly decreasing carbon cluster concentration in successively grown crystals. Nuclear radiation detectors made from the crystals measure the betas from the internally decaying 14 C nuclei with close to 100% efficiency. An average value for the total carbon concentration [ 14 C + 12 C] is approx. 2 x 10 14 cm -3 , a value substantially larger than expected from earlier metallurgical studies. Contrary to the most recent measurement, we find the shape of the beta spectrum to agree very well with the statistical shape predicted for allowed transitions

  15. BURNOUT SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH WORKPLACE HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Zinchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the presence, severity and qualitative characteristics of «burnout syndrome» in patients with «workplace hypertension» (WPH, in comparison with patients with essential hypertension and healthy people.Material and methods. Untreated patients with hypertension stage II, degree 1-2 (n=170; age 32-52 years; mean age 46.7Ѓ}4.1 years were examined. Group 1 included 85 patients with WPH (mean age 44.7Ѓ}4.3 years and Group 2 included 85 patients without WPH (mean age 47.4Ѓ}4.5 years. The duration of hypertension on average was 7.2Ѓ}2.6 years and was comparable in both groups. The control group included 82 healthy subjects (mean age 44.9Ѓ}3.1 years. The Russian version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was used to diagnose «burnout syndrome».Results. Signs of «burnout syndrome» were found in the hypertensive patients of both groups. The high and medium levels of the «burnout syndrome» severity according to all three analyzed factors (emotional exhaustion, dehumanization/depersonification, and personal achievements were found in 59% of WPH patients, in 36% of hypertensive patients without WPH, and in 9% of healthy individuals. Most of WPH patients had high emotional exhaustion compared with other groups (27.5Ѓ}3.67 points vs 24.6Ѓ}4.3 and 20.1Ѓ}5.7 points in group 2, and group of healthy, respectively; p<0.05. Hypertensive men rated themselves as less successful professionally in comparison with women. Hypertensive women were more prone to emotional exhaustion and dehumanization/depersonification in comparison with men. Conclusion. Signs of «burnout syndrome» were found significantly more often in hypertensive patients in both groups than in healthy people. Medium and high intensity of all forms of «burnout syndrome» occurred in patients with WPH in comparison with healthy people and hypertensive patients without WPH.

  16. Burnout and the provision of psychosocial care amongst Australian cancer nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmillan, Kirsty; Butow, Phyllis; Turner, Jane; Yates, Patsy; White, Kate; Lambert, Sylvie; Stephens, Moira; Lawsin, Catalina

    2016-06-01

    To assess the prevalence of burnout amongst Australian cancer nurses as well as investigate the systemic and individual factors associated with burnout, including training and supervision for nurses in psychosocial care. Burnout amongst cancer nurses can have serious consequences for the individual nurse, the hospital and patients. Psychosocial care has been demonstrated in many studies to reduce distress in cancer patients; however, previous studies have suggested that providing psychosocial care can be stressful if nurses feel they lack appropriate training. Psychosocial skill training and supervision may be a way of improving job satisfaction and reducing burnout amongst nurses. Two hundred and thirty cancer nurses were recruited between November 2010 and April 2011 and completed an online questionnaire. Burnout levels within this population were found to be below nursing norms. Adequacy of training and supervision, frequency of supervision and percentage of role spent managing psychosocial care were found to be associated with burnout. Workload, Control, Reward and Community were independent predictors of burnout, and nurses with a greater mismatch in these areas identified as having High levels of burnout. Strategies to reduce burnout include providing cancer nurses with a varied and sustainable workload, awarding financial and social recognition of efforts and encouraging nurses to develop a sense of control over their work. Providing regular training and supervision in psychosocial care that is perceived to be adequate may also assist in reducing burnout. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Female nurses' burnout symptoms: No association with the Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yufang; Lam, Louisa; Luo, Yuanhui; Plummer, Virginia; Cross, Wendy; Li, Hui; Yin, Yizhen; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-03-01

    Across the world, hospital nurses experience a high level of burnout. Exploring biochemical markers of burnout could help to understand physiological changes and may provide useful evidence for preventing burnout symptoms. The current study included 94 female nurses from one Chinese third-level hospital. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) was used to investigate burnout symptoms: emotional exhaustion, cynicism, reduced professional efficacy, as well as the burnout average. The HPT axis was tested by checking blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxin (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 ). Nonparametric tests showed that no significant difference in biochemical markers was found between the burnout and non-burnout groups. Spearman correlation analysis found that biochemical markers had no significant association with burnout symptoms, except weakly negative associations between reduced professional efficacy and blood pressure and heart rate. These findings show a rather poor correlation of the HPT axis on burnout symptoms. Expanding the biochemical index of the HPT axis, comparing well-defined samples and using longitudinal studies are recommended for further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [The burn-out syndrome and restoring mental health at the working place].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Joachim; Häfner, Steffen; Kächele, Horst; Wirsching, Michael; Dahlbender, Reiner W

    2003-05-01

    This paper reviews the scientific concepts and the clinical aspects of the burn-out syndrome. According to recent studies, up to 25 % of the German working population appear to suffer from what the Amercan physician and psychoanalyst, Herbert Freudenberger, has designated in 1974 as "burn-out syndrome". Characteristic features of this syndrome are emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment. People affected by the burn-out syndrome may suffer from depressive or anxious symptoms, from sleep disorders, chronic pain syndromes, or functional disorders of the cardiovascular or gastrointestinal system. Primary causes of the burnout syndrome include high demand combined with low influence, a high level of engagement without sufficient rewards or gratification, and a low level of social support. Preventive measures against burn-out include Balint-like supervision groups. In cases of a fully developed burn-out syndrome, affected persons should undergo either psychotherapy or a multimodal psychosomatic therapy.

  19. The Dark Side of Resilience and Burnout: A Moderation-Mediation Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Treglown

    Full Text Available This study tested whether specific dark-side traits may be beneficial in manifesting and maintaining Resilience, whilst others are vulnerability factors for Burnout. Four hundred and fifty-one (50 female ambulance personnel completed three questionnaires as a part of a selection and development assessment. The study utilised the Hogan Development survey as a measure of dark side personality, the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory to assess work-related burnout, and the Resilience Scale- 14 to measure resilience levels. Those high on Excitable and Cautious but low on Bold and Reserved were linked to an increased vulnerability to Burnout. Also those high on Bold and Diligent yet low on the Excitable, Cautious, and Imaginative scales were more resilient. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that resilience plays both a mediating and moderating role on personality and burnout. Theoretical implications suggest future research assessing the predictive capacity of psychological variables on burnout should account the indirect effect of resilience.

  20. The Dark Side of Resilience and Burnout: A Moderation-Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treglown, Luke; Palaiou, Kat; Zarola, Anthony; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether specific dark-side traits may be beneficial in manifesting and maintaining Resilience, whilst others are vulnerability factors for Burnout. Four hundred and fifty-one (50 female) ambulance personnel completed three questionnaires as a part of a selection and development assessment. The study utilised the Hogan Development survey as a measure of dark side personality, the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory to assess work-related burnout, and the Resilience Scale- 14 to measure resilience levels. Those high on Excitable and Cautious but low on Bold and Reserved were linked to an increased vulnerability to Burnout. Also those high on Bold and Diligent yet low on the Excitable, Cautious, and Imaginative scales were more resilient. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that resilience plays both a mediating and moderating role on personality and burnout. Theoretical implications suggest future research assessing the predictive capacity of psychological variables on burnout should account the indirect effect of resilience.

  1. Carbon nanotubes for high-performance logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhihong; Philip Wong, H.-S.; Mitra, S.; Bol, A.A.; Peng, Lianmao; Hills, Gage; Thissen, N.F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were discovered in 1993 and have been an area of intense research since then. They offer the right dimensions to explore material science and physical chemistry at the nanoscale and are the perfect system to study low-dimensional physics and transport. In the past

  2. High performance carbon–carbon composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    protected against oxidation either through matrix modification with Si, Zr, Hf etc. or by multilayer oxidation protection ... advanced composites for a wide range of applications. The majority of products still ... CVD is a very slow process and it takes months together to get dense carbon–carbon composites. Porous structures ...

  3. Emotional intelligence as a moderator in the stress-burnout relationship: a questionnaire study on nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgens-Ekermans, Gina; Brand, Tamari

    2012-08-01

    To investigate inter-relationships between emotional intelligence (EI), work stress and burnout in a group of nurses in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The moderating effect of EI in the stress-burnout relationship and group differences (nurses working in different wards) in burnout were also investigated. Stress and subsequent burnout commonly threaten the occupational health and well-being of nurses in South Africa and elsewhere. Developing EI in nurses may increase individual stress resistance and combat burnout. A cross-sectional research design with anonymous questionnaires was conducted. Self-report data were used. Survey data were collected from 122 nurses working in different wards at four hospitals from a private hospital group. The Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test, Sources of Work Stress Inventory and Maslach Burnout Inventory were used to measure EI, stress and burnout, respectively. Consistent inverse relationships between emotional control and management as dimensions of EI, and stress and burnout emerged. A differential effect of high vs. low EI on the stress-burnout relationship was evident. Workload and the work/family interface emerged as significant predictors of burnout. Respondents working in maternity, paediatric and ER wards reported more feelings of personal accomplishment than those working in general wards. Higher EI is significantly related with lower stress and burnout in a sample of South African nurses. The moderator effect of EI in the stress-burnout relationship suggests that enhanced EI may help diminish burnout development when chronic stress is experienced. EI developmental interventions, if introduced in nursing curricula, may increase emotional coping resources and enhanced social skills, which may benefit the long-term occupational health of nurses. This may be relevant in developing countries, where environmental stressors related to the organisational context (budget constraints) and wider social

  4. Burnout and its association with resilience in nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu-Fang; Luo, Yuan-Hui; Lam, Louisa; Cross, Wendy; Plummer, Virginia; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and extent of burnout on nurses and its association with personal resilience. With the worldwide shortage of nurses, nurse burnout is considered one of the main contributing factors and has been the focus of studies in recent years. Given the well-documented high level of burnout among nurses, resilience is expected to be a significant predictor of nurse burnout. The association between burnout and resilience has not previously been investigated extensively. A cross-sectional survey design was selected. A total of 1,061 nurses from six separate three-level hospitals in Hunan Province, China, returned self-reported questionnaires from March-June 2015. Data were collected using a socio-demographic sheet, Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Nurses experienced severe burnout symptoms and showed a moderate level of resilience. Three metrics of burnout had significantly negative correlations with the total score and following variables of resilience. Linear regression analysis showed resilience, especially strength, demographic characteristics (exercise, alcohol use and marital status) and job characteristics (income per month, ratio of patients to nurses, shift work and professional rank) were the main predictors of the three metrics of burnout. The findings of this study may help nurse managers and hospital administrators to have a better understanding of nurse burnout and resilience. The significantly negative relationship between burnout symptoms and resilience has been demonstrated, and this informs the role of resilience in influencing burnout. Adaptable and effective interventions for improving resilience are needed to relieve nurses' burnout and reduce workplace stress. Moreover, nurse managers and hospital administrators should establish an effective management system to cultivate a healthy workplace and adopt positive attitudes and harmonious relationships. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons

  5. Stress Factors Associated With Burnout Among Attending Physicians: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yurika; Takayashiki, Ayumi; Ito, Makoto; Maeno, Takami; Seo, Emiko; Maeno, Tetsuhiro

    2018-03-01

    Burnout in attending physicians is a crucial issue that may negatively impact patient outcomes, as well as affect the quality of training provided to residents. To investigate the association between burnout and stress-coping ability, we conducted a cross-sectional study of attending physicians. From April 2013 to March 2014, we distributed an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire to 1,897 attending physicians who attended teaching-related training sessions and workshops. The questionnaire included the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey (MBI-GS, Japanese version) to evaluate burnout; the sense of coherence scale (SOC, Japanese version) to measure stress-coping ability, with higher scores indicating higher stress-coping ability; the Brief Scales for Job Stress (BSJS) to assess stress and buffering factors; demographic factors; mean weekly working hours; and factors related to instructing residents. The MBI-GS was used to determine the presence of physician burnout. Subjects were divided into tertiles based on SOC scores. We conducted logistic regression analysis of burnout using the following independent variables: physician experience, sex, mean weekly working hours, SOC group, mental workload, and reward from work. Of the 1,543 (81.3%) attending physicians who responded, 376 did not meet the inclusion criteria and 106 had missing data, thus 1,061 (55.9%) were analyzed. The prevalence of burnout was 17.2%. Physicians with burnout had significantly fewer years of experience as a doctor (P burnout. On the BSJS, the mean score of all stress factors was higher and that of buffering factors was lower in physicians with burnout (P burnout were 35.7%, 12.8%, and 3.2% in the low, middle, and high SOC groups, respectively (P burnout in the low SOC group was 4.7 (95% confidence interval: 2.31 - 9.63) (P burnout among attending physicians was significantly associated with SOC scores after adjustment for stress factors and buffering factors.

  6. Burnout and its Associated Factors in Medical Students of Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzafar, Yumna; Khan, Hibbah H; Ashraf, Huma; Hussain, Waqas; Sajid, Hifsa; Tahir, Marium; Rehman, Abdul; Sohail, Aleena; Waqas, Ahmed; Ahmad, Waqas

    2015-11-29

    Burnout is a widely known phenomenon. It is defined as a state of prolonged physical and psychological exhaustion and is experienced virtually by every medical student due to the highly demanding nature of medical education. This study probes into the prevalence and psychosocial determinants of burnout in Pakistani medical students. A descriptive, cross-sectional study design and convenience (non-probability) sampling technique were employed in undergraduate medical students from years 1-5. A total of 777 medical students from two medical colleges were included in the study from May-August, 2014. An English version of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) and a series of demographic questions, intermixed with questions from other topics, were included in the questionnaire. Data was analysed by using SPSS ver.21. The majority of students were females and enrolled in the third year of MBBS. Of the medical students involved, 30.6% were found to have high/very high levels of burnout (Kristenson's burnout scoring). Although 38.7% of students said that they did not feel burned out after reading the definition of burnout given in the questionnaire, 35.9% out of these students actually had high levels of burnout according to CBI. According to the multiple regression analysis, burnout in medical students was significantly associated with age, gender, doctor parents, no help or no supportive resources (e.g., from colleagues), lack of time off, lack of belief in what you do, fear of big consequences of failure, family responsibilities, and uncertain future. Perception of teachers lacking leadership skills and doing too much study with little balance was associated with low burnout scores. There is a high prevalence of burnout in Pakistani medical students. The present study identifies several factors associated with burnout in Pakistani medical students. Although these factors are a part of daily life of medical students, their identification should prompt the use of

  7. Burnout Syndrome in Pediatric Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Youbi, Reem A.; Jan, Mohammed M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Burnout is a common work-related syndrome consisting of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and diminished feelings of personal accomplishment. Burnout influences the performance and efficiency of the healthcare professionals and therefore the quality of the care provided. This study aims to assess the burnout rates and potential determinants in pediatrics.Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study involving physicians practicing pediatrics in the Jeddah area of Saudi Arabi...

  8. New technology for carbon dioxide at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassina, Bazaze; Raouf, Zehioua; Menial, A. H.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide has long been the nemesis of environmentalists because of its role in global warming, but under just the right conditions-namely, high pressure and high temperature its one of nature's best and most environmentally benign solvents. Decaf-coffee lovers, for instance, benefit from its ability to remove caffeine from coffee beans.During the last few years, carbon dioxide has also made inroads in the dry-cleaning industry, providing a safe cleaning alternative to the chemical perchloroethylene. But it's on the high-tech front that carbon dioxide may make its biggest impact. T here are huge opportunities. Scientists have known for more than a century that at 75 times atmospheric pressure and 31 degree centigrade, carbon dioxide goes into and odd state that chemists called s upercritical . What's interesting to industry is that supercritical carbon dioxide may be an enabling technology for going to smaller dimensions.(Author)

  9. Burnout among Swedish school teachers – a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Arvidsson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teachers are at high risk of stress-related disorders. This study aimed to examine the occurrence of burnout in a sample of Swedish school-teachers, to test a combined measure of three burnout dimensions on the individual level, to characterize associations between burnout and factors encountered during work and leisure time, and to explore any differences between the genders. Methods A questionnaire of occupational, sociodemographic and life-style factors was answered by 490 teachers in school years 4–9. Outcome measures were (a the single burnout dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy (Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and (b a combined measure based on high or low values in the three dimensions. The combined measure was used to stratify the study population into four levels (0–3 of burnout. Multivariable Poisson regression was applied on level 2 + 3 vs. level 0 + 1, for variables that we considered as relevant risk factors for burn out. Results Half of the teachers reported low values in all three dimensions (level 0, whereas 15 were classified as having high burnout in at least two out of the three dimensions (level 2 + 3, and 4 % in all three dimensions (level 3. Almost all psychosocial factors were incrementally more unfavourably reported through the rising levels of burnout, and so were dissatisfaction with the computer workstation, pain, sleep problems and lack of personal recovery. There was no association between gender and rising levels of overall burnout (p > 0.30. Low self-efficacy, poor leadership, high job demands and teaching in higher grades were the variables most clearly associated with burnout in multivariable Poisson regression. Conclusions Even if circa 50 % of the teachers appear do well with respect to burnout, the results points to the need of implementing multifaceted countermeasures that may serve to reduce burnout.

  10. Nationwide Survey of Work Environment, Work-Life Balance and Burnout among Psychiatrists in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A.; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by 'high-burnout'; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. AIMS: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. METHOD: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry depart...

  11. The relationship between burnout and mental health among nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi masooleh F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burnout is one of the most important factors in reduced productivity in organizations and involves physical and mental signs, especially in the human service professions. The role of nurses in the healthcare system is vital and motivation to ensure health security is extremely important. We carried out this research to examine the relationship between burnout and mental health in the nursing staff of educational hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 200 nurses selected via probable multistage sampling. We used three instruments in this study: 1 demographic questionnaire 2 General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28 and 3 Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI.Results: On the whole, using the MBI subscale, we found low levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and high levels of reduced sense of personal accomplishment, both in frequency and intensity. The prevalence of symptomatic samples in the GHQ-28 was 43%, and two variables, burnout and poor mental health, were related (p<0.001. Burnout was to be related to gender, age and years of work. The correlation between poor mental health and years of work as well as hours of work in a week were significant. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is a strong correlation between poor mental health and burnout. Furthermore, the prevalence of symptomatic samples detected in our study using the GHQ-28 was much higher than that reported in studies of the general population. The high prevalence of symptomatic samples and high prevalence of burnout in the dimension of self accomplishment, especially in younger nurses, combined with the strong correlation between poor mental health and burnout all show that care should be taken to improve the stressful conditions that nurses face.

  12. Medical Student Stress, Burnout and Depression in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Farid F

    2016-02-01

    Health-care workers in developed nations are well known to experience high levels of burnout and psychiatric morbidity, but little information is available from the Caribbean and other less well-developed regions. This study sought to explore the prevalence of stress, burnout, and depressive symptoms and associated risk factors among medical students in Trinidad and Tobago, the southernmost Caribbean island. A cross-sectional survey design was used to sample students. Data was collected utilizing standardized questionnaires that assess stress, burnout, and depressive symptoms. Demographic data and information pertaining to potential risk factors was also gathered. Overall, 450 questionnaires were distributed and analysis was performed upon 381 completed surveys (response rate 85%). Students demonstrated high levels of stress and a significant prevalence of burnout (52%) and depressive symptoms (40%). Final year students demonstrated higher levels of burnout and depressive symptoms. Students who (i) felt they lacked emotional support, (ii) had little opportunity for relaxation and exercise, and (iii) did not feel they had control of their daily schedule all demonstrated higher levels of burnout and depressive symptoms. However, students who practiced from a faith base and considered their religion important demonstrated lower levels of both. Medical students in Trinidad and Tobago are experiencing high levels of stress with a large proportion suffering from burnout and depressive symptoms. These data suggest that immediate interventions are necessary to help students cope with the challenges faced during medical school. Additionally, more research is needed to explore the potential causal links between burnout and depression during medical school and the effectiveness of tailored interventions especially within the context of developing nations.

  13. Burnout and Job Engagement in Emergency and Intensive Care Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentero, Piergiorgio; Dell'Olivo, Bianca

    Burnout phenomenon emerges from a constellation of factors which cannot be described in terms of cause-effect relationships. This study investigated levels of burnout in nurses working in Critical Care Units with a systemic approach, giving evidence of relation between nurses staff burnout and psychosocial workplace factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between job burnout in emergency and intensive care nurse with specific areas of work life in their organizations, using Maslach and Leiter work life model [23]. A cross-sectional survey was designed using the Italian version of the "Organizational Checkup System" in a sample of 180 Italian nurses. Results showed that high burnout levels were strongly related to high demands, low control, low fairness, lack of social support, and individual disagreement on values in the workplace. High professional efficacy levels were instead correlated to professional reward and leadership involvement. The article concludes by suggesting the possible areas for intervention in order to prevent job burnout and building job engagement.

  14. Systematic review of the association between physical activity and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naczenski, Lea M; Vries, Juriena D de; Hooff, Madelon L M van; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2017-11-25

    Burnout constitutes a health risk, and interventions are needed to reduce it. The aim of this study was to synthesize evidence regarding the relationship between physical activity and burnout by conducting a systematic review of longitudinal and intervention studies. A literature search resulted in the identification of a final set of ten studies: four longitudinal and six intervention studies. In separate analyses for each category, evidence was synthesized by extracting the study characteristics and assessing the methodological quality of each study. The strength of evidence was calculated with the standardized index of convergence (SIC). In longitudinal studies, we found moderately strong evidence (SIC (4) = -1) for a negative relationship between physical activity and the key component of burnout, i.e., exhaustion. We found strong evidence (SIC (6) = -0.86) for the effect of physical activity on reducing exhaustion in intervention studies. As only one study could be classified as a high quality study, these results of previous studies need to be interpreted with some caution. This systematic review suggests that physical activity constitutes an effective medium for the reduction of burnout. Although consistent evidence was found, there is a lack of high quality longitudinal and intervention studies considering the influence of physical activity on burnout. Therefore, future research should be conducted with the aim to produce high quality studies, to develop a full picture of physical activity as a strategy to reduce burnout.

  15. [Syndrome of emotional burnout among women-physicians elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myakotnykh, V S; Borovkova, T A

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the results of a comparative study of clinical symptoms of syndrome of emotional burnout among 84 working in the specialty physician of older women and 48 officially ceasing operations in this specialty. The findings suggest that burnout can take place among representatives of older age and more it is continued, provided professional activities. The cessation of the work activities leads to stress, often with the subsequent development post-traumatic stress disorder and stress-induced diseases. However in this case the clinical symptoms of the syndrome of emotional burnout, does not disappear, but only happens their clinical transformation attach various psychosomatic disorders. Thus, the elderly, suffering the syndrome of emotional burnout, are at high risk group with regard to the formation and development of diseases, associated with stress and require close monitoring in the framework of the compulsory program of medical examination.

  16. Boiling and burnout phenomena under transient heat input, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigebumi; Kozawa, Yoshiyuki; Iwasaki, Hideaki.

    1976-01-01

    In order to simulate the thermo-hydrodynamic conditions at reactor power excursions, a test piece was placed in a forced convective channel and heated with exponential power inputs. The boiling heat transfer and the burnout heat flux under the transient heat input were measured, and pressure and water temperature changes in the test section were recorded at the same time. Following experimental results were obtained; (1) Transient boiling heat transfer characteristics at high heat flux stayed on the stationary nucleate boiling curve of each flow condition, or extrapolated line of the curves. (2) Transient burnout heat flux increased remarkably with decreasing heating-time-constant, when the flow rate was lower and the subcooling was higher. (3) Transient burnout phenomena were expressed with the relation of (q sub(max) - q sub(sBO)) tau = constant at several flow conditions. This relation was derived from the stationary burnout mechanism of pool boiling. (auth.)

  17. Burnout is Associated With Emotional Intelligence but not Traditional Job Performance Measurements in Surgical Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, Kevin D; Hollis, Robert H; Goss, Lauren; Morris, Melanie S; Porterfield, John R; Chu, Daniel I

    2018-02-23

    To evaluate whether burnout was associated with emotional intelligence and job performance in surgical residents. General surgery residents at a single institution were surveyed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and trait EI questionnaire (TEIQ-SF). Burnout was defined as scoring in 2 of the 3 following domains; Emotional Exhaustion (high), Depersonalization (high), and Personal Accomplishment (low). Job performance was evaluated using faculty evaluations of clinical competency-based surgical milestones and standardized test scores including the American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE) and the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 3. USMLE Step 1 and USMLE Step 2, which were taken prior to residency training, were included to examine possible associations of burnout with USMLE examinations. Statistical comparison was made using Pearson correlation and simple linear regression adjusting for PGY level. This study was conducted at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) general surgery residency program. All current and incoming general surgery residents at UAB were invited to participate in this study. Forty residents participated in the survey (response rate 77%). Ten residents, evenly distributed from incoming residents to PGY-4, had burnout (25%). Mean global EI was lower in residents with burnout versus those without burnout (3.71 vs 3.9, p = 0.02). Of the 4 facets of EI, mean self-control values were lower in residents with burnout versus those without burnout (3.3 vs 4.06, p burnout was associated with global EI, with the strongest correlation being with personal accomplishment (r = 0.64; p burnout did not have significantly different mean scores for USMLE Step 1 (229 vs 237, p = 0.12), Step 2 (248 vs 251, p = 0.56), Step 3 (223 vs 222, p = 0.97), or ABSITE percentile (44.6 vs 58, p = 0.33) compared to residents without burnout. Personal accomplishment was associated with ABSITE percentile scores (r = 0.35; p = 0

  18. Quantifying Burnout among Emergency Medicine Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William; Raj, Jeffrey Pradeep; Narayan, Girish; Ghiya, Murtuza; Murty, Shakuntala; Joseph, Bobby

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome explained as serious emotional depletion with poor adaptation at work due to prolonged occupational stress. It has three principal components namely emotional exhaustion(EE), depersonalization(DP) and diminished feelings of personal accomplishment(PA). Thus, we aimed at measuring the degree of burnout in doctors and nurses working in emergency medicine department (EMD) of 4 select tertiary care teaching hospitals in South India. A cross sectional survey was conducted among EMD professionals using a 30-item standardized pilot tested questionnaire as well as the Maslach burnout inventory. Univariate and Multivariate analyses were conducted using binary logistic regression models to identify predictors of burnout. Total number of professionals interviewed were 105 of which 71.5% were women and 51.4% were doctors. Majority (78.1%) belonged to the age group 20-30 years. Prevalence of moderate to severe burnout in the 3 principal components EE, DP and PA were 64.8%, 71.4% and 73.3% respectively. After multivariate analysis, the risk factors [adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for DP included facing more criticism [3.57(1.25,10.19)], disturbed sleep [6.44(1.45,28.49)] and being short tempered [3.14(1.09,9.09)]. While there were no statistically significant risk factors for EE, being affected by mortality [2.35(1.12,3.94)] and fear of medication errors [3.61(1.26, 10.37)] appeared to be significant predictors of PA. Degree of burn out among doctors and nurses is moderately high in all of the three principal components and some of the predictors identified were criticism, disturbed sleep, short tempered nature, fear of committing errors and witnessing death in EMD.

  19. Quantifying Burnout among Emergency Medicine Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burnout is a syndrome explained as serious emotional depletion with poor adaptation at work due to prolonged occupational stress. It has three principal components namely emotional exhaustion(EE, depersonalization(DP and diminished feelings of personal accomplishment(PA. Thus, we aimed at measuring the degree of burnout in doctors and nurses working in emergency medicine department (EMD of 4 select tertiary care teaching hospitals in South India. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among EMD professionals using a 30-item standardized pilot tested questionnaire as well as the Maslach burnout inventory. Univariate and Multivariate analyses were conducted using binary logistic regression models to identify predictors of burnout. Results: Total number of professionals interviewed were 105 of which 71.5% were women and 51.4% were doctors. Majority (78.1% belonged to the age group 20-30 years. Prevalence of moderate to severe burnout in the 3 principal components EE, DP and PA were 64.8%, 71.4% and 73.3% respectively. After multivariate analysis, the risk factors [adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals for DP included facing more criticism [3.57(1.25,10.19], disturbed sleep [6.44(1.45,28.49] and being short tempered [3.14(1.09,9.09]. While there were no statistically significant risk factors for EE, being affected by mortality [2.35(1.12,3.94] and fear of medication errors [3.61(1.26, 10.37] appeared to be significant predictors of PA. Conclusion: Degree of burn out among doctors and nurses is moderately high in all of the three principal components and some of the predictors identified were criticism, disturbed sleep, short tempered nature, fear of committing errors and witnessing death in EMD.

  20. Carbon-carbon composite and copper-composite bond damages for high flux component controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevet, G.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma facing components constitute the first wall in contact with plasma in fusion machines such as Tore Supra and ITER. These components have to sustain high heat flux and consequently elevated temperatures. They are made up of an armour material, the carbon-carbon composite, a heat sink structure material, the copper chromium zirconium, and a material, the OFHC copper, which is used as a compliant layer between the carbon-carbon composite and the copper chromium zirconium. Using different materials leads to the apparition of strong residual stresses during manufacturing, because of the thermal expansion mismatch between the materials, and compromises the lasting operation of fusion machines as damage which appeared during manufacturing may propagate. The objective of this study is to understand the damage mechanisms of the carbon-carbon composite and the composite-copper bond under solicitations that plasma facing components may suffer during their life. The mechanical behaviours of carbon-carbon composite and composite-copper bond were studied in order to define the most suitable models to describe these behaviours. With these models, thermomechanical calculations were performed on plasma facing components with the finite element code Cast3M. The manufacturing of the components induces high stresses which damage the carbon-carbon composite and the composite-copper bond. The damage propagates during the cooling down to room temperature and not under heat flux. Alternative geometries for the plasma facing components were studied to reduce damage. The relation between the damage of the carbon-carbon composite and its thermal conductivity was also demonstrated. (author) [fr

  1. Emotional competence relating to perceived stress and burnout in Spanish teachers: a mediator model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extremera, Natalio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined direct associations between emotional competence, perceived stress and burnout in 489 Spanish teachers. In addition, a model in which perceived stress mediated pathways linking emotional competence to teacher burnout symptoms was also examined. Results showed that emotional competence and stress were significantly correlated with teacher burnout symptoms in the expected direction. Moreover, mediational analysis indicated that perceived stress partly mediated the relationship between emotional competence and the three dimensions of burnout even when controlling for salient background characteristics. These findings suggest an underlying process by which high emotional competence may increase the capacity to cope with symptoms of burnout, by reducing the experience of stress. Implications of these findings for future research and for working with teachers to prevent burnout are discussed. PMID:27280077

  2. Burnout in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery: A Single Academic Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelan-Hansen, Katie; Anne, Samantha; Benninger, Michael S

    2018-05-01

    Burnout in modern medicine is becoming more recognized and researched. The objective in this study is to evaluate burnout in a tertiary care academic institution and compare results among faculty, trainees, and advanced practice practitioners (APPs) in a cross-sectional survey using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Fifty-two surveys were distributed; 44 participants completed the survey (85%): 25 staff physicians (57%), 14 resident physicians (32%), and 5 nurse practitioners (11%). Staff physicians had low emotional exhaustion, moderate depersonalization, and low result for reduced personal accomplishments; trainees reported low emotional exhaustion, high depersonalization, and moderate reduced personal accomplishment; and nurse practitioners reported moderate on all 3 dimensions. There is overall low burnout in this tertiary care academic center of otolaryngologist providers and no difference in rates among the different groups (trainees, APPs, staff). Measures addressing specific deficiencies among dimensions of burnout would be helpful to prevent disintegration of physician satisfaction into burnout.

  3. Emotional competence relating to perceived stress and burnout in Spanish teachers: a mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Lourdes; Extremera, Natalio; Pena, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This study examined direct associations between emotional competence, perceived stress and burnout in 489 Spanish teachers. In addition, a model in which perceived stress mediated pathways linking emotional competence to teacher burnout symptoms was also examined. Results showed that emotional competence and stress were significantly correlated with teacher burnout symptoms in the expected direction. Moreover, mediational analysis indicated that perceived stress partly mediated the relationship between emotional competence and the three dimensions of burnout even when controlling for salient background characteristics. These findings suggest an underlying process by which high emotional competence may increase the capacity to cope with symptoms of burnout, by reducing the experience of stress. Implications of these findings for future research and for working with teachers to prevent burnout are discussed.

  4. Emotional competence relating to perceived stress and burnout in Spanish teachers: a mediator model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Rey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined direct associations between emotional competence, perceived stress and burnout in 489 Spanish teachers. In addition, a model in which perceived stress mediated pathways linking emotional competence to teacher burnout symptoms was also examined. Results showed that emotional competence and stress were significantly correlated with teacher burnout symptoms in the expected direction. Moreover, mediational analysis indicated that perceived stress partly mediated the relationship between emotional competence and the three dimensions of burnout even when controlling for salient background characteristics. These findings suggest an underlying process by which high emotional competence may increase the capacity to cope with symptoms of burnout, by reducing the experience of stress. Implications of these findings for future research and for working with teachers to prevent burnout are discussed.

  5. Risk factors and prevalence of burnout syndrome in the nursing profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo A; Vargas, Cristina; San Luis, Concepción; García, Inmaculada; Cañadas, Gustavo R; De la Fuente, Emilia I

    2015-01-01

    The burnout syndrome is beginning to be regarded as an occupational illness of high prevalence among nursing in Spain. Individuals suffering from the syndrome manifest important health problems. More information about prevalence and risk factors for burnout is needed to prevent the syndrome and to determine the most appropriate clinical interventions when the disorder appears. Burnout levels were evaluated in a group of nurses. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of burnout, to identify the variables related to burnout and to propose a risk profile for this syndrome among the nursing personnel. The study was carried out in public health centers in Andalusia (Spain). The sample consisted of 676 nursing professionals from public health centers. Dependent variables were the three Burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Independent variables were socio-demographic, organizational, personality-related variables. The nurses manifested average to high burnout levels. There were statistically significant differences in burnout levels associated with the following variables: age, gender, marital status, having children, level of healthcare, type of work shift, healthcare service areas and conducting administrative tasks. Burnout was also associated with personality-related variables. The prevalence of burnout among nursing professionals is high. Gender, age, marital status, level of healthcare, work shift and healthcare service areas predicted at least one of the dimensions of the syndrome. Neuroticism, agreeability, extraversion and conscientiousness are personality traits that predict at least two of the dimensions of burnout syndrome in nurses. Therefore, personality factors should be considered in any theory of risk profiles for developing burnout syndrome in the nursing profession. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of Detrital Carbonate in East Cepu High

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, R.; Andika, I. K.; Haris, A.; Miftah, A.

    2018-03-01

    East Cepu High is a part of horst – graben series which formed by extensional tectonic processes during Paleogene in North East Java Basin. Due to excellent paleogeography position, the carbonate build-up was growth very well and as the main reservoir in East Cepu High. Sea level change have important factor to provide variation of facies in each carbonate buildup, one of emerging facies is detrital carbonate. Detrital carbonate indicated by onlap horizon featured with carbonate build up body. Based on paleogeography, fluctuation of sea level change and sediment source, detrital carbonate formed in leeward area in lowstand or highstand phases. Distinguish between detrital carbonate facies with other facies, advanced seismic processing performed by using continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and seismic inversion. CWT is one method of spectral decomposition used to find the frequency that represent a facies. The result from seismic inversion will support the interpretation for facies distribution. As the result, seismic data which have interval frequency 10 – 45 Hz and Acoustic Impedance (AI) value above 35000 (from cross plot between acoustic impedance and gamma ray) can be interpreted as detrital carbonate. Based on seismic interpretation, detrital carbonate facies distributed along leeward area with geometrical spreading. The lateral facies change from detrital carbonate to shale was identified which causing this facies become potential as hydrocarbon reservoir with stratigraphic trap. Based on the earlier studies, North East Java Basin have a strong hydrocarbon migration to fill the reservoir, therefore the detrital carbonate have high chance to be a new hydrocarbon prospect in this area.

  7. Validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey for Estimating Burnout in Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Company, José María; Subirats-Roig, Cristian; Flores-Martí, Pau; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) as a tool for assessing the prevalence and level of burnout in dental students in Spanish universities. The survey was adapted from English to Spanish. A sample of 533 dental students from 15 Spanish universities and a control group of 188 medical students self-administered the survey online, using the Google Drive service. The test-retest reliability or reproducibility showed an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of 0.95. The internal consistency of the survey was 0.922. Testing the construct validity showed two components with an eigenvalue greater than 1.5, which explained 51.2% of the total variance. Factor I (36.6% of the variance) comprised the items that estimated emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Factor II (14.6% of the variance) contained the items that estimated personal accomplishment. The cut-off point for the existence of burnout achieved a sensitivity of 92.2%, a specificity of 92.1%, and an area under the curve of 0.96. Comparison of the total dental students sample and the control group of medical students showed significantly higher burnout levels for the dental students (50.3% vs. 40.4%). In this study, the MBI-HSS was found to be viable, valid, and reliable for measuring burnout in dental students. Since the study also found that the dental students suffered from high levels of this syndrome, these results suggest the need for preventive burnout control programs.

  8. Contingent self-esteem, stressors and burnout in working women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    A high work involvement is considered central in the burnout process. Yet, research investigating how high work involvement and psychosocial stressors relate to burnout is scarce. High involvement in terms of performance-based self-esteem (PBSE) refers to individuals' strivings to validate self-worth by achievements, a disposition linked to poor health. The aim of the present study was to examine longitudinally PBSE in relation to burnout while also taking into account work- and private life stressors. The sample consisted of 2121 working women and men. Main- and mediation effects were investigated using hierarchical regression analysis. The results showed performance-based self-esteem mediated partially between the stressors and burnout. Performance-based self-esteem was the strongest predictor of burnout over time, followed by private life stressors. Women experienced more work stress than did men. Men had stronger associations between work stressors and burnout, while women had stronger associations between performance-based self-esteem and burnout. Individual characteristics along with both private life and work stressors are important predictors of burnout. Factors associated with burnout differ somewhat between women and men.

  9. Techniques to determine ignition, flame stability and burnout of blended coals in p.f. power station boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Pohl, J.H.; Holcombe, D.; Hart, J.A. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The blending of coals has become popular to improve the performance of coals, to meet specifications of power plants and to reduce the cost of coals. This article reviews the results and provides new information on ignition, flame stability, and carbon burnout studies of blended coals. The reviewed studies were conducted in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale facilities. The new information was taken in pilot-scale studies. The results generally show that blending a high-volatile coal with a low-volatile coal or anthracite can improve the ignition, flame stability and burnout of the blends. This paper discusses two general methods to predict the performance of blended coals: (1) experiment; and (2) indices. Laboratory- and pilot-scale tests, at least, provide a relative ranking of the combustion performance of coal/blends in power station boilers. Several indices, volatile matter content, heating value and a maceral index, can be used to predict the relative ranking of ignitability and flame stability of coals and blends. The maceral index, fuel ratio, and vitrinite reflectance can also be used to predict the absolute carbon burnout of coal and blends within limits. 59 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Professional burnout and its correlates in Lithuanian neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranckeviciene, Aiste; Tamasauskas, Arimantas; Deltuva, Vytenis Pranas; Bunevicius, Adomas

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate prevalence and severity of professional burnout in a sample of Lithuanian neurosurgeons and to analyze its personal, interpersonal, and organizational correlates. Thirty-one out of 79 (response rate 39 %) Lithuanian neurosurgeons participated in the study. Professional burnout was evaluated using the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey. Participants also answered questions about professional stressors, sources of professional dissatisfaction, life-style factors, sickness absenteeism/presenteeism, and professional practice. The majority of neurosurgeons were between 41 and 60 years of age (48 %), were married (97 %), had children (84 %). Most neurosurgeons had 20 or more years of professional experience (54.9 %), worked from 41 to 60 h per week (58 %), and performed up to 150 surgeries per year (77.4 %). Eight (26 %) neurosurgeons reported a high level of emotional exhaustion, five (16 %) reported high level of cynicism, and eight (26 %) reported low professional efficacy. Correlation analyses revealed that higher number of surgeries per year, more hours devoted to clinical work, opportunities for professional development, intellectual challenges at work, appreciation by the patients and prestige of the profession were related to lower level of burnout. Greater general workload, unpredictability of the work schedule, lack of necessary technical equipment, dissatisfaction with colleagues, and uncertainty about the future were related to a higher level of burnout. Burnout was reported by one-quarter of neurosurgeons who chose to participate in the study. Personal, interpersonal, and organizational factors arising while fulfilling professional duties were important correlates of neurosurgeons' burnout. Due to the moderate response rate, our results should be interpreted with caution. Larger studies evaluating burnout among European neurosurgeons are needed.

  11. Síndrome de Burnout em graduandos de Odontologia Burnout syndrome among dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini Campos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Síndrome de Burnout caracteriza-se por esgotamento profissional e tem sido relatada em estudantes universitários. O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência da Síndrome de Burnout em estudantes de Odontologia de uma universidade pública e sua relação com características sociodemográficas. Todos os estudantes (n = 300 foram convidados a participar. Utilizou-se o Inventário de Burnout de Maslach - versão estudantes (MBI-SS. Realizou-se análise das propriedades psicométricas do MBI-SS. Para comparação entre os escores médios das dimensões do Burnout realizou-se Análise de Variância Multivariada (MANOVA seguida de Análise de Variância (ANOVA e testes post-hoc de Tukey. Dos 235 participantes, 72,8% eram mulheres e a média de idade era de 21,0 ± 1,8 anos. O MBI-SS mostrou-se confiável e válido. Dos estudantes, 17,0% apresentaram a Síndrome de Burnout. Verificou-se relação significativa entre a Síndrome de Burnout e o desempenho do estudante no curso (F = 4,433, p The burnout syndrome is characterized by professional exhaustion and has been reported in college students. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome among dentistry students from a public university, and its relationship to socio-demographic characteristics. All students (n = 300 were invited to participate. We used the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Student Version (MBI-SS. We carried out an analysis of the MBI-SS' psychometric properties. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA was performed, followed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests to compare the mean scores of burnout dimensions. Of the 235 participants, 72.8% were women and the mean age was 21.0 ± 1.8 years. The MBI-SS was reliable and valid. Of the students, 17.0% had Burnout Syndrome. There was a significant relation between Burnout Syndrome and a student's performance during the course (F = 4.433, p < 0.001, medication intake because of

  12. Ethical sensitivity, burnout, and job satisfaction in emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazoğlu, Cansu Atmaca; Koç, Zeliha

    2017-01-01

    Rising levels of burnout and decreasing job satisfaction can inhibit healthcare professionals from providing high-quality care due to a corresponding decrease in their ethical sensitivity. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the level of ethical sensitivity in emergency service nurses and their levels of burnout and job satisfaction. This research employed a descriptive and cross-sectional design. Participants and research context: This study was conducted with a sample of 236 nurses, all of whom worked in emergency service between 24 July 2015 and 28 April 2016. Data were collected using the Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale. Ethical considerations: This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Review Board of Ondokuz Mayıs University. There was a weak and negative correlation (r = -0.158, p = 0.015) between Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire and Maslach Burnout Inventory scores. There was also a weak and negative correlation (r = -0.335, p Burnout Inventory and Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale scores. Decreased job satisfaction and increased burnout levels among emergency service nurses might result in them indulging in improper practices, frequently facing ethical problems, and a decrease in the overall quality of service in hospitals. In order for emergency service nurses to recognize ethical problems and make the most accurate decisions, a high level of ethical sensitivity is critical. In this respect, it is suggested that continuing education after graduation and training programs should be organized.

  13. Professional interpersonal dynamics and burnout in European transplant surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Michelle T; Abouljoud, Marwan; Eshelman, Anne; De Reyck, Chantal; Lerut, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Burnout within the health professions has become an increasingly important topic. Evidence suggests there are differences in burnout across different countries. Research has yet to examine burnout in transplant surgeons throughout Europe. A cross-sectional survey of transplant surgeons across Europe. Survey included sociodemographics, professional characteristics, frequency and discomfort with difficult patient interactions (PI), decisional autonomy, psychological job demands (PJD), support (coworker, supervisor, and hospital administration), and burnout including emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (PA). One hundred and eight transplant surgeons provided data; 33 (30.6%) reported high EE, 19 (17.6%) reported high DP, and 29 (26.9%) reported low PA. Three hierarchical multiple linear regressions examined the burnout subscales as outcomes (EE, DP, and PA), and predictors selected based upon theoretical relationships with the outcomes. Greater PJD, greater discomfort in managing difficult PI, and lower levels of perceived supervisor support (SS) predicted greater EE. Only decisional autonomy significantly predicted DP, accounting for a small proportion of the variance. None of the steps for PA were significant. Given prior research on burnout, there were several surprising findings from this study. For example, the relatively low levels of EE compared to U.S. physicians and surgeons. At this time, we can only hypothesize why this finding occurred but there are multiple possible explanations including cultural effects, response bias, or other factors unknown at this time. Research is needed to attempt to clarify these findings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of occupational burnout and related factors in industry managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadaf

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Occupational burnout is considered as side effects of occupational  stress. It includes some mental, functional, and personal characteristics in which a person has some symptoms of them. Occupational burnout can be caused in all jobs..it diminishes performance and utilization,   depression and disease. Due to the important role of managers, this study was carried to asses the  occupational burnout in industry managers in Kashan.   Methods   The industrial managers of Kashan at high managerial levels were enrolled in the  survey. Burnout data collected by standard questionnaire of Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was then analyzed using SPSS-13 software and statistical methods of chi-square, t-test, ANOVA,   and regression analysis.   Results   Between 100 different industrial managers that were involved in this study, 90 persons responded to questionnaire, Include: 16 persons (17.8% were employer,26 persons top manager(28.9%,36 persons (40% middle-manager,12 persons (13.3%high managers.97% were men and mean of age, work hours in week, work years duration respectly were 40.3(±8.26years, 53.4(±20.6 hours, 15.7(±8.7 years. It seems that most people under study had  mild occupational burnout. sever occupational burnout was observed in emotional exhaustion(   3%in severity and10.9% in frequencyand depersonalization( 6.8%in severity and7.8% in  frequency.according to this study age, region, kind of management, month earn didn't relation with burnout . work years duration and number of workers had reveres relation with burnout . direct relation with burnout and work hours was founded.   Conclusion   Despite the low rate of moderate or severe burnout among the managers, further effort is advised to reduce stress in this group and probe them in psycho mental disorders.

  15. Burnout prevalence in New Zealand's public hospital senior medical workforce: a cross-sectional mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Christopher M A; Barclay, Murray; McKee, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the prevalence of, and associated factors contributing to burnout among senior doctors and dentists working in the New Zealand's public health system. Design Cross-sectional, mixed methods study. Setting New Zealand's 20 district health boards (DHBs). Participants A total of 1487 of 3740 senior doctors and dentists who are members of the Association of Salaried Medical Specialists working in DHBs were recruited (response rate 40%). Primary and secondary outcome measures Gender, age, self-rated health status, vocation and hours of work per week were obtained from an electronic questionnaire. Burnout was measured using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. Qualitative data taken from an open-ended comments section was coded using grounded theory and used for contextual data. Results The overall prevalence of high personal burnout was 50%. Women aged burnout. Prevalence of high work-related burnout and patient-related burnout was 42% and 16%, respectively. Those working in emergency medicine and psychiatry had significantly higher mean work-related burnout than other specialties (pburnout. Personal burnout rates decreased with age (age 30–39 OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.78 to 4.59, age 40–49 OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.70 to 3.55, age 50–59 OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.46, compared with age>60). Qualitative data emphasised intense and unrelenting workloads, under-staffing, onerous on-call duties and frustrations with management as factors contributing to burnout. Conclusions High burnout appears prevalent in New Zealand's senior doctors and dentists. Many attribute their feelings of burnout to work conditions. These findings may assist with understanding contributors to burnout and with developing strategies to ameliorate the high burnout found across this cohort. PMID:27881531

  16. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  17. Late chronotype and high social jetlag are associated with burnout in evening-shift workers: Assessment using the Chinese-version MCTQshift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wan-Ju; Hang, Liang-Wen

    2018-04-16

    Chronotypes are associated with shift work tolerance and sleep in shift workers, and sleep mediates the impact of shift work on mental health. However, the role of chronotype in the association between shift work and mental health has not been clarified. In this study, we aimed to examine the association between chronotype and burnout in shift workers, using the validated Munich ChronoType Questionnaire for shift workers (MCTQ shift ). A total of 288 shift workers with irregular shift frequencies were recruited and completed the Chinese-version MCTQ shift and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Chronotypes were assessed by the calculation of corrected mid-sleep time (MSF SC ) from mid-sleep time on free days (MSF) based on their exact shift schedules. Another 26 evening-shift nurses were monitored with actigraphy for at least two consecutive evening shifts and the following two free days. Burnout was evaluated using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. We found that MSF E SC , MSF E and mid-sleep time on workdays (MSW E ) had normal distributions and correlated significantly with MEQ scores (r = - 0.47, -0.45 and -0.47, respectively; all p workers who slept late on workdays than those who slept early (β = 0.59, p social jetlag were associated with burnout scores in evening-shift workers. In conclusion, the Chinese-version MCTQ shift is a valid tool for chronotype assessment. Interventions to improve sleep in shift workers should be tailored to chronotype due to variations in sleep behavior. Late chronotype may be an inherent feature of mental health problems, because the association with burnout was significant in both day workers in previous studies and shift workers.

  18. Burnout and young workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Batista Chaves Azevedo de Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article intends to conduct an analysis of the dimensions of the a model about the burnout syndrome, from the reality of young workers who are doing some vocational courses in the city of Recife/PE. Objective: Description of characteristics of a predetermined population. Still, the research is in a field of research and using content analysis method to discuss the data obtained through interviews that had their questions based on the original questionnaire that were validity (Maslach Burnout Inventory. Method: The study is characterized as exploratory and descriptive, given the need to provide greater familiarity with the relationship between the phenomenon to be studied and the target audience that was wanted to interview. Results: The results indicated that the size of the professional fulfillment is committed to moderate level, the size of depersonalization is not compromised and emotional exhaustion is present in youth work routine. Thus, although not found the burnout itself, there are remarkable risk behaviors that could be generate the syndrome on the future. Conclusion: The results may indicate the need for intervention in the company, in order to allow greater enrichment activities developed by young learners, as well as prevent the emergence of situations that may lead to suffering at work .

  19. The impact of psychological capital on job burnout of Chinese nurses: the mediator role of organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiaxi; Jiang, Xihua; Zhang, Jiaxi; Xiao, Runxuan; Song, Yunyun; Feng, Xi; Zhang, Yan; Miao, Danmin

    2013-01-01

    Nursing has a high risk of job burnout, but only a few studies have explored its influencing factors from an organizational perspective. The present study explores the impact of psychological capital on job burnout by investigating the mediating effect of organizational commitment on this relationship. A total of 473 female nurses from four large general hospitals in Xi'an City of China were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Psychological Capital Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Organizational Commitment Scale. Both psychological capital and organizational commitment were significantly correlated to job burnout. Structural equation modelling indicated that organizational commitment partially mediated the relationship between psychological capital and job burnout. The final model revealed a significant path from psychological capital to job burnout through organizational commitment. These findings extended prior reports and shed some light on the influence of psychological capital on job burnout.

  20. EMOTIONAL BURNOUT SYNDROME: EFFECT ON CLINICAL INERTIA AND MEDICAL PRACTICE STEREOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Khokhlov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the prevalence of burnout in primary care physicians and its influence on medical practice stereotypes and on clinical inertia.Material and Methods. The anonymous single-stage poll was carried out among 184 primary care physicians. The questionnaire included information about sex, age, period and conditions of work, established stereotypes of practices. Burnout was evaluated by Russian analog of Maslach Burnout Inventory. It was defined in high level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and low level of personal accomplishment 11 questions were developed to reveal of suboptimal medical practice (for example, “I do not discuss treatment options with patient and do not give full answers to his questions” or “I make diagnostic and treatment errors despite of my professional knowledge and inexperience”.Results. The burnout syndrome (or extreme grade of emotional burnout occurs in 13,1% and high level of emotional burnout – in 49,7% of primary care physicians. Features of suboptimal medical practice are usually found in 24,2% of primary care physicians at least monthly. It expresses more often in improper attitude to paqtients and their problems associated with a disease. Thus, burnout contributes to improper attitude to patients. Professional burnout affects established work stereotypes and can promote development of physician’s clinical inertia.Conclusion. As the burnout is common among primary care physicians, an adequate monitoring and prevention of this state is necessary in medical labour management.

  1. The impact of empathy on burnout in medical students: new findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Harscher, Heidi; Desmarais, Nathaly; Dollinger, Robert; Grossman, Seth; Aldana, Scarlett

    2018-03-01

    Research on medical students has shown they are at a higher risk for burnout and that this burnout may become more prevalent as they advance in medical school. The literature, thus far, has not explored the construct of ,emotional empathy and whether this can impact burnout in medical students. Objective: To understand the relationship  between empathy (Empathic Concern [EC] and Personal Distress [PD]) and burnout in medical students. Five successive classes of medical students enrolled at a new medical school were given the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Davis' Interpersonal Reactivity Index  over the course of three successive  years (n = 353).  Two dimensions of  empathy were evaluated to determine if they have an impact on three dimensions of burnout (Emotional Exhaustion/EE, Depersonalization/DP, Personal Accomplishment/PA). data was analyzed using a linear mixed model for each of the three components of burnout based on gender, age, year in medical school, and two types of empathy: EC, and PD.  Conclusion: It was discovered that students with high levels of EC had statistically lower scores of burnout over time while students with high levels of PD empathy showed statistically higher scores of burnout over three years. Implications for these findings are discussed.

  2. Does the Maslach Burnout Inventory correlate with cognitive performance in anesthesia practitioners? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Francesca Orena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic stress is a common condition among health-care operators, anesthetists in particular. It is known to cause cognitive weakening and pathological outcomes, as the Burnout syndrome. Nevertheless, the impact of clinicians′ health on their performance has received limited attention thus far. Our pilot study, aims at evaluating the influence of burnout on the cognitive performance in a population of anesthesia practitioners. Methods: In 18 practitioners we assessed attention by means of reaction times (RTs, pre- and post-shift, with a five-subtest computerized neuropsychological battery. RTs were controlled for the situational anxiety with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory X1. The burnout level was evaluated with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. The three MBI sub-scores (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and professional achievement were combined to obtain two groups according to the burnout score (high and low. Results: Anesthetists showed a significantly worse performance in the fifth test post-shift (P=0.041 than pre-shift. The high-score burnout group reacted slower than the low-score burnout group in three of the five cognitive subtests, without reaching a statistical significance. Nevertheless, our effect size, which is independent from the sample size, is very large (d=1.165. Conclusion: We found that in a population of health-care operators, burnout may affect the cognitive and potentially, the working performance. Qualitative and quantitative measurements should be integrated to ensure a better management of burnout and its consequences in workplaces.

  3. EMOTIONAL BURNOUT SYNDROME: EFFECT ON CLINICAL INERTIA AND MEDICAL PRACTICE STEREOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Khokhlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the prevalence of burnout in primary care physicians and its influence on medical practice stereotypes and on clinical inertia.Material and Methods. The anonymous single-stage poll was carried out among 184 primary care physicians. The questionnaire included information about sex, age, period and conditions of work, established stereotypes of practices. Burnout was evaluated by Russian analog of Maslach Burnout Inventory. It was defined in high level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and low level of personal accomplishment 11 questions were developed to reveal of suboptimal medical practice (for example, “I do not discuss treatment options with patient and do not give full answers to his questions” or “I make diagnostic and treatment errors despite of my professional knowledge and inexperience”.Results. The burnout syndrome (or extreme grade of emotional burnout occurs in 13,1% and high level of emotional burnout – in 49,7% of primary care physicians. Features of suboptimal medical practice are usually found in 24,2% of primary care physicians at least monthly. It expresses more often in improper attitude to paqtients and their problems associated with a disease. Thus, burnout contributes to improper attitude to patients. Professional burnout affects established work stereotypes and can promote development of physician’s clinical inertia.Conclusion. As the burnout is common among primary care physicians, an adequate monitoring and prevention of this state is necessary in medical labour management.

  4. The effects of personality traits on academic burnout in Korean medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jin; Choi, Young Jun; Chae, Han

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that personality traits play an important role in academic burnout. The aim of this study was to investigate how Cloninger's temperament and character traits explain academic burnout in a highly competitive environment of medical school. A total of 184 Korean medical students participated in the survey. The Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory was measured around the beginning of the semester and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey at the end of the semester. The correlations and stepwise regression analysis were conducted to explain the association between personality traits and academic burnout. In addition, latent profile analysis and profile analysis were employed to distinguish and explain differences of personality traits among latent academic burnout subgroups. The higher harm avoidance of temperament and lower self-directedness and cooperativeness of character predicted the subscales of academic burnout in medical students. The Temperament and Character Inventory personality profile of high, middle, and low latent burnout subgroups were significantly different. This study showed that personality might account for the burnout level in medical education. The importance of character dimension for modulating the effects of temperament traits on academic burnout was discussed for future research.

  5. Burnout among anaesthetists in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method:The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey was used to assess the level of burnout. The primary ... highest level of stress and burnout are among medical professionals. Various ... particularly with regard to one's work with clients'.2 .... no consensus on whether gender plays a role in burnout levels in.

  6. How does burnout affect physician productivity? A systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Interest in the well-being of physicians has increased because of their contributions to the healthcare system quality. There is growing recognition that physicians are exposed to workplace factors that increase the risk of work stress. Long-term exposure to high work stress can result in burnout. Reports from around the world suggest that about one-third to one-half of physicians experience burnout. Understanding the outcomes associated with burnout is critical to understanding its affects on the healthcare system. Productivity outcomes are among those that could have the most immediate effects on the healthcare system. This systematic literature review is one of the first to explore the evidence for the types of physician productivity outcomes associated with physician burnout. It answers the question, “How does burnout affect physician productivity?” Methods A systematic search was performed of: Medline Current, Medline in process, PsycInfo, Embase and Web of Science. The search period covered 2002 to 2012. The searches identified articles about practicing physicians working in civilian settings. Articles that primarily looked only at residents or medical students were excluded. Productivity was captured by hours worked, patients seen, sick leave, leaving the profession, retirement, workload and presenteeism. Studies also were excluded if: (1) the study sample was not comprised of at least 50% physicians, (2) the study did not examine the relationship between burnout and productivity or (3) a validated measure of burnout was not used. Results The search identified 870 unique citations; 5 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. This review indicates that globally there is recognition of the potential impact of physician burnout on productivity. Productivity was examined using: number of sick leave days, work ability, intent to either continue practicing or change jobs. The majority of the studies indicate there is a negative relationship between

  7. How does burnout affect physician productivity? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Loong, Desmond; Bonato, Sarah; Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Jacobs, Philip

    2014-07-28

    Interest in the well-being of physicians has increased because of their contributions to the healthcare system quality. There is growing recognition that physicians are exposed to workplace factors that increase the risk of work stress. Long-term exposure to high work stress can result in burnout. Reports from around the world suggest that about one-third to one-half of physicians experience burnout. Understanding the outcomes associated with burnout is critical to understanding its affects on the healthcare system. Productivity outcomes are among those that could have the most immediate effects on the healthcare system. This systematic literature review is one of the first to explore the evidence for the types of physician productivity outcomes associated with physician burnout. It answers the question, "How does burnout affect physician productivity?" A systematic search was performed of: Medline Current, Medline in process, PsycInfo, Embase and Web of Science. The search period covered 2002 to 2012. The searches identified articles about practicing physicians working in civilian settings. Articles that primarily looked only at residents or medical students were excluded. Productivity was captured by hours worked, patients seen, sick leave, leaving the profession, retirement, workload and presenteeism. Studies also were excluded if: (1) the study sample was not comprised of at least 50% physicians, (2) the study did not examine the relationship between burnout and productivity or (3) a validated measure of burnout was not used. The search identified 870 unique citations; 5 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. This review indicates that globally there is recognition of the potential impact of physician burnout on productivity. Productivity was examined using: number of sick leave days, work ability, intent to either continue practicing or change jobs. The majority of the studies indicate there is a negative relationship between burnout and productivity. However

  8. Can the existing knowledge in depression treatment aid the recovery from the burnout syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Due to high levels of stress in many professions today, an increasing number of people experience a state of emotional, mental, and physical exhaustion referred to as the burnout syndrome. The neural underpinnings of the burnout syndrome remain however poorly understood. This highly timely topic...

  9. EEG Findings in Burnout Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.; Bunt, P.M. van den; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Arns, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of burnout remains enigmatic since it is only determined by behavioral characteristics. Moreover, the differential diagnosis with depression and chronic fatigue syndrome is difficult. EEG-related variables in 13 patients diagnosed with burnout syndrome were compared with 13 healthy

  10. Burnout : de stand van zaken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taris, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Schaufeli, W.

    2013-01-01

    Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van de stand van zaken in het onderzoek naar burnout. Burnout is een syndroom van extreme vermoeidheid (uitputting), afstand nemen van het werk (distantie) en weinig vertrouwen in het eigen kunnen (verminderde competentie), waarbij de oorzaken voor deze aspecten

  11. Stress and burnout in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, K M; Holland, J C; Breitbart, W; Berenson, S; Dougherty, J; Ouellette-Kobasa, S; Lesko, L

    2000-11-01

    This article identifies the professional stressors experienced by nurses, house staff, and medical oncologists and examines the effect of stress and personality attributes on burnout scores. A survey was conducted of 261 house staff, nurses, and medical oncologists in a cancer research hospital, and oncologists in outside clinical practices. It measured burnout, psychological distress, and physical symptoms. Each participant completed a questionnaire that quantified life stressors, personality attributes, burnout, psychological distress, physical symptoms, coping strategies, and social support. The results showed that house staff experienced the greatest burnout. They also reported greater emotional exhaustion, a feeling of emotional distance from patients, and a poorer sense of personal accomplishment. Negative work events contributed significantly to level of burnout; however, having a "hardy" personality helped to alleviate burnout. Nurses reported more physical symptoms than house staff and oncologists. However, they were less emotionally distant from patients. Women reported a lower sense of accomplishment and greater distress. The four most frequent methods of relaxing were talking to friends, using humor, drinking coffee or eating, and watching television. One unexpected finding was that the greater the perception of oneself as religious, the lower the level of burnout. Thus, while the rewards of working in oncology are usually sufficient to keep nurses and doctors in the field, they also experience burnout symptoms that vary by gender and personal attributes. House staff are most stressed and report the greatest and most severe symptoms of stress. Interventions are needed that address the specific problems of each group.

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity and control beliefs as the predictors of academic burnout amongst adolescents following the Wenchuan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Zhen, Rui; Wu, Xinchun

    2017-01-01

    Background : Previous studies indicate that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and control beliefs can affect burnout and their unique role in this situation has been examined, but fewer studies have examined their combined role in adolescent's academic burnout following traumatic events. Objective : This study examined the combined effect of PTSD symptom severity and control beliefs on academic burnout among adolescents, and assessed the moderating role of primary and secondary control beliefs in the relation between PTSD symptom severity and academic burnout. Methods : Seven hundred and forty-five adolescents were investigated using self-report questionnaires, and a series of regression equations examined the impact of PTSD severity and control beliefs on academic burnout. Results : PTSD symptom severity is associated positively with academic burnout, while primary and secondary control beliefs have a negative relation with academic burnout. In addition, primary control beliefs buffer the positive effects of PTSD symptom severity on academic burnout. We found that the positive relation between PTSD symptom severity and academic burnout in the low primary control beliefs group is more intense than that found in the high primary control beliefs group. Conclusions : PTSD symptom severity is a risk factor, whereas primary and secondary control beliefs are protective factors in academic burnout. In addition, PTSD symptom severity and primary control beliefs have a combined effect on academic burnout in adolescents following natural disasters.

  13. Uncovering the Driving Factors of Carbon Emissions in an Investment Allocation Model of China’s High-Carbon and Low-Carbon Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin Jiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the view of long-term comprehensive development, the concept of low-carbon economy has long been a concern. In this paper, we build a pure energy-economic system and explore the exact influencing factors in the investment allocation of high-carbon and low-carbon energy with the purpose of mitigating carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The dynamic analysis shows that the model that we built is applicable for the current market situation and the way we adjust the investments of high-carbon and low-carbon energy are conductive to carbon abatement in the atmosphere. On the basis of the stability analysis and numerical simulation, some strategies are given to decrease the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The results show that the social consumption and public consumption behavior are the most important factors responsible for the variation in the atmospheric carbon dioxide. The cleanliness of high carbon presents an obvious mitigating effect on carbon in the atmosphere and the effect of marginal profit of high-carbon energy is the weakest. In addition, enhancing marginal profit, return on investment and investment share of low-carbon energy are beneficial to reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, while a return on investment of high-carbon energy increasing is the detriment of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Finally, we provide carbon mitigation effort by considering both economic development and carbon abatement for policymakers to achieve a desirable emission-reduction effect.

  14. Professional Burnout and Concurrent Health Complaints in Neonatal Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorobogatova, Natalija; Žemaitienė, Nida; Šmigelskas, Kastytis; Tamelienė, Rasa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze nurses' professional burnout and health complaints and the relationship between the two components. The anonymous survey included 94 neonatal intensive care nurses from two centers of perinatology. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) was used to evaluate professional burnout; it consisted of 3 components, Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Accomplishments, with 22 items in total. Health complaints were evaluated by 21 items, where nurses were asked to report the occurrence of symptoms within the last year. Scale means were presented with standard deviations (SD). Inferential analysis was conducted with multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for age, residence, and work experience. The mean score of professional burnout on the Emotional Exhaustion subscale was 14.4 (SD=7.91), Depersonalization 3.8 (SD=4.75), and Personal Accomplishment 29.1 (SD=10.12). The health assessment revealed that sleeplessness, lack of rest, nervousness, and tiredness were the most common complaints. The regression analysis revealed that tiredness was independently associated with significantly increased odds of professional burnout (OR=4.1). In our study, more than half of the nurses in neonatal intensive care had moderate or high levels of emotional exhaustion, while levels of depersonalization were significantly lower. In contrast, the level of personal accomplishment was low in more than half of the nurses. The most common health complaints were sleep disturbances, nervousness, and tiredness. Tiredness was most strongly associated with professional burnout.

  15. Burnout Risk and Protection Factors in Certified Nursing Aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero Jurado, María Del Mar; Pérez-Fuentes, María Del Carmen; Gázquez Linares, José Jesús Gázquez; Simón Márquez, María Del Mar; Martos Martínez, África

    2018-05-30

    Studies have found a higher risk of burnout among employees in the healthcare sector. As such, this study focused on Certified Nursing Aides (CNAs) who have shown a high prevalence of burnout and are therefore considered an especially vulnerable group. The objective of this study was to identify the relationships between some organizational, personal, and sociodemographic factors and burnout. The final study sample included 278 working CNAs with a mean age of 40.88 (SD = 9.41). To compile the data, an ad hoc questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic information. To collect professional and employment information, we used the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Adults, the Brief Questionnaire on Perceived Social Support, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. The results showed that Burnout Syndrome is significantly and negatively related to all the emotional intelligence factors, self-efficacy, and perceived social support. The risk of burnout is higher in younger persons and in permanently employed professionals. General self-efficacy and stress management act as protective factors against the likelihood of burnout. This study suggests that organizations should urge coaching and transformational leadership training programs to promote the wellbeing and organizational commitment of workers.

  16. Burnout Risk and Protection Factors in Certified Nursing Aides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Molero Jurado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have found a higher risk of burnout among employees in the healthcare sector. As such, this study focused on Certified Nursing Aides (CNAs who have shown a high prevalence of burnout and are therefore considered an especially vulnerable group. The objective of this study was to identify the relationships between some organizational, personal, and sociodemographic factors and burnout. The final study sample included 278 working CNAs with a mean age of 40.88 (SD = 9.41. To compile the data, an ad hoc questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic information. To collect professional and employment information, we used the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Adults, the Brief Questionnaire on Perceived Social Support, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. The results showed that Burnout Syndrome is significantly and negatively related to all the emotional intelligence factors, self-efficacy, and perceived social support. The risk of burnout is higher in younger persons and in permanently employed professionals. General self-efficacy and stress management act as protective factors against the likelihood of burnout. This study suggests that organizations should urge coaching and transformational leadership training programs to promote the wellbeing and organizational commitment of workers.

  17. Burnout in radiation therapists: the predictive value of selected stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akroyd, Duane; Caison, Amy; Adams, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: As cancer caregivers, radiation therapists experience a variety of stresses that may develop into burnout, which has been demonstrated to impact patient care, employee health, and organizational effectiveness. The purpose of the study was to assess the levels of radiation therapists' burnout at three stages. Additionally, the ability of selected workplace variables to predict each of the three stages of burnout was examined. Methods and Materials: We used descriptive and inferential statistical analyses on reliable and valid instruments, which measured stress, burnout, and social support. Results: Radiation therapists have high levels of the first two stages of burnout: emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Although personal stress, organizational stress, guidance, reassurance of worth, and work load predicted 50% or more of the variance in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, their predictive ability for personal accomplishment was low. Conclusion: Efforts to alleviate burnout among radiation therapists within an organization should have positive effects, including increased quality of patient care, improved quality of work life, higher levels of job satisfaction, and commitment and lower staff turnover

  18. Reiki Reduces Burnout Among Community Mental Health Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosada, Renee M; Rubik, Beverly; Mainguy, Barbara; Plummer, Julie; Mehl-Madrona, Lewis

    2015-08-01

    Clinicians working in community mental health clinics are at high risk for burnout. Burnout is a problem involving emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Reiki is a holistic biofield energy therapy beneficial for reducing stress. The purpose of this study was to determine if 30 minutes of healing touch could reduce burnout in community mental health clinicians. We utilized a crossover design to explore the efficacy of Reiki versus sham Reiki, a pseudo treatment designed to mimic true Reiki, as a means to reduce symptoms of burnout. Subjects were randomized to whether they started with Reiki or sham. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and the Measure Your Medical Outcome Profile Version 2 (MYMOP-2) were used as outcome measures. Multilevel modeling was used to represent the relations among variables. Reiki was statistically significantly better than sham Reiki in reducing burnout among community mental health clinicians (p=0.011). Reiki was significant in reducing depersonalization (pReiki reduced the primary symptom on the MYMOP also only among single people (p=0.03). The effects of Reiki were differentiated from sham Reiki. Reiki could be helpful in community mental health settings for the mental health of the practitioners.

  19. Job satisfaction among nurses: a predictor of burnout levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliath, Thomas; Morris, Rita

    2002-12-01

    This study assessed the impact of differential levels of job satisfaction on burnout among nurses, hypothesizing that higher levels of job satisfaction predict lower levels of burnout. Social environmental factors of the workplace arising from organizational restructuring cost containment strategies, diminishing resources, and increasing responsibilities, cause highly stressed, burned out nurses to leave the profession. This study used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. The job satisfaction scale of Katzell et al was used to measure overall job satisfaction. Statistical tests for significance used were Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Structural Equation Modeling, the chi statistic, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, Goodness of Fit Index, and Comparative Fit Index. The findings show that job satisfaction has a significant direct negative effect on emotional exhaustion, whereas emotional exhaustion has a direct positive effect on depersonalization. A significant indirect effect was seen of job satisfaction on depersonalization via exhaustion. The path coefficient shows that job satisfaction has both direct and indirect effects on burnout, confirming job satisfaction as a significant predictor of burnout. Collaborative efforts between nurses, administrators, and educators to research and test practical models to improve job satisfaction may work as an antidote to burnout.

  20. Burnout, depression and suicidal ideation in dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Fernando; Ríos-Santos, José-Vicente; Polo, Juan; Rios-Carrasco, Blanca; Bullón, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence, gender influence, and relationships between burnout, depression and suicidal ideation within the last year among second, fourth and fifth-year dental students. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 212 dental students enrolled in the second, fourth and fifth years at the School of Dentistry of Seville using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey and the MBI-Human Services Survey, the "Patient Health Questionnaire-2", and the "Questions about Suicidal Ideation and Attempted Suicide". The response rate among dental students was 80%. Burnout prevalence in dental students was higher in second and fourth years than in fifth year (p = 0.059 and p = 0.003, respectively). Depression prevalence in the fourth year approached significance (p = 0.051). Prevalence of suicidal ideation within the past year was higher, yet not reaching significance, in fourth year. No gender-related differences were found. A significant association was observed between burnout and depression, and between depression and suicidal ideation (p burnout and suicidal ideation. This study has brought our attention to the high prevalence of burnout and depression, and reported for the first time the prevalence of suicidal ideation among dental students in preclinical and clinical years.

  1. Predictors of burnout and health status in Samaritans' listening volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Adeline; Ogden, Jane

    2017-12-01

    Samaritan listening volunteers provide emotional support to people in distress or suicidal. Samaritans' has high volunteer turnover, which may be due to burnout. This study evaluated the role of demographic and psychosocial factors in predicting Samaritans listening volunteers' burnout and health status. Samaritans' listening volunteers (n = 216) from seven branches across UK completed an online survey to assess their levels of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, personal accomplishment), subjective health status, coping, empathy and social support. Overall, listeners showed low levels of burnout and good health. Regression analysis revealed that higher emotional exhaustion was predicted by younger age and avoidant coping style; higher depersonalisation was predicted by lower empathy fantasy and higher avoidant coping style; lower personal accomplishment scores were predicted by higher empathy personal distress and worse health status was predicted by more hours per week spent on listening duties, lower social support and higher avoidant coping style. Overall, different factors influenced different facets of burnout. However, higher use of avoidant coping style consistently predicted higher burnout and worse health status, suggesting avoidant coping is an important target for intervention.

  2. Highly reversible lead-carbon battery anode with lead grafting on the carbon surface

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Jian; Lin, Nan; Zhang, Wenli; Lin, Zheqi; Zhang, Ziqing; Wang, Yue; Shi, Jun; Bao, Jinpeng; Lin, Haibo

    2018-01-01

    A novel C/Pb composite has been successfully prepared by electroless plating to reduce the hydrogen evolution and achieve the high reversibility of the anode of lead-carbon battery (LCB). The deposited lead on the surface of C/Pb composite was found to be uniform and adherent to carbon surface. Because lead has been stuck on the surface of C/Pb composite, the embedded structure suppresses the hydrogen evolution of lead-carbon anode and strengthens the connection between carbon additive and sponge lead. Compared with the blank anode, the lead-carbon anode with C/Pb composite displays excellent charge–discharge reversibility, which is attributed to the good connection between carbon additives and lead that has been stuck on the surface of C/Pb composite during the preparation process. The addition of C/Pb composite maintains a solid anode structure with high specific surface area and power volume, and thereby, it plays a significant role in the highly reversible lead-carbon anode.

  3. Highly reversible lead-carbon battery anode with lead grafting on the carbon surface

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Jian

    2018-03-27

    A novel C/Pb composite has been successfully prepared by electroless plating to reduce the hydrogen evolution and achieve the high reversibility of the anode of lead-carbon battery (LCB). The deposited lead on the surface of C/Pb composite was found to be uniform and adherent to carbon surface. Because lead has been stuck on the surface of C/Pb composite, the embedded structure suppresses the hydrogen evolution of lead-carbon anode and strengthens the connection between carbon additive and sponge lead. Compared with the blank anode, the lead-carbon anode with C/Pb composite displays excellent charge–discharge reversibility, which is attributed to the good connection between carbon additives and lead that has been stuck on the surface of C/Pb composite during the preparation process. The addition of C/Pb composite maintains a solid anode structure with high specific surface area and power volume, and thereby, it plays a significant role in the highly reversible lead-carbon anode.

  4. Burnout of Physicians Working in Primary Health Care Centers under Ministry of Health Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawakid, Khalid; Abdulrashid, Ola; Mandoura, Najlaa; Shah, Hassan Bin Usman; Ibrahim, Adel; Akkad, Noura Mohammad; Mufti, Fauad

    2017-11-25

    Introduction The levels of physicians' job satisfaction and burnout directly affect their professionalism, punctuality, absenteeism, and ultimately, patients' care. Despite its crucial importance, little is known about professional burnout of the physicians in Saudi Arabia. The objectives of this research are two-fold: (1) To assess the prevalence of burnout in physicians working in primary health care centers under Ministry of Health; and (2) to find the modifiable factors which can decrease the burnout ratio. Methodology Through a cross-sectional study design, a representative sample of the physicians working in primary health care centers (PHCCs) Jeddah (n=246) was randomly selected. The overall burnout level was assessed using the validated abbreviated Maslach burnout inventory (aMBI) questionnaire. It measures the overall burnout prevalence based on three main domains i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Independent sample T-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multivariate regression analysis were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 22, IBM, Armonk, NY). Results Overall, moderate to high burnout was prevalent in 25.2% of the physicians. Emotional exhaustion was noted in 69.5%. Multivariate regression analysis showed that patient pressure/violence (p burnout. The patient's pressure/violence was the only significant independent predictor of overall burnout. Conclusion Emotional exhaustion is the most prominent feature of overall burnout in the physicians of primary health care centers. The main reasons include patient's pressure/violence, unorganized patient flow, less cooperative colleague doctors, fewer support services at the PHCCs, more paperwork, and less cooperative colleagues. Addressing these issues could lead to a decrease in physician's burnout.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of burnout among collegiate cycle students in Sri Lanka: a school-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Nuwan Darshana; Dissanayake, Devani Sakunthala; Abeywardena, Gihan Sajiwa

    2018-01-01

    Even though the concept of burnout has been widely explored across the globe, the evidence base on burnout among high school students in the South Asian context is scanty. Against the backdrop of ever-increasing educational demands and expectations, the present study was designed to determine the prevalence and correlates of burnout among collegiate cycle students in Sri Lanka. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 872 grade thirteen students in 15 government schools in an educational zone, Kegalle district, Sri Lanka selected by a stratified cluster sampling technique. The validated Sinhala version of the 15-item Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) was used to assess burnout. The adjusted prevalence of burnout was computed based on the clinically validated cut-off values using the "exhaustion + 1" criterion. Multivariable logistic regression was carried out using backward elimination method to quantify the association between burnout and selected correlates identified at bivariate analysis at p value less than 0.05. The response rate was 91.3% (n = 796). The adjusted prevalence of burnout among grade thirteen students was 28.8% (95% CI = 25.0-32.7%). Multivariable analysis elicited a multitude of statistically significant associations with burnout when controlled for other factors included in the model (p burnout, whereas having to encounter disturbances while studying and being subjected to bullying at school emerged as statistically significant positive associations with burnout. The burnout prevalence among grade thirteen students in the selected educational zone, Sri Lanka is high. Most of the significant correlates of burnout are directly related to the academic endeavours. It is recommended to strengthen the counseling services at the school level to rectify the problems related to burnout among collegiate cycle students in Sri Lanka.

  6. Prevalence of burnout syndrome among medical residents: experience of a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkar, Khalil; Romani, Maya; Musharrafieh, Umayya; Chaaya, Monique

    2010-05-01

    It has been well established that burnout, defined as emotional exhaustion (EE), de-personalisation (DP), and a 'decreased sense of personal accomplishment (PA) due to work related stress', is prevalent to a great extent among medical residents. This has been implicated in the delivery of suboptimal patient care. Residents in developing countries work under difficult working and social conditions and therefore examining burnout is important when addressing quality of care and working conditions. The objectives of the study were to assess the point prevalence of burnout among residents in Lebanon and investigate some of the work and non-work related factors associated with burnout. A cross sectional study of all medical residents was carried out in two major hospitals in the capital city. A total of 155 residents responded, representing all specialities. Maslach Burnout Inventory for Health Services Workers (MBI-HSS) was used. Burnout in three domains was dichotomised into high versus not high burnout. The prevalence of burnout was high in all the domains with the highest in the domain of emotional exhaustion (67.7%). 80% of the sample had a high level of burnout in at least one domain. Being female, experiencing a major stress, working for more than 80 h per week, and having more than eight calls per month increased the odds of burnout in at least one domain. The high burnout level calls for action. This could be addressed by re-examining workload and other working conditions of residents as well as attending to their psychological wellbeing. The limitations of the study are also discussed.

  7. Highly Enhanced Raman Scattering on Carbonized Polymer Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong-Chul; Hwang, Jongha; Thiyagarajan, Pradheep; Ruoff, Rodney S; Jang, Ji-Hyun

    2017-06-28

    We have discovered a carbonized polymer film to be a reliable and durable carbon-based substrate for carbon enhanced Raman scattering (CERS). Commercially available SU8 was spin coated and carbonized (c-SU8) to yield a film optimized to have a favorable Fermi level position for efficient charge transfer, which results in a significant Raman scattering enhancement under mild measurement conditions. A highly sensitive CERS (detection limit of 10 -8 M) that was uniform over a large area was achieved on a patterned c-SU8 film and the Raman signal intensity has remained constant for 2 years. This approach works not only for the CMOS-compatible c-SU8 film but for any carbonized film with the correct composition and Fermi level, as demonstrated with carbonized-PVA (poly(vinyl alcohol)) and carbonized-PVP (polyvinylpyrollidone) films. Our study certainly expands the rather narrow range of Raman-active material platforms to include robust carbon-based films readily obtained from polymer precursors. As it uses broadly applicable and cheap polymers, it could offer great advantages in the development of practical devices for chemical/bio analysis and sensors.

  8. [Burnout in Nursing Professionals Performing Overtime Workdays in Emergency and Critical Care Departments. Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo Arturo; Albendín-García, Luis; de la Fuente, Emilia Inmaculada; San Luis, Concepción; Gómez-Urquiza, José Luis; Cañadas, Gustavo Raúl

    2016-09-14

    Burnout syndrome is a disorder that seriously affects people who suffer it, the institutions in which they work and the quality of healthcare. It is of great interest to advance in burnout research for its possible prevention. The aim of this work was to study the levels of burnout syndrome in nurses of emergency department with overtime workdays and to know the relationship between burnout and personality characteristics. Multicenter cross-sectional study with a sample of 1225 emergency nurses from the Andalusian Health Service. Demographic, social and occupational variables were recorded. Burnout was assessed with Maslach Burnout Inventory and personality factors with NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Descriptive analysis of the variables, independent means hypothesis contrast and bayesian analysis were done. 44.1% of nurses who perform overtime workdays have high burnout versus a 38% for those without such overload. These differences have been also found in burnout dimensions, especially in emotional exhaustion (15.3% versus 10.8%) and depersonalization (17.9% versus 11.8%). Overtime workdays performed by emergency nurses seems to have a negative on them and it could also influence the development of burnout syndrome.

  9. Sense of coherence and job characteristics in predicting burnout in a South African sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire S. Johnston

    2013-10-01

    Research purpose: This study examines the contribution of sense of coherence (SOC and job characteristics to predicting burnout by considering direct and moderating effects. Motivation for this study: Understanding the relationships of individual and job characteristics with burnout is necessary for preventing burnout. It also informs the design of interventions. Research design, approach and method: The participants were 632 working adults (57% female in South Africa. The measures included the Job Content Questionnaire, the Sense of Coherence Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The authors analysed the data using hierarchical multiple regression with the enter method. Main findings: Job characteristics and SOC show the expected direct effects on burnout. SOC has a direct negative effect on burnout. Job demands and supervisor social support show nonlinear relationships with burnout. SOC moderates the effect of demands on burnout and has a protective function so that the demands-burnout relationship differs for those with high and low SOC. Practical/managerial implications: The types of effects, the shape of the stressor-strain relationship and the different contributions of individual and job characteristics have implications for designing interventions. Contribution/value add: SOC functions differently when combined with demands, control and support. These different effects suggest that it is not merely the presence or absence of a job characteristic that is important for well-being outcomes but how people respond to its presence or absence.

  10. Prevalence of Burnout in Senior Medical Students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadvand A.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Burnout is caused by high-stress jobs and could induce somatic, psychological disorders and negative attitude to professional actives so that this condition causes poor relationship with the patient. This study aimed at investigating burnout in senior medical students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences.Methods: This research was a cross sectional study carried out on all senior medical students (N=56 in 2008. Data were obtained by two questionnaires including demographic questionnaire and Maslach burnout Inventory. They were then analyzed using SPSS software and Chi square Test. Results: The findings showed that the majority of medical students (91.1% had burnout and only 8.9% of them had not burnout. Severe burnout was in 16% of students. There was not any significant relationship between burnout and sex, age, smoking, duration of education, interest in medical course and marital status P<0.05.Conclusion: The results of the study showed that burnout is common problem in senior medical students and need special consideration. Therefore medical students should be encouraged to seek help and adequate facilities by holding workshops of life-skill training and coping with stress. However, burnout should be paid special attention in medical students by counseling centers of University for prevention of consequences.

  11. Direct and Indirect Harassment Experiences and Burnout among Academic Faculty in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masumi; Nomura, Kyoko; Horie, Saki; Okinaga, Hiroko; Perumalswami, Chithra R; Jagsi, Reshma

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is three-fold: (1) to compare harassment (sexual, gender, and academic harassment both directly and indirectly experienced - i.e. "directly harassed" and "have seen or heard of someone who experienced harassment", respectively) experienced by males and females, (2) to investigate whether such experiences correlate with burnout, and (3) to explore whether social support might mitigate any such relationship between harassment and burnout. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a private university in Japan in February 2014 and is based on a work-life balance survey obtained from 330 academic faculty members. We investigated the association between each of the six subcategories of harassment (direct and indirect forms of each of the three types) and burnout using general linear regression models; we then evaluated interactions between harassment and social support in these models. The prevalence of direct and indirect experiences of harassment was higher in females than in males for all three types of harassment. Males showed higher burnout scores if they had direct experiences of harassment. There were significant interactions between social support and the direct experience of harassment; high social support mitigated the effect size of direct harassment on burnout among males. Females showed higher burnout scores if they had indirect experiences of harassment. However, the same buffering effect of social support on burnout as observed in males was not observed in females. Direct harassment experiences increased the risk of burnout in males, and indirect harassment experiences increased burnout in females.

  12. Prevalence of Burnout in Senior Medical Students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Akkasheh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Burnout is caused by high-stress jobs and could induce somatic, psychological disorders and negative attitude to professional actives so that this condition causes poor relationship with  the patient. This study aimed at investigating burnout in senior medical students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This research was a cross sectional study carried out on all senior medical students (N=56 in 2008. Data were obtained by two questionnaires including demographic questionnaire and Maslach burnout Inventory. They were then analyzed using SPSS software and Chi square Test. Results: The findings showed that the majority of medical students (91.1% had burnout and only 8.9% of them had not burnout. Severe burnout was in 16% of students. There was not any significant relationship between burnout and sex, age, smoking, duration of education, interest in medical course and marital status P<0.05. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that burnout is common problem in senior medical students and need special consideration. Therefore medical students  should be encouraged to seek help and adequate facilities by holding workshops of life-skill training and coping with stress. However, burnout should be paid special attention in medical students by counseling centers of University for prevention of consequences.

     

  13. Comparison of burnout pattern between hospital physicians and family physicians working in Suez Canal University Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb, Amany Ali; Mohamed, Khalid Abd-Elmoez; Kamel, Mohammed Hbany; Ismail, Mosleh Abdul Rahman; Abdulmajeed, Abdulmajeed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. It is associated with impaired job performance. This descriptive study examined 171 physicians for the presence of burnout and its related risk factors. The evaluation of burnout was through Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The participant was considered to meet the study criteria for burnout if he or she got a "high" score on at least 2 of the three dimensions of MBI. In the current study, the prevalence of burnout in hospital physicians (53.9%) was significantly higher than family physicians (41.94%) with (p=0.001). Participants who work in the internal medicine department scored the highest prevalence (69.64%) followed by Surgeons (56.50%) and Emergency doctors (39.39%). On the other hand, Pediatricians got the lowest prevalence (18.75%). Working in the teaching hospital and being married are strong predictors for occurrence of burnout. There is a significant difference of burnout between hospital physicians and family physicians among the study subjects. Working in the teaching hospital and being married are strong predictors for occurrence of burnout.

  14. Primary Teachers’ Burnout in Qatar Independent Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Alloh, Maymona Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The present research aims at investigating the burnout levels among primary teachers in independent (government) schools in Qatar. It also intends to investigate if there are significant differences in the level of burnout attributed to some demographic characteristics. The third version of the most commonly used burnout scale; Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES), was utilized in order to measure participants’ burnout level. A total of 1657 participants responded and completed...

  15. High power and high energy electrodes using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Fabrizio; Brambilla, Nicolo Michele; Signorelli, Riccardo

    2015-04-07

    An electrode useful in an energy storage system, such as a capacitor, includes an electrode that includes at least one to a plurality of layers of compressed carbon nanotube aggregate. Methods of fabrication are provided. The resulting electrode exhibits superior electrical performance in terms of gravimetric and volumetric power density.

  16. Longitudinal burnout-collaboration patterns in Japanese medical care workers at special needs schools: a latent class growth analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanayama M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mieko Kanayama,1 Machiko Suzuki,1 Yoshikazu Yuma2 1Department of Human Health Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Department of Human Development Education, Graduate School of Education, Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Kato, Hyogo, Japan Abstract: The present study aimed to identify and characterize potential burnout types and the relationship between burnout and collaboration over time. Latent class growth analysis and the growth mixture model were used to identify and characterize heterogeneous patterns of longitudinal stability and change in burnout, and the relationship between burnout and collaboration. We collected longitudinal data at three time points based on Japanese academic terms. The 396 study participants included academic teachers, yogo teachers, and registered nurses in Japanese special needs schools. The best model included four types of both burnout and collaboration in latent class growth analysis with intercept, slope, and quadratic terms. The four types of burnout were as follows: low stable, moderate unstable, high unstable, and high decreasing. They were identified as involving inverse collaboration function. The results indicated that there could be dynamic burnout types, namely moderate unstable, high unstable, and high decreasing, when focusing on growth trajectories in latent class analyses. The finding that collaboration was dynamic for dynamic burnout types and stable for stable burnout types is of great interest. This was probably related to the inverse relationship between the two constructs. Keywords: burnout, collaboration, latent class growth analysis, interprofessional care, special needs schools

  17. Hierarchically structured nanoporous carbon tubes for high pressure carbon dioxide adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Patzsch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscopic, nanoporous carbon tubes were synthesized by a combination of the Stoeber process and the use of electrospun macrosized polystyrene fibres as structure directing templates. The obtained carbon tubes have a macroporous nature characterized by a thick wall structure and a high specific surface area of approximately 500 m²/g resulting from their micro- and mesopores. The micropore regime of the carbon tubes is composed of turbostratic graphitic areas observed in the microstructure. The employed templating process was also used for the synthesis of silicon carbide tubes. The characterization of all porous materials was performed by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The adsorption of carbon dioxide on the carbon tubes at 25 °C at pressures of up to 30 bar was studied using a volumetric method. At 26 bar, an adsorption capacity of 4.9 mmol/g was observed. This is comparable to the adsorption capacity of molecular sieves and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. The high pressure adsorption process of CO2 was found to irreversibly change the microporous structure of the carbon tubes.

  18. Highly Crumpled All-Carbon Transistors for Brain Activity Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Wenjing; Shi, Enzheng; Wei, Wenjing; Li, Xinming; Cao, Anyuan; Cao, Yanping; Fang, Ying

    2017-01-11

    Neural probes based on graphene field-effect transistors have been demonstrated. Yet, the minimum detectable signal of graphene transistor-based probes is inversely proportional to the square root of the active graphene area. This fundamentally limits the scaling of graphene transistor-based neural probes for improved spatial resolution in brain activity recording. Here, we address this challenge using highly crumpled all-carbon transistors formed by compressing down to 16% of its initial area. All-carbon transistors, chemically synthesized by seamless integration of graphene channels and hybrid graphene/carbon nanotube electrodes, maintained structural integrity and stable electronic properties under large mechanical deformation, whereas stress-induced cracking and junction failure occurred in conventional graphene/metal transistors. Flexible, highly crumpled all-carbon transistors were further verified for in vivo recording of brain activity in rats. These results highlight the importance of advanced material and device design concepts to make improvements in neuroelectronics.

  19. Hybrid carbon nanostructure assemblage for high performance pseudo-capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Mishra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of novel nanocomposites for pseudo-capacitors with high capacitance and energy density is the spotlight of current energy research. In the present work, hybrid carbon nanostructure assemblage of graphene and multiwalled carbon nanotubes has been used as carbon support to nanostructured RuO2 and polyaniline for high energy supercapacitors. Maximum specific capacitances of 110, 235 and 440 F g−1 at the voltage sweep rate of 10 mV s−1 and maximum energy densities of 7, 12.5 and 20.5 Wh kg−1 were observed for carbon assemblage and its RuO2 and polyanilne decorated nanocomposites, respectively, with 1M H2SO4 as electrolyte.

  20. Burnout among female emergency medicine physicians: A nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanifar, Atefeh; Pishbin, Elham; Attaran Mashhadi, Negin; Najaf Najafi, Mona; Siahtir, Maryam

    2018-02-13

    The challenging and stressful nature of emergency medicine place the practitioners of this young branch of medicine at risk of burnout. In Iran, the number of women choosing the specialty of emergency medicine has been increasing in recent years. No studies have focused on burnout among female emergency medicine physicians. We conducted this study to evaluate the level of burnout in female emergency medicine physicians in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, all Iranian female emergency medicine physicians with more than 2 years of work experience as specialists, received a questionnaire containing 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory scales and 7-item Cassidy social support scale, as well as questions about workload and career satisfaction. In total, 77 questionnaires were analysed (response rate: 75%; median age: 36 years, median for work experience = 3 years). A total of 34% of participants were academic faculties. The level of burnout in three subscales of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and perceived low personal accomplishment was moderate to high in 84.5, 48.1 and 80.5% of participants respectively. A total of 94.8% of female emergency medicine physicians perceived their workload to be moderate to high and only 1.3% of them had high job satisfaction. Alarming high rate of burnout and job dissatisfaction among female emergency medicine physicians in our study requires careful attention. Further investigations are suggested to identify the contributory factors to burnout and the probability of some gender disparities in this field. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  1. Burnout and study engagement among medical students at Sun Yat-sen University, China: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongchun; Yansane, Alfa Ibrahim; Zhang, Yurong; Fu, Haijun; Hong, Nanrui; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to investigate burnout and study engagement among medical students at Sun Yat-sen University, China.A cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students of Sun Yat-sen University, China. A total of 453 undergraduate students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire between January and February, 2016. Burnout and study engagement were measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) and the UTRECHT Work Engagement Scale-Students (UWES-S), respectively. Subjects who scored high in emotional exhaustion subscale, high in cynicism subscale, and low in professional efficacy subscale simultaneously were graded as having high risk of burnout. Independent sample t tests and chi-square tests were used to compare the differences in burnout and work engagement between genders, majors, and grade levels.The means (standard deviations) of the MBI-SS subscales were 3.42 (1.45) for emotional exhaustion, 2.34 (1.64) for cynicism, and 3.04 (1.30) for professional efficacy. The means (standard deviations) of the UWES-S subscales were 3.13 (1.49) for vigor, 3.44 (1.47) for dedication and 3.00 (1.51) for absorption. Approximately 1 in 11 students experienced a high risk of burnout. There were no statistically significant gender differences in burnout and study engagement. There were also no statistically significant differences in burnout and study engagement subscales according to student major. Students in higher grades displayed increased burnout risk, higher mean burnout subscale score of cynicism, lower mean burnout subscale score of professional efficacy, and decreased mean study engagement subscale scores of dedication and absorption. There were strong correlations within study engagement subscales.Chinese medical students in this university experience a high level of burnout. Students at higher-grade level experience more burnout and decreased study engagement compared with students in lower level.

  2. Hardy personality and burnout syndrome among nursing students in three Brazilian universities-an analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo Marques; Goulart, Carolina Tonini; Lopes, Luis Felipe Dias; Serrano, Patrícia Maria; Costa, Ana Lucia Siqueira; de Azevedo Guido, Laura

    2014-03-30

    Nursing students may exhibit the characteristics of resistance to stress, such as hardiness, which can reduce the risk of burnout. However, we found only one published study about these phenomena among nursing students. Thus, we investigated the association between hardiness and burnout in such students. An analytic, cross-sectional study was conducted among 570 nursing students from three Brazilian universities. Data were collected relating to sociodemographic characteristics, hardiness, and burnout, which we analyzed using inferential statistics. We observed that 64.04% of nursing students in the sample had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 35.79% had a high level of cynicism, and 87.72% had a low level of professional efficacy: these are dimensions of burnout. We also found that 48.77% had a high level of control, 61.40% a high level of commitment, and 35.44% a high level of challenge: these are dimensions of hardiness. Only 24.74% of the students experienced burnout, and 21.93% met the criteria for a hardy personality. There was a statistically significant difference between the frequency of hardiness and burnout (p = 0.033), with 68.00% of hardy students not exhibiting burnout. Although nursing students live with educational stressors, burnout was not preponderant in our sample students; this may be linked to hardiness. Thus, given its benefits to student life and health, we recommend the development of strategies to promote hardiness among nursing students.

  3. Hardy personality and burnout syndrome among nursing students in three Brazilian universities—an analytic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Nursing students may exhibit the characteristics of resistance to stress, such as hardiness, which can reduce the risk of burnout. However, we found only one published study about these phenomena among nursing students. Thus, we investigated the association between hardiness and burnout in such students. Methods An analytic, cross-sectional study was conducted among 570 nursing students from three Brazilian universities. Data were collected relating to sociodemographic characteristics, hardiness, and burnout, which we analyzed using inferential statistics. Results We observed that 64.04% of nursing students in the sample had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 35.79% had a high level of cynicism, and 87.72% had a low level of professional efficacy: these are dimensions of burnout. We also found that 48.77% had a high level of control, 61.40% a high level of commitment, and 35.44% a high level of challenge: these are dimensions of hardiness. Only 24.74% of the students experienced burnout, and 21.93% met the criteria for a hardy personality. There was a statistically significant difference between the frequency of hardiness and burnout (p = 0.033), with 68.00% of hardy students not exhibiting burnout. Conclusions Although nursing students live with educational stressors, burnout was not preponderant in our sample students; this may be linked to hardiness. Thus, given its benefits to student life and health, we recommend the development of strategies to promote hardiness among nursing students. PMID:24678676

  4. The prevalence and consequences of burnout on a group of preclinical dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalayin, Cigdem; Balkis, Murat; Tezel, Huseyin; Onal, Banu; Kayrak, Gul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of burnout among a group of Turkish preclinical dental students, to compare the level of burnout and to determine the consequences in structural equation model. Preclinical dental students (n = 329, 50.5% of females and 49.5% of males) aged between 18 and 24 took part in the study. Maslach burnout inventory student version, academic satisfaction scale, and personal information sheet were used to gather data. Pearson correlation analyses, t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. The proposed theoretical model was tested via observed variable path analysis using maximum likelihood parameter estimation with AMOS 7.0. About 22.3% of students had high level of emotional exhaustion, 16.7% of students had high level of cynicism, and 17.9% of students suffered from high level of reduced academic efficacy. While the students attending the first grade reported higher level of reduced academic efficacy, the students in the third grade reported higher level of emotional exhaustion. Academic workload played an important role in the development of burnout. As consequences of burnout, students with high levels of burnout intended to change their current major and did not to plan to continue to postgraduate education. Students with high level of burnout reported less level of academic satisfaction and academic achievement. Creating awareness on the burnout of dental students from the preclinical period may be useful for prevention and more compatible dental education environment.

  5. Why do perfectionists have a higher burnout risk than others? The mediational effect of workaholism

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    van Beek, Ilona

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has revealed that perfectionists have a higher burnout risk than others, but the mechanisms accounting for this association have rarely been examined. The present study proposes that workaholism mediates this relation, as previous research revealed that (a perfectionists are more likely to be workaholics than others, and (b workaholics have a higher burnout risk than others. Using cross-sectional data from 199 Dutch managers, regression analyses revealed that holding high standards towards oneself (a self-directed indicator of perfectionism was unrelated to any of the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. However, high concern over making mistakes in the face of others (representing socially prescribed perfectionism was systematically associated with high levels of burnout and workaholism. Moreover, workaholism was positively associated with high levels of exhaustion. Subsequent mediation analysis revealed that the association between (the socially prescribed aspect of perfectionism and burnout (emotional exhaustion was mediated by workaholism.

  6. Factors Associated With Burnout Among US Hospital Clinical Pharmacy Practitioners: Results of a Nationwide Pilot Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G Morgan; Roe, Neil A; Louden, Les; Tubbs, Crystal R

    2017-12-01

    Background: In health care, burnout has been defined as a psychological process whereby human service professionals attempting to positively impact the lives of others become overwhelmed and frustrated by unforeseen job stressors. Burnout among various physician groups who primarily practice in the hospital setting has been extensively studied; however, no evidence exists regarding burnout among hospital clinical pharmacists. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the level of and identify factors independently associated with burnout among clinical pharmacists practicing in an inpatient hospital setting within the United States. Methods: We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional pilot study utilizing an online, Qualtrics survey. Univariate analysis related to burnout was conducted, with multivariable logistic regression analysis used to identify factors independently associated with the burnout. Results: A total of 974 responses were analyzed (11.4% response rate). The majority were females who had practiced pharmacy for a median of 8 years. The burnout rate was high (61.2%) and largely driven by high emotional exhaustion. On multivariable analysis, we identified several subjective factors as being predictors of burnout, including inadequate administrative and teaching time, uncertainty of health care reform, too many nonclinical duties, difficult pharmacist colleagues, and feeling that contributions are underappreciated. Conclusions: The burnout rate of hospital clinical pharmacy providers was very high in this pilot survey. However, the overall response rate was low at 11.4%. The negative effects of burnout require further study and intervention to determine the influence of burnout on the lives of clinical pharmacists and on other health care-related outcomes.

  7. Burnout Syndrome During Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Namigar; Karacalar, Serap; Polat, Cengiz; Kıran, Özlem; Gültop, Fethi; Kalyon, Seray Türkmen; Sinoğlu, Betül; Zincirci, Mehmet; Kaya, Ender

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is identified the degree of Burnout Syndrome (BOS) and find out its correlation with years of recidency and sociodemograpfic chareacteristics, training, sleeping habits, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. After approval from the Hospital Ethics Committee and obtaining informed consent, First, second, third, fourth and fifth year of recidency staff (n=127) working in our hospital were involved in this study. The standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used in this study. Fifty six male (44.1%) and seventy one female (55.9%) residents were enroled in this study (Coranbach Alfa(α)=0.873). 57% of the first year residents smokes cigaret and 54% of them use alcohol. 2% of them gets one day off after hospital night shift, 61% of them suffers from disturbed sleep. 60% of them had been stated that they willingly selected their profession. 61% of them prefers talking to friends and 32% of them prefers shopping to overcome stress. There were statistical difference acording to years of recidency in MBI, Emotional Burnout (EB) and desensitisation scale (DS) points. EB scale points of the second year of residency group was statisticaly higher than fourth year of residency group. DS points of second year of residency group was also statisticaly higher than the third and fourth year of residency group. There was no statistical difference between any groups in Personal Success. BOS is a frequent problem during residency in anaesthesia. Appropriate definition and awareness are the first important steps to prevent this syndrome. Further administrative approaches should be evaluated with regard to their effects.

  8. Professional burnout and work stress among Israeli dental assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziel, Nir; Meyerson, Joseph; Birenzweig, Yonatan; Eli, Ilana

    2018-05-16

    Professional burnout and work-related stress are known problems that have been the subject of in-depth examination among dentists. Nevertheless, these issues have not been widely studied among dental assistants. The aims of this study were threefold: to confirm the structure of a Work Stress Inventory (WSI) for Dental Assistants which was originally developed for Jordanian dental assistants (factor analysis); to evaluate work stress and burnout among Israeli dental assistants and to discover the factors predicting Israeli assistants' burnout (regression analyses). The Maslach Burnout Inventory and the WSI were distributed by mail and in person. Varimax factor analysis revealed that the items which contribute to different aspects of work stress are similar among both Jordanian and Israeli populations. Among the 299 Israeli dental assistants who completed the questionnaires, the most stressful work-related factors were income, workload, and work hazards. Eighteen percent of the participants exhibited a high to very high level of burnout. Participants exhibited a moderate level of emotional exhaustion (EE), low level of depersonalization (DP), and high level of personal accomplishment (PA). Most WSI factors were found to correlate positively with EE and DP. Linear stepwise regression analyses revealed that the best predictor of EE was the dentist‒assistant relationship, followed by workload, patient type, and salary. The best predictor of DP was patient suffering followed by dentist‒assistant relationship, years of professional experience, and work hazards. Professional stress and burnout among dental assistants are important factors that can possibly affect the wellbeing of both dental personnel and their patients. Further studies are necessary to better understand these factors in addition to the effects of personal relationships on burnout among dentists and their assistants.

  9. An experimental investigation of forced convection burnout in high pressure water. Part IV, Large diameter tubes at about 1600 p.s.i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.H.

    1966-11-01

    The report presents 727 burnout results for tubes with uniform and non-uniform axial heat flux profiles. Most of the data are at 1600 p.s.i, although there are a limited number at 1250 and 1800 p.s.i. Tube diameters ranged from 0.5 to 1.8 inches. A new correlation for uniform flax data at these pressures is presented, having R.M.S. errors between 4 and 6%. A table of constant terms for this new uniform flux correlation is given, together with Macbeth's values for pressures of 560, 1000 and 2000 p.s.i. Experimental and predicted burnout powers for non-uniform axial heat fluxes are compared and the existing methods of prediction are found to be in error by up to 20%. A new method for predicting burnout with non-uniform axial heat flux is developed which correlates all published data to an R.M.S. error of 6.7%. (author)

  10. Correlation between burnout and professional value in Chinese oncology nurses: A questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Clinical implication: The prevalence of job burnout in oncology nurses is high, and this could be improved by increasing perception of professional value. It is urgent for managers to strengthen professional value education and to take strategies that reduce job burnout, which is important for the overall quality and safety of nursing.

  11. Demand–Control Model and its Relationship with Burnout Syndrome in Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Heidari Pahlavian

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Based on the results of the study should be stated that if job control and psychological job demand were high, nurses will not be prone to burnout. And also occurrence of burnout in reduced personal accomplishment dimension among nurses who reported their job had low psychosocial demand and low control, was more than others.

  12. The Relationship between Teacher Stress and Burnout in Hong Kong: Positive Humour and Gender as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sammy K.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report on the relationship between positive humour and burnout among 379 secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and explore whether the relationship varies according to gender. The moderating effects of both affiliative and self-enhancing humour on each burnout component were then examined. High affiliative and self-enhancing…

  13. Job burnout and employee engagement : A meta-analytic examination of construct proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, M.S.; Walter, F.; Bedeian, A.G.; O'Boyle, E.H.

    Drawing on 50 unique samples (from 37 studies), the authors used meta-analytical techniques to assess the extent to which job burnout and employee engagement are independent and useful constructs. The authors found that (a) dimension-level correlations between burnout and engagement are high, (b)

  14. An Examination of Academic Burnout versus Work Engagement among Taiwanese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2012-01-01

    The author attempted to examine how Taiwanese junior high school students' perfectionistic tendencies and achievement goals were related to their academic burnout versus work engagement, and to determine differences in the indicators of burnout versus engagement among students with different subtypes of perfectionism. A total of 456 eighth-grade…

  15. Burnout among Slovenian family medicine trainees: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Selič

    2012-03-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of burnout syndrome among family medicine trainees is high and consistent with data from other studies among the physicians worldwide using the same instrument. Family medicine trainees are at risk of burnout regardless of their demographic characteristics. Increased workload affects EE and D.

  16. Teacher- and School-Level Predictors of Teacher Efficacy and Burnout: Identifying Potential Areas for Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, Elise T.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Hershfeldt, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies relate low teacher efficacy and high burnout to the quality of instruction and students' academic achievement, there has been limited research examining factors that predict teacher efficacy and burnout. The current study employed a longitudinal, multilevel modeling approach to examine the influence of teacher- and…

  17. [Burnout in volunteer health workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentero, P; Bonfiglio, N S; Pasero, R

    2006-01-01

    While diverse studies carried out in nursing and medical personnel have demonstrated that health workers can be subject to burnout, little effort has been focused on investigating burnout in volunteer hospital workers. The aim of the present study was to verify if burnout exists with volunteer auxiliary personnel and investigate what organizational conditions may favour it. The study was carried out on 80 volunteer workers of the Red Cross of Mortara (PV), subdivided into two categories: those performing emergency interventions and those performing routine services. For the evaluation of burnout, the Italian version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, together with a qualitative type of methodology. A 5-factor multivariate analysis (sex x shift x team x seniority x role), having as dependent variables the three scales of the MBI, showed that the highest values of depersonalization and fulfillment are found in the emergency team, and that subjects with least seniority are those who are least satisfied or fulfilled. The category of team-leader resulted as that with the highest values of emotional burnout, while sex- and shift-based differences were restricted to routine service workers. Despite these differences, findings showed that subjects are minimally affected by problems linked to burnout, although some relational and organizational difficulties emerged with the medical staff that underlie a certain degree of professional dissatisfaction.

  18. Mechanism and prediction of burnout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, G.F.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture begins by discussing the definitions of burnout and the various parametric effects as seen from the results for burnout measurements in uniformly heated round tubes. The correlations which are developed from these measurements and their applications to the case of non-uniform axial distribution of heat flux is then discussed in general terms as an illustration of the importance of knowing more about the nature and mechanism of the burnout. The next section of the lecture is concerned with summarizing broadly the various possible mechanisms in both the sub-cooled region and the quality region. It transpires that, for tubes of reasonable length, the normal first occurrence of burnout is in the annular flow regime. A discussion of burnout mechanisms in this regime then follows, with descriptions of the various experimental techniques evolved to study the mechanism. The final section of the lecture is concerned with prediction methods for burnout in annular flow and the application of these methods to prediction of burnout in round tubes, annuli and rod bundles, with a variety of fluids

  19. Burnout and its Influencing Factors among Primary Health Care Providers in the North East of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammad; Khosravi, Ahmad; Eghtesadi, Ahmad Reza; Sadeghi, Zakieh; Abedi, Ghasem; Ranjbar, Mansour; Mehrabian, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    Burnout is a popular research topics in service providing jobs, including the health care field. This study aimed at assessing the level of job burnout and to consider the important antecedents which might be related to job burnout among primary health care providers in Iran. The participants in this applied cross-sectional study which was conducted in 2013 were 548 primary health care providers who were randomly selected from among those working in Shahroud, Sabzevar, Neishabour, Bojnord (provinces located in the north east of Iran). Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was administered to the participants and the collected data were analyzed using SPSS through chi-square test and ordinal logistic regression model. The burnout mean score among the participants was 54.1 ± 27.2 and the mean scores of burnout components i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment were 15.5 ± 13.6, 3.7 ± 5.4 and 35.5 ± 13.5 respectively. In terms of levels of burnout, 64.2% of the participants showed low levels (n = 352), 18.4% average levels (n = 101) and 17.3% high levels (n = 95). A significant relationship was observed between burnout, job resources and interest in job (p ≤ 0.05). However, no significant relationship was observed between burnout and the place (university) of working, age, satisfaction with income, experience, gender, level of education, marital status, housing status, having a second job and place of residence (p ≥0.05). Lack of personal accomplishment was highly prevalent among the participating primary health care providers. Lack of career advancement and job transfer opportunities may play a role in the burnout of primary health care providers. Therefore, paying attention to this aspect may help to reduce burnout and even increase job engagement.

  20. Burnout and its Influencing Factors among Primary Health Care Providers in the North East of Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amiri

    Full Text Available Burnout is a popular research topics in service providing jobs, including the health care field. This study aimed at assessing the level of job burnout and to consider the important antecedents which might be related to job burnout among primary health care providers in Iran.The participants in this applied cross-sectional study which was conducted in 2013 were 548 primary health care providers who were randomly selected from among those working in Shahroud, Sabzevar, Neishabour, Bojnord (provinces located in the north east of Iran. Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was administered to the participants and the collected data were analyzed using SPSS through chi-square test and ordinal logistic regression model.The burnout mean score among the participants was 54.1 ± 27.2 and the mean scores of burnout components i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment were 15.5 ± 13.6, 3.7 ± 5.4 and 35.5 ± 13.5 respectively. In terms of levels of burnout, 64.2% of the participants showed low levels (n = 352, 18.4% average levels (n = 101 and 17.3% high levels (n = 95. A significant relationship was observed between burnout, job resources and interest in job (p ≤ 0.05. However, no significant relationship was observed between burnout and the place (university of working, age, satisfaction with income, experience, gender, level of education, marital status, housing status, having a second job and place of residence (p ≥0.05.Lack of personal accomplishment was highly prevalent among the participating primary health care providers. Lack of career advancement and job transfer opportunities may play a role in the burnout of primary health care providers. Therefore, paying attention to this aspect may help to reduce burnout and even increase job engagement.

  1. Enriched environment at work: Disassociated from stress and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Francisca S; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2018-05-22

    Enriched environment at work (EEW), in terms of high mental demands at work, may be of great relevance for preventative efforts against cognitive decline and dementia as previous studies have shown. Yet, there is the concern that high EEW mental demands may accelerate stress and cause burnout. The aim of our study was to investigate how EEW mental demands are related to stress and burnout. A convenience sample of employees in the city area of Leipzig, Germany, was asked to fill out the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and indicate for each EEW mental demand the level experienced, demandingness, and stressfulness. Multivariate linear regression and structural equation modelling suggested that only some EEW mental demands were perceived as stressful when the level of the respective EEW mental demand was high. Higher stressfulness was associated with burnout symptoms - however, high levels of EEW mental demands were not significantly associated with burnout (neither directly nor indirectly). Our findings implied that subjectively perceived stressfulness seems to be a more relevant aspect than the actual level of the demand itself. However, further studies are necessary to validate our findings.

  2. Students' Satisfaction with Life and Its Relation to School Burnout

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    Vali Mehdinezhad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between school burnout and satisfaction with life for students in grade of 7th to 9th. A quantitative method used in this study. 351 subjects were selected using stratified sampling. The two questionnaires employed here were The Satisfaction with Life Scale with five items of the Diener et al. (1985 and School-Burnout Inventory with nine items and three component - exhaustion at schoolwork (EXH, cynicism toward the meaning of school (CYN, and sense of inadequacy at School (INAD - measures of school burnout of the Salmela-Aro et al. (2009. The findings of this study showed that the high school students described their satisfaction with life in relatively satisfactory and they have described their level of school burnout lower than average. The results also showed their school burnout in component of exhaustion at schoolwork was above average and in Components of cynicism toward the meaning of school, and sense of inadequacy at School were lower than average. The results showed that in overall there was no significant correlation between satisfaction with life and school burnout. However, there was relatively low positive correlation between students' satisfaction with life and exhaustion at schoolwork, relatively low negative correlation between students' satisfaction with life and cynicism toward the meaning of school, and no any significance correlation between students' satisfaction with life and sense of inadequacy at school. The results of stepwise regression showed that sub-dimensions of high school burnout scale together explained a total of 14.5 % of the variance in the satisfaction with life for the students in this study.

  3. Defining the student burnout construct: a structural analysis from three burnout inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    2012-12-01

    College student burnout has been assessed mainly with the Maslach burnout inventory (MBI). However, the construct's definition and measurement with MBI has drawn several criticisms and new inventories have been suggested for the evaluation of the syndrome. A redefinition of the construct of student burnout is proposed by means of a structural equation model, reflecting burnout as a second order factor defined by factors from the MBI-student survey (MBI-SS); the Copenhagen burnout inventory-student survey (CBI-SS) and the Oldenburg burnout inventory-student survey (OLBI-SS). Standardized regression weights from Burnout to Exhaustion and Cynicism from the MBI-SS scale, personal burnout and studies related burnout from the CBI, and exhaustion and disengagement from OLBI, show that these factors are strong manifestations of students' burnout. For college students, the burnout construct is best defined by two dimensions described as "physical and psychological exhaustion" and "cynicism and disengagement".

  4. Prediction of burnout. Chapter 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    A broad survey is made of the effect on burnout heat flux of various system parameters to give the reader a better initial idea of the significance of changes in individual parameters. A detailed survey is then made of various correlation equations for predicting burnout for steam -water in uniformly heated tubes, annuli, rectangular channels and rod clusters, giving details of recommended equations. Finally comments are made on the influence of heat-flux profile and swirl flow on burnout, and on the definition of dryout margin. (author)

  5. Psychosocial and professional characteristics of burnout in Swiss primary care practitioners: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, Catherine; Bouvier Gallacchi, Martine; Künzi, Beat; Bovier, Patrick

    2005-02-19

    To measure the prevalence of burnout and explore its professional and psychosocial predictors among Swiss primary care practitioners. A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted to measure burnout, work-related stressors, professional and psychosocial characteristics among a representative sample of primary care practitioners. Answers to the Maslach burnout inventory were used to categorize respondents into moderate and high degree of burnout. 1784 physicians responded to the survey (65% response rate) and 1755 questionnaires could be analysed. 19% of respondents had a high score for emotional exhaustion, 22% had a high score for depersonalisation/cynicism and 16% had a low score for professional accomplishment; 32% had a high score on either the emotional exhaustion or the depersonalisation/cynicism scale (moderate degree of burnout) and 4% had scores in the range of burnout in all three scales (high degree of burnout). Predictors of moderate burnout were male sex, age 45-55 years and excessive perceived stress due to global workload, health-insurance-related work, difficulties to balance professional and private life, changes in the health care system and medical care uncertainty. A high degree of burnout was associated with male sex, practicing in a rural area, and excessive perceived stress due to global workload, patient's expectations, difficulties to balance professional and private life, economic constraints in relation to the practice, medical care uncertainty and difficult relations with non-medical staff at the practice. About one third of Swiss primary care practitioners presented a moderate or a high degree of burnout, which was mainly associated with extrinsic work-related stressors. Medical doctors and politicians in charge of redesigning the health care system should address this phenomenon to maintain an efficient Swiss primary care physician workforce in the future.

  6. Burnout among paramedic students at a university in Johannesburg South Africa

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    C Stein

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Burnout has been studied in several emergency medical services contexts and has been found to be high compared with that found in other health professions. Although burnout among students has been described in several healthcare disciplines, this has not been done in the field of prehospital emergency care.Objectives. To determine the prevalence of burnout among students in a 4-year university paramedic degree programme and to assess whether there was any significant difference in the prevalence of burnout among students during the 4 years of study.Methods. In this cross-sectional survey all students enrolled in a 4-year university paramedic degree programme were invited to participate. The questionnaire consisted of 19 questions from the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI, combined with distractor questions. Responses were analysed descriptively and one-way analysis of variance was used to compare CBI scores across the 4 academic years of study.Results. An 85% (n=93 response rate was obtained. The overall prevalence of burnout was 31%. Mean CBI scores across all academic years of study were highest for personal burnout, followed by work-related burnout and patient care-related burnout. The highest prevalence of students with burnout was in the 4th year, as was the highest prevalence of work-related and personal burnout. The second highest prevalence of students with burnout was in the 1st year, as was the highest prevalence of patient care-related burnout. No significant difference was found in CBI total burnout scores across the 4 years of study.Conclusion. Although there are no directly comparable data, the prevalence of burnout in this group of students appears to be high, particularly in the 1st and 4th years of study. Steps should be taken to ensure access to social and psychological support to avoid a negative impact on academic success and student wellbeing.

  7. Mindfulness, burnout, and effects on performance evaluations in internal medicine residents

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    Braun SE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarah E Braun,1 Stephen M Auerbach,1 Bruce Rybarczyk,1 Bennett Lee,2 Stephanie Call2 1Department of Psychology, School of Humanities and Sciences, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Purpose: Burnout has been documented at high levels in medical residents with negative effects on performance. Some dispositional qualities, like mindfulness, may protect against burnout. The purpose of the present study was to assess burnout prevalence among internal medicine residents at a single institution, examine the relationship between mindfulness and burnout, and provide preliminary findings on the relation between burnout and performance evaluations in internal medicine residents.Methods: Residents (n = 38 completed validated measures of burnout at three time points separated by 2 months and a validated measure of dispositional mindfulness at baseline. Program director end-of-year performance evaluations were also obtained on 22 milestones used to evaluate internal medicine resident performance; notably, these milestones have not yet been validated for research purposes; therefore, the investigation here is exploratory.Results: Overall, 71.1% (n = 27 of the residents met criteria for burnout during the study. Lower scores on the “acting with awareness” facet of dispositional mindfulness significantly predicted meeting burnout criteria χ2(5 = 11.88, p = 0.04. Lastly, meeting burnout criteria significantly predicted performance on three of the performance milestones, with positive effects on milestones from the “system-based practices” and “professionalism” domains and negative effects on a milestone from the “patient care” domain.Conclusion: Burnout rates were high in this sample of internal medicine residents and rates were consistent with other reports of burnout during medical residency. Dispositional

  8. Carbon nanofibers grafted on activated carbon as an electrode in high-power supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewicz, Grażyna; Śliwak, Agata; Béguin, François

    2013-08-01

    A hybrid electrode material for high-power supercapacitors was fabricated by grafting carbon nanofibers (CNFs) onto the surface of powdered activated carbon (AC) through catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). A uniform thin layer of disentangled CNFs with a herringbone structure was deposited on the carbon surface through the decomposition of propane at 450 °C over an AC-supported nickel catalyst. CNF coating was controlled by the reaction time and the nickel content. The superior CNF/AC composite displays excellent electrochemical performance in a 0.5 mol L(-1) solution of K2 SO4 due to its unique structure. At a high scan rate (100 mV s(-1) ) and current loading (20 A g(-1) ), the capacitance values were three- and fourfold higher than those for classical AC/carbon black composites. Owing to this feature, a high energy of 10 Wh kg(-1) was obtained over a wide power range in neutral medium at a voltage of 0.8 V. The significant enhancement of charge propagation is attributed to the presence of herringbone CNFs, which facilitate the diffusion of ions in the electrode and play the role of electronic bridges between AC particles. An in situ coating of AC with short CNFs (below 200 nm) is a very attractive method for producing the next generation of carbon composite materials with a high power performance in supercapacitors working in neutral medium. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Factors associated with burnout syndrome in medical residents of a university hospital

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    Pedro Alves da Cruz Gouveia

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome among resident physicians of various specialties and to evaluate associated factors. Method: The Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire and a sociodemographic questionnaire were used to evaluate factors associated with the syndrome. Burnout was defined as the association of high emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional achievement. Multivariate analysis was performed after adjustment of the Poisson model with the identification of risk factors and calculation of prevalence ratios (PR. Of the 250 resident physicians registered with Hospital das Clínicas of Pernambuco, 129 participated in the study. Results: In the three domains that characterize burnout syndrome, we found a low level of professional achievement in 94.6% of resident physicians interviewed, a high level of depersonalization in 31.8%, and 59.7% with a high level of emotional exhaustion. The prevalence of burnout was 27.9%. Having suffered a stressful event in the last six months (PR: 8.10; 95CI 1.2-57.2 and being a student of surgical specialty (PR: 1.99; 95CI 1.2-3.3 were independently associated with burnout. Conclusion: The prevalence of burnout found in resident physicians is in accordance with previous Brazilian studies. Residents of surgical specialties and those who suffered some stressful event were identified as susceptible in this study. The early identification of risk factors is fundamental for the implementation of preventive measures against burnout syndrome.

  10. Factors associated with burnout syndrome in medical residents of a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Pedro Alves da Cruz; Ribeiro, Maria Hosana Chaves; Aschoff, Carlos Alberto de Moura; Gomes, Doris Pires; Silva, Nadine Anita Fonseca da; Cavalcanti, Helton Alexsandro Firmino

    2017-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome among resident physicians of various specialties and to evaluate associated factors. The Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire and a sociodemographic questionnaire were used to evaluate factors associated with the syndrome. Burnout was defined as the association of high emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional achievement. Multivariate analysis was performed after adjustment of the Poisson model with the identification of risk factors and calculation of prevalence ratios (PR). Of the 250 resident physicians registered with Hospital das Clínicas of Pernambuco, 129 participated in the study. In the three domains that characterize burnout syndrome, we found a low level of professional achievement in 94.6% of resident physicians interviewed, a high level of depersonalization in 31.8%, and 59.7% with a high level of emotional exhaustion. The prevalence of burnout was 27.9%. Having suffered a stressful event in the last six months (PR: 8.10; 95CI 1.2-57.2) and being a student of surgical specialty (PR: 1.99; 95CI 1.2-3.3) were independently associated with burnout. The prevalence of burnout found in resident physicians is in accordance with previous Brazilian studies. Residents of surgical specialties and those who suffered some stressful event were identified as susceptible in this study. The early identification of risk factors is fundamental for the implementation of preventive measures against burnout syndrome.

  11. Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassila, David H [Aptos, CA; Bonner, Brian P [Livermore, CA

    2011-12-13

    A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

  12. Burnout in the neonatal intensive care unit and its relation to healthcare-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, D S; Sexton, J B; Kan, P; Sharek, P J; Nisbet, C C; Rigdon, J; Lee, H C; Profit, J

    2017-03-01

    To examine burnout prevalence among California neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and to test the relation between burnout and healthcare-associated infection (HAI) rates in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. Retrospective observational study of provider perceptions of burnout from 2073 nurse practitioners, physicians, registered nurses and respiratory therapists, using a validated four-item questionnaire based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The relation between burnout and HAI rates among VLBW (<1500 g) neonates from each NICU was evaluated using multi-level logistic regression analysis with patient-level factors as fixed effects. We found variable prevalence of burnout across the NICUs surveyed (mean 25.2±10.1%). Healthcare-associated infection rates were 8.3±5.1% during the study period. Highest burnout prevalence was found among nurses, nurse practitioners and respiratory therapists (non-physicians, 28±11% vs 17±19% physicians), day shift workers (30±3% vs 25±4% night shift) and workers with 5 or more years of service (29±2% vs 16±6% in fewer than 3 years group). Overall burnout rates showed no correlation with risk-adjusted rates of HAIs (r=-0.133). Item-level analysis showed positive association between HAIs and perceptions of working too hard (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.28). Sensitivity analysis of high-volume NICUs suggested a moderate correlation between burnout prevalence and HAIs (r=0.34). Burnout is most prevalent among non-physicians, daytime workers and experienced workers. Perceptions of working too hard associate with increased HAIs in this cohort of VLBW infants, but overall burnout prevalence is not predictive.

  13. Psycho-cognitive predictors of burnout in healthcare professionals working in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, Marianna; Cutica, Ilaria; Russo, Selena; Mazzocco, Ketti; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2018-07-01

    Healthcare professionals working in emergency departments commonly experience high work pressure and stress due to witnessing human suffering and the unpredictable nature of the work. Several studies have identified variables that affect burnout syndrome, but poor data are available about the predictors of the different dimensions of burnout (depersonalisation, emotional exhaustion, professional inefficacy and disillusionment). Some research has suggested that alexithymia, coping style and decision-making style may predict burnout. We conducted a noninterventional study to investigate whether and how alexithymia, coping style and decision-making style are associated with the different dimensions of burnout. We recruited a convenience sample of 93 healthcare professionals working in an Italian emergency departments. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing their level of burnout (the Link Burnout Questionnaire), and possible burnout predictors: decision-making style, alexithymia and the coping style. Four bivariate linear regressions were performed to define the predictors that characterised the dimensions of burnout. We found that an avoidant decision-making style and a difficulty to identify and describe feelings (a difficulty close to alexithymia even though not as severe) are strong predictors of some burnout dimensions. Individuals who experience relational depersonalisation are more likely to turn to religion as a way to cope. Our research shows that, to some extent, difficulties in emotion regulation and the attitude to avoid or postpone decisions characterised burnout. These results might be used to develop tailored psycho-educational interventions. This might help healthcare professionals to develop personal skills to cope with the critical conditions that characterise their work and to enable them to recognise potential risk factors that favour burnout. This has pivotal implications for the maintenance of the patient-healthcare professional

  14. Calcium carbonate as a possible dosimeter for high irradiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron M, A.; Ramos B, S.; Camargo R, C.; Uribe, R. M.; Gomez V, V.; Kobayashi, K.

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the interactions of 5 MeV electron beam radiation and a 290 MeV/u Carbon beam with calcium carbonate (powder) at 298 K and at different irradiation doses, for the potential use of calcium carbonate as a high-dose dosimeter. The irradiation doses with the electron beam were from 0.015 to 9 MGy, and with Carbon beam from 1.5 kGy to 8 kGy. High-energy radiation induces the formation of free radicals in solid calcium carbonate that can be detected and measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). An increase of the EPR response for some of the free radicals produced in the sample was observed as a function of the irradiation dose. The response of one of the radicals decreased with the dose. These measurements are reproducible; the preparation of the sample is simple and inexpensive; and the signal is stable for several months. The response curves show that the dosimeter tends to saturate at 10 MGy. Based on these properties, we propose this chemical compound as a high-dose dosimeter, mainly for electron irradiation. (author)

  15. Calcium carbonate as a possible dosimeter for high irradiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negron M, A.; Ramos B, S.; Camargo R, C. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Uribe, R. M. [Kent State University, College of Technology, Kent OH (United States); Gomez V, V. [UNAM, Instituto de Quimica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Kobayashi, K., E-mail: negron@nucleares.unam.mx [Yokohama National University (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this work is to analyze the interactions of 5 MeV electron beam radiation and a 290 MeV/u Carbon beam with calcium carbonate (powder) at 298 K and at different irradiation doses, for the potential use of calcium carbonate as a high-dose dosimeter. The irradiation doses with the electron beam were from 0.015 to 9 MGy, and with Carbon beam from 1.5 kGy to 8 kGy. High-energy radiation induces the formation of free radicals in solid calcium carbonate that can be detected and measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). An increase of the EPR response for some of the free radicals produced in the sample was observed as a function of the irradiation dose. The response of one of the radicals decreased with the dose. These measurements are reproducible; the preparation of the sample is simple and inexpensive; and the signal is stable for several months. The response curves show that the dosimeter tends to saturate at 10 MGy. Based on these properties, we propose this chemical compound as a high-dose dosimeter, mainly for electron irradiation. (author)

  16. Burnout, vicarious traumatization and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pross, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies on burnout and vicarious traumatization are reviewed and summarized with a list of signs and symptoms. From the author's own observations two histories of caregivers working with torture survivors are described which exemplify the risk,implications and consequences of secondary trauma. Contributing factors in the social and political framework in which caregivers operate are analyzed and possible means of prevention suggested, particularly focussing on the conflict of roles when providing evaluations on trauma victims for health and immigration authorities. Caregivers working with victims of violence carry a high risk of suffering from burnout and vicarious traumatization unless preventive factors are considered such as: self care, solid professional training in psychotherapy, therapeutic self-awareness, regular self-examination by collegial and external supervision, limiting caseload, continuing professional education and learning about new concepts in trauma, occasional research sabbaticals, keeping a balance between empathy and a proper professional distance to clients, protecting oneself against being mislead by clients with fictitious PTSD. An institutional setting should be provided in which the roles of therapists and evaluators are separated. Important factors for burnout and vicarious traumatization are the lack of social recognition for caregivers and the financial and legal outsider status of many centers. Therefore politicians and social insurance carriers should be urged to integrate facilities for traumatized refugees into the general health care system and centers should work on more alliances with the medical mainstream and academic medicine.

  17. Health Care Provider Burnout in a United States Military Medical Center During a Period of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Paul; Millegan, Jeffrey; Delaney, Eileen; Roesch, Scott; Sanders, Martha; Mak, Heather; Mallahan, Leonard; Raducha, Stephanie; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Provider burnout can impact efficiency, empathy, and medical errors. Our study examines burnout in a military medical center during a period of war. A survey including the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), deployment history, and work variables was distributed to health care providers. MBI subscale means were calculated and associations between variables were analyzed. Approximately 60% of 523 respondents were active duty and 34% had deployed. MBI subscale means were 19.99 emotional exhaustion, 4.84 depersonalization, and 40.56 personal accomplishment. Frustration over administrative support was associated with high emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; frustration over life/work balance was associated with high emotional exhaustion. Levels of burnout in our sample were similar to civilian medical centers. Sources of frustration were related to administrative support and life/work balance. Deployment had no effect on burnout levels. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Burnout in the staff of a chronic care hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Plaza, Maria Jose; Carrera-Hueso, Francisco Javier; Arribas-Boscá, Nuria; Martínez-Asensi, Amparo; Trull-Maravilla, Emilia; Fikri-Benbrahim, Narjis

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of Burnout in a medium or long-stay hospital, to monitor its evolution and to highlight the importance of cut-off points used to avoid distortions in the interpretation of the results. METHODS Two cross-sectional studies (2013–2016) were carried out, applying the Spanish version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory to the staff of a chronic care hospital (n = 323). Result variables were: Burnout prevalence and a high degree of affectation of the subscales and predictor variables: sociodemographic characteristics and factors that trigger and modulate the syndrome. The association between variables was quantified using odds ratio. RESULTS The participation rate went from 31.5% to 39.3%. The professionals presented a mean level of Burnout in both moments, observing a lower degree of affectation of the depersonalization subscales and personal accomplishment in the 2016 cut-off. The average score of the subscales in 2016 was 21.5 for emotional fatigue, 4.7 for depersonalization and 41.7 for personal fulfillment, compared to the values of emotional fatigue = 21.6, depersonalization = 6.9 and personal fulfillment = 36.3 obtained in 2013. The emotional fatigue score was slightly higher than the mean value of the national studies (19.9), while the rest of the values were similar to the mean values of the studies considered. The prevalence of Burnout and the interpretation of the results varied significantly according to the cut-off points considered. In both studies, sociodemographic variables showed little significance, while social support and interpersonal relationships were associated with the degree of burnout among professionals. CONCLUSIONS Our prevalence of Burnout was similar to that of other studies consulted, although the emotional component is more marked in our environment. The interpretation of the results varied significantly according to the cut-off points applied, due to the cross-cultural differences. PMID

  19. Burnout, anxiety, depression, and social skills in medical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Lima, K; Loureiro, S R

    2015-01-01

    The medical residency is recognized as a risk period for the development of burnout and mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression, which have impact on the physician and clientele alike. There is a need for studies that address conditions of risk and protection for the development of such problems. This study aimed to verify the rates of burnout, anxiety, and depression presented by resident physicians, as well as the associations of these problems with social skills, as potential protective factors. The hypothesis was defined that the problems (burnout, anxiety, and depression) would be negatively associated with social skills. A total of 305 medical residents, of both genders, of different specialties, from clinical and surgical areas of a Brazilian university hospital were evaluated using the following standardized self-report instruments: Burnout Syndrome Inventory, Social Skills Inventory, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-4. High rates of burnout and mental health problems were verified and social skills were negatively associated with burnout dimensions such as emotional exhaustion, emotional detachment, and dehumanization, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. Furthermore, residents with indicators of problems presented significantly lower social skills means than those of residents without indicators of burnout, anxiety, or depression. More studies are needed, which include other types of instruments in addition to self-report ones and evaluate not only social skills but also social competence in the professional practice. These should adopt intervention and longitudinal designs that allow the continuity or overcoming of the problems to be verified. Since social skills can be learned, the results of the study highlight the importance of developing the interpersonal skills of the professionals during the training of resident physicians in order to improve their practice.

  20. Occupational Stress and Burnout among Surgeons in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajeev; Huggard, Peter; van Toledo, Annik

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the levels of occupational stress and burnout among surgeons in Fiji. A document set comprising a cover letter; a consent form; a sociodemographic and supplementary information questionnaire; the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI); the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12); the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT); and the Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) questionnaires were provided to surgeons from three public divisional hospitals in Fiji. Thirty-six of 43 (83.7%) invited surgeons participated in the study. According to their MBI scores, surgeons suffered from low (10, 27.8%), moderate (23, 63.9%), and high (3, 8.3%) levels of burnout. Comparatively, 23 (63.9%) demonstrated moderate burnout according to their ProQOL scores. Substantial psychiatric morbidity was observed in 16 (44.0%) surgeons per their GHQ-12 scores. Consumption of alcohol was noted in 29 (80.6%) surgeons, and 12 (33.4%) had AUDIT scores characterizing their alcohol use in excess of low-risk guidelines or as harmful or hazardous drinking. Surgeons of Fijian nationality showed higher MBI emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scores compared with surgeons of other nationalities. Surgeons with an awareness of the availability of counseling services at their hospitals showed low AUDIT and ProQOL burnout scores. Smokers, alcohol drinkers, and kava drinkers showed higher AUDIT scores. This study highlights a level of occupational stress and burnout among surgeons in Fiji and a lack of awareness of their mental and physical well-being. The authors recommend that occupational stress and burnout intervention strategies be put in place in hospitals in Fiji.

  1. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-Ro, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Wang Geun [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-Ro, Suncheon, Jeollanam-Do 57922 (Korea, Republic of); Balathanigaimani, M.S., E-mail: msbala@rgipt.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Ratapur Chowk, Rae Bareli, 229316 Uttar Pradesh (India); Moon, Hee, E-mail: hmoon@jnu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-Ro, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Highly porous carbon materials from Mongolian anthracite by chemical activation. • Cheaper and eco-friendly activation process has been employed. • Activated carbons with graphitic structure and energetically heterogeneous surface. • Surface hydrophobicity and porosity of the activated carbons can be controlled. - Abstract: Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816–2063 m{sup 2}/g and of 0.55–1.61 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  2. Occupational burnout and work factors in community and hospital midwives: a survey analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yukiko; Sandall, Jane

    2013-08-01

    community-based midwifery practice has been promoted in the UK maternity policy over the last decade as a means of increasing continuity of care. However, there have been growing concerns to suggest that the community-based continuity model may not be sustainable due to the high levels of occupational burnout in midwives resulted by increased on-call work. this paper attempted to identify work factors associated with the levels of burnout in community midwives as compared to hospital midwives, aiming at contributing to the debate of organising sustainable midwifery care. a statistical analysis was conducted drawing on data from a survey of all midwives working at one Hospital Trust in England (n=238). Occupational burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). the sample midwives (n=128, 54%) had significantly higher levels of burnout compared to the reference groups. Multiple regression analysis identified as follows: (1) high levels of occupational autonomy were a key protective factor of burnout, and more prevalent in the community, (2) working hours were positively associated with burnout, and community midwives were more likely to have higher levels of stress recognition, and (3) support for work-life-balance from the Trust had a significant protective effect on the levels of burnout. the results should be taken into account in the maternity policy in order to incorporate continuity of care and sustainable organisation of midwifery care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Job dissatisfaction and burnout of nurses in Hunan, China: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjuan; He, Guoping; Wang, Honghong; He, Ying; Yuan, Qun; Liu, Dan

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we focused on measuring levels of nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction in the daily practice of nurses in Hunan province, China, analyzed factors related to nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction, and explored the relationship between them. Previous studies have shown a high level of burnout and job dissatisfaction among nurses worldwide. A cross-sectional survey of 1100 nurses was conducted. The nurses worked at 20 hospitals in 11 cities and counties throughout China's Hunan province. Nurse burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Nurse-rated job dissatisfaction was described using a four point scale, and work environment was measured using the Nursing Work Index - Practice Environment Scale. The results showed that nurses had high burnout scores and were dissatisfied with their jobs. Staffing, work environment, and work hours were all significantly associated with nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. Adequate staffing, improved work environment, and reasonable work hours are related to decreasing nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Burnout Among Chinese Adult Reconstructive Surgeons: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Relationship With Intraoperative Irritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hanlong; Shao, Hongyi; Zhou, Yixin

    2018-04-01

    Burnout is a major concern in human service occupations, mainly characterizing in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. There is very limited research dealing with burnout in orthopedic surgeons. Exploring burnout prevalence, risk factors, and intraoperative irritability-related incidences is necessary to improve the quality of life for surgeons. The study population consisted of 202 registered adult reconstructive doctors in China. Burnout was measured using a normalized translated version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey. Demographics, professional characteristics, and intraoperative irritability-related questions were also collected by electronic questionnaires. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0. The overall rate of burnout was 85.1%. Variables significantly associated with high emotional exhaustion scores included poor sleeping time per day (P = .008), more nights on call per week (P = .048), and absence of research (P = .014). For depersonalization, absence of marriage (P burnout, especially in emotional exhaustion. Residents were the population having the least opportunities to lose temper in operation. Burnout is highly prevalent in Chinese adult reconstructive surgeons, and it had some correlations with irritability. Further research is needed to determine more risk factors and reduce intraoperative irritability-related incidences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Using a personality inventory to identify risk of distress and burnout among early stage medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bughi, Stephanie A; Lie, Desiree A; Zia, Stephanie K; Rosenthal, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Distress and burnout are common among medical students and negatively impact students' physical, mental, and emotional health. Personality inventories such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), used in medical education, may have a role in identifying burnout risk early. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey study among 185 1st year medical students with the MBTI, the general well-being schedule (GWB), and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS). Descriptive statistics and one-way MANOVAs were used to identify the prevalence and differences in MBTI preferences and distress/burnout risk. Response rate was 185/185 (100%). Distress (GWB) was reported by 84/185 (45.4%). High scores on exhaustion were reported by 118/182 (64.8%), cynicism by 76/182 (41.8%), and decreased professional efficacy by 38/182 (20.9%) for the three dimensions of the MBI-SS. Only 21/182 (11.5%) of respondents had high scores on all three dimensions of burnout. Students with MBTI preferences for extraversion reported greater positive well-being (P burnout are prevalent early in medical training. The significant difference between extraversion and introversion in relation to distress and burnout deserves further study. Use of a personality inventory may help identify students at risk of burnout and allow appropriate early stress management.

  6. Educational and Relational Stressors Associated with Burnout in Korean Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, So-Jin; Bae, Hwa-Ok

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to examine whether educational stressors and relational stressors are associated with burnout in medical students and to test social support as a moderator between stressors and burnout. A total of 263 medical students attending Gyeongsang National University composed the study sample. A standardized questionnaire was used to investigate educational and relational stressors, three dimensions of burnout, and social support of medical students. The findings showed that overall burnout is very high among Korean medical students, with 9.9% totally burned out. Educational and relational stressors were significantly associated with the risk of burnout in medical students after controlling for socio-demographics and health behaviors. Social support moderated educational and relational stressors on personal accomplishment, but did not moderate stressors on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Burnout level is substantially high among Korean medical students. Educational and relational stressors are significantly associated with burnout risk in Korean medical students. Social support had moderated educational and relational stressors on personal accomplishment. The results suggest that more social support for medical students is needed to buffer stressors on and burnout.

  7. Prevalence of burnout among public health nurses in charge of mental health services and emergency care systems in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hirohisa; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Nakagi, Yoshihiko; Niwata, Satoko; Sugioka, Yoshihiko; Itoh, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Takahiko

    2006-11-01

    The Community Health Act came into effect in 1997 in Japan. This act altered the work system for public health nurses (PHNs) in public health centers (PHCs) nationwide from region-specific to service-specific work. Such major changes to working environment in the new system seem to be exposing PHNs to various types of stress. The present study examined whether prevalence of burnout is higher among PHNs in charge of mental health services (psychiatric PHNs) than among PHNs in charge of other services (non-psychiatric PHNs), and whether attributes of emergency mental health care systems in communities are associated with increased prevalence of burnout. A questionnaire including the Pines burnout scale for measuring burnout was mailed to 525 psychiatric PHNs and 525 non-psychiatric PHNs. The 785 respondents included in the final analysis comprised 396 psychiatric PHNs and 389 non-psychiatric PHNs. Prevalence of burnout was significantly higher for psychiatric PHNs (59.2%) than for non-psychiatric PHNs (51.5%). When prevalence of burnout in each group was analyzed in relation to question responses regarding emergency service and patient referral systems, prevalence of burnout for psychiatric PHNs displayed significant correlations to frequency of cases requiring overtime emergency services, difficulties referring patients, and a feeling of "restriction". Prevalence of burnout is high among psychiatric PHNs, and inadequate emergency mental health service systems contribute to burnout among these nurses. Countermeasures for preventing such burnout should be taken as soon as possible.

  8. Work stress, occupational burnout and depression levels: a clinical study of paediatric intensive care unit nurses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Cheng, Su-Fen; Wu, Li-Min; Ou-Yang, Mei-Chen

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between work stress and depression; and investigate the mediating effect of occupational burnout among nurses in paediatric intensive care units. The relationships among work stress, occupational burnout and depression level have been explored, neither regarding occupational burnout as the mediating role that causes work stress to induce depression nor considering the paediatric intensive care unit context. A cross-sectional correlational design was conducted. One hundred and forty-four female paediatric intensive care unit nurses from seven teaching hospitals in southern Taiwan were recruited as the participants. Data were collected by structured questionnaires including individual demographics, the Nurse Stress Checklist, the Occupational Burnout Inventory and the Taiwan Depression Questionnaire. The results indicated that after controlling for individual demographic variables, the correlations of work stress with occupational burnout, as well as work stress and occupational burnout with depression level were all positive. Furthermore, occupational burnout may exert a partial mediating effect on the relationship between work stress and depression level. This study provides information about work stress, occupational burnout and depression level, and their correlations, as well as the mediating role of occupational burnout among paediatric intensive care unit nurses. It suggests government departments and hospital administrators when formulating interventions to prevent work stress and occupational burnout. These interventions can subsequently prevent episodes of depression in paediatric intensive care unit nurses, thereby providing patients with a safe and high-quality nursing environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Study on the submicron and micron morphology and the properties of poor bituminous coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei-Fang Fu; Huai-Chun Zhou; Qing-Yan Fang; Hai Yao; Jianrong Qiu; Minghou Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2007-05-15

    Carbon burnout and its reaction mechanism have been widely focused on in the past decades. The properties of burnout, submicron and micron morphology and the reaction mechanism of poor bituminous coal/char (PBC) in a W-shaped power plant boiler was studied and was compared with those in DTF and in TGA, which showed that the degree of PBC burnout in TGA at 1450{sup o}C was greater than or approximately equal to that in a W-shaped boiler, and that the complexity of the reactions among residual char, oxygen and SiO{sub 2} did not seem to result in mass loss in TGA, although the weight percentage of the residual char in ash decreased from 33% ad (air dry basis) at 900{sup o}C to 9% and at 1450{sup o}C. According to the distribution of pores and the properties of the char burnout, the char can be simply categorized into three classes: char burnout easy, char burnout difficult and char burnout very difficult. The differences of the reaction mechanism must be considered while predicting the burning rate and degree of char burnout in a full-scale boiler by making use of experimental results from TGA and DTF. A different char particle contains markedly different amount of carbons, but for a special char particle, the ratio of carbon to ash is generally constant, and an ash shell does not exist on the char surface. The fusion mineral matter composing of C-O-Si-Al is amorphous, not in the form of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} above 1450{sup o}C.

  10. Language Teachers’ Burnout and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Jamshidirad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gender on the three burnout dimensions; emotional exhaustion (EE, depersonalization (DP and personal accomplishment (PA among English language teachers in Malaysia. This study was a quantitative survey study. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES (Maslach, Jackson, & Schwab, 1986 was used to collect the data to determine the burnout levels of the teachers with respect to its three dimensions. These Data was collected from 28 English language teachers (50% female. Descriptive and inferential statistics including frequency, percentage, means, standard deviations, and t-test were used in the analysis. The results showed that gender was not a predictor of burnout in this sample. The study can have useful implications for educational administrators who deal with language teachers.

  11. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  12. Oncology staff: burnout, job satisfaction and coping with stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guveli, Hulya; Anuk, Dilek; Oflaz, Serap; Guveli, Murat Emin; Yildirim, Nazmiye Kocaman; Ozkan, Mine; Ozkan, Sedat

    2015-08-01

    The oncology staff is at high risk for developing psychological disorders and burnout. In this study, we aimed to evaluate their burnout levels, job satisfaction, psychological statement and ways of coping with stress and the relationship between these variables and their sociodemographic and occupational characteristics. Among all health workers at the Istanbul University Institute, of Oncology, 159 were included in the study. A sociodemographic data form, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Styles of Coping Inventory-Short Form were used to evaluate burnout and its contributing factors. High levels of 'emotional exhaustion', 'depersonalization' and 'low sense of personal accomplishment' were determined in 30.2%, 8.2% and 44% of all participants, respectively. The variables that affected emotional exhaustion were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, the ratio of emotional exhaustion was approximately 10 times higher in those for whom job stress was the most important stress factor compared with those who indicated nonjob stress for each one point increase on the GHQ and depersonalization scores, which were other predictors, with odds ratio (OR) : 1.23, p = 0.006 and OR : 1.67, p burnout,' and a positive correlation was found between maladaptive coping strategies and exhaustion. It is necessary to monitor the psychological status of employees in oncology units with scanning tools such as GHQ to understand their job stress perceptions and to help them develop adaptive coping methods. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies in French community pharmacies-BOP study: A nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balayssac, David; Pereira, Bruno; Virot, Julie; Collin, Aurore; Alapini, David; Cuny, Damien; Gagnaire, Jean-Marc; Authier, Nicolas; Vennat, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Work-related stress and burnout syndromes are unfortunately common comorbidities found in health professionals. However, burnout syndrome has only been partly and episodically assessed for community pharmacists whereas these professionals are exposed to patients' demands and difficulties every day. Prevalence of burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies were assessed in pharmacy teams (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) in French community pharmacies. This online survey was performed by emails sent to all French community pharmacies over 3 months. The survey assessed the prevalence of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-MBI-questionnaire), anxiety, depression and strategies for coping with work-related stress. Of the 1,339 questionnaires received, 1,322 were completed and useable for the analysis. Burnout syndrome was detected in 56.2% of respondents and 10.5% of them presented severe burnout syndrome. Severe burnout syndrome was significantly associated with men, large urban areas and the number of hours worked. Depression and anxiety were found in 15.7% and 42.4% of respondents, respectively. These co-morbidities were significantly associated with severe burnout syndrome. Higher MBI scores were significantly associated with medical consultations and medicinal drug use. Conversely, respondents suffering from burnout syndrome declared they resorted less to non-medical strategies to manage their work-related stress (leisure, psychotherapy, holidays and time off). This study demonstrated that community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians presented high prevalence of burnout syndrome, such as many healthcare professionals. Unfortunately, burnout syndrome was associated with several comorbidities (anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse) and the consumption of health resources. The psychological suffering of these healthcare professionals underlines the necessity to deploy a strategy to detect and manage burnout in community pharmacy.

  14. Burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies in French community pharmacies—BOP study: A nationwide cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balayssac, David; Pereira, Bruno; Virot, Julie; Collin, Aurore; Alapini, David; Cuny, Damien; Gagnaire, Jean-Marc; Authier, Nicolas; Vennat, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Background Work-related stress and burnout syndromes are unfortunately common comorbidities found in health professionals. However, burnout syndrome has only been partly and episodically assessed for community pharmacists whereas these professionals are exposed to patients’ demands and difficulties every day. Prevalence of burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies were assessed in pharmacy teams (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) in French community pharmacies. Methods This online survey was performed by emails sent to all French community pharmacies over 3 months. The survey assessed the prevalence of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory—MBI—questionnaire), anxiety, depression and strategies for coping with work-related stress. Results Of the 1,339 questionnaires received, 1,322 were completed and useable for the analysis. Burnout syndrome was detected in 56.2% of respondents and 10.5% of them presented severe burnout syndrome. Severe burnout syndrome was significantly associated with men, large urban areas and the number of hours worked. Depression and anxiety were found in 15.7% and 42.4% of respondents, respectively. These co-morbidities were significantly associated with severe burnout syndrome. Higher MBI scores were significantly associated with medical consultations and medicinal drug use. Conversely, respondents suffering from burnout syndrome declared they resorted less to non-medical strategies to manage their work-related stress (leisure, psychotherapy, holidays and time off). Conclusion This study demonstrated that community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians presented high prevalence of burnout syndrome, such as many healthcare professionals. Unfortunately, burnout syndrome was associated with several comorbidities (anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse) and the consumption of health resources. The psychological suffering of these healthcare professionals underlines the necessity to deploy a strategy to detect and manage

  15. [Current status of job burnout in in-service sailors from 13 provinces and cities in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L C; Dai, J J; Wang, H R; Wang, J L; Miao, L Q; Yang, L R

    2017-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of job burnout in in-service sailors, and to provide a basis for the development of intervention measures for job burnout in sailors. Methods: From September 2015 to May 2016, stratified cluster random sampling was used to select 6 172 in-service sailors from 13 provinces and cities as research subjects. General demographic data including age, education background, and household registration and occupational characteristics such as job position, navigating zone, and nature of employment were collected. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) was used to measure the levels of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, low occupational efficiency, and job burnout, and the influencing factors for job burnout were also analyzed. Results: Of all 6 172 in-service sailors, 112 (1.8%) had a positive result in emotional exhaustion, 870 (14.1%) had a positive result in depersonalization, and 3 517 (57.0%) had a positive result in low occupational efficiency. Of all sailors, 63.3% had job burnout, among whom 54.1% had mild burnout, 8.7% had moderate burnout, and 0.5% had severe burnout. There was a significant difference in the score of job burnout between the sailors with different ages, education backgrounds, types of household registration, job positions, navigating zones, ornature of employment ( P burnout in in-service sailors ( P burnout in the sailors with an age of 30-39 years, education background of junior college or above, urban registration, a job position of second mate/third engineer, a navigating zone of coastal lines, orthe nature of employment of freelance sailor. Conclusion: There is a high incidence rate of job burnout among in-service sailors, and the sailors with a young age, urban registration, a navigating zone of coastal lines, or thenature of employment of freelance sailor tend to have low occupational efficiency. Related measures should be adopted for active intervention.

  16. Burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies in French community pharmacies-BOP study: A nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Balayssac

    Full Text Available Work-related stress and burnout syndromes are unfortunately common comorbidities found in health professionals. However, burnout syndrome has only been partly and episodically assessed for community pharmacists whereas these professionals are exposed to patients' demands and difficulties every day. Prevalence of burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies were assessed in pharmacy teams (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in French community pharmacies.This online survey was performed by emails sent to all French community pharmacies over 3 months. The survey assessed the prevalence of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-MBI-questionnaire, anxiety, depression and strategies for coping with work-related stress.Of the 1,339 questionnaires received, 1,322 were completed and useable for the analysis. Burnout syndrome was detected in 56.2% of respondents and 10.5% of them presented severe burnout syndrome. Severe burnout syndrome was significantly associated with men, large urban areas and the number of hours worked. Depression and anxiety were found in 15.7% and 42.4% of respondents, respectively. These co-morbidities were significantly associated with severe burnout syndrome. Higher MBI scores were significantly associated with medical consultations and medicinal drug use. Conversely, respondents suffering from burnout syndrome declared they resorted less to non-medical strategies to manage their work-related stress (leisure, psychotherapy, holidays and time off.This study demonstrated that community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians presented high prevalence of burnout syndrome, such as many healthcare professionals. Unfortunately, burnout syndrome was associated with several comorbidities (anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse and the consumption of health resources. The psychological suffering of these healthcare professionals underlines the necessity to deploy a strategy to detect and manage burnout in community pharmacy.

  17. Bainite formation kinetics in high carbon alloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzginova, N.V.; Zhao, L.; Sietsma, J.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, many investigations have been carried out on the modeling of the bainite formation. In the present work, a physical approach proposed in the literature is implemented to model the formation of lower bainite in high carbon steels (1 wt.% C). In this model, the carbon diffusion is assumed to control the kinetics of the bainite formation. Both the nucleation and the growth rates are considered in an Avrami type analysis. The effect of alloying elements is taken into account considering only the thermodynamics of the system. The results and the physical meaning of the model parameters are discussed. It is shown that the diffusional approach gives a reasonable description of bainite formation kinetics in high carbon steel. Only two fitting parameters are used: the first accounts for carbon grain-boundary diffusion and the second is the initial nucleation-site density. The model satisfactorily accounts for the effect of transformation temperature, but does not take into account the carbide precipitation during bainite formation and the effect of alloying elements on the diffusion coefficient of carbon

  18. SU-8 photoresist-derived electrospun carbon nanofibres as high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... as high-capacity anode material for lithium ion battery. M KAKUNURI, S KAUSHIK, A SAINI and C S SHARMA. ∗. Creative and Advanced Research Based On Nanomaterials (CARBON) Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering,. Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, Kandi 502285, India. ∗.

  19. SU-8 photoresist-derived electrospun carbon nanofibres as high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 3. SU-8 photoresist-derived electrospun carbon nanofibres as high-capacity anode material for lithium ion battery. M KAKUNURI S KAUSHIK A SAINI C S SHARMA. Volume 40 Issue 3 June 2017 pp 435-439 ...

  20. Cavitation-induced reactions in high-pressure carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, M.W.A.; van Eck, D.; Kemmere, M.F.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of ultrasound-induced in situ radical formation in liquid carbon dioxide was demonstrated. The required threshold pressure for cavitation could be exceeded at a relatively low acoustic intensity, as the high vapor pressure of CO2 counteracts the hydrostatic pressure. With the use of

  1. High-performance carbon nanotube-reinforced bioplastic

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramontja, J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available -1 High-Performance Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Bioplastic 1. James Ramontja1,2, 2. Suprakas Sinha Ray1,*, 3. Sreejarani K. Pillai1, 4. Adriaan S. Luyt2 1. 1 DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials...

  2. Prevalence and factors of burnout among Australian orthopaedic trainees: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manit; Diwan, Ashish D; Harris, Ian A

    2014-12-01

    To assess the prevalence and factors of burnout among Australian orthopaedic trainees. 236 orthopaedic registrars of the Australian Orthopaedic Association were invited to participate in a 32-item survey by email. The questionnaire assessed potential factors associated with burnout, satisfaction with the choice of orthopaedics as a career and work-life balance, and subjective overall health, as well as 3 subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey for assessing burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and personal accomplishment. Participants with high levels of either emotional exhaustion or depersonalisation were defined as having burnout. Those with and without burnout were compared. 51 (22%) of the 236 trainees completed the questionnaire. Of whom, 88% were satisfied with their choice of orthopaedics as a career, whereas 27% were satisfied with their work-life balance. 27 (53%) respondents were considered burned out. Compared with those who did not burn out, those who burned out were less satisfied with their careers (p=0.004) and work-life balance (p=0.021). 53% of Australian orthopaedic trainees were burned out. Burnout trainees were more likely to be dissatisfied with their career choice and worklife balance. Active interventions to combat burnout and improve work-life balance are needed.

  3. Psychosocial factors and prevalence of burnout syndrome among nursing workers in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jorge Luiz Lima; Soares, Rafael da Silva; Costa, Felipe dos Santos; Ramos, Danusa de Souza; Lima, Fabiano Bittencourt; Teixeira, Liliane Reis

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of burnout syndrome among nursing workers in intensive care units and establish associations with psychosocial factors. This descriptive study evaluated 130 professionals, including nurses, nursing technicians, and nursing assistants, who performed their activities in intensive care and coronary care units in 2 large hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected in 2011 using a self-reported questionnaire. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to evaluate the burnout syndrome dimensions, and the Self Reporting Questionnaire was used to evaluate common mental disorders. The prevalence of burnout syndrome was 55.3% (n = 72). In the quadrants of the demand-control model, low-strain workers exhibited a prevalence of 64.5% of suspected cases of burnout, whereas high-strain workers exhibited a prevalence of 72.5% of suspected cases (p = 0.006). The prevalence of suspected cases of common mental disorders was 27.7%; of these, 80.6% were associated with burnout syndrome (stress levels - active work (OR = 0.26; 95%CI = 0.09 - 0.69) and passive work (OR = 0.22; 95%CI = 0.07 - 0.63) - were protective factors for burnout syndrome. Psychosocial factors were associated with the development of burnout syndrome in this group. These results underscore the need for the development of further studies aimed at intervention and the prevention of the syndrome.

  4. Job stress and burnout: A comparative study of senior and head nurses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Xiaorong; Wang, Ping; Hou, Wenxiu; Chen, Lili; Lou, Fenglan

    2017-06-01

    Senior nurses can suffer from high job stress and burnout, which can lead to negative patient outcomes and higher turnover rates; however, few studies have examined this topic. We recruited 224 head and senior nurses from September to December 2015 using convenience and cluster sampling, to compare job stress and burnout levels between the two groups. The Nurse Job Stressors Inventory and Maslach Burnout Inventory scales were used to evaluate job stress and burnout, respectively. Results indicated that job stress scores significantly differed between head and senior nurses. The highest scoring subscales in both groups were time allocation and workload problems. Scores for the three burnout dimensions also significantly differed between the groups. Positive correlations between job stress and burnout were stronger among senior nurses than head nurses. Burnout may be higher among senior nurses given head nurses' potential for greater perceived job control. Our findings suggest that measures need to be taken to reduce burnout and turnover rates among senior nurses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Extracurricular activities associated with stress and burnout in preclinical medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad Fares

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the prevalence of stress and burnout among preclinical medical students in a private university in Beirut, Lebanon, and evaluate the association between extracurricular involvement and stress and burnout relief in preclinical medical students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of 165 preclinical medical students. Distress level was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 while that of burnout was measured through the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS. The MBI-SS assesses three interrelated dimensions: emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and academic efficacy. Extracurricular activities were divided into four categories: physical exercise, music, reading, and social activities. All selected participants responded. A substantial proportion of preclinical medical students suffered from stress (62% and burnout (75%. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses revealed that being a female or a 1st year medical student correlated with higher stress and burnout. Music-related activities were correlated with lower burnout. Social activities or living with parents were associated with lower academic efficacy. The high stress and burnout levels call for action. Addressing the studying conditions and attending to the psychological wellbeing of preclinical medical students are recommendations made in the study.

  6. Relationship between job demand and burnout in nurses: does it depend on work engagement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sierra, Rosa; Fernández-Castro, Jordi; Martínez-Zaragoza, Fermín

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to deepen the understanding of the relationships among job demands, control, social support, burnout and engagement in nurses. Burnout is a prevalent phenomenon among nurses because of the interaction between high demands and low resources, according to the job demands-resources model. A descriptive, correlational design was used in a stratified random sample of 100 nurses recruited from two Spanish hospitals. Job demand, social support, control, engagement, and burnout were measured. Data were analysed by hierarchical regression analysis. Social support is a significant predictor of nurses' engagement and demands is a predictor of nurses' burnout. Work engagement moderates the relationship between job demands and burnout. The process that leads to burnout and the process that leads to engagement are not isolated processes; engagement acts as a moderator of burnout. The prevailing paradigm in combating burnout in nursing can be changed and could be based on the enhancement of nurses' strengths through increasing engagement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. How to prevent burnout in cardiologists? A review of the current evidence, gaps, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagioti, Maria; Geraghty, Keith; Johnson, Judith

    2018-01-01

    Burnout is rising in all physicians, and cardiologists are not an exemption. Cardiology is a very popular specialty among medical students as it is associated with outstanding training standards and high prestige and income. In this review, we critically summarize the evidence on consequences, causes, and evidence-based interventions for burnout with a view toward recommending the best strategies for promoting wellness in cardiologists. Only a handful of studies have examined burnout specifically in cardiologists. Evidence therefore was mainly extrapolated by larger studies in all physicians and other physician specialties. Burnout in cardiologists has serious negative personal and professional consequences and is associated with suboptimal healthcare outcomes for patients. Burnout in cardiologists is primarily driven by professional and healthcare system demands and inefficiencies such as excessive workload and role complexity, training and certification demands, inefficient compensation models and lack of resources, computerization, and loss of autonomy. Moreover, loss of connectedness with patients, difficulties in balancing work and personal life and overvaluing compulsiveness and perfectionism in medical practice further increase the risk for burnout. Burnout among cardiologists may be best mitigated by organizational strategies complemented by individual stress reduction and reflection techniques under the resilience-based approach. Large-scale strategies are needed to mitigate burnout and promote physician wellness as a shared responsibility of healthcare systems and individuals and be committed in creating a new culture in medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Burnout among primary school teachers in Iraq: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asadi, Jasim; Khalaf, Shukrya; Al-Waaly, Aqeel; Abed, Alaa; Shami, Sabah

    2018-06-10

    Studies from various parts of the world have shown that teachers are likely to suffer from burnout. So far, there has been no research on burnout among primary school teachers in Basrah, Iraq. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predisposing factors of self-reported burnout among primary school teachers in Basrah. This was a cross-sectional study in 32 governmental primary schools during November 2014-February 2015. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and work-related data using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. Of 800 questionnaires distributed, 706 (88.3%) were completed; 58.4% were from women. The prevalence of burnout was 24.5% (95% CI: 21.5-27.8). A statistically significant association was found between burnout and age, sex and marital status. Work-related factors that showed significant association with burnout were: work overload, problems related to career advancement, high number of students per class and student misbehaviour. Burnout is an important health problem among primary school teachers in Basrah. A number of risk factors, particularly those related to work, are amenable to modification since they are related to the education policy. Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).

  9. Burnout in health care and education workers: The role of situational and individual factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stanislava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the level of the burnout syndrome in the sample of teachers and health care workers. Another aim was to investigate the relationship between burnout and the demographic, personality and job characteristics in order to identify the most influential factors of its occurrence and maintenance. Burnout was defined as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and reduced personal accomplishment, especially prevalent in humanistic professions. The instrument which was used for the operationalisation of burnout is the most widely used instrument for assessing this construct empirically: the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The convenient sample of 186 respondents from Novi Sad and Zrenjanin (100 health care workers and 86 teachers participated in the study. The results indicate a moderate to high level of burnout measured in this sample. A higher level of Emotional exhaustion and Depersonalisation was found in health care workers. The results of hierarchical regression analysis have shown that Neuroticism and Extraversion were the most significant predictors of burnout among individual factors. Conflicts with colleagues and the management as well as dissatisfaction with the organisation at the workplace were the most influential predictors of burnout among situational factors. The results are explained by the personality traits from the Big Five Plus Two Questionnair e, by the specific characteristics of the examined professions, and by the comparison with previous studies in the area.

  10. Residency Training: Determinants of burnout of neurology trainees in Attica, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zis, Panagiotis; Artemiadis, Artemios K; Lykouri, Maria; Xirou, Sophia; Roussopoulou, Andromachi; Papageorgiou, Ermioni; Bakola, Eleni; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios

    2015-09-15

    The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to estimate the rate of burnout and identify its determinants among neurology residents in Attica, Greece. In total, 131 placements for neurology training over 18 hospitals were available. All residents were approached and were asked to participate in the study by anonymously completing a questionnaire. Job demands and resources (JD-R) were examined via a 31-item questionnaire assessing 8 factors based on the JD-R model. Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The emotional exhaustion + 1 criterion was used to distinguish respondents with and without burnout. A total of 116 residents participated in the study (response rate 88.5%). In total, 18.1% of the participants were experiencing burnout. Multivariate analysis showed that each increased point in the total score of the factor regarding opportunities for professional development was associated with lowering the odds of burnout by 28.7%. Burnout among neurology residents is associated with decreased professional development. Educators and program directors need to identify those residents at high risk of burnout and design interventions to promote residents' resilience and mental health. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Extracurricular activities associated with stress and burnout in preclinical medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Jawad; Saadeddin, Zein; Al Tabosh, Hayat; Aridi, Hussam; El Mouhayyar, Christopher; Koleilat, Mohamad Karim; Chaaya, Monique; El Asmar, Khalil

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to assess the prevalence of stress and burnout among preclinical medical students in a private university in Beirut, Lebanon, and evaluate the association between extracurricular involvement and stress and burnout relief in preclinical medical students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of 165 preclinical medical students. Distress level was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) while that of burnout was measured through the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS). The MBI-SS assesses three interrelated dimensions: emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and academic efficacy. Extracurricular activities were divided into four categories: physical exercise, music, reading, and social activities. All selected participants responded. A substantial proportion of preclinical medical students suffered from stress (62%) and burnout (75%). Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses revealed that being a female or a 1st year medical student correlated with higher stress and burnout. Music-related activities were correlated with lower burnout. Social activities or living with parents were associated with lower academic efficacy. The high stress and burnout levels call for action. Addressing the studying conditions and attending to the psychological wellbeing of preclinical medical students are recommendations made in the study. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Burnout syndrome among undergraduate nursing students at a public university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaschewski-Barlem, Jamila Geri; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Lunardi, Guilherme Lerch; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; da Silveira, Rosemary Silva; Vidal, Danielle Adriane Silveira

    2014-01-01

    to investigate the burnout syndrome and its relationship with demographic and academic variables among undergraduate nursing students at a public university in Southern Brazil. a quantitative study with 168 students, by applying an adaptation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Student Survey, validated for this study. We used descriptive and variance analysis of the data analysis. we found that students do not have the burnout syndrome, manifesting high average scores in Emotional Exhaustion, low in Disbelief and high in Professional Effectiveness; that younger students who perform leisure activities have greater Professional Effectiveness, unlike students in early grades with no extracurricular activities; combining work and studies negatively influenced only the Professional Effectiveness factor, while the intention of giving up influenced negatively Disbelief and Professional Effectiveness factors. the situations that lead students to Emotional Exhaustion need to be recognized, considering the specificity of their study environments.

  13. Burnout syndrome among undergraduate nursing students at a public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Geri Tomaschewski-Barlem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the burnout syndrome and its relationship with demographic and academic variables among undergraduate nursing students at a public university in Southern Brazil.METHOD: a quantitative study with 168 students, by applying an adaptation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Student Survey, validated for this study. We used descriptive and variance analysis of the data analysis.RESULTS: we found that students do not have the burnout syndrome, manifesting high average scores in Emotional Exhaustion, low in Disbelief and high in Professional Effectiveness; that younger students who perform leisure activities have greater Professional Effectiveness, unlike students in early grades with no extracurricular activities; combining work and studies negatively influenced only the Professional Effectiveness factor, while the intention of giving up influenced negatively Disbelief and Professional Effectiveness factors.CONCLUSION: the situations that lead students to Emotional Exhaustion need to be recognized, considering the specificity of their study environments.

  14. Empathy and burnout of emergency professionals of a health region: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuguero, Oriol; Forné, Carles; Esquerda, Montserrat; Pifarré, Josep; Abadías, María José; Viñas, Joan

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the association between levels of empathy and burnout of emergency professionals in all the assistance levels.A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the health region of Lleida and the Pyrenees with 100 professionals from the field of Urgency. Participation reached 40.8%. Empathy and burnout were measured using the Spanish versions of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) respectively. The total MBI score and its 3 dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) were analyzed. The JSPE and MBI scores were categorized into tertiles that were identified as "low," "moderate," and "high" levels.The median (interquartile range) was 112 (102-123) and 37 (27-53.5) for the JSPE and MBI scores respectively. Professionals with high burnout (MBI≥47) showed the lowest levels of empathy, that is, JSPE score of 105 (98-114); those with moderate burnout (31≤MBI empathy were associated with the lowest levels of burnout, especially in depersonalization, and to a lesser extent in personal accomplishment. There were no differences in empathy and burnout for any of the other study variables.Our findings suggest that the empathy of emergency professionals is associated with burnout. Hence, reducing professional burnout could help keep emergency professionals' empathy levels high, which in turn would ensure a better quality of care. Nevertheless, it would be necessary to carry out prospective studies to describe the profiles of burnout and empathy as well as their association and evolution.

  15. Longitudinal burnout-collaboration patterns in Japanese medical care workers at special needs schools: a latent class growth analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Mieko; Suzuki, Machiko; Yuma, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify and characterize potential burnout types and the relationship between burnout and collaboration over time. Latent class growth analysis and the growth mixture model were used to identify and characterize heterogeneous patterns of longitudinal stability and change in burnout, and the relationship between burnout and collaboration. We collected longitudinal data at three time points based on Japanese academic terms. The 396 study participants included academic teachers, yogo teachers, and registered nurses in Japanese special needs schools. The best model included four types of both burnout and collaboration in latent class growth analysis with intercept, slope, and quadratic terms. The four types of burnout were as follows: low stable, moderate unstable, high unstable, and high decreasing. They were identified as involving inverse collaboration function. The results indicated that there could be dynamic burnout types, namely moderate unstable, high unstable, and high decreasing, when focusing on growth trajectories in latent class analyses. The finding that collaboration was dynamic for dynamic burnout types and stable for stable burnout types is of great interest. This was probably related to the inverse relationship between the two constructs. PMID:27366107

  16. Should Students Engaged to Their Study? (Academic Burnout and School-Engagement among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Arlinkasari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inability to deal with lectures efficiently leads students vulnerable to academic burnout. Burnout contributes to the high dropout rate among students, and this phenomenon has occurred on several universities in Indonesia. To overcome these problems, students should generate the feelings, attitudes and positive attitude towards the academic demands, or known as school engagement. School involvement is a predictor of students’ dropout rate. This study aims to analyze the dropout problem in many private universities in Jakarta by examining the psychological variables: academic burnout and school engagement. 208 students from some private university in Jakarta participated and fulfilled two questionnaires: academic burnout and school engagement that has been modified to suit the college setting. Correlation of the variables showed r= - 0.399 (p = 0.000. This means that school engagement plays a role in reducing academic burnout among students. These findings contribute a reference for academic counseling to support the decreasing of students’ dropout rate.

  17. The Analysis of the School Burnout in Secondary Education Students in Terms of Various Variables

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    İsmail Seçer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the burnout levels of the secondary education students was analyzed if the burnout levels differentiate according to sex, high school type, academic success, academic department and taking private teaching institutions’ classes or not. The study group of this study that is aimed to analyze school burnout in secondary education students is formed of 282 females and 221 males, in total 503 students who get educated in secondary schools in Erzurum Yakutiye and Palandöken counties. School burnout inventory developed by Aypay (2011 and personal data form were used to collect data. t test and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA were used in the analysis of the data.According to the evidence obtained from the study, the burnout levels of secondary education students differentiate in a meaningful level according to sex, school type, academic success, academic department and taking private teaching institutions’ classes or not.

  18. High-temperature carbonates in the Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, H. M.; Boudreau, A. E.

    2012-12-01

    The processes involved in the petrogenesis of the sulphide-hosted platinum-group-element (PGE) deposits of the Stillwater Complex are controversial, with theories ranging from the purely magmatic to those involving an aqueous fluid. To further constrain these models, we have been examining the trace phase assemblages in rocks away from the ore zones. High-temperature carbonates have been observed in association with sulphide minerals below the platiniferous J-M Reef of the Stillwater Complex. The carbonate assemblage consists of dolomite with exsolved calcite and is found in contact with sulphide minerals: chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite in the Peridotite Zone; and pyrrhotite with pentlandite, pyrite and chalcopyrite in Gabbronorite I of the Lower Banded Series. The minimal silicate alteration and the lack of greenschist minerals in association with the mineral assemblage are consistent with a high-temperature origin for the carbonates. The calcite-dolomite geothermometer [1] yields a minimum formation temperature of ~900°C for the unmixed assemblages. A reaction rim surrounds the carbonate-sulphide assemblages, showing an alteration of the host orthopyroxene to a more Ca-enriched, Fe-depleted composition. This is consistent with diffusive exchange between carbonates and pyroxenes at high temperatures, mediated by an aqueous fluid. The highly variable molar MnO/FeO ratios in both the high-temperature carbonates and their associated altered pyroxene rims also imply their interaction with a fluid. The carbonate assemblages are consistent with Stillwater fluid inclusion studies [2], showing that fluids comprising coexisting Cl-rich brine and carbonic fluid were trapped in pegmatitic quartz at 700-715°C, some of which also contained "accidental" calcite inclusions. The high Cl-content of apatite [3] found below the platiniferous J-M Reef is further evidence that a Cl-rich fluid was migrating through the rocks beneath the Reef. Carbonates have been shown to be stabilized

  19. NOVEL CERAMIC MEMBRANE FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerry Y.S. Lin; Jun-ichi Ida

    2001-01-01

    This project is aimed at demonstrating technical feasibility for a lithium zirconate based dense ceramic membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas at high temperature. The research work conducted in this reporting period was focused on several fundamental issues of lithium zirconate important to the development of the dense inorganic membrane. These fundamental issues include material synthesis of lithium zirconate, phases and microstructure of lithium zirconate and structure change of lithium zirconate during sorption/desorption process. The results show difficulty to prepare the dense ceramic membrane from pure lithium zirconate, but indicate a possibility to prepare the dense inorganic membrane for carbon dioxide separation from a composite lithium zirconate

  20. Determination of vanadium in high grade carbons by radioanalytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinno, K.; Sato, M.; Amemiya, S.; Katoh, T.

    1980-01-01

    The present work deals with the determination of vanadium in high grade carbons by three radioanalytical methods, viz. thermal neutron activation analysis with an accelerator, thermal neutron activation analysis with a reactor and proton induced X-ray emission analysis with an accelerator. It is shown that thermal neutron activation with an accelerator is more convenient for the rapid and non-destructive analysis of ppm-level vanadium in bulk carbons than thermal neutron activation analysis with a reactor. Proton-induced X-ray emission is less useful for the analysis of bulk samples. (author)

  1. Burnout en estudiantes universitarios

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Carmen Cecilia; Breso, Édgar; González Gutiérrez, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Con la finalidad de proporcionar una mayor comprensión y caracterización de la naturaleza del burnout académico en estudiantes universitarios, se realiza una revisión del concepto, su evolución y extrapolación del contexto laboral al académico universitario, y se propone su delimitación y relación con condiciones clínicas comórbidas como depresión y ansiedad. Adicionalmente, se revisa la investigación empírica que establece relaciones del síndrome con el engagement académico, factores de ries...

  2. Burnout en estudiantes universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cecilia Caballero D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de proporcionar una mayor comprensión y caracterización de la naturaleza del burnout académico en estudiantes universitarios, se realiza una revisión del concepto, su evolución y extrapolación del contexto laboral al académico universitario, y se propone su delimitación y relación con condiciones clínicas comórbidas como depresión y ansiedad. Adicionalmente, se revisa la investigación empírica que establece relaciones del síndrome con el engagement académico, factores de riesgo y de protección, y sus consecuencias en la salud mental y en el desempeño académico de los estudiantes universitarios.

  3. Burnout among workers in emergency Departments in Palestinian hospitals: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Motasem; Hamra, Asma'a Abu

    2017-06-15

    Working in Emergency Departments (EDs) entails high work pressure and stress due to witnessing human suffering and the unpredictable nature of the work. This environment puts personnel at risk of burnout. This analysis aims to assess burnout levels and associated risk factors among health workers in EDs in Palestinian hospitals. Also, it examines the association between burnout and workplace violence, as well as with job turnover. Cross-sectional design utilising a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from all workers at 14 EDs; 8 from the West Bank and 6 from the Gaza Strip. Burnout was measured using Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey. A total of 444 workers (response rate 74.5%) participated: 161(36.3%) nurses, 142(32.0%) physicians and 141(31.7%) administrative personnel. Results showed high levels of burnout among EDs workers; 64.0% suffered from high emotional exhaustion, 38.1% from high depersonalization and 34.6% from low personal accomplishment. In addition, high levels of emotional exhaustion (72.3%) was significantly prevalent among physicians compared to nurses (69.8%) and administrative workers (51.4%) (p nurses (48.8%) compared to physicians (32.1%) and administrative workers (31.9%) (p burnout among the three groups (p > 0.05). Moreover, high degree of burnout was more prevalent among EDs workers in the West Bank than among those working in the Gaza Strip (OR 2.02, 95% CI = 1.11-3.69, p = 0.019), and higher among younger workers (aged ≤30 years old) than their older counterparts (OR 2.4, 95% CI = 1.302-4.458, p = 0.005). Exposure to physical violence was significantly associated with having a high degree of burnout (OR 2.017 95% CI = 1.121-3.631, p = 0.019), but no association was observed with regards to exposure to verbal violence (p > 0.05). Finally, burnout was significantly associated with workers' intention to leave work at EDs (p Burnout is considerably prevalent among EDs' workers

  4. Investigation of Burnout in Employees Working in a Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Aslan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was performed to determine the burnout levels of employees working in a factory and the factors affecting it. METHOD: This is a cross–sectional study. The study population and sample consisted of 247 employees working in the workshops of a factory located in the a big city center. Data collection was performed using a Personal Information Form and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. RESULTS: The mean burnout scores increased (p<0.05 with decreasing age and work years of the employees. The mean Emotional Exhaustion score of the employees who were university graduates were higher than those who were primary school or high school graduates (p<0.05. Mean Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization scores of employees with no children were higher than those with children (p<0.05. Mean Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization scores of the employees stating that their incomes were much lower/lower than their expenditures were higher compared to those stating that their incomes were equal to their expenditures and those stating that their incomes were higher/much higher than their expenditures (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study indicate that factors such as age, education level, status of having children, economic status, and working years were effective on the burnout levels of the employees while the risk area where the workshop was located did not affect the burnout level. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 453-462

  5. [Burnout and quality of life in medical residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Miranda, Sergio Emilio; Rodríguez-Gallardo, Gisela Bethsabé; Jiménez-Bernardino, Carlos Alberto; Guerrero-Quintero, Laura Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    burnout and quality of life are poorly studied phenomena in postgraduate students, and its effects are unknown. The aim was to investigate the relationship between quality of life and burnout in medical residents. a longitudinal study was performed. We included medical residents who began their postgraduate studies in 2010. The Spanish version of the Quality of Life Profile for the Chronically Ill (PLC, according to its initials in German), and the Maslach Burnout Inventory specific to physicians were applied at the beginning, and six and 12 months later. Descriptive statistics were used for nominal variables. Chi-square and ANOVA were applied to numerical variables. we included 45 residents, the average age was 26.9 ± 2.93 years, 18 (40 %) were female and 27 (60 %) were male. The PLC survey found significant decrease in four of the six scales assessed in the three measurements. The Maslach Burnout Inventory found high levels of emotional exhaustion in the three tests, low levels of depersonalization and low personal gains at the beginning, rising at six and 12 months. The most affected specialty was Internal Medicine. burnout and impaired quality of life for residents exist in postgraduate physicians and it is maintained during the first year of residency.

  6. Possible association between phantom vibration syndrome and occupational burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Pen; Wu, Chi-Cheng; Chang, Li-Ren; Lin, Yu-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Phantom vibration syndrome (PVS) and phantom ringing syndrome (PRS) occur in many cell phone users. Previous studies have indicated an association between PVS/PRS and job stress. The aim of this study was to determine if PVS/PRS were also associated with occupational burnout. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 384 employees of a high-tech company in northern Taiwan. They all completed a phantom vibration and ringing questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Chinese version of the Occupational Burnout Inventory. Results Significantly more women and people with at least a college education were in the population with PRS and PVS, respectively. Anxiety and depression had no associations with PVS/PRS. Higher scores for personal fatigue, job fatigue, and service target fatigue had an independent impact on the presence of PVS, but only a higher score for service target fatigue had an independent impact on the presence of PRS. Conclusion The independent association between work-related burnout and PVS/PRS suggests that PVS/PRS may be a harbinger of mental stress or a component of the clinical burnout syndrome, and may even be a more convenient and accurate predictor of occupational burnout. PMID:25750984

  7. Burnout syndrome in nurses of prehospital rescue team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Pereira Bezerra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the presence and evaluate the levels of burnout syndrome in nurses of the prehospital rescue team. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a sample of 17 nurses from the prehospital rescue team, by application of the Maslach burnout Inventory and a questionnaire prepared by the authors. Rresults: In the group studied, 76% of the nurses of the prehospital rescue team were female. Ages varied from 30 to 49 years old. As to time already in the profession, 59% reported having worked from five to ten years in prehospital rescue. As to Maslach burnout Inventory subscale means, in the group analyzed of 17 prehospital rescue team nurses, low/moderate level (31.53 of reduced professional accomplishment, low/moderate level (18.41 of emotional exhaustion, and low/moderate level (8.88 of depersonalization were observed. As to dimensions of burnout levels, it was noted that 76.47% of the nurses displayed a low/moderate level of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced professional accomplishment. Cconclusions: It was demonstrated that this sample showed no evidence of burnout syndrome, since its presence is proven only when there are high scores of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced professional accomplishment.

  8. Predictors and Outcomes of Burnout in Primary Care Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabatin, Joseph; Williams, Eric; Baier Manwell, Linda; Schwartz, Mark D; Brown, Roger L; Linzer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    To assess relationships between primary care work conditions, physician burnout, quality of care, and medical errors. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of data from the MEMO (Minimizing Error, Maximizing Outcome) Study. Two surveys of 422 family physicians and general internists, administered 1 year apart, queried physician job satisfaction, stress and burnout, organizational culture, and intent to leave within 2 years. A chart audit of 1795 of their adult patients with diabetes and/or hypertension assessed care quality and medical errors. Women physicians were almost twice as likely as men to report burnout (36% vs 19%, P stress (P work conditions (P work control (P work-life balance (P burnout, care quality, and medical errors. Burnout is highly associated with adverse work conditions and a greater intention to leave the practice, but not with adverse patient outcomes. Care quality thus appears to be preserved at great personal cost to primary care physicians. Efforts focused on workplace redesign and physician self-care are warranted to sustain the primary care workforce. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Attrition, burnout, job dissatisfaction and occupational therapy managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeger, M M; Walker, K F

    1992-01-01

    At a time when there is growing concern about the person-power shortages in occupational therapy, there is a need to address reasons why therapists leave the job market. Two job-related reasons for attrition are burnout and job dissatisfaction. The burnout phenomenon occurs as a result of personnel shortages, high-stress demands on therapists, the severity and complexity of client's problems, and the therapist's own ''worker personality.'' Bureaucratic constraints, limited advancement, issues related to a profession which is made up predominantly of women, lack of autonomy, and type of management and supervision are factors that contribute to job dissatisfaction. Occupational therapy managers can consider the causes of burnout and job dissatisfaction and initiate resources to retain therapists. Managers can increase the job benefits, such as flexible working hours, take steps to reduce stress in the workplace, offer career laddering opportunities, and promote staff development. By identifying the causes for attrition and by addressing those causes, the threat of losing therapists from the work force may be averted. Respondents (n = 106) to a survey of occupational therapy managers indicated that job dissatisfaction, burnout, and attrition of registered occupational therapists were not major problems in their settings. They reported a variety of strategies to reduce job dissatisfaction, burnout, and attrition. When these problems were present, managers cited bureaucratic red tape, lack of opportunity for advancement, and increasing role demands as contributing factors.

  10. Possible association between phantom vibration syndrome and occupational burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Pen; Wu, Chi-Cheng; Chang, Li-Ren; Lin, Yu-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    Phantom vibration syndrome (PVS) and phantom ringing syndrome (PRS) occur in many cell phone users. Previous studies have indicated an association between PVS/PRS and job stress. The aim of this study was to determine if PVS/PRS were also associated with occupational burnout. This was a cross-sectional study of 384 employees of a high-tech company in northern Taiwan. They all completed a phantom vibration and ringing questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Chinese version of the Occupational Burnout Inventory. Significantly more women and people with at least a college education were in the population with PRS and PVS, respectively. Anxiety and depression had no associations with PVS/PRS. Higher scores for personal fatigue, job fatigue, and service target fatigue had an independent impact on the presence of PVS, but only a higher score for service target fatigue had an independent impact on the presence of PRS. The independent association between work-related burnout and PVS/PRS suggests that PVS/PRS may be a harbinger of mental stress or a component of the clinical burnout syndrome, and may even be a more convenient and accurate predictor of occupational burnout.

  11. The problem of professional burnout in stress management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makasheva Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of professional burnout is extremely relevant in current stress management. By its nature, professional burnout is a unique type of stress syndrome that is characterized by emotional exhaustion. It leads to loss of energy and interest in one’s job. A burnout could be the result of such syndromes as – burnout and boreout. It could emerge as the reaction of the organism to the high working intensity and stress working conditions or due to the boredom and absence of the sphere for professional realization. Both syndromes negatively influence the professional activity and require serious research and an adequate approach to the study. Studies have been conducted in the higher educational environment and among production employees. The studies were conducted with the application of the existing tests for revealing the “boreout” and “burnout” syndromes. Studies have shown that the syndrome “burnout” is common among workers with free working regulations, whose work requires greater independence, initiative and responsibility. According to the results of the study, the employees who are more free in the performance of their professional duties (teachers, managers are less subjected to the boreout syndrome. For the prevention and control of professional burnout company management needs to apply the achievements of stress management.

  12. Burnout of Formal Caregivers of Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentic, Sreten; Sapic, Rosa; Damjanovic, Aleksandar; Vekic, Berislav; Loncar, Zlatibor; Dimitrijevic, Ivan; Ilankovic, Andrej; Jovanovic, Aleksandar A

    2016-01-01

    Burnout syndrome is under-researched within caregivers (CGs) of children with cerebral palsy. The primary aim was to determine the burnout level of formal CGs of children with cerebral palsy (G1) and to compare it with a control group (G2) of professional pediatric nurses, and second, to correlate the level of depression and anxiety with the burnout level. In a total sample of 60 CGs, the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), consisting of three structural units - emotional exhaustion (MBIEE) subscale, depersonalization (MBI-DP) subscale and personal accomplishment (MBI-PA) subscale - was used to measure burnout. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) was used for the assessment of anxiety, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for depression. A significant difference was shown on the MBI-EE subscale and on the BDI test (pburnout was observed in all subscales, on the MBI-EE subscale registered 50% of CGs in G1, and 17% in control G2. Correlation of the MBI-EE subscale with BDI and BAI tests was highly significant (pcaregivers' mental health. Better care for caregivers would provide them with better professional satisfaction, and consequently would lead to better care for patients.

  13. Stress and burnout in anaesthesia: a real world problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama-Maceiras, Pablo; Jokinen, Johanna; Kranke, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Stress and burnout have arisen as relevant problems to the healthcare workers and the health systems themselves. As anaesthesiologists work in stressful areas of the hospitals, we are exposed to these problems. In this review, we summarize recent studies regarding stress and burnout, exploring possible solutions. Almost 50% of anaesthesiologists scored positive for some of the burnout domains in different surveys, with one-third reporting high levels. The management of this problem not only needs an institutional but also an individual approach. Some recent randomized clinical trials and longitudinal studies suggest that there is some benefit of using several techniques to control stress, although benefits are still modest and most of the studies are based on transversal surveys and self-reported questionnaires. There is a lack of definitive evidence to guide the management of stress and burnout in medical professions in general and in anaesthesiology in particular. Longitudinal and interventional studies are needed to better determine ways of action. In the meantime, creating a positive work climate and institutional support as well as promoting control over one's job and the autonomy of employees are the most recommended strategies. Workers should also learn how to cope with stressors and practice personal strategies of wellness and resilience to fight against burnout.

  14. Carbonation by fluid-rock interactions at high-pressure conditions: Implications for carbon cycling in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Francesca; Vitale Brovarone, Alberto; Beyssac, Olivier; Martinez, Isabelle; Ague, Jay J.; Chaduteau, Carine

    2016-07-01

    Carbonate-bearing lithologies are the main carbon carrier into subduction zones. Their evolution during metamorphism largely controls the fate of carbon, regulating its fluxes between shallow and deep reservoirs. Recent estimates predict that almost all subducted carbon is transferred into the crust and lithospheric mantle during subduction metamorphism via decarbonation and dissolution reactions at high-pressure conditions. Here we report the occurrence of eclogite-facies marbles associated with metasomatic systems in Alpine Corsica (France). The occurrence of these marbles along major fluid-conduits as well as textural, geochemical and isotopic data indicating fluid-mineral reactions are compelling evidence for the precipitation of these carbonate-rich assemblages from carbonic fluids during metamorphism. The discovery of metasomatic marbles brings new insights into the fate of carbonic fluids formed in subducting slabs. We infer that rock carbonation can occur at high-pressure conditions by either vein-injection or chemical replacement mechanisms. This indicates that carbonic fluids produced by decarbonation reactions and carbonate dissolution may not be directly transferred to the mantle wedge, but can interact with slab and mantle-forming rocks. Rock-carbonation by fluid-rock interactions may have an important impact on the residence time of carbon and oxygen in subduction zones and lithospheric mantle reservoirs as well as carbonate isotopic signatures in subduction zones. Furthermore, carbonation may modulate the emission of CO2 at volcanic arcs over geological time scales.

  15. Nurse Burnout: What Can We Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavandero, Ramon

    1981-01-01

    Burnout is a problem among nurses and other helping professionals. Reports reviewed here will help nursing administrators recognize signs of burnout among their staff. The author cites the need for research and makes suggestions to alleviate the problem. (JOW)

  16. Sulfurized activated carbon for high energy density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunxia; Candelaria, Stephanie L.; Li, Yanwei; Li, Zhimin; Tian, Jianjun; Zhang, Lili; Cao, Guozhong

    2014-04-01

    Sulfurized activated carbon (SAC), made by coating the pore surface with thiophenic sulfur functional groups from the pyrolysis of sulfur flakes, were characterized and tested for supercapacitor applications. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the sulfur content in the SAC was found to be 2.7 at%. Electrochemical properties from potentiostatic and galvanostatic measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to evaluate the effect of sulfur on porous carbon electrodes. The SAC electrode exhibits better conductivity, and an obvious increase in specific capacitance that is almost 40% higher than plain activated carbons (ACs) electrode at a high current density of 1.4 A g-1. The proposed mechanism for improved conductivity and capacitive performance due to the sulfur functional groups on ACs will be discussed.

  17. High temperature SU-8 pyrolysis for fabrication of carbon electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Yasmin Mohamed; Caviglia, Claudia; Hemanth, Suhith

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present the investigation of the pyrolysis parameters at high temperature (1100 °C) for the fabrication of two-dimensional pyrolytic carbon electrodes. The electrodes were fabricated by pyrolysis of lithographically patterned negative epoxy based photoresist SU-8. A central...... composite experimental design was used to identify the influence of dwell time at the highest pyrolysis temperature and heating rate on electrical, electrochemical and structural properties of the pyrolytic carbon: Van der Pauw sheet resistance measurements, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance...... spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the pyrolytic carbon. The results show that the temperature increase from 900 °C to 1100 °C improves the electrical and electrochemical properties. At 1100 °C, longer dwell time leads to lower resistivity, while the variation of the pyrolysis...

  18. Highly Efficient Catalytic Cyclic Carbonate Formation by Pyridyl Salicylimines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Saravanan; Park, Joonho; Byun, Jeehye; Jung, Yousung; Yavuz, Cafer T

    2018-03-21

    Cyclic carbonates as industrial commodities offer a viable nonredox carbon dioxide fixation, and suitable heterogeneous catalysts are vital for their widespread implementation. Here, we report a highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst for CO 2 addition to epoxides based on a newly identified active catalytic pocket consisting of pyridine, imine, and phenol moieties. The polymeric, metal-free catalyst derived from this active site converts less-reactive styrene oxide under atmospheric pressure in quantitative yield and selectivity to the corresponding carbonate. The catalyst does not need additives, solvents, metals, or co-catalysts, can be reused at least 10 cycles without the loss of activity, and scaled up easily to a kilogram scale. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the nucleophilicity of pyridine base gets stronger due to the conjugated imines and H-bonding from phenol accelerates the reaction forward by stabilizing the intermediate.

  19. Carbon nanotubes as nanotexturing agents for high power supercapacitors based on seaweed carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymundo-Piñero, Encarnación; Cadek, Martin; Wachtler, Mario; Béguin, François

    2011-07-18

    The advantages provided by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as backbones for composite supercapacitor electrodes are discussed. This paper particularly highlights the electrochemical properties of carbon composites obtained by pyrolysis of seaweed/CNTs blends. Due to the nanotexturing effect of CNTs, supercapacitors fabricated with electrodes from these composites exhibit enhanced electrochemical performances compared with CNT-free carbons. The cell resistance is dramatically reduced by the excellent conductivity of CNTs and by the good propagation of ions favored by the presence of opened mesopores. As a consequence, the specific power of supercapacitors based on these nanocomposites is very high. Another advantage related to the presence of CNTs is a better life cycle of the systems. The composite electrodes are resilient during the charge/discharge of capacitors; these are able to perfectly accommodate the dimensional changes appearing in the active material without mechanical damages. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. High-energy, short-pulse, carbon-dioxide lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenstermacher, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Lasers for fusion application represent a special class of short-pulse generators; not only must they generate extremely short temporal pulses of high quality, but they must do this at ultra-high powers and satisfy other stringent requirements by this application. This paper presents the status of the research and development of carbon-dioxide laser systems at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, vis-a-vis the fusion requirements

  1. Burnout and occupational stress in the medical residents of Oncology, Haematology and Radiotherapy: a prevalence and predictors study in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joaquim, Ana; Custódio, Sandra; Savva-Bordalo, Joana; Chacim, Sérgio; Carvalhais, Inês; Lombo, Liliana; Lopes, Heitor; Araújo, António; Gomes, Rui

    2018-03-01

    Burnout is a professional syndrome associated with stress caused by overwork. Our aim was to calculate the prevalence of burnout and stress on medical residents of Oncology, Haematology and Radiotherapy in Portugal, as well as to determine predictors of burnout and stress. An anonymous questionnaire was applied (n = 118). Statistical analysis consisted of a descriptive and inferential analysis. The prevalence of burnout and stress was calculated to be 45.2 and 50%, respectively. The dimensions that generated higher levels of stress were 'dealing with patients' and 'overwork'. Burnout was directly related with stress dimension 'overwork'. The prevalence of burnout in Portuguese oncological residents is high as in other European countries and in the U.S. Therefore, interventional strategies can be designed.

  2. Performance of CVD and CVR coated carbon-carbon in high temperature hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. W.; Barletta, R. E.; Svandrlik, J.; Vanier, P. E.

    As a part of the component development process for the particle bed reactor (PBR), it is necessary to develop coatings which will be time and temperature stable at extremely high temperatures in flowing hydrogen. These coatings must protect the underlying carbon structure from attack by the hydrogen coolant. Degradation which causes small changes in the reactor component, e.g. hole diameter in the hot frit, can have a profound effect on operation. The ability of a component to withstand repeated temperature cycles is also a coating development issue. Coatings which crack or spall under these conditions would be unacceptable. While refractory carbides appear to be the coating material of choice for carbon substrates being used in PBR components, the method of applying these coatings can have a large effect on their performance. Two deposition processes for these refractory carbides, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and chemical vapor reaction (CVR), have been evaluated. Screening tests for these coatings consisted of testing of coated 2-D and 3-D weave carbon-carbon in flowing hot hydrogen at one atmosphere. Carbon loss from these samples was measured as a function of time. Exposure temperatures up to 3,000 K were used, and samples were exposed in a cyclical fashion cooling to room temperature between exposures. The results of these measurements are presented along with an evaluation of the relative merits of CVR and CVD coatings for this application.

  3. Examination of a cognitive model of stress, burnout, and intention to resign for Japanese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohue, Takashi; Moriyama, Michiko; Nakaya, Takashi

    2011-06-01

    A reduction in burnout is required to decrease the voluntary turnover of nurses. This study was carried out with the aim of establishing a cognitive model of stress, burnout, and intention to resign for nurses. A questionnaire survey was administered to 336 nurses (27 male and 309 female) who had worked for ≤5 years at a hospital with multiple departments. The survey included an evaluation of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), stress (Nursing Job Stressor Scale), automatic thoughts (Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised), and irrational beliefs (Japanese Irrational Belief Test), in addition to the intention to resign. The stressors that affected burnout in the nurses included conflict with other nursing staff, nursing role conflict, qualitative workload, quantitative workload, and conflict with patients. The irrational beliefs that were related to burnout included dependence, problem avoidance, and helplessness. In order to examine the automatic thoughts affecting burnout, groups with low and high negative automatic thoughts and low and high positive automatic thoughts were established. A two-way ANOVA showed a significant interaction of these factors with emotional exhaustion, but no significant interaction with depersonalization and a personal sense of accomplishment. Only the major effect was significant. The final model showed a process of "stressor → irrational beliefs → negative automatic thoughts/positive automatic thoughts → burnout". In addition, a relationship between burnout and an intention to resign was shown. These results suggest that stress and burnout in nurses might be prevented and that the number of nurses who leave their position could be decreased by changing irrational beliefs to rational beliefs, decreasing negative automatic thoughts, and facilitating positive automatic thoughts. © 2010 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2010 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  4. Life satisfaction and risk of burnout among men and women working as physiotherapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Śliwiński

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Recently in Poland as a result of the high rate of aging population and high rates of morbidity, a growing demand for the physiotherapist profession is observed. The results of this study can be used to formulate principles for better organization of physiotherapist's workplace in order to prevent occurrence of burnout. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of gender on satisfaction with life and burnout among active physiotherapists. Material and Methods: The survey was anonymous and voluntary, and involved a group of 200 active physiotherapists working in health care units and educational centers in Poland. The study group was selected randomly and incidentally. Each respondent received a demographic data sheet and a set of self-rating questionnaires (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Burnout Scale Inventory. Results: Burnout among men decreased along with increasing satisfaction with one's work and occupation, friends, relatives and acquaintances, sexuality, and increased due to greater satisfaction with one's housing status. Burnout among women decreased along with increasing satisfaction with one's health, free time and friends, relatives and acquaintances, and increased due to work at a setting other than a health care unit or educational center. Statistical analysis failed to reveal any significant differences with regard to the BSI domains and with regard to the overall burnout index as well as with regard to the assessment of satisfaction with life between female and male physiotherapists. Conclusions: Satisfaction with children, marriage and partnership, with one's work and occupation, interactions with friends, relatives and acquaintances and sexuality may contribute to reduction of burnout among men. Women who are satisfied with their children, family, health, free time and contacts with friends, relatives and acquaintances are less prone to burnout. Weak financial situation among women and deficiency of free

  5. Life satisfaction and risk of burnout among men and women working as physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwiński, Zbigniew; Starczyńska, Małgorzata; Kotela, Ireneusz; Kowalski, Tomasz; Kryś-Noszczyk, Karolina; Lietz-Kijak, Danuta; Kijak, Edward; Makara-Studzińska, Marta

    2014-06-01

    Recently in Poland as a result of the high rate of aging population and high rates of morbidity, a growing demand for the physiotherapist profession is observed. The results of this study can be used to formulate principles for better organization of physiotherapist's workplace in order to prevent occurrence of burnout. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of gender on satisfaction with life and burnout among active physiotherapists. The survey was anonymous and voluntary, and involved a group of 200 active physiotherapists working in health care units and educational centers in Po?land. The study group was selected randomly and incidentally. Each respondent received a demographic data sheet and a set of self-rating questionnaires (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Burnout Scale Inventory). Burnout among men decreased along with increasing satisfaction with one's work and occupation, friends, relatives and acquaintances, sexuality, and increased due to greater satisfaction with one's housing status. Burnout among women decreased along with increasing satisfaction with one's health, free time and friends, relatives and acquaintances, and increased due to work at a setting other than a health care unit or educational center. Statistical analysis failed to reveal any significant differences with regard to the BSI domains and with regard to the overall burnout index as well as with regard to the assessment of satisfaction with life between female and male physiotherapists. Satisfaction with children, marriage and partnership, with one's work and occupation, interactions with friends, relatives and acquaintances and sexuality may contribute to reduction of burnout among men. Women who are satisfied with their children, family, health, free time and contacts with friends, relatives and acquaintances are less prone to burnout. Weak financial situation among women and deficiency of free time among men can induce burnout. Improving staff happiness may

  6. Some Aspects of Burnout in Nursing Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Leskovic Ljiljana; Vukovič Goran; Leskovar Robert; Goriup Jana

    2016-01-01

    Nursing personnel in nursing homes for elderly citizens are exposed to a number of factors that contribute to possible burnout syndrome. For this reason, the set objective of the research was to measure the degree of burnout, check the correlation between the burnout syndrome and satisfaction at work, and psychosomatic symptoms, as well as to figure out the main characteristics of burnout syndrome among the nursing personnel in nursing homes for the elderly in Slovenia.

  7. Burnout Syndrome of Leisure Time Activities Specialist.

    OpenAIRE

    REBROVÁ, Iveta

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is dealing with burnout syndrome among leisure time specialists. Theoretical part describes burnout syndrome, its historical basis, symptoms and causes, protective factors and preventive techniques, which prevent from burnout syndrome risk. Next part deals with common stress, its causes and symptoms, and psychosocial stress, which is closely related with burnout syndrome. Ending of the theoretical part is focused on understanding the differences between jobs of common teacher and ...

  8. Highly selective and stable carbon dioxide uptake in polyindole-derived microporous carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Muhammad; Tiwari, Jitendra N; Kemp, K Christain; Yousuf, Muhammad; Kim, Kwang S

    2013-05-21

    Adsorption with solid sorbents is considered to be one of the most promising methods for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO₂) from power plant flue gases. In this study, microporous carbon materials used for CO₂ capture were synthesized by the chemical activation of polyindole nanofibers (PIF) at temperatures from 500 to 800 °C using KOH, which resulted in nitrogen (N)-doped carbon materials. The N-doped carbon materials were found to be microporous with an optimal adsorption pore size for CO₂ of 0.6 nm and a maximum (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) BET surface area of 1185 m(2) g(-1). The PIF activated at 600 °C (PIF6) has a surface area of 527 m(2) g(-1) and a maximum CO₂ storage capacity of 3.2 mmol g(-1) at 25 °C and 1 bar. This high CO₂ uptake is attributed to its highly microporous character and optimum N content. Additionally, PIF6 material displays a high CO₂ uptake at low pressure (1.81 mmol g(-1) at 0.2 bar and 25 °C), which is the best low pressure CO₂ uptake reported for carbon-based materials. The adsorption capacity of this material remained remarkably stable even after 10 cycles. The isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated to be in the range of 42.7-24.1 kJ mol(-1). Besides the excellent CO₂ uptake and stability, PIF6 also exhibits high selectivity values for CO₂ over N₂, CH₄, and H₂ of 58.9, 12.3, and 101.1 at 25 °C, respectively, and these values are significantly higher than reported values.

  9. Health Professionals Facing Burnout: What Do We Know about Nursing Managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeb, Jean-Luc; Haberey-Knuessi, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To address the degree of burnout in nursing managers in hospitals of Western Switzerland, including comparison with medical managers, and its relationship with personal, work-related, and organizational characteristics. Methods. Statistical analysis of the scores of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey from 257 nursing managers who answered a standardized electronic questionnaire. Results. Nursing managers showed a low degree of burnout, which was similar to that of medical managers. Most of them had a low level of emotional exhaustion and a low level of depersonalization, while personal accomplishment was contrasted. Only 2.3% had a high degree of burnout. These findings challenge the hypothesis of high stress being associated with high burnout, as nursing managers can be supposed to have a highly demanding job due to their intermediary position within the hospital hierarchy. Variations of burnout by personal, work-related, and organizational characteristics mainly concerned emotional exhaustion. Conclusion. Though nursing managers face a highly demanding job, they may benefit from resources (including coping strategies and empowerment) which help counterbalance job stress. Unequal distribution of resources may play a central role when facing burnout.

  10. Health Professionals Facing Burnout: What Do We Know about Nursing Managers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Heeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To address the degree of burnout in nursing managers in hospitals of Western Switzerland, including comparison with medical managers, and its relationship with personal, work-related, and organizational characteristics. Methods. Statistical analysis of the scores of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey from 257 nursing managers who answered a standardized electronic questionnaire. Results. Nursing managers showed a low degree of burnout, which was similar to that of medical managers. Most of them had a low level of emotional exhaustion and a low level of depersonalization, while personal accomplishment was contrasted. Only 2.3% had a high degree of burnout. These findings challenge the hypothesis of high stress being associated with high burnout, as nursing managers can be supposed to have a highly demanding job due to their intermediary position within the hospital hierarchy. Variations of burnout by personal, work-related, and organizational characteristics mainly concerned emotional exhaustion. Conclusion. Though nursing managers face a highly demanding job, they may benefit from resources (including coping strategies and empowerment which help counterbalance job stress. Unequal distribution of resources may play a central role when facing burnout.

  11. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  12. BURNOUT SYNDROME AMONG EDUCATORS IN PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozo, Endica Radic; Sucic, Goran; Zaja, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of burnout syndrome (BS) has been recognized in many professions (pilots, firefighters, police officers, doctors…) that during their work are subjected to high levels of stress. For educators in preschool institutions stress level is very high thus creating the possibility of developing BS. For this research is selected preschool institution - kindergarten "Radost" (Joy) in Split, in which by use of questionnaires (modified scale by Freudenberger and modified scales by Girdin, Everly and Dusek) during 2014 among educators (100 respondents) is conducted a survey regarding the frequency of burnout syndrome. According to questionnaires by Girdin, Everly and Dusek there is no statistically significant difference between the number of educators who feel good and those that are under significant stress (χ2=1.04; p=0.307). According to questionnaire by Freudenberg educators are classified into 3 categories and distribution of educators by the groups is almost uniform (χ2=2.76; p=0.250), which means that one third of a teacher is in good condition, a third is in the risk area for burn-out syndrome, while one third are candidates for development of this syndrome. Comparing a teacher in good condition compared to other (at risk and those who are candidates for the burn-out syndrome) is up to 1.5 times higher in those who are at risk and the candidates for development of this syndrome than in others (χ2=4.5; p=0.033). The occurrence of burnout syndrome is very high for the group of educators (half of the educators!) in pre-school institutions which should be taken into account by the institutions management. For this purpose, it is necessary to organize regular medical check-ups with particular reference to burnout syndrome with signs of the syndrome to prevent its further development.

  13. BURNOUT SYNDROME AMONG EDUCATORS IN PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozo, Endica Radic; Sucic, Goran; Zaja, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The occurrence of burnout syndrome (BS) has been recognized in many professions (pilots, firefighters, police officers, doctors…) that during their work are subjected to high levels of stress. For educators in preschool institutions stress level is very high thus creating the possibility of developing BS. Material and methods: For this research is selected preschool institution – kindergarten „Radost” (Joy) in Split, in which by use of questionnaires (modified scale by Freudenberger and modified scales by Girdin, Everly and Dusek) during 2014 among educators (100 respondents) is conducted a survey regarding the frequency of burnout syndrome. Research results: According to questionnaires by Girdin, Everly and Dusek there is no statistically significant difference between the number of educators who feel good and those that are under significant stress (χ2=1.04; p=0.307). According to questionnaire by Freudenberg educators are classified into 3 categories and distribution of educators by the groups is almost uniform (χ2=2.76; p=0.250), which means that one third of a teacher is in good condition, a third is in the risk area for burn-out syndrome, while one third are candidates for development of this syndrome. Comparing a teacher in good condition compared to other (at risk and those who are candidates for the burn-out syndrome) is up to 1.5 times higher in those who are at risk and the candidates for development of this syndrome than in others (χ2=4.5; p=0.033). Conclusion: The occurrence of burnout syndrome is very high for the group of educators (half of the educators!) in pre-school institutions which should be taken into account by the institutions management. For this purpose, it is necessary to organize regular medical check-ups with particular reference to burnout syndrome with signs of the syndrome to prevent its further development. PMID:26889099

  14. Denuded zone in Czochralski silicon wafer with high carbon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiahe; Yang Deren; Ma Xiangyang; Que Duanlin

    2006-01-01

    The thermal stability of the denuded zone (DZ) created by high-low-high-temperature annealing in high carbon content (H[C]) and low carbon content (L[C]) Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) has been investigated in a subsequent ramping and isothermal 1050 deg. C annealing. The tiny oxygen precipitates which might occur in the DZ were checked. It was found in the L[C] Cz-Si that the DZ shrank and the density of bulk micro-defects (BMDs) reduced with the increase of time spent at 1050 deg. C. Also, the DZs above 15 μm of thickness present in the H[C] Cz-Si wafers continuously and the density and total volume of BMDs first decreased then increased and finally decreased again during the treatments. Moreover, tiny oxygen precipitates were hardly generated inside the DZs, indicating that H[C] Cz-Si wafers could support the fabrication of integrated circuits

  15. Denuded zone in Czochralski silicon wafer with high carbon content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiahe; Yang, Deren; Ma, Xiangyang; Que, Duanlin

    2006-12-01

    The thermal stability of the denuded zone (DZ) created by high-low-high-temperature annealing in high carbon content (H[C]) and low carbon content (L[C]) Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) has been investigated in a subsequent ramping and isothermal 1050 °C annealing. The tiny oxygen precipitates which might occur in the DZ were checked. It was found in the L[C] Cz-Si that the DZ shrank and the density of bulk micro-defects (BMDs) reduced with the increase of time spent at 1050 °C. Also, the DZs above 15 µm of thickness present in the H[C] Cz-Si wafers continuously and the density and total volume of BMDs first decreased then increased and finally decreased again during the treatments. Moreover, tiny oxygen precipitates were hardly generated inside the DZs, indicating that H[C] Cz-Si wafers could support the fabrication of integrated circuits.

  16. Highly Flexible Freestanding Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Electrodes Materials of High-Performance All-Carbon Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhou, Jinyuan; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Peng; Fu, Wenbin; Zhao, Hao; Ma, Yufang; Pan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhenxing; Han, Weihua; Xie, Erqing

    2015-10-28

    Highly flexible porous carbon nanofibers (P-CNFs) were fabricated by electrospining technique combining with metal ion-assistant acid corrosion process. The resultant fibers display high conductivity and outstanding mechanical flexibility, whereas little change in their resistance can be observed under repeatedly bending, even to 180°. Further results indicate that the improved flexibility of P-CNFs can be due to the high graphitization degree caused by Co ions. In view of electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors, this type of porous nanostructure and high graphitization degree could synergistically facilitate the electrolyte ion diffusion and electron transportation. In the three electrodes testing system, the resultant P-CNFs electrodes can exhibit a specific capacitance of 104.5 F g(-1) (0.2 A g(-1)), high rate capability (remain 56.5% at 10 A g(-1)), and capacitance retention of ∼94% after 2000 cycles. Furthermore, the assembled symmetric supercapacitors showed a high flexibility and can deliver an energy density of 3.22 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 600 W kg(-1). This work might open a way to improve the mechanical properties of carbon fibers and suggests that this type of freestanding P-CNFs be used as effective electrode materials for flexible all-carbon supercapacitors.

  17. Burnout in hospital-based medical consultants in the New Zealand public health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgenor, Lois J; Spearing, Ruth L; Horn, Jacqueline; Beautrais, Annette L; Mulder, Roger T; Chen, Peggy

    2009-08-07

    To assess the prevalence and severity of burnout in hospital-based medical consultants, and investigate associated demographic and professional characteristics. Utilising standardised measures of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory) and job satisfaction (Job Satisfaction Scale) this cross-sectional study recruited 267 consultants working in a large tertiary hospital in Christchurch, New Zealand. Seventy-one percent of all eligible participants were recruited. The prevalence of burnout in each of the three dimensions was as follows: High Emotional Exhaustion=29.7%; High Depersonalisation=24.4%; Low Personal Accomplishment=31.2%. One in five consultants was assessed as having high overall burnout. Considered against the psychometric norms for medical workers, significantly more consultants than expected reported low Emotional Exhaustion (p<0.001) and low Depersonalisation (p<0.01). Working longer hours (p<0.01), lower job satisfaction (p<0.001), and shorter time in the current job (p<0.05) independently increased the risk of high Emotional Exhaustion. Working longer hours (p<0.05) and lower job satisfaction (p<.01) independently increased the risk of high Depersonalisation. Longer time in the same job increased the risk of low Personal Accomplishment (p<0.05). Longer hours worked (p<0.05), shorter vocational experience as a consultant (p<0.05), and lower job satisfaction (p<0.001) independently increased the risk of high overall burnout. An unexpected proportion of consultants experience robust emotional well-being and healthy work engagement. However, for those experiencing high burnout, by severity or dimension, working long hours and low job satisfaction appear to be particularly contributory factors. Whilst remedial interventions should target the minority who experience significant burnout, studies using robust research designs are required to assess the meaningful clinical utility of these. The challenge remains to determine the optimal organisational practices

  18. The Burnout Syndrome: Caring for Yourself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, John F.

    1980-01-01

    The author explores the problem of burnout among staff in human services fields. Three causes of burnout are cited: environmental factors, cultural predispositions, and personal characteristics. Burnout, the author asserts, can be prevented through self-reflection, care of the body, learning to relax, and working on aspects of the work environment…

  19. Teacher Burnout: Causes, Cures and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    In a review of the literature, this study defines teacher burnout, explains the physiological and environmental causes of teacher burnout, and provides suggestions regarding how educators can prevent and recover from teacher burnout. The essay addresses the uniquely stressful experience of teaching and the psychological effects of the profession.

  20. Burnout and Depression: Two Entities or One?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Bianchi, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the overlap in burnout and depression. Method: The sample comprised 1,386 schoolteachers (mean [M][subscript age] = 43; M[subscript years taught] = 15; 77% women) from 18 different U.S. states. We assessed burnout, using the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure, and depression, using the depression…

  1. An Epidemiological Approach to Staff Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Edna

    This paper describes a conceptual model of staff burnout in terms of independent, intervening and dependent variables. Staff burnout is defined, symptoms are presented, and the epidemiological approach to burnout is descussed. Components of the proposed model, which groups determinants of mental health into three domains, consist of: (1)…

  2. Prevalence Of Burnout Syndrome And Factors Associated With University Teachers