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Sample records for high carbohydrate meal

  1. Effects of training status on the metabolic responses to high carbohydrate and high fat meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, V L; McMurray, R G

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference between the way in which aerobically trained and untrained women metabolize fats and carbohydrates at rest in response to either a high-fat or high-carbohydrate meal. Subjects, 6 per group, were fed a high CHO meal (2068 kJ, 76% CHO, 23% fat, 5% protein) and a high fat meal (2093 kJ, 21% CHO, 72% fat, 8% protein) in counterbalanced order. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured every half-hour for 5 hours. RMR was similar between groups. However, after ingesting a high CHO meal, trained subjects had a peak in metabolism at minute 60, not evident in the untrained subjects. In addition, postprandial RER from minutes 120-300 were lower and fat use was greater after the high CHO meal for the trained subjects. These results suggest that aerobically trained women have an accelerated CHO uptake and overall lower CHO oxidation following the ingestion of a high CHO meal.

  2. Acute metabolic responses to a high-carbohydrate meal in outpatients with type 2 diabetes treated with a low-carbohydrate diet: a crossover meal tolerance study

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    Wakai Kenji

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low-carbohydrate diet (LCD achieves good glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2DM compared with a high-carbohydrate diet. With respect to energy metabolism, acute metabolic responses to high-carbohydrate meals (HCMs have not been determined in LCD patients with T2DM. Subjects and methods We enrolled 31 subjects with T2DM (mean age: 62 yrs, mean hemoglobin A1c level: 6.9%, of whom 13 were on a strict LCD (26% carbohydrate diet, and 18 a moderate one (44% carbohydrate diet. Two isocaloric meals were administered to all subjects in a randomized crossover design. The carbohydrate:protein:fat ratios of HCMs and low-carbohydrate meals (LCMs were 59:20:21 and 7:20:73, respectively. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, free fatty acids (FFAs, triglyceride and insulin, and plasma glucose concentrations were measured for 120 minutes after the intake of each meal. Results HCMs rapidly decreased postprandial β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and FFA concentrations within 2 hours in all patients in combination with rapid increases in serum insulin and plasma glucose, while LCMs increased or did not change β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and FFAs (P P HCMs sharply and rapidly decreased postprandial β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate concentrations in strict LCD subjects over 2 hours, but only slightly decreased them in moderate LCD subjects (P P = 0.002. The parameter Δtriglyceride was significantly correlated with background dietary %carbohydrate (Spearman's r = 0.484. Conclusion HCMs rapidly decreased postprandial ketone body concentrations in T2DM patients treated with a LCD. The decreases were more remarkable in strict than in moderate LCD subjects. HCMs slightly decreased postprandial triglyceride levels in strict LCD subjects. The parameter Δketone bodies was significantly correlated with the insulinogenic index, as was Δtriglyceride with background dietary %carbohydrate.

  3. Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses to High-Carbohydrate and High-Fat Meals in Healthy Humans

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    S. Gregersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The postprandial state is hypothesised to be proinflammatory and prooxidative, but the relative contributions of fat versus carbohydrate are unclear. Therefore, we examined inflammation and oxidative stress responses in serum and skeletal muscle before and after 1000 kcal meals, which were high in either fat or carbohydrate in 15 healthy individuals. Serum and muscle expression of IL6 was elevated 3 hours after each meal, independently of macronutrient composition (P<0.01. Serum IL18 was decreased after high-fat meal only (P<0.01. Plasma total antioxidative status and muscle Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase were decreased after high-carbohydrate meal only (P<0.05. We conclude that a high-carbohydrate meal may evoke a greater postprandial oxidative stress response, whereas both fat and carbohydrate increased IL6. We speculate that the observed increases in postprandial IL6, without increases in any other markers of inflammation, may indicate a normal IL6 response to enhance glucose uptake, similar to its role postexercise.

  4. Differing effects of high-fat or high-carbohydrate meals on food hedonics in overweight and obese individuals.

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    Hopkins, Mark; Gibbons, Catherine; Caudwell, Phillipa; Blundell, John E; Finlayson, Graham

    2016-05-28

    Although the effects of dietary fat and carbohydrate on satiety are well documented, little is known about the impact of these macronutrients on food hedonics. We examined the effects of ad libitum and isoenergetic meals varying in fat and carbohydrate on satiety, energy intake and food hedonics. In all, sixty-five overweight and obese individuals (BMI=30·9 (sd 3·8) kg/m2) completed two separate test meal days in a randomised order in which they consumed high-fat/low-carbohydrate (HFLC) or low-fat/high-carbohydrate (LFHC) foods. Satiety was measured using subjective appetite ratings to calculate the satiety quotient. Satiation was assessed by intake at ad libitum meals. Hedonic measures of explicit liking (subjective ratings) and implicit wanting (speed of forced choice) for an array of HFLC and LFHC foods were also tested before and after isoenergetic HFLC and LFHC meals. The satiety quotient was greater after ad libitum and isoenergetic meals during the LFHC condition compared with the HFLC condition (P=0·006 and P=0·001, respectively), whereas ad libitum energy intake was lower in the LFHC condition (Pfoods compared with the isoenergetic HFLC meal, which failed to suppress the hedonic appeal of subsequent HFLC foods. Therefore, when coupled with increased satiety and lower energy intake, the greater suppression of hedonic appeal for high-fat food seen with LFHC foods provides a further mechanism for why these foods promote better short-term appetite control than HFLC foods.

  5. Does prior acute exercise affect postexercise substrate oxidation in response to a high carbohydrate meal?

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    Hickey Matthew S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of a mixed meal increases postprandial carbohydrate utilization and decreases fat oxidation. On the other hand, acute endurance exercise increases fat oxidation and decreases carbohydrate utilization during the post-exercise recovery period. It is possible that the resulting post-exercise increase in circulating nonesterified fatty acids could attenuate the ability of ingested carbohydrate to inhibit lipid oxidation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior exercise attenuates the usual meal-induced decline in lipid oxidation. Methods Six healthy, physically active young subjects (x age = 26.3 years, 4 males, 2 females completed three treatments in random order after a ~10 h fast: (a Exercise/Carbohydrate (Ex/CHO – subjects completed a bout of exercise at 70% VO2peak (targeted net energy cost of 400 kcals, followed by consumption of a carbohydrate-rich meal; (b Exercise/Placebo (Ex/Placebo – subjects completed an identical bout of exercise followed by consumption of a placebo; and (c No Exercise/Carbohydrate (NoEx/CHO – subjects sat quietly rather than exercising and then consumed the carbohydrate-rich meal. Blood samples were obtained before and during the postprandial period to determine plasma glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA. Respiratory gas exchange measures were used to estimate rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Results Plasma NEFA were approximately two-fold higher immediately following the two exercise conditions compared to the no-exercise condition, while meal consumption significantly increased insulin and glucose in both Ex/CHO and NoEx/CHO. NEFA concentrations fell rapidly during the 2-h postprandial period, but remained higher compared to the NoEx/CHO treatment. Carbohydrate oxidation increased rapidly and fat oxidation decreased in response to the meal, with no differences in the rates of carbohydrate and fat oxidation during recovery between the Ex

  6. Lack of effect of high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meal intake on stress-related mood and eating behavior

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    Lemmens Sofie G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of meals with different macronutrients, especially high in carbohydrates, may influence stress-related eating behavior. We aimed to investigate whether consumption of high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meals influences stress-related mood, food reward, i.e. 'liking' and 'wanting', and post-meal energy intake. Methods Participants (n = 38, 19m/19f, age = 25 ± 9 y, BMI = 25.0 ± 3.3 kg/m2 came to the university four times, fasted, once for a stress session receiving a high-protein meal, once for a rest session receiving a high-protein meal, once for a stress session receiving a high-carbohydrate meal and once for a rest session receiving a high-carbohydrate meal (randomized cross-over design. The high-protein and high-carbohydrate test meals (energy percentage protein/carbohydrate/fat 65/5/30 vs. 6/64/30 matched for energy density (4 kJ/g and daily energy requirements (30%. Stress was induced using an ego-threatening test. Pre- and post-meal 'liking' and 'wanting' (for bread, filling, drinks, dessert, snacks, stationery (non-food alternative as control was measured by means of a computer test. Following the post-meal 'wanting' measurement, participants received and consumed their wanted food items (post-meal energy intake. Appetite profile (visual analogue scales, mood state (Profile Of Mood State and State Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires, and post-meal energy intake were measured. Results Participants showed increased feelings of depression and anxiety during stress (P Conclusions Consumption of a high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meal appears to have limited impact on stress-related eating behavior. Only participants with high disinhibition showed decreased subsequent 'wanting' and energy intake during rest; this effect disappeared under stress. Acute stress overruled effects of consumption of high-protein foods. Trial registration The study was registered in the Dutch Trial Register (NTR1904. The

  7. Metabolic and hormonal responses to body carbohydrate store depletion followed by high or low carbohydrate meal in sedentary and physically active subjects.

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    Mikulski, T; Ziemba, A; Nazar, K

    2010-04-01

    The study was designed to determine metabolic and hormonal responses to acute modification of body carbohydrate stores by exercise and subsequent meals and to find out whether the responses depend on the training status of subjects. Nine sedentary students and 10 endurance athletes took part in four experimental sessions. During control session, after overnight fast oxygen uptake and CO2 production were measured and blood glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), insulin (I), leptin (L), growth hormone (GH), testosterone (T), catecholamines, ACTH and cortisol were determined. The remaining sessions were preceded by 1.5 h exercise at 70% HRmax in the evening followed by 12-16 hrs fast till morning when subjects ate either high-carbohydrate (H-CHO) or low-carbohydrate (L-CHO) meal or fasted. Respiratory gases and blood samples were collected before and 2 hours after meal. In glycogen depleted subjects respiratory quotient (RQ), I, norepinephrine (NE) and L decreased, whilst other variables were unaltered. Changes in I and NE were greater in athletes than in sedentary subjects. After H-CHO RQ, blood glucose, I and NE increased and FFA, GH and T decreased. The latter effect was greater in athletes than in untrained subjects. After L-CHO, RQ was at the fasting level and FFA increased only in sedentary group. In both groups I increased and GH and T decreased. Neither meal affected L concentration. In conclusion, hormonal and metabolic changes observed after depleting carbohydrate stores resemble those occurring during starvation. Composition of the ingested meal affects postprandial metabolism, which additionally depends on the subjects' training status.

  8. Postprandial profiles of CCK after high fat and high carbohydrate meals and the relationship to satiety in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Catherine; Finlayson, Graham; Caudwell, Phillipa; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Per M Hellström; Näslund, Erik; Blundell, John E

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: CCK is understood to play a major role in appetite regulation. Difficulties in measuring CCK have limited the potential to assess its profile in relation to food-induced satiety. Improvements in methodology and progress in theoretical understanding of satiety/satiation make it timely for this to be revisited. OBJECTIVE: First, examine how physiologically relevant postprandial CCK8/33(s) profiles are influenced by fat (HF) or carbohydrate (HCHO) meals. Second, to examine relationships...

  9. Significant Effect of a Pre-Exercise High-Fat Meal after a 3-Day High-Carbohydrate Diet on Endurance Performance

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    Ikuma Murakami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of macronutrient composition of pre-exercise meals on endurance performance. Subjects consumed a high-carbohydrate diet at each meal for 3 days, followed by a high-fat meal (HFM; 1007 ± 21 kcal, 30% CHO, 55% F and 15% P or high-carbohydrate meal (HCM; 1007 ± 21 kcal, 71% CHO, 20% F and 9% P 4 h before exercise. Furthermore, just prior to the test, subjects in the HFM group ingested either maltodextrin jelly (M or a placebo jelly (P, while subjects in the HCM ingested a placebo jelly. Endurance performance was measured as running time until exhaustion at a speed between lactate threshold and the onset of blood lactate accumulation. All subjects participated in each trial, randomly assigned at weekly intervals. We observed that the time until exhaustion was significantly longer in the HFM + M (p < 0.05 than in HFM + P and HCM + P conditions. Furthermore, the total amount of fat oxidation during exercise was significantly higher in HFM + M and HFM + P than in HCM + P (p < 0.05. These results suggest that ingestion of a HFM prior to exercise is more favorable for endurance performance than HCM. In addition, HFM and maltodextrin ingestion following 3 days of carbohydrate loading enhances endurance running performance.

  10. Supplementation by thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal decreases feelings of hunger, elevates CCK levels and prevents postprandial hypoglycaemia in overweight women.

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    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Montelius, Caroline; Östbring, Karolina; Håkansson, Maria; Nilsson, Sofia; Rehfeld, Jens F; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2013-09-01

    Thylakoids are chlorophyll-containing membranes in chloroplasts that have been isolated from green leaves. It has been previously shown that thylakoids supplemented with a high-fat meal can affect cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, insulin and blood lipids in humans, and can act to suppress food intake and prevent body weight gain in rodents. This study investigates the addition of thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal and its effects upon hunger motivation and fullness, and the levels of glucose, insulin, CCK, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in overweight women. Twenty moderately overweight female subjects received test meals on three different occasions; two thylakoid enriched and one control, separated by 1 week. The test meals consisted of a high carbohydrate Swedish breakfast, with or without addition of thylakoids. Blood samples and VAS-questionnaires were evaluated over a 4-h period. Addition of thylakoids suppressed hunger motivation and increased secretion of CCK from 180 min, and prevented postprandial hypoglycaemia from 90 min following food intake. These effects indicate that thylakoids may intensify signals of satiety. This study therefore suggests that the dietary addition of thylakoids could aid efforts to reduce food intake and prevent compensational eating later in the day, which may help to reduce body weight over time.

  11. Efficient production of free fatty acids from soybean meal carbohydrates.

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    Wang, Dan; Thakker, Chandresh; Liu, Ping; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-11-01

    Conversion of biomass feedstock to chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention recently. Soybean meal, containing significant quantities of carbohydrates, is an inexpensive renewable feedstock. Glucose, galactose, and fructose can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soluble carbohydrates of soybean meal. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are valuable molecules that can be used as precursors for the production of fuels and other value-added chemicals. In this study, free fatty acids were produced by mutant Escherichia coli strains with plasmid pXZ18Z (carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase) using individual sugars, sugar mixtures, and enzymatic hydrolyzed soybean meal extract. For individual sugar fermentations, strain ML211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) )/pXZ18Z showed the best performance, which produced 4.22, 3.79, 3.49 g/L free fatty acids on glucose, fructose, and galactose, respectively. While the strain ML211/pXZ18Z performed the best with individual sugars, however, for sugar mixture fermentation, the triple mutant strain XZK211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) ptsG(-) )/pXZ18Z with an additional deletion of ptsG encoding the glucose-specific transporter, functioned the best due to relieved catabolite repression. This strain produced approximately 3.18 g/L of fatty acids with a yield of 0.22 g fatty acids/g total sugar. Maximum free fatty acids production of 2.78 g/L with a high yield of 0.21 g/g was achieved using soybean meal extract hydrolysate. The results suggested that soybean meal carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment could serve as an inexpensive feedstock for the efficient production of free fatty acids.

  12. Functional feed assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei using 100% fish meal replacement by soybean meal, high levels of complex carbohydrates and Bacillus probiotic strains.

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    Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

    2011-01-01

    Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)-carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.

  13. Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains

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    Rosalia Contreras

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs; Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM—carbohydrates (CHO basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm; Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B; SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C; fishmeal commercial feed (FM was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs; additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR. Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.

  14. A high protein moderate carbohydrate diet fed at discrete meals reduces early progression of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced breast tumorigenesis in rats

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    Singletary Keith W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in American women. Dietary factors are thought to have a strong influence on breast cancer incidence. This study utilized a meal-feeding protocol with female Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate effects of two ratios of carbohydrate:protein on promotion and early progression of breast tissue carcinomas. Mammary tumors were induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU at 52 d of age. Post-induction, animals were assigned to consume either a low protein high carbohydrate diet (LPHC; 15% and 60% of energy, respectively or a high protein moderate carbohydrate diet (HPMC; 35% and 40% of energy, respectively for 10 wk. Animals were fed 3 meals/day to mimic human absorption and metabolism patterns. The rate of palpable tumor incidence was reduced in HPMC relative to LPHC (12.9 ± 1.4%/wk vs. 18.2 ± 1.3%/wk. At 3 wk, post-prandial serum insulin was larger in the LPHC relative to HPMC (+136.4 ± 33.1 pmol/L vs. +38.1 ± 23.4 pmol/L, while at 10 wk there was a trend for post-prandial IGF-I to be increased in HPMC (P = 0.055. There were no differences in tumor latency, tumor surface area, or cumulative tumor mass between diet groups. The present study provides evidence that reducing the dietary carbohydrate:protein ratio attenuates the development of mammary tumors. These findings are consistent with reduced post-prandial insulin release potentially diminishing the proliferative environment required for breast cancer tumors to progress.

  15. Rats prone to obesity under a high-carbohydrate diet have increased post-meal CCK mRNA expression and characteristics of rats fed a high-glycemic index diet

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    Catherine eChaumontet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that rats prone to obesity exhibit an exaggerated increase in glucose oxidation and an exaggerated decline in lipid oxidation under a low-fat high-carbohydrate (LF/HC diet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in these metabolic dysregulations. After a one week adaptation to laboratory conditions, 48 male Wistar rats were fed a LF/HC diet for 3 weeks. During weeks 2 and 3, glucose tolerance tests (GTT, insulin tolerance tests (ITT and meal tolerance tests (MTT were performed to evaluate blood glucose, plasma and insulin. Glucose and lipid oxidation were also assayed during the GTT. At the end of the study, body composition was measured in all the rats, and they were classified as carbohydrate resistant (CR or carbohydrate sensitive (CS according to their adiposity. Before sacrifice, 24 of the 48 rats received a calibrated LF/HC meal. Liver, muscle and intestine tissue samples were taken to measure mRNA expression of key genes involved in glucose, lipid and protein metabolism. ITT, GTT and MTT showed that CS rats were neither insulin resistant nor glucose intolerant, but mRNA expression of CCK in the duodenum was higher and that of CPT1, PPARα and PGC1α in liver were lower than in CR rats. From these results, we make the hypothesis that in CS rats, CCK increased pancreatic secretion which may favor a quicker absorption of carbohydrates and consequently induces an enhanced inhibition of lipid oxidation in the liver leading to a progressive accumulation of fat preferentially in visceral deposits. Such a mechanism may explain why CS rats share many characteristics observed in rats fed a high glycemic index diet.

  16. Effects of Mixed Isoenergetic Meals on Fat and Carbohydrate Metabolism during Exercise in Older Men

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    Minoo Bassami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of four different meals on fat and CHO metabolism during subsequent exercise in elderly males. Eight healthy males (age: 63.3 ± 5.2 years reported to the physiology laboratory on four separate occasions, each of which was allocated for the performance of a 30-minute exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% ̇VO2max after having normal (N, high fat (HF, high carbohydrate high glycaemic index (HGI and high carbohydrate low glycaemic index (LGI meals. Fat oxidation during exercise after the meals (HF=0.26±0.04 g/min; N=0.21±0.04 g/min; HGI=0.22±0.03 g/min; LGI=0.19±0.03 g/min was not significant (>.05, and neither were the rates of carbohydrate oxidation (N=1.79±0.28, HF=1.58±0.22, HGI=1.68±0.22, and LGI=1.77±0.21 g/m. NEFA concentration increased after HF (<.05 but decreased after HGI and LGI (<.05. Glucose concentration decreased as a result of exercise after HF, and LGI (<.05 whereas insulin concentration decreased significantly during exercise after N, HF, and HGI (<.05. It can be concluded that, in elderly males, feeding isoenergetic meals containing different proportions of carbohydrate and fat do not significantly alter oxidation of fat and CHO during exercise in spite of changes in some circulating metabolites.

  17. Enzymatic extractability of soybean meal proteins and carbohydrates : heat and humidity effects

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    Fischer, M.; Kofod, L.V.; Schols, H.A.; Piersma, S.R.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2001-01-01

    To study the incomplete enzymatic extractability of proteins and carbohydrates of thermally treated soybean meals, one unheated and three heat-treated soybean meals were produced. To obtain truly enzyme-resistant material, the meals were extracted by a repeated hydrolysis procedure using excessive

  18. Factors related to colonic fermentation of nondigestible carbohydrates of a previous evening meal increase tissue glucose uptake and moderate glucose-associated inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, Marion G.; Wang, Hongwei; Weening, Desiree; Schepers, Marianne; Preston, Tom; Vonk, Roel J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evening meals that are rich in nondigestible carbohydrates have been shown to lower postprandial glucose concentrations after ingestion of high-glycemic-index breakfasts. This phenomenon is linked to colonic fermentation of nondigestible carbohydrates, but the underlying mechanism is not

  19. The nutrient composition of European ready meals: protein, fat, total carbohydrates and energy.

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    Kanzler, Sonja; Manschein, Martin; Lammer, Guido; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2015-04-01

    Despite the increasing social importance of ready meals, only few studies have been conducted on their nutrient composition. Therefore, 32 chilled, frozen and heat-treated ready meals (only main dishes) from the continental European market were analysed for protein, fat, total carbohydrate and energy. Half of the meals were nutritionally imbalanced by providing elevated fat (>30% of energy) and low carbohydrate levels (quality for the food industry, seven "nutritionally optimised" ready meals were created at the European level and analysed, however success was limited. If product labelling is to be useful for consumers, our results also indicate a need for better quality control to reduce the differences between content and labelling. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations

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    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  1. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  2. Effect of carbohydrate- and protein-rich meals on exercise-induced activation of lipolysis in obese subjects.

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    Erdmann, J; Tholl, S; Schusdziarra, V

    2010-04-01

    Exercise is an important part of obesity treatment concepts to support fat mobilisation from adipose tissue and also fat oxidation nolich is impaired in obese subjects. In normal weight subjects it is well known that stimulation of plasma insulin levels by a carbohydrate meal can inhibit lipolysis and subsequent fat oxidation. Since obese subjects frequently have elevated basal and postprandial insulin levels the effect of carbohydrate- and protein-rich test meals on exercise-induced activation of lipolysis is of special interest. Twenty obese subjects performed bicycle exercise for 30 min in the fasted state, 30 min after a carbohydrate-or a protein-rich meal, and 120 min after the carbohydrate meal (n=12), respectively, at low intensity. Activation of lipolysis was assessed by plasma glycerol levels. In addition, plasma insulin, glucose, and lactate concentrations were determined. In comparison to the fasted state, the carbohydrate meal suppressed activation of lipolysis. Following the protein meal, exercise led to an attenuated but significant increase of glycerol levels. A similar rise was observed when the carbohydrate meal was ingested 2 h prior to the exercise bout. To improve exercise-induced lipolysis and subsequent fat oxidation during low-intensity exercise obese subjects should not ingest carbohydrates immediately before exercise. Hunger sensations should be satisfied with protein-rich food. When carbohydrates are consumed 2 h prior to exercise its lipolytic effect is comparable to the protein meal. These data are useful in every day dietary counselling and might help to improve weight loss during obesity treatment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  3. Simultaneous determination of carbohydrates and simmondsins in jojoba seed meal (Simmondsia chinensis) by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, Sabine; Van Boven, Maurits; Holser, Ron; Decuypere, Eddy; Flo, Gerda; Lievens, Sylvia; Cokelaere, Marnix

    2002-11-22

    Separate methods for the analyses of soluble carbohydrates in different plants and simmondsins in jojoba seed meal are described. A reliable gas chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous quantification of D-pinitol, myo-inositoL sucrose, 5-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol. 2-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol, simmondsin, 4-demethylsimmondsin, 5-demethylsimmondsin and 4,5-didemethylsimmondsin as trimethylsilyl derivatives in jojoba seed meal has been developed. The study of different extraction mixtures allowed for the quantitative recovery of the 9 analytes by a mixture of methanol-water (80:20, v/v) in the concentration range between 0.1 and 4%. Comparison of the separation parameters on three different capillary stationary phases with MS detection allowed for the choice of the optimal gas chromatographic conditions for baseline separation of the analytes.

  4. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was cotton seed meal levels in the concentrate; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg. Bulls received urea-lime treated rice straw ad libitum and were supplemented with 10 g of concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source and level of cotton seed meal did not have significant effects on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, microbial protein synthesis or feed intake. Animals which received CC showed significantly higher BUN concentration, ruminal propionic acid and butyric acid proportions, while dry matter, organic matter digestibility, populations of total viable bacteria and proteolytic bacteria were lower than those in the CR3:1 treatment. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids was higher in HCM than LCM treatments, while the concentration of butyric acid was higher in LCM than HCM treatments. The population of proteolytic bacteria with the LCM treatments was higher than the HCM treatments; however other bacteria groups were similar among the different levels of cotton seed meal. Bulls which received LCM had higher protein digestibility than those receiving HCM. Therefore, using high levels of cassava chip and cotton seed meal might positively impact on energy and nitrogen balance for the microbial population in the rumen of the young dairy bull.

  5. Effect of carbohydrate restriction in the first meal after an overnight fast on glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eva; Lange, Kylie; Clifton, Peter

    2016-11-01

    People with type 2 diabetes are advised to consume an even meal distribution of carbohydrate. Whether this distribution is optimal is unknown. Our objective was to show that omitting carbohydrate in the first meal after a fast would lead to an augmented lunch response. Two diets of 1-d duration that differed only in the breakfast-meal composition (carbohydrate or no carbohydrate) were consumed on sequential days in a randomized crossover study. The procedure was repeated in the alternate order 1 wk later. Blood glucose concentrations were tested with the use of continuous glucose monitoring. The primary endpoints were the percentage of time spent with a blood glucose concentration >10 mmol/L (%T >10) and peak blood glucose (Gmax). The following 45 adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited: subjects with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≤7% and subjects with HbA1c ≥8%. Twenty-eight adults completed the study. The daily Gmax was significantly lower after the no-carbohydrate breakfast than after the carbohydrate breakfast (11.0 ± 0.4 and 12.1 ± 0.4 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.003) whereas the %T >10 throughout the day was a nonsignificant 22% less after the no-carbohydrate breakfast than after the carbohydrate breakfast (13% ± 10% compared with 10% ± 8%; P = 0.09). Gmax over 5 h after breakfast was significantly lower after the no-carbohydrate meal (by 1.9 ± 0.4 mmol/L; P 10 was lower after the no-carbohydrate meal than after the carbohydrate meal (11% ± 3% compared with 26% ± 4%, respectively; P meal results in significantly decreased Gmax after the meal, but the lunch response is not affected. Overall daily control is not significantly improved. This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12609000331235. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Reducing dietary fat from a meal increases the bioavailability of exogenous carbohydrate without altering plasma glucose concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Nicolas D.; Shrivastava, Cara R.; Horowitz, Jeffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine the acute glycemic and endocrine responses to the reduction of fat content from a meal. On three separate occasions, nine overweight subjects (body mass index = 30 ± 1 kg/m2; 5 men, 4 women) consumed 1) a control meal (∼800 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 31 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), 2) a low-fat meal (∼530 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 1 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), or 3) a low-fat meal plus lipid infusion [same meal as low-fat meal, but the total energy provided was the same as control (800 kcal), with the “missing” fat (∼30 g) provided via an intravenous lipid infusion]. All three meals contained [13C]glucose (3 mg/kg body wt) to assess the bioavailability of ingested glucose. During the 5-h period after each meal, we measured the recovery of [13C]glucose in plasma, plasma glucose, and insulin concentrations. We also measured plasma concentration of the gastrointestinal peptides: glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36). The recovery of the ingested [13C]glucose in the hour after ingestion was greater (P < 0.05) after the low-fat than after the control meal [area under the curve (AUC): 1,206 ± 252 and 687 ± 161 μM·h, respectively]. However, removing dietary fat from the meal did not affect the plasma concentration of glucose or insulin. Importantly, [13C]glucose recovery was not different during the low-fat and lipid infusion trials (AUC: 1,206 ± 252 and 1,134 ± 247 μM·h, respectively), indicating that the accelerated delivery of exogenous glucose found after removing fat from the meal is due exclusively to the reduction of fat in the gastrointestinal tract. In parallel with these findings, the reduction in fat calories from the meal reduced plasma concentration of GIP, GLP-1, and PYY3-36. In summary, these data suggest that removing fat from the diet expedited exogenous glucose delivery into the systemic circulation

  7. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens J; Björck, Inger M E

    2008-04-01

    Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P < 0.05). At breakfast, the glucose response was inversely correlated with colonic fermentation (r = -0.25; P < 0.05) and GLP-1 (r = -0.26; P < 0.05) and positively correlated with FFA (r = 0.37; P < 0.001). IL-6 was lower (P < 0.01) and adiponectin was higher (P < 0.05) at breakfast following an evening meal with barley-kernel bread compared with WWB. Breath hydrogen correlated positively with satiety (r = 0.27; P < 0.01) and inversely with GER (r = -0.23; P < 0.05). In conclusion, the composition of indigestible carbohydrates of the evening meal may affect glycemic excursions and related metabolic risk variables at breakfast through a mechanism involving colonic fermentation. The results provide evidence for a link between gut microbial metabolism and key factors associated with insulin resistance.

  8. Breakfasts high in protein, fat or carbohydrate: effect on within-day appetite and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, R J; van Wyk, M C; Johnstone, A M; Harbron, C G

    1996-07-01

    To compare the effect of isoenergetically-dense, high-protein (HP), high-fat (HF) or high-carbohydrate (HC) breakfasts (at 08.30) on subjective hunger, fullness and appetite (measured hourly on a 100 mm visual analogue scale), macronutrient balance and ad libitum energy intake (EI), at a test meal (13.30) and throughout the rest of the day (until 23.00). Six men each spent 24 h in a whole-body indirect calorimeter on three separate occasions during which they received breakfasts designed to match 75% of BMR and that comprised, on average 3.1 MJ of protein (HP), carbohydrate (HC) or fat (HF), respectively, the remainder being split between the other two macronutrients. Every item of the ad libitum diet comprised 13% protein, 40% fat and 47% carbohydrate by energy, with an energy density of 550 kJ/100 g. Subjectively-rated pleasantness did not differ between the breakfasts, or any of the subsequent ad libitum meals. Subjective hunger was significantly greater during the hours between breakfast and lunch after the HF (26) treatment relative to the HP (18) or HC (18 mm) meals (P time intake 5 h later, or EI for the rest of the day. A single positive balance of each macronutrient can be buffered by oxidation and storage capacity, without leading to changes in meal-to-meal EI, when subjects feed ad libitum on unfamiliar diets of fixed composition.

  9. A cereal-based evening meal rich in indigestible carbohydrates increases plasma butyrate the next morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Östman, Elin M; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2010-01-01

    , mean ± SD: 25.9 ± 3.2 y, BMI consumed all test meals in a random order on separate evenings. At a standardized breakfast following evening test meals...... concentrations the following morning compared with an evening meal with white wheat bread (P involving colonic fermentation and generation of SCFA, where in particular...... butyric acid may be involved. This mechanism may be one explanation by which whole grain is protective against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease....

  10. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients. They are the most important source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this ...

  11. Effects of moderate and high glycemic index meals on metabolism and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, J P; Cyr-Campbell, D; Campbell, W W; Scheiber, J; Evans, W J

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether pre-exercise ingestion of meals with moderate and high glycemic indexes (GI) affects glucose availability during exercise and exercise performance time. Six male volunteers (22 +/- 1 years; 80.4 +/- 3.7 kg; VO(2peak), 54.3 +/- 1.2 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) ingested 75 g of carbohydrate in the form of 2 different breakfast cereals, rolled oats (moderate GI, approximately 61; MOD-GI) or puffed rice (high GI, approximately 82; HI-GI), combined with 300 mL of water; or water alone (control). The trials were randomized, and the meals were ingested 45 minutes before the subjects performed cycling exercise (60% VO(2peak)) to exhaustion. Venous blood samples were drawn to measure glucose, free fatty acids (FFAs), glycerol, insulin (INS), epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations. A muscle biopsy specimen was obtained from the vastus lateralis before the meal and immediately after exercise for glycogen determination. Before exercise, both test meals elicited significant (P glycemic response was higher (P <.05) at the start of exercise after the HI-GI meal than after the control. During exercise, plasma glucose levels were higher (P <.05) at 60 (5.2 +/- 0.1, 4.2 +/- 0.2, and 4.6 +/- 0.1 mmol. L(-1)) and 90 (4.8 +/- 0.1, 4.1 +/- 0.1, and 4.3 +/- 0.1 mmol. L(-1)) minutes after the MOD-GI meal than after either the HI-GI or control. Total carbohydrate oxidation was greater (P <.05) during the MOD-GI trial than in control and was directly correlated with exercise performance time (r =.95, P <.0001). Pre-exercise plasma FFA levels were suppressed (P <.05) 30 and 45 minutes after ingestion of the HI-GI meal and 45 minutes after the MOD-GI meal compared with control. At 30, 60, and 120 minutes of exercise, FFAs remained suppressed (P <.05) for both test meals compared with control. At exhaustion, plasma glucose, INS, FFA, glycerol, EPI, and NE levels and muscle glycogen use were not different for all trials. Exercise time

  12. High Carbohydrate-Fiber Nutrition for Running and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battinelli, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    The roles of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and fiber in producing energy for health and exercise are discussed. Long-distance runners should have a high intake of complex carbohydrates and fiber. (PP)

  13. High temperature cement raw meal flowability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated by incre......The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated...

  14. Two meals with different carbohydrate, fat and protein contents render equivalent postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Darwiche, Gassan; Roth, Bodil; Höglund, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to compare postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin between a control breakfast and a moderately low-carbohydrate test breakfast, given randomly after 10-h fast. Blood samples were collected before and repeatedly after the meal. Plasma calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin were analyzed. The total area under the curve (tAUC) and change in AUC from baseline (dAUC) were calculated. Ratios between the test and control values were calculated to investigate equivalence. Healthy volunteers (8 men and 12 women; 46.0 ± 14.5 years) were included. tAUCs of cortisol and triglycerides did not differ between the breakfasts (p = 0.158 versus p = 0.579). Cortisol dAUCs were decreased and triglyceride dAUCs were increased after both breakfasts, with no differences between the breakfasts (p = 0.933 versus p = 0.277). Calprotectin and zonulin levels were unaffected. The meals were bioequivalent for cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin, but not for calprotectin.

  15. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerton, Dean M; Campbell, Matthew D; Gonzalez, Javier T; Rumbold, Penny L S; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma J

    2016-02-25

    We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI): 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m²) completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ) was consumed with (CHO + WP) or without (CHO) 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ), or breakfast was omitted (NB). At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0--180 min): 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L), compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L) and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p 0.05). Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal.

  16. Appetite regulation via exercise prior or subsequent to high-fat meal consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mary Huey-Yu; Bushnell, Darcy; Cannon, Daniel T; Kern, Mark

    2009-02-01

    This study assessed the effect of exercise timing relative to meal consumption on appetite and its hormonal regulators (i.e., PYY(3-36), ghrelin and leptin) in moderately active young men. Twelve men performed three trials in a random order: (1) meal consumption, (2) exercise 2h after a meal, (3) exercise 1h before a meal. The test meal provided 16.5 kcal kg(-1) with 70% fat, 26% carbohydrate and 4% protein. Exercise was performed at a work rate eliciting 60% of VO(2max) for 50 min. Hunger ratings and plasma leptin concentrations were measured at baseline and hours 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-meal, and plasma concentrations of ghrelin and PYY(3-36) were measured at baseline and 1, 3, and 7h after meal consumption. Exercise performed 2h after meal consumption extended the appetite suppressing effect of food intake. Furthermore, plasma PYY(3-36) concentration tended to be elevated by exercise after meal consumption. Exercise prior to food intake decreased appetite and increased plasma ghrelin concentrations. No response to timing of exercise relative to food intake on plasma leptin concentration was detected. These data indicated the timing of exercise to meal consumption may influence appetite and its hormonal regulators. Post-meal exercise may extend the suppressive effects of meal consumption on appetite.

  17. Preexercise high and low glycemic index meals and cycling performance in untrained females: randomized, cross-over trial of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laura; Szpalek, Hannah M; McNaughton, Lars R

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of high and low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrate preexercise meals (2.5 g CHO/kg body mass) on cycle performance in untrained females. Ten females, cycled at 60% VO(2 max) to exhaustion, on two occasions. After fasting, subjects ate an isocaloric, high glycemic index (HGI)/low glycemic index (LGI) meal in a random order. Blood samples were taken at rest/postprandial/during and after exercise and blood glucose and lactate were measured. Ingestion of the LGI meal resulted in a performance time of 67.4 ± 8.4 min versus an HGI time of 48.9 ± 10.0 min (p = 0.02). Fifteen minutes after the HGI meal there was a significant increase (p < 0.001) in glucose levels, which was not seen in the LGI trial. Twenty minutes into the HGI exercise trial, there was a large decline in blood glucose concentration beyond resting levels. Based on this work, we found that untrained female participants should utilize LGI meals preexercise for endurance activities rather than HGI meals.

  18. Post-exercise substrate utilization after a high glucose vs. high fructose meal during negative energy balance in the obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittelbach, T J; Mattes, R D; Gretebeck, R J

    2000-10-01

    To assess the effects of negative energy balance on the metabolic response of a meal containing either glucose or fructose as the primary source of carbohydrate after exercise in obese individuals in energy balance, or negative energy balance. Fourteen adults with mean body mass index (BMI) 30.3 +/- 1 kg/m2, age 26 +/- 2 years, and weight 93.5 +/- 5.4 kg, adhered to an energy-balanced (EB) or a negative energy-balanced (NEB) diet for 6 days. On Day 7, subjects exercised at 70% VO2peak for 40 minutes then consumed either high glucose (50 g of glucose, HG) or high fructose (50 g of fructose, HF) liquid meal. Substrate utilization was measured by indirect calorimetry for 3 hours. Blood samples were collected before exercise and 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after consuming the meal. The HG produced 15.9% greater glycemic (p fructose in supplements/meals may provide no additional benefit in terms of substrate utilization during a weight loss program involving diet and exercise.

  19. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & ...

  20. Fermentation characteristics, chemical composition and fractionation of carbohydrates and crude protein of silage of elephant grass wilted or with addition of castor bean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Sampaio Oliveira Ribeiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, hydrogen potential, the losses of deriving the fermentative process, nutritional value, the fractioning of carbohydrates and protein the elephant grass silage wilted or not containing castor bean meal. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments and with four replications: elephant grass wilted; elephant not wilted; elephant grass more castor bean meal (6%; elephant grass more castor bean meal (12% and elephant grass more castor bean meal (18%, the coproduct was added with base on natural matter. We adopted a specific mass of 600 kg/m3. The silage containing 18% castor bean meal showed higher (P0.05 among the silages with additives for fractions A+B1, B2 and C. For the protein fractioning, the fractions A and C decreased (P<0.05 with increase of the inclusion of castor bean meal, differently, of the fraction B1+B2 which increased. The castor bean stands out as a good additive in silage of elephant grass to reduce moisture and improve the fermentation characteristics of silages also was effective in increasing the protein value of silages, especially when using the dose 18%.

  1. Concentric and eccentric exercise, glycemic responses to a postexercise meal, and inflammation in women with high versus low waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Mary P; Horrigan, Laura C; Jay, Sara E; Brown, Karen M; Porter, Jay W; Steward, Andrea N

    2016-12-01

    Carbohydrate ingestion and level of concentric versus eccentric muscle activity may alter exercise-induced health benefits for individuals who have high waist circumference as a metabolic risk factor. The purpose of this study was to determine whether metabolic and inflammation responses to an exercise recovery meal differ between women with lower (Lo-WC, exercise is primarily concentric (uphill walking; UPHILL) versus primarily eccentric (downhill walking; DOWNHILL). Recreationally active women (age, 18-39 years; body mass index, 19-35.4 m·kg(-2); Lo-WC, n = 13; Hi-WC, n = 10) completed UPHILL, DOWNHILL, and resting (CONTROL) conditions followed 30 min later by a mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) with carbohydrates to protein ratio of 4:1, and blood glucose, insulin, and inflammation markers were compared across conditions. Compared with Lo-WC, the Hi-WC group had higher (p exercise. However, both concentrically and eccentrically biased exercises offered benefits to insulin responses to a high carbohydrate meal for Hi-WC.

  2. Effect of Carbohydrate Source and Cottonseed Meal Level in the Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg. Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05. Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p0.05. Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw.

  3. Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Gregory R; Clark, Sally A; Cox, Amanda J; Halson, Shona L; Hargreaves, Mark; Hawley, John A; Jeacocke, Nikki; Snow, Rodney J; Yeo, Wee Kian; Burke, Louise M

    2010-07-01

    We determined the effects of varying daily carbohydrate intake by providing or withholding carbohydrate during daily training on endurance performance, whole body rates of substrate oxidation, and selected mitochondrial enzymes. Sixteen endurance-trained cyclists or triathletes were pair matched and randomly allocated to either a high-carbohydrate group (High group; n = 8) or an energy-matched low-carbohydrate group (Low group; n = 8) for 28 days. Immediately before study commencement and during the final 5 days, subjects undertook a 5-day test block in which they completed an exercise trial consisting of a 100 min of steady-state cycling (100SS) followed by a 7-kJ/kg time trial on two occasions separated by 72 h. In a counterbalanced design, subjects consumed either water (water trial) or a 10% glucose solution (glucose trial) throughout the exercise trial. A muscle biopsy was taken from the vastus lateralis muscle on day 1 of the first test block, and rates of substrate oxidation were determined throughout 100SS. Training induced a marked increase in maximal citrate synthase activity after the intervention in the High group (27 vs. 34 micromol x g(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.001). Tracer-derived estimates of exogenous glucose oxidation during 100SS in the glucose trial increased from 54.6 to 63.6 g (P < 0.01) in the High group with no change in the Low group. Cycling performance improved by approximately 6% after training. We conclude that altering total daily carbohydrate intake by providing or withholding carbohydrate during daily training in trained athletes results in differences in selected metabolic adaptations to exercise, including the oxidation of exogenous carbohydrate. However, these metabolic changes do not alter the training-induced magnitude of increase in exercise performance.

  4. The effect of mango waste meal in the protein:carbohydrate ratio on performance and body composition of pacamã fish (Lophiosilurus alexandri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the inclusion of peeled-mango waste meal as a source of carbohydrate in the protein:carbohydrate ratio (CP:CH on performance and chemical composition of pacamã (Lophiosilurus alexandri juveniles. One hundred and fifty fish (11.31±0.96g were stocked in sixteen 500 L tanks, fed three times daily (10% of live weight, in a system with water recirculation with biofilter. The treatments consisted of four experimental diets with decreasing levels of the ratio between crude protein and carbohydrate (1.40, 0.94, 0.56 and 0.29, with four replications per treatment. At the end of 60 days, we evaluated animal performance (final average weight gain, specific growth rate, total apparent feed intake, carcass yield, survival and physicochemical composition of the carcass. The protein:carbohydrate ratios affected all performance variables (P0.05. The carcass chemical composition variables were modified, except for mineral matter, pH and moisture. Mango meal can be used at the proportion of up to 15% in the diet for pacamã, establishing a CP:CHO ratio of 1.40 without impairing animal performance and the carcass chemical composition.

  5. Organotin-catalyzed highly regioselective thiocarbonylation of nonprotected carbohydrates and synthesis of deoxy carbohydrates in a minimum number of steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Wataru; Tanigawa, Satoko; Takemoto, Yuki; Yoshimatsu, Hirofumi; Onomura, Osamu

    2012-04-16

    Nonprotected carbohydrates: The catalytic regioselective thiocarbonylation of carbohydrates by using organotin dichloride under mild conditions was demonstrated. The reaction afforded various deoxy saccharides in high yields and excellent regioselectivity in a minimum number of steps. The regioselectivity of the thiocarbonylation is attributed to the intrinsic character of the carbohydrates based on the stereorelationship of their hydroxy groups (see scheme).

  6. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean M. Allerton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI: 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2 completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ was consumed with (CHO + WP or without (CHO 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ, or breakfast was omitted (NB. At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0––180 min: 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L, compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p < 0.05, with no difference in post-breakfast (0–180 min glycemia (CHO + WP, 3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; CHO, 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L; NB, 4.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L; p = 0.247. There were no post-lunch (0–180 min effects of condition on glycemia (p = 0.492, insulinemia (p = 0.338 or subjective appetite (p > 0.05. Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal.

  7. Metabolic responses to high glycemic index and low glycemic index meals: a controlled crossover clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bressan Josefina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of low glycemic index (LGI foods before exercise results in slower and more stable glycemic increases. Besides maintaining an adequate supply of energy during exercise, this response may favor an increase in fat oxidation in the postprandial period before the exercise compared to high glycemic index (HGI foods. The majority of the studies that evaluated the effect of foods differing in glycemic index on substrate oxidation during the postprandial period before the exercise are acute studies in which a single meal is consumed right before the exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consuming two daily HGI or LGI meals for five consecutive days on substrate oxidation before the exercise and in the concentrations of glucose, insulin and free fatty acids before and during a high intensity exercise. Methods Fifteen male cyclists, aged 24.4 ± 3.8 years, with body mass index of 21.9 ± 1.4 kg.m-2 and a VO2 max of 70.0 ± 5.3 mL.kg-1.min-1, participated in this crossover study. All test meals were consumed in the laboratory. On days 1 and 5, substrate oxidation (30 minutes before and 90 minutes after breakfast (HGI or LGI and diet-induced thermogenesis (90 minutes postprandial were assessed before the exercise. The levels of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids were determined during 2 h after breakfast on these same days. Ninety minutes after breakfast, subjects completed a 30 min cycloergometric exercise at 85 to 95% of their maximum heart rate, during which lactate concentrations were assessed. Results The consumption of HGI meals resulted in higher areas under the glycemic and insulinemic curves in the postprandial period. However, glycemia did not differ by study treatment during exercise. There were no differences in free fatty acids in the postprandial period or in lactate levels during exercise. LGI meals resulted in lower fat oxidation and higher carbohydrate oxidation than the

  8. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas) are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork) - a randomized cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Marlene Dahlwad; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Christensen, Sheena M

    2016-01-01

    on appetite regulation. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. DESIGN: In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double......-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, cross-over meal test. The meals (all 3.5 MJ, 28 energy-% (E%) fat) were either high protein based on veal and pork meat, HP-Meat (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 6 g fiber/100 g); high protein based on legumes (beans and peas), HP-Legume (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate...

  9. A high-power carbohydrate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Ragnar [SuFuCell AB, Bytaregatan 23, SE 222 21 Lund (Sweden); Folkesson, Boerje [Bronsaaldersvaegen 21, SE-226 54 Lund (Sweden); Spaziante, Placido M. [Cellennium Co., Ltd., 14th Floor Gypsum Metropolitan Tower, 539 Sri Ayudhaya Rd., Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Veerasai, Waret [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Exell, Robert H.B. [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Prachauthit Rd., Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports the development of a fuel cell consisting of a vanadium flow battery in which the vanadium ions are reduced by sugar (from a carbohydrate) to oxidation state +3 on one side of a membrane, and are oxidized to state +5 on the other side by oxygen. The theoretical upper limit to the conversion efficiency of the energy in sugar by this method under standard conditions is 54%. We have obtained efficiencies up to 45% in our laboratory tests. This way of using biomass for electricity production avoids the Carnot cycle losses in heat engines. (author)

  10. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose...... tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1...... (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel...

  11. Development of a Single High Fat Meal Challenge to Unmask ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress tests are used clinically to determine the presence of underlying disease and predict future cardiovascular risk. In previous studies, we used treadmill exercise stress in rats to unmask the priming effects of air pollution inhalation. Other day-to-day activities stress the cardiovascular system, and when modeled experimentally, may be useful in identifying latent effects of air pollution exposure. For example, a single high fat (HF) meal can cause transient vascular endothelial dysfunction and increases in LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), oxidative stress, and inflammation. Given the prevalence of HF meals in western diets, the goal of this study was to develop a HF meal challenge in rats to see if air pollution primes the body for a subsequent stress-induced adverse response. Healthy male Wistar Kyoto rats were fasted for six hours and then administered a single oral gavage of isocaloric lard-based HF or low fat (LF) suspensions, or a water vehicle control. We hypothesized that rats given a HF load would elicit postprandial changes in cardiopulmonary function that were distinct from LF and vehicle controls. One to four hours after gavage, rats underwent whole body plethysmography to assess breathing patterns, cardiovascular ultrasounds, blood draws for measurements of systemic lipids and hormones and a test for sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia. HF gavage caused an increase in circulating TG relative to LF and vehicle controls and an incre

  12. [Glycemic, insulinemic index, glycemic load of soy beverage with low and high content of carbohydrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres y Torres, Nimbe; Palacios-González, Berenice; Noriega-López, Lilia; Tovar-Palacio, Armando R

    2006-01-01

    Consumption of soy has increased in Western countries due to the benefits on health and the attitude of the people to consume natural products as alternative to the use of pharmacological therapies. However, there is no evidence whether the consumption of 25 g of soy protein as recommended by the Food and Drug Administration has some effect on glucose absorption and consequently on insulin secretion. The aim of the present study was to determine glycemic index (GI), insulinemic index (InIn), and glycemic load (GL) of several soy beverages containing low or high concentration of carbohydrates, and compare them with other foods such as peanuts, whole milk, soluble fiber and a mixed meal on GI and InIn. The results showed that soy beverages had low or moderate GI, depending of the presence of other compounds like carbohydrates and fiber. Consumption of soy beverages with low concentration of carbohydrates produced the lowest insulin secretion. Therefore, these products can be recommended in obese and diabetic patients. Finally soy beverages should contain low maltodextrins concentration and be added of soluble fiber.

  13. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products, and do not help you feel as satisfied. FIBER High-fiber foods include: Whole grains, such ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  14. Metabolism and performance during extended high-intensity intermittent exercise after consumption of low- and high-glycaemic index pre-exercise meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Christine B; Chilibeck, Philip D; Barss, Trevor; Vatanparast, Hassanali; Vandenberg, Albert; Zello, Gordon A

    2012-08-01

    The metabolic and performance benefits of prior consumption of low-glycaemic index (GI) meals v. high-GI meals were determined in extended high-intensity intermittent exercise. Participants (ten males and four females, aged 25·8 (sd 7·3) years) completed two testing days (each consisting of back-to-back 90-min intermittent high-intensity treadmill running protocols separated by 3 h) spaced by at least 7 d. Using a randomised counterbalanced cross-over design, low-GI, lentil-based meals (GI about 42) or high-GI, potato-based meals (GI about 78) matched for energy value were consumed 2 h before, and within 1 h after, the first exercise session. Performance was measured by the distance covered during five 1-min sprints (separated by 2·5 min walking) at the end of each exercise session. Peak postprandial blood glucose was higher by 30·8 % in the high-GI trial compared with the low-GI trial, as was insulin (P = 0·039 and P = 0·003, respectively). Carbohydrate oxidation was lower by 5·5 % during the low-GI trials compared with the high-GI trials at the start of the first exercise session (P exercise session during the high-GI trial compared with the low-GI trial. Sprint distance was not significantly different between conditions. A low-GI meal improved the metabolic profile before and during extended high-intensity intermittent exercise, but did not affect performance. Improvements in metabolic responses when consuming low-GI meals before exercise may be beneficial to the long-term health of athletes.

  15. Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the metabolic effects of two weight loss diets differing in macronutrient composition on features of dyslipidemia and post-prandial insulin (INS response to a meal challenge in overweight/obese individuals. Methods This study was a parallel-arm randomized 4 mo weight loss trial. Adults (n = 50, 47 ± 7 y matched on BMI (33.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2, P = 0.79 consumed energy restricted diets (deficit ~500 kcal/d: PRO (1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 protein and -1.d-1 protein and > 220 g/d carbohydrate for 4 mos. Meal challenges of respective diets were utilized for determination of blood lipids and post-prandial INS and glucose response at the beginning and end of the study. Results There was a trend for PRO to lose more weight (-9.1% vs. -7.3%, P = 0.07 with a significant reduction in percent fat mass compared to CHO (-8.7% vs. -5.7%; P = 0.03. PRO also favored reductions in triacylglycerol (-34% vs. -14%; P P = 0.05; however, CHO favored reduction in LDL-C (-7% vs. +2.5%; P P P Conclusion A weight loss diet with moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein results in more favorable changes in body composition, dyslipidemia, and post-prandial INS response compared to a high carbohydrate, low protein diet suggesting an additional benefit beyond weight management to include augmented risk reduction for metabolic disease.

  16. A high-sugar/low-fiber meal compared with a low-sugar/high-fiber meal leads to higher leptin and physical activity levels in overweight Latina females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Belcher, Britni; Anderson, David; Lane, Christianne Joy; Chou, Chih-Ping; Salter-Venzon, Dawna; Davis, Jaimie N; Hsu, Ya-Wen Janice; Neuhouser, Marian L; Richey, Joyce M; McKenzie, Thomas L; McClain, Arianna; Goran, Michael I; Weigensberg, Marc J

    2009-06-01

    Acute effects of high-sugar/low-fiber meals vs low-sugar/high-fiber meals on hormones and behavior were studied in 10 overweight Latina females, age 11 to 12 years, using a crossover design. In this exploratory pilot study, participants arrived fasted at an observation laboratory on two occasions and randomly received either a high-sugar/low-fiber meal or a low-sugar/high-fiber meal at each visit. Glucose, insulin, and leptin were assayed from serum drawn at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Ad libitum snacks were provided at 120 minutes. Physical activity was measured using an observational system that provides data on time spent lying down, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity. Data were collected between March 2005 and July 2006. In the high-sugar/low-fiber condition, glucose and leptin levels decreased more slowly, glucose levels were higher at 60 minutes (111.2 mg/dL vs 95.4 mg/dL, P=0.03), and leptin levels were higher at 90 minutes (49.3 ng/mL vs 46.7 ng/mL, P=0.017) than in the low-sugar/high-fiber condition. Meals did not affect insulin or ad libitum dietary intake. Sitting, standing, lying down, and vigorous activity differed by condition, but not walking. Participants were significantly more active in the first 30 to 60 minutes after the high-sugar/low-fiber meal, but after 60 minutes there was a trend for activity to be lower after the high-sugar/low-fiber meal vs the low-sugar/high-fiber meal. High-sugar meals sustain glucose and leptin levels longer, which may play an important role in modulating levels of physical activity in this group at high risk for obesity-related disease.

  17. Effects of prior acute exercise on circulating cytokine concentration responses to a high-fat meal

    OpenAIRE

    Brandauer, Josef; Landers-Ramos, Rian Q.; Jenkins, Nathan T.; SPANGENBURG, Espen E.; Hagberg, James M.; Prior, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    High-fat meal consumption alters the circulating cytokine profile and contributes to cardiometabolic diseases. A prior bout of exercise can ameliorate the triglyceride response to a high-fat meal, but the interactive effects of exercise and high-fat meals on cytokines that mediate cardiometabolic risk are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of prior exercise on the responses of circulating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, leptin, retinol-binding prote...

  18. Effects of prior acute exercise on circulating cytokine concentration responses to a high-fat meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandauer, Josef; Landers-Ramos, Rian Q; Jenkins, Nathan T; Spangenburg, Espen E; Hagberg, James M; Prior, Steven J

    2013-08-01

    High-fat meal consumption alters the circulating cytokine profile and contributes to cardiometabolic diseases. A prior bout of exercise can ameliorate the triglyceride response to a high-fat meal, but the interactive effects of exercise and high-fat meals on cytokines that mediate cardiometabolic risk are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of prior exercise on the responses of circulating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, leptin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) to a high-fat meal. Ten healthy men were studied before and 4 h after ingestion of a high-fat meal either with or without ∼50 min of endurance exercise at 70% of VO2 max on the preceding day. In response to the high-fat meal, lower leptin and higher VEGF, bFGF, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations were evident (P exercise (P exercise and the high-fat meal on sFlt-1 (P exercise and 218% with prior exercise (P exercise does not affect all high-fat meal-induced changes in circulating cytokines, but does affect fasting or postprandial concentrations of IL-6, leptin, and sFlt-1. These data may reflect a salutary effect of prior exercise on metabolic responses to a high-fat meal.

  19. Syntheses of Novel Highly Symmetric Carbohydrates Bearing Diacylhydrazine Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bo; ZHANG Shu-sheng; LI Hui-xiang; LI Ji-zhi; JIAO Kui

    2005-01-01

    Several novel highly symmetric carbohydrates bearing a diacylhydrazine framework have been synthesized via a five-step procedure by utilizing D-glucose, D-galactose and D-xylose as the starting materials, respectively. The target compounds have been characterized with IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis.

  20. Inflammatory and metabolic responses to high-fat meals with and without dairy products in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Alexandra; Petry, Nicolai; Walther, Barbara; Bütikofer, Ueli; Luginbühl, Werner; Gille, Doreen; Chollet, Magali; McTernan, Philip G; Gijs, Martin A M; Vionnet, Nathalie; Pralong, François P; Laederach, Kurt; Vergères, Guy

    2015-06-28

    Postprandial inflammation is an important factor for human health since chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with chronic diseases. Dairy products have a weak but significant anti-inflammatory effect on postprandial inflammation. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of a high-fat dairy meal (HFD meal), a high-fat non-dairy meal supplemented with milk (HFM meal) and a high-fat non-dairy control meal (HFC meal) on postprandial inflammatory and metabolic responses in healthy men. A cross-over study was conducted in nineteen male subjects. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after consumption of the test meals. Plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at each time point. IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were assessed at baseline and endpoint (6 h). Time-dependent curves of these metabolic parameters were plotted, and the net incremental AUC were found to be significantly higher for TAG and lower for CRP after consumption of the HFM meal compared with the HFD meal; however, the HFM and HFD meals were not different from the HFC meal. Alterations in IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were not significantly different between the test meals. The results suggest that full-fat milk and dairy products (cheese and butter) have no significant impact on the inflammatory response to a high-fat meal.

  1. [Performance enhancement by carbohydrate intake during sport: effects of carbohydrates during and after high-intensity exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, Milou; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrate availability does not provide sufficient energy for prolonged moderate to high-intensity exercise. Carbohydrate ingestion during high-intensity exercise can therefore enhance performance.- For exercise lasting 1 to 2.5 hours, athletes are advised to ingest 30-60 g of carbohydrates per hour.- Well-trained endurance athletes competing for longer than 2.5 hours at high intensity can metabolise up to 90 g of carbohydrates per hour, provided that a mixture of glucose and fructose is ingested.- Athletes participating in intermittent or team sports are advised to follow the same strategies but the timing of carbohydrate intake depends on the type of sport.- If top performance is required again within 24 hours after strenuous exercise, the advice is to supplement endogenous carbohydrate supplies quickly within the first few hours post-exercise by ingesting large amounts of carbohydrate (1.2 g/kg/h) or a lower amount of carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg/h) with a small amount of protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h).

  2. The glycemic, insulinemic and plasma amino acid responses to equi-carbohydrate milk meals, a pilot- study of bovine and human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnerud Ulrika

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dairy proteins, in particular the whey fraction, exert insulinogenic properties and facilitate glycemic regulation through a mechanism involving elevation of certain plasma amino acids, and stimulation of incretins. Human milk is rich in whey protein and has not been investigated in this respect. Method Nine healthy volunteers were served test meals consisting of human milk, bovine milk, reconstituted bovine whey- or casein protein in random order. All test meals contributed with 25g intrinsic or added lactose, and a white wheat bread (WWB meal was used as reference, providing 25g starch. Post-prandial levels in plasma of glucose, insulin, incretins and amino acids were investigated at time intervals for up to 2 h. Results All test meals elicited lower postprandial blood glucose responses, expressed as iAUC 0–120 min compared with the WWB (P  Conclusion This study shows that the glycemic response was significantly lower following all milk/milk protein based test meals, in comparison with WWB. The effect appears to originate from the protein fraction and early phase plasma amino acids and incretins were involved in the insulin secretion. Despite its lower protein content, the human milk was a potent GLP-1 secretagogue and showed insulinogenic properties similar to that seen with reconstituted bovine whey-protein, possibly due to the comparatively high proportion of whey in human milk.

  3. CCK(1) receptor is essential for normal meal patterning in mice fed high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Michael J; Paulino, Gabriel; Raybould, Helen E

    2007-12-05

    Cholecystokinin (CCK), released by lipid in the intestine, initiates satiety by acting at cholecystokinin type 1 receptors (CCK(1)Rs) located on vagal afferent nerve terminals located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we determined the role of the CCK(1)R in the short term effects of a high fat diet on daily food intake and meal patterns using mice in which the CCK(1)R gene is deleted. CCK(1)R(-/-) and CCK(1)R(+/+) mice were fed isocaloric high fat (HF) or low fat (LF) diets ad libitum for 18 h each day and meal size, meal frequency, intermeal interval, and meal duration were determined. Daily food intake was unaltered by diet in the CCK(1)R(-/-) compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice. However, meal size was larger in the CCK(1)R(-/-) mice compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice when fed a HF diet, with a concomitant decrease in meal frequency. Meal duration was increased in mice fed HF diet regardless of phenotype. In addition, CCK(1)R(-/-) mice fed a HF diet had a 75% decrease in the time to 1st meal compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice following a 6 h fast. These data suggest that lack of the CCK(1)R results in diminished satiation, causing altered meal patterns including larger, less frequent meals when fed a high fat diet. These results suggest that the CCK(1)R is involved in regulating caloric intake on a meal to meal basis, but that other factors are responsible for regulation of daily food intake.

  4. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A.C.; Ostman, E.M.; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P

  5. High throughput screening of starch structures using carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg

    2016-01-01

    In this study we introduce the starch-recognising carbohydrate binding module family 20 (CBM20) from Aspergillus niger for screening biological variations in starch molecular structure using high throughput carbohydrate microarray technology. Defined linear, branched and phosphorylated...... maltooligosaccharides, pure starch samples including a variety of different structures with variations in the amylopectin branching pattern, amylose content and phosphate content, enzymatically modified starches and glycogen were included. Using this technique, different important structures, including amylose content...... and branching degrees could be differentiated in a high throughput fashion. The screening method was validated using transgenic barley grain analysed during development and subjected to germination. Typically, extreme branching or linearity were detected less than normal starch structures. The method offers...

  6. Postprandial Effect of a High-Fat Meal on Endotoxemia in Arab Women with and without Insulin-Resistance-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara A. Al-Disi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of a high-fat meal on circulating endotoxin and cardiometabolic indices in adult Arab women. The cohort consisted of 92 consenting Saudi women (18 non-diabetic (ND control subjects; Age 24.4 ± 7.9 year; body mass index (BMI 22.2 ± 2.2 Kg/m2, 24 overweight/obese (referred to as overweight-plus (overweight+ subjects (Age 32.0 ± 7.8 year; BMI 28.5 ± 1.5 Kg/m2 and 50 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients (Age 41.5 ± 6.2 year; BMI 35.2 ± 7.7 Kg/m2. All were given a high-fat meal (standardized meal: 75 g fat, 5 g carbohydrate, 6 g protein after an overnight fast of 12–14 h. Anthropometrics were obtained and fasting blood glucose, lipids, and endotoxin were serially measured for four consecutive postprandial hours. Endotoxin levels were significantly elevated prior to a high-fat meal in the overweight+ and T2DM than the controls (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the postprandial cardiometabolic changes led to a more detrimental risk profile in T2DM subjects than other groups, with serial changes most notable in glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol, and insulin levels (p-values < 0.05. The same single meal given to subjects with different metabolic states had varying impacts on cardiometabolic health. Endotoxemia is exacerbated by a high-fat meal in Arab subjects with T2DM, accompanied by a parallel increase in cardiometabolic risk profile, suggesting disparity in disease pathogenesis of those with or without T2DM through the altered cardiometabolic risk profile rather than variance in metabolic endotoxinaemia with a high-fat meal.

  7. Carbohydrate-responsive gene expression in adipose tissue of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although obesity is often associated with high fat diets, it can develop from a variety of meal patterns. Excessive intake of simple carbohydrates is one consistent eating behavior leading to obesity. However, the impact of over-consumption of diets with high carbohydrate-to-fat ratios (C/F) on body...

  8. Post-meal responses of elongation factor 2 (eEF2) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to leucine and carbohydrate supplements for regulating protein synthesis duration and energy homeostasis in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gabriel J; Moulton, Christopher J; Garlick, Peter J; Anthony, Tracy G; Layman, Donald K

    2012-11-13

    Previous research demonstrates that the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to a meal is regulated at the level of translation initiation with signals derived from leucine (Leu) and insulin to activate mTORC1 signaling. Recent evidence suggests that the duration of the meal response is limited by energy status of the cell and inhibition of translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2). This study evaluates the potential to extend the anabolic meal response with post-meal supplements of Leu or carbohydrates. Adult (~256 g) male Sprague-Dawley rats were food deprived for 12 h, then either euthanized before a standard meal (time 0) or at 90 or 180 min post-meal. At 135 min post-meal, rats received one of five oral supplements: 270 mg leucine (Leu270), 80:40:40 mg leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Leu80), 2.63 g carbohydrates (CHO2.6), 1 g carbohydrates (CHO1.0), or water (Sham control). Following the standard meal, MPS increased at 90 min then declined to pre-meal baseline at 180 min. Rats administered Leu270, Leu80, CHO2.6, or CHO1.0 maintained elevated rates of MPS at 180 min, while Sham controls declined from peak values. Leu80 and CHO1.0 treatments maintained MPS, but with values intermediate between Sham controls and Leu270 and CHO2.6 supplements. Consistent with MPS findings, the supplements maintained elongation activity and cellular energy status by preventing increases in AMP/ATP and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC and eEF2. The impact of the supplements on MPS and cellular energy status was in proportion to the energy content within the individual treatments (i.e., Leu270 > Leu80; CHO2.6 > CHO1.0), but the Leu supplements produced a disproportionate anabolic stimulation of MPS, eEF2 and energy status with significantly lower energy content. In summary, the incongruity between MPS and translation initiation at 180 min reflects a block in translation elongation due to reduced

  9. Post-Meal Responses of Elongation Factor 2 (eEF2 and Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK to Leucine and Carbohydrate Supplements for Regulating Protein Synthesis Duration and Energy Homeostasis in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald K. Layman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research demonstrates that the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS to a meal is regulated at the level of translation initiation with signals derived from leucine (Leu and insulin to activate mTORC1 signaling. Recent evidence suggests that the duration of the meal response is limited by energy status of the cell and inhibition of translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2. This study evaluates the potential to extend the anabolic meal response with post-meal supplements of Leu or carbohydrates. Adult (~256 g male Sprague-Dawley rats were food deprived for 12 h, then either euthanized before a standard meal (time 0 or at 90 or 180 min post-meal. At 135 min post-meal, rats received one of five oral supplements: 270 mg leucine (Leu270, 80:40:40 mg leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Leu80, 2.63 g carbohydrates (CHO2.6, 1 g carbohydrates (CHO1.0, or water (Sham control. Following the standard meal, MPS increased at 90 min then declined to pre-meal baseline at 180 min. Rats administered Leu270, Leu80, CHO2.6, or CHO1.0 maintained elevated rates of MPS at 180 min, while Sham controls declined from peak values. Leu80 and CHO1.0 treatments maintained MPS, but with values intermediate between Sham controls and Leu270 and CHO2.6 supplements. Consistent with MPS findings, the supplements maintained elongation activity and cellular energy status by preventing increases in AMP/ATP and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC and eEF2. The impact of the supplements on MPS and cellular energy status was in proportion to the energy content within the individual treatments (i.e., Leu270 > Leu80; CHO2.6 > CHO1.0, but the Leu supplements produced a disproportionate anabolic stimulation of MPS, eEF2 and energy status with significantly lower energy content. In summary, the incongruity between MPS and translation initiation at 180 min reflects a block in translation elongation due to

  10. A high-fat meal increases cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stress in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakulj, Fabijana; Zernicke, Kristin; Bacon, Simon L; van Wielingen, Laura E; Key, Brenda L; West, Sheila G; Campbell, Tavis S

    2007-04-01

    The consumption of high levels of saturated fat over the course of several weeks may lead to exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity. The consumption of a single high-fat meal has been associated with a transient impairment of vascular function. In a randomized, repeated measures, crossover study we tested whether the consumption of a single high-fat meal by healthy, normotensive participants would affect cardiovascular reactivity when compared with an isocaloric, low-fat meal. Thirty healthy participants ate a high-fat (42 g) and a low-fat (1 g) meal on 2 separate occasions, and their cardiovascular response to 2 standard laboratory stressors was measured. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance were greater in participants following the consumption of the high-fat meal relative to the low-fat meal. The findings of the present study are consistent with the hypothesis that even a single high-fat meal may be associated with heightened cardiovascular reactivity to stress and offer insight into the pathways through which a high-fat diet may affect cardiovascular function.

  11. The link between high-fat meals and postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII possibly involves kallikrein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to low-fat meals, high-fat meals are known to cause postprandial factor VII (FVII) activation, but the mechanism is unknown. To study the postprandial FVII activation in detail, 18 young men consumed in randomized order high-fat or low-fat test meals. Fasting and non-fasting blood sample...

  12. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis triggered by high carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hennawy, Adel S; Nesa, Mushammat; Mahmood, Aza K

    2007-01-01

    Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis is an uncommon disorder characterized by elevated thyroid hormone, muscle weakness or paralysis, and intracellular shifts of potassium leading to hypokalemia. This article presents a case of thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis in a 22-year old Hispanic man with nonfamilial thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis triggered by a high carbohydrate diet. Laboratory studies showed elevated thyroid hormone, decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone, and hypokalemia. Rapid reduction in thyroid hormone levels by giving antithyroid drugs such as propylthiouracil and prompt potassium therapy with frequent measurements of serum potassium levels during therapy to avoid catastrophic hyperkalemia when potassium starts to shift back from intracellular to extracellular compartments can lead to successful outcome.

  13. Validation of extrusion as a killing step for Enterococcus faecium in a balanced carbohydrate-protein meal by using a response surface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Andreia; Stratton, Jayne; Weier, Steve; Hartter, Timothy; Plattner, Brian; Rokey, Galen; Hertzel, Gerry; Gompa, Lakshmi; Martinez, Bismarck; Eskridge, Andkent M

    2012-09-01

    Outbreaks of salmonellosis and recalls of low-moisture foods including extruded products highlight the need for the food and feed industries to validate their extrusion processes to ensure the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms. Response surface methodology was employed to study the effect of moisture and temperature on inactivation by extrusion of Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 in a carbohydrate-protein mix. A balanced carbohydrate-protein mix was formulated to different combinations of moisture contents, ranging from 24.9 to 31.1%, and each was inoculated with a pure culture of E. faecium to a final level of 5 log CFU/g. Each mix of various moistures was then extruded in a pilot scale extruder at different temperatures (ranging from 67.5 to 85°C). After the extruder was allowed to equilibrate for 10 min, samples were collected in sterile bags, cooled in dry ice, and stored at 4°C prior to analysis. E. faecium was enumerated with tryptic soy agar and membrane Enterococcus media, followed by incubation at 35°C for 48 h. Each extrusion was repeated twice, with the central point of the design being repeated four times. From each extrusion, three subsamples were collected for microbial counts and moisture determination. Based on the results, the response surface model was y = 185.04 - 3.11X(1) - 4.23X(2) + 0.02X(1)(2) - 0.004X(1)X(2) + 0.08X(2)(2), with a good fit (R(2) = 0.92), which demonstrated the effects of moisture and temperature on the inactivation of E. faecium during extrusion. According to the response surface analysis, the greatest reduction of E. faecium for the inoculation levels studied here (about 5 log) in a carbohydrate-protein meal would occur at the temperature of 81.1°C and moisture content of 28.1%. Other temperature and moisture combinations needed to achieve specific log reductions were plotted in a three-dimensional response surface graph.

  14. Fracionamento de carboidratos e proteínas de silagens de capim-elefante com casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca Fractioning of carbohydrates and protein of elephant grass silages with coffee hulls, cocoa meal and cassava meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano José Vieira Pires

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar as frações que compõem os carboidratos e as proteínas da silagem de capim-elefante com 15% casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca. A adição dos co-produtos no momento da ensilagem foi realizada na base da matéria natural (peso/peso, com dez repetições por tipo de silagem. O maior teor de carboidratos totais foi observado na silagem com farelo de mandioca e o menor, na silagem com farelo de cacau, seguida das silagens controle e com casca de café. Maiores valores de carboidratos não-fibrosos (A+B1 também foram verificados para as silagens com farelo de mandioca. Os menores valores de fração indigestível (C, %CT foram observados para a silagem com farelo de mandioca, enquanto as silagens com casca de café e farelo de cacau apresentaram os maiores valores desta fração. A silagem com farelo de cacau apresentou os maiores valores de proteína bruta e foi seguida das silagens com casca de café, controle e com farelo de mandioca. A presença dos aditivos influenciou as frações protéicas da silagem de capim-elefante: os maiores valores de fração A (%PB foram determinados nas silagens controle e com farelo de mandioca. Apesar do maior valor protéico, as silagens com farelo de cacau e casca de café apresentaram os maiores valores de fração indigestível de proteína (C, %PB. A adição de farelo de cacau e casca de café ao capim-elefante no momento da ensilagem aumenta as frações indigestíveis de carboidratos e de proteína da silagem. O farelo de mandioca ensilado com capim-elefante é um bom aditivo para a produção de silagem.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the fractions that compose carbohydrates and protein from elephant grass silage with 15% of coffee hulls, cocoa meal or cassava meal. The addition of residues at the ensilage moment was performed in natural matter basis (weight/weight, with ten replicates per treatment. The addition of residues at

  15. Proprietary tomato extract improves metabolic response to high-fat meal in healthy normal weight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Deplanque

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lycopene and tomato-based products have been described as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with a carotenoid-rich tomato extract (CRTE standardized for a 1:1 ratio of lycopene and phytosterols, on post-prandial LDL oxidation after a high-fat meal. Design: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled study, 146 healthy normal weight individuals were randomly assigned to a daily dose of CRTE standardized for tomato phytonutrients or placebo during 2 weeks. Oxidized LDL (OxLDL, glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG responses were measured for 8 h after ingestion of a high-fat meal before and at the end of intervention. Results: Plasma lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene were increased throughout the study period in the CRTE group compared to placebo. CRTE ingestion significantly improved changes in OxLDL response to high-fat meal compared to placebo after 2 weeks (p<0.0001. Changes observed in glucose, insulin, and TG responses were not statistically significant after 2 weeks of supplementation, although together they may suggest a trend of favorable effect on metabolic outcomes after a high-fat meal. Conclusions: Two-week supplementation with CRTE increased carotenoids levels in plasma and improved oxidized LDL response to a high-fat meal in healthy normal weight individuals.

  16. Proprietary tomato extract improves metabolic response to high-fat meal in healthy normal weight subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deplanque, Xavier; Muscente-Paque, Delphine; Chappuis, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lycopene and tomato-based products have been described as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation. Objectives To evaluate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with a carotenoid-rich tomato extract (CRTE) standardized for a 1:1 ratio of lycopene and phytosterols, on post-prandial LDL oxidation after a high-fat meal. Design In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled study, 146 healthy normal weight individuals were randomly assigned to a daily dose of CRTE standardized for tomato phytonutrients or placebo during 2 weeks. Oxidized LDL (OxLDL), glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG) responses were measured for 8 h after ingestion of a high-fat meal before and at the end of intervention. Results Plasma lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene were increased throughout the study period in the CRTE group compared to placebo. CRTE ingestion significantly improved changes in OxLDL response to high-fat meal compared to placebo after 2 weeks (p<0.0001). Changes observed in glucose, insulin, and TG responses were not statistically significant after 2 weeks of supplementation, although together they may suggest a trend of favorable effect on metabolic outcomes after a high-fat meal. Conclusions Two-week supplementation with CRTE increased carotenoids levels in plasma and improved oxidized LDL response to a high-fat meal in healthy normal weight individuals. PMID:27707453

  17. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake...... of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour....... Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test...

  18. High Caloric Diet for ALS Patients: High Fat, High Carbohydrate or High Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvin Sanaie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ALS is a fatal motor neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle atrophy and weakness, dysarthria, and dysphagia. The mean survival of ALS patients is three to five years, with 50% of those diagnosed dying within three years of onset (1. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to set an appropriate plan for metabolic and nutritional support in ALS. Nutritional management incorporates a continuous assessment and implementation of dietary modifications throughout the duration of the disease. The nutritional and metabolic approaches to ALS should start when the diagnosis of ALS is made and should become an integral part of the continuous care to the patient, including nutritional surveillance, dietary counseling, management of dysphagia, and enteral nutrition when needed. Malnutrition and lean body mass loss are frequent findings in ALS patients necessitating comprehensive energy requirement assessment for these patients. Malnutrition is an independent prognostic factor for survival in ALS with a 7.7 fold increase in risk of death. Malnutrition is estimated to develop in one quarter to half of people with ALS (2. Adequate calorie and protein provision would diminish muscle loss in this vulnerable group of patients. Although appropriate amount of energy to be administered is yet to be established, high calorie diet is expected to be effective for potential improvement of survival; ALS patients do not normally receive adequate  intake of energy. A growing number of clinicians suspect that a high calorie diet implemented early in their disease may help people with ALS meet their increased energy needs and extend their survival. Certain high calorie supplements appear to be safe and well tolerated by people with ALS according to studies led by Universitäts klinikum Ulm's and, appear to stabilize body weight within 3 months. In a recent study by Wills et al., intake of high-carbohydrate low-fat supplements has been recommended in ALS patients (3

  19. Differential effects of protein quality on postprandial lipemia in response to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes: comparison of whey, casein, gluten, and cod protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lene S; Hartvigsen, Merete L; Brader, Lea J

    2009-01-01

    : The objective was to compare the effects of the proteins casein, whey, cod, and gluten on postprandial lipid and incretin responses to a high-fat meal in persons with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: A crossover study was conducted in 12 patients with type 2 diabetes. Blood samples were collected over 8 h after...... ingestion of a test meal containing 100 g butter and 45 g carbohydrate in combination with 45 g casein (Cas-meal), whey (Whe-meal), cod (Cod-meal), or gluten (Glu-meal). We measured plasma concentrations of triglycerides, retinyl palmitate (RP), free fatty acids, insulin, glucose, glucagon, glucagon...

  20. Eating meals before wheel-running exercise attenuate high fat diet-driven obesity in mice under two meals per day schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Yuta; Ikeda, Yuko; Kamagata, Mayo; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-06-01

    Mice that exercise after meals gain less body weight and visceral fat compared to those that exercised before meals under a one meal/exercise time per day schedule. Humans generally eat two or three meals per day, and rarely have only one meal. To extend our previous observations, we examined here whether a "two meals, two exercise sessions per day" schedule was optimal in terms of maintaining a healthy body weight. In this experiment, "morning" refers to the beginning of the active phase (the "morning" for nocturnal animals). We found that 2-h feeding before 2-h exercise in the morning and evening (F-Ex/F-Ex) resulted in greater attenuation of high fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain compared to other combinations of feeding and exercise under two daily meals and two daily exercise periods. There were no significant differences in total food intake and total wheel counts, but feeding before exercise in the morning groups (F-Ex/F-Ex and F-Ex/Ex-F) increased the morning wheel counts. These results suggest that habitual exercise after feeding in the morning and evening is more effective for preventing HFD-induced weight gain. We also determined whether there were any correlations between food intake, wheel rotation, visceral fat volume and skeletal muscle volumes. We found positive associations between gastrocnemius muscle volumes and morning wheel counts, as well as negative associations between morning food intake volumes/body weight and morning wheel counts. These results suggest that morning exercise-induced increase of muscle volume may refer to anti-obesity. Evening exercise is negatively associated with fat volume increases, suggesting that this practice may counteract fat deposition. Our multifactorial analysis revealed that morning food intake helps to increase exercise, and that evening exercise reduced fat volumes. Thus, exercise in the morning or evening is important for preventing the onset of obesity.

  1. Levels of high energy cottonseed meal in multiple supplements for grazing cattle: performance and economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanis Tilemahos Zervoudakis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the substitution levels of protein from soybean meal by high energy cottonseed (CS meal in multiple supplements for beef cattle grazing in the dry season on the average daily gain (ADG and economic viability. Twenty Nellore steers with initial body weight of 351.25±35.38 kg and average initial age of 24±0.8 months were used, divided into four paddocks of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu with 1.6 ha each incompletely randomized design with four animals and five supplements to assess the following supplements: 0CS, 25CS and 50CS corresponding to the level of 0,25 and 50% high energy cottonseed meal to replace the meal soybean, provided the amount of 2 kg/animal/day, which were compared to mineral mixture (MM. The supplement 25CS provided higher (P<0.0001 ADG (0.75kg/animal/day-1 compared to supplement 50CS (0.60kg/animal/day-1. The ADG of animals supplemented with 0CS (0.53kg/animal/day-1 did not differ (P<0.0001 of the ADG of the bulls receiving supplementation with 25CS (0.75k /animal/day-1 and 50CS (0,60kg / animal / day-1. The 25CS supplement showed a higher economic return on invested capital in the period. The use of cottonseed meal high energy level of 25% replacement of soybean meal in multiple supplements provided greater weight gain of cattle and improved economic viability. 

  2. Weight Loss at a Cost: Implications of High-Protein, Low- Carbohydrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…

  3. Weight Loss at a Cost: Implications of High-Protein, Low- Carbohydrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…

  4. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Gottingen minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  5. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  6. Renal function following long-term weight loss in individuals with abdominal obesity on a very-low-carbohydrate diet vs high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Grant D; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M

    2010-04-01

    A frequently cited concern of very-low-carbohydrate diets is the potential for increased risk of renal disease associated with a higher protein intake. However, to date, no well-controlled randomized studies have evaluated the long-term effects of very-low-carbohydrate diets on renal function. To study this issue, renal function was assessed in 68 men and women with abdominal obesity (age 51.5+/-7.7 years, body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 33.6+/-4.0) without preexisting renal dysfunction who were randomized to consume either an energy-restricted ( approximately 1,433 to 1,672 kcal/day), planned isocaloric very-low-carbohydrate (4% total energy as carbohydrate [14 g], 35% protein [124 g], 61% fat [99 g]), or high-carbohydrate diet (46% total energy as carbohydrate [162 g], 24% protein [85 g], 30% fat [49 g]) for 1 year. Body weight, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion were assessed before and after 1 year (April 2006-July 2007). Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted. Weight loss was similar in both groups (very-low-carbohydrate: -14.5+/-9.7 kg, high-carbohydrate: -11.6+/-7.3 kg; P=0.16). By 1 year, there were no changes in either group in serum creatinine levels (very-low-carbohydrate: 72.4+/-15.1 to 71.3+/-13.8 mumol/L, high-carbohydrate: 78.0+/-16.0 to 77.2+/-13.2 mumol/L; P=0.93 time x diet effect) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (very-low-carbohydrate: 90.0+/-17.0 to 91.2+/-17.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), high-carbohydrate: 83.8+/-13.8 to 83.6+/-11.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P=0.53 time x diet effect). All but one participant was classified as having normoalbuminuria at baseline, and for these participants, urinary albumin excretion values remained in the normoalbuminuria range at 1 year. One participant in high-carbohydrate had microalbuminuria (41.8 microg/min) at baseline, which decreased to a value of 3.1 microg/min (classified as normoalbuminuria) at 1 year. This study provides preliminary

  7. Adhesive performance of washed cottonseed meal at high solid contents and low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) has been shown as a promising biobased wood adhesive. Recently, we prepared WSCM in a pilot scale for promoting its industrial application. In this work, we tested the adhesive strength and viscosity of the adhesive preparation with high solid contents (up to 30%...

  8. Unbiased Characterization of Anopheles Mosquito Blood Meals by Targeted High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Kyle; Keven, John Bosco; Cannon, Matthew V; Reimer, Lisa; Siba, Peter; Walker, Edward D; Zimmerman, Peter A; Serre, David

    2016-03-01

    Understanding mosquito host choice is important for assessing vector competence or identifying disease reservoirs. Unfortunately, the availability of an unbiased method for comprehensively evaluating the composition of insect blood meals is very limited, as most current molecular assays only test for the presence of a few pre-selected species. These approaches also have limited ability to identify the presence of multiple mammalian hosts in a single blood meal. Here, we describe a novel high-throughput sequencing method that enables analysis of 96 mosquitoes simultaneously and provides a comprehensive and quantitative perspective on the composition of each blood meal. We validated in silico that universal primers targeting the mammalian mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rRNA) should amplify more than 95% of the mammalian 16S rRNA sequences present in the NCBI nucleotide database. We applied this method to 442 female Anopheles punctulatus s. l. mosquitoes collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While human (52.9%), dog (15.8%) and pig (29.2%) were the most common hosts identified in our study, we also detected DNA from mice, one marsupial species and two bat species. Our analyses also revealed that 16.3% of the mosquitoes fed on more than one host. Analysis of the human mitochondrial hypervariable region I in 102 human blood meals showed that 5 (4.9%) of the mosquitoes unambiguously fed on more than one person. Overall, analysis of PNG mosquitoes illustrates the potential of this approach to identify unsuspected hosts and characterize mixed blood meals, and shows how this approach can be adapted to evaluate inter-individual variations among human blood meals. Furthermore, this approach can be applied to any disease-transmitting arthropod and can be easily customized to investigate non-mammalian host sources.

  9. Unbiased Characterization of Anopheles Mosquito Blood Meals by Targeted High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Logue

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding mosquito host choice is important for assessing vector competence or identifying disease reservoirs. Unfortunately, the availability of an unbiased method for comprehensively evaluating the composition of insect blood meals is very limited, as most current molecular assays only test for the presence of a few pre-selected species. These approaches also have limited ability to identify the presence of multiple mammalian hosts in a single blood meal. Here, we describe a novel high-throughput sequencing method that enables analysis of 96 mosquitoes simultaneously and provides a comprehensive and quantitative perspective on the composition of each blood meal. We validated in silico that universal primers targeting the mammalian mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rRNA should amplify more than 95% of the mammalian 16S rRNA sequences present in the NCBI nucleotide database. We applied this method to 442 female Anopheles punctulatus s. l. mosquitoes collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG. While human (52.9%, dog (15.8% and pig (29.2% were the most common hosts identified in our study, we also detected DNA from mice, one marsupial species and two bat species. Our analyses also revealed that 16.3% of the mosquitoes fed on more than one host. Analysis of the human mitochondrial hypervariable region I in 102 human blood meals showed that 5 (4.9% of the mosquitoes unambiguously fed on more than one person. Overall, analysis of PNG mosquitoes illustrates the potential of this approach to identify unsuspected hosts and characterize mixed blood meals, and shows how this approach can be adapted to evaluate inter-individual variations among human blood meals. Furthermore, this approach can be applied to any disease-transmitting arthropod and can be easily customized to investigate non-mammalian host sources.

  10. Extraction, characterization of components, and potential thermoplastic applications of camelina meal grafted with vinyl monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Narendra; Jin, Enqi; Chen, Lihong; Jiang, Xue; Yang, Yiqi

    2012-05-16

    Camelina meal contains oil, proteins, and carbohydrates that can be used to develop value-added bioproducts. In addition to containing valuable polymers, coproducts generated during the production of biofuels are inexpensive and renewable. Camelina is a preferred oilseed crop for biodiesel production because camelina is easier to grow and provides better yields. In this research, the components in camelina meal were extracted and studied for their composition, structure, and properties. The potential of using the camelina meal to develop thermoplastics was also studied by grafting various vinyl monomers. Oil (19%) extracted from camelina meal could be useful for food and fuel applications, and proteins and cellulose in camelina meal could be useful in the development of films, fibers, and thermoplastics. Thermoplastic films developed from grafted camelina meal had excellent wet tensile properties, unlike thermoplastics developed from other biopolymers. Camelina meal grafted with butylmethacrylate (BMA) had high dry and wet tensile strengths of 53.7 and 17.3 MPa, respectively.

  11. Effects of feeding high protein or conventional canola meal on dry cured and conventionally cured bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, K L; Bohrer, B M; Stein, H H; Boler, D D

    2015-05-01

    Objectives were to compare belly, bacon processing, bacon slice, and sensory characteristics from pigs fed high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). Soybean meal was replaced with 0 (control), 33, 66, or 100% of both types of canola meal. Left side bellies from 70 carcasses were randomly assigned to conventional or dry cure treatment and matching right side bellies were assigned the opposite treatment. Secondary objectives were to test the existence of bilateral symmetry on fresh belly characteristics and fatty acid profiles of right and left side bellies originating from the same carcass. Bellies from pigs fed CM-HP were slightly lighter and thinner than bellies from pigs fed CM-CV, yet bacon processing, bacon slice, and sensory characteristics were unaffected by dietary treatment and did not differ from the control. Furthermore, testing the existence of bilateral symmetry on fresh belly characteristics revealed that bellies originating from the right side of the carcasses were slightly (P≤0.05) wider, thicker, heavier and firmer than bellies from the left side of the carcass.

  12. The effects of McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut meals on recommended diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, N M; Colagiuri, S

    1995-06-01

    The objective was to study the effect of three common takeaway meals on recommended healthy diets. New South Wales Department of Health recommended diets of 5020, 6275, 9205 and 12,540 kilojoules were used. An evening meal from each of these diets was substituted with one of three common fast food chain takeaway meals 1, 2, 3 and 5 times per week. The 3 takeaway meals were from McDonalds, Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken. The effects of each of these meals on average daily kilojoule, fibre, fat, P/S ratio, protein and carbohydrate intakes were assessed. The takeaway meals were high in fat and kilojoules and low in fibre and therefore contravened the Dietary Guidelines for Australians. Addition of these meals increased average kilojoule consumption and the percentage energy contribution of fat and decreased the P/S ratio and fibre intake. The magnitude of these deleterious effects was directly proportional to the number of times the meals were included each week and inversely proportional to the energy content of the diet. The adverse effects were greatest with the McDonalds and Kentucky Fried Chicken meals. Takeaway meals may be convenient but the meals which were tested were too high in fat and kilojoules and too low in fibre to be a regular part of a balanced diet. Even one takeaway meal per week adversely affects the lower kilojoule recommended healthy diets.

  13. Red wine ingestion prevents microparticle formation after a single high-fat meal--a crossover study in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Daniel; Jelich, Uta; Dacanay-Schwarz, Roland; Mügge, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    : The postprandial state after a high-fat meal favors endothelial dysfunction and contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Little is known about the course of circulating microparticles (MPs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) after the consumption of a high-fat meal. Both are important for the maintenance and function of endothelial cells. : Ten healthy males consumed a meal with French fries and hot pork sausage. In a crossover design (4 weeks, 1 meal per week) they coingested a drink (mineral water, coke, red wine, liquor). Before and 1 and 2 hours after the meal, blood samples were drawn and endothelial function (expressed as reactive hyperemia index) was measured by a peripheral arterial tone technology. Number of EPCs, total MPs, and endothelial-derived MPs were measured using flow cytometry. : Reactive hyperemia index decreased by about 5% in those tests drinking mineral water, and by about 20% in the coke group, but remained unaffected in the red wine and liquor group. The number of EPCs were not significantly affected. The number of total and endothelial-derived MPs increased after a single meal, most in the coke group (increase by about 62%), and less in the red wine group (by about 5%). : A single high-fat meal deteriorates endothelial function, associated with a significant increase in circulating MPs. These changes were modified by the drink coindigested to the meal. The postprandial state was getting worse when a cola was consumed, but less hazardous when red wine was consumed.

  14. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet improves glucoregulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus by reducing postabsorptive glycogenolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allick, G; Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms by which dietary carbohydrate and fat modulate fasting glycemia. We compared the effects of an eucaloric high-carbohydrate (89% carbohydrate) and high-fat (89% fat) diet on fasting glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in seven obese patients

  15. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet improves glucoregulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus by reducing postabsorptive glycogenolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allick, G; Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms by which dietary carbohydrate and fat modulate fasting glycemia. We compared the effects of an eucaloric high-carbohydrate (89% carbohydrate) and high-fat (89% fat) diet on fasting glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in seven obese patients

  16. Enhanced flavor-nutrient conditioning in obese rats on a high-fat, high-carbohydrate choice diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Hallie S; Myers, Kevin P

    2015-11-01

    Through flavor-nutrient conditioning rats learn to prefer and increase their intake of flavors paired with rewarding, postingestive nutritional consequences. Since obesity is linked to altered experience of food reward and to perturbations of nutrient sensing, we investigated flavor-nutrient learning in rats made obese using a high fat/high carbohydrate (HFHC) choice model of diet-induced obesity (ad libitum lard and maltodextrin solution plus standard rodent chow). Forty rats were maintained on HFHC to induce substantial weight gain, and 20 were maintained on chow only (CON). Among HFHC rats, individual differences in propensity to weight gain were studied by comparing those with the highest proportional weight gain (obesity prone, OP) to those with the lowest (obesity resistant, OR). Sensitivity to postingestive food reward was tested in a flavor-nutrient conditioning protocol. To measure initial, within-meal stimulation of flavor acceptance by post-oral nutrient sensing, first, in sessions 1-3, baseline licking was measured while rats consumed grape- or cherry-flavored saccharin accompanied by intragastric (IG) water infusion. Then, in the next three test sessions they received the opposite flavor paired with 5 ml of IG 12% glucose. Finally, after additional sessions alternating between the two flavor-infusion contingencies, preference was measured in a two-bottle choice between the flavors without IG infusions. HFHC-OP rats showed stronger initial enhancement of intake in the first glucose infusion sessions than CON or HFHC-OR rats. OP rats also most strongly preferred the glucose-paired flavor in the two-bottle choice. These differences between OP versus OR and CON rats suggest that obesity is linked to responsiveness to postoral nutrient reward, consistent with the view that flavor-nutrient learning perpetuates overeating in obesity.

  17. Improved gross efficiency during long duration submaximal cycling following a short-term high carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M; Coleman, D; Hopker, J; Wiles, J

    2014-03-01

    To assess the effect of dietary manipulation on gross efficiency (GE), 15 trained male cyclists completed 3×2 h tests at submaximal exercise intensity (60% Maximal Minute Power). Using a randomized, crossover design participants consumed an isoenergetic diet (~4 000 kcal.day-1) in the 3 days preceding each test, that was either high in carbohydrate (HighCHO, [70% of the total energy derived from carbohydrate, 20% fat, 10% protein]), low in carbohydrate (LowCHO, [70% fat, 20% carbohydrate, 10% protein]) or contained a moderate amount of carbohydrate (ModCHO, [45% carbohydrate, 45% fat, 10% protein]). GE along with blood lactate and glucose were assessed every 30 min, and heart rate was measured at 5 s intervals throughout. Mean GE was significantly greater following the HighCHO than the ModCHO diet (HighCHO=20.4%±0.1%, ModCHO=19.6±0.2%; PDiet had no effect on blood glucose or lactate (P>0.05). This study suggests that before the measurement of gross efficiency, participants' diet should be controlled and monitored to ensure the validity of the results obtained.

  18. A high-fat meal does not activate blood coagulation factor VII in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A K; Larsen, L F; Bladbjerg, E-M;

    2001-01-01

    , 3.5, 4, 5, and 6 h after the first fat load. Triglycerides, activated FVII (FVIIa), FVII coagulant activity (FVIIc), FVII amidolytic activity (FVIIam) and prothrombin fragment I + 2 (F1 + 2) were analysed in plasma samples. Median plasma triglycerides were significantly raised from 0.67 mmol....../l (baseline) to 2.56 mmol/l 5 h postprandially (P high-fat meal does not seem...

  19. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  20. Carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Sungjin; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Blixt, Klas Ola;

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, carbohydrate microarrays have been core technologies for analyzing carbohydrate-mediated recognition events in a high-throughput fashion. A number of methods have been exploited for immobilizing glycans on the solid surface in a microarray format. This microarray-based technol...

  1. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  2. Effects of a Protein Preload on Gastric Emptying, Glycemia, and Gut Hormones After a Carbohydrate Meal in Diet-Controlled Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jing; Stevens, Julie E.; Cukier, Kimberly; Maddox, Anne F.; Wishart, Judith M.; Jones, Karen L.; Clifton, Peter M.; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We evaluated whether a whey preload could slow gastric emptying, stimulate incretin hormones, and attenuate postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eight type 2 diabetic patients ingested 350 ml beef soup 30 min before a potato meal; 55 g whey was added to either the soup (whey preload) or potato (whey in meal) or no whey was given. RESULTS Gastric emptying was slowest after the whey preload (P < 0.0005). The incremental area under the blood glucose cur...

  3. The link between high-fat meals and postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII possibly involves kallikrein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to low-fat meals, high-fat meals are known to cause postprandial factor VII (FVII) activation, but the mechanism is unknown. To study the postprandial FVII activation in detail, 18 young men consumed in randomized order high-fat or low-fat test meals. Fasting and non-fasting blood samples...... that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may activate prokallikrein. Neither plasma triglycerides nor kallikrein and activated FVII were statistically associated. This may suggest that additional factors are involved in the postprandial FVII activation. No clear evidence for a role of tissue factor expression...

  4. High density lipoprotein level is negatively associated with the increase of oxidized low density lipoprotein lipids after a fatty meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiainen, Sanna; Ahotupa, Markku; Ylinen, Petteri; Vasankari, Tommi

    2014-12-01

    Recent reports show that a fatty meal can substantially increase the concentration of oxidized lipids in low density lipoprotein (LDL). Knowing the LDL-specific antioxidant effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL), we aimed to investigate whether HDL can modify the postprandial oxidative stress after a fatty meal. Subjects of the study (n = 71) consumed a test meal (a standard hamburger meal) rich in lipid peroxides, and blood samples were taken before, 120, 240, and 360 min after the meal. The study subjects were divided into four subgroups according to the pre-meal HDL cholesterol value (HDL subgroup 1, 0.66-0.91; subgroup 2, 0.93-1.13; subgroup 3, 1.16-1.35; subgroup 4, 1.40-2.65 mmol/L). The test meal induced a marked postprandial increase in the concentration of oxidized LDL lipids in all four subgroups. The pre-meal HDL level was associated with the extent of the postprandial rise in oxidized LDL lipids. From baseline to 6 h after the meal, the concentration of ox-LDL increased by 48, 31, 24, and 16% in the HDL subgroup 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the increase was higher in subgroup 1 compared to subgroup 3 (p = 0.028) and subgroup 4 (p = 0.0081), respectively. The pre-meal HDL correlated with both the amount and the rate of increase of oxidized LDL lipids. Results of the present study show that HDL is associated with the postprandial appearance of lipid peroxides in LDL. It is therefore likely that the sequestration and transport of atherogenic lipid peroxides is another significant mechanism contributing to cardioprotection by HDL.

  5. Family Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Family Meals KidsHealth > For Parents > Family Meals Print A ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  6. Effect of High Dietary Carbohydrate on the Growth Performance and Physiological Responses of Juvenile Wuchang Bream,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Zhou

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An optimum dietary carbohydrate content is important for maximum fish growth. In this study, we fed Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala with either control diet (30.42% or high carbohydrate diet (52.92% for 90 d. Fish were fed to apparent satiation three times daily in an aquarium with automatic temperature control and circulated water. Growth performance, plasma biochemical parameters, hepatic morphology and enzyme activities were determined. It was shown that compared to fish fed control diet, fish fed high carbohydrate diet had higher plasma triglyceride and cortisol levels for d 90, and lower alkaline phosphatase level for d 45, lower hepatic superoxide dismutase and total antioxidative capacity for d 90, higher malondialdehyde for d 45 and glycogen content for d 45 and 90 (p<0.05. Histological and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that hepatocytes of fish fed high carbohydrate diet contained large lipid droplets, causing displacement of cellular organelles to periphery of hepatocytes. The relative level of hepatic heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 mRNA of Wuchang bream fed high carbohydrate diet was significantly higher than that of fish fed the control diet for 90 d (p<0.05. These changes led to decreased specific growth rate and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.05. Upon hypoxia challenge, fish fed high carbohydrate diet had higher cumulative mortality than those fed the control diet (p<0.05. These results suggested that high dietary carbohydrate (52.92% was detrimental to the growth performance and health of Wuchang bream.

  7. Multistage Solvent Extraction for High Yield Oil and Phorbol Esters Removal from Thai Toxic Jatropha curcas Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayakorn NOKKAEW

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the possibility for the production of high yield oil and phorbol esters removed from Thai toxic Jatropha curcas meal. Optimum oil recovery by hexane extraction to obtain high oil yield was accomplished in 3 stages of batch extraction, following which the de-oiled meal was further determined for the optimum conditions for removal of phorbol esters (PEs by aqueous ethanol extraction from the first to the third stage of batch extraction with the aim of yielding detoxified de-oiled meal product for use as a raw material in animal feed. The optimum conditions for oil extraction was 3-stage extraction with each stage operated at 1:3 (w/v of toxic meal to hexane at 40 °C for 30 min. This condition gave 100 % de-oiling efficiency compared with the Soxhlet extraction method. The optimum condition for PEs removal from the de-oiled meal involved 2-stage extraction with each stage operated at 1:3 (w/v of de-oiled meal to aqueous ethanol at 50 °C for 30 min. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode, was used to confirm the PEs residue in the detoxified de-oiled meal. The confirmation showed that the 2 stages of PEs extraction could remove 100 % of the PEs from the de-oiled meal. The results from our study can provide the basis for the efficient commercial production of both J. curcas oil and detoxified de-oiled meal.

  8. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs (i...

  9. Consumption of mixed fruit-juice drink and vitamin C reduces postprandial stress induced by a high fat meal in healthy overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Villano, Debora V; Roberts, Susan A; Cesqui, Eleonora; Raguzzini, Anna; Borges, Gina; Crozier, Alan; Catasta, Giovina; Toti, Elisabetta; Serafini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial stress induced by acute consumption of meals with a high fat content results in an increase of markers of cardiometabolic risk. Repeated acute dietary stress may induce a persistent low-grade inflammation, playing a role in the pathogenesis of functional gut diseases. This may cause an impairment of the complex immune response of the gastrointestinal mucosa, which results in a breakdown of oral tolerance. We investigated the effect of ingestion of a fruit-juice drink (FJD) composed by multiple fruit juice and extracts, green tea extracts and vitamin C on postprandial stress induced by a High Fat Meal (HFM) in healthy overweight subjects. Following a double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over design, 15 healthy overweight subjects were randomized to a HFM providing 1334 Kcal (55% fat, 30% carbohydrates and 15% proteins) in combination with 500 mL of a placebo drink (HFM-P) or a fruit-juice drink (HFM-FJD). Ingestion of HFM-P led to an increase in circulating levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of HFM-FJD significantly reduced plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, decreasing inflammatory response mediated by TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of a fruit-juice drink reduce markers of postprandial stress induced by a HFM.

  10. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Yew Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome.

  11. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour...... fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society....

  12. Salt content of school meals and comparison of perception related to sodium intake in elementary, middle, and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sohyun; Park, Seoyun; Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Jeong, Soo Bin; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

    2013-02-01

    Excessive sodium intake leading to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer is mainly caused by excess use of salt in cooking. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in school meals and to compare differences in perceptions related to sodium intake between students and staffs working for school meal service. We collected 382 dishes for food from 24 schools (9 elementary, 7 middle, 8 high schools) in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individual food. The average salt content from elementary, middle, and high school meals were 2.44 g, 3.96 g, and 5.87 g, respectively. The amount of salt provided from the school lunch alone was over 80% of the recommended daily salt intake by WHO. Noodles, stews, sauces, and soups were major sources of salt intake at dish group level, while the most salty dishes were sauces, kimchies, and stir-fried foods. Dietary knowledge and attitude related to sodium intake and consumption frequency of the salty dishes were surveyed with questionnaire in 798 students and 256 staffs working for school meal service. Compared with the staffs, the students perceived school meals salty and the proportions of students who thought school meals were salty increased with going up from elementary to high schools (P high school students showed significant propensity for the preference to one-dish meal, processed foods, eating much broth and dipping sauce or seasoning compared with the elementary students, although they had higher nutrition knowledge scores. These results proposed that monitoring salt content of school meals and consideration on the contents and education methods in school are needed to lower sodium intake.

  13. Associations between meal size, gastric emptying and post-prandial plasma glucose, insulin and lactate concentrations in meal-fed cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Filippich, L J; Morton, J M; O'Leary, C A

    2015-08-01

    Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations are increased for 12-24 h in healthy cats following moderate- to high-carbohydrate meals. This study investigated associations between gastric emptying time and post-prandial plasma glucose, insulin and lactate concentrations in cats fed an extruded dry, high-carbohydrate, moderate-fat, low-protein diet (51, 28, 21% metabolizable energy, respectively) once daily by varying meal volume. Eleven healthy, non-obese, neutered adult cats were enrolled in a prospective study and fed to maintain body weight. Ultrasound examinations were performed for up to 26 h, and blood collections over 24 h after eating meals containing approximately 100% and 50% of the cats' daily caloric intake (209 and 105 kJ/kg BW, respectively). Gastric emptying time was increased after a meal of 209 kJ/kg BW compared with 105 kJ/kg BW (median gastric emptying times 24 and 14 h, respectively; p = 0.03). Time for glucose to return to fasting was longer after the 209 kJ/kg BW meal (median 20 h; 25th and 75th percentiles 15 and 23 h, respectively) than the 105 kJ/kg BW meal (13, 12 and 14 h; p cats meal fed a high-carbohydrate, low-protein, dry diet and fasting times for cats' meal-fed diets of similar composition should be 14-26 h, depending on meal size. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Effect of high contents of dietary animal-derived protein or carbohydrates on canine fecal microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hang, I.; Rinttila, T.; Zentek, J.; Kettunen, A.; Alaja, S.; Apajalahti, J.A.; Harmoinen, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Spillmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence suggests that food impacts both the gastro-intestinal (GI) function and the microbial ecology of the canine GI tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of high-carbohydrate (HC), high-protein (HP) and dry commercial (DC) diets on the canine colonic

  15. The effects of high fat, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate diets on tumor necrosis factor superfamily proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Sirjani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable inconsistency regarding the potential relationship between dyslipidemia and bone metabolism. The inflammatory stimulation through the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL/ receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK/ osteoprotegerin (OPG pathway could be the infrastructural mechanism for hypercholesterolemia-induced bone loss.In this study, we investigated the effect of dyslipidemia on RANKL and OPG alongside with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thirty male C57Bl/6 mice (4 weeks old were randomized to two purified diet groups (15 animals in each group, high fat, low carbohydrate diet (HFLCD and its matched low fat, high carbohydrate diet (LFHCD. After 12 weeks of feeding in standard situations, the plasma concentration of lipid profile, interleukin (IL 1Beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and RANKL, OPG, and RANKL: OPG ratio were measured.In the present study, although the body weight significantly increased during 12 weeks in HFLCD and LFHCD groups, there were no significant differences in food intake, food efficiency ratio and weight gain between the two groups. The LFHCD group had significantly higher median RANKL and RANKL/OPG ratio. There was no significant difference in plasma IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α concentration between LFHCD and HFLCD groups.These unexpected findings from LFHCD, that seem to be as a result of its higher carbohydrate proportion in comparison to HFLCD, implicate dietary carbohydrate rather than dietary fat as a more significant nutritional factor contributing to change in RANKL level and RANKL: OPG ratio.

  16. The influence of low versus high carbohydrate diet on a 45-min strenuous cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavouras, Stavros A; Troup, John P; Berning, Jacqueline R

    2004-02-01

    To examine the effects of a 3-day high carbohydrate (H-CHO) and low carbohydrate (L-CHO) diet on 45 min of cycling exercise, 12 endurance-trained cyclists performed a 45-min cycling exercise at 82 +/- 2% VO2peak following an overnight fast, after a 6-day diet and exercise control. The 7-day protocol was repeated under 2 randomly assigned dietary trials H-CHO and L-CHO. On days 1-3, subjects consumed a mixed diet for both trials and for days 4-6 consumed isocaloric diets that contained either 600 g or 100 g of carbohydrates, for the H-CHO and the L-CHO trials, respectively. Muscle biopsy samples, taken from the vastus lateralis prior to the beginning of the 45-min cycling test, indicated that muscle glycogen levels were significantly higher (p cycling exercise that was not observed with H-CHO when the total energy intake was adequate.

  17. Inulin oligofructose attenuates metabolic syndrome in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil A; Ward, Leigh C; Brown, Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Prebiotics alter bacterial content in the colon, and therefore could be useful for obesity management. We investigated the changes following addition of inulin oligofructose (IO) in the food of rats fed either a corn starch (C) diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet as a model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. IO did not affect food intake, but reduced body weight gain by 5·3 and 12·3 % in corn starch+inulin oligofructose (CIO) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat with inulin oligofructose (HIO) rats, respectively. IO reduced plasma concentrations of free fatty acids by 26·2 % and TAG by 75·8 % in HIO rats. IO increased faecal output by 93·2 %, faecal lipid excretion by 37·9 % and weight of caecum by 23·4 % and colon by 41·5 % in HIO rats. IO improved ileal morphology by reducing inflammation and improving the density of crypt cells in HIO rats. IO attenuated H diet-induced increases in abdominal fat pads (C 275 (sem 19), CIO 264 (sem 40), H 688 (sem 55), HIO 419 (sem 32) mg/mm tibial length), fasting blood glucose concentrations (C 4·5 (sem 0·1), CIO 4·2 (sem 0·1), H 5·2 (sem 0·1), HIO 4·3 (sem 0·1) mmol/l), systolic blood pressure (C 124 (sem 2), CIO 118 (sem 2), H 152 (sem 2), HIO 123 (sem 3) mmHg), left ventricular diastolic stiffness (C 22·9 (sem 0·6), CIO 22·9 (sem 0·5), H 27·8 (sem 0·5), HIO 22·6 (sem 1·2)) and plasma alanine transaminase (C 29·6 (sem 2·8), CIO 32·1 (sem 3·0), H 43·9 (sem 2·6), HIO 33·6 (sem 2·0) U/l). IO attenuated H-induced increases in inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart and liver, lipid droplets in the liver and plasma lipids as well as impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. These results suggest that increasing soluble fibre intake with IO improves signs of the metabolic syndrome by decreasing gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid uptake.

  18. Carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Sungjin; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Blixt, Klas Ola

    2012-01-01

    -based technology has been widely employed for rapid analysis of the glycan binding properties of lectins and antibodies, the quantitative measurements of glycan-protein interactions, detection of cells and pathogens, identification of disease-related anti-glycan antibodies for diagnosis, and fast assessment...... of substrate specificities of glycosyltransferases. This review covers the construction of carbohydrate microarrays, detection methods of carbohydrate microarrays and their applications in biological and biomedical research.......In the last decade, carbohydrate microarrays have been core technologies for analyzing carbohydrate-mediated recognition events in a high-throughput fashion. A number of methods have been exploited for immobilizing glycans on the solid surface in a microarray format. This microarray...

  19. Infant formula supplemented with low protein and high carbohydrate alters the intestinal microbiota in neonatal SD rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Wenguang; Tang, Yaru; Qu, Yi; Cao, Fengbo; Huo, Guicheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Infant microbiota is influenced by numerous factors, such as delivery mode, environment, prematurity and diet (breast milk or formula) and last but not least, the diet composition. In the diet composition, protein and carbohydrate are very important for the growth of microbiota, many infant fomulas (different ratio protein/carbohydrate) can regulate the development of gut microbiota by different metabolism. The effect of low-protein, high-carbohydrate infant formula on the establis...

  20. The impact of a high versus a low glycaemic index breakfast cereal meal on verbal episodic memory in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A; Foster, Jonathan K

    2008-10-01

    In this study, healthy adolescents consumed either (i) a low glycaemic index breakfast cereal meal or (ii) a high glycaemic index breakfast cereal meal, before completing a test of verbal episodic memory in which the memory materials were encoded under conditions of divided attention. Analysis of remembering/forgetting indices revealed that the high glycaemic index breakfast group remembered significantly more items relative to the low glycaemic index breakfast group after a long delay. The superior performance observed in the high glycaemic index group, relative to the low glycaemic index group, may be due to the additional glucose availability provided by the high glycaemic index meal at the time of memory encoding. This increased glucose availability may be necessary for effective encoding under dual task conditions.

  1. Does competitive food and beverage legislation hurt meal participation or revenues in high schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, Tasha; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B; Samuels, Sarah E; Craypo, Lisa; Woodward-Lopez, Gail

    2012-08-01

    There is limited evidence to evaluate the influence of competitive food and beverage legislation on school meal program participation and revenues. A representative sample of 56 California high schools was recruited to collect school-level data before (2006–2007) and the year after (2007–2008) policies regarding limiting competitive foods and beverages were required to be implemented. Data were obtained from school records, observations, and questionnaires. Paired t-tests assessed significance of change between the two time points. Average participation in lunch increased from 21.7% to 25.3% (p foods, from $0.45 to $0.37 (per student per day). Compliance with food and beverage standards also increased significantly. At end point, compliance with beverage standards was higher (71.0%) than compliance with food standards (65.7%). Competitive food and beverage legislation can increase food service revenues when accompanied by increased rates of participation in the meal program. Future studies collecting expense data will be needed to determine impact on net revenues.

  2. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  3. Ingestion of High Molecular Weight Carbohydrate Enhances Subsequent Repeated Maximal Power: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jonathan M.; Almada, Anthony L.; Van Eck, Leighsa E.; Shah, Meena; Mitchell, Joel B.; Jones, Margaret T.; Jagim, Andrew R.; Rowlands, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Athletes in sports demanding repeat maximal work outputs frequently train concurrently utilizing sequential bouts of intense endurance and resistance training sessions. On a daily basis, maximal work within subsequent bouts may be limited by muscle glycogen availability. Recently, the ingestion of a unique high molecular weight (HMW) carbohydrate was found to increase glycogen re-synthesis rate and enhance work output during subsequent endurance exercise, relative to low molecular weight (LMW) carbohydrate ingestion. The effect of the HMW carbohydrate, however, on the performance of intense resistance exercise following prolonged-intense endurance training is unknown. Sixteen resistance trained men (23±3 years; 176.7±9.8 cm; 88.2±8.6 kg) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized 3-way crossover design comprising a muscle-glycogen depleting cycling exercise followed by ingestion of placebo (PLA), or 1.2 g•kg•bw-1 of LMW or HMW carbohydrate solution (10%) with blood sampling for 2-h post-ingestion. Thereafter, participants performed 5 sets of 10 maximal explosive repetitions of back squat (75% of 1RM). Compared to PLA, ingestion of HMW (4.9%, 90%CI 3.8%, 5.9%) and LMW (1.9%, 90%CI 0.8%, 3.0%) carbohydrate solutions substantially increased power output during resistance exercise, with the 3.1% (90% CI 4.3, 2.0%) almost certain additional gain in power after HMW-LMW ingestion attributed to higher movement velocity after force kinematic analysis (HMW-LMW 2.5%, 90%CI 1.4, 3.7%). Both carbohydrate solutions increased post-exercise plasma glucose, glucoregulatory and gut hormones compared to PLA, but differences between carbohydrates were unclear; thus, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Ingestion of a HMW carbohydrate following prolonged intense endurance exercise provides superior benefits to movement velocity and power output during subsequent repeated maximal explosive resistance exercise. This study was registered with

  4. Systemic Oxidative Stress Is Increased to a Greater Degree in Young, Obese Women Following Consumption of a High Fat Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Bloomer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available High fat meals induce oxidative stress, which is associated with the pathogenesis of disease. Obese individuals have elevated resting biomarkers of oxidative stress compared to non-obese. We compared blood oxidative stress biomarkers in obese (n = 14; 30 ± 2 years; BMI 35 ± 1 kg•m−2 and non-obese (n = 16; 24 ± 2 years; BMI 23 ± 1 kg•m−2 women, in response to a high fat meal. Blood samples were collected pre-meal (fasted, and at 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours post meal, and assayed for trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, xanthine oxidase activity (XO, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA, triglycerides (TAG, and glucose. An obesity status effect was noted for all variables (p 0.05, contrasts revealed greater values in obese compared to non-obese women for XO, H2O2, MDA, TAG and glucose, and lower values for TEAC at times from 1–6 hours post feeding (p ≤ 0.03. We conclude that young, obese women experience a similar pattern of increase in blood oxidative stress biomarkers in response to a high fat meal, as compared to non-obese women. However, the overall oxidative stress is greater in obese women, and values appear to remain elevated for longer periods of time post feeding. These data provide insight into another potential mechanism related to obesity-mediated morbidity.

  5. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Manny; Foster, Paul R; Keogh, Jennifer B; James, Anthony P; Mamo, John C; Clifton, Peter M

    2006-01-11

    It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB) have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Eighty three subjects, 48 +/- 8 y, total cholesterol 5.9 +/- 1.0 mmol/L, BMI 33 +/- 3 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to one of 3 isocaloric weight loss diets (6 MJ) for 8 weeks and on the same diets in energy balance for 4 weeks: Very Low Fat (VLF) (CHO:Fat:Protein; %SF = 70:10:20; 3%), High Unsaturated Fat (HUF) = (50:30:20; 6%), VLCARB (4:61:35; 20%) Percent fat mass loss was not different between diets VLCARB -4.5 +/- 0.5, VLF-4.0 +/- 0.5, HUF -4.4 +/- 0.6 kg). Lean mass loss was 32-31% on VLCARB and VLF compared to HUF (21%) (P fat loss than diets low in saturated fat, but are more effective in improving triacylglycerols, HDL-C, fasting and post prandial glucose and insulin concentrations. VLCARB may be useful in the short-term management of subjects with insulin resistance and hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  6. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Anthony P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Methods Eighty three subjects, 48 ± 8 y, total cholesterol 5.9 ± 1.0 mmol/L, BMI 33 ± 3 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to one of 3 isocaloric weight loss diets (6 MJ for 8 weeks and on the same diets in energy balance for 4 weeks: Very Low Fat (VLF (CHO:Fat:Protein; %SF = 70:10:20; 3%, High Unsaturated Fat (HUF = (50:30:20; 6%, VLCARB (4:61:35; 20% Results Percent fat mass loss was not different between diets VLCARB -4.5 ± 0.5, VLF-4.0 ± 0.5, HUF -4.4 ± 0.6 kg. Lean mass loss was 32-31% on VLCARB and VLF compared to HUF (21% (P Conclusion Isocaloric VLCARB results in similar fat loss than diets low in saturated fat, but are more effective in improving triacylglycerols, HDL-C, fasting and post prandial glucose and insulin concentrations. VLCARB may be useful in the short-term management of subjects with insulin resistance and hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  7. Family dinner meal frequency and adolescent development: relationships with developmental assets and high-risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary; Mellin, Alison; Leffert, Nancy; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone A

    2006-09-01

    To examine associations between family meal frequency and developmental assets and high-risk behaviors among a national sample of adolescents. Anonymous surveys were distributed to 99,462 sixth to 12th grade students from public and alternative schools in 213 cities and 25 states across the United States. Logistic regression analyses tested differences in assets and high-risk behaviors by family dinner frequency. Consistent positive associations were found between the frequency of family dinners and all developmental assets, including both external (e.g., support, boundaries and expectations; odds ratio [OR] 2.1-3.7) and internal assets (e.g., commitment to learning, positive values, social competencies, and positive identity; OR 1.8-2.6); relationships were attenuated, but remained significant after adjusting for demographics and general family communication and support. Consistent inverse relationships were found between the frequency of family dinners and all high-risk behaviors measured (i.e., substance use, sexual activity, depression/suicide, antisocial behaviors, violence, school problems, binge eating/purging, and excessive weight loss; OR .36-.58), relationships were attenuated, but remained significant after adjusting for demographics and family factors. The findings of the present study suggest that the frequency of family dinner is an external developmental asset or protective factor that may curtail high-risk behaviors among youth. Creative and realistic strategies for enhancing and supporting family meals, given the context within which different families live, should be explored to promote healthy adolescent development. Family rituals such as regular mealtimes may ease the stress of daily living in the fast-paced families of today's society.

  8. School meals: building blocks for healthy children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stallings, Virginia A; Suitor, Carol West; Taylor, Christine Lewis

    2010-01-01

    .... Various laws and regulations govern the operation of school meal programs. In 1995, Nutrition Standards and Meal Requirements were put in place to ensure that all meals offered would be high in nutritional quality...

  9. Daily scheduled high fat meals moderately entrain behavioral anticipatory activity, body temperature, and hypothalamic c-Fos activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Gallardo

    Full Text Available When fed in restricted amounts, rodents show robust activity in the hours preceding expected meal delivery. This process, termed food anticipatory activity (FAA, is independent of the light-entrained clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, yet beyond this basic observation there is little agreement on the neuronal underpinnings of FAA. One complication in studying FAA using a calorie restriction model is that much of the brain is activated in response to this strong hunger signal. Thus, daily timed access to palatable meals in the presence of continuous access to standard chow has been employed as a model to study FAA in rats. In order to exploit the extensive genetic resources available in the murine system we extended this model to mice, which will anticipate rodent high fat diet but not chocolate or other sweet daily meals (Hsu, Patton, Mistlberger, and Steele; 2010, PLoS ONE e12903. In this study we test additional fatty meals, including peanut butter and cheese, both of which induced modest FAA. Measurement of core body temperature revealed a moderate preprandial increase in temperature in mice fed high fat diet but entrainment due to handling complicated interpretation of these results. Finally, we examined activation patterns of neurons by immunostaining for the immediate early gene c-Fos and observed a modest amount of entrainment of gene expression in the hypothalamus of mice fed a daily fatty palatable meal.

  10. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats without deleterious changes in insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, John D; Lin, Han Yi; Sloan, Crystal; Zhang, Quan-Jiang; Abel, E Dale; Pereira, Troy J; Dolinsky, Vernon W; Symons, J David; Jalili, Thunder

    2013-06-15

    Previous studies reported that diets high in simple carbohydrates could increase blood pressure in rodents. We hypothesized that the converse, a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet, might reduce blood pressure. Six-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 54) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY; n = 53, normotensive control) were fed either a control diet (C; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HF; 20% carbohydrate, 60% fat, 20% protein). After 10 wk, SHR-HF had lower (P high-fat diet reduced blood pressure and improved arterial function in SHR without producing signs of insulin resistance or altering insulin-mediated signaling in the heart, skeletal muscle, or vasculature.

  11. A new versatile microarray-based method for high throughput screening of carbohydrate-active enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Pedersen, Henriette L; Schückel, Julia; Arnal, Grégory; Dumon, Claire; Amby, Daniel B; Monrad, Rune Nygaard; Westereng, Bjørge; Willats, William G T

    2015-04-03

    Carbohydrate-active enzymes have multiple biological roles and industrial applications. Advances in genome and transcriptome sequencing together with associated bioinformatics tools have identified vast numbers of putative carbohydrate-degrading and -modifying enzymes including glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. However, there is a paucity of methods for rapidly screening the activities of these enzymes. By combining the multiplexing capacity of carbohydrate microarrays with the specificity of molecular probes, we have developed a sensitive, high throughput, and versatile semiquantitative enzyme screening technique that requires low amounts of enzyme and substrate. The method can be used to assess the activities of single enzymes, enzyme mixtures, and crude culture broths against single substrates, substrate mixtures, and biomass samples. Moreover, we show that the technique can be used to analyze both endo-acting and exo-acting glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases, carbohydrate esterases, and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. We demonstrate the potential of the technique by identifying the substrate specificities of purified uncharacterized enzymes and by screening enzyme activities from fungal culture broths.

  12. Direct determination of amino acids and carbohydrates by high-performance capillary electrophoresis with refractometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivano, A R; Nazimov, I V; Lobazov, A P; Popkovich, G B

    2000-10-13

    This is an initial report to propose a novel approach in high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) for the direct detection of compounds without natural absorbance in the UV and visible spectral range, such as amino acids and carbohydrates. A refractometry detector with the 2 nl cell (Applied Systems, Minsk, Belarus) was employed to identify amino acids and carbohydrates without derivatization. The first results are provided on separation of seven free amino acids in the phosphate running buffer and three free carbohydrates in the borate-sodium dodecyl sulfate running buffer and detection by refractometer. Fused capillaries of 50 or 75 microm internal diameter and separation voltage (10-23 kV) were applied. Detection limits ranged typically from 10 to 100 fmol and the response was linear over two orders of magnitude for most of the amino acids and carbohydrates. The HPCE system demonstrated good long-term stability and reproducibility with a relative standard deviation, less than 5% for the migration time (n=10).

  13. The Effects of Different High-Protein Low-Carbohydrates Proprietary Foods on Blood Sugar in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Alessandra; Karsten, Bettina; Bosco, Gerardo; Gómez-López, Manuel; Brandão, Paula Paraguassú; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects on blood sugar concentrations through the calculation of the glycemic score (GS) of 10 different high-protein low-carbohydrates (CHOs) proprietary foods that are commonly used as meals during very low-CHO ketogenic diets or during low-CHO diets. Fourteen healthy females were tested for their glycemic response curve elicited by 1000 kJ of glucose three times within a 3-week period (one test each week) compared with one of 10 test foods once on separate days twice a week. After determining the GS of each food in each individual, the mean GS of each test food was calculated. All test foods, compared with glucose, produced a significantly lower glycemic response. The GS of all test food resulted in being lower than 25 and the difference between the mean glycemia after the intake of glucose (mean 122 ± 15 mg/dL) and after the intake of the sweet test foods (mean 89 ± 7 mg/dL) was 33 mg/dL (P < .001), whereas the difference between the mean glycemia after the intake of glucose and after the intake of savory test foods (mean 91 ± 8 mg/dL) was of 31 mg/dL (P < .001). The reformulation of ultraprocessed ready-to-consume foods in a low-CHO, high-protein version can produce a significantly lower glycemic response whilst maintaining the valued ready-to-use format and high palatability demanded by consumers. The low impact on postprandial glycemia and the nutritional characteristics of these proprietary foods makes them useful in both weight control management strategies and in the care management of diabetes.

  14. Fruit juice drinks prevent endogenous antioxidant response to high-fat meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglio, Cristiana; Peluso, Ilaria; Raguzzini, Anna; Villaño, Deborah V; Cesqui, Eleonora; Catasta, Giovina; Toti, Elisabetta; Serafini, Mauro

    2014-01-28

    High-fat meals (HFM) induce metabolic stress, leading to the activation of protective mechanisms, including inflammation and endogenous antioxidant defences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of antioxidant-rich fruit juice drinks on the endogenous antioxidant response induced by HFM. In a double-blind, cross-over design (10 d washout), fourteen overweight volunteers were randomly assigned to one of the following interventions: HFM+500 ml placebo beverage (HFM-PB, free from fruit); HFM+500 ml antioxidant beverage 1 (HFM-AB1; apple, grape, blueberry and pomegranate juices and grape skin, grape seed and green tea extracts); HFM+500 ml antioxidant beverage 2 (HFM-AB2; pineapple, black currant and plum juices). HFM-PB consumption increased the plasma levels of thiols (SH) (4 h, Pfruit juice drinks.

  15. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-03-03

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice.

  16. High-energy glycoconjugates: synthetic transformations of carbohydrates using microwave and ultrasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Eugene A

    2008-01-01

    Methods to transform carbohydrates are often complex and tedious, both due to the vast array of naturally occurring and synthetically designed scaffolds which may manifest meager to drastic reactivity, dependent upon the transformation sought and the stereogenic site chosen. In order to facilitate and expedite desired synthetic transformation, many researchers are utililizing microwave and ultrasonic irradiation to achieve their goals, in generally high yields within a shorter period of time, and often without undesirous byproducts. The basic physical principles underlying the energy regimes are qualitatively discussed prior to review of the applications in carbohydrate syntheses and transformation. This literature review looks at research involving glycosylations, -OH group conversions, isotopic incorporation, and C-N bond formation. Instances of improved yields and selectivities resultant from the use of these high-energy sources will be highlighted.

  17. Carbohydrate-Electrolyte Solution during Military Training. Effects on Physical Performance, Mood State and Immune Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Hemoglobin Hematocrit Meal, ready-to-eat Profile of mood states Ranger instructor Special Forces Assessment School Shot...exercise-heat stress, persons will voluntarily ingest a larger volume of a sweetened flavored beverage than water (Hubbard et al., 1984; Sohar et al., 1962...at an exercise intensity which does not require a high rate of carbohydrate oxidation, are less dependent on endogenous carbohydrate as a metabolic

  18. A high-carbohydrate diet lowered blood pressure in healthy Chinese male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xingchun; Lin, Jia; Song, Yongyan; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Rongrong; Fan, Mei; Li, Yuanhao; Tian, Rong; Fang, Dingzhi

    2014-04-01

    Different diets consumed by individuals of different ethnicities, gender, and age may cause changes in blood pressure. The current study sought to investigate changes in blood pressures after consumption of a high-carbohydrate (high-CHO) diet by healthy Chinese adolescents. As a population, the Chinese consume a diet with a high carbohydrate content and they have a low incidence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Dietary data were collected using a 3-day diet diary. Subjects were 672 high school students who were divided into a high-CHO diet group (≥ 55% carbohydrates) and a non-high-CHO diet group (blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated. Results indicated that males had a higher BMI, glucose level, SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP than females. When diet was taken into account, males in the non-high-CHO diet group had a higher SBP and PP than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a higher glucose level than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a lower SBP (p = 0.004) and PP (p = 0.002) than males in the non-high-CHO diet group and females in the high-CHO diet group had a lower glucose level (p = 0.003) than females in the non-high-CHO diet group. After adjusting for age, BMI, WHR, heart rate, the total daily energy intake, and the intake of vitamin C, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium, significant differences in SBP and PP were noted in males. These results indicate that male adolescents consuming a high-CHO diet had a lower SBP and PP than males consuming a non-high-CHO diet.

  19. Nature of elevated rat intestinal carbohydrase activities after high-carbohydrate diet feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuboi, K.K.; Kwong, L.K.; Yamada, K.; Sunshine, P.; Koldovsky, O.

    1985-10-01

    Adult rats that were maintained on a low-carbohydrate intake showed rapid increase in the activities of sucrase, maltase, and lactase along the length of the small intestine when they were fed a high-starch diet. In the present study, the authors have identified these activity increases, and showed that they reflect proportional accumulations in enzyme-protein of sucrase-isomaltase, maltase-glucoamylase, and neutral lactase. It was determined that each of these enzymes exists in adult rat intestine in single immunoreactive form and accounts as a group for all sucrase, cellobiase, and most maltase and lactase activities. Dietary change from low to high carbohydrate (starch) resulted in an increase in (TH)leucine accumulation in each of the enzymes, without a change in the amount of label accumulation in total intestinal proteins. The increase in label accumulation in the brush-border carbohydrase pools was matched generally by proportional elevation in the pool concentrations of sucrase-isomaltase and lactase but not maltase. These studies suggest that the elevation of intestinal carbohydrase concentrations induced by high-carbohydrate feeding may involve selective stimulation of their synthesis.

  20. Effect of a high-fat meal on the pharmacokinetics of 300-milligram posaconazole in a solid oral tablet formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersemaekers, Wendy M; Dogterom, Peter; Xu, Jialin; Marcantonio, Eugene E; de Greef, Rik; Waskin, Hetty; van Iersel, Marlou L P S

    2015-01-01

    Posaconazole in oral suspension must be taken multiple times a day with food (preferably a high-fat meal) to ensure adequate exposure among patients. We evaluated the effect of food on the bioavailability of a new delayed-release tablet formulation of posaconazole at the proposed clinical dose of 300 mg once daily in a randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-period crossover study with 18 healthy volunteers. When a single 300-mg dose of posaconazole in tablet form (3 tablets × 100 mg) was administered with a high-fat meal, the posaconazole area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 72 h (AUC0-72) and maximum concentration in plasma (Cmax) increased 51% and 16%, respectively, compared to those after administration in the fasted state. The median time to Cmax (Tmax) shifted from 5 h in the fasted state to 6 h under fed conditions. No serious adverse events were reported, and no subject discontinued the study due to an adverse event. Six of the 18 subjects reported at least one clinical adverse event; all of these events were mild and short lasting. The results of this study demonstrate that a high-fat meal only modestly increases the mean posaconazole exposure (AUC), ∼1.5-fold, after administration of posaconazole tablets, in contrast to the 4-fold increase in AUC observed previously for a posaconazole oral suspension given with a high-fat meal.

  1. Effects of high and low glycemic load meals on energy intake, satiety and hunger in obese Hispanic-American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Nazrat M; Klein, Catherine J; Palmer, Matilde G; McCarter, Robert; He, Jianping; Ebbeling, Cara B; Ludwig, David S; Yanovski, Jack A

    2011-06-01

    Some short-term pediatric studies have suggested beneficial effects of low glycemic load (LGL) meals on feelings of hunger and on energy intake. However, the effects of LGL diets have not been systematically studied in obese Hispanic children, who stand to benefit from successful interventions. To examine the effects of LGL and high-GL (HGL) meals on appetitive responses and ad libitum energy intake of obese Hispanic youth. A total of 88 obese Hispanic youth aged 7-15 years were enrolled in a community-based obesity intervention program and randomly assigned to consume meals designed as either LGL (n = 45) or HGL (n = 43). After 12 weeks, participants were admitted for a 24-hour metabolic study. Following the morning test meal, subjects serially reported hunger, fullness, and satiety using a visual analog scale. Blood insulin and glucose were measured. After 5 hours, participants were fed another test meal and given a snack platter from which to eat ad libitum. All test food was weighed and the energy, macronutrients, and glycemic load (GL) of consumed foods were calculated. The HGL group had significantly higher insulin (p = 0.0005) and glucose (p = 0.0001) responses to the breakfast meal compared with the LGL group. There were no significant between-group differences in energy consumed from the snack platter (1303 vs. 1368 kcal, p = 0.5), or in the subjective feelings of hunger (p = 0.3), fullness (p = 0.5) or satiety (p = 0.3) between the two groups. Our study provides no evidence that, for obese Hispanic youth, changing the GL of the diet affects short-term hunger, fullness, satiety, or energy intake. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01068197.

  2. High glycemic and insulinemic responses to meals affect plasma growth hormone secretory characteristics in Quarter Horse weanlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, S M; Bartell, P A; Staniar, W B

    2013-05-01

    Growth hormone is a key component of the somatotropic axis and is critical for the interplay between nutrition, regulation of metabolic functions, and subsequent processes of growth. The objective of this study was to investigate potential relations between meal feeding concentrates differing in the glycemic responses they elicit and GH secretory patterns in young growing horses. Twelve Quarter Horse weanlings (5.4 ± 0.4 mo of age) were used in a crossover design, consisting of two 21-d periods and two treatments, a high-glycemic (HG) or low-glycemic (LG) concentrate meal, fed twice daily. Horses were individually housed and fed hay ad libitum. On the final day of each period, quarter-hourly blood samples were drawn for 24 h to measure plasma glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids, and GH. Growth hormone secretory characteristics were estimated with deconvolution analysis. After a meal, HG-fed horses exhibited a longer inhibition until the first pulse of GH secretion (P = 0.012). During late night hours (1:00 AM to 6:45 AM), HG horses secreted a greater amount of pulsatile GH than LG horses (P = 0.002). These differences highlight the potential relations between glycemic and insulinemic responses to meals and GH secretion. Dietary energy source and metabolic perturbations associated with feeding HG meals to young, growing horses have the potential to alter GH secretory patterns compared with LG meals. This may potentially affect the developmental pattern of various tissues in the young growing horse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork – a randomized cross-over meal test study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene D. Kristensen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. Objective: To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. Design: In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, cross-over meal test. The meals (all 3.5 MJ, 28 energy-% (E% fat were either high protein based on veal and pork meat, HP-Meat (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 6 g fiber/100 g; high protein based on legumes (beans and peas, HP-Legume (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 25 g fiber/100 g; or low-protein based on legumes, LP-Legume (9 E% protein, 62 E% carbohydrate, 10 g fiber/100 g. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour using visual analog scales until the ad libitum meal 3 h after the test meal. Repeated measurements analyses and summary analyses were performed using ANCOVA (SAS. Results: HP-Legume induced lower composite appetite score, hunger, prospective food consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat and LP-Legume (p<0.05. Furthermore, satiety was higher after HP-Legume than HP-Meat (p<0.05. When adjusting for palatability, HP-Legume still resulted in lower composite appetite scores, hunger, prospective consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat (p<0.05. Furthermore, HP-Legume induced higher fullness than LP-Legume (p<0.05. A 12% and 13% lower energy intake, respectively, was seen after HP-Legume compared to HP-Meat or LP-Legume (p<0.01. Conclusion: Vegetable-based meals (beans/peas influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals

  4. Easy Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The woman pictured below is sitting down to a nutritious, easily-prepared meal similar to those consumed by Apollo astronauts. The appetizing dishes shown were created simply by adding water to the contents of a Mountain House* Easy Meal package of freeze dried food. The Easy Meal line is produced by Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc., Albany, Oreaon, a pioneer in freeze drying technology and a company long associated with NASA in developing suitable preparations for use on manned spacecraft. Designed to provide nutritionally balanced, attractive hot meals for senior adults, Easy Meal is an offshoot of a 1975-77 demonstration project managed by Johnson Space Center and called Meal System for the Elderly. The project sought ways to help the estimated 3.5 million elderly Americans who are unable to take advantage of existing meal programs. Such services are provided by federal, state and local agencies, but they are not available to many who live in rural areas, or others who are handicapped, temporarily ill or homebound for other reasons. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods was a participant in that multi-agency cooperative project. With its Easy Meal assortment of convenience foods pictured above left, the company is making commercially available meal packages similar to those distributed in the Meal System for the Elderly program. In the freeze drying process, water is extracted from freshly-cooked foods by dehydration at very low temperatures, as low as 50 I degrees below zero. Flavor is locked in by packaging the dried food in pouches which block out moisture and oxygen, the principal causes of food deterioration; thus the food can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Meals are reconstituted by adding hot or cold water, depending on the type of food, and they are table ready in five to 10 minutes. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods offers five different meal packages and plans to expand the line.

  5. Unique carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions are required for high affinity binding between FcgammaRIII and antibodies lacking core fucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Claudia; Grau, Sandra; Jäger, Christiane; Sondermann, Peter; Brünker, Peter; Waldhauer, Inja; Hennig, Michael; Ruf, Armin; Rufer, Arne Christian; Stihle, Martine; Umaña, Pablo; Benz, Jörg

    2011-08-02

    Antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), a key immune effector mechanism, relies on the binding of antigen-antibody complexes to Fcγ receptors expressed on immune cells. Antibodies lacking core fucosylation show a large increase in affinity for FcγRIIIa leading to an improved receptor-mediated effector function. Although afucosylated IgGs exist naturally, a next generation of recombinant therapeutic, glycoenginereed antibodies is currently being developed to exploit this finding. In this study, the crystal structures of a glycosylated Fcγ receptor complexed with either afucosylated or fucosylated Fc were determined allowing a detailed, molecular understanding of the regulatory role of Fc-oligosaccharide core fucosylation in improving ADCC. The structures reveal a unique type of interface consisting of carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions between glycans of the receptor and the afucosylated Fc. In contrast, in the complex structure with fucosylated Fc, these contacts are weakened or nonexistent, explaining the decreased affinity for the receptor. These findings allow us to understand the higher efficacy of therapeutic antibodies lacking the core fucose and also suggest a unique mechanism by which the immune system can regulate antibody-mediated effector functions.

  6. Metabolic responses to high-fat or low-fat meals and association with sympathetic nervous system activity in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Narumi; Sakane, Naoki; Moritani, Toshio

    2005-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the metabolic and sympathetic responses to a high-fat meal in humans. Fourteen young men (age: 23.6 +/- 0.5 y, BMI: 21.3 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) were examined for energy expenditure and fat oxidation measured by indirect calorimetry for 3.5 h after a high-fat (70%, energy from fat) or an isoenergetic low-fat (20% energy from fat) meal served in random order. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity was assessed using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). After the high-fat meal, increases in thermoregulatory SNS activity (very low-frequency component of HRV, 0.007-0.035 Hz, 577.4+/-45.9 vs. 432.0+/-49.3 ms2, p<0.05) and fat oxidation (21.0+/-5.3 vs. 13.3+/-4.3 g, p<0.001) were greater than those after the low-fat meal. However, thermic effects of the meal (TEM) were lower after the high-fat meal than after the low-fat meal (27.5+/-11.2 vs. 36.1+/-10.9 kcal, p<0.05). In conclusion, the high-fat meal can stimulate thermoregulatory SNS and lipolysis, but resulted in lower TEM, suggesting that a high proportion of dietary fat intake, even with a normal daily range of calories, may be a potent risk factor for further weight gain.

  7. Higher inclusion rate of canola meal under high ambient temperature for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljuobori, A; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; Abdullah, N; Liang, J B; Mujahid, A

    2016-06-01

    Extruded canola meal (ECM) was included in diet of broiler chickens at 0, 10, 20, and 30% (wt/wt) from 1 to 35 days of age. A total of 240 day-old male chicks were assigned in groups of 5 to 48 battery cages in environmentally controlled chambers and diets were replicated with 12 cages/treatment. From d 29 to 35, birds from each dietary group were exposed to either thermoneutral (23 ± 1°C; unheated) or high (36 ± 1°C; heated) temperature conditions. High ambient temperature, irrespective of ECM inclusion, depressed the growth performance of birds. Inclusion of ECM increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) linearly in unheated birds during d 1 to 28 (P heated birds. The absence of these detrimental effects could be associated with the lack of triiodothyronine (T3) elevation by ECM inclusion in heated birds. In conclusion, ECM can be fed, at least, up to 30%, without any adverse effect on growth performance of broiler chickens raised under chronic high ambient temperature. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

  9. Genomic analysis of six new Geobacillus strains reveals highly conserved carbohydrate degradation architectures and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip eBrumm

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the whole genome sequences of six new Geobacillus xylanolytic strains along with the genomic analysis of their capability to degrade carbohydrates.. The six sequenced Geobacillus strains described here have a range of GC contents from 43.9% to 52.5% and clade with named Geobacillus species throughout the entire genus. We have identified a ~200 kb unique super-cluster in all six strains, containing five to eight distinct carbohydrate degradation clusters in a single genomic region, a feature not seen in other genera. The Geobacillus strains rely on a small number of secreted enzymes located within distinct clusters for carbohydrate utilization, in contrast to most biomass-degrading organisms which contain numerous secreted enzymes located randomly throughout the genomes. All six strains are able to utilize fructose, arabinose, xylose, mannitol, gluconate, xylan, and α-1,6-glucosides. The gene clusters for utilization of these seven substrates have identical organization and the individual proteins have a high percent identity to their homologs. The strains show significant differences in their ability to utilize inositol, sucrose, lactose, α-mannosides, α-1,4-glucosides and arabinan.

  10. Mangiferin stimulates carbohydrate oxidation and protects against metabolic disorders induced by high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apontes, Pasha; Liu, Zhongbo; Su, Kai; Benard, Outhiriaradjou; Youn, Dou Y; Li, Xisong; Li, Wei; Mirza, Raihan H; Bastie, Claire C; Jelicks, Linda A; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Muzumdar, Radhika H; Sauve, Anthony A; Chi, Yuling

    2014-11-01

    Excessive dietary fat intake causes systemic metabolic toxicity, manifested in weight gain, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. In addition, carbohydrate utilization as a fuel is substantially inhibited. Correction or reversal of these effects during high-fat diet (HFD) intake is of exceptional interest in light of widespread occurrence of diet-associated metabolic disorders in global human populations. Here we report that mangiferin (MGF), a natural compound (the predominant constituent of Mangifera indica extract from the plant that produces mango), protected against HFD-induced weight gain, increased aerobic mitochondrial capacity and thermogenesis, and improved glucose and insulin profiles. To obtain mechanistic insight into the basis for these effects, we determined that mice exposed to an HFD combined with MGF exhibited a substantial shift in respiratory quotient from fatty acid toward carbohydrate utilization. MGF treatment significantly increased glucose oxidation in muscle of HFD-fed mice without changing fatty acid oxidation. These results indicate that MGF redirects fuel utilization toward carbohydrates. In cultured C2C12 myotubes, MGF increased glucose and pyruvate oxidation and ATP production without affecting fatty acid oxidation, confirming in vivo and ex vivo effects. Furthermore, MGF inhibited anaerobic metabolism of pyruvate to lactate but enhanced pyruvate oxidation. A key target of MGF appears to be pyruvate dehydrogenase, determined to be activated by MGF in a variety of assays. These findings underscore the therapeutic potential of activation of carbohydrate utilization in correction of metabolic syndrome and highlight the potential of MGF to serve as a model compound that can elicit fuel-switching effects.

  11. Ethanol Production from Extruded Thermoplastic Maize Meal by High Gravity Fermentation with Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayeli Peralta-Contreras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of extruded and ground maize meals as raw materials for the production of regular (12°P and high gravity (20°P worts was devised. Extruded water solubility index (WSI was higher (9.8 percentage units and crude fat was lower (2.64 percentage units compared to ground maize. Free-amino nitrogen compounds (FAN, pH, and glucose were evaluated in regular and high gravity worts produced from ground or extruded maize. Extrusion improved glucose content and ethanol yield. In 20°P mashes, extrusion is enhanced by 2.14% initial glucose compared with regular ground mashes. The 12°P and 20°P extruded treatments averaged 12.2% and 8.4% higher ethanol, respectively, compared to the uncooked counterpart. The 20°P worts fermented with Zymomonas mobilis produced 9.56% more ethanol than the 12°P counterpart. The results show that the combination of extrusion and fermentation of 20°P worts improved ethanol yield per kg flour until 20.93%. This pretreatment stimulates Z. mobilis fermentation efficiency.

  12. Vascular and inflammatory high fat meal responses in young healthy men; a discriminative role of IL-8 observed in a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, D.; Oosterink, E.; Roodt, op 't J.; Henry, R.M.A.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Müller, M.R.; Afman, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background High fat meal challenges are known to induce postprandial low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. This assumption is largely based on studies performed in older populations or in populations with a progressed disease state and an appropriate control meal is often lacking. Youn

  13. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from the zygomycete fungus Rhizopus oryzae: a highly specialized approach to carbohydrate degradation depicted at genome level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizopus oryzae is a zygomycete filamentous fungus, well-known as a saprobe ubiquitous in soil and as a pathogenic/spoilage fungus, causing Rhizopus rot and mucomycoses. Results Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZy annotation of the R. oryzae identified, in contrast to other filamentous fungi, a low number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and a high number of glycosyl transferases (GTs and carbohydrate esterases (CEs. A detailed analysis of CAZy families, supported by growth data, demonstrates highly specialized plant and fungal cell wall degrading abilities distinct from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. The specific genomic and growth features for degradation of easily digestible plant cell wall mono- and polysaccharides (starch, galactomannan, unbranched pectin, hexose sugars, chitin, chitosan, β-1,3-glucan and fungal cell wall fractions suggest specific adaptations of R. oryzae to its environment. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genome of the zygomycete fungus R. oryzae and comparison to ascomycetes and basidiomycete species revealed how evolution has shaped its genetic content with respect to carbohydrate degradation, after divergence from the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.

  14. Effect of preexercise meals with different glycemic indices and loads on metabolic responses and endurance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya Jun; Wong, Stephen H; Wong, Chun Kwok; Lam, Ching Wan; Huang, Ya Jun; Siu, Parco M

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the effect of ingesting 3 isocaloric meals with different glycemic indices (GI) and glycemic loads (GL) 2 hr before exercise on metabolic responses and endurance running performance. Eight male runners completed 3 trials in a randomized order, separated by at least 7 days. Carbohydrate (CHO) content (%), GI, and GL were, respectively, 65%, 79, and 82 for the high-GI/high-GL meal (H-H); 65%, 40, and 42 for the low-GI/low-GL meal (L-L); and 36%, 78, and 44 for the high-GI/low-GL meal (H-L). Each trial consisted of a 1-hr run at 70% VO2max, followed by a 10-km performance run. Low-GL diets (H-L and L-L) were found to induce smaller metabolic changes during the postprandial period and during exercise, which were characterized by a lower CHO oxidation in the 2 trials (p metabolic responses.

  15. Acute Thermotherapy Prevents Impairments in Cutaneous Microvascular Function Induced by a High Fat Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jennifer C.; Roseguini, Bruno T.; Goerger, Benjamin M.; Fallon, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a high fat meal (HFM) would impair cutaneous vasodilation, while thermotherapy (TT) would reverse the detrimental effects. Eight participants were instrumented with skin heaters and laser-Doppler (LD) probes and tested in three trials: control, HFM, and HFM + TT. Participants wore a water-perfused suit perfused with 33°C (control and HFM) or 50°C (HFM + TT) water. Participants consumed 1 g fat/kg body weight. Blood samples were taken at baseline and two hours post-HFM. Blood pressure was measured every 5–10 minutes. Microvascular function was assessed via skin local heating from 33°C to 39°C two hours after HFM. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated and normalized to maximal vasodilation (%CVCmax). HFM had no effect on initial peak (48 ± 4 %CVCmax) compared to control (49 ± 4 %CVCmax) but attenuated the plateau (51 ± 4 %CVCmax) compared to control (63 ± 4 %CVCmax, P < 0.001). Initial peak was augmented in HFM + TT (66 ± 4 %CVCmax) compared to control and HFM (P < 0.05), while plateau (73 ± 3 % CVCmax) was augmented only compared to the HFM trial (P < 0.001). These data suggest that HFM negatively affects cutaneous vasodilation but can be minimized by TT. PMID:27595112

  16. Acute Thermotherapy Prevents Impairments in Cutaneous Microvascular Function Induced by a High Fat Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Harvey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that a high fat meal (HFM would impair cutaneous vasodilation, while thermotherapy (TT would reverse the detrimental effects. Eight participants were instrumented with skin heaters and laser-Doppler (LD probes and tested in three trials: control, HFM, and HFM + TT. Participants wore a water-perfused suit perfused with 33°C (control and HFM or 50°C (HFM + TT water. Participants consumed 1 g fat/kg body weight. Blood samples were taken at baseline and two hours post-HFM. Blood pressure was measured every 5–10 minutes. Microvascular function was assessed via skin local heating from 33°C to 39°C two hours after HFM. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC was calculated and normalized to maximal vasodilation (%CVCmax. HFM had no effect on initial peak (48 ± 4 %CVCmax compared to control (49 ± 4 %CVCmax but attenuated the plateau (51 ± 4 %CVCmax compared to control (63 ± 4 %CVCmax, P < 0.001. Initial peak was augmented in HFM + TT (66 ± 4 %CVCmax compared to control and HFM (P < 0.05, while plateau (73 ± 3 % CVCmax was augmented only compared to the HFM trial (P < 0.001. These data suggest that HFM negatively affects cutaneous vasodilation but can be minimized by TT.

  17. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  18. Intensive trapping of blood-fed Anopheles darlingi in Amazonian Peru reveals unexpectedly high proportions of avian blood-meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Marlon P.; Bickersmith, Sara A.; Prussing, Catharine; Michalski, Adrian; Tong Rios, Carlos; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Conn, Jan E.

    2017-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Neotropics, has been considered to be highly anthropophilic. However, many behavioral aspects of this species remain unknown, such as the range of blood-meal sources. Barrier screens were used to collect resting Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes from 2013 to 2015 in three riverine localities (Lupuna, Cahuide and Santa Emilia) in Amazonian Peru. Overall, the Human Blood Index (HBI) ranged from 0.58–0.87, with no significant variation among years or sites. Blood-meal analysis revealed that humans are the most common blood source, followed by avian hosts (Galliformes-chickens and turkeys), and human/Galliforme mixed-meals. The Forage Ratio and Selection Index both show a strong preference for Galliformes over humans in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our data show that 30% of An. darlingi fed on more than one host, including combinations of dogs, pigs, goats and rats. There appears to be a pattern of host choice in An. darlingi, with varying proportions of mosquitoes feeding only on humans, only on Galliformes and some taking mixed-meals of blood (human plus Galliforme), which was detected in the three sites in different years, indicating that there could be a structure to these populations based on blood-feeding preferences. Mosquito age, estimated in two localities, Lupuna and Cahuide, ranged widely between sites and years. This variation may reflect the range of local environmental factors that influence longevity or possibly potential changes in the ability of the mosquito to transmit the parasite. Of 6,204 resting An. darlingi tested for Plasmodium infection, 0.42% were infected with P. vivax. This study provides evidence for the first time of the usefulness of barrier screens for the collection of blood-fed resting mosquitoes to calculate the Human Blood Index (HBI) and other blood-meal sources in a neotropical malaria endemic setting. PMID:28231248

  19. Meal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Kügler, Jens; Olsen, Nina Veflen

    2013-01-01

    A new methodology is introduced that allows the design of meal solutions (such as chilled and frozen ready meals, menu choices in catering and food service) based on empirical assessments of fit between meal centres and side components. The necessary input data are collected by means of a consumer...... and beer or spirits), a ‘‘Sunday roast’’ segment (shoulder, gammon roast, collar roast or medallions served with potatoes and sauce, combined with beans, carrots or cabbage), a ‘‘Bolognese’’ segment (minced meat with pasta), a ‘‘lean cuisine’’ segment (tenderloin or small cuts combined served with rice...

  20. High risk of misinterpreting liver and spleen stiffness using 2D shear-wave and transient elastography after a moderate or high calorie meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærgaard, Maria; Thiele, Maja; Jansen, Christian; Stæhr Madsen, Bjørn; Görtzen, Jan; Strassburg, Christian; Trebicka, Jonel; Krag, Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    Food intake increases liver stiffness, but it is believed that liver stiffness returns to baseline two hours after a meal. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of different sized meals on liver stiffness. Liver and spleen stiffness was measured with transient elastography (TE) and real-time 2-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE). Patients ingested a 625 kcal and a 1250 kcal liquid meal on two consecutive days. We measured liver and spleen elasticity, Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and portal flow at baseline and after 20, 40, 60, 120 and 180 minutes. Sixty patients participated, 83% with alcoholic liver disease. Twenty-eight patients had METAVIR fibrosis score F0-3 and 32 patients had cirrhosis. Liver stiffness, spleen stiffness and CAP increased after both meals for all stages of fibrosis. False positive 2D-SWE liver stiffness measurements caused 36% and 52% of patients with F0-3 fibrosis to be misclassified with higher stages of fibrosis after the moderate and high caloric meal. Likewise, 10% and 13% of compensated cirrhosis patients were misclassified with clinically significant portal hypertension after the two meals. We observed similar misclassification rates with TE. After three hours, liver stiffness remained elevated more than 20% from baseline in up to 50% of patients. Liver stiffness, spleen stiffness and CAP increase after a meal across all stages of fibrosis and across elastography techniques. Up to half of patients may be misclassified with higher stages of fibrosis, if they are assessed after less than three hours fasting period.

  1. Repeated High Intensity Bouts with Long Recovery: Are Bicarbonate or Carbohydrate Supplements an Option?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stöggl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of varying recovery modes and the influence of preexercise sodium bicarbonate and carbohydrate ingestion on repeated high intensity performance, acid-base response, and recovery were analyzed in 12 well-trained males. They completed three repeated high intensity running bouts to exhaustion with intervening recovery periods of 25 min under the following conditions: sodium bicarbonate, active recovery (BIC; carbohydrate ingestion, active recovery (CHO; placebo ingestion, active recovery (ACTIVE; placebo ingestion, passive recovery (PASSIVE. Blood lactate (BLa, blood gases, heart rate, and time to exhaustion were collected. The three high intensity bouts had a duration of 138±9, 124±6, and 121±6 s demonstrating a decrease from bout 1 to bout 3. Supplementation strategy had no effect on performance in the first bout, even with differences in pH and bicarbonate (HCO3-. Repeated sprint performance was not affected by supplementation strategy when compared to ACTIVE, while PASSIVE resulted in a more pronounced decrease in performance compared with all other interventions. BIC led to greater BLa, pH, and HCO3- values compared with all other interventions, while for PASSIVE the opposite was found. BLa recovery was lowest in PASSIVE; recovery in pH, and HCO3- was lower in PASSIVE and higher in BIC.

  2. The effects of McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut meals on recommended diets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malouf, Nasseem M; Colagiuri, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    .... The 3 takeaway meals were from McDonalds, Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken. The effects of each of these meals on average daily kilojoule, fibre, fat, P/S ratio, protein and carbohydrate intakes were assessed...

  3. The perils of high carbohydrate drinks in the undiagnosed diabetic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Saad Aldeen; Hameed, Asjad; Yousif, Saif; Lessan, Nader

    2011-08-11

    Diabetes mellitus is increasing in its incidence and prevalence. Reduction in refined carbohydrate (sugar) intake is an important part of nutritional advice to patients with known diabetes. Sugar is available in a variety of confectionary products. It is also available in especially packaged 'convenience foods' as high energy drinks. Among people without diabetes, such food can have its own health risks. A significant group of patients with diabetes remain undiagnosed. This group are at especially high risk from all the negative metabolic effects of high sugar intake available as high calorie drinks. The authors report two patients without previously known diabetes who presented similarly with marked hyperglycaemic states, leading to severe metabolic disturbances. Both were obese, had common precipitating factors and consumed large quantities of sugary soft drinks ('lucozade'). Both patients recovered well. They were followed up for over 7 years. One is not diabetic and the second is diabetic requiring a small dose of metformin.

  4. High salt meals in staff canteens of salt policy makers: observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, L.M.; Berentzen, C.A.; van Montfrans, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Observational study. 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university hospitals

  5. High salt meals in staff canteens of salt policy makers: observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, L.M.; Berentzen, C.A.; van Montfrans, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Observational study. 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university

  6. High-glycemic index carbohydrates abrogate the antiobesity effect of fish oil in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Qin; Lillefosse, Haldis Haukås; Fjære, Even;

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is known to attenuate diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation in rodents. Here we aimed to investigate whether different carbohydrate sources modulated the antiobesity effects of fish oil. By feeding C57BL/6J mice isocaloric high......-fat diets enriched with fish oil for 6 wk, we show that increasing amounts of sucrose in the diets dose-dependently increased energy efficiency and white adipose tissue (WAT) mass. Mice receiving fructose had about 50% less WAT mass than mice fed a high fish oil diet supplemented with either glucose...... or sucrose, indicating that the glucose moiety of sucrose was responsible for the obesity-promoting effect of sucrose. To investigate whether the obesogenic effect of sucrose and glucose was related to stimulation of insulin secretion, we combined fish oil with high and low glycemic index (GI) starches. Mice...

  7. Characterisation of brewpub beer carbohydrates using high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfelli, Giuseppe; Sartini, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    High performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) was optimised in order to quantify mannose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose and maltoheptaose content of beer. The method allows the determination of above mentioned oligosaccharides, in a single chromatographic run, without any pre-treatment. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were suitable for beer. Accuracy and repeatability were good for the entire amount considered. Once optimised HPAEC PAD for the specific matrix, the second goal of this research was to verify the possibility to discriminate beers, depending on their style. The carbohydrates content of brewpub commercial beers was very variable, ranging from 19.3 to 1469mg/L (mannose), 34.5 to 2882mg/L (maltose), 141.9 to 20731mg/L (maltotriose), 168.5 to 7650mg/L (maltotetraose), 20.1 to 2537mg/L (maltopentaose), 22.9 to 3295mg/L (maltohexaose), 8.5 to 2492mg/L (maltoeptaose), even in the same style of beer. However, the carbohydrates content was useful, jointed with other compounds amount, to discriminate different styles of beer. As a matter of fact, principal component analysis put in evidence beer differences considering some fermentation conditions and colour.

  8. Obesity-prone high-fat-fed rats reduce caloric intake and adiposity and gain more fat-free mass when allowed to self-select protein from carbohydrate:fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Pimentel, Grégory; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire; Even, Patrick C

    2016-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, for rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a prioritization of maintaining protein intake may increase energy consumption and hence result in obesity, particularly for individuals prone to obesity ("fat sensitive," FS, vs. "fat resistant," FR). Male Wistar rats (n = 80) first received 3 wk of HFD (protein 15%, fat 42%, carbohydrate 42%), under which they were characterized as being FS (n = 18) or FR (n = 20) based on body weight gain. They then continued on the same HFD but in which protein (100%) was available separately from the carbohydrate:fat (50:50%) mixture. Under this second regimen, all rats maintained their previous protein intake, whereas intake of fat and carbohydrate was reduced by 50%. This increased protein intake to 26% and decreased fat intake to 37%. Adiposity gain was prevented in both FR and FS rats, and gain in fat-free mass was increased only in FS rats. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a protein meal, and their tissues and organs were collected for analysis of body composition and measurement of mRNA levels in the liver, adipose tissue, arcuate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens. FS rats had a higher expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in lipogenesis in the liver and white adipose tissue. These results show that FS rats strongly reduced food intake and adiposity gain through macronutrient selection, despite maintenance of a relatively high-fat intake and overexpression of genes favoring lipogenesis.

  9. Effect of a 3-day high-fat feeding period on carbohydrate balance and ad libitum energy intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, J E; de Jonge, L; Most, M M; Bray, G A; Smith, S R

    2010-05-01

    A reduction in glycogen after the switch to an isoenergetic high-fat diet (HFD) might promote a compensatory increase in food intake to reestablish carbohydrate balance. We assessed the effect of an isoenergetic switch from a 49%-carbohydrate to 50%-fat diet on nutrient balance and ad libitum food intake. We hypothesized that carbohydrate balance would be inversely related to ad libitum energy intake. In 47 men and 11 women (22.6+/-0.4 years; 26.1+/-0.5 kg m(-2)), fuel balance was measured in a respiration chamber over 4 days. During the first day, an isoenergetic, high-carbohydrate diet was provided followed by a 3-day isoenergetic, HFD. At the end of this period and after 16 h of fasting, three options of foods (cookies, fruit salad and turkey sandwich) were offered ad libitum for 4 h. The relationships between post-chamber ad libitum intake and macronutrient oxidation and balance measured day-to-day and over the 4-day respiration chamber stay were studied. After switching to a HFD, 24-h respiratory quotient decreased from 0.87+/-0.02 to 0.83+/-0.02 (Plibitum energy intake. However, we detected that 4-day carbohydrate balance was a positive and independent predictor of post-chamber ad libitum energy intake (R (2)=0.10; P=0.01), whereas no significant influence of fat and protein balances was found. In response to an isoenergetic change from a high-carbohydrate to HFD, higher carbohydrate balance related to increased energy intake.

  10. Growth performance, feed utilization and sensory characteristics of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fed diets with high inclusion levels of copra meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Skov, Peter Vilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Background: The low cost and wide-availability of copra meal in many tropical countries where aquaculture is practiced have generated much interest in its potential inclusion in fish diet formulations. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of very high inclusions of autoclaved...... inclusions of copra meal did not have any significant effects on fillet sensory attributes. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible to include autoclaved copra meal up to 680 g kg-1 in Nile tilapia diets without any deleterious effects on fish growth or on flesh sensory...

  11. Effects of carbohydrate ingestion on acute leukocyte, cortisol, and interleukin-6 response in high-intensity long-distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalainen, Johanna K; Vuorimaa, Timo; Puurtinen, Risto; Hämäläinen, Ismo; Mero, Antti A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ingestion of fluids with different carbohydrate concentrations (0, 1.5, and 7%) on the acute immune stress responses after high-intensity long-distance running. Continuous 18- to 20-km run was performed at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake with carbohydrate supplementation (CHO7%, 7% carbohydrate solution) and low-carbohydrate supplementation (lowCHO1.5%, 1.5% carbohydrate solution) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo (PLA) controlled design. Seven recreational runners (4 men and 3 women) completed all 3 trials. Blood was collected at baseline (PRE) and immediately after the run (POST). The running task induced significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in leukocyte (white blood cells), neutrophil, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) counts in every trial. There was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in cortisol with PLA and lowCHO1.5% but not with CHO7%. Increase in total leukocyte and neutrophil concentration was significantly lower with CHO7% compared with PLA (p ≤ 0.05). Postexercise IL-6 levels were significantly elevated when compared with baseline in all conditions (p ≤ 0.05). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations did not differ significantly between trials. LowCHO1.5% sport drink did not significantly differ from PLA in measured variables, which indicated that the amount and rate of carbohydrate ingestion (15 g, 10 g·h) in low-carbohydrate sport drink was not enough to significantly protect from the stress induced by high-intensity long-distance running, whereas the ingestion of CHO7% (45 g·h) blunted the significant cortisol response and significantly decreased the leukocyte response.

  12. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.

  13. Naringin Improves Diet-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Obesity in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Kauter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and fatty liver, together termed metabolic syndrome, are key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Chronic feeding of a diet high in saturated fats and simple sugars, such as fructose and glucose, induces these changes in rats. Naturally occurring compounds could be a cost-effective intervention to reverse these changes. Flavonoids are ubiquitous secondary plant metabolites; naringin gives the bitter taste to grapefruit. This study has evaluated the effect of naringin on diet-induced obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These rats developed increased body weight, glucose intolerance, increased plasma lipid concentrations, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, liver inflammation and steatosis with compromised mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. Dietary supplementation with naringin (approximately 100 mg/kg/day improved glucose intolerance and liver mitochondrial dysfunction, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved the structure and function of the heart and liver without decreasing total body weight. Naringin normalised systolic blood pressure and improved vascular dysfunction and ventricular diastolic dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These beneficial effects of naringin may be mediated by reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced oxidative stress, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved liver mitochondrial function in rats.

  14. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Arias, AMP; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Pijl, H; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  15. Apoptosis induced by a low-carbohydrate and high-protein diet in rat livers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria Emília L; Xavier, Analucia R; Oliveira, Felipe L; Filho, Porphirio JS; Azeredo, Vilma B

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether high-protein, high-fat, and low-carbohydrate diets can cause lesions in rat livers. METHODS: We randomly divided 20 female Wistar rats into a control diet group and an experimental diet group. Animals in the control group received an AIN-93M diet, and animals in the experimental group received an Atkins-based diet (59.46% protein, 31.77% fat, and 8.77% carbohydrate). After 8 wk, the rats were anesthetized and exsanguinated for transaminases analysis, and their livers were removed for flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and light microscopy studies. We expressed the data as mean ± standard deviation (SD) assuming unpaired and parametric data; we analyzed differences using the Student’s t-test. Statistical significance was set at P diet group and 3.73% ± 0.50% for early apoptosis, 5.67% ± 0.72% for late apoptosis, and 3.82% ± 0.28% for non-apoptotic death in the control diet group. The mean percentage of early apoptosis was higher in the experimental diet group than in the control diet group. Immunohistochemistry for autophagy was negative in both groups. Sinusoidal dilation around the central vein and small hepatocytes was only observed in the experimental diet group, and fibrosis was not identified by hematoxylin-eosin or Trichrome Masson staining in either group. CONCLUSION: Eight weeks of an experimental diet resulted in cellular and histopathological lesions in rat livers. Apoptosis was our principal finding; elevated plasma transaminases demonstrate hepatic lesions. PMID:27298559

  16. Metabolic effects of weight loss on a very-low-carbohydrate diet compared with an isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet in abdominally obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Jeannie; Brinkworth, Grant D; Noakes, Manny; Keogh, Jennifer; Clifton, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of an energy-reduced, isocaloric very-low-carbohydrate, high-fat (VLCHF) diet and a high-carbohydrate, low-fat (HCLF) diet on weight loss and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk outcomes. Despite the popularity of the VLCHF diet, no studies have compared the chronic effects of weight loss and metabolic change to a conventional HCLF diet under isocaloric conditions. A total of 88 abdominally obese adults were randomly assigned to either an energy-restricted (approximately 6 to 7 MJ, 30% deficit), planned isocaloric VLCHF or HCLF diet for 24 weeks in an outpatient clinical trial. Body weight, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipids, insulin, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at weeks 0 and 24. Weight loss was similar in both groups (VLCHF -11.9 +/- 6.3 kg, HCLF -10.1 +/- 5.7 kg; p = 0.17). Blood pressure, CRP, fasting glucose, and insulin reduced similarly with weight loss in both diets. The VLCHF diet produced greater decreases in triacylglycerols (VLCHF -0.64 +/- 0.62 mmol/l, HCLF -0.35 +/- 0.49 mmol/l; p = 0.01) and increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (VLCHF 0.25 +/- 0.28 mmol/l, HCLF 0.08 +/- 0.17 mmol/l; p = 0.002). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased in the HCLF diet but remained unchanged in the VLCHF diet (VLCHF 0.06 +/- 0.58 mmol/l, HCLF -0.46 +/- 0.71 mmol/l; p response in the VLCHF diet was observed, with 24% of individuals reporting an increase of at least 10%. The apoB levels remained unchanged in both diet groups. Under isocaloric conditions, VLCHF and HCLF diets result in similar weight loss. Overall, although both diets had similar improvements for a number of metabolic risk markers, an HCLF diet had more favorable effects on the blood lipid profile. This suggests that the potential long-term effects of the VLCHF diet for CVD risk remain a concern and that blood lipid levels should be monitored. (Long-term health effects of high and

  17. Association between High Fat-low Carbohydrate Diet Score and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Na, Y.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Li, Y.P.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Ma, G.S.; Yang, X.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the association between high fat-low carbohydrate diet score and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in Chinese population. Methods Data about 20 717 subjects aged 45-59 years from the cross-sectional 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were analyzed. High fat-low

  18. Association between High Fat-low Carbohydrate Diet Score and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Na, Y.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Li, Y.P.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Ma, G.S.; Yang, X.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the association between high fat-low carbohydrate diet score and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in Chinese population. Methods Data about 20 717 subjects aged 45-59 years from the cross-sectional 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were analyzed. High fat-low carbohyd

  19. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaphan, Ketmanee; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Prachaney, Parichat; Greenwald, Stephen E; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2015-08-04

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA) is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS) in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF) diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg) was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05). Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms.

  20. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Arun Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO and Derbesia tenuissima (DT, in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  1. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketmanee Senaphan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05. Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms.

  2. Seaweed supplements normalise metabolic, cardiovascular and liver responses in high-carbohydrate, high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C; Paul, Nicholas A; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-02-02

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330-340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  3. ACTUAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL MEALS, AGE APPROPRIATE PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the current state of school meals, determination of ways of optimization for food, biological values and balanced school meals relevant age-related physiological needs. The greatest contribution to the optimization of school meals can make enriched products of mass consumption, first of necessity, the need and favorite products to children. In this regard, the fol-lowing tasks were defined: analysis of normative documents on creation of school meals , the relevant age-related physiological needs for nutrients and energy for protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and organic acids; definition of the balance of the products of the school menu categories for children aged 7-11 years, 11 - 17; study of the composition of food school menu; comparison of total deviation calorie Breakfast, lunch and development of measures on optimization of the system of school nutrition. In the structure of nutrition of children and adolescents major role bread, drinks, confectionery products as are the sources of energy and nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, macro - and microelements, organic acids, including polyunsaturated fatty CI slot, Therefore one of the ways of solving of optimization problems of preschool and school meals are of great TRANS-perspective bakery and confectionery products, drinks of high food and biological value and coordination and composition, as on the basic structural elements and micronutrients obtained innovative technology complex processing of raw sources with maximum preservation of their original nutritional value. TA-thus, the performed literature analysis found that rational nutrition of schoolchildren aimed at prevention of alimentary (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, allergic diseases that meet energy, plastic and other needs of the body, provides the necessary level of metabolism.

  4. Long-Term Effects of a Very Low Carbohydrate Compared With a High Carbohydrate Diet on Renal Function in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Jeannie; Thompson, Campbell H; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Noakes, Manny; Buckley, Jonathan D; Wittert, Gary A; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2015-11-01

    To compare the long-term effects of a very low carbohydrate, high-protein, low saturated fat (LC) diet with a traditional high unrefined carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet on markers of renal function in obese adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but without overt kidney disease.One hundred fifteen adults (BMI 34.6 ± 4.3 kg/m, age 58 ± 7 years, HbA1c 7.3 ± 1.1%, 56 ± 12 mmol/mol, serum creatinine (SCr) 69 ± 15 μmol/L, glomerular filtration rate estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula (eGFR 94 ± 12 mL/min/1.73 m)) were randomized to consume either an LC (14% energy as carbohydrate [CHO diet combined with supervised exercise training (60 min, 3 day/wk) for 12 months. Body weight, blood pressure, and renal function assessed by eGFR, estimated creatinine clearance (Cockcroft-Gault, Salazar-Corcoran) and albumin excretion rate (AER), were measured pre- and post-intervention.Both groups achieved similar completion rates (LC 71%, HC 65%) and reductions in weight (mean [95% CI]; -9.3 [-10.6, -8.0] kg) and blood pressure (-6 [-9, -4]/-6[-8, -5] mmHg), P ≥ 0.18. Protein intake calculated from 24 hours urinary urea was higher in the LC than HC group (LC 120.1 ± 38.2 g/day, 1.3 g/kg/day; HC 95.8 ± 27.8 g/day, 1 g/kg/day), P diet effect. Changes in SCr (LC 3 [1, 5], HC 1 [-1, 3] μmol/L) and eGFR (LC -4 [-6, -2], HC -2 [-3, 0] mL/min/1.73 m) did not differ between diets (P = 0.25). AER decreased independent of diet composition (LC --2.4 [-6, 1.2], HC -1.8 [-5.4, 1.8] mg/24 h, P = 0.24); 6 participants (LC 3, HC 3) had moderately elevated AER at baseline (30-300 mg/24 h), which normalized in 4 participants (LC 2, HC 2) after 52 weeks.Compared with a traditional HC weight loss diet, consumption of an LC high protein diet does not adversely affect clinical markers of renal function in obese adults with T2DM and no preexisting kidney disease.

  5. Liver Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Gimenez da Silva-Santi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD and high-fat diet (HFD modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA composition in male Swiss mice fed with HCD or HFD were compared, at the time points 0 (before starting the diets, and after 7, 14, 28 or 56 days. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1, ∆-6 desaturase (D6D, elongases and de novo lipogenesis (DNL were estimated. Liver mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1 was evaluated as an additional indicator of the de novo lipogenesis. Myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide (NO production, and mRNA expressions of F4/80, type I collagen, interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α were measured as indication of the liver inflammatory state. The HCD group had more intense lipid deposition, particularly of saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. This group also showed higher DNL, SCD-1, and D6D activities associated with increased NO concentration, as well as myeloperoxidase activity. Livers from the HFD group showed higher elongase activity, stored more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and had a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid (n-6/n-3 ratio. In conclusion, liver lipid accumulation, fatty acids (FA composition and inflammation were modulated by the dietary composition of lipids and carbohydrates. The HCD group had more potent lipogenic and inflammatory effects in comparison with HFD.

  6. The snacking rat as model of human obesity: effects of a free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet on meal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Fleur, S E; Luijendijk, M C M; van der Zwaal, E M; Brans, M A D; Adan, R A H

    2014-05-01

    Rats subjected to a free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet persistently overeat, exhibit increased food-motivated behavior and become overtly obese. Conversely, several studies using a non-choice (nc) high-energy diet showed only an initial increase in food intake with unaltered or reduced food-motivated behavior. This raises the question of the importance of choice in the persistence of hyperphagia in rats on a fcHFHS diet. Meal patterns, food intake and body weight gain were studied in male Wistar rats on free-choice diets with fat and/or sugar and in rats on nc diets with fat and sugar (custom made with ingredients similar to the fcHFHS diet). Rats on a ncHFHS diet initially overconsumed, but reduced intake thereafter, whereas rats on a fcHFHS diet remained hyperphagic. Because half of the sugar intake in the fcHFHS group occurred during the inactive period, we next determined whether sugar intake during the light phase was a necessary requirement for hyperphagia, by restricting access to liquid sugar to either the light or dark period with unlimited access to fat and chow. Results showed that hyperphagia occurred irrespective of the timing of sugar intake. Meal pattern analysis revealed consumption of larger but fewer meals in the ncHFHS group, as well as the fcHF group. Interestingly, meal number was increased in all rats drinking liquid sugar (whether on a fcHFHS or a fcHS diet), whereas a compensatory decrease in meal size was only observed in the fcHS group, but not the fcHFHS group. We hereby show the importance of choice in the observation of fcHFHS diet-induced hyperphagia, which results in increases in meal number due to sugar drinking without any compensatory decrease in meal size. We thus provide a novel dietary model in rats that mimics important features of human overconsumption that have been ignored in rodent models of obesity.

  7. A new versatile microarray-based method for high-throughput screening of carbohydrate-active enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal Melgosa, Silvia; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg; Schückel, Julia;

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate-active enzymes have multiple biological roles and industrial applications. Advances in genome and transcriptome sequencing, together with associated bioinformatic tools have identified vast numbers of putative carbohydrate degrading and modifying enzymes including glycoside hydrolases...... and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. However, there is a paucity of methods for rapidly screening the activities of these enzymes. By combining the multiplexing capacity of carbohydrate microarrays with the specificity of molecular probes, we have developed a sensitive, high-throughput and versatile...... semi-quantitative enzyme-screening technique which requires low amounts of enzyme and substrate. The method can be used to assess the activities of single enzymes, enzyme cocktails and crude culture broths against single substrates, substrate mixtures and biomass samples. Moreover, we show...

  8. A whey-supplemented, high-protein diet versus a high-carbohydrate diet: effects on endurance cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdermid, Paul W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2006-02-01

    This study compared a training diet recommended for endurance athletes (H-CHO) with an isoenergetic high protein (whey supplemented), moderate carbohydrate (H-Pro) diet on endurance cycling performance. Over two separate 7-d periods subjects (n = 7) ingested either H-CHO (7.9 +/- 1.9 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) carbohydrate; 1.2 +/- 0.3 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) fat; 1.3 +/- 0.4 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) protein) or H-Pro (4.9 +/- 1.8 g x kg(-1) x d(-1); 1.3 +/- 0.3 g x kg(-1) x d(-1); 3.3 +/- 0.4 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) diet in a randomized, balanced order. On day 8 subjects cycled (self-paced) for a body weight dependent (60 kJ/bm) amount of work. No differences occurred between energy intake (P = 0.422) or fat intake (P = 0.390) during the two dietary conditions. Performance was significantly (P = 0.010) impaired following H-Pro (153 +/- 36) compared with H-CHO (127 +/- 34 min). No differences between treatments were observed for physiological measures taken during the performance trials. These results indicate an ergolytic effect of a 7-d high protein diet on self-paced endurance cycling performance.

  9. Postprandial glucose and insulin levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients after consumption of ready-to-eat mixed meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Tsoutsoulopoulou, Konstantina; Kogkas, Stergios; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Efstathopoulou, Eirini

    2017-04-01

    To compare the effects of three ready-to-eat mixed meals, with a high fiber content and low glycemic index, on postprandial glycemic and insulinemic response in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The current study followed a prospective, three-way, cross-over design. Twenty-four patients with T2DM consumed three ready-to-eat mixed meals, i.e., "wild greens pie" (meal 1), "chicken burgers with boiled vegetables" (meal 2) and "vegetable moussaka" (meal 3) and an oral glucose load, all providing 50 g of carbohydrates. Venous blood was collected at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min postprandial. Statistical analyses included repeated measures analysis of variance and calculations of the area under the glucose and insulin curves (AUC) for each one of the test meals and the oral glucose load. Patients consuming each one of the three mixed meals showed better postprandial glycemic responses compared to the oral glucose load (P diabetic patients. The mixed meals examined in the present study could be proposed as effective, palatable and practical solutions for diabetics for glucose control.

  10. Impact of suboptimal temperature on growth, photosynthesis, leaf pigments and carbohydrates of domestic and high-altitude wild Lycopersicon species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, J.H.; Posthumus, F.S; van Hasselt, P.R

    1999-01-01

    The impact of near-optimal (25/20 degrees C) and suboptimal (16/14 degrees C) day/night temperatures on growth, photosynthesis, pigment composition and carbohydrate content was compared between domestic and high-altitude wild Lycopersicon species. When related to the relative shoot growth rate

  11. Impact of suboptimal temperature on growth, photosynthesis, leaf pigments and carbohydrates of domestic and high-altitude wild Lycopersicon species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, J.H.; Posthumus, F.S; van Hasselt, P.R

    1999-01-01

    The impact of near-optimal (25/20 degrees C) and suboptimal (16/14 degrees C) day/night temperatures on growth, photosynthesis, pigment composition and carbohydrate content was compared between domestic and high-altitude wild Lycopersicon species. When related to the relative shoot growth rate (RSGR

  12. A High-Fat Meal, or Intraperitoneal Administration of a Fat Emulsion, Increases Extracellular Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartley G. Hoebel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence links dopamine (DA in the nucleus accumbens (NAc shell to the ingestion of palatable diets. Less is known, however, about the specific relation of DA to dietary fat and circulating triglycerides (TG, which are stimulated by fat intake and promote overeating. The present experiments tested in Sprague-Dawley rats whether extracellular levels of NAc DA increase in response to acute access to fat-rich food or peripheral injection of a fat emulsion and, if so, whether this is related to caloric intake or elevated circulating lipids. When rats consumed more calories of a high-fat meal compared with a low-fat meal, there was a significant increase in extracellular accumbens DA (155% vs. 119%. Systemic injection of a fat emulsion, which like a high-fat diet raises circulating TG but eliminates the factor of taste and allows for the control of caloric intake, also significantly increased extracellular levels of DA (127% compared to an equicaloric glucose solution (70% and saline (85%. Together, this suggests that a rise in circulating TG may contribute to the stimulatory effect of a high-fat diet on NAc DA.

  13. High nitrogen supply and carbohydrate content reduce fungal endophyte and alkaloid concentration in Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Parsons, Anthony J; Bassett, Shalome; Christensen, Michael J; Hume, David E; Johnson, Linda J; Johnson, Richard D; Simpson, Wayne R; Stacke, Christina; Voisey, Christine R; Xue, Hong; Newman, Jonathan A

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between cool-season grasses and fungal endophytes is widely regarded as mutualistic, but there is growing uncertainty about whether changes in resource supply and environment benefit both organisms to a similar extent. Here, we infected two perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars (AberDove, Fennema) that differ in carbohydrate content with three strains of Neotyphodium lolii (AR1, AR37, common strain) that differ intrinsically in alkaloid profile. We grew endophyte-free and infected plants under high and low nitrogen (N) supply and used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to estimate endophyte concentrations in harvested leaf tissues. Endophyte concentration was reduced by 40% under high N supply, and by 50% in the higher sugar cultivar. These two effects were additive (together resulting in 75% reduction). Alkaloid production was also reduced under both increased N supply and high sugar cultivar, and for three of the four alkaloids quantified, concentrations were linearly related to endophyte concentration. The results stress the need for wider quantification of fungal endophytes in the grassland-foliar endophyte context, and have implications for how introducing new cultivars, novel endophytes or increasing N inputs affect the role of endophytes in grassland ecosystems.

  14. Substrate utilization during brisk walking is affected by glycemic index and fructose content of a pre-exercise meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng-Hua; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Huang, Ya-Jun; Chen, Ya-Jun; Tsang, Ka-Fai

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether both glycemic index (GI) and fructose content of a pre-exercise meal would affect substrate utilization during subsequent brisk walking. Ten healthy young males completed 60 min of 46% [Formula: see text] brisk walking 2 h after they consumed one of three breakfasts: a low-GI meal without fructose (LGI), a low-GI meal including fructose (LGIF), and a high-GI meal without fructose (HGI). The calculated GI values for the three meals were 41, 39, and 72, respectively. Substrate utilization was measured using indirect respiratory calorimetry method. During the postprandial period, the incremental area under the blood response curve values of glucose and insulin were higher in the HGI trial, compared with those in the LGI and LGIF trials (HGI vs. LGI and LGIF: Glucose 223.6 ± 19.1 vs. 70.2 ± 7.4 and 114.1 ± 16.4 mmol min L(-1); Insulin 4257 ± 932 vs. 920 ± 319 and 1487 ± 348 mU min L(-1)). During exercise, substrate preference was distinct based on different pre-exercise carbohydrate meals. Higher fat and lower carbohydrate oxidation was observed in the LGI trial, whereas both the HGI and LGIF trials were characterized by higher carbohydrate and lower fat oxidation (LGI vs. LGIF and HGI: Carbohydrate 59.3 ± 2.4 vs. 69.8 ± 3.9 and 72.7 ± 3.9 g; Fat 22.7 ± 2.0 vs. 18.5 ± 1.7 and 17.6 ± 1.3 g; P < 0.05). In conclusion, the presence of fructose in a LGI breakfast resulted in similar substrate utilization during subsequent brisk walking with that induced by a HGI breakfast. It appears that both the GI and fructose content in a breakfast individually affect substrate utilization during subsequent moderate intensity exercise.

  15. Does Moderate Intensity Exercise Attenuate the Postprandial Lipemic and Airway Inflammatory Response to a High-Fat Meal?

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    Stephanie P. Kurti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise in the postprandial period attenuates the triglyceride and airway inflammatory response to a high-fat meal (HFM compared to remaining inactive in the postprandial period. Seventeen (11 M/6 F physically active (≥150 min/week of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise (EX; 60% VO2peak or sedentary (CON condition after a HFM (10 kcal/kg, 63% fat. Blood analytes and airway inflammation via exhaled nitric oxide (eNO were measured at baseline, and 2 and 4 hours after HFM. Airway inflammation was assessed with induced sputum and cell differentials at baseline and 4 hours after HFM. Triglycerides doubled in the postprandial period (~113 ± 18%, P<0.05, but the increase did not differ between EX and CON. Percentage of neutrophils was increased 4 hours after HFM (~17%, but the increase did not differ between EX and CON. Exhaled nitric oxide changed nonlinearly from baseline to 2 and 4 hours after HFM (P<0.05, η2=0.36. Our findings suggest that, in active individuals, an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise does not attenuate the triglyceride or airway inflammatory response to a high-fat meal.

  16. Complex carbohydrates as a possible source of high energy to formulate functional feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua Michel, José de Jesús; Olmos-Soto, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates (CHOs) are the most abundant organic compounds found in living organisms and are a great source of metabolic energy, both for plants and animals. Besides of CHOs great potential to solve animal's energy requirements and diminishing high feed cost, we first must to understand its digestibility and assimilation to avoid several inconvenients. Today, CHOs feed animal inclusions are of great concern about cost-benefits, animal's health status, and environmental pollution. In this chapter, we make a brief description about sugars (DP1-2), oligosaccharides (DP3-9), polysaccharides (DP ≥10), and their essential characteristics to understand the role of marine and terrestrial CHOs in animal nutrition. Subsequently, we talk about basic concepts, CHOs functional benefits, suggestions about their application and successful cases. This information will contribute to produce a new generation of high-quality and energetic functional feed formulations for livestock and aquaculture farms; which must be of low cost, healthy, and environmentally friendly, with the inclusion of prebiotics and probiotics.

  17. Carbohydrate-rich high-molecular-mass antigens are strongly recognized during experimental Histoplasma capsulatum infection

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    Fabrine Sales Massafera Tristão

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: During histoplasmosis, Histoplasma capsulatum soluble antigens (CFAg can be naturally released by yeast cells. Because CFAg can be specifically targeted during infection, in the present study we investigated CFAg release in experimental murine histoplasmosis, and evaluated the host humoral immune response against high-molecular-mass antigens (hMMAg. >150 kDa, the more immunogenic CFAg fraction. METHODS: Mice were infected with 2.2x10(4 H. capsulatum IMT/HC128 yeast cells. The soluble CFAg, IgG anti-CFAg, IgG anti-hMMAg, and IgG-hMMAg circulating immune complexes (CIC levels were determined by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay, at days 0, 7, 14, and 28 post-infection. RESULTS: We observed a progressive increase in circulating levels of CFAg, IgG anti-CFAg, IgG anti-hMMAg, and IgG-hMMAg CIC after H. capsulatum infection. The hMMAg showed a high percentage of carbohydrates and at least two main immunogenic components. CONCLUSIONS: We verified for the first time that hMMAg from H. capsulatum IMT/HC128 strain induce humoral immune response and lead to CIC formation during experimental histoplasmosis.

  18. Influence of carbohydrate supplementation on plasma cytokine and neutrophil degranulation responses to high intensity intermittent exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Nicolette C; Gleeson, Michael; Nicholas, Ceri W; Ali, Ajmol

    2002-06-01

    Ingesting carbohydrate (CHO) beverages during prolonged, continuous heavy exercise results in smaller changes in the plasma concentrations of several cytokines and attenuates a decline in neutrophil function. In contrast, ingesting CHO during prolonged intermittent exercise appears to have negligible influence on these responses, probably due to the overall moderate intensity of these intermittent exercise protocols. Therefore, we examine the effect of CHO ingestion on plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated neutrophil degranulation responses to high-intensity intermittent running. Six trained male soccer players performed 2 exercise trials, 7 days apart, in a randomized, counterbalanced design. On each occasion, they completed six 15-min periods of intermittent running consisting of maximal sprinting interspersed with less intense periods of running and walking. Subjects consumed either CHO or artificially sweetened placebo (PLA) beverages immediately before and at 15-min intervals during the exercise. At 30 min post-exercise, CHO versus PLA was associated with a higher plasma glucose concentration (p exercise, LPS-stimulated elastase release per neutrophil fell 31% below baseline values on the PLA trial (p = .06) compared with 17% on the CHO trial (p = .30). Plasma TNF-alpha concentration increased following the exercise (main effect of time, p attenuates changes in plasma IL-6 concentration, neutrophil trafficking, and LPS-stimulated neutrophil degranulation in response to intermittent exercise that involves bouts of very high intensity exercise.

  19. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects

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    Hanna Isaksson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. Objective: In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Design: Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread (20 g dietary fiber per day for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day and a nibbling (seven meals per day meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. Results: The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management.

  20. Comparison of a high-carbohydrate and high-protein breakfast effect on plasma ghrelin, obestatin, NPY and PYY levels in women with anorexia and bulimia nervosa

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    Sedlackova Dana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study investigated plasma levels of gut-brain axis peptides ghrelin, obestatin, NPY and PYY after consumption of a high-carbohydrate (HC and high-protein (HP breakfast in patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and in healthy controls. These peptides play an important role in regulation of energy homeostasis and their secretion is disturbed under condition of eating disorders. As various types of consumed macronutrients may induce different plasma hormone responses, so we examined these responses in women patients with eating disorders and compared them with those of healthy controls. Methods We examined plasma hormone responses to HC and HP breakfast in patients with AN (n = 14; age: 24.6 ± 1.8 years, BMI: 15.3 ± 0.7, BN (n = 15; age: 23.2 ± 1.7 years, BMI: 20.5 ± 0.9 and healthy controls (n = 14; age: 24.9 ± 1.4 years, BMI: 21.1 ± 0.8. Blood samples were drawn from the cubital vein, the first blood drawn was collected before meal, and then 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min after breakfast consumption. Plasma hormone levels were determined by commercially available RIA kits. Results Fasting and postprandial plasma obestatin levels were significantly increased in both AN and BN patients, while plasma ghrelin levels were significantly increased in AN patients only. After breakfast consumption, plasma levels of ghrelin and obestatin decreased, although they were still above the range of values of healthy controls. Fasting NPY plasma levels were significantly increased in AN and BN patients and did not change postprandially. Fasting PYY levels were comparable in AN, BN and healthy controls, but postprandially significantly increased after HP breakfast in AN and BN patients. Different reactions to breakfast consumption was found for ghrelin and PYY among investigated groups, while for obestatin and NPY these reactions were similar in all groups. Conclusions Significant

  1. Functional Metagenomics: Construction and High-Throughput Screening of Fosmid Libraries for Discovery of Novel Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufarté, Lisa; Bozonnet, Sophie; Laville, Elisabeth; Cecchini, Davide A; Pizzut-Serin, Sandra; Jacquiod, Samuel; Demanèche, Sandrine; Simonet, Pascal; Franqueville, Laure; Veronese, Gabrielle Potocki

    2016-01-01

    Activity-based metagenomics is one of the most efficient approaches to boost the discovery of novel biocatalysts from the huge reservoir of uncultivated bacteria. In this chapter, we describe a highly generic procedure of metagenomic library construction and high-throughput screening for carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applicable to any bacterial ecosystem, it enables the swift identification of functional enzymes that are highly efficient, alone or acting in synergy, to break down polysaccharides and oligosaccharides.

  2. Effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate v. high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate weight-loss diet on antioxidant status, endothelial markers and plasma indices of the cardiometabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Alexandra M; Lobley, Gerald E; Horgan, Graham W; Bremner, David M; Fyfe, Claire L; Morrice, Philip C; Duthie, Garry G

    2011-07-01

    There are concerns that weight-loss (WL) diets based on very low carbohydrate (LC) intake have a negative impact on antioxidant status and biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Obese men (n 16) participated in a randomised, cross-over design diet trial, with food provided daily, at approximately 8.3 MJ/d (approximately 70 % of energy maintenance requirements). They were provided with two high-protein diets (30 % of energy), each for a 4-week period, involving a LC (4 % carbohydrate) and a moderate carbohydrate (MC, 35 % carbohydrate) content. Body weight was measured daily, and weekly blood samples were collected. On average, subjects lost 6.75 and 4.32 kg of weight on the LC and MC diets, respectively (P diets were associated with a small reduction in plasma concentrations of retinol, vitamin E (α-tocopherol) and β-cryptoxanthin (P diet (P diets. There was no change in other cardiovascular markers with WL. The present data suggest that a LC WL diet does not impair plasma indices of cardiometabolic health, at least within 4 weeks, in otherwise healthy obese subjects. In general, improvements in metabolic health associated with WL were similar between the LC and MC diets. Antioxidant supplements may be warranted if LC WL diets are consumed for a prolonged period.

  3. Carbohydrate and caffeine improves high intensity running of elite rugby league interchange players during simulated match play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jon S; Highton, Jamie; Close, Graeme L; Twist, Craig

    2016-11-19

    The study examined the effects of carbohydrate and caffeine ingestion on simulated rugby league interchange performance. Eight male elite rugby league forwards completed two trials of a rugby league simulation protocol for interchange players seven days apart in a randomized crossover design, ingesting either carbohydrate (CHO; 40 g·h-1) or carbohydrate and caffeine (CHO-C) (40 g·h-1 + 3 mg·kg-1) drink. Movement characteristics, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and countermovement jump height (CMJ) were measured during the protocol. CHO-C resulted in likely to very likely higher mean running speeds (ES 0.43 to 0.75), distance in high intensity running (ES 0.41 to 0.64) and mean sprint speeds (ES 0.39 to 1.04) compared to CHO. Heart rate was possibly to very likely higher (ES 0.32 to 0.74) and RPE was likely to very likely lower (ES -0.53 to 0.86) with CHO-C. There was a likely trivial to possibly higher CMJ in CHO-C compared to CHO (ES 0.07 to 0.25). The co-ingestion of carbohydrate with caffeine has an ergogenic effect to reduce the sense of effort and increase high intensity running capability that might be employed to enhance interchange running performance in elite rugby league players.

  4. Favorable cardio-metabolic outcomes following high carbohydrate intake in accordance with the Daniel Fast: A review of available findings

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    Richard Bloomer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Daniel Fast is a biblically inspired dietary program rich in carbohydrate, most closely resembling a vegan diet but with additional restrictions, including the elimination of processed foods, white flour products, preservatives, additives, sweeteners, caffeine, and alcohol. While no specific requirements are placed on the ingestion of specific percentages of macronutrients, the mean daily carbohydrate intake is by default approximately 60%, while protein and fat intake are 15% and 25%, respectively. Despite a relatively high carbohydrate intake, multiple favorable cardio-metabolic effects are noted when following the plan, in as few as three weeks. This includes improvements in HOMA-IR, which may be at least in part due to the lower glycemic load and high dietary fiber content of the foods consumed. Other notable changes include reductions in systemic inflammation, total and LDL-cholesterol, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and body weight/body fat. Short and moderate-term compliance to the program is excellent-better than most dietary programs, perhaps due to the ad libitum nature of this plan. This paper presents an overview of the Daniel Fast, a carbohydrate-rich dietary program, including relevant findings from both human and animal investigations using this dietary model.

  5. Meals served in Danish nursing homes and to meals-on-wheels clients may not offer nutritionally adequate choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Hansen, Kirsten S.

    2010-01-01

    ), extra portions of different menus were made (3 days in a row). The meal samples (total n = 389) were analyzed for content of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate. The findings were compared with recommendations regarding the foods to be served in Danish institutions. The nutrient content of the meals...

  6. Quantification of lignin-carbohydrate linkages with high-resolution NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakshin, Mikhail; Capanema, Ewellyn; Gracz, Hanna; Chang, Hou-min; Jameel, Hasan

    2011-06-01

    A quantitative approach to characterize lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) linkages using a combination of quantitative ¹³C NMR and HSQC 2D NMR techniques has been developed. Crude milled wood lignin (MWLc), LCC extracted from MWLc with acetic acid (LCC-AcOH) and cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) preparations were isolated from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and white birch (Betula pendula) woods and characterized using this methodology on a routine 300 MHz NMR spectrometer and on a 950 MHz spectrometer equipped with a cryogenic probe. Structural variations in the pine and birch LCC preparations of different types (MWL, CEL and LCC-AcOH) were elucidated. The use of the high field NMR spectrometer equipped with the cryogenic probe resulted in a remarkable improvement in the resolution of the LCC signals and, therefore, is of primary importance for an accurate quantification of LCC linkages. The preparations investigated showed the presence of different amounts of benzyl ether, γ-ester and phenyl glycoside LCC bonds. Benzyl ester moieties were not detected. Pine LCC-AcOH and birch MWLc preparations were preferable for the analysis of phenyl glycoside and ester LCC linkages in pine and birch, correspondingly, whereas CEL preparations were the best to study benzyl ether LCC structures. The data obtained indicate that pinewood contains higher amounts of benzyl ether LCC linkages, but lower amounts of phenyl glycoside and γ-ester LCC moieties as compared to birch wood.

  7. Carbohydrate-gel supplementation and endurance performance during intermittent high-intensity shuttle running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Stephen D; Gray, Susan C

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a carbohydrate (CHO) gel on performance after prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running. Seven male soccer players performed 2 exercise trials, 7 d apart. On each occasion, participants completed five 15-min periods of intermittent variable-speed running, interspersed with periods of walking (Part A), followed by an intermittent run to exhaustion (Part B). Participants consumed either a CHO gel or placebo (PLA) immediately before exercise (0.89 mL/kg body mass [BM]) and every 15 min thereafter (0.35 mL/kg BM). In addition, water was consumed at a rate of 5 mL/kg BM before and 2 mL/kg BM every 15 min during exercise. Blood glucose levels were higher (P < 0.05) at 15, 30, and 60 min of exercise and at exhaustion in CHO than in PLA. During Part B, run time to exhaustion was longer (P < 0.05) in the CHO trial (CHO 6.1 +/- 1.3 min vs. PLA 4.2 +/- 1.2 min). These results indicate that ingesting a CHO gel, along with water, improves performance after prolonged intermittent running in healthy male subjects, possibly by maintaining blood glucose levels during exercise.

  8. The Effect of a Moderately Low and High Carbohydrate Intake on Crossfit Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Kurt A; Morales, Jacobo; Vandusseldorp, Trisha A

    2016-01-01

    CrossFit is a metabolically demanding strength and conditioning method which performance may benefit from a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet. This study investigated the effect of three consecutive days of high CHO intake on CrossFit performance and corresponding metabolically -related variables in strength trained individuals. Eighteen subjects with a CHO intake of CrossFit workout. Oxygen consumption (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and blood lactate (BL) were also measured. Days 6-8, the CHO group increased CHO intake from CrossFit workouts followed by a day of rest prior to day 9. There was a significant increase in repetitions completed in both groups in day 9 (vs. means score of day 1 + 5) (p = 0.002), but no differences between C and CHO groups (p = 0.111). However, the CHO group displayed a 15.2 repetition increase (+10.9%) in day 9, compared to 5.7 (+4.2%) by the C group. VO2, RER, and BL were not influenced by the experimental intervention. Our results suggest that the CrossFit-embraced practice of moderately-low CHO diets may be adequate in CHO during short periods of training, however, given the noted trend, extended training periods may be effected.

  9. Long-Term Effects of a Very Low Carbohydrate Compared With a High Carbohydrate Diet on Renal Function in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Jeannie; Thompson, Campbell H.; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D.; Noakes, Manny; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Wittert, Gary A.; Brinkworth, Grant D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To compare the long-term effects of a very low carbohydrate, high-protein, low saturated fat (LC) diet with a traditional high unrefined carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet on markers of renal function in obese adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but without overt kidney disease. One hundred fifteen adults (BMI 34.6 ± 4.3 kg/m2, age 58 ± 7 years, HbA1c 7.3 ± 1.1%, 56 ± 12 mmol/mol, serum creatinine (SCr) 69 ± 15 μmol/L, glomerular filtration rate estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula (eGFR 94 ± 12 mL/min/1.73 m2)) were randomized to consume either an LC (14% energy as carbohydrate [CHO diet combined with supervised exercise training (60 min, 3 day/wk) for 12 months. Body weight, blood pressure, and renal function assessed by eGFR, estimated creatinine clearance (Cockcroft–Gault, Salazar–Corcoran) and albumin excretion rate (AER), were measured pre- and post-intervention. Both groups achieved similar completion rates (LC 71%, HC 65%) and reductions in weight (mean [95% CI]; −9.3 [−10.6, −8.0] kg) and blood pressure (−6 [−9, −4]/−6[−8, −5] mmHg), P ≥ 0.18. Protein intake calculated from 24 hours urinary urea was higher in the LC than HC group (LC 120.1 ± 38.2 g/day, 1.3 g/kg/day; HC 95.8 ± 27.8 g/day, 1 g/kg/day), P diet effect. Changes in SCr (LC 3 [1, 5], HC 1 [−1, 3] μmol/L) and eGFR (LC −4 [−6, −2], HC −2 [−3, 0] mL/min/1.73 m2) did not differ between diets (P = 0.25). AER decreased independent of diet composition (LC −−2.4 [−6, 1.2], HC −1.8 [−5.4, 1.8] mg/24 h, P = 0.24); 6 participants (LC 3, HC 3) had moderately elevated AER at baseline (30–300 mg/24 h), which normalized in 4 participants (LC 2, HC 2) after 52 weeks. Compared with a traditional HC weight loss diet, consumption of an LC high protein diet does not adversely affect clinical markers of renal function in obese

  10. Carbohydrate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  11. A High-Carbohydrate, High-Fiber, Low-Fat Diet Results in Weight Loss among Adults at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Edelstein, Sharon L; Walford, Geoffrey; Boyko, Edward J; Horton, Edward S; Ibebuogu, Uzoma N; Knowler, William C; Montez, Maria G; Temprosa, Marinella; Hoskin, Mary; Rother, Kristina I; Delahanty, Linda M

    2017-09-27

    Background: Weight loss is a key factor in reducing diabetes risk. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is a completed clinical trial that randomly assigned individuals at high risk of diabetes to a placebo (PLBO), metformin (MET), or intensive lifestyle intervention (ILS) group, which included physical activity (PA) and reduced dietary fat intake.Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations between diet and weight at baseline and to identify specific dietary factors that predicted weight loss among DPP participants.Methods: Diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The associations between intakes of macronutrients and various food groups and body weight among DPP participants at baseline were assessed by linear regression, adjusted for race/ethnicity, age, sex, calorie intake, and PA. Models that predicted weight loss at year 1 were adjusted for baseline weight, change in calorie intake, and change in PA and stratified by treatment allocation (MET, ILS, and PLBO). All results are presented as estimates ± SEs.Results: A total of 3234 participants were enrolled in the DPP; 2924 had completed dietary data (67.5% women; mean age: 50.6 ± 10.7 y). Adjusted for calorie intake, baseline weight was negatively associated with carbohydrate intake (-1.14 ± 0.18 kg body weight/100 kcal carbohydrate, P fat (1.25 ± 0.21 kg/100 kcal, P fat (1.96 ± 0.46 kg/100 kcal, P loss after 1 y was associated with increases in carbohydrate intake, specifically dietary fiber, and decreases in total fat and saturated fat intake.Conclusions: Higher carbohydrate consumption among DPP participants, specifically high-fiber carbohydrates, and lower total and saturated fat intake best predicted weight loss when adjusted for changes in calorie intake. Our results support the benefits of a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber, low-fat diet in the context of overall calorie reduction leading to weight loss, which may prevent diabetes in high-risk individuals. This trial was registered at

  12. Effect of high contents of dietary animal-derived protein or carbohydrates on canine faecal microbiota

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    Hang Ingrid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable evidence suggests that food impacts both the gastro-intestinal (GI function and the microbial ecology of the canine GI tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of high-carbohydrate (HC, high-protein (HP and dry commercial (DC diets on the canine colonic microbiota in Beagle dogs. Diets were allocated according to the Graeco-Latin square design. For this purpose, microbial DNA was isolated from faecal samples and separated by density gradient centrifugation, resulting in specific profiling based on the guanine-cytosine content (%G + C. In addition, 16 S rRNA gene amplicons were obtained from the most abundant %G + C peaks and analysed by sequence analysis, producing a total of 720 non-redundant sequences (240 sequences per diet. Results The DC diet sample showed high abundance of representatives of the orders Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, Coriobacteriales and Bacteroidales. Sequence diversity was highest for DC diet samples and included representatives of the orders Lactobacillales and Bacteroidales, which were not detected in samples from the HP and HC diets. These latter two diets also had reduced levels of representatives of the family Lachnospiraceae, specifically Clostridial cluster XIVa. The HC diet favoured representatives of the order Erysipelotrichales, more specifically the Clostridial cluster XVIII, while the HP diet favoured representatives of the order Fusobacteriales. Conclusions This study detected Coriobacteriales in dog faeces, possibly due to the non-selective nature of the %G + C profiling method used in combination with sequencing. Moreover, our work demonstrates that the effect of diet on faecal microbiota can be explained based on the metabolic properties of the detected microbial taxa.

  13. Glycaemic and insulinaemic response of quarter horses to concentrates high in fat and low in soluble carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyner, A; Hoffmeister, C; Einspanier, A; Gottschalk, J; Lengwenat, O; Illies, M

    2006-08-01

    Quarter Horses are particularly susceptible to polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM). Nutritional therapy and possibly prophylaxis includes fat-supplemented diets whilst starch supply should be kept to a minimum. To investigate the glycaemic and insulinaemic response of clinically normal Quarter Horses to concentrates high in fat and low in starch. Twelve Quarter Horses were studied. The precondition for inclusion in the study population was that the horses had not shown clinical signs of myopathy. The Quarter Horses were fed according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design haylage plus isocaloric concentrates based on barley and oats as control (CO), sugar beet pulp, grass meal and soybean oil (SB), rice bran and grass meal (RB) and rice bran, grass meal, sugar beet pulp and soybean oil (CP), each over 2 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. At the end of each period, 1 kg of concentrate was fed and blood sampled 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 300 min post prandial (ppr.). Creatine kinase (CK; 0 min ppr. only), glucose and insulin were analysed. Glycaemic and insulinaemic index was calculated from each concentrates area under the curve (AUC) relative to CO. Rice bran containing concentrates were partially refused at the beginning of the trial periods. CK activity, and glucose and insulin patterns (ppr. mean, peak, AUC, index) were highest with CO (Phorses, but also to prevent future PSSM associated discomfort in particularly susceptible horses.

  14. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open......-ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored...

  15. Diet and the Role of Altered Carbohydrate Absorption in the Treatment of Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas MS Wolever

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract has no clear role in the pathophysiology of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, but it may be an appropriate site for therapeutic intervention, specifically changes in diet, meal frequency and medications. Studies suggest that for patients with NIDDM, a calorie-restricted, high carbohydrate diet low in fat and rich in fibre may improve glycemic control, mitigate the risk of atherosclerosis and retard such diabetic complications as nephropathy and retinopathy. Increased meal frequency slows the rate of carbohydrate absorption, flattens blood insulin responses and reduces serum cholesterol. New therapeutic interventions, such as soluble fibre, low glycemic index foods or alpha glucosidase inhibitors, can further slow carbohydrate absorption and thus reduce secondary risks from hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia.

  16. Effect of replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with high-oil traditional canola, high-oleic acid canola, or high-erucic acid rapeseed meals on rumen fermentation, digestibility, milk production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Domitrovich, C; Wachter, A; Cassidy, T; Lee, C; Shingfield, K J; Kairenius, P; Davis, J; Brown, J

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of replacing conventional, solvent-extracted canola meal (control; CTRL) with high oil content; conventional, mechanically extracted canola meal (CMEC); high-oleic, low polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) canola meal (HOLL); and high-erucic acid, low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RPS) on rumen function, digestibility, milk production, and milk FA composition in lactating dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 8 lactating dairy cows. Four of the cows were ruminally cannulated. All oilseed meals were included at approximately 12 to 13% of dietary dry matter (DM). Crude protein and fat concentrations (% of DM) of the meals were 43 and 3.1%, 32.8 and 16.1%, 45.2 and 13.7%, and 34.3 and 17.9% for CTRL, CMEC, HOLL, and RPS, respectively. All diets were formulated to supply net energy of lactation in excess of requirements. The CMEC and RPS diets were predicted to be about 1% deficient in metabolizable protein. Relative to the CTRL, inclusion of high-oil seed meals in the diet lowered ruminal acetate concentration and the molar acetate:propionate ratio and decreased DM intake. Milk yield generally followed DM intake and was lower for CMEC and RPS than the CTRL. Treatments had no effect on milk composition, other than an increase in milk urea nitrogen concentration for HOLL. Fat-corrected milk (3.5%) feed efficiency was increased by HOLL and RPS compared with CTRL. Urinary urea nitrogen losses were increased by HOLL, which, as a consequence, increased the ammonia-emitting potential of manure. The ratio of milk N-to-N intake was greater for CMEC and RPS. Replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with the high-oil meal decreased milk fat 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and total saturated FA content and enhanced cis-9 18:1 and total monounsaturated FA concentrations. Relative to the CTRL, canola increased total trans FA in milk, whereas inclusion of HOLL in the diet increased trans-11 18:1 and

  17. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights.

  18. Immunologic and metabolic effects of high-refined carbohydrate-containing diet in food allergic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Letícia Tamie Paiva; de Oliveira, Marina Chaves; Batista, Nathália Vieira; Fonseca, Roberta Cristelli; Pereira, Rafaela Vaz Sousa; Perez, Denise Alves; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Cara, Denise Carmona; Ferreira, Adaliene Versiani Matos

    2016-02-01

    Allergic mice show a reduction in body weight and adiposity with a higher inflammatory response in the adipose tissue similar to obese fat tissue. This study aimed to evaluate whether the low-grade inflammatory milieu of mice with diet-induced mild obesity interferes with the allergic response induced by ovalbumin (OVA). BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: 1) non-allergic (OVA-) mice fed chow diet, 2) allergic (OVA+) mice fed chow diet, 3) OVA- mice fed high-refined carbohydrate-containing (HC) diet, and 4) OVA+ mice fed HC diet. After 5 wk, allergic groups were sensitized with OVA and received a booster 14 d later. All groups received an oral OVA challenge 7 d after the booster. Allergic groups showed increased serum levels of total IgE, anti-OVA IgE, and IgG1; a high disease activity index score; aversion to OVA; and increased intestinal eosinophil infiltration. Non-allergic mild-obese mice also showed aversion to OVA and an increased number of eosinophils in the proximal jejunum. After the allergic challenge, OVA+ mice fed chow diet showed weight loss and lower adiposity in several adipose tissue depots. OVA+ mice fed HC diet showed a loss of fat mass only in the mesenteric adipose tissue. Furthermore, increased levels of TNF, IL-6, and IL-10 were observed in this tissue. Our data show that mild-obese allergic mice do not present severe pathologic features of food allergy similar to those exhibited by lean allergic mice. Mild obesity promoted by HC diet ingestion causes important intestinal disorders that appear to modulate the inflammatory response during the antigen challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbohydrates for training and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A; Wong, Stephen H S; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2011-01-01

    An athlete's carbohydrate intake can be judged by whether total daily intake and the timing of consumption in relation to exercise maintain adequate carbohydrate substrate for the muscle and central nervous system ("high carbohydrate availability") or whether carbohydrate fuel sources are limiting for the daily exercise programme ("low carbohydrate availability"). Carbohydrate availability is increased by consuming carbohydrate in the hours or days prior to the session, intake during exercise, and refuelling during recovery between sessions. This is important for the competition setting or for high-intensity training where optimal performance is desired. Carbohydrate intake during exercise should be scaled according to the characteristics of the event. During sustained high-intensity sports lasting ~1 h, small amounts of carbohydrate, including even mouth-rinsing, enhance performance via central nervous system effects. While 30-60 g · h(-1) is an appropriate target for sports of longer duration, events >2.5 h may benefit from higher intakes of up to 90 g · h(-1). Products containing special blends of different carbohydrates may maximize absorption of carbohydrate at such high rates. In real life, athletes undertake training sessions with varying carbohydrate availability. Whether implementing additional "train-low" strategies to increase the training adaptation leads to enhanced performance in well-trained individuals is unclear.

  20. THE EFFECT OF HIGH DIETARY FERMENTABLE CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT ON THE FATTENING PERFORMANCE AND CHEMICAL BODY COMPOSITION OF FATTENING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cs. Szabó

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fermentable carbohydrates (FC = faecal digestible organic matter - faecal digestible crude protein- faecal digestible crude fat - starch - sugars on the body composition and meat quality of pigs. A total of seventy two Stamboek hybrid pigs were housed in groups of six per pen (two pens with gilts and two with barrows per treatment. Three diets were formulated with a low, medium and high FC content (63, 148, 233 g/kg in the grower diets (45-75 kg and 67, 152, 237 g/kg in the finisher diets (75-110 kg. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. At slaughter (110 kg LW lean meat percentage, meat quality and chemical body composition were determined. Our data indicated, that carcass grading was improved by dietary FC. Diet with the high level of fermentable carbohydrates decreased fatness of the carcass and the organ fraction. It can be concluded that the fattening performance (FI, ADG, FCR was not affected adversely by the high FC intake, but carcass quality in pigs could be improved. Feedstuffs high in fermentable carbohydrates can be valuable ingredients for pig diets, once their energy content has been properly estimated.

  1. Iron dialyzability from hospital duplicate meals: daily intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Reynold, Carlos; Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; Lopez-Ga de la Serrana, Herminia; Perez-Valero, Vidal; Lopez-Martinez, María C

    2009-09-01

    Both total and dialyzable iron levels and corresponding dialyzability were determined in 108 duplicate meals during 36 consecutive days. Total mean iron fraction of 5.90 +/- 4.97 mg was found in the meals. The iron supplied by the meals is directly and significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with macromicronutrient content (carbohydrates, fiber, and protein). The mean iron dialyzability (4.81 +/- 3.25%) was low and not significantly different among the three primary meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner). Significant interactions of several minerals on iron levels were found (p < 0.05). Iron dialyzability was only statistically influenced by zinc dialyzability in meals (p < 0.05). The dialyzed iron fraction present in meals was significantly correlated with protein and ascorbic acid levels (p < 0.01). The mean iron daily dietary intake was 17.7 +/- 6.91 mg. The hospital meals provided enough iron. Foods of animal origin are primary sources of iron in diet.

  2. High-protein-low-carbohydrate diet: deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular effects depend on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedarida, Tatiana; Baron, Stephanie; Vessieres, Emilie; Vibert, Francoise; Ayer, Audrey; Marchiol-Fournigault, Carmen; Henrion, Daniel; Paul, Jean-Louis; Noble, Florence; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Beaudeux, Jean-Louis; Cottart, Charles-Henry; Nivet-Antoine, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    High-protein-low-carbohydrate (HP-LC) diets have become widespread. Yet their deleterious consequences, especially on glucose metabolism and arteries, have already been underlined. Our previous study (2) has already shown glucose intolerance with major arterial dysfunction in very old mice subjected to an HP-LC diet. The hypothesis of this work was that this diet had an age-dependent deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular outcome. Two groups of mice, young and adult (3 and 6 mo old), were subjected for 12 wk to a standard or to an HP-LC diet. Glucose and lipid metabolism was studied. The cardiovascular system was explored from the functional stage with Doppler-echography to the molecular stage (arterial reactivity, mRNA, immunohistochemistry). Young mice did not exhibit any significant metabolic modification, whereas adult mice presented marked glucose intolerance associated with an increase in resistin and triglyceride levels. These metabolic disturbances were responsible for cardiovascular damages only in adult mice, with decreased aortic distensibility and left ventricle dysfunction. These seemed to be the consequence of arterial dysfunctions. Mesenteric arteries were the worst affected with a major oxidative stress, whereas aorta function seemed to be maintained with an appreciable role of cyclooxygenase-2 to preserve endothelial function. This study highlights for the first time the age-dependent deleterious effects of an HP-LC diet on metabolism, with glucose intolerance and lipid disorders and vascular (especially microvessels) and cardiac functions. This work shows that HP-LC lead to equivalent cardiovascular alterations, as observed in very old age, and underlines the danger of such diet.

  3. The Effect of a Moderately Low and High Carbohydrate Intake on Crossfit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESCOBAR, KURT A.; MORALES, JACOBO; VANDUSSELDORP, TRISHA A.

    2016-01-01

    CrossFit is a metabolically demanding strength and conditioning method which performance may benefit from a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet. This study investigated the effect of three consecutive days of high CHO intake on CrossFit performance and corresponding metabolically -related variables in strength trained individuals. Eighteen subjects with a CHO intake of <6 g/kg/day were randomly assigned into a CHO (n = 9) or control (C) group (n =9) and underwent a 9-day training protocol. During days 1, 5, and 9, performance was measured as repetitions completed during a 12 minute CrossFit workout. Oxygen consumption (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and blood lactate (BL) were also measured. Days 6–8, the CHO group increased CHO intake from <6 g/kg/day to 6–8 g/kg/day; the C group maintained their current intake of <6 g/kg/day. On days 6 and 7 both groups performed CrossFit workouts followed by a day of rest prior to day 9. There was a significant increase in repetitions completed in both groups in day 9 (vs. means score of day 1 + 5) (p = 0.002), but no differences between C and CHO groups (p = 0.111). However, the CHO group displayed a 15.2 repetition increase (+10.9%) in day 9, compared to 5.7 (+4.2%) by the C group. VO2, RER, and BL were not influenced by the experimental intervention. Our results suggest that the CrossFit-embraced practice of moderately-low CHO diets may be adequate in CHO during short periods of training, however, given the noted trend, extended training periods may be effected. PMID:27766133

  4. Malaria vectors and their blood-meal sources in an area of high bed net ownership in the western Kenya highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndenga, Bryson A; Mulaya, Nicholas L; Musaki, Sandra K; Shiroko, Joan N; Dongus, Stefan; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2016-02-09

    Blood-meal sources of malaria vectors affect their capacity to transmit the disease. Most efficient malaria vectors prefer human hosts. However, with increasing personal protection measures it becomes more difficult for them to find human hosts. Here recent malaria vector blood-meal sources in western Kenya highlands were investigated. Adult mosquitoes resting indoors, outdoors and exiting through windows were collected in three study areas within the western Kenya highlands from June 2011 to June 2013. A census of people, livestock and of insecticide-treated nets was done per house. Mosquito blood-meal sources were determined as human, goat, bovine or chicken using enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays. Most (86.3 %) households possessed at least one bed net, 57.2 % had domesticated animals and 83.6 % had people sharing houses with livestock at night. Most (94.9 %) unfed malaria vectors were caught exiting through windows. Overall, 53.1 % of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto obtained blood-meals from humans, 26.5 % from goats and 18.4 % from bovines. Single blood-meal sources by An. gambiae s.s. from humans were 26.5 %, 8.2 % from bovines and 2.0 % from goats. Mixed blood-meal sources by An. gambiae s.s. identified included: 24.5 % human/goat, 10.2 % human/bovine, 8.2 % human/bovine/goat and also 8.2 % bovine/goat. One An. arabiensis mosquito obtained blood-meal only from humans. An unusually high frequency of animal and mixed human-animal blood meals in the major malaria vector An. gambiae s.s. was revealed in the western Kenya highlands where bed net coverage is above the WHO target. The shift in blood-meal sources from humans to livestock is most likely the vectors' response to increased bed net coverage and the close location of livestock frequently in the same house as people at night. Livestock-targeted interventions should be considered under these circumstances to address residual malaria transmission.

  5. Eating patterns and composition of meals and snacks in elite Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Kelly Anne; Tunnicliffe, Jasmine; Lun, Victor M; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the meal- and snack-eating frequency and the nutritional composition of each eating occasion of Canadian high-performance athletes during training. Athletes from 8 Canadian Sport Centres prospectively completed 3-d dietary records including all food, fluid, and supplements consumed. The time of consumption and whether the consumption was a meal or snack were also identified. The dietary records were analyzed for energy (kcal) and macronutrient intake (carbohydrate, protein, and fat) and compared based on gender, age, meal vs. snack, and training vs. rest days. Three hundred twenty-four athletic subjects (64% female and 36% male) completed the study. On average, the athletes ate 4.8 ± 0.8 times daily. Nearly all athletes consumed 3 daily meals of breakfast (98.9%), lunch (97.9%), and dinner (98.7%), with few having snacks: 57%, 71.6%, and 58.1% of athletes consumed an a.m., p.m., and evening snack, respectively. Training-day meal frequency did not differ from that during rest days; however, fewer snacks were consumed on rest days. A.m. and p.m. snacks were consumed significantly more often on training days than rest days. Overall, snacks contributed 24.3% of total daily energy intake. Few dietary variations were discovered between genders, while the youngest athletes (athletes. In conclusion, Canadian high-performance athletes self-adjusted their energy intakes on training vs. rest days primarily by snacking less and reducing their carbohydrate and protein intakes on rest days, yet they consistently ate regular meals.

  6. Effects of Source and Concentrations of Nitrogen and Carbohydrate on Ruminal Microbial Protein Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this review was to discuss microbial protein synthesis and the effects of sources and concentrations of nitrogen and carbohydrate on microbial protein synthesis. Even though ammonia-N is a satisfactory source of nitrogen for the growth of the majority of rumen microbes, substitution of intact protein for urea usually stimulates ruminal microbial protein synthesis. While protein sources high in degradable intake protein (DIP), such as soybean meal, appear to have properties ...

  7. Development of hepatocellular cancer induced by long term low fat-high carbohydrate diet in a NAFLD/NASH mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessitore, Alessandra; Mastroiaco, Valentina; Vetuschi, Antonella; Sferra, Roberta; Pompili, Simona; Cicciarelli, Germana; Barnabei, Remo; Capece, Daria; Zazzeroni, Francesca; Capalbo, Carlo; Alesse, Edoardo

    2017-08-08

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease. It can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and, in a percentage of cases, to hepatocarcinogenesis. The strong incidence in western countries of obesity and metabolic syndrome, whose NAFLD is the hepatic expression, is thought to be correlated to consumption of diets characterized by processed food and sweet beverages. Previous studies described high-fat diet-induced liver tumors. Conversely, the involvement of low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet in the progression of liver disease or cancer initiation has not been described yet. Here we show for the first time hepatic cancer formation in low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet fed NAFLD/NASH mouse model. Animals were long term high-fat, low-fat/high-carbohydrate or standard diet fed. We observed progressive liver damage in low-fat/high-carbohydrate and high-fat animals after 12 and, more, 18 months. Tumors were detected in 20% and 50% of high-fat diet fed mice after 12 and 18 months and, interestingly, in 30% of low-fat/high-carbohydrate fed animals after 18 months. No tumors were detected in standard diet fed mice. Global increase of hepatic interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and hepatocyte growth factor was detected in low-fat/high-carbohydrate and high-fat with respect to standard diet fed mice as well as in tumor with respect to non-tumor bearing mice. A panel of 15 microRNAs was analyzed: some of them revealed differential expression in low-fat/high-carbohydrate with respect to high-fat diet fed groups and in tumors. Data here shown provide the first evidence of the involvement of low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet in hepatic damage leading to tumorigenesis.

  8. Effects of acute creatine loading with or without carbohydrate on repeated bouts of maximal swimming in high-performance swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Apostolos S; Havenetidis, Konstantinos; Zanker, Cathy L; O'Hara, John P; King, Roderick F G J; Hood, Colin; Paradisis, Giorgios; Cooke, Carlton B

    2005-05-01

    The addition of carbohydrate (CHO) to an acute creatine (Cr) loading regimen has been shown to increase muscle total creatine content significantly beyond that achieved through creatine loading alone. However, the potential ergogenic effects of combined Cr and CHO loading have not been assessed. The purpose of this study was to compare swimming performance, assessed as mean swimming velocity over repeated maximal intervals, in high-performance swimmers before and after an acute loading regimen of either creatine alone (Cr) or combined creatine and carbohydrate (Cr + CHO). Ten swimmers (mean +/- SD of age and body mass: 17.8 +/- 1.8 years and 72.3 +/- 6.8 kg, respectively) of international caliber were recruited and were randomized to 1 of 2 groups. Each swimmer ingested five 5 g doses of creatine for 4 days, with the Cr + CHO group also ingesting approximately 100 g of simple CHO 30 minutes after each dose of creatine. Performance was measured on 5 separate occasions: twice at "baseline" (prior to intervention, to assess the repeatability of the performance test), within 48 hours after intervention, and then 2 and 4 weeks later. All subjects swam faster after either dietary loading regimen (p swimmers continued to produce faster swim times for up to 4 weeks after intervention. Our findings suggest that no performance advantage was gained from the addition of carbohydrate to a creatine-loading regimen in these high-caliber swimmers.

  9. Advances in animal and plant protein sources in place of fish meal%动植物蛋白源替代鱼粉研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周歧存; 麦康森; 刘永坚; 谭北平

    2005-01-01

    With the fast development of aquaculture, fish meal needs increased in recent years, however the quantity of fish catching decreases gradually. Fishmeal is a limited feed resource, and serious concem exists on the future availability of this feedstuff for incorporation in fish diets. Undoubtedly, fish meal is well recognized as the best dietary protein source for most marine carnivorous fishes which required high dietary protein levels compared to omnivorous or herbivorous fish. Fishmeal is known for their high content of essential amino acids and fatty acids, low carbohydrates, high digestibility, low levels of anti-nutritional factors (for fresh fish meal) and is a very good source of minerals and is highly palatable. Thus fish meal is in high demand as the protein source for many formulated diets. However, production of fish meal consumes approximately 35 % of the total global fish catch, and the increasing price and potentially unstable supply in the market could be limiting factors for marine fish culture. There have been strong efforts to define and develop cost-effective protein sources that can, at least partly, substitute for expensive high-quality fish meals in least-cost feed formulations. The search for fish meal substitutes and altemative dietary protein sources is an international research priority that could be of considerable economic advantages. Therefore it is urgent task to find animal and plant protein sources in place of fish meal. Among these, plant feedstuffs have received most attention in recent years, but due to their amino acid unbalances, .presence of anti-nutritional factors and low palatability, a high level of replacement of fish meal with plant feedstuffs in omnivorous fish is generally not well accepted. This paper reviews the research status for other protein sources replacing fish meal based on available information in the literature. Animal and plant protein sources nutrient values are evaluated from the aspect of digestibility

  10. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve ...

  11. Genome-wide association study of triglyceride response to a high-fat meal among participants of the NHLBI genetics of lipid lowering drugs and diet network (GOLDN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The triglyceride (TG) response to a high-fat meal (postprandial lipemia, PPL) affects cardiovascular disease risk and is influenced by genes and environment. Genes involved in lipid metabolism have dominated genetic studies of PPL TG response. We sought to elucidate common genetic variant...

  12. Caffeine prevents cognitive impairment induced by chronic psychosocial stress and/or high fat-high carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, K H; Abdul-Razzak, K K; Khabour, O F; Al-Tuweiq, G M; Alzubi, M A; Alkadhi, K A

    2013-01-15

    Caffeine alleviates cognitive impairment associated with a variety of health conditions. In this study, we examined the effect of caffeine treatment on chronic stress- and/or high fat-high carbohydrate Western diet (WD)-induced impairment of learning and memory in rats. Chronic psychosocial stress, WD and caffeine (0.3 g/L in drinking water) were simultaneously administered for 3 months to adult male Wistar rats. At the conclusion of the 3 months, and while the previous treatments continued, rats were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) for learning, short-term and long-term memory. This procedure was applied on a daily basis to all animals for 5 consecutive days or until the animal reaches days to criterion (DTC) in the 12th learning trial and memory tests. DTC is the number of days that the animal takes to make zero error in two consecutive days. Chronic stress and/or WD groups caused impaired learning, which was prevented by chronic caffeine administration. In the memory tests, chronic caffeine administration also prevented memory impairment during chronic stress conditions and/or WD. Furthermore, DTC value for caffeine treated stress, WD, and stress/WD groups indicated that caffeine normalizes memory impairment in these groups. These results showed that chronic caffeine administration prevented stress and/or WD-induced impairment of spatial learning and memory.

  13. Protective effects of L-arabinose in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: L-Arabinose is a non-caloric sugar, which could affect glucose and lipid metabolism and suppress obesity. However, few reports have described the effect of L-arabinose in metabolic syndrome, a combination of medical disorders that increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Objective: This study was conducted to explore the effects of L-arabinose in rats with metabolic syndrome induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF diet. Methods: After the rat model for metabolic syndrome was successfully established, L-arabinose was administrated by oral gavage for 6 weeks. The biochemical index and histological analysis were measured, and the expression levels of genes related to fatty acid metabolism were analyzed using real-time PCR. Results: Following treatment with L-arabinose, metabolic syndrome rats had an obvious reduction in body weight, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, serum insulin, TNF-α, and leptin. Further study showed that treatment with L-arabinose significantly increased the expression of mRNA for hepatic CPT-1α and PDK4, but the expression of mRNA for hepatic ACCα was reduced. Conclusions: This work suggests that L-arabinose could lower body weight, Lee's index, and visceral index and improve dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, inflammation, and viscera function, which indicate that it might be a promising candidate for therapies combating metabolic syndrome.

  14. A low-carbohydrate high-fat diet decreases lean mass and impairs cardiac function in pair-fed female C57BL/6J mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Jessica; Ericsson, Madelene; Joibari, Masoumeh Motamedi; Anderson, Fredrick; Carlsson, Leif; Nilsson, Stefan K; Sjödin, Anna; Burén, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excess body fat is a major health issue and a risk factor for the development of numerous chronic diseases. Low-carbohydrate diets like the Atkins Diet are popular for rapid weight loss, but the long-term consequences remain the subject of debate. The Scandinavian low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diet, which has been popular in Scandinavian countries for about a decade, has very low carbohydrate content (~5 E %) but is rich in fat and includes a high proportion of saturated fatty ...

  15. High-throughput screening of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes using novel insoluble chromogenic substrate assay kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schückel, Julia; Kracun, Stjepan Kresimir; Willats, William George Tycho

    2016-01-01

    of CAZymes exist in nature (especially in microorganisms) and hundreds of thousands have been cataloged and described in the carbohydrate active enzyme database (CAZy). However, the rate of discovery of putative enzymes has outstripped our ability to biochemically characterize their activities. One reason...... kit based on insoluble chromogenic substrates is described here. Two distinct substrate types were produced: Chromogenic Polymer Hydrogel (CPH) substrates (made from purified polysaccharides and proteins) and Insoluble Chromogenic Biomass (ICB) substrates (made from complex biomass materials). Both...

  16. Low and high dietary protein:carbohydrate ratios during pregnancy affect materno-fetal glucose metabolism in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metges, Cornelia C; Görs, Solvig; Lang, Iris S; Hammon, Harald M; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Weitzel, Joachim M; Nürnberg, Gerd; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Otten, Winfried

    2014-02-01

    Inadequate dietary protein during pregnancy causes intrauterine growth retardation. Whether this is related to altered maternal and fetal glucose metabolism was examined in pregnant sows comparing a high-protein:low-carbohydrate diet (HP-LC; 30% protein, 39% carbohydrates) with a moderately low-protein:high-carbohydrate diet (LP-HC; 6.5% protein, 68% carbohydrates) and the isoenergetic standard diet (ST; 12.1% protein, 60% carbohydrates). During late pregnancy, maternal and umbilical glucose metabolism and fetal hepatic mRNA expression of gluconeogenic enzymes were examined. During an i.v. glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), the LP-HC-fed sows had lower insulin concentrations and area under the curve (AUC), and higher glucose:insulin ratios than the ST- and the HP-LC-fed sows (P < 0.05). Insulin sensitivity and glucose clearance were higher in the LP-HC sows compared with ST sows (P < 0.05). Glucagon concentrations during postabsorptive conditions and IVGTT, and glucose AUC during IVGTT, were higher in the HP-LC group compared with the other groups (P < 0.001). (13)C glucose oxidation was lower in the HP-LC sows than in the ST and LP-HC sows (P < 0.05). The HP-LC fetuses were lighter and had a higher brain:liver ratio than the ST group (P < 0.05). The umbilical arterial inositol concentration was greater in the HP-LC group (P < 0.05) and overall small fetuses (230-572 g) had higher values than medium and heavy fetuses (≥573 g) (P < 0.05). Placental lactate release was lower in the LP-HC group than in the ST group (P < 0.05). Fetal glucose extraction tended to be lower in the LP-HC group than in the ST group (P = 0.07). In the HP-LC and LP-HC fetuses, hepatic mRNA expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC) was higher than in the ST fetuses (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the HP-LC and LP-HC sows adapted by reducing glucose turnover and oxidation and having higher glucose utilization, respectively. The HP-LC and LP

  17. Intrauterine Growth Retarded Progeny of Pregnant Sows Fed High Protein:Low Carbohydrate Diet Is Related to Metabolic Energy Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metges, Cornelia C.; Lang, Iris S.; Hennig, Ulf; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Kanitz, Ellen; Tuchscherer, Margret; Schneider, Falk; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Steinhoff-Ooster, Anika; Sauerwein, Helga; Bellmann, Olaf; Nürnberg, Gerd; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Otten, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    High and low protein diets fed to pregnant adolescent sows led to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). To explore underlying mechanisms, sow plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were analyzed during different pregnancy stages and correlated with litter weight (LW) at birth, sow body weight and back fat thickness. Sows were fed diets with low (6.5%, LP), adequate (12.1%, AP), and high (30%, HP) protein levels, made isoenergetic by adjusted carbohydrate content. At −5, 24, 66, and 108 days post coitum (dpc) fasted blood was collected. At 92 dpc, diurnal metabolic profiles were determined. Fasted serum urea and plasma glucagon were higher due to the HP diet. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), %HDLC and cortisol were reduced in HP compared with AP sows. Lowest concentrations were observed for serum urea and protein, plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and progesterone in LP compared with AP and HP sows. Fasted plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Diurnal metabolic profiles showed lower glucose in HP sows whereas non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations were higher in HP compared with AP and LP sows. In HP and LP sows, urea concentrations were 300% and 60% of AP sows, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol was higher in LP than in AP and HP sows. In AP sows, LW correlated positively with insulin and insulin/glucose and negatively with glucagon/insulin at 66 dpc, whereas in HP sows LW associated positively with NEFA. In conclusion, IUGR in sows fed high protein∶low carbohydrate diet was probably due to glucose and energy deficit whereas in sows with low protein∶high carbohydrate diet it was possibly a response to a deficit of indispensable amino acids which impaired lipoprotein metabolism and favored maternal lipid disposal. PMID:22328932

  18. Altering source or amount of dietary carbohydrate has acute and chronic effects on postprandial glucose and triglycerides in type 2 diabetes: Canadian trial of Carbohydrates in Diabetes (CCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, T M S; Gibbs, A L; Chiasson, J-L; Connelly, P W; Josse, R G; Leiter, L A; Maheux, P; Rabasa-Lhoret, R; Rodger, N W; Ryan, E A

    2013-03-01

    Nutrition recommendations for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are partly guided by the postprandial responses elicited by diets varying in carbohydrate (CHO). We aimed to explore whether long-term changes in postprandial responses on low-glycemic-index (GI) or low-CHO diets were due to acute or chronic effects in T2DM. Subjects with diet-alone-treated T2DM were randomly assigned to high-CHO/high-GI (H), high-CHO/low-GI (L), or low-CHO/high-monounsaturated-fat (M) diets for 12-months. At week-0 (Baseline) postprandial responses after H-meals (55% CHO, GI = 61) were measured from 0800 h to 1600 h. After 12 mo subjects were randomly assigned to H-meals or study diet meals (L, 57% CHO, GI = 50; M, 44% CHO, GI = 61). This yielded 5 groups: H diet with H-meals (HH, n = 34); L diet with H- (LH, n = 17) or L-meals (LL, n = 16); and M diet with H- (MH, n = 18) or M meals (MM, n = 19). Postprandial glucose fluctuations were lower in LL than all other groups (p triglycerides differed among groups (p triglycerides were similar to Baseline while in MH postprandial-triglycerides were significantly higher than at Baseline (p = 0.028). In LH, triglycerides were consistently (0.18-0.34 mmol/L) higher than Baseline throughout the day, while in LL the difference from Baseline varied across the day from 0.04 to 0.36 mmol/L (p triglycerides in T2DM subjects. Thus, the composition of the acute test-meal and the habitual diet should be considered when interpreting the nutritional implications of different postprandial responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Normal roles for dietary fructose in carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Maren R

    2014-08-05

    Although there are many well-documented metabolic effects linked to the fructose component of a very high sugar diet, a healthy diet is also likely to contain appreciable fructose, even if confined to that found in fruits and vegetables. These normal levels of fructose are metabolized in specialized pathways that synergize with glucose at several metabolic steps. Glucose potentiates fructose absorption from the gut, while fructose catalyzes glucose uptake and storage in the liver. Fructose accelerates carbohydrate oxidation after a meal. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that fructose may also play a role in the secretion of insulin and GLP-1, and in the maturation of preadipocytes to increase fat storage capacity. Therefore, fructose undergoing its normal metabolism has the interesting property of potentiating the disposal of a dietary carbohydrate load through several routes.

  20. Normal Roles for Dietary Fructose in Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren R. Laughlin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many well-documented metabolic effects linked to the fructose component of a very high sugar diet, a healthy diet is also likely to contain appreciable fructose, even if confined to that found in fruits and vegetables. These normal levels of fructose are metabolized in specialized pathways that synergize with glucose at several metabolic steps. Glucose potentiates fructose absorption from the gut, while fructose catalyzes glucose uptake and storage in the liver. Fructose accelerates carbohydrate oxidation after a meal. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that fructose may also play a role in the secretion of insulin and GLP-1, and in the maturation of preadipocytes to increase fat storage capacity. Therefore, fructose undergoing its normal metabolism has the interesting property of potentiating the disposal of a dietary carbohydrate load through several routes.

  1. The potential of a high protein-low carbohydrate diet to preserve intrahepatic triglyceride content in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline A Martens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein supplementation has been shown to reduce the increases in intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG content induced by acute hypercaloric high-fat and high-fructose diets in humans. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a 12-wk iso-energetic high protein-low carbohydrate (HPLC diet compared with an iso-energetic high carbohydrate-low protein (HCLP diet on IHTG content in healthy non-obese subjects, at a constant body weight. DESIGN: Seven men and nine women [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; BMI: 22.9 ± 2.1 kg/m2] were randomly allocated to a HPLC [30/35/35% of energy (En% from protein/carbohydrate/fat] or a HCLP (5/60/35 En% diet by stratification on sex, age and BMI. Dietary guidelines were prescribed based on individual daily energy requirements. IHTG content was measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after the dietary intervention. RESULTS: IHTG content changed in different directions with the HPLC (CH2H2O: 0.23 ± 0.17 to 0.20 ± 0.10; IHTG%: 0.25 ± 0.20% to 0.22 ± 0.11% compared with the HCLP diet (CH2H2O: 0.34 ± 0.20 vs. 0.38 ± 0.21; IHTG%: 0.38 ± 0.22% vs. 0.43 ± 0.24%, which resulted in a lower IHTG content in the HPLC compared with the HCLP diet group after 12 weeks, which almost reached statistical significance (P = 0.055. CONCLUSIONS: A HPLC vs. a HCLP diet has the potential to preserve vs. enlarge IHTG content in healthy non-obese subjects at a constant body weight. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01551238.

  2. Postprandial lymphatic pump function after a high-fat meal: a characterization of contractility, flow, and viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Timothy; Yarlagadda, Sri Charan; Kohan, Alison B; Tso, Patrick; Breedveld, Victor; Dixon, J Brandon

    2016-05-15

    Dietary lipids are transported from the intestine through contractile lymphatics. Chronic lipid loads can adversely affect lymphatic function. However, the acute lymphatic pump response in the mesentery to a postprandial lipid meal has gone unexplored. In this study, we used the rat mesenteric collecting vessel as an in vivo model to quantify the effect of lipoproteins on vessel function. Lipid load was continuously monitored by using the intensity of a fluorescent fatty-acid analog, which we infused along with a fat emulsion through a duodenal cannula. The vessel contractility was simultaneously quantified. We demonstrated for the first time that collecting lymphatic vessels respond to an acute lipid load by reducing pump function. High lipid levels decreased contraction frequency and amplitude. We also showed a strong tonic response through a reduction in the end-diastolic and systolic diameters. We further characterized the changes in flow rate and viscosity and showed that both increase postprandially. In addition, shear-mediated Ca(2+) signaling in lymphatic endothelial cells differed when cultured with lipoproteins. Together these results show that the in vivo response could be both shear and lipid mediated and provide the first evidence that high postprandial lipid has an immediate negative effect on lymphatic function even in the acute setting. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Male cockroaches prefer a high carbohydrate diet that makes them more attractive to females: implications for the study of condition dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Sandra H; House, Clarissa M; Moore, Allen J; Simpson, Stephen J; Hunt, John

    2011-06-01

    Sexual selection is a major force driving the evolution of elaborate male sexual traits. Handicap models of sexual selection predict that male sexual traits should covary positively with condition, making them reliable indicators of male quality. However, most studies have either manipulated condition through varying diet quantity and/or caloric content without knowledge of specific nutrient effects or have correlated proxies of condition with sexual trait expression. We used nutritional geometry to quantify protein and carbohydrate intake by male cockroaches, Nauphoeta cinerea, and related this to sex pheromone expression, attractiveness, and dominance status. We found that carbohydrate, but not protein, intake is related to male sex pheromone expression and attractiveness but not dominance status. Additionally, we related two condition proxies (weight gain and lipid reserves) to protein and carbohydrate acquisition. Weight gain increased with the intake of both nutrients, whereas lipid reserves only increased with carbohydrate intake. Importantly, lipid accumulation was not as responsive to carbohydrate intake as attractiveness and thus was a less-accurate condition proxy. Moreover, males preferentially consumed high carbohydrate diets with little regard for protein content suggesting that they actively increase their carbohydrate intake thereby maximizing their reproductive fitness by being attractive. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Carbohydrate compositions and molecular structure of dextrins in enzymatic high maltose syrups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebesny, E. (Politechnika Lodzka, Lodz (Poland). Dept. of Food Technology)

    1990-11-01

    Investigations of the potato starch hydrolysis during bacterial {alpha}-amylase liquefaction and saccharification with barley {beta}-amylase itself and with cooperation with pullulanase were carried out. In adequate conditions at different enzyme dosages hydrolyzates of the maltose content of 60 to about 85% in DS with significantly (6-10 times) lower maltotriose and minimal glucose content could be obtained. Investigations comprised both carbohydrate contents in hydrolyzates changing with hydrolyze course and dextrine molecular structure in hydrolyzates. It was found out that decreasing dextrine molecular weight and the number of branchings was accompanied by charateristic changes of the viscosity of hydrolyzate solutions. (orig.).

  5. Effect of dietary energy density and meal size on growth performance, eating pattern, and carcass and meat quality in Holstein steers fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, S; Pérez, M; Aris, A; Bach, A; Devant, M

    2014-08-01

    A total of 121 steers (162 ± 3.0 kg BW and 148 ± 2.7 d old) were used to study the effect of dietary energy density and meal size (limiting the amount of concentrate delivered at each feeder visit) on performance, hormones associated with the regulation of intake, and carcass and meat quality. Steers were allocated by BW to 6 pens. Each pen had the same BW mean and CV, and pens were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (2 pens/treatment): a concentrate of moderate energy density (3.23 Mcal ME/kg, 6.2% ether extract) fed for ad libitum intake with no control on meal size (CTR), a concentrate of high-energy density (3.43 Mcal ME/kg, 8.3% ether extract) fed for ad libitum intake with no control on meal size (HE), and the same high-energy concentrate offered for ad libitum intake but with meal size limited to a maximum concentrate delivery of 0.6 kg DM/visit (HELM). Body weight was recorded every 14 d; concentrate consumption and eating pattern were recorded daily. On d 163, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose, and insulin. After slaughter (on d 166 to 170), the 9-10-11 rib section was removed to estimate separable bone, lean, and fat. Meat quality of LM was analyzed. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects model with repeated measures. Steers in the HELM treatment had a lower (P meals and eating rate were less (P meat quality was observed.

  6. Effects of a dietary mixture of meat and bone meal, feather meal, blood meal, and fish meal on nitrogen utilization in finishing Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, W F; Beermann, D H; Robinson, T F; Fox, D G; Finnerty, K D

    1998-05-01

    Our objective was to determine to what extent rate and efficiency of protein gain in finishing cattle can be enhanced by feeding an amino acid-balanced mixture of undegraded intake proteins. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) model was used to formulate a corn-based diet that would meet the rumen requirements for 410-kg large-framed steers with an estrogen implant and fed an ionophore. The CNCPS model was also used to formulate a highly undegradable intake protein (UIP) mixture from meat and bone meal, blood meal, fish meal, and hydrolyzed feather meal to provide the amino acids needed to supplement those derived from microbial protein to better meet amino acid requirements for growth. Four Holstein steers weighing 407 kg were offered a 90:10 concentrate-forage diet at hourly intervals at 95% of ad libitum intake. The steers were injected with 500 microg of estradiol-17beta at 12-h intervals to mimic the effects of an estrogenic implant. Treatments planned consisted of inclusion of the UIP mixture at 0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% of the diet DM. Dry matter intake was fixed at 6.4 kg/d, and DM digestibility was not significantly affected by varying the amount of UIP addition. Apparent digestibility of N increased (P = .011) from 63.8 to 65.8, 70.7, and 71.5%, the amount of N absorbed increased (P = .001) from 73 to 84, 100, and 106 g/d, and N balance increased (P = .003) from 20 to 30, 33, and 39 g/d when UIP was fed at 0, 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8% of diet DM, respectively. The efficiency of N use increased 39.7%, and biological value increased 31.6% when the UIP mixture was added to the diet. Circulating concentrations of plasma urea N (PUN) were increased (P = .017) from 4.5 for the control diet to 5.7, 6.2, and 6.1 mg/dL when the UIP mixture was added at 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8%, respectively. Corresponding IGF-I concentrations were also increased from 491 to 558 and 624 ng/mL with 2.6 and 5.2% levels of UIP addition. Plasma glucose, NEFA, and insulin

  7. The Effect of Pre-Exercise Carbohydrate Feeding with Different Glycemic Index on Endurance Exercise Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salarkia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Although, it is known that feeding with carbohydrate (CHO during exercise improves endurance performance, the effects of glycemic index (GI of carbohydrate intake are less clear. This study was carried out to assess the effect of glycemic index of pre-exercise carbohydrate feeding on endurance exercise capacity. In a randomized clinical trial 52 endurance – trained men with mean age 21.7 ± 3 years, weight 69.3 ± 9 kg, height 178.4 ± 2 cm and BMI 22.6 ± 2 were studied. Subjects performed exercise treadmill at 70% VO2max after ingestion: Lentil, a low glycemic index; potato, a high glycemic index; glucose and water (as a control one hour before exercise. Blood samples were collected before and one hour after test meal and 30 minutes after exercise. To assess aerobic capacity VO2max (maximum oxygen uptake was measured at the end of the exercise trial. Endurance time was found to be longer after lentil than after the potato, glucose and control respectively (P < 0.05. At the end of exercise, the glucose group and control both gave lower plasma glucose concentrations. Changes of VO2max in lentil. Potato, glucose and control group which were not statistically significant. This study showed that a low GI meal eaten before an event increases endurance capacity during exercise. Furthermore, the low GI meal was found to maintain glucose at higher concentrations during the later stages of exercise.

  8. Beneficiary effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S Sreenivasa; Ramatholisamma, P; Ramesh, B; Baskar, R; Saralakumari, D

    2009-10-01

    High intake of dietary fructose has been shown to exert a number of adverse metabolic eff ects in humans and experimental animals. The present study was designed to investigate the eff ect of the aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem (TCAE) on the adverse eff ects of fructose loading toward carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats. Adult male Wistar rats of body weight around 200 g were divided into four groups, two of which were fed with starch diet and the other two with high fructose (66 %) diet. Plant extract of TC (400 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to each group of the starch fed rats and the highfructose fed rats. At the end of 60 days of experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were assayed. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and elevated levels of hepatic total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids (p TCAE treatment. Alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthetase, lipoprotein lipase, and malic enzyme) as observed in the high fructose-fed rats were prevented with TCAE administration. In conclusion, our fi ndings indicate improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fructose fed rats by treatment with Tinospora cordifolia, and suggest that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and disorders related to it.

  9. Reliability of BOD POD Measurements Remains High After a Short-Duration Low-Carbohydrate Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Edsall, Kathleen M; Greer, Anna E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test-retest reliability measures were significant (p BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7-68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p .05) in BOD POD-determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass.

  10. No difference in acute effects of supplemental v. dietary calcium on blood pressure and microvascular function in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal: a cross-over randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Thaís da Silva; Leal, Priscila Mansur; Antunes, Vanessa Parada; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe; Klein, Márcia Regina Simas Torres

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that supplemental Ca (SC) increases the risk of cardiovascular events, whereas dietary Ca (DC) decreases the risk of cardiovascular events. Although frequently consumed with meals, it remains unclear whether Ca can mitigate or aggravate the deleterious effects of a high-fat meal on cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of SC or DC on blood pressure (BP) and microvascular function (MVF) in the postprandial period in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal. In this cross-over controlled trial, sixteen obese women aged 20-50 years were randomly assigned to receive three test meals (2908 kJ (695 kcal); 48 % fat): high DC (HDCM; 547 mg DC), high SC (HSCM; 500 mg SC-calcium carbonate) and low Ca (LCM; 42 mg DC). BP was continuously evaluated from 15 min before to 120 min after meals by digital photoplethysmography. Before and 120 min after meals, participants underwent evaluation of serum Ca and microvascular flow after postocclusive reactive hyperaemia (PORH) by laser speckle contrast imaging. Ionised serum Ca rose significantly only after HSCM. Systolic BP increased after the three meals, whereas diastolic BP increased after LCM and HDCM. Hyperaemia peak, hyperaemia amplitude and AUC evaluated after PORH decreased with LCM. After HDCM, there was a reduction in hyperaemia peak and hyperaemia amplitude, whereas HSCM decreased only hyperaemia peak. However, comparative analyses of the effects of three test meals on serum Ca, BP and MVF revealed no significant meal×time interaction. This study suggests that in obese women SC and DC do not interfere with the effects of a high-fat meal on BP and MVF.

  11. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorning, Tanja K; Raziani, Farinaz; Bendsen, Nathalie T; Astrup, Arne; Tholstrup, Tine; Raben, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Heart associations recommend limited intake of saturated fat. However, effects of saturated fat on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk might depend on nutrients and specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in food. We explored the effects of cheese and meat as sources of SFAs or isocaloric replacement with carbohydrates on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of fat and bile acids. The study was a randomized, crossover, open-label intervention in 14 overweight postmenopausal women. Three full-diet periods of 2-wk duration were provided separated by 2-wk washout periods. The isocaloric diets were as follows: 1) a high-cheese (96-120-g) intervention [i.e., intervention containing cheese (CHEESE)], 2) a macronutrient-matched nondairy, high-meat control [i.e., nondairy control with a high content of high-fat processed and unprocessed meat in amounts matching the saturated fat content from cheese in the intervention containing cheese (MEAT)], and 3) a nondairy, low-fat, high-carbohydrate control (i.e., nondairy low-fat control in which the energy from cheese fat and protein was isocalorically replaced by carbohydrates and lean meat (CARB). The CHEESE diet caused a 5% higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration (P = 0.012), an 8% higher apo A-I concentration (P fat excretion was 1.8 and 0.9 g higher with the CHEESE diet than with CARB and MEAT diets (P fat, high-carbohydrate diet. Also, our findings confirm that cheese increases fecal fat excretion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01739153. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Epinephrine mediates facultative carbohydrate-induced thermogenesis in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    1989-01-01

    The thermic effect of carbohydrate has a component mediated by the sympathoadrenal system but of unknown anatomical localization. We have studied the contribution of skeletal muscle to the thermic effect of a carbohydrate-rich natural meal (115 g of carbohydrate, approximately 80% of energy) by m...

  13. Migrating Broad-billed Sandpipers achieve high fuelling rates by taking a multi-course meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.I.; Dekinga, A; Koolhaas, A; van der Winden, J; van der Have, T M; Chernichko, I I

    2006-01-01

    In spring, large numbers of migrating Broad-billed Sandpipers make a stop-over in the Sivash, a shallow lagoon system in the Crimea, Ukraine, between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Observed fuelling rates are high and, in just a few weeks, the birds can build up sufficient departure mass to reac

  14. Vascular and inflammatory high fat meal responses in young healthy men; a discriminative role of IL-8 observed in a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik Esser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High fat meal challenges are known to induce postprandial low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. This assumption is largely based on studies performed in older populations or in populations with a progressed disease state and an appropriate control meal is often lacking. Young healthy individuals might be more resilient to such challenges. We therefore aimed to characterize the vascular and inflammatory response after a high fat meal in young healthy individuals. METHODS: In a double-blind randomized cross-over intervention study, we used a comprehensive phenotyping approach to determine the vascular and inflammatory response after consumption of a high fat shake and after an average breakfast shake in 20 young healthy subjects. Both interventions were performed three times. RESULTS: Many features of the vascular postprandial response, such as FMD, arterial stiffness and micro-vascular skin blood flow were not different between shakes. High fat/high energy shake consumption was associated with a more pronounced increase in blood pressure, heart rate, plasma concentrations of IL-8 and PBMCs gene expression of IL-8 and CD54 (ICAM-1, whereas plasma concentrations of sVCAM1 were decreased compared to an average breakfast. CONCLUSION: Whereas no difference in postprandial response were observed on classical markers of endothelial function, we did observe differences between consumption of a HF/HE and an average breakfast meal on blood pressure and IL-8 in young healthy volunteers. IL-8 might play an important role in dealing with high fat challenges and might be an early marker for endothelial stress, a stage preceding endothelial dysfunction.

  15. Dialysability of magnesium and calcium from hospital duplicate meals: influence exerted by other elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Reynold, Carlos; Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; Lopez-Ga de la Serrana, Herminia; Perez-Valero, Vidal; Agil, Ahmad; Lopez-Martinez, Maria C

    2010-03-01

    Total and dialysable magnesium and calcium levels and corresponding dialysabilities were measured in duplicate meals (n = 108) during 36 consecutive days. The interaction exerted by other nutrients and energy on them was also performed. Total mean magnesium and calcium fractions of 113.9 +/- 98.3 and 337.2 +/- 278.9 mg/meal respectively, were found. The Mg and Ca levels supplied by meals are positively (p < 0.05) correlated with macronutrient contents (carbohydrates and proteins). The mean dialysable Mg and Ca fractions were 56.9 +/- 36.3 and 127.4 +/- 112.3 mg/meal (50.4 +/- 13.2 and 37.8 +/- 10.7% as dialysabilities, respectively). Total Mg and Ca levels are significantly correlated with corresponding element dialysabilities (p < 0.05). For both minerals, significant correlations between their total and dialysable fractions and between their dialysable level and dialysabilities were noted (p < 0.01). The mean Mg and Ca daily dietary intakes (DDI) were 341.7 +/- 68.0 and 1,011.6 +/- 424.4 mg/day, respectively. For Ca and Mg the existence of similarities in their behaviour in meals and absorptive processes has been found. Duplicate meals with raw vegetables are good sources of bioaccessible Mg. High Ca dialysability has been found in the analysed meals. The fish and products constitute a good source of bioaccessible Ca. Mg, Ca, zinc, and chromium levels enhanced significantly the Mg dialysability. The Ca dialysability rose significantly with dialysable Ca and chromium fractions (p < 0.05).

  16. Metabolic responses to high glycemic index and low glycemic index meals: a controlled crossover clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bressan Josefina; Cecon Paulo R.; Marins João CB; Pereira Letícia G; Cocate Paula G; Alfenas Rita CG

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The consumption of low glycemic index (LGI) foods before exercise results in slower and more stable glycemic increases. Besides maintaining an adequate supply of energy during exercise, this response may favor an increase in fat oxidation in the postprandial period before the exercise compared to high glycemic index (HGI) foods. The majority of the studies that evaluated the effect of foods differing in glycemic index on substrate oxidation during the postprandial period b...

  17. A Low-Protein, High-Carbohydrate Diet Stimulates Thermogenesis in the Brown Adipose Tissue of Rats via ATF-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Suélem A; dos Santos, Maísa P; Przygodda, Franciele; Garófalo, Maria Antonieta R; Kettelhut, Isis C; Magalhães, Diego A; Bezerra, Kalinne S; Colodel, Edson M; Flouris, Andreas D; Andrade, Cláudia M B; Kawashita, Nair H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate thermogenesis in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) of rats submitted to low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet and the involvement of adrenergic stimulation in this process. Male rats (~100 g) were submitted to LPHC (6%-protein; 74%-carbohydrate) or control (C; 17%-protein; 63%-carbohydrate) isocaloric diets for 15 days. The IBAT temperature was evaluated in the rats before and after the administration of noradrenaline (NA) (20 µg 100 g b w(-1) min(-1)). The expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and other proteins involved in the regulation of UCP1 expression were determined by Western blot (Student's t test, P ≤ 0.05). The LPHC diet promoted a 1.1 °C increase in the basal temperature of IBAT when compared with the basal temperature in the IBAT of the C group. NA administration promoted a 0.3 °C increase in basal temperature in the IBAT of the C rats and a 0.5 °C increase in the IBAT of the LPHC group. The level of UCP1 increased 60% in the IBAT of LPHC-fed rats, and among the proteins involved in its expression, such as β3-AR and α1-AR, there was a 40% increase in the levels of p38-MAPK and a 30% decrease in CREB when compared to the C rats. The higher sympathetic flux to IBAT, which is a consequence of the administration of the LPHC diet to rats, activates thermogenesis and increases the expression of UCP1 in the tissue. Our results suggest that the increase in UCP1 content may occur via p38 MAPK and ATF2.

  18. Carbohydrate reactions during high-temperature steam treatment of aspen wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiebing; Henriksson, Gunnar; Gellerstedt, Göran

    2005-06-01

    Aspen wood was treated with steam at different time-temperature severity factors. Analysis of the amounts of acids released revealed a relationship between the acidity and the formation of furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural as degradation products from carbohydrates. It is suggested that two concurrent or consecutive mechanisms are responsible for the observed results: a homolytic cleavage and an acid hydrolysis of glucosidic linkages in the polysaccharides. By preimpregnating the wood with alkali, hydrolysis can be eliminated, resulting in a much cleaner depolymerization of the polysaccharides without any further acid-catalyzed degradation. The enzymatic digestibility of the steam-treated wood material for the formation of glucose was compared with that of steam-exploded wood. A more efficient route for glucose production from steam-exploded wood was found as long as the biomass-pretreated material was homogeneous and without shives.

  19. Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing Enhances High Intensity Time Trial Performance Following Prolonged Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luden, Nicholas D.; Saunders, Michael J.; D’Lugos, Andrew C.; Pataky, Mark W.; Baur, Daniel A.; Vining, Caitlin B.; Schroer, Adam B.

    2016-01-01

    There is good evidence that mouth rinsing with carbohydrate (CHO) solutions can enhance endurance performance (≥30 min). The impact of a CHO mouth rinse on sprint performance has been less consistent, suggesting that CHO may confer benefits in conditions of ‘metabolic strain’. To test this hypothesis, the current study examined the impact of late-exercise mouth rinsing on sprint performance. Secondly, we investigated the effects of a protein mouth rinse (PRO) on performance. Eight trained male cyclists participated in three trials consisting of 120 min of constant-load cycling (55% Wmax) followed by a 30 km computer-simulated time trial, during which only water was provided. Following 15 min of muscle function assessment, 10 min of constant-load cycling (3 min at 35% Wmax, 7 min at 55% Wmax) was performed. This was immediately followed by a 2 km time trial. Subjects rinsed with 25 mL of CHO, PRO, or placebo (PLA) at min 5:00 and 14:30 of the 15 min muscle function phase, and min 8:00 of the 10-min constant-load cycling. Magnitude-based inferential statistics were used to analyze the effects of the mouth rinse on 2-km time trial performance and the following physiological parameters: Maximum Voluntary Contract (MVC), Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), Heart Rate (HR), and blood glucose levels. The primary finding was that CHO ‘likely’ enhanced performance vs. PLA (3.8%), whereas differences between PRO and PLA were unclear (0.4%). These data demonstrate that late-race performance is enhanced by a CHO rinse, but not PRO, under challenging metabolic conditions. More data should be acquired before this strategy is recommended for the later stages of cycling competition under more practical conditions, such as when carbohydrates are supplemented throughout the preceding minutes/hours of exercise. PMID:27657117

  20. Whole Grains, Legumes, and the Subsequent Meal Effect: Implications for Blood Glucose Control and the Role of Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine A. Higgins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole grains and legumes are known to reduce postprandial glycemia and, in some instances, insulinemia. However, the subsequent meal effect of ingesting whole grains and legumes is less well known. That is, inclusion of whole grains or legumes at breakfast decreases postprandial glycemia at lunch and/or dinner on the same day whereas consumption of a whole grain or lentil dinner reduces glycemia at breakfast the following morning. This effect is lost upon milling, processing, and cooking at high temperatures. The subsequent meal effect has important implications for the control of day-long blood glucose, and may be partly responsible for the reduction in diabetes incidence associated with increased whole grain and legume intake. This paper describes the subsequent meal effect and explores the role of acute glycemia, presence of resistant starch, and fermentation of indigestible carbohydrate as the mechanisms responsible for this effect.

  1. Whole grains, legumes, and the subsequent meal effect: implications for blood glucose control and the role of fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Janine A

    2012-01-01

    Whole grains and legumes are known to reduce postprandial glycemia and, in some instances, insulinemia. However, the subsequent meal effect of ingesting whole grains and legumes is less well known. That is, inclusion of whole grains or legumes at breakfast decreases postprandial glycemia at lunch and/or dinner on the same day whereas consumption of a whole grain or lentil dinner reduces glycemia at breakfast the following morning. This effect is lost upon milling, processing, and cooking at high temperatures. The subsequent meal effect has important implications for the control of day-long blood glucose, and may be partly responsible for the reduction in diabetes incidence associated with increased whole grain and legume intake. This paper describes the subsequent meal effect and explores the role of acute glycemia, presence of resistant starch, and fermentation of indigestible carbohydrate as the mechanisms responsible for this effect.

  2. Fermentable carbohydrates elevate plasma enteroglucagon but high viscosity is also necessary to stimulate small bowel mucosal cell proliferation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, J M; Lee-Finglas, W; Wortley, G W; Johnson, I T

    1996-02-01

    Enteroglucagon is a collective term for a small family of peptides derived from proglucagon by post-translational processing in the L-cells of the distal small intestine and colon. There is evidence that it inhibits gastric secretion, and high levels of enteroglucagon occur in plasma during intestinal adaptation, which suggests that it may also function as a trophic factor for the intestine. Certain types of soluble non-starch polysaccharide (dietary fiber) stimulate the release of enteroglucagon in rats but the mechanism is unknown. In this study we explored the importance of the viscosity and fermentability of nonabsorbed carbohydrates as determinants of plasma enteroglucagon and mucosal cell proliferation in the distal ileum of rats. Replacement of cellulose (10 g/kg) with guar gum in a semisynthetic diet led to a prompt and sustained rise in plasma enteroglucagon concentrations. Our initial hypothesis that this was a consequence of delayed nutrient absorption was disproven by the fact that hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), a viscous but nonfermentable polysaccharide, had no effect on plasma enteroglucagon under the same conditions. In contrast, the nondigestible disaccharide lactitol led to a prolonged rise in plasma enteroglucagon, similar to that observed with guar gum. Lactitol is nonviscous, but highly fermentable, and we conclude that fermentable carbohydrate is an important stimulus for the release of enteroglucagon under our experimental conditions. There was no evidence that enteroglucagon released by this mechanism exerted trophic effects on the distal small intestinal mucosa.

  3. Changes in lipoprotein(a), oxidized phospholipids, and LDL subclasses with a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihnia, Nastaran; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miller, Elizabeth R; Witztum, Joseph L; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-11-01

    Low-fat diets have been shown to increase plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a preferential lipoprotein carrier of oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) in plasma, as well as small dense LDL particles. We sought to determine whether increases in plasma Lp(a) induced by a low-fat high-carbohydrate (LFHC) diet are related to changes in OxPL and LDL subclasses. We studied 63 healthy subjects after 4 weeks of consuming, in random order, a high-fat low-carbohydrate (HFLC) diet and a LFHC diet. Plasma concentrations of Lp(a) (P diet compared with the HFLC diet whereas LDL peak particle size was significantly smaller (P Diet-induced changes in Lp(a) were strongly correlated with changes in OxPL/apoB (P diet were also correlated with decreases in medium LDL particles (P diet is associated with increases in OxPLs and with changes in LDL subclass distribution that may reflect altered metabolism of Lp(a) particles.

  4. Carbohydrate malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Nordgaard-Andersen, I; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies in small series of healthy adults have suggested that parallel measurement of hydrogen and methane resulting from gut fermentation may improve the precision of quantitative estimates of carbohydrate malabsorption. Systematic, controlled studies of the role of simultaneous hydroge...... and methane measurements using end-expiratory breath test techniques are not available....

  5. The Utilization of Indigofera sp as the sole foliage in goat diets supplemented with high carbohydrate or high protein concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ginting

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera sp is a tree leguminous forage species known to be adaptable to the drought climate and saline soil and so it has potential as alternative feed resource to support the ruminant animal production. This study aimed to study the responses of goats fed Indigofera sp as the sole foliages in their diets. Twenty male Boer x Kacang crossbred goats (6 months of age;16 ± 2,1 kg BW were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments containing fresh or wilted leaves of Indigifera sp. as the sole foliages and supplemented with high carbohydrate (HCC or protein (HPCconcentrates. Consumable parts i.e. leaves and twigs of about 8 to 10 months of age of Indigofera sp. were harvested by hand plucking every day in the morning. The experiment was a 2 x 2 factorial design arranged in a completely randomized design. The ruminal pH ranged from 6.14-6.85 and were not affected (P > 0.05 by wilting nor by the type of concentrates. Wilting did not affect (P > 0.05 the concentration of ruminal NH3-N, but it was significantly higher (P 0.05. Goats in the HCC group,however,numerically have higher total VFA concentration (178.5-183.75 mmol L-1 than those in the HPC group (142.21-174.64 mmol L-1. The apparent digestibility coeficients of DM, OM, CP and energy of the diet were not different (P > 0.05 when contained wilted or fresh Indigofera foliage. Significant increases (P 0.05 among dietary treatments, but the ADG of goats in the HCC group (60-63 g d-1 were significantly lower (P 0.05. BUN was not affected by wilting process, but providing high protein concentrates significantly (P < 0.05 increased the BUN concentration. It is concluded that foliage of Indigofera sp could be used as the sole forage in intensive production of goats. Wilting the foliage prior to feeding seemed to be unnecessary, since this process does not improve the animal productivity in term of daily gain and efficiency of feed utilization.

  6. Consequences of exchanging carbohydrates for proteins in the cholesterol metabolism of mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Raymond

    Full Text Available Consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diets lead to rapid weight loss but the cardioprotective effects of these diets have been questioned. We examined the impact of high-protein and high-fat diets on cholesterol metabolism by comparing the plasma cholesterol and the expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes in the liver of mice fed a high-fat (HF diet that has a high (H or a low (L protein-to-carbohydrate (P/C ratio. H-P/C-HF feeding, compared with L-P/C-HF feeding, decreased plasma total cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol concentrations at 4-wk. Interestingly, the expression of genes involved in hepatic steroid biosynthesis responded to an increased dietary P/C ratio by first down-regulation (2-d followed by later up-regulation at 4-wk, and the temporal gene expression patterns were connected to the putative activity of SREBF1 and 2. In contrast, Cyp7a1, the gene responsible for the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was consistently up-regulated in the H-P/C-HF liver regardless of feeding duration. Over expression of Cyp7a1 after 2-d and 4-wk H-P/C-HF feeding was connected to two unique sets of transcription regulators. At both time points, up-regulation of the Cyp7a1 gene could be explained by enhanced activations and reduced suppressions of multiple transcription regulators. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the hypocholesterolemic effect of H-P/C-HF feeding coincided with orchestrated changes of gene expressions in lipid metabolic pathways in the liver of mice. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the cholesterol lowering effect of high-protein feeding is associated with enhanced bile acid production but clinical validation is warranted. (246 words.

  7. High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography Coupled with Pulsed Electrochemical Detection as a Powerful Tool to Evaluate Carbohydrates of Food Interest: Principles and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Corradini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific HPLC approaches are essential for carbohydrate characterization in food products. Carbohydrates are weak acids with pKa values in the range 12–14 and, consequently, at high pH can be transformed into oxyanions, and can be readily separated using highly efficient anion-exchange columns. Electrochemical detection in HPLC has been proven to be a powerful analytical technique for the determination of compounds containing electroactive groups; pulsed amperometric detection of carbohydrates is favourably performed by taking advantage of their electrocatalytic oxidation mechanism at a gold working electrode in a basic media. High-performance Anion Exchange Chromatography (HPAEC at high pH coupled with pulsed electrochemical detection (PED is one of the most useful techniques for carbohydrate determination either for routine monitoring or research application. This technique has been of a great impact on the analysis of oligo- and polysaccharides. The compatibility of electrochemical detection with gradient elution, coupled with the high selectivity of the anion-exchange stationary phases, allows mixtures of simple sugars, oligo- and polysaccharides to be separated with high resolution in a single run. A few reviews have been written on HPAEC-PED of carbohydrates of food interest in the last years. In this paper the recent developments in this field are examined.

  8. Incorporating freeze-dried strawberry powder into a high-fat meal does not alter postprandial vascular function or blood markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Gaugler, Trent L; Lambert, Joshua D; Proctor, David N; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-02-01

    Postprandial dysmetabolism-an exaggerated spike in triglycerides, glucose, and insulin-increases cardiovascular disease risk by inducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may blunt these effects when they are incorporated into a high-fat, calorie-dense meal. Strawberries are a rich source of polyphenols, but there is little research on their postprandial effects. This study was designed to investigate the effect of adding 40 g freeze-dried strawberry powder (∼1 lb. or 0.45 kg fresh strawberries) to a high-fat (50 g total fat) meal on postprandial vascular function, as well as triglyceride, glucose, and insulin responses. Healthy, overweight or obese [mean ± SEM body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31 ± 0.5] adults (mean ± SEM age: 28 ± 2 y; 17 men and 13 women) consumed a control meal and a strawberry meal in a randomized crossover design. Testing sessions were separated by ≥1 wk for men and ∼1 mo for women to control for hormonal variations. Blood samples were obtained before the meal and 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h after the meal. Central blood pressure and arterial stiffness indexes were measured at baseline and 2 and 4 h postmeal with the use of pulse waveform analysis. There were no significant differences between the strawberry and control meals for any outcomes. Consumption of either meal significantly decreased the augmentation index at 2 and 4 h (P triglycerides, insulin, and glucose at all time points (P triglycerides, glucose, or insulin relative to the control meal. Additional research is needed to clarify whether strawberries or other polyphenol-rich interventions improve postprandial responses, and future studies should take into account the acute meal-induced improvements in measures of vascular function. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01989637. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Persistent High Level of Urinary Tumor Marker Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Prenatally Diagnosed Dysplastic Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Khorramirouz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9 level has gained clinical significance in gastrointestinal malignancies and in various solid and cystic diseases. Dysplastic kidney is a congenital abnormality resulting from atresia of the ureteral bud during the embryogenesis which can be unilateral or bilateral. We report unilateral dysplastic kidney with extremely large cyst diagnosed by routine ultrasonography in the 32nd week of gestational age with high levels of CA 19-9 in cystic and amniotic fluid, as well as persistent high urinary levels of this tumor marker during the 1-year follow-up. Persistent high urinary CA 19-9 level even after cyst aspiration may be attributable to remained function of dysplastic kidney due to remained epithelial lining.

  10. A high-fat, high-fructose diet accelerates nutrient absorption and impairs net hepatic glucose uptake in response to a mixed meal in partially pancreatectomized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Katie Colbert; Kraft, Guillaume; Lautz, Margaret; Smith, Marta; Neal, Doss W; Cherrington, Alan D

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of a high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFFD; fat, 52%; fructose, 17%), in the presence of a partial (~65%) pancreatectomy (PPx), on the response of the liver and extrahepatic tissues to an orally administered, liquid mixed meal. Adult male dogs were fed either a nonpurified, canine control diet (CTR; fat, 26%; no fructose; n = 5) or a HFFD (n = 5) for 8 wk. Diets were provided in a quantity to maintain neutral or positive energy balance in CTR or HFFD, respectively. Dogs underwent a sham operation or PPx at wk 0, portal and hepatic vein catheterization at wk 6, and a mixed meal test at wk 8. Postprandial glucose concentrations were significantly greater in the HFFD group (14.5 ± 2.0 mmol/L) than in the CTR group (9.2 ± 0.5 mmol/L). Impaired glucose tolerance in HFFD was due in part to accelerated gastric emptying and glucose absorption, as indicated by a more rapid rise in arterial plasma acetaminophen and the rate of glucose output by the gut, respectively, in HFFD than in CTR. It was also attributable to lower net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) in the HFFD group (5.5 ± 3.9 μmol · kg(-1) · min(-1)) compared to the CTR group (26.6 ± 7.0 μmol · kg(-1) · min(-1)), resulting in lower hepatic glycogen synthesis (GSYN) in the HFFD group (10.8 ± 5.4 μmol · kg(-1) · min(-1)) than in the CTR group (30.4 ± 7.0 μmol · kg(-1) · min(-1)). HFFD also displayed aberrant suppression of lipolysis by insulin. In conclusion, HFFD feeding accelerates gastric emptying and diminishes NHGU and GSYN, thereby impairing glucose tolerance following a mixed meal challenge. These data reveal a constellation of deleterious metabolic consequences associated with consumption of a HFFD for 8 wk.

  11. A High-Fat, High-Fructose Diet Accelerates Nutrient Absorption and Impairs Net Hepatic Glucose Uptake in Response to a Mixed Meal in Partially Pancreatectomized Dogs12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Katie Colbert; Kraft, Guillaume; Lautz, Margaret; Smith, Marta; Neal, Doss W.; Cherrington, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of a high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFFD; fat, 52%; fructose, 17%), in the presence of a partial (~65%) pancreatectomy (PPx), on the response of the liver and extrahepatic tissues to an orally administered, liquid mixed meal. Adult male dogs were fed either a nonpurified, canine control diet (CTR; fat, 26%; no fructose; n = 5) or a HFFD (n = 5) for 8 wk. Diets were provided in a quantity to maintain neutral or positive energy balance in CTR or HFFD, respectively. Dogs underwent a sham operation or PPx at wk 0, portal and hepatic vein catheterization at wk 6, and a mixed meal test at wk 8. Postprandial glucose concentrations were significantly greater in the HFFD group (14.5 ± 2.0 mmol/L) than in the CTR group (9.2 ± 0.5 mmol/L). Impaired glucose tolerance in HFFD was due in part to accelerated gastric emptying and glucose absorption, as indicated by a more rapid rise in arterial plasma acetaminophen and the rate of glucose output by the gut, respectively, in HFFD than in CTR. It was also attributable to lower net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) in the HFFD group (5.5 ± 3.9 μmol ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1) compared to the CTR group (26.6 ± 7.0 μmol ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1), resulting in lower hepatic glycogen synthesis (GSYN) in the HFFD group (10.8 ± 5.4 μmol ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1) than in the CTR group (30.4 ± 7.0 μmol ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1). HFFD also displayed aberrant suppression of lipolysis by insulin. In conclusion, HFFD feeding accelerates gastric emptying and diminishes NHGU and GSYN, thereby impairing glucose tolerance following a mixed meal challenge. These data reveal a constellation of deleterious metabolic consequences associated with consumption of a HFFD for 8 wk. PMID:21775526

  12. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  13. [Impact of an intervention improving the food supply (excluding school meals) with educational support in middle and high schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, C; Lorrain, S; Langevin, C; Barberger Gateau, P; Maurice, S; Thibault, H

    2015-12-01

    Within the Nutrition, Prevention, and Health Program for children and teenagers in Aquitaine, an experimental intervention was implemented in 2007-2008 in the middle and high schools in Aquitaine (southwest France). This intervention aimed to improve the eating habits of adolescents, combining actions to improve the food supply sold during recreational times (remove/limit fat and sugar products sold and promote the sale of fruits and bread) and health education actions to make adolescents aware of the concept of nutritional balance and steer their choice towards recommended products. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the impact of the intervention on the eating behavior of adolescents and the food supply sold during recreational times in middle and high schools in Aquitaine. A survey was conducted before and after the implementation of the intervention in seven middle and high schools that have implemented actions (intervention group) and eight middle and high schools that have not implemented actions (control group). In these schools, 1602 adolescents answered the survey before and 1050 after the intervention (samples were independent because of the anonymity of responses). The impact of the intervention on the dietary behavior of teenagers was modeled using logistic regression adjusted on potential confounding variables (sex, age, and educational status). In multivariate analyses, the intervention was associated with more frequent daily intake of breakfast (OR=2.63; 95% CI [1.89; 3.66]) and lower intake of morning snacks (OR=0.66; 95% CI [0.48; 0.90]), higher consumption of starchy foods (OR=1.77; 95% CI [1.30; 2.42]), bread at breakfast, morning snacks, and a light afternoon meal (OR=1.43; 95% CI [1.07; 1.90]), and the food supply sold at recreational times (OR=1.34 95% CI [1.01; 1.78]). These results show that the "Improving food supply in middle and high schools associated with educational support actions" project led to the sales of recommended foods

  14. Effects of carnitine supplementation on flow-mediated dilation and vascular inflammatory responses to a high-fat meal in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Jeff S; Judelson, Daniel A; Silvestre, Ricardo; Yamamoto, Linda M; Spiering, Barry A; Hatfield, Disa L; Vingren, Jakob L; Quann, Erin E; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J

    2008-11-15

    Because carnitine has been shown to decrease oxidative stress and improve endothelial cell functioning, we examined the effects of carnitine supplementation on postprandial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and circulating biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress after a high-fat meal. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study design was used. Thirty men and women (age 30 +/- 8 year, body mass 72.9 +/- 17.1 kg, body fat 13.0 +/- 6.4%) participated in 2 vascular testing days, each preceded by 3 weeks of supplementation with either 2 g/day of L-Carnitine (L-Carnitine L-Tartrate) or placebo with a 3- to 5-week washout period between trials. Brachial artery FMD in response to 5 minutes of upper arm occlusion and circulating markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were measured in the fasting state and after a standardized high-fat meal. After 3 weeks of supplementation, peak FMD in the fasting state was similar between the carnitine and placebo trials, averaging 6.6%. Peak FMD during the postprandial period decreased to 5.8% at 1.5 hours during placebo and increased to 7.7% during the carnitine trial (n = 30: p = 0.043 for supplement by time interaction effect). This improvement in postprandial vascular function was most dramatic in subjects who showed a decrease in peak FMD in response to the meal (n = 15: p = 0.003 for supplement by time interaction effect). There was a significant increase in postprandial lipemia and plasma interleukin-6 but no effect of supplementation. There were no significant postprandial changes or supplement effects for plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and malondialdehyde. In conclusion, consistent with other work showing a beneficial effect of carnitine on vascular function, these findings indicate that carnitine supplementation in healthy individuals improves postprandial FMD after a high-fat meal.

  15. Highly effective recognition of carbohydrates by phenanthroline-based receptors: alpha- versus beta-anomer binding preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazik, Monika; Hartmann, Andrè; Jones, Peter G

    2009-09-14

    (1)H NMR spectroscopic titrations in competitive and non-competitive media, as well as binding studies in two-phase systems, such as phase transfer of sugars from aqueous into organic solvents and dissolution of solid carbohydrates in apolar media revealed both highly effective recognition of neutral carbohydrates and interesting binding preferences of an acyclic phenanthroline-based receptor 1. Compared to the previously described acyclic receptors, compound 1 displays significantly higher binding affinities, the rare capability to extract sugars from water into non-polar organic solutions and alpha- versus beta-anomer binding preference in the recognition of glycosides, which differs from those observed for other receptor systems. X-ray crystallographic investigations revealed the presence of water molecules in the binding pocket of 1 that are engaged in the formation of hydrogen-bonding motifs similar to those suggested by molecular modelling for the sugar OH groups in the receptor-sugar complexes. The molecular modelling calculations, synthesis, crystal structure and binding properties of 1 are described and compared with those of the previously described receptors.

  16. Learning about Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Too Short All About Puberty Learning About Carbohydrates KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning About Carbohydrates Print A ... source of energy for the body. What Are Carbohydrates? There are two major types of carbohydrates (or ...

  17. Influence of two breakfast meals differing in glycemic load on satiety, hunger, and energy intake in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganji Vijay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycemic load (GL is the product of glycemic index of a food and amount of available carbohydrate in that food divided by 100. GL represents quality and quantity of dietary carbohydrate. Little is known about the role of GL in hunger, satiety, and food intake in preschool children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two breakfast meals differing in GL on hunger, satiety, and subsequent food intake at lunch in preschool children aged 4-6 y. Methods Twenty three subjects consumed low-GL (LGL and high-GL (HGL breakfast meals according to a randomized crossover design followed by an ad libitum lunch 4 h after consumption of breakfast. Children were asked to consume meals until they are full. Each treatment was repeated twice in non-consecutive days and data were averaged. Results Children in LGL group consumed significantly lower amounts of GL, total carbohydrate, energy, energy density, and dietary fiber and higher amounts of protein and fat at the breakfast compared to those in HGL group. Prior to lunch, children were hungrier in the HGL intervention group compared to the LGL intervention group (P Conclusions Decreased hunger in children prior to lunch in LGL group is likely due to higher protein and fat content of LGL breakfast. Diets that are low in GL can be recommended as part of healthy diet for preschool children.

  18. Early postprandial low-grade inflammation after high-fat meal in healthy rats: possible involvement of visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magné, Joëlle; Mariotti, François; Fischer, Romy; Mathé, Véronique; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean François

    2010-06-01

    In the postprandial period, low-grade inflammation may contribute to vascular endothelial dysfunction, a hallmark of atherogenesis. Little is known about the involvement of the adipose tissue in the initiation of the postprandial inflammatory response such as obtained after a high-saturated fat meal (HFM). In the present study, we first studied the time course of appearance of systemic inflammation after a HFM in healthy rats, and then we investigated whether a HFM activates the inflammatory signaling in the visceral adipose tissue, with a focus on the key component, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Two hours after the HFM, plasma IL-6 and PAI-1, but not plasma C-reactive protein and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1, showed a marked, transient increase. These changes were specific to the postprandial state as not observed after a control water load. Neutrophils count and activation markers CD11B and CD62L, assessed by flow cytometry, also rose significantly 2 h after the HFM, while remaining steady after the control. At the same time, the HFM decreased significantly B-cell count and expression of the activation marker CD62L. Interestingly, at the same early time after the HFM, in the visceral adipose tissue, there was a 2.2-fold increase in the activation of NF-kappaB (p65) in nuclear extract and an increase in IL-6 mRNA. As far as we know, this is the first study evidencing an acute, postprandial activation of inflammation in visceral adipose tissue. This early activation of NF-kappaB pathway after a HFM may play a triggering role in the initiation of the complex postprandial proatherogenic phenotype. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Consumer acceptance of high pressure processed beef-based chilled ready meals: the mediating role of food-related lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Douglas; Henchion, Maeve; Marcos, Begonya; Ward, Paddy; Mullen, Anne Maria; Allen, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of high pressure processing (HPP) on consumer acceptance for chilled ready meals manufactured using a low-value beef cut. Three hundred consumers evaluated chilled ready meals subjected to 4 pressure treatments and a non-treated control monadically on a 9-point scale for liking for beef tenderness and juiciness, overall flavour, overall liking, and purchase intent. Data were also collected on consumers' food consumption patterns, their attitudes towards food by means of the reduced food-related lifestyle (FRL) instrument, and socio-demographics. The results indicated that a pressure treatment of 200 MPa was acceptable to most consumers. K-means cluster analysis identified 4 consumer groups with similar preferences, and the optimal pressure treatments acceptable to specific consumer groups were identified for those firms that would wish to target attitudinally differentiated consumer segments.

  20. High-resolution melting (HRM of the cytochrome B gene: a powerful approach to identify blood-meal sources in Chagas disease Vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H Peña

    Full Text Available Methods to determine blood-meal sources of hematophagous Triatominae bugs (Chagas disease vectors are serological or based on PCR employing species-specific primers or heteroduplex analysis, but these are expensive, inaccurate, or problematic when the insect has fed on more than one species. To solve those problems, we developed a technique based on HRM analysis of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome B (Cyt b. This technique recognized 14 species involved in several ecoepidemiological cycles of the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi and it was suitable with DNA extracted from intestinal content and feces 30 days after feeding, revealing a resolution power that can display mixed feedings. Field samples were analyzed showing blood meal sources corresponding to domestic, peridomiciliary and sylvatic cycles. The technique only requires a single pair of primers that amplify the Cyt b gene in vertebrates and no other standardization, making it quick, easy, relatively inexpensive, and highly accurate.

  1. Learning through school meals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica

    2014-07-01

    This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at evaluating the effects of free school meal interventions on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment in schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offering free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school individual and focus group interviews were conducted with students in grades 5 to 7 and grades 8 to 9. Furthermore, students were observed during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The purpose of the article is to explore the learning potentials of school meals. The cross-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competences in relation to food, meals and health, as well as their involvement in the school meal project. The analysis indicates that the pupils have developed knowledge and skills related to novel foods and dishes, and that school meals can contribute to pupils' learning, whether this learning is planned or not. However, if school meals are to be further developed as an arena for learning, greater consideration must be given to the interaction between pupil, school meal and teacher than in the school meal projects presented in this study, and the potentials for learning through school meals clarified and discussed in the schools. Studying the school meal projects raises a number of dilemmas, such as whether the lunch break should be a part of or a break from education, are school meals a common (school) or private (parent) responsibility, and questions about pupils' and teachers' roles and participation in school meals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Meal and Snacking Patterns of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Nan; Rhoads, Dianne S.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of the responses of 3,309 Louisiana students was used to determine students' meal and snacking habits at the elementary, junior high, and high school levels. Student responses concerned: (1) where and why food was consumed; (2) vitamin supplements; (3) reasons meals were omitted; and (4) reaction to school lunches. (PP)

  3. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.

    2012-01-01

    industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high......-throughput analysis of nucleotides, proteins, and increasingly carbohydrates. Using microarrays, the abundance of and interactions between hundreds and thousands of molecules can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Here we show that carbohydrate microarrays are multifunctional tools...... for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  4. Food intake and energy expenditure are increased in high-fat-sensitive but not in high-carbohydrate-sensitive obesity-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Even, Patrick C

    2014-08-01

    Obesity-prone (OP) rodents are used as models of human obesity predisposition. The goal of the present study was to identify preexisting defects in energy expenditure components in OP rats. Two studies were performed. In the first one, male Wistar rats (n = 48) were fed a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) for 3 wk and then a high-fat diet (HFD) for the next 3 wk. This study showed that adiposity gain under HCD was 2.9-fold larger in carbohydrate-sensitive (CS) than in carbohydrate-resistant (CR) rats, confirming the concept of "carbohydrate-sensitive" rats. Energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), caloric intake (CI), and locomotor activity measured during HFD identified no differences in EE and RQ between fat-resistant (FR) and fat-sensitive (FS) rats, and indicated that obesity developed in FS rats only as the result of a larger CI not fully compensated by a parallel increase in EE. A specific pattern of spontaneous activity, characterized by reduced activity burst intensity, was identified in FS rats but not in CS ones. This mirrors a previous observation that under HCD, CS but not FS rats, exhibited bursts of activity of reduced intensity. In a second study, rats were fed a HFD for 3 wk, and the components of energy expenditure were examined by indirect calorimetry in 10 FR and 10 FS rats. This study confirmed that a low basal EE, reduced thermic effect of feeding, defective postprandial energy partitioning, or a defective substrate utilization by the working muscle are not involved in the FS phenotype. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Sunflower meal concentrations in Massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máikal S. Borja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best sunflower meal concentration in Massai grass silage. Materials and methods. The treatments were composed of 0, 8, 16, and 24% sunflower meal (natural matter basis during ensiling of Massai grass, with four repetitions. Results. The regression equation showed that the inclusion of sunflower meal between 2.14% and 13.91% obtained a silage dry matter between 25 and 35%, which are the values recommended for the production of high quality silage. The addition of sunflower meal showed a linear increase in crude protein, reaching 18% DM with the highest concentration of sunflower meal. The highest feed value index was obtained with the addition of 24% sunflower meal in the silage. The estimated total digestible nutrient of silage increased linearly with sunflower meal concentration. The silage pH values had a quadratic effect, reaching the lowest value (4.1 with 15% sunflower meal addition. Conclusions. Based on the chemical composition and forage quality, a concentration of 14% sunflower meal should be used for high-quality silage with good nutritional value.

  6. Modulatory effects of Caralluma fimbriata extract against high-fat diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjala, Sudhakara; Putakala, Mallaiah; Nukala, Srinivasulu; Bangeppagari, Manjunatha; Rajendran, Ramaswamy; Desireddy, Saralakumari

    2017-08-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the modulatory effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata (CFE) by assaying the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and changes in glycogen content (liver and muscle) in high-fat (HF) diet-induced diabetic rats. In vitro glucose uptake studies were carried out in both psoas muscle and adipose tissue. The inhibitory effect of the extract on α-amylase was determined in in vitro studies. Male Wistar rats of body weight around 180g were divided into five groups (n=8), two of these groups were fed with standard pellet diet and the other three groups were fed with HF- (60%) diet. CFE (200mg/kg body weight/day) was administered through oral route to each group of standard pellet diet rats and HF-fed rats and Metformin (Met) (20mg/kg body weight/day) was administered through oral route to HFD+Met group for 90 days. At the end of the experimental period, biochemical parameters related to glycogen content in liver and muscle, and intestinal disaccharidases like maltase, sucrase and lactase were assayed. Alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, phosphorfructoki nase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), intestinal disaccharidases and glycogen content as observed in the high fat diet-fed rats were prevented with CFE/Met administration. From this study, we observed that CFE/Met could significantly restore the levels of glycogen in liver and muscle and key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism to near normal in groups-HFD+CFE and HFD+Met. The skeletal muscle of HF-diet fed rats showed degenerative changes of muscle myofibers with fat deposition. These changes were attenuated in the HFD group treated with CFE/Met and retained their normal structure appearance. It can be concluded from these results that CFE might be of value in reducing the alterations related to carbohydrate metabolism under high calorie

  7. High and low protein∶ carbohydrate dietary ratios during gestation alter maternal-fetal cortisol regulation in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Kanitz

    Full Text Available Imbalanced maternal nutrition during gestation can cause alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA system in offspring. The present study investigated the effects of maternal low- and high-protein diets during gestation in pigs on the maternal-fetal HPA regulation and expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 and c-fos mRNAs in the placenta and fetal brain. Twenty-seven German Landrace sows were fed diets with high (HP, 30%, low (LP, 6.5% or adequate (AP, 12.1% protein levels made isoenergetic by varying the carbohydrate levels. On gestational day 94, fetuses were recovered under general anesthesia for the collection of blood, brain and placenta samples. The LP diet in sows increased salivary cortisol levels during gestation compared to the HP and AP sows and caused an increase of placental GR and c-fos mRNA expression. However, the diurnal rhythm of plasma cortisol was disturbed in both LP and HP sows. Total plasma cortisol concentrations in the umbilical cord vessels were elevated in fetuses from HP sows, whereas corticosteroid-binding globulin levels were decreased in LP fetuses. In the hypothalamus, LP fetuses displayed an enhanced mRNA expression of 11β-HSD1 and a reduced expression of c-fos. Additionally, the 11β-HSD2 mRNA expression was decreased in both LP and HP fetuses. The present results suggest that both low and high protein∶carbohydrate dietary ratios during gestation may alter the expression of genes encoding key determinants of glucocorticoid hormone action in the fetus with potential long-lasting consequences for stress adaptation and health.

  8. [Can family meals protect adolescents from obesity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Izabela; Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna; Mikiel-Kostyra, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the relationship between the frequency of family meals and the body weight of 13-year-olds and its selected determinants. The study was conducted in 2008 as the last stage in a prospective cohort study of 605 children. Questionnaires containing questions about the frequency of family meals, the general regularity of meals, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity and the number of hours spent watching television or at the computer were sent to 13-year-olds by mail. School nurses performed anthropometric measurements of the pupils' weight and height. Statistical analyses were performed, i.e. Pearson's correlations, the two-step cluster analysis and the logistic regression analysis. Most of the young people (80-90%) eat each of the main meals in the company of their parents at least once a week, 21% have breakfast with their parents every day, 41% - dinner, and 45% - supper. The frequency of family meals correlated negatively with the girls' BMI and the number of hours they spent watching television or at the computer, while positively with physical activity, regular meals and vegetable consumption in adolescents of both genders. The lowest mean values of BMI were found in a group of adolescents often eating family meals, the highest - in the group of young people who rarely ate family meals (over 20% of young people in this group were overweight), but the differences were statistically significant only for girls (p=0.025). The probability of less than 2 hours of sedentary behaviour daily, physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day and everyday vegetable and fruit consumption is twice as high in adolescents often consuming meals with their parents, and with the daily consumption of all the meals in this way - more than fourfold higher than in other groups. Family meals treated as a predictor of a healthy lifestyle can indirectly protect adolescents from overweight and obesity. Promoting family meals should be an important method of

  9. Effects of consuming a high carbohydrate diet after eight weeks of exposure to a ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinzig Kimberly P

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ketogenic diets have been utilized for weight loss and improvement in metabolic parameters. The present experiments examined the effects of returning to a chow diet after prolonged ingestion of a ketogenic diet. Methods Rats were maintained on chow (CH or a ketogenic diet (KD for 8 weeks, after which the KD rats were given access to chow only (KD:CH for 8 additional weeks. Caloric intake, body weight, and plasma leptin, insulin and ghrelin were measured before and after the dietary switch. Results After 8 weeks of consuming a ketogenic diet, KD rats had increased adiposity and plasma leptin levels, and reduced insulin, as compared to CH controls. One week after the diet switch, fat pad weight and leptin levels remained elevated, and were normalized to CH controls within 8 weeks of the dietary switch. Switching from KD to chow induced a transient hypophagia, such that KD:CH rats consumed significantly fewer calories during the first week after the dietary switch, as compared to calories consumed by CH rats. This hypophagia was despite significantly increased plasma ghrelin in KD:CH rats. Finally, KD:CH rats developed hyperphagia over time, and during weeks 6-8 after the diet switch consumed significantly more calories per day than did CH-fed controls and gained more weight than CH-fed controls. Conclusion Collectively, these data demonstrate that returning to a carbohydrate-based diet after a period of consuming a ketogenic diet has post-diet effects on caloric intake, body weight gain, and insulin levels.

  10. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets have sex-specific effects on bone health in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zengin, Ayse; Kropp, Benedikt; Chevalier, Yan

    2016-01-01

    the effects in female rats remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether sex-specific effects of LC-HF diets on bone health exist. METHODS: Twelve-week-old male and female Wistar rats were isoenergetically pair-fed either a control diet (CD), "Atkins-style" protein-matched diet (LC-HF-1), or ketogenic......PURPOSE: Studies in humans suggest that consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets (LC-HF) could be detrimental for growth and bone health. In young male rats, LC-HF diets negatively affect bone health by impairing the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis (GH/IGF axis), while...... low-protein diet (LC-HF-2) for 4 weeks. In females, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry analyses were performed on the distal femur. Sex hormones were analysed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and endocrine parameters including GH and IGF-I were measured by immunoassay...

  11. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...... the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement...... of dilemmas, such as whether the lunch break should be a part of or a break from education, are school meals a common (school) or private (parent) responsibility, and questions about pupils' and teachers' roles and participation in school meals....

  12. Determination of anxiolytic veterinary drugs from biological fertilizer blood meal using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Heui; Lamshöft, Marc; Zühlke, Sebastian; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Abd El-Aty, A M; Spiteller, Michael; Shim, Jae-Han

    2014-06-01

    A liquid environment-friendly agricultural material originating from animal blood, blood meal, was employed to detect anxiolytic veterinary drugs using a combination of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and positive electrospray ionization Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Every positive ion of the analytes was consistent with [M+H](+) , and the accurate mass analysis and mass spectral filtration with a 2-ppm mass tolerance window were applied to identify and quantitate the analytes and metabolites. The developed LLE method was validated with the lowest calibrated level, linearity (r(2) ), recovery, repeatability and the within-laboratory reproducibility, which were in the ranges of 0.3-1 µg/L, 0.9963-0.9995, 48.3-117.5%, 1.1-12.6% and 2.3-15.7%, respectively. The LLE method was compared with a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method; however, its recoveries were liquid blood meal samples, and none of the targeted compounds were observed.

  13. High temperature limits in vivo pollen tube growth rates by altering diurnal carbohydrate balance in field-grown Gossypium hirsutum pistils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, John L; Oosterhuis, Derrick M; Loka, Dimitra A; Kawakami, Eduardo M

    2011-07-15

    It has recently been reported that high temperature slows in vivo pollen tube growth rates in Gossypium hirsutum pistils under field conditions. Although numerous physical and biochemical pollen-pistil interactions are necessary for in vivo pollen tube growth to occur, studies investigating the influence of heat-induced changes in pistil biochemistry on in vivo pollen tube growth rates are lacking. We hypothesized that high temperature would alter diurnal pistil biochemistry and that pollen tube growth rates would be dependent upon the soluble carbohydrate content of the pistil during pollen tube growth. G. hirsutum seeds were sown on different dates to obtain flowers exposed to contrasting ambient temperatures but at the same developmental stage. Diurnal pistil measurements included carbohydrate balance, glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.8.1.7), soluble protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), NADPH oxidase (NOX; EC 1.6.3.1), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and water-soluble calcium. Soluble carbohydrate levels in cotton pistils were as much as 67.5% lower under high temperature conditions (34.6 °C maximum air temperature; August 4, 2009) than under cooler conditions (29.9 °C maximum air temperature; August 14, 2009). Regression analysis revealed that pollen tube growth rates were highly correlated with the soluble carbohydrate content of the pistil during pollen tube growth (r² = 0.932). Higher ambient temperature conditions on August 4 increased GR activity in the pistil only during periods not associated with in vivo pollen tube growth; pistil protein content declined earlier in the day under high temperatures; SOD and NOX were unaffected by either sample date or time of day; pistil ATP and water soluble calcium were unaffected by the warmer temperatures. We conclude that moderate heat stress significantly alters diurnal carbohydrate balance in the pistil and suggest that pollen tube growth rate through the style may be limited by soluble carbohydrate

  14. Low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet improves diastolic cardiac function and the metabolic syndrome in overweight-obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. von Bibra

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: These data indicate, that a low-glycaemic/high-protein but not a low-fat/high-carbohydrate nutrition modulates diastolic dysfunction in overweight T2D patients, improves insulin resistance and may prevent or delay the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy and the metabolic syndrome.

  15. Effect of mono-unsaturated fatty acids versus complex carbohydrates on high-density lipoproteins in healthy men and women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Katan, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of two strictly controlled diets, one rich in complex carbohydrates, the other rich in olive oil, on serum lipids were studied in healthy men and women. Serum cholesterol levels fell on average by 0?44 mmol/l in the carbohydrate group and 0?46 mmol/l in the olive oil group. HDL

  16. Effect of mono-unsaturated fatty acids versus complex carbohydrates on high-density lipoproteins in healthy men and women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Katan, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of two strictly controlled diets, one rich in complex carbohydrates, the other rich in olive oil, on serum lipids were studied in healthy men and women. Serum cholesterol levels fell on average by 0?44 mmol/l in the carbohydrate group and 0?46 mmol/l in the olive oil group. HDL cholester

  17. Thermogenesis in obese women: effect of fructose vs. glucose added to a meal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwarz, J M; Schutz, Y; Piolino, V; Schneider, H; Felber, J P; Jéquier, E

    1992-01-01

    ...% fat, and either 75 g glucose or 75 g fructose as carbohydrate source (47%). Expressed as a percentage of the energy content of the meal, the thermogenic response to the fructose meal was significantly greater (10.2 +/- 0.5...

  18. Family meals during adolescence are associated with higher diet quality and healthful meal patterns during young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary

    2007-09-01

    Cross-sectional research in adolescents has found that eating family meals is associated with better nutritional intake. To describe meal patterns of young adults and determine if family meal frequency during adolescence is associated with diet quality, meal frequency, social eating, and meal structure during young adulthood. Population-based, 5-year longitudinal study in Minnesota. Surveys and food frequency questionnaires were completed by 946 female students and 764 male students in high school classrooms at Time 1 (1998-1999; mean age 15.9 years) and by mail at Time 2 (2003-2004; mean age 20.4 years). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean levels of young adult outcomes from adolescent family meal frequency. Probability testing of trends in each outcome across ordered categories of family meal frequency used linear contrasts. Family meal frequency during adolescence predicted higher intakes of fruit (PFrequency of family meals also predicted more breakfast meals (Pdinner meals (Pfamily meals and Time 2 dietary outcomes were attenuated with adjustment for Time 1 outcomes but several associations were still statistically significant. Family meals during adolescence may have a lasting positive influence on dietary quality and meal patterns in young adulthood.

  19. Palatable meal anticipation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia T Hsu

    Full Text Available The ability to sense time and anticipate events is a critical skill in nature. Most efforts to understand the neural and molecular mechanisms of anticipatory behavior in rodents rely on daily restricted food access, which induces a robust increase of locomotor activity in anticipation of daily meal time. Interestingly, rats also show increased activity in anticipation of a daily palatable meal even when they have an ample food supply, suggesting a role for brain reward systems in anticipatory behavior, and providing an alternate model by which to study the neurobiology of anticipation in species, such as mice, that are less well adapted to "stuff and starve" feeding schedules. To extend this model to mice, and exploit molecular genetic resources available for that species, we tested the ability of wild-type mice to anticipate a daily palatable meal. We observed that mice with free access to regular chow and limited access to highly palatable snacks of chocolate or "Fruit Crunchies" avidly consumed the snack but did not show anticipatory locomotor activity as measured by running wheels or video-based behavioral analysis. However, male mice receiving a snack of high fat chow did show increased food bin entry prior to access time and a modest increase in activity in the two hours preceding the scheduled meal. Interestingly, female mice did not show anticipation of a daily high fat meal but did show increased activity at scheduled mealtime when that meal was withdrawn. These results indicate that anticipation of a scheduled food reward in mice is behavior, diet, and gender specific.

  20. Gallic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia and improves hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-01

    Herein, we investigated the hypoglycemic effect of plant gallic acid (GA) on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell culture model and on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats with a high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. Our hypothesis is that GA ameliorates hyperglycemia via alleviating hepatic insulin resistance by suppressing hepatic inflammation and improves abnormal hepatic carbohydrate metabolism by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis and enhancing the hepatic glycogenesis and glycolysis pathways in HFD-induced diabetic rats. Gallic acid increased glucose uptake activity by 19.2% at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. In HFD-induced diabetic rats, GA significantly alleviated hyperglycemia, reduced the values of the area under the curve for glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test, and reduced the scores of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. The levels of serum C-peptide and fructosamine and cardiovascular risk index scores were also significantly decreased in HFD rats treated with GA. Moreover, GA up-regulated the expression of hepatic insulin signal transduction-related proteins, including insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, and glucose transporter 2, in HFD rats. Gallic acid also down-regulated the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis-related proteins, such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and up-regulated expression of hepatic glycogen synthase and glycolysis-related proteins, including hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and aldolase, in HFD rats. Our findings indicate that GA has potential as a health food ingredient to prevent diabetes mellitus.

  1. Cramble meal: evaluation, improvement and comparison with rapeseed meal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.G.

    1994-01-01

    Crambe abyssinica has gradually been introduced in agriculture as a new oil-bearing crop. Its oil contains 55 to 60% erucic acid (C22:1, Δ13), desirable as lubricants, plastic additives or as a raw material for chemical synthesis. The defatted meal has high protein content which provides potential a

  2. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, T F; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2016-12-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs (initial BW: 9.15 ± 0.06 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design with 12 dietary treatments and 9 pens per treatment. A control diet based on corn and SBM and 4 diets containing 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV were formulated to a similar NE by adjusting inclusion of choice white grease. Four additional diets also contained 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV, but no additional choice white grease, and NE in these diets, therefore, was less than in the control diet. The control diet and the diets containing 30% CM-HP or CM-CV without increased choice white grease were also formulated with inclusion of an exogenous carbohydrase. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 22 d and 1 pig per pen was sacrificed at the conclusion of the experiment. Results indicated that compared with the control diet, there was no impact of canola meal on final BW, ADG, ADFI, or G:F, but pigs fed CM-CV had greater ( diets with reduced NE had greater ( diets with constant NE. Only minor effects of CM-HP or CM-CV on intestinal weight, gut fill, digesta pH, cecal VFA concentrations, and serum concentrations of urea N, total N, or albumin were observed, but the weight of the thyroid gland increased ( diets without the carbohydrase, but that was not the case if the carbohydrase was included in the diet (interaction, ( diets fed to weanling pigs from 2 wk postweaning did not impact growth performance compared with pigs fed a corn-SBM diet, and NE in diets containing canola meal does not have to be similar to that of corn-SBM diets. However, inclusion of CM-CV containing 4.43 µmol/g glucosinolates in the diets resulted in improved growth performance compared with inclusion of CM

  3. Alpha Meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra A. Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Past research suggests that our ability to recall information increases when atypical items are presented within otherwise homogeneous sets. We investigated whether this effect applied to performance on practical, everyday tasks. In a computer-simulated restaurant scenario, participants acted as virtual servers, delivering “plates of food orders” to tables set up in different “rooms.” Plate destination was communicated using either a distinctive alphanumeric code or a homogeneous numeric code, both of which indicated the room and table number for delivery of food orders. We examined accuracy of plate delivery when two (low load or three (high load coded assignments were given per delivery trial. As expected, performance declined from the low- to high-load condition. Importantly, performance declined less with alphanumeric compared with all-numeric communication of assignments. Results suggest that increasing the distinctiveness of assignments, by using alphanumeric codes, can boost performance in real-life situations to significantly improve memory-related task performance, particularly when cognitive load is taxed.

  4. Influence of high- and low-carbohydrate diet following glycogen-depleting exercise on heart rate variability and plasma catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo; Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Dalquano, Elen; Nogueira, Marie; Casarini, Dulce; Kiss, Maria Augusta; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Pires, Flávio de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term low- or high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet consumed after exercise on sympathetic nervous system activity. Twelve healthy males underwent a progressive incremental test; a control measurement of plasma catecholamines and heart rate variability (HRV); an exercise protocol to reduce endogenous CHO stores; a low- or high-CHO diet (counterbalanced order) consumed for 2 days, beginning immediately after the exercise protocol; and a second resting plasma catecholamine and HRV measurement. The exercise and diet protocols and the second round of measurements were performed again after a 1-week washout period. The mean (+/-SD) values of the standard deviation of R-R intervals were similar between conditions (control, 899.0+/-146.1 ms; low-CHO diet, 876.8+/-115.8 ms; and high-CHO diet, 878.7+/-127.7 ms). The absolute high- and low-frequency (HF and LF, respectively) densities of the HRV power spectrum were also not different between conditions. However, normalized HF and LF (i.e., relative to the total power spectrum) were lower and higher, respectively, in the low-CHO diet than in the control diet (mean+/-SD, 17+/-9 normalized units (NU) and 83+/-9 NU vs. 27+/-11 NU and 73+/-17 NU, respectively; pheart rate was modified after a short-term low-CHO diet, but plasma catecholamine levels were not altered.

  5. Development and validation of a new simple Healthy Meal Index for canteen meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; L Hansen, Gitte

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nutrition evaluation tools should be developed both for scientific purposes and to encourage and facilitate healthy nutritional practices. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a simple food-based Healthy Meal Index (HMI) reflecting the nutritional profile...... and potatoes. The development was built on the principles embodied by the Plate Model, but providing more specificity in some areas. The simple HMI was validated against weighed and chemically analysed food and nutrient content of a representative sample of canteen meals. The sample was split into four......, carbohydrate and fruit and vegetables varied across categories with higher score values being closer to dietary guidelines (P simple HMI was successful in ranking canteen meals according to their nutritional quality. The index provides a valuable tool to both researchers and food...

  6. Effect of protein source and soluble carbohydrate addition on rumen fermentation and lactation performance of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, M E; Redfearn, D D; Ward, J D; Blouin, D C

    2001-07-01

    Rumen in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of rumen undegradable protein and soluble carbohydrates on rumen ammonia N release and lactation performance of Holstein cows. In the in vitro experiment, freeze-dried annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, LAM) pasture was supplemented 1:1 with ground corn-based grain supplements containing expeller or solvent soybean meal with sucrose or lactose supplements at 0, 2.5, or 5% of dry matter (DM). The ammonia release rate was slower with expeller compared with solvent soybean meal-supplemented diets. Sucrose supplementation at the 5% level lowered rumen ammonia concentrations, but lactose-fortification of grain supplements was without effect. In the in vivo study, 32 multiparous Holstein cows were blocked according to milk yield and randomly assigned to corn-based grain supplements containing 1) solvent soybean meal, 2) solvent soybean meal + 5% sucrose supplement, 3) expeller soybean meal, or 4) expeller soybean meal + 5% sucrose supplement. Grain supplements and fresh annual ryegrass were component fed at approximately a 1:1 grain to forage ratio (DM basis). Forage DM intake was higher for cows receiving solvent soybean meal supplemented grain supplements than those receiving expeller soybean meal (12.2 +/- 2.1 vs. 11.4 +/- 2.2 kg/d), but total DM intake was similar for all diets (22.8 +/- 2.9 kg/d). Fat-corrected milk yield was similar for all diets averaging 37.5, 38.2, 39.1, and 37.6 kg/d for diets 1 to 4, respectively. Rumen fermentation, milk urea nitrogen, and body condition were unaffected by supplements; however, cows fed grain supplement 1 utilized dietary energy more efficiently than cows offered the other dietary treatments. High dietary crude protein concentrations may have limited lactation response to rumen undegradable protein and sugar.

  7. A versatile method for stable carbon isotope analysis of carbohydrates by high-performance liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Van Breugel, P.; Houtekamer, M.J.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a method to analyze stable carbon isotope (13C/12C) ratios in a variety of carbohydrates using high-performance liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC/IRMS). The chromatography is based on strong anion-exchange columns with low strength NaOH eluents. An eluent

  8. A Dose-Response Strategy Reveals Differences between Normal-Weight and Obese Men in Their Metabolic and Inflammatory Responses to a High-Fat Meal.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwander, Flurina; Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin A.; Buri, Caroline; Portmann, Reto; Egger, Lotti; Chollet, Magali; McTernan, P.G.; Piya, Milan K.; Gijs, Martin A. M.; Vionnet, Nathalie; Pralong, Franc̨ois; Laederach, Kurt; Vergeres, Guy

    2014-01-01

    A dose-response strategy may not only allow investigation of the impact of foods and nutrients on human health but may also reveal differences in the response of individuals to food ingestion based on their metabolic health status. In a randomized crossover study, we challenged 19 normal-weight (BMI: 20-25 kg/m(2)) and 18 obese (BMI: >30 kg/m(2)) men with 500, 1000, and 1500 kcal of a high-fat (HF) meal (60.5% energy from fat). Blood was taken at baseline and up to 6 h postprandially and a...

  9. The Energy Content and Composition of Meals Consumed after an Overnight Fast and Their Effects on Diet Induced Thermogenesis: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analyses and Meta-Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Quatela

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review investigated the effects of differing energy intakes, macronutrient compositions, and eating patterns of meals consumed after an overnight fast on Diet Induced Thermogenesis (DIT. The initial search identified 2482 records; 26 papers remained once duplicates were removed and inclusion criteria were applied. Studies (n = 27 in the analyses were randomized crossover designs comparing the effects of two or more eating events on DIT. Higher energy intake increased DIT; in a mixed model meta-regression, for every 100 kJ increase in energy intake, DIT increased by 1.1 kJ/h (p < 0.001. Meals with a high protein or carbohydrate content had a higher DIT than high fat, although this effect was not always significant. Meals with medium chain triglycerides had a significantly higher DIT than long chain triglycerides (meta-analysis, p = 0.002. Consuming the same meal as a single bolus eating event compared to multiple small meals or snacks was associated with a significantly higher DIT (meta-analysis, p = 0.02. Unclear or inconsistent findings were found by comparing the consumption of meals quickly or slowly, and palatability was not significantly associated with DIT. These findings indicate that the magnitude of the increase in DIT is influenced by the energy intake, macronutrient composition, and eating pattern of the meal.

  10. The Energy Content and Composition of Meals Consumed after an Overnight Fast and Their Effects on Diet Induced Thermogenesis: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analyses and Meta-Regressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatela, Angelica; Callister, Robin; Patterson, Amanda; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley

    2016-10-25

    This systematic review investigated the effects of differing energy intakes, macronutrient compositions, and eating patterns of meals consumed after an overnight fast on Diet Induced Thermogenesis (DIT). The initial search identified 2482 records; 26 papers remained once duplicates were removed and inclusion criteria were applied. Studies (n = 27) in the analyses were randomized crossover designs comparing the effects of two or more eating events on DIT. Higher energy intake increased DIT; in a mixed model meta-regression, for every 100 kJ increase in energy intake, DIT increased by 1.1 kJ/h (p < 0.001). Meals with a high protein or carbohydrate content had a higher DIT than high fat, although this effect was not always significant. Meals with medium chain triglycerides had a significantly higher DIT than long chain triglycerides (meta-analysis, p = 0.002). Consuming the same meal as a single bolus eating event compared to multiple small meals or snacks was associated with a significantly higher DIT (meta-analysis, p = 0.02). Unclear or inconsistent findings were found by comparing the consumption of meals quickly or slowly, and palatability was not significantly associated with DIT. These findings indicate that the magnitude of the increase in DIT is influenced by the energy intake, macronutrient composition, and eating pattern of the meal.

  11. Ingestion of nutrition bars high in protein or carbohydrate does not impact 24-h energy intakes in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, Catherine M; Johnston, Carol S

    2012-12-01

    Sales of nutrition bars increased almost 10-fold to $1.7billion over the past decade yet few studies have examined the impact of bar ingestion on dietary parameters. In this crossover trial, 24-h energy intakes were assessed in free-living college students ingesting a high-protein (HP, 280kcal) or a high-carbohydrate (HC, 260kcal) nutrition bar upon waking. Fifty-four students entered the trial, and 37 participants completed the three test days. Daily energy intakes ranged from 1752±99kcal for the non-intervention day to 1846±75 and 1891±110kcal for the days the HP and HC bars were consumed respectively (p=0.591). However, for individuals who reported high levels of physically activity (n=11), daily energy intakes increased significantly compared to the control day for the HC bar day (+45%; p=0.030) and HP bar day (+22%; p=0.038). Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes differed significantly across test days in the total sample mirroring the nutrient profile of the specific bars. These data suggest that young adults adjust caloric intakes appropriately following the ingestion of energy-dense nutrition bars over a 24-h period. Moreover, nutrition bars may represent a unique opportunity to favorably influence nutrient status of young adults.

  12. Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Zivkovic, Angela M; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period. Serum was collected at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially and analysed for inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules and blood lipids, glucose and insulin. Following both high-fat test meals, postprandial TAG concentrations rose steadily (P vegan-alternative test meal. A treatment effect was not observed for any other inflammatory markers; however, for both test meals, multiple markers significantly changed from baseline over the 6 h postprandial period (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα, MCP-1, SAA). Saturated fat in the form of a cheese matrix reduced the iAUC for CRP compared with a vegan-alternative test meal during the postprandial 6 h period. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01803633.

  13. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze-chilling is a......Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze...... days of chilled storage, and the corresponding time for rainbow trout was 10 days. After this period the sensory quality decreased and chemical indicators of spoilage were seen to increase. CONCLUSION: The consistent quality during storage and the high-quality shelf life are practically applicable...

  14. In-situ annotation of carbohydrate diversity, abundance, and degradability in highly complex mixtures using NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Many functions of carbohydrates depend on the detection of short structural motifs, approximately up to hexasaccharide length, by receptors or catalysts. This study investigates the usefulness of state-of-the-art 1H–13C nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for characterizing the diversity......, abundance, and degradability of such short structural motifs in plant-derived carbohydrates. Assignments of carbohydrate signals for 1H–13C NMR spectra of beer, wine, and fruit juice yield up to >130 assignments in situ, i.e. in individual samples without separation or derivatization. More than 500...... structural motifs can be resolved over a concentration range of ~103 in experiments of a few hours duration. The diversity of carbohydrate units increases according to power laws at lower concentrations for both cereal and fruit-derived samples. Simple graphs resolve the smaller overall contribution of more...

  15. Effects of meal frequency on metabolic profiles and substrate partitioning in lean healthy males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjet J M Munsters

    Full Text Available The daily number of meals has an effect on postprandial glucose and insulin responses, which may affect substrate partitioning and thus weight control. This study investigated the effects of meal frequency on 24 h profiles of metabolic markers and substrate partitioning.Twelve (BMI:21.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2 healthy male subjects stayed after 3 days of food intake and physical activity standardization 2 × 36 hours in a respiration chamber to measure substrate partitioning. All subjects randomly received two isoenergetic diets with a Low meal Frequency (3 ×; LFr or a High meal Frequency (14 ×; HFr consisting of 15 En% protein, 30 En% fat, and 55 En% carbohydrates. Blood was sampled at fixed time points during the day to measure metabolic markers and satiety hormones.Glucose and insulin profiles showed greater fluctuations, but a lower AUC of glucose in the LFr diet compared with the HFr diet. No differences between the frequency diets were observed on fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Though, protein oxidation and RMR (in this case SMR + DIT were significantly increased in the LFr diet compared with the HFr diet. The LFr diet increased satiety and reduced hunger ratings compared with the HFr diet during the day.The higher rise and subsequently fall of insulin in the LFr diet did not lead to a higher fat oxidation as hypothesized. The LFr diet decreased glucose levels throughout the day (AUC indicating glycemic improvements. RMR and appetite control increased in the LFr diet, which can be relevant for body weight control on the long term.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01034293.

  16. Effects of carbohydrate source for maintaining a high C:N ratio and fish driven re-suspension on pond ecology and production in periphyton-based freshwater prawn culture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Adhikary, R.K.; Rahman, S.M.S.; Azim, M.E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The present research investigated the effect of carbohydrate (CH) source for maintaining a high C:N ratio, and tilapia driven bioturbation on pond ecology, production and economical performances in C/N controlled periphyton-based (C/N-CP) freshwater prawn ponds. Two carbohydrate sources (high-cost t

  17. Effects of a high-fat meal on postprandial incretin responses, appetite scores and ad libitum energy intake in women with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaforte, Fernanda Rodrigues O; Japur, Camila C; Diez-Garcia, Rosa W; Chiarello, Paula G

    2017-03-30

    Considering the possible role of triglycerides (TG), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the regulation of appetite, this study aimed to compare high fat meal-induced response of GIP and GLP-1, appetite scores and ad libitum energy intake in women with obesity, according to postprandial increment in triglyceridemia (∆TG).  Methods: Thirty-three no-diabetic women (BMI = 35.0 ± 3.2 kg.m-2) were divided into two groups: Group with ∆TG ≤ median were called "Low TG change -LTG" and ∆TG > median, "High TG change - HTG". Plasma concentrations of GIP, GLP-1 and appetite sensations were measured prior to, and every 30 min for 180 min after ingestion of a high-fat breakfast. An ad libitum lunch was served 3 h after the test meal. The AUC incrementalGIP were significant lower in HTG vs. LTG group (p = 0.03). The same was observed for GIP levels at 150 min (p = 0.03) and at 180 min (p libitum food intake were also similar between groups. The HTG group exhibited differences in satiety scores and lower postprandial secretion of GIP, however with no impact on ad libitum food intake in short term.

  18. Impact of diets with a high content of greaves-meal protein or carbohydrates on faecal characteristics, volatile fatty acids and faecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hang, I.; Heilmann, R.M.; Grützner, N.; Suchodolski, J.S.; Steiner, J.M.; Atroshi, F.; Sankari, S.; Kettunen, A.; Vos, de W.M.; Zentek, J.; Spillmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research suggests that dietary composition influences gastrointestinal function and bacteria-derived metabolic products in the dog colon. We previously reported that dietary composition impacts upon the faecal microbiota of healthy dogs. This study aims at evaluating the dietary influenc

  19. Supplementation by thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal decreases feelings of hunger, elevates CCK levels and prevents postprandial hypoglycaemia in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Montelius, Caroline; Östbring, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    over a 4-h period. Addition of thylakoids suppressed hunger motivation and increased secretion of CCK from 180 min, and prevented postprandial hypoglycaemia from 90 min following food intake. These effects indicate that thylakoids may intensify signals of satiety. This study therefore suggests...

  20. Effect of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Plasma Metabolome in Mice with Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex III Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasimman Rajendran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial disorders cause energy failure and metabolic derangements. Metabolome profiling in patients and animal models may identify affected metabolic pathways and reveal new biomarkers of disease progression. Using liver metabolomics we have shown a starvation-like condition in a knock-in (Bcs1lc.232A>G mouse model of GRACILE syndrome, a neonatal lethal respiratory chain complex III dysfunction with hepatopathy. Here, we hypothesized that a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD, 60% dextrose will alleviate the hypoglycemia and promote survival of the sick mice. However, when fed HCD the homozygotes had shorter survival (mean ± SD, 29 ± 2.5 days, n = 21 than those on standard diet (33 ± 3.8 days, n = 30, and no improvement in hypoglycemia or liver glycogen depletion. We investigated the plasma metabolome of the HCD- and control diet-fed mice and found that several amino acids and urea cycle intermediates were increased, and arginine, carnitines, succinate, and purine catabolites decreased in the homozygotes. Despite reduced survival the increase in aromatic amino acids, an indicator of liver mitochondrial dysfunction, was normalized on HCD. Quantitative enrichment analysis revealed that glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, and urea cycle were also partly normalized on HCD. This dietary intervention revealed an unexpected adverse effect of high-glucose diet in complex III deficiency, and suggests that plasma metabolomics is a valuable tool in evaluation of therapies in mitochondrial disorders.

  1. Effect of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Plasma Metabolome in Mice with Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex III Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Jayasimman; Tomašić, Nikica; Kotarsky, Heike; Hansson, Eva; Velagapudi, Vidya; Kallijärvi, Jukka; Fellman, Vineta

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondrial disorders cause energy failure and metabolic derangements. Metabolome profiling in patients and animal models may identify affected metabolic pathways and reveal new biomarkers of disease progression. Using liver metabolomics we have shown a starvation-like condition in a knock-in (Bcs1l(c.232A>G)) mouse model of GRACILE syndrome, a neonatal lethal respiratory chain complex III dysfunction with hepatopathy. Here, we hypothesized that a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD, 60% dextrose) will alleviate the hypoglycemia and promote survival of the sick mice. However, when fed HCD the homozygotes had shorter survival (mean ± SD, 29 ± 2.5 days, n = 21) than those on standard diet (33 ± 3.8 days, n = 30), and no improvement in hypoglycemia or liver glycogen depletion. We investigated the plasma metabolome of the HCD- and control diet-fed mice and found that several amino acids and urea cycle intermediates were increased, and arginine, carnitines, succinate, and purine catabolites decreased in the homozygotes. Despite reduced survival the increase in aromatic amino acids, an indicator of liver mitochondrial dysfunction, was normalized on HCD. Quantitative enrichment analysis revealed that glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, and urea cycle were also partly normalized on HCD. This dietary intervention revealed an unexpected adverse effect of high-glucose diet in complex III deficiency, and suggests that plasma metabolomics is a valuable tool in evaluation of therapies in mitochondrial disorders.

  2. Intragastric pH and pressure profiles after intake of the high-caloric, high-fat meal as used for food effect studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziolek, M; Schneider, F; Grimm, M; Modeβ, Chr; Seekamp, A; Roustom, T; Siegmund, W; Weitschies, W

    2015-12-28

    The intraluminal conditions of the fed stomach are critical for drug release from solid oral dosage forms and thus, often associated with the occurrence of food effects on oral bioavailability. In this study, intragastric pH and pressure profiles present after the ingestion of the high-caloric, high-fat (964 kcal) FDA standard breakfast were investigated in 19 healthy human subjects by using the telemetric SmartPill® capsule system (26 × 13 mm). Since the gastric emptying of such large non-digestible objects is typically accomplished by the migrating motor complex phase III activity, the time required for recurrence of fasted state motility determined the gastric emptying time (GET). Following the diet recommendations of the FDA guidance on food effect studies, the mean GET of the telemetric motility capsule was 15.3 ± 4.7 h. Thus, the high caloric value of the standard breakfast impeded gastric emptying before lunch in 18 out of 19 subjects. During its gastric transit, the capsule was exposed to highly dynamic conditions in terms of pH and pressure, which were mainly dependent on further meal and liquid intake, as well as the intragastric capsule deposition behavior. Maximum pH values in the stomach were measured immediately after capsule intake. The median pH value of the 5 min period after capsule ingestion ranged between pH 3.3 and 5.3. Subsequently, the pH decreased relatively constantly and reached minimum values of pH 0-1 after approximately 4 h. The maximum pressure within the stomach amounted to 293 ± 109 mbar and was clearly higher than the maximum pressure measured at the ileocaecal junction (60 ± 35 mbar). The physiological data on the intraluminal conditions within the fed stomach generated in this study will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of food effects on oral drug product performance.

  3. Comparison of high performance liquid chromatography and enzymatic analysis of soluble carbohydrates in loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Faulkner; Michele M. Schoeneberger; Kim H. Ludovici

    1993-01-01

    Foliar tissue was collected from a field study designed to test impacts of atmospheric pollutants on loblolIy pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings. Standard enzymatic (ENZ) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were used to analyze the tissue for soluble sugars. A comparison of the methods revealed no significant diffennces in accuracy...

  4. Low carbohydrate/high-fat diet attenuates cardiac hypertrophy, remodeling, and altered gene expression in hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of dietary fat intake on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy and accompanying structural and molecular remodeling in response to hypertension are not understood. The present study compared the effects of a high-fat versus a low-fat diet on development of left ventricular hype...

  5. Highly efficient removal of allyloxycarbonyl(Alloc)function provides a practical orthogonal protective strategy for carbohydrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang Hui Zong; Shi Qiang Yan; Xiao Mei Liang; Jian Jun Zhang; Dao Quan Wang; Fan Zuo Kong

    2009-01-01

    Highly efficient removal of allyloxycarbonyl(Alloc)group was achieved in the presence of CH3COONH4,Pd[P(C6H5)3]4,and NaBH4 in MeOH-THF,within 5 min in almost quantitative yields(90%,isolated yield)without affecting acetyl,benzoyl,isopropylidene,benzylidene,allyl,benzyl,benzyl carbonate,or azido groups.

  6. High-throughput screening of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes using novel insoluble chromogenic substrate assay kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schückel, Julia; Kracun, Stjepan Kresimir; Willats, William George Tycho

    2016-01-01

    for this is that advances in genome and transcriptome sequencing, together with associated bioinformatics tools allow for rapid identification of candidate CAZymes, but technology for determining an enzyme's biochemical characteristics has advanced more slowly. To address this technology gap, a novel high-throughput assay...

  7. Fgf21 impairs adipocyte insulin sensitivity in mice fed a low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Murata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diet (KD induces hepatic ketogenesis and is believed to affect energy metabolism in mice. As hepatic Fgf21 expression was markedly induced in mice fed KD, we examined the effects of KD feeding on metabolism and the roles of Fgf21 in metabolism in mice fed KD using Fgf21 knockout mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined C57BL/6 mice fed KD for 6 or 14 days. Blood β-hydroxybutyrate levels were greatly increased at 6 days, indicating that hepatic ketogenesis was induced effectively by KD feeding for 6 days. KD feeding for 6 and 14 days impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, although it did not affect body weight, blood NEFA, and triglyceride levels. Hepatic Fgf21 expression and blood Fgf21 levels were markedly increased in mice fed KD for 6 days. Blood β-hydroxybutyrate levels in the knockout mice fed KD for 6 days were comparable to those in wild-type mice fed KD, indicating that Fgf21 is not required for ketogenesis. However, the impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity caused by KD feeding were improved in the knockout mice. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation was significantly decreased in the white adipose tissue in wild-type mice fed KD compared with those fed normal chow, but not in the muscle and liver. Its phosphorylation in the white adipose tissue was significantly increased in the knockout mice fed KD compared with wild-type mice fed KD. In contrast, hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression in Fgf21 knockout mice fed KD was comparable to those in the wild-type mice fed KD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present findings indicate that KD feeding impairs insulin sensitivity in mice due to insulin resistance in white adipose tissue. In addition, our findings indicate that Fgf21 induced to express by KD is a negative regulator of adipocyte insulin sensitivity in adaptation to a low-carbohydrate malnutritional state.

  8. Red pitaya juice supplementation ameliorates energy balance homeostasis by modulating obesity-related genes in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-07-26

    Red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) or known as buah naga merah in Malay belongs to the cactus family, Cactaceae. Red pitaya has been shown to give protection against liver damage and may reduce the stiffness of the heart. Besides, the beneficial effects of red pitaya against obesity have been reported; however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, in the present study, we have investigated the red pitaya-targeted genes in obesity using high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome rat model. A total of four groups were tested: corn-starch (CS), corn-starch + red pitaya juice (CRP), high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat + red pitaya juice (HRP). The intervention with 5 % red pitaya juice was continued for 8 weeks after 8 weeks initiation of the diet. Retroperitoneal, epididymal and omental fat pads were collected and weighed. Plasma concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α were measured using commercial kits. Gene expression analysis was conducted using RNA extracted from liver samples. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. The rats fed HCHF-diet for 16 weeks increased body weight, developed excess abdominal fat deposition and down-regulated the expression level of IL-1α, IL-1r1, and Cntfr as compared to the control group. Supplementation of red pitaya juice for 8 weeks increased omental and epididymal fat but no change in retroperitoneal fat was observed. Red pitaya juice reversed the changes in energy balance homeostasis in liver tissues by regulation of the expression levels of Pomc and Insr. The increased protein expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in HCHF group and red pitaya treated rats confirmed the results of gene expression. Collectively, this study revealed the usefulness of this diet-induced rat model and the beneficial effects of red pitaya on energy balance homeostasis by modulating the anorectic, orexigenic and energy expenditure related

  9. Meals for the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    NASA is drawing upon its food-preparation expertise to assist in solving a problem affecting a large segment of the American population. In preparation for manned space flight programs, NASA became experienced in providing astronauts simple, easily-prepared, nutritious meals. That experience now is being transferred to the public sector in a cooperative project managed by Johnson Space Center. Called Meal System for the Elderly, the project seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally balanced meal packages to those who are unable to participate in existing meal programs. Many such programs are conducted by federal, state and private organizations, including congregate hot meal services and home-delivered "meals on wheels." But more than 3.5 million elderly Americans are unable to take advantage of these benefits. In some cases, they live in rural areas away from available services; in others, they are handicapped, temporarily ill, or homebound for other reasons. Meal System for the Elderly, a cooperative program in which the food-preparation expertise NASA acquired in manned space projects is being utilized to improve the nutritional status of elderly people. The program seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally-balanced food packages to the elderly who are unable to participate b existing meal service programs.

  10. Exercise and postprandial lipid metabolism: an update on potential mechanisms and interactions with high-carbohydrate diets (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jason M R; Hardman, Adrianne E

    2003-03-01

    Endurance trained people exhibit low levels of postprandial lipemia. However, this favorable situation is rapidly reversed with de-training and it is likely that the triglyceride (TG) lowering effects of exercise are mainly the result of acute metabolic responses to recent exercise rather than long-term training adaptations. A large body of evidence suggests that postprandial lipemia can be attenuated following an individual exercise session, with the energy expended during exercise being an important determinant of the extent of TG lowering. Increased lipoprotein lipase-mediated TG clearance and reduced hepatic TG secretion are both likely to contribute to the exercise-induced TG reductions. These changes may occur in response to post-exercise substrate deficits in skeletal muscle and/or the liver. In addition, regular exercise can oppose the hypertriglyceridaemia sometimes seen with low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets. Levels of physical activity should therefore be taken into account when considering nutritional strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  11. The metabolic response to a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Frank Q; Gannon, Mary C

    2006-02-01

    We recently reported that in subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes mellitus, a 5-week diet of 20:30:50 carbohydrate-protein-fat ratio resulted in a dramatic decrease in 24-hour integrated glucose and total glycohemoglobin compared with a control diet of 55:15:30. Body weight, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and serum ketones were unchanged; insulin and nonesterified fatty acids were decreased. We now present data on other hormones and metabolites considered to be affected by dietary macronutrient changes. The test diet resulted in an elevated fasting plasma total insulin-like growth factor 1, but not growth hormone. Urinary aldosterone was unchanged; free cortisol was increased, although not statistically. Urinary pH and calcium were unchanged. Blood pressure, creatinine clearance, serum vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, thyroid hormones, and uric acid were unchanged. Serum creatinine was modestly increased. Plasma alpha-amino nitrogen and urea nitrogen were increased. Urea production rate was increased such that a new steady state was present. The calculated urea production rate accounted for 87% of protein ingested on the control diet, but only 67% on the test diet, suggesting net nitrogen retention on the latter. The lack of negative effects, improved glucose control, and a positive nitrogen balance suggest beneficial effects for subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus at risk for loss of lean body mass.

  12. Rapid and sensitive determination of carbohydrates in foods using high temperature liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, Amanda; Paredes, Eduardo; Maestre, Salvador E; Prats, Soledad; Todolí, José L

    2012-04-01

    In the present work, an evaporative light scattering detector was used as a high-temperature liquid chromatography detector for the determination of carbohydrates. The compounds studied were glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose. The effect of column temperature on the retention times and detectability of these compounds was investigated. Column heating temperatures ranged from 25 to 175°C. The optimum temperature in terms of peak resolution and detectability with pure water as mobile phase and a liquid flow rate of 1 mL/min was 150°C as it allowed the separation of glucose and the three disaccharides here considered in less than 3 min. These conditions were employed for lactose determination in milk samples. Limits of quantification were between 2 and 4.7 mg/L. On the other hand, a temperature gradient was developed for the simultaneous determination of glucose, fructose, and sucrose in orange juices, due to coelution of monosaccharides at temperatures higher than 70°C, being limits of quantifications between 8.5 and 12 mg/L. The proposed hyphenation was successfully applied to different types of milk and different varieties of oranges and mandarins. Recoveries for spiked samples were close to 100% for all the studied analytes.

  13. Protein and Carbohydrate Accumulation in Normal and High-Lysine Barley in Spike Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mather, D.E; Giese, Nanna Henriette

    1984-01-01

    -soluble, hordein, and non-protein N fractions appeared to be normal. Endosperm dry weight and starch were lower than in intact plants and declined at higher N levels. A linear relationship was observed between starch content and the concentration of sucrose in the endosperm water. Uptake of culture medium......Spikes of barley cv. Bomi and high-lysine mutants Riso 1508 and Riso 56 were cultured on liquid media at varying N and sucrose levels. Bomi accumulated N in response to increasing N levels in the medium and a higher level was reached than in spikes of intact plants. The distribution of N in salt...

  14. Sugar, alternative sweeteners and meal frequency in relation to caries prevention: new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandelman, D

    1997-04-01

    In the last 20 years, mainly due to optimum fluoride exposure, and practice of good oral hygiene procedures, an important reduction in caries has been observed, despite the fact that sugar consumption was maintained and/or was increasing during the same lapse of time. A sugar-caries relationship cannot be established in most of the industrialized countries and the dietary factor is not as preponderant in the caries process as it used to be two decades ago. The factors which seem to contribute the most significantly to the cariogenicity of the diet are the frequency of carbohydrate ingestion and eating patterns. The relative cariogenicity of food is not correlated with the amount of carbohydrate it contains. Even if sucrose remains the most important sugar consumed in sweets, beverages and confectionery products, all fermentable-carbohydrate foods can be involved in the caries process. The use of chewing gum and other xylitol-containing products have resulted in defined reduction in caries and represent interesting alternatives for high-caries-risk populations. Caries risk and oral health assessments as well as the evaluation of oral hygiene procedures and fluoride exposure should become essential tools in dietary counselling. People who receive optimum fluoride exposure and follow regular oral hygiene measures can safely use dietary carbohydrates, preferably during meals and two to three times daily in snacks or drinks.

  15. Determination of water-extractable nonstructural carbohydrates, including inulin, in grass samples with high-performance anion exchange chromatography and pulsed amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raessler, Michael; Wissuwa, Bianka; Breul, Alexander; Unger, Wolfgang; Grimm, Torsten

    2008-09-10

    The exact and reliable determination of carbohydrates in plant samples of different origin is of great importance with respect to plant physiology. Additionally, the identification and quantification of carbohydrates are necessary for the evaluation of the impact of these compounds on the biogeochemistry of carbon. To attain this goal, it is necessary to analyze a great number of samples with both high sensitivity and selectivity within a limited time frame. This paper presents a rugged and easy method that allows the isocratic chromatographic determination of 12 carbohydrates and sugar alcohols from one sample within 30 min. The method was successfully applied to a variety of plant materials with particular emphasis on perennial ryegrass samples of the species Lolium perenne. The method was easily extended to the analysis of the polysaccharide inulin after its acidic hydrolysis into the corresponding monomers without the need for substantial change of chromatographic conditions or even the use of enzymes. It therefore offers a fundamental advantage for the analysis of the complex mixture of nonstructural carbohydrates often found in plant samples.

  16. Synthetic Enantiopure Carbohydrate Polymers that are Highly Soluble in Water and Noncytotoxic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Eric L; Chin, Stacy L; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2013-10-15

    The first synthesis of poly-amido-saccharides (PASs) from a galactose(gal)-derived β-lactam sugar monomer is reported. The polymers are prepared using a controlled anionic ring-opening polymerization and characterized by NMR, optical rotation, IR, and GPC. Galactose-derived PASs display high solubility in aqueous solutions and are noncytotoxic to HepG2, CHO, and HeLa cell lines. To evaluate whether gal-derived PASs are recognized by the gal-specific lectin present on human hepatocytes, cellular uptake of rhodamine-labeled polymers is assessed using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Based on these results, the polymers are taken into cells via endocytosis that is not dependent on the gal-specific receptor on hepatocytes. Neutral, hydrophilic polymers, such as gal-derived PASs, are desirable materials for a range of biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, surface passivation, and hydrogel formation.

  17. High-throughput screening of Erwinia chrysanthemi pectin methylesterase variants using carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Jens; Sørensen, Iben; Derkx, Patrick;

    2009-01-01

    Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) catalyse the removal of methyl esters from the homogalacturonan (HG) backbone domain of pectin, a ubiquitous polysaccharide in plant cell walls. The degree of methyl esterification (DE) impacts upon the functional properties of HG within cell walls and plants produce...... numerous PMEs that act upon HG in muro. Many microbial plant pathogens also produce PMEs, the activity of which renders HG more susceptible to cleavage by pectin lyase and polygalacturonase enzymes and hence aids cell wall degradation. We have developed a novel microarray-based approach to investigate...... the activity of a series of variant enzymes based on the PME from the important pathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi. A library of 99 E. chrysanthemi PME mutants was created in which seven amino acids were altered by various different substitutions. Each mutant PME was incubated with a highly methyl esterified lime...

  18. Maintenance of energy expenditure on high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate diets at a constant body weight may prevent a positive energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, E A; Gonnissen, H K; Gatta-Cherifi, B; Janssens, P L; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2015-10-01

    Relatively high-protein diets are effective for body weight loss, and subsequent weight maintenance, yet it remains to be shown whether these diets would prevent a positive energy balance. Therefore, high-protein diet studies at a constant body weight are necessary. The objective was to determine fullness, energy expenditure, and macronutrient balances on a high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC) diet compared with a high-carbohydrate low-protein (HCLP) diet at a constant body weight, and to assess whether effects are transient or sustained after 12 weeks. A randomized parallel study was performed in 14 men and 18 women [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 22.8 ± 2.0] on diets containing 30/35/35 (HPLC) or 5/60/35 (HCLP) % of energy from protein/carbohydrate/fat. Significant interactions between dietary intervention and time on total energy expenditure (TEE) (P = 0.013), sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) (P = 0.040), and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) (P = 0.027) appeared from baseline to wk 12. TEE was maintained in the HPLC diet group, while it significantly decreased throughout the intervention period in the HCLP diet group (wk 1: P = 0.002; wk 12: P = 0.001). Energy balance was maintained in the HPLC diet group, and became positive in the HCLP diet group at wk 12 (P = 0.008). Protein balance varied directly according to the amount of protein in the diet, and diverged significantly between the diets (P = 0.001). Fullness ratings were significantly higher in the HPLC vs. the HCLP diet group at wk 1 (P = 0.034), but not at wk 12. Maintenance of energy expenditure on HPLC vs. HCLP diets at a constant body weight may prevent development of a positive energy balance, despite transiently higher fullness. The study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov with Identifier: NCT01551238. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Bile sequestration potential of an edible mineral (clinoptilolite) under simulated digestion of a high-fat meal: an in vitro investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristo, Aleksandra S; Tzanidaki, Garyfallia; Lygeros, Andreas; Sikalidis, Angelos K

    2015-12-01

    Bile, important for cholesterol homeostasis, is a potential target of hypercholesterolemia management. Bile sequestration by orally administered resins, while mostly effective in reducing blood cholesterol, presents several side effects and disadvantages. Thus, widely available natural edible minerals such as clinoptilolite with adsorptive properties offer an alternative for bile sequestration. In an experimental setting mimicking the physiological conditions of digestion/absorption (pH, temperature, and retention times) with a series of assessment methods, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersion X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared analysis (FT-IR), thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and molecular docking modeling, the ability of natural unmodified clinoptilolite to retain bile, while mixed with a simulated high-fat meal, was investigated. Our results demonstrate that clinoptilolite sequesters bile via adsorption of macromicelles at 75.4% efficiency, when the former is administered at a reasonable dose of 4% (w/w) of a meal's weight. This work provides the possibility of clinoptilolite utilization as a bile-sequestering/cholesterol-reducing agent.

  20. The administration of a high refined carbohydrate diet promoted an increase in pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress in mice exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pena KB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Karina Braga Pena,1 Camila de Oliveira Ramos,1 Nícia Pedreira Soares,1 Pamela Félix da Silva,1 Ana Carla Balthar Bandeira,2 Guilherme de Paula Costa,3 Sílvia Dantas Cangussú,1 André Talvani,3 Frank Silva Bezerra1 1Laboratory of Experimental Pathophysiology (LAFEx, 2Laboratory of Metabolic Biochemistry (LBM, 3Laboratory of Immunobiology of Inflammation (LABIIN, Department of Biological Sciences (DECBI, Center of Research in Biological Sciences (NUPEB, Federal University of Ouro Preto (UFOP, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a high refined carbohydrate diet and pulmonary inflammatory response in C57BL/6 mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS. Twenty-four male mice were divided into four groups: control group (CG, which received a standard diet; cigarette smoke group (CSG, which was exposed to CS; a high refined carbohydrate diet group (RG, which received a high refined carbohydrate diet; and a high refined carbohydrates diet and cigarette smoke group (RCSG, which received a high refined carbohydrate diet and was exposed to CS. The animals were monitored for food intake and body weight gain for 12 weeks. After this period, the CSG and RCSG were exposed to CS for five consecutive days. At the end of the experimental protocol, all animals were euthanized for subsequent analyses. There was an increase of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of CSG compared to CG and RCSG compared to CG, CSG, and RG. In addition, in the BALF, there was an increase of tumor necrosis factor alpha in RCSG compared to CG, CSG, and RG; interferon gamma increase in RCSG compared to the CSG; and increase in interleukin-10 in RCSG compared to CG and RG. Lipid peroxidation increased in RCSG compared to CG, CSG, and RG. Furthermore, the oxidation of proteins increased in CSG compared to CG. The analysis of oxidative stress showed an increase in superoxide dismutase in RCSG compared to CG, CSG, and RG and an

  1. Lactational response of dairy cows to diets varying in ruminal solubilities of carbohydrate and crude protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, D P; Schingoethe, D J

    1989-04-01

    Sixty high producing Holstein cows were randomly assigned in a 3 x 2 factorial to evaluate three sources of carbohydrates that differed in solubility and degradability (corn, barley, and dried whey) with two sources of CP solubility (soybean meal and urea) during wk 4 through 14 postpartum. Total mixed diets, formulated to be isonitrogenous at 16% CP, contained (DM basis) 40% corn silage, 10% chopped alfalfa hay, and 50% of the respective concentrate mix. Milk production (32.8, 31.5, and 31.3 kg/d) was highest for cows fed corn, whereas 4% FCM (30.0, 27.9, and 29.5 kg/d) was similar for cows fed corn and dried whey and lower for cows fed barley. Percentages of fat (3.37, 3.36, and 3.51) and protein (3.05, 3.00, and 2.98) were similar for cows fed all carbohydrate sources. Solubility of protein (soybean meal versus urea) did not affect production of milk (32.2 and 31.5 kg/d) and 4% FCM (29.4, and 28.9 kg/d). Intake of DM was lowest for cows fed barley (20.4, 18.8, and 20.5 kg/d), and intakes were similar (19.9 and 19.9 kg/d) for cows fed soybean meal and urea. Providing sources of carbohydrates in the diet that are more soluble and degradable (i.e., barley or dried whey) did not give the expected increase in utilization of a highly soluble CP source (urea) for milk production.

  2. Supplementation of Syzygium cumini seed powder prevented obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in high carbohydrate high fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulla, Anayt; Alam, Md Ashraful; Sikder, Biswajit; Sumi, Farzana Akter; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Habib, Zaki Farhad; Mohammed, Mostafe Khalid; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Reza, Hasan Mahmud

    2017-06-02

    Obesity and related complications have now became epidemic both in developed and developing countries. Cafeteria type diet mainly composed of high fat high carbohydrate components which plays a significant role in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the effect of Syzygium cumini seed powder on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high carbohydrate high fat diet (HCHF) induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with HCHF diet ad libitum, and the rats on HCHF diet were supplemented with Syzygium cumini seed powder for 56 days (2.5% w/w of diet). Oral glucose tolerance test, lipid parameters, liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) and lipid peroxidation products were analyzed at the end of 56 days. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were also measured in all groups of rats. Supplementation with Syzygium cumini seed powder significantly reduced body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, and plasma lipids such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL concentration. Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation in HCHF rats improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation also reduced the hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and elevated the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities as well as increased glutathione (GSH) concentration. In addition, histological assessment showed that Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation prevented inflammatory cell infiltration; fatty droplet deposition and fibrosis in liver of HCHFD fed rats. Our investigation suggests that Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation prevents oxidative stress and showed anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activity in liver of HCHF diet fed rats. In addition, Syzygium cumini seed powder may be beneficial in ameliorating insulin

  3. Lack of Effects of a Single High-Fat Meal Enriched with Vegetable n-3 or a Combination of Vegetable and Marine n-3 Fatty Acids on Intestinal Peptide Release and Adipokines in Healthy Female Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narverud, Ingunn; Myhrstad, Mari C W; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Karhu, Toni; Dahl, Tuva B; Halvorsen, Bente; Ulven, Stine M; Holven, Kirsten B

    2016-01-01

    Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 FAs with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil, and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by 2 weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at 3 and 6 h after intake were analyzed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin, which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 FAs from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.

  4. Lack of Effects of a Single High-Fat Meal Enriched with Vegetable n-3 or a Combination of Vegetable and Marine n-3 Fatty Acids on Intestinal Peptide Release and Adipokines in Healthy Female Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narverud, Ingunn; Myhrstad, Mari C. W.; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Karhu, Toni; Dahl, Tuva B.; Halvorsen, Bente; Ulven, Stine M.; Holven, Kirsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 FAs with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil, and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by 2 weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at 3 and 6 h after intake were analyzed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin, which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 FAs from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions. PMID:27630989

  5. Lack of effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids on intestinal peptide release and adipokines in healthy female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Naverud

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by two weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at three and six hours after intake were analysed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 fatty acids from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.

  6. Carbohydrates and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Teens > Carbohydrates and Diabetes A A A What's in this ... that you should keep track of how many carbohydrates (carbs) you eat. But what exactly are carbohydrates ...

  7. Metabolic response to different glycemic indexes of pre-exercise meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cristina de Faria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To ensure performance and health, the type of food and the time of pre-exercise ingestion should be considered by practitioners of morning physical activity. Objective: This study assessed the metabolic response after pre-exercise meals with different glycemic indexes (GI and in the fasting state adopting different types of hydration.METHODS: Twelve men performed four experimental tests; two with pre-exercise meals of high GI (HGI and low GI (LGI, and two were performed in the fasting state with hydration: water (H2O and carbohydrate drink (CHO. Each test consisted of a pre-exercise rest period of 30 minutes followed by 60 minutes of cycle ergometer with continuous load equivalent to 60% of the extrapolated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2MaxExt. During the exercise, participants were hydrated every 15 minutes with 3mL per kg body weight. During each experimental test, venous blood samples were obtained for fasting and at 15-minute intervals during rest, and every 20 minutes during exercise. The gas analysis was carried out in periods of 5 minutes every 20 minutes of exercise.RESULTS: There was no difference in substrate oxidation. After 20 minutes of exercise, pre-exercise food intake procedures showed similar behavior, having only reduced blood glucose levels compared to fasting procedures (p<0.01. There was maintenance of blood glucose at stable and higher levels during exercise in relation to the other tests in the fast procedure with CHO.CONCLUSION: The data suggest that despite the similar metabolic behavior between LGI and HGI meals, the adoption of a LGI meal before the morning exercise seems to be a more suitable feeding practice due to higher tendency of rebound hypoglycemia after HGI meal and when morning exercise is performed on fasting, hydration with CHO seems to minimize the hypoglycemic risk arising from that state.

  8. Evidence of disturbed sleep and mood state in well-trained athletes during short-term intensified training with and without a high carbohydrate nutritional intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killer, S C; Svendsen, I S; Jeukendrup, A E; Gleeson, M

    2015-09-25

    Few studies have investigated the effects of exercise training on sleep physiology in well-trained athletes. We investigated changes in sleep markers, mood state and exercise performance in well-trained cyclists undergoing short-term intensified training and carbohydrate nutritional intervention. Thirteen highly-trained male cyclists (age: 25 ± 6y, [Formula: see text]O2max: 72 ± 5 ml/kg/min) participated in two 9-day periods of intensified training while undergoing a high (HCHO) or moderate (CON) carbohydrate nutritional intervention before, during and after training sessions. Sleep was measured each night via wristwatch actigraphy. Mood state questionnaires were completed daily. Performance was assessed with maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]. Percentage sleep time fell during intensified training (87.9 ± 1.5 to 82.5 ± 2.3%; p state and maximal exercise performance.

  9. [Metabolic and hormonal indices in rats with prolonged model of metabolic syndrome induced by high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, K V; Bondareva, V M; Trashkov, A P; Chistyakova, O V; Verlov, N A; Shpakov, A O

    2017-01-01

    To develop the approaches for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome (MS), a pathological state widespread in modern population, that involves a complex of metabolic and functional disorders, appropriate animal models of MS are required. One of these models is induced by the consumption of combined high-carbohydrate and high-fat (HC/HF) diet consisting of excess amount of easily digestible carbohydrates and saturated fats. At the same time, the character, temporal dynamics and severity of metabolic abnormalities in MS induced by HC/HF diet are still poorly understood. The aim of work was the characterization of metabolic changes in Wistar rats with MS induced by 10- and 15-week HC/HF diet that includes the consumption of 30% sucrose solution (instead of drinking water) and food rich in saturated fats. Rats that received HC/HF diet for 15 weeks had a number of features characteristic of MS, such as increased body weight and content of abdominal fat, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, as well as the markers of impaired function of the cardiovascular system (hyperhomocysteinemia, the reduced level of vasodilator nitric oxide, the increased concentration of vasoconstrictor endothelin 1). In rats, which were on the diet for 10 weeks, the metabolic abnormalities were less pronounced, indicating an insufficiency of 10-week duration of HC/HF diet for MS induction. Thus, the model of MS induced by 15-week HC/HF diet has the characteristic features that allow for extrapolation of the obtained data to similar pathologic changes in human, and can be used to study the etiology and pathogenesis of MS and the search of effective ways of MS prevention and treatment.

  10. Consumption of a low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet (the ketogenic diet) exaggerates biotin deficiency in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahiro; Matsui, Tomoyoshi; Ando, Saori; Ishii, Yoshie; Sawamura, Hiromi; Ebara, Shuhei; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2013-10-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that acts as a cofactor for several carboxylases. The ketogenic diet, a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet, is used to treat drug-resistant epilepsy and promote weight loss. In Japan, the infant version of the ketogenic diet is known as the "ketone formula." However, as the special infant formulas used in Japan, including the ketone formula, do not contain sufficient amounts of biotin, biotin deficiency can develop in infants who consume the ketone formula. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ketogenic diet on biotin status in mice. Male mice (N = 32) were divided into the following groups: control diet group, biotin-deficient (BD) diet group, ketogenic control diet group, and ketogenic biotin-deficient (KBD) diet group. Eight mice were used in each group. At 9 wk, the typical symptoms of biotin deficiency such as hair loss and dermatitis had only developed in the KBD diet group. The total protein expression level of biotin-dependent carboxylases and the total tissue biotin content were significantly decreased in the KBD and BD diet groups. However, these changes were more severe in the KBD diet group. These findings demonstrated that the ketogenic diet increases biotin bioavailability and consumption, and hence, promotes energy production by gluconeogenesis and branched-chain amino acid metabolism, which results in exaggerated biotin deficiency in biotin-deficient mice. Therefore, biotin supplementation is important for mice that consume the ketogenic diet. It is suggested that individuals that consume the ketogenic diet have an increased biotin requirement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diet on lipid metabolism, liver and kidney function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogrys, Renata B; Franczyk-Żarów, Magdalena; Maślak, Edyta; Topolska, Kinga

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare effects of Western diet (WD) with low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diet on lipid metabolism, liver and kidney function in rats. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and fed for the next 2 months. The experimental diets were: Control (7% of soybean oil, 20% protein), WD (21% of butter, 20% protein), and LCHP (21% of butter and 52.4% protein) diet. The LCHP diet significantly decreased the body weight of the rats. Diet consumption was differentiated among groups, however significant changes were observed since third week of the experiment duration. Rats fed LCHP diet ate significantly less (25.2g/animal/day) than those from Control (30.2g/animal/day) and WD (27.8 g/animal/day) groups. Additionally, food efficiency ratio (FER) tended to decrease in LCHP fed rats. Serum homocysteine concentration significantly decreased in rats fed WD and LCHP diets. Liver weights were significantly higher in rats fed WD and LCHP diets. At the end of the experiment (2 months) the triacylglycerol (TAG) was significantly decreased in animals fed LCHP compared to WD. qRT-PCR showed that SCD-1 and FAS were decreased in LCHP fed rats, but WD diet increased expression of lipid metabolism genes. Rats receiving LCHP diet had two fold higher kidney weight and 54.5% higher creatinin level compared to Control and WD diets. In conclusion, LCHP diet decreased animal's body weight and decreased TAG in rat's serum. However, kidney damage in LCHP rats was observed.

  12. A High Molecular-Mass Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 Amylopullulanase: Characterization and Its Relationship in Carbohydrate Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian Mau Goh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An amylopullulanase of the thermophilic Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 (ApuASK was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Though amylopullulanases larger than 200 kDa are rare, the molecular mass of purified ApuASK appears to be approximately 225 kDa, on both SDS-PAGE analyses and native-PAGE analyses. ApuASK was stable between pH 6.0 and pH 8.0 and exhibited optimal activity at pH 7.5. The optimal temperature for ApuASK enzyme activity was 60 °C, and it retained 54% of its total activity for 240 min at 65 °C. ApuASK reacts with pullulan, starch, glycogen, and dextrin, yielding glucose, maltose, and maltotriose. Interestingly, most of the previously described amylopullulanases are unable to produce glucose and maltose from these substrates. Thus, ApuASK is a novel, high molecular-mass amylopullulanase able to produce glucose, maltose, and maltotriose from pullulan and starch. Based on whole genome sequencing data, ApuASK appeared to be the largest protein present in Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4. The α-amylase catalytic domain present in all of the amylase superfamily members is present in ApuASK, located between the cyclodextrin (CD-pullulan-degrading N-terminus and the α-amylase catalytic C-terminus (amyC domains. In addition, the existence of a S-layer homology (SLH domain indicates that ApuASK might function as a cell-anchoring enzyme and be important for carbohydrate utilization in a streaming hot spring.

  13. Pre-meal affective state and laboratory test meal intake in adolescent girls with loss of control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E; Shomaker, Lauren B; Stephens, Mark; Sbrocco, Tracy; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2013-09-01

    Loss of control eating confers risk for excess weight gain and exacerbated disordered eating. Affect theory proposes that loss of control eating is used to cope with negative mood states. Self-report data suggest that negative affect may contribute to the etiology of loss of control eating, but this theory has not been well-tested using laboratory paradigms. We examined associations between pre-meal affective states and intake during a laboratory test meal. One-hundred and ten adolescent girls with reported loss of control eating whose body mass index fell between the 75th and 97th percentile for age and sex completed state mood ratings prior to a test-meal. Results indicated that pre-meal state negative affect was associated with greater carbohydrate and less protein consumption, as well as greater snack and dessert and less fruit and dairy intake. All girls experienced significant decreases in negative affect from pre- to post-meal, but intake during the meal was unassociated with post-meal affect. In support of affect theory, negative affective states reported among girls with loss of control may be a driving factor for increased energy-dense food intake, which may play a role in excess weight gain. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Cultivar by environment effects of perennial ryegrass cultivars selected for high water soluble carbohydrates managed under differing precipitation levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic results of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) breeding include improved disease resistance, biomass, and nutritional quality. Yet, lack of tolerance to water stress limits its wise use. Recent efforts to increase water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content in perennial ryegrass may incre...

  15. Carbohydrate microarrays in plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangel, Jonatan U; Pedersen, Henriette L; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Ahl, Louise I; Salmean, Armando Asuncion; Egelund, Jack; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Clausen, Mads H; Willats, William G T

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high-throughput analysis of nucleotides, proteins, and increasingly carbohydrates. Using microarrays, the abundance of and interactions between hundreds and thousands of molecules can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Here we show that carbohydrate microarrays are multifunctional tools for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities.

  16. The social construction of competence: Conceptions of science and expertise among proponents of the low-carbohydrate high-fat diet in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauho, Mikko

    2016-04-01

    The article looks at conceptions of science and expertise among lay proponents of the low-carbohydrate high-fat diet in Finland. The research data consist of comments on a webpage related to a debate on the health dangers of animal fats screened in Finnish national television in autumn 2010. The article shows that contrary to the prevailing image advocated by the national nutritional establishment, which is based on the deficit model of public understanding of science, the low-carbohydrate high-fat proponents are neither ignorant about scientific facts nor anti-science. Rather, they express nuanced viewpoints about the nature of science, the place of individual experience in nutritional recommendations and the reliability of experts. Inspired by discussions on the social construction of ignorance, the article argues that the low-carbohydrate high-fat proponents are engaged in what it callsthe social construction of competencewhen they present their position as grounded in science and stylize themselves as lay experts.

  17. Summer Meal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Information pertaining to Summer Meal Sites, as collected by Citiparks in the City of Pittsburgh Department of Parks and Recreation. This dataset includes the...

  18. Summer Meal Capacity Builder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Allows users to search for summer meal sites from the previous summer by zip code, adding “layers” of information, such as free and reduced-price lunch participation...

  19. A cost-effective strategy for the bio-prospecting of mixed microalgae with high carbohydrate content: diversity fluctuations in different growth media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea-Barcia, Glenda; Buitrón, Germán; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, widespread efforts have been directed towards decreasing the costs associated with microalgae culture systems for the production of biofuels. In this study, a simple and inexpensive strategy to bio-prospect and cultivate mixed indigenous chlorophytes with a high carbohydrate content for biomethane and biohydrogen production was developed. Mixed microalgae were collected from four different water-bodies in Queretaro, Mexico, and were grown in Bold's basal mineral medium and secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant using inexpensive photo-bioreactors. The results showed large fluctuations in microalgal genera diversity based on different culture media and nitrogen sources. In secondary effluent, Golenkinia sp. and Scenedesmus sp. proliferated. The carbohydrate content, for secondary effluent, varied between 12% and 57%, and the highest volumetric and areal productivity were 61 mg L(-1)d(-1) and 4.6 g m(-2)d(-1), respectively. These results indicate that mixed microalgae are a good feedstock for biomethane and biohydrogen production.

  20. A dose-response strategy reveals differences between normal-weight and obese men in their metabolic and inflammatory responses to a high-fat meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwander, Flurina; Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin A; Buri, Caroline; Portmann, Reto; Egger, Lotti; Chollet, Magali; McTernan, Philip G; Piya, Milan K; Gijs, Martin A M; Vionnet, Nathalie; Pralong, François; Laederach, Kurt; Vergères, Guy

    2014-10-01

    A dose-response strategy may not only allow investigation of the impact of foods and nutrients on human health but may also reveal differences in the response of individuals to food ingestion based on their metabolic health status. In a randomized crossover study, we challenged 19 normal-weight (BMI: 20-25 kg/m(2)) and 18 obese (BMI: >30 kg/m(2)) men with 500, 1000, and 1500 kcal of a high-fat (HF) meal (60.5% energy from fat). Blood was taken at baseline and up to 6 h postprandially and analyzed for a range of metabolic, inflammatory, and hormonal variables, including plasma glucose, lipids, and C-reactive protein and serum insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and endotoxin. Insulin was the only variable that could differentiate the postprandial response of normal-weight and obese participants at each of the 3 caloric doses. A significant response of the inflammatory marker IL-6 was only observed in the obese group after ingestion of the HF meal containing 1500 kcal [net incremental AUC (iAUC) = 22.9 ± 6.8 pg/mL × 6 h, P = 0.002]. Furthermore, the net iAUC for triglycerides significantly increased from the 1000 to the 1500 kcal meal in the obese group (5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h vs. 6.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h; P = 0.015) but not in the normal-weight group (4.3 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h vs. 4.8 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h; P = 0.31). We propose that caloric dose-response studies may contribute to a better understanding of the metabolic impact of food on the human organism. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01446068. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. A Dose-Response Strategy Reveals Differences between Normal-Weight and Obese Men in Their Metabolic and Inflammatory Responses to a High-Fat Meal123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwander, Flurina; Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin A.; Buri, Caroline; Portmann, Reto; Egger, Lotti; Chollet, Magali; McTernan, Philip G.; Piya, Milan K.; Gijs, Martin A. M.; Vionnet, Nathalie; Pralong, François; Laederach, Kurt; Vergères, Guy

    2014-01-01

    A dose-response strategy may not only allow investigation of the impact of foods and nutrients on human health but may also reveal differences in the response of individuals to food ingestion based on their metabolic health status. In a randomized crossover study, we challenged 19 normal-weight (BMI: 20–25 kg/m2) and 18 obese (BMI: >30 kg/m2) men with 500, 1000, and 1500 kcal of a high-fat (HF) meal (60.5% energy from fat). Blood was taken at baseline and up to 6 h postprandially and analyzed for a range of metabolic, inflammatory, and hormonal variables, including plasma glucose, lipids, and C-reactive protein and serum insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and endotoxin. Insulin was the only variable that could differentiate the postprandial response of normal-weight and obese participants at each of the 3 caloric doses. A significant response of the inflammatory marker IL-6 was only observed in the obese group after ingestion of the HF meal containing 1500 kcal [net incremental AUC (iAUC) = 22.9 ± 6.8 pg/mL × 6 h, P = 0.002]. Furthermore, the net iAUC for triglycerides significantly increased from the 1000 to the 1500 kcal meal in the obese group (5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h vs. 6.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h; P = 0.015) but not in the normal-weight group (4.3 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h vs. 4.8 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h; P = 0.31). We propose that caloric dose-response studies may contribute to a better understanding of the metabolic impact of food on the human organism. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01446068. PMID:24812072

  2. Moderate exercise, postprandial energy expenditure, and substrate use in varying meals in lean and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegler, Petra; Sparks, S Andrew; Cunliffe, Adam

    2008-02-01

    Maximizing postprandial energy expenditure and fat oxidation could be of clinical relevance for the treatment of obesity. This study investigated the effect of prior exercise on energy expenditure and substrate utilization after meals containing varying amounts of macronutrients. Eight lean (11.6%+/-4.0% body fat, M+/-SD) and 12 obese (35.9%+/-5.3% body fat) men were randomly assigned to a protein (43% protein, 30% carbohydrate) or a carbohydrate (10% protein, 63% carbohydrate) meal. The metabolic responses to the meals were investigated during 2 trials, when meals were ingested after a resting period (D) or cycling exercise (Ex+D; 65% of oxygen consumption reserve, 200 kcal). Energy expenditure, substrate utilization, and glucose and insulin responses were measured for 4 hr during the postprandial phase. Although postprandial energy expenditure was not affected by prior exercise, the total amount of fat oxidized was higher during Ex+D than during D (170.8+/-60.1 g vs. 137.8+/-50.8 g, pexercise. Plasma insulin tended to be lower during Ex+D (p= .072) and after the protein meal (p= .066). No statistically significant change in postprandial blood glucose was induced by prior exercise. Exercising before meal consumption can result in a marked increase in fat oxidation, which is independent of the type of meal consumed.

  3. Associations of lipoprotein lipase gene rs326 with changes of lipid profiles after a high-carbohydrate and low-fat diet in healthy Chinese Han youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xing-chun; Lin, Jia; Wang, Qian; Liu, Hui; Qiu, Li; Fang, Ding-zhi

    2014-04-23

    To investigate the effects of a high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HC/LF) diet on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins (Apos) of healthy Chinese Han youth with different genotypes of lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) rs326, 56 subjects were given a washout diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrate for seven days, followed by the HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for six days, with no total energy restriction. Plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), Apo B-100 and Apo A-I were analyzed at baseline and before and after the HC/LF diet. The results show that, when compared with before the HC/LF diet, only the male G carriers experienced increased HDL-C (p = 0.008) and Apo A-I (p = 0.005) after the HC/LF diet. Decreased TC in both males and females and increased TG in females were found regardless of the genotype after the HC/LF diet. LDL-C decreased in all the subjects although the decrease was not significant in the female G carriers. These results demonstrate that the G allele of LPL rs326 associates with the elevated levels of HDL-C and Apo A-I after the HC/LF diet in males of the healthy Chinese Han Youth.

  4. Body Weight Control by a High-Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet Slows the Progression of Diabetic Kidney Damage in an Obese, Hypertensive, Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Ohtomo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of several factors implicated in the genesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Obese, hypertensive, type 2 diabetic rats SHR/NDmcr-cp were given, for 12 weeks, either a normal, middle-carbohydrate/middle-fat diet (MC/MF group or a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (HC/LF group. Daily caloric intake was the same in both groups. Nevertheless, the HC/LF group gained less weight. Despite equivalent degrees of hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and even a poorer glycemic control, the HC/LF group had less severe renal histological abnormalities and a reduced intrarenal advanced glycation and oxidative stress. Mediators of the renoprotection, specifically linked to obesity and body weight control, include a reduced renal inflammation and TGF-beta expression, together with an enhanced level of adiponectin. Altogether, these data identify a specific role of body weight control by a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet in the progression of DN. Body weight control thus impacts on local intrarenal advanced glycation and oxidative stress through inflammation and adiponectin levels.

  5. Associations of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene rs326 with Changes of Lipid Profiles after a High-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diet in Healthy Chinese Han Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-chun Zhu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of a high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HC/LF diet on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins (Apos of healthy Chinese Han youth with different genotypes of lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL rs326, 56 subjects were given a washout diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrate for seven days, followed by the HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for six days, with no total energy restriction. Plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, Apo B-100 and Apo A-I were analyzed at baseline and before and after the HC/LF diet. The results show that, when compared with before the HC/LF diet, only the male G carriers experienced increased HDL-C (p = 0.008 and Apo A-I (p = 0.005 after the HC/LF diet. Decreased TC in both males and females and increased TG in females were found regardless of the genotype after the HC/LF diet. LDL-C decreased in all the subjects although the decrease was not significant in the female G carriers. These results demonstrate that the G allele of LPL rs326 associates with the elevated levels of HDL-C and Apo A-I after the HC/LF diet in males of the healthy Chinese Han Youth.

  6. Effects of lipoprotein lipase gene variations, a high-carbohydrate low-fat diet, and gender on serum lipid profiles in healthy Chinese Han youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Gong, Renrong; Lin, Jia; Li, Ronghui; Xiao, Liying; Duan, Wei; Fang, Dingzhi

    2011-01-01

    A high-carbohydrate low-fat (HC/LF) diet and lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) Ser447Stop and Hind III polymorphisms have separately been found to be associated with triacylglycerol (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). This study sought to test the effects of LPL polymorphisms and an HC/LF diet on the serum lipid profile of Chinese with a lower incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) consuming a diet with less fat and more carbohydrates. Fifty-six healthy subjects (22.89 ± 1.80 years) were given a control diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrates for 7 days, followed by an HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for 6 days; there were no changes in the fatty acid composition or restrictions on total energy. Serum lipid profiles at baseline, before and after the HC/LF diet, and LPL polymorphisms were analyzed. After 6 days of the HC/LF diet, TG and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) index were found to increase only in females with S447S. No decrease in HDL-C was noted. In subjects with Hind III polymorphism, increased TG was found in all females but not in males. Increased HDL-C, together with apolipoprotein (apo) AI, was found in male H- carriers but not in males with H+/H+ and females. In conclusion, LPL Ser447Stop and Hind III polymorphisms modified the effects of an HC/LF diet on the serum lipid profiles of a young Chinese population in different ways. Effective strategies for dietary interventions targeted at younger populations should take into account the interplay between genetic polymorphisms, diet, and gender.

  7. Effects of meal size and composition on incretin, alpha-cell, and beta-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkelijkhuizen, Josina M; McQuarrie, Kelly; Girman, Cynthia J; Stein, Peter P; Mari, Andrea; Holst, Jens J; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M

    2010-04-01

    The incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) regulate postprandial insulin release from the beta-cells. We investigated the effects of 3 standardized meals with different caloric and nutritional content in terms of postprandial glucose, insulin, glucagon, and incretin responses. In a randomized crossover study, 18 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 6 healthy volunteers underwent three 4-hour meal tolerance tests (small carbohydrate [CH]-rich meal, large CH-rich meal, and fat-rich meal). Non-model-based and model-based estimates of beta-cell function and incremental areas under the curve of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP were calculated. Mixed models and Friedman tests were used to test for differences in meal responses. The large CH-rich meal and fat-rich meal resulted in a slightly larger insulin response as compared with the small CH-rich meal and led to a slightly shorter period of hyperglycemia, but only in healthy subjects. Model-based insulin secretion estimates did not show pronounced differences between meals. Both in healthy individuals and in those with diabetes, more CH resulted in higher GLP-1 release. In contrast with the other meals, GIP release was still rising 2 hours after the fat-rich meal. The initial glucagon response was stimulated by the large CH-rich meal, whereas the fat-rich meal induced a late glucagon response. Fat preferentially stimulates GIP secretion, whereas CH stimulates GLP-1 secretion. Differences in meal size and composition led to differences in insulin and incretin responses but not to differences in postprandial glucose levels of the well-controlled patients with diabetes.

  8. Isocaloric pair-fed high-carbohydrate diet induced more hepatic steatosis and inflammation than high-fat diet mediated by miR- 34a/SIRT1 axis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the different effects of isocaloric high-fat diet (HFD) and high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) on hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanisms, especially the role of microRNA- 34a/silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) axis, C57BL/6J mice (n = 12/group) were isocaloric pair-fed with Li...

  9. Dehydration-anorexia derives from a reduction in meal size, but not meal number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Christina N; Lorenzen, Sarah M; Compton, Douglas; Watts, Alan G

    2012-01-18

    The anorexia that results from extended periods of cellular dehydration is an important physiological adaptation that limits the intake of osmolytes from food and helps maintain the integrity of fluid compartments. The ability to experimentally control both the development and reversal of anorexia, together with the understanding of underlying hormonal and neuropeptidergic signals, makes dehydration (DE)-anorexia a powerful model for exploring the interactions of neural networks that stimulate and inhibit food intake. However, it is not known which meal parameters are affected by cellular dehydration to generate anorexia. Here we use continuous and high temporal resolution recording of food and fluid intake, together with a drinking-explicit method of meal pattern analysis to explore which meal parameters are modified during DE-anorexia. We find that the most important factor responsible for DE-anorexia is the failure to maintain feeding behavior once a meal has started, rather than the ability to initiate a meal, which remains virtually intact. This outcome is consistent with increased sensitivity to satiation signals and post-prandial satiety mechanisms. We also find that DE-anorexia significantly disrupts the temporal distribution of meals across the day so that the number of nocturnal meals gradually decreases while diurnal meal number increases. Surprisingly, once DE-anorexia is reversed this temporal redistribution is maintained for at least 4 days after normal food intake has resumed, which may allow increased daily food intake even after normal satiety mechanisms are reinstated. Therefore, DE-anorexia apparently develops from a selective targeting of those neural networks that control meal termination, whereas meal initiation mechanisms remain viable.

  10. Extended exenatide administration enhances lipid metabolism and exacerbates pancreatic injury in mice on a high fat, high carbohydrate diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Rouse

    Full Text Available This study expanded upon a previous study in mice reporting a link between exenatide treatment and exocrine pancreatic injury by demonstrating temporal and dose responses and providing an initial mechanistic hypothesis. The design of the present study included varying lengths of exenatide exposure (3, 6 weeks to 12 weeks at multiple concentrations (3, 10, or 30 µg/kg with multiple endpoints (histopathology evaluations, immunoassay for cytokines, immunostaining of the pancreas, serum chemistries and measurement of trypsin, amylase, and, lipase, and gene expression profiles. Time- and dose-dependent exocrine pancreatic injury was observed in mice on a high fat diet treated with exenatide. The morphological changes identified in the pancreas involved acinar cell injury and death (autophagy, apoptosis, necrosis, and atrophy, cell adaptations (hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and cell survival (proliferation/regeneration accompanied by varying degrees of inflammatory response leading to secondary injury in pancreatic blood vessels, ducts, and adipose tissues. Gene expression profiles indicated increased signaling for cell survival and altered lipid metabolism in exenatide treated mice. Immunohistochemistry supported gene expression findings that exenatide caused and/or exacerbated pancreatic injury in a high fat diet environment potentially by further increasing high fat diet exacerbated lipid metabolism and resulting oxidative stress. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and determine their relevance to human disease.

  11. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system (enzymes) ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. ...

  12. Regioselective azidotrimethylsilylation of carbohydrates and applications thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L, Mallikharjuna Rao; Yousuf, Syed Khalid; Mukherjee, Debaraj; Taneja, Subhash Chandra

    2012-12-07

    Azidotrimethylsilylation of carbohydrates (monosaccharides and disaccharides) has been achieved in high yields under Mitsunobu conditions. The azidation of carbohydrates is effected at 0 °C essentially only at the primary alcoholic position in mono, di- and triols in protected/unprotected glycosides, whereas the remaining secondary hydroxyl groups got silylated. Surprisingly, no azidation of the secondary hydroxyls was observed in all the carbohydrate substrates. Applications of the methodology for the synthesis of amino sugars, triazoles and azasugars are reported.

  13. Comparison of multiple and novel measures of dietary glycemic carbohydrate with insulin resistant status in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neill Sheila

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous epidemiological investigations of associations between dietary glycemic intake and insulin resistance have used average daily measures of glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL. We explored multiple and novel measures of dietary glycemic intake to determine which was most predictive of an association with insulin resistance. Methods Usual dietary intakes were assessed by diet history interview in women aged 42-81 years participating in the Longitudinal Assessment of Ageing in Women. Daily measures of dietary glycemic intake (n = 329 were carbohydrate, GI, GL, and GL per megacalorie (GL/Mcal, while meal based measures (n = 200 were breakfast, lunch and dinner GL; and a new measure, GL peak score, to represent meal peaks. Insulin resistant status was defined as a homeostasis model assessment (HOMA value of >3.99; HOMA as a continuous variable was also investigated. Results GL, GL/Mcal, carbohydrate (all P Conclusion A dietary pattern with high peaks of GL above the individual's average intake was a significant independent predictor of insulin resistance in this population, however the contribution was less than daily GL and carbohydrate variables. Accounting for energy intake slightly increased the predictive ability of GL, which is potentially important when examining disease risk in more diverse populations with wider variations in energy requirements.

  14. Preventative effect of Zingiber officinale on insulin resistance in a high-fat high-carbohydrate diet-fed rat model and its mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Tran, Van H; Kota, Bhavani P; Nammi, Srinivas; Duke, Colin C; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2014-08-01

    Insulin resistance is a core component of metabolic syndrome and usually precedes the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We have examined the preventative effect of an ethanol extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Zingiberaceae) on insulin resistance in a high-fat high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet-fed rat model of metabolic syndrome. The HFHC control rats displayed severe insulin resistance, whilst rats treated with ginger extract (200 mg/kg) during HFHC diet feeding showed a significant improvement of insulin sensitivity using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) after 10 weeks (p ginger, dose-dependently (from 50 to 150 μM) increased AMPK α-subunit phosphorylation in L6 skeletal muscle cells. This was accompanied by a time-dependent marked increment of PGC-1α mRNA expression and mitochondrial content in L6 skeletal muscle cells. These results suggest that the protection from HFHC diet-induced insulin resistance by ginger is likely associated with the increased capacity of energy metabolism by its major active component (S)-[6]-gingerol.

  15. Quercetin Isolated from Toona sinensis Leaves Attenuates Hyperglycemia and Protects Hepatocytes in High-Carbohydrate/High-Fat Diet and Alloxan Induced Experimental Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of diabetes mellitus is related to oxidant stress induced by a high carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HFD. Quercetin, as a major bioactive component in Toona sinensis leaves (QTL, is a natural antioxidant. However, the exact mechanism by which QTL ameliorate diabetes mellitus is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the hypoglycemic effects and hepatocytes protection of QTL on HFD and alloxan induced diabetic mice. Intragastric administration of QTL significantly reduced body weight gain, serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels compared to those of diabetic mice. Furthermore, it significantly attenuated oxidative stress, as determined by lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide content, and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and as a result attenuated liver injury. QTL also significantly suppressed the diabetes-induced activation of the p65/NF-κB and ERK1/2/MAPK pathways, as well as caspase-9 and caspase-3 levels in liver tissues of diabetic mice. Finally, micrograph analysis of liver samples showed decreased cellular organelle injury in hepatocytes of QTL treated mice. Taken together, QTL can be viewed as a promising dietary agent that can be used to reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus and its secondary complications by ameliorating oxidative stress in the liver.

  16. Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates Improve Insulin Resistance and Decrease Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Rats Fed a High Carbohydrate-High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-08-03

    A high carbohydrate-high fat (HCHF) diet causes insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Rice bran has been demonstrated to have anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherogenic properties in an obese mouse model. In the present study, we investigated the beneficial effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP) in HCHF-induced MS rats. After 12 weeks on this diet, the HCHF-fed group was divided into four subgroups, which were orally administered RBP 100 or 500 mg/kg, pioglitazone 10 mg/kg, or tap water for a further 6 weeks. Compared with normal diet control group, the MS rats had elevated levels of blood glucose, lipid, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Treatment with RBP significantly alleviated all those changes and restored insulin sensitivity. Additionally, RBP treatment increased adiponectin and suppressed leptin levels. Expression of Ppar-γ mRNA in adipose tissues was significantly increased whereas expression of lipogenic genes Srebf1 and Fasn was significantly decreased. Levels of mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines, Il-6, Tnf-α, Nos-2 and Mcp-1 were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the present findings support the consumption of RBP as a functional food to improve insulin resistance and to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  17. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raziani, Farinaz; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup

    2015-01-01

    meat (CARB). RESULTS: The CHEESE diet caused a 5% higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration (P = 0.012), an 8% higher apo A-I concentration (P CARB diet. Also, the MEAT diet caused an 8% higher HDL......-cholesterol concentration (P CARB diet. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apoB, and triacylglycerol were similar with the 3 diets. Fecal fat excretion was 1.8 and 0.9 g higher with the CHEESE diet than with CARB and MEAT diets (P ....004, respectively) and 0.9 g higher with the MEAT diet than with the CARB diet (P = 0.005). CHEESE and MEAT diets caused higher fecal bile acid excretion than did the CARB diet (P

  18. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home......Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type....... This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20...

  19. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    . This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20......Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type...... of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home...

  20. New fabrication and applications of carbohydrate arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Chen, Xin; Xiao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrate arrays are used as high-throughput screening platforms to study the carbohydrate-mediated recognition events for glycobiology. The polysaccharide arrays are easy to fabricate by non-covalently or covalently immobilizing polysaccharides onto array surfaces because polysaccharides have hydrophobic interactions. Oligosaccharides must be derived and covalently or non-covalently immobilized onto array surfaces to fabricate oligosaccharide arrays because they have hydrophilic interactions. At the moment, carbohydrate arrays are mainly used to study the carbohydrate-protein interactions and carbohydrate-binding lectins or antibodies, which are possible to be applied to clinics and diagnoses. This review mainly summed up the new fabrication strategies of carbohydrate arrays and their applications in recent four years.

  1. High-resolution mapping of a genetic locus regulating preferential carbohydrate intake, total kilocalories, and food volume on mouse chromosome 17.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gularte-Mérida

    Full Text Available The specific genes regulating the quantitative variation in macronutrient preference and food intake are virtually unknown. We fine mapped a previously identified mouse chromosome 17 region harboring quantitative trait loci (QTL with large effects on preferential macronutrient intake-carbohydrate (Mnic1, total kilcalories (Kcal2, and total food volume (Tfv1 using interval-specific strains. These loci were isolated in the [C57BL/6J.CAST/EiJ-17.1-(D17Mit19-D17Mit50; B6.CAST-17.1] strain, possessing a ∼ 40.1 Mb region of CAST DNA on the B6 genome. In a macronutrient selection paradigm, the B6.CAST-17.1 subcongenic mice eat 30% more calories from the carbohydrate-rich diet, ∼ 10% more total calories, and ∼ 9% more total food volume per body weight. In the current study, a cross between carbohydrate-preferring B6.CAST-17.1 and fat-preferring, inbred B6 mice was used to generate a subcongenic-derived F2 mapping population; genotypes were determined using a high-density, custom SNP panel. Genetic linkage analysis substantially reduced the 95% confidence interval for Mnic1 (encompassing Kcal2 and Tfv1 from 40.1 to 29.5 Mb and more precisely established its boundaries. Notably, no genetic linkage for self-selected fat intake was detected, underscoring the carbohydrate-specific effect of this locus. A second key finding was the separation of two energy balance QTLs: Mnic1/Kcal2/Tfv1 for food intake and a newly discovered locus regulating short term body weight gain. The Mnic1/Kcal2/Tfv1 QTL was further de-limited to 19.0 Mb, based on the absence of nutrient intake phenotypes in subcongenic HQ17IIa mice. Analyses of available sequence data and gene ontologies, along with comprehensive expression profiling in the hypothalamus of non-recombinant, cast/cast and b6/b6 F2 controls, focused our attention on candidates within the QTL interval. Zfp811, Zfp870, and Btnl6 showed differential expression and also contain stop codons, but have no known biology

  2. High-fat, low-carbohydrate diet alters myocardial oxidative stress and impairs recovery of cardiac function after ischemia and reperfusion in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Lloyd, Steven G

    2013-04-01

    Obesity is associated with elevated risk of heart disease. A solid understanding of the safety and potential adverse effects of high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet (HFLCD) similar to that used by humans for weight loss on the heart is crucial. High fat intake is known to promote increases in reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial damage. We hypothesized that there would be adverse effects of HFLCD on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury through enhancing oxidative stress injury and impairing mitochondrial biogenesis in a nongenetic, diet-induced rat model of obesity. To test the hypothesis, 250-g male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an obesity-promoting diet for 7 weeks to induce obesity, then switched to HFLCD or a low-fat control diet for 2 weeks. Isolated hearts underwent global low flow ischemia for 60 minutes and reperfusion for 60 minutes. High-fat, low-carbohydrate diet resulted in greater weight gain and lower myocardial glycogen, plasma adiponectin, and insulin. Myocardial antioxidant gene transcript and protein expression of superoxide dismutase and catalase were reduced in HFLCD, along with increased oxidative gene NADPH oxidase-4 transcript and xanthine oxidase activity, and a 37% increase in nitrated protein (nitrotyrosine) in HFLCD hearts. The cardiac expression of key mitochondrial regulatory factors such as nuclear respiratory factor-1 and transcription factor A-mitochondrial were inhibited and myocardial mitochondrial DNA copy number decreased. The cardiac expression of adiponectin and its receptors was down-regulated in HFLCD. High-fat, low-carbohydrate diet impaired recovery of left ventricular rate-pressure product after ischemia/reperfusion and led to 3.5-fold increased injury as measured by lactate dehydrogenase release. In conclusion, HFLCD leads to increased ischemic myocardial injury and impaired recovery of function after reperfusion and was associated with attenuation of mitochondrial biogenesis and enhanced oxidative stress in obese rats

  3. The effect of preload/meal energy density on energy intake in a subsequent meal: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Surkan, Pamela J; Azadbakht, Leila

    2017-08-01

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of preload/meal energy density on energy intake in a subsequent meal(s). Multiple databases were searched for studies published through December 2016 on the effects of preload/meal energy density on energy intake in a subsequent meal(s). We extracted information on mean energy intake in a subsequent meal(s) and on variables that could contribute to between-subject heterogeneity. Forty and Thirty nine eligible studies were identified for our systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. The meta-analysis showed that preload/meal energy density did not affect energy intake in a subsequent meal(s) (95% CI:-21.21, 21.29). As heterogeneity was remarkable among studies, we stratified the studies by intervention type into "meal" or "preload" classifications. In the "preload" subgroup, studies used either fixed energy or fixed weight preloads. The results reveal that in comparison to a high energy-dense (HED) preload, consuming a low energy-dense (LED) preload with same weight resulted in higher energy intake in a subsequent meal (95% CI: 9.72, 56.19). On the other hand, decreased energy intake was observed after consuming an LED preload compared to after consumption of an HED preload with same energy content (95% CI: -138.71, -57.33). In the "meal" subgroup, studies were categorized by different subsequent meal (i.e., "afternoon or evening", "lunch" and "dinner or post-dinner"). Meta-analysis showed that an LED meal resulted in more energy intake only in afternoon or evening meals (95% CI: 14.82, 31.22). In summary, the current analysis revealed that we can restrict the energy intake by consuming an LED preload. Moreover, consuming an LED preload could favorably affect preload+meal energy intake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Weight restoration on a high carbohydrate refeeding diet promotes rapid weight regain and hepatic lipid accumulation in female anorexic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Erin D; Hagman, Jennifer; Pan, Zhaoxing; MacLean, Paul S; Higgins, Janine A

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no standard clinical refeeding diet for the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN). To provide the most efficacious AN clinical care, it is necessary to define the metabolic effects of current refeeding diets. An activity-based model of anorexia nervosa (AN) was used in female rats. AN was induced over 7d by timed access to low fat (LF) diet with free access to a running wheel. Plasma hormones/metabolites and body composition were assessed at baseline, AN diagnosis (day 0), and following 28d of refeeding on LF diet. Energy balance and expenditure were measured via continuous indirect calorimetry on days -3 to +3. AN induction caused stress as indicated by higher levels of corticosterone versus controls (p weight gain during refeeding was higher in AN rats than controls (p = 0.0188), despite lower overall energy intake (p weight as controls. It is possible that liver lipid accumulation was caused by overfeeding of carbohydrate suggesting that a lower carbohydrate, higher fat diet may be beneficial during AN treatment. To test whether such a diet would be accepted clinically, we conducted a study in adolescent female AN patients which showed equivalent palatability and acceptability for LF and moderate fat diets. In addition, this diet was feasible to provide clinically during inpatient treatment in this population. Refeeding a LF diet to restore body weight in female AN rats caused depressed TEE and REE which facilitated rapid regain. However, this weight gain was metabolically unhealthy as it resulted in elevated lipid accumulation in the liver. It is necessary to investigate the use of other diets, such as lower carbohydrate, moderate fat diets, in pre-clinical models to develop the optimal clinical refeeding diets for AN.

  5. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb Turcz on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengkai Zhai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild rice (WR is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol.

  6. Low-fat, high-carbohydrate parenteral nutrition (PN) may potentially reverse liver disease in long-term PN-dependent infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Husby, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    , which prevents and reverses PNAC in adults, could do the same in infants. This regimen could potentially avoid the problem of diminished energy input after removing nutritional lipids. METHODS: Infants developing PNAC over a 2-year period were started on a low-fat PN regimen with calories primarily from......INTRODUCTION: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) is a complication of long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). Removal of lipids may reverse PNAC but compromises the energy to ensure infant growth. The purpose of this study was to test whether a low-fat, high-carbohydrate PN regimen...

  7. The effectiveness of a new domestic carbohydrate-protein product in the practice of training of high class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovenko N.V.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the use of the new course of the carbohydrate-protein product on the performance efficiency of skilled athletes (Greco-Roman. In the experiment involved 14 athletes aged 18-25 years who gave written consent to participate in the study. Developed and clinically tested a specialized carbohydrate-protein food product. The drink contains in its composition: glucose, sucrose, whey protein concentrate, creatine monohydrate, citrulline malate, mineral complex and ATP-lipid complex. The study was conducted in two micro-cycles (2 weeks. Athletes take a drink as follows: pre-workout (30-40 minutes - 250 ml of the drink, after a training session during the recovery period - 250 ml of the drink. It is established that the use of the drink has a positive effect on the performance of athletes performance during the execution of a sub-maximal anaerobic power in the area of energy supply. Argues that course application beverage reduces the severity of manifestations of lactate acidosis after exercise by improving the utilization of lactate. Found a significant decrease in the concentration of lactate in the blood of athletes in the 7th minute of recovery in relation to the original data.

  8. Improvements in exercise performance: effects of carbohydrate feedings and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufer, P D; Costill, D L; Flynn, M G; Kirwan, J P; Mitchell, J B; Houmard, J

    1987-03-01

    In an effort to determine the effects of carbohydrate (CHO) feedings immediately before exercise in both the fasted and fed state, 10 well-trained male cyclists [maximum O2 consumption (VO2 max), 4.35 +/- 0.11 l/min)] performed 45 min of cycling at 77% VO2 max followed by a 15-min performance ride on an isokinetic cycle ergometer. After a 12-h fast, subjects ingested 45 g of liquid carbohydrate (LCHO), solid carbohydrate confectionery bar (SCHO), or placebo (P) 5 min before exercise. An additional trial was performed in which a high-CHO meal (200 g) taken 4 h before exercise was combined with a confectionery bar feeding (M + SCHO) immediately before the activity. At 10 min of exercise, serum glucose values were elevated by 18 and 24% during SCHO and LCHO, respectively, compared with P. At 0 and 45 min no significant differences were observed in muscle glycogen concentration or total use between the four trials. Total work produced during the final 15 min of exercise was significantly greater (P less than 0.05) during M + SCHO (194,735 +/- 9,448 N X m), compared with all other trials and significantly greater (P less than 0.05) during LCHO and SCHO (175,204 +/- 11,780 and 176,013 +/- 10,465 N X m, respectively) than trial P (159,143 +/- 11,407 N X m). These results suggest that, under conditions when CHO stores are less than optimal, exercise performance is enhanced with the ingestion of 45 g of CHO 5 min before 1 h of intense cycling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Feeding and digestive problems in horses. Physiologic responses to a concentrated meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, L L; Roberts, M C; Argenzio, R A

    1990-08-01

    The association of feeding practices with the development of digestive disorders in horses has long been recognized, although the underlying mechanisms had been barely considered. The physiologic consequences of meal frequency may help to explain the relationship and prove to be of major significance in the induction of many conditions. Many Equidae kept for performance and leisure activities are fed high-energy, low-forage rations twice daily, with limited access to hay or grazing. Rapid ingestion of such meals stimulates a copious outpouring of upper alimentary secretions and results in transient hypovolemia (15% plasma volume loss). Subsequent activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) contributes to the preservation of circulatory status. Large meals may accelerate digesta passage to the cecum and, thereby, increase soluble carbohydrate availability for large intestinal fermentation. Intense periods of fermentation develop that require significant shifts of fluid into the colonic lumen. This is followed by net fluid absorption, which, in part, is dependent on postprandial increases of aldosterone. Potential consequences of these events include (1) imbalances in the RAAS response, which may promote conditions favorable to gastrointestinal disturbance, notably large intestinal impaction, and (2) changes in the gastrointestinal microflora, which may affect the intraluminal endotoxin pool and the population of enterotoxin-producing bacteria. In contrast to episodic feedings, similar changes are absent or greatly attenuated under simulated grazing conditions (for example, small, frequent meals). Thus, modification of management practices to facilitate a more continuous feeding pattern may significantly reduce the incidence of digestive problems in the stabled horse.

  10. 响应面优化含紫苏油粕高水分挤压蛋白工艺研究%Optimization of High Moisture Organized Technology of Perilla Oil Meal Protein Product by Design-Expert Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田海娟; 朱珠; 张传智; 王成震

    2015-01-01

    Perilla oil meal and soy protein as a raw material, added wheat gluten, used the high moisture twin-screw extrusion technology, and through the single factor experiment and central composite rotary design to determine the optimal process of Perilla oil meal protein products. The results showed that Perilla oil meal addition was the biggest effected on quality of protein products , followed by extruding temperature and material moisture content. The optimal process parameters were Perilla oil meal addition 10%, moisture content 50%, extrusion temperature 130℃.%以紫苏油粕和大豆蛋白为原料,并加入谷朊粉,采用双螺杆挤压技术,通过单因素试验和中心旋转组合试验确定高水分挤压组织化的植物蛋白产品最优工艺.结果表明,紫苏油粕加入量对高水分挤压蛋白质构与感官品质影响较大,含紫苏油粕高水分挤压组织蛋白产品最佳工艺条件:紫苏油粕10%、物料水分含量50%、挤压温度130℃.

  11. The Carbohydrate-Binding Site in Galectin-3 Is Preorganized To Recognize a Sugarlike Framework of Oxygens: Ultra-High-Resolution Structures and Water Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The recognition of carbohydrates by proteins is a fundamental aspect of communication within and between living cells. Understanding the molecular basis of carbohydrate–protein interactions is a prerequisite for the rational design of synthetic ligands. Here we report the high- to ultra-high-resolution crystal structures of the carbohydrate recognition domain of galectin-3 (Gal3C) in the ligand-free state (1.08 Å at 100 K, 1.25 Å at 298 K) and in complex with lactose (0.86 Å) or glycerol (0.9 Å). These structures reveal striking similarities in the positions of water and carbohydrate oxygen atoms in all three states, indicating that the binding site of Gal3C is preorganized to coordinate oxygen atoms in an arrangement that is nearly optimal for the recognition of β-galactosides. Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation dispersion experiments and molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that all water molecules in the lactose-binding site exchange with bulk water on a time scale of nanoseconds or shorter. Nevertheless, molecular dynamics simulations identify transient water binding at sites that agree well with those observed by crystallography, indicating that the energy landscape of the binding site is maintained in solution. All heavy atoms of glycerol are positioned like the corresponding atoms of lactose in the Gal3C complexes. However, binding of glycerol to Gal3C is insignificant in solution at room temperature, as monitored by NMR spectroscopy or isothermal titration calorimetry under conditions where lactose binding is readily detected. These observations make a case for protein cryo-crystallography as a valuable screening method in fragment-based drug discovery and further suggest that identification of water sites might inform inhibitor design. PMID:22111949

  12. A low-carbohydrate high-fat diet increases weight gain and does not improve glucose tolerance, insulin secretion or β-cell mass in NZO mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, B J; Waters, M F; Andrikopoulos, S

    2016-02-15

    Dietary guidelines for the past 20 years have recommended that dietary fat should be minimized. In contrast, recent studies have suggested that there could be some potential benefits for reducing carbohydrate intake in favor of increased fat. It has also been suggested that low-carbohydrate diets be recommended for people with type 2 diabetes. However, whether such diets can improve glycemic control will likely depend on their ability to improve β-cell function, which has not been studied. The objective of the study was to assess whether a low-carbohydrate and therefore high-fat diet (LCHFD) is beneficial for improving the endogenous insulin secretory response to glucose in prediabetic New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice. NZO mice were maintained on either standard rodent chow or an LCHFD from 6 to 15 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake and blood glucose were assessed weekly. Blood glucose and insulin levels were also assessed after fasting and re-feeding and during an oral glucose tolerance test. The capacity of pancreatic β-cells to secrete insulin was assessed in vivo with an intravenous glucose tolerance test. β-Cell mass was assessed in histological sections of pancreata collected at the end of the study. In NZO mice, an LCHFD reduced plasma triglycerides (P=0.001) but increased weight gain (Ptissue mass (P=0.0015), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.044) and exacerbated glucose intolerance (P=0.013). Although fasting insulin levels tended to be higher (P=0.08), insulin secretory function in LCHFD-fed mice was not improved (P=0.93) nor was β-cell mass (P=0.75). An LCHFD is unlikely to be of benefit for preventing the decline in β-cell function associated with the progression of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes.

  13. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approached through six modules. The introduction of Carbohydrates wasmade by the module Carbohydrates on Nature, which shows the animations gures of a teacher andstudents, visiting a farm, identifying the carbohydrates found in vegetables, animals, and microor-ganisms, integrated by links containing short texts to help understanding the structure and functionof carbohydrates. This module was presented, as pilot experiment, to teachers and students, whichdemonstrated satisfaction, and high receptivity, by using animation and interactivitys program asstrategy to biochemistrys education. The present work is part of the project Biochemistry throughanimation, which is having continuity.

  14. Use of Copra Meal in Poultry and Ruminant Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugay Ayasan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Copra meal (CM is an important feed ingredient and the by-product of the oil extraction from dried coconut kernels. This product, although copra meal has a moderate protein content (15-25%; because of a high cellulose content (11.63-16.00% and some limiting amino acids (particularly lysine and methionine, limits its use as a basic source of protein in poultry due to insufficient. Copra meals are more suitable common supplements as both an energy and protein source for ruminants. In this paper, nutritional researches performed with the copra meal usage on poultry and ruminant species have been reviewed.

  15. Replacing soybean meal by high energy cottonseed meal in diets for dairy cattle: milk composition and economic viability Substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de algodão de alta energia em dietas para vacas leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelcino Francisco de Paula

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of including increasing levels of high-energy cottonseed meal (zero, 8.7, 17.4, 26.1 and 34.8% of dry matter in replacement to soybean meal in concentrate for cows on third-end lactation, composition and economic viability. Five Holstein-Zebu lactating cows were distributed in Latin square 5x5 design, with five periods of 18 days. Diets were isonitrogenous, with 60% of corn silage and 40% of concentrate, as total mixed ration. Milk fat content and yield, and milk protein content were not influenced by the different protein sources. The inclusion of cottonseed meal high in energy to about 35% in the concentrate did not change the milk composition , and within the market situation in which they conducted the experiment to replace the soybean meal by cottonseed meal in high-energy diets cows average yield potential (+/- 15 kg/animal/day can increase the profitability.No presente estudo objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão de níveis crescentes do farelo de algodão de alta energia (zero; 8,7; 17,4; 26,1 e 34,8% da matéria seca em substituição ao farelo de soja no concentrado para vacas no terço final de lactação, sobre a composição do leite e viabilidade econômica. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas mestiças Holandês-Gir, em um delineamento em quadrado latino (5x5, com cinco períodos de 18 dias. As dietas foram calculadas para serem isonitrogenadas (14% proteína bruta, com 60% de silagem de milho e 40% de concentrado, misturadas diretamente no cocho. O teor e a produção de gordura e proteína do leite não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de farelo de algodão na dieta. O teor de proteína do leite esteve acima da média relatada na literatura. A inclusão de farelo de algodão de alta energia no concentrado para vacas com produção média diária de 14 kg/dia de leite proporcionou maior rentabilidade econômica.

  16. Influence of meal composition on postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of vasoactive peptides in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Høst, U; Kelbaek, H

    1996-01-01

    In a randomized cross-over study healthy non-obese male human subjects received standardized isocaloric, isovolumetric meals consisting of either carbohydrate, protein or fat and a non-caloric control meal consisting of an equal volume of water. Peripheral venous plasma concentrations of calcitonin...... that the postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of CGRP, VIP and PYY are dependent on the caloric meal composition. The VIP, but not the CGRP and PYY concentrations seem to be influenced by gastric distension. The physiological significance of the postprandial alterations in peripheral concentrations...

  17. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  18. Click-generated triazole based ferrocene-carbohydrate bioconjugates: A highly selective multisignalling probe for Cu(II) ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arunabha Thakur; Sinjinee Sardar; Sundargopal Ghosh

    2012-11-01

    Two Cu2+-specific colorimetric sensors, based on ferrocene-carbohydrate bioconjugates, 2, C46H56O20N6Fe and 3, C28H33O10N3Fe were designed and synthesized in good yields. Both the compounds, 2 and 3, behave as very selective and sensitive chromogenic and electrochemical chemosensor for Cu2+ ion in aqueous environment (CH3CN/H2O (2:8, /). The analytical detection limit (ADL) for receptor 2 was 7.5 × 10−7 M. The considerable changes in their absorption spectra of 2 and 3 are accompanied by the appearance of a new low energy (LE) peak at 630 nm (2: = 1600 M-1 cm-1 and 3: 822 M-1 cm-1). This is further accompanied by a strong colour change from yellow to dark green that allows the prospective for `naked eye’ detection of Cu2+ ion.

  19. Development and Application of a New Microarray- Based Method for High-Throughput Screening of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal Melgosa, Silvia

    biological roles in plants and in addition to biofuel production they are extensively used in other industrial processes including in detergents, textiles, paper and the food industry. A vast repertoire of CAZymes exists in nature but there is a growing disparity between our ability to putatively identify....... The applicability of the method to identify the substrate specificities of purified uncharacterised enzymes as well as for screening CAZyme activities in complex enzyme mixtures, such as crude culture broths and plant extracts, is shown by examples presented in this thesis. We envisage that the method......The effective and sustainable use of plant biomass for second generation biofuels is of vital importance for reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) that degrade lignocellulosic plant cell wall material are an important part of this effort. CAZymes have multiple...

  20. Effect of High Dietary Carbohydrate on the Growth Performance, Blood Chemistry, Hepatic Enzyme Activities and Growth Hormone Gene Expression of Wuchang Bream ( at Two Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanpeng Zhou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of high carbohydrate diet on growth, serum physiological response, and hepatic heat shock protein 70 expression in Wuchang bream were determined at 25°C and 30°C. At each temperature, the fish fed the control diet (31% CHO had significantly higher weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activities, lower feed conversion ratio and hepatosomatic index (HSI, whole crude lipid, serum glucose, hepatic glucokinase (GK activity than those fed the high-carbohydrate diet (47% CHO (p<0.05. The fish reared at 25°C had significantly higher whole body crude protein and ash, serum cholesterol and triglyceride, hepatic G-6-Pase activity, lower glycogen content and relative levels of hepatic growth hormone (GH gene expression than those reared at 30°C (p<0.05. Significant interaction between temperature and diet was found for HSI, condition factor, hepatic GK activity and the relative levels of hepatic GH gene expression (p<0.05.

  1. Effects of low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios in the diet of pregnant gilts on maternal cortisol concentrations and the adrenocortical and sympathoadrenal reactivity in their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, W; Kanitz, E; Tuchscherer, M; Gräbner, M; Nürnberg, G; Bellmann, O; Hennig, U; Rehfeldt, C; Metges, C C

    2013-06-01

    Inadequate maternal nutrition during gestation may cause an adverse environment for the fetus leading to alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) systems later in life. In the present study, we investigated the effects of diets with low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios on cortisol concentrations of pregnant gilts as well as the long-term effects on the function of the HPA and SAM axes in their offspring. Throughout gestation, 33 German Landrace gilts were fed high (HP, 30%), low (LP, 6.5%), or adequate (AP, 12.1%) protein diets, which were made isocaloric by adjusting the carbohydrate content. The salivary cortisol concentrations of the sows were measured in the course of the gestation period. The offspring were cross-fostered, and the plasma cortisol and catecholamine concentrations of the offspring were determined on postnatal d (PND) 1 and 27 and under specific challenging conditions: after weaning (PND 29) and after ACTH and insulin challenges (PND 68 and 70, respectively). Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding and neurotransmitter concentrations were measured in stress-related brain regions, and histological analyses of the adrenal were performed. Maternal salivary cortisol concentrations increased throughout gestation (P pigs show a considerable plasticity to cope with maternal malnutrition.

  2. A 12-week low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet improves metabolic health outcomes over a control diet in a randomised controlled trial with overweight defence force personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; McPhee, Julia; Harris, Nigel; Williden, Micalla; Prendergast, Kate; Schofield, Grant

    2017-07-12

    Overweight, obesity, and poor health is becoming a global concern for defence force personnel. Conventional nutrition guidelines are being questioned for their efficacy in achieving optimal body composition and long-term health. This study compared the effects of a 12-week low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with a conventional, high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight reduction and metabolic health outcomes in at-risk New Zealand Defence Force personnel. In this randomised controlled trial, 41 overweight personnel were assigned to intervention and control groups. Weight, waist circumference, fasting lipids, and glycaemic control were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Within-group change scores were analysed using the t statistic and interpreted using a p resistance; moderate, likely beneficial effects for HDL cholesterol, triglyceride:HDLc ratio and HbA1c; and a small, likely harmful effect for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This dietary approach shows promise for short-term weight loss and improved metabolic health outcomes conditions compared with mainstream recommendations. It should be offered to defence force personnel at least as a viable alternative means to manage their weight and health.

  3. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde...

  4. Effect of Pseudocereal-Based Breakfast Meals on the First and Second Meal Glucose Tolerance in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrial, Shreef G. N.; Shakib, Marie-Christine R.; Gabrial, Gamal N.

    2016-01-01

    . The blood glucose concentration after consuming quinoa meal showed a high peak at 30 min similar to that of WWB reference meal. This peak resulted in a high glycemic index (GI) for quinoa (89.4). The GI of buckwheat recorded a low value (26.8). CONCLUSION: The two studied pseudocereals; quinoa and buckwheat have high potential to improve glucose tolerance at the first and second meal (lunch) and are recommended to be introduced in our daily diet for healthy and diabetic subjects. PMID:28028392

  5. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  6. Carbohydrates as food allergens

    OpenAIRE

    SOH, Jian Yi; Huang, Chiung Hui; Lee, Bee Wah

    2015-01-01

    The literature supports the notion that carbohydrate epitopes, on their own, do not contribute significantly to the induction of allergic reactions. They bind weakly to IgE antibodies and have been termed as cross reactive carbohydrate determinants. These epitopes cause confusion in in vitro IgE testing through nonspecific cross-reactivity. Coincident with the rising trends in food allergy prevalence, there has recently been reports of anaphylaxis induced by carbohydrate epitopes. There are t...

  7. Incineration of animal meal; Verbrandingsovens enige uitweg voor diermeelberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veering, A. (ed.)

    2001-04-01

    The recent BSE and foot and mouth disease in the Netherlands caused problems in the processing of animal wastes. An alternative is the use of animal meal in coal-fired power plants, while such meal has a high calorific value.

  8. Potential and utilization of Indigofera sp shoot leaf meal as soybean meal substitution in laying hen diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizki Palupi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the potential of Indigofera sp shoot leaf meal to substitute soybean meal in poultry diet. One hundred and sixty laying hens of Isa Brown strain, at 30 weeks old were used in this study and kept in individual cages. A Randomized Completely Design was applied with four treatments and four replications. The treatments were four levels of soybean meal protein substitution by Indigofera sp shoot meal protein in the diets: The level were 0% (R0, 15% (R1, 30% (R2 and 45% (R3. Eggs were collected daily and were evaluated on: weight, shell, albumen, yolk, intensity of yolk and haugh unit. Results showed that the nutrients content of Indigofera sp shoot leaf meal were crude protein 28.98%, crude fat 3.30%, crude fiber 8.49%, calcium 0.52% and phosphorus content was 0.34%. Indigofera sp shoot leaf meal contained a complete amino acids. The vitamin A and ß-carotene were high, i.e 3828.79 IU/100g and 507.6 mg/kg, respectively. It is concluded that Indigofera sp shoot leaf meal is potential to be used as an alternative source of protein. Substitute 45% soybean meal protein with Indigofera sp shoot leaf meal in laying hen diets increase egg quality and increase intensity of yolk colour to 55.88%.

  9. Dieta hiperlipídica com farinha de soja como fonte proteica: utilização na seleção de ratos propensos e resistentes à obesidade High-fat diet using soybean meal as protein source: use for selecting rats prone and resistant to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludimila Canuto Cabeço

    2010-06-01

    .0%, Bio Tec chow (30.0% and chocolate wafer cookies (10.0%. In order to make it appropriate for rats, the mixture was pelleted and subjected to food analysis. The chow was offered to Wistar rats for a week. The animals were subsequently separated according to weight gained. The upper third group was considered prone to obesity and the lower third group was considered resistant to obesity. The animals were sacrificed 80 days later to determine body weight, food intake, retroperitoneal, periepididymal and carcass fats and total fats. RESULTS: Food analysis found that the chow had an energy density of 5.31 Kcal/g, 22.3% fat, 22.2% protein, 15.9% fiber and 35.7% carbohydrates. After being fed for 87 days with the high-fat diet, obesity-prone rats had higher body weight and retroperitoneal, periepididymal and total fats than obesity-resistant animals (p<0.05. Food intake was also higher among obesity-prone rats (p<0.05. The replacement of casein by soybean meal as protein source reduced the cost of the study by 96.0%. CONCLUSION: The substitution of casein by soybean meal in a high-fat diet allows cost reduction and the identification of obese-prone rats. Continuous use of this high-fat diet resulted in the development of the obese phenotype, as seen with other diets used in the literature.

  10. A controlled trial of protein enrichment of meal replacements for weight reduction with retention of lean body mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowerman Susan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While high protein diets have been shown to improve satiety and retention of lean body mass (LBM, this study was designed to determine effects of a protein-enriched meal replacement (MR on weight loss and LBM retention by comparison to an isocaloric carbohydrate-enriched MR within customized diet plans utilizing MR to achieve high protein or standard protein intakes. Methods Single blind, placebo-controlled, randomized outpatient weight loss trial in 100 obese men and women comparing two isocaloric meal plans utilizing a standard MR to which was added supplementary protein or carbohydrate powder. MR was used twice daily (one meal, one snack. One additional meal was included in the meal plan designed to achieve individualized protein intakes of either 1 2.2 g protein/kg of LBM per day [high protein diet (HP] or 2 1.1 g protein/kg LBM/day standard protein diet (SP. LBM was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Body weight, body composition, and lipid profiles were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Results Eighty-five subjects completed the study. Both HP and SP MR were well tolerated, with no adverse effects. There were no differences in weight loss at 12 weeks (-4.19 ± 0.5 kg for HP group and -3.72 ± 0.7 kg for SP group, p > 0.1. Subjects in the HP group lost significantly more fat weight than the SP group (HP = -1.65 ± 0.63 kg; SP = -0.64 ± 0.79 kg, P = 0.05 as estimated by BIA. There were no significant differences in lipids nor fasting blood glucose between groups, but within the HP group a significant decrease in cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was noted at 12 weeks. This was not seen in the SP group. Conclusion Higher protein MR within a higher protein diet resulted in similar overall weight loss as the standard protein MR plan over 12 weeks. However, there was significantly more fat loss in the HP group but no significant difference in lean body mass. In this trial, subject compliance with both the

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & ...

  12. Pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation alleviates the negative effects of post-anthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrates remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2012-01-01

    The potential role of pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation in alleviating the negative effects of post-anthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrate remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat was investigated. The treatments included no heat-stress (CC), heat stress at pre......-anthesis only (HC), heat at post-anthesis only (CH), and heat stress at both stages (HH). Post-anthesis heat stress decreased grain starch content, reduced the content of fructans and depressed activities of related synthesis enzymes of sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase and fructan......:fructan fructosyltransferase. Interestingly, HH plants had significantly higher grain yield than the CH plants. In addition, post-anthesis high temperature lowered grain starch content and increased percentages of volume, number and surface area of B-type starch granules in CH and HH than in CC treatment. However, HH plants...

  13. Hormonal imbalance and disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism associated with chronic feeding of high sucrose low magnesium diet in weanling male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Meenakshi; Mehra, Pranav; Bansal, Devi Dayal

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to determine chronic effect of high sucrose low magnesium (HSLM) diet in weanling rats on plasma thyroid profile, catecholamines and activities of key hepatic glycolytic, and gluconeogenic enzymes. Compared to control diet fed group, significantly elevated levels of plasma triiodothyronine, tetraiodothyronine, catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) and activity of hepatic glycolytic (hexokinase and glucokinase), and gluconeogenic (glucose-6-phosphatase) enzymes were observed in high sucrose and low magnesium fed groups. However, HSLM diet had an additive effect on all these three parameters. The study thus, assumes significance as it shows that hormonal imbalance and disorders in carbohydrate metabolism at an early stage of development can be due to dietary modification or due to deficiency of key element magnesium.

  14. Nutrient intake and meal patterns of Micmac indian and Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J L; Williams, C N; Weldon, K L

    1977-06-18

    North American Indians have a higher morbidity from gallbladder disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity than other North Americans; this may result from their food intake. Nutrient intake and meal patterns were compared in 120 Micmac Indian and 115 Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS. Findings were compared with the Canadian Dietary Standard (CDS) and the Nutrition Canada national and Indian survey reports. The diet of Indian women had higher carbohydrate, lower protein and lower fibre content than that of Caucasian women, who derived a higher percentage of energy from protein and had a higher intake of vitamin A, niacin and ascorbic acid. Overnight fast was longer among Indian women. A high percentage of all women studied reported diets that did not reach the CDS for total energy intake in kilocalories or for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin or riboflavin.

  15. Separation and quantification of beer carbohydrates by high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Luciana C; Silva, Filipe; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Trugo, L C

    2005-02-18

    An HPLC method with an evaporative light scattering detector was optimized and validated for quantification of carbohydrates in beer. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Spherisorb NH2, 5 microm chromatographic column and gradient elution with acetonitrile/water. The determinations were performed in the linear range of 0.05-5.0 g/L for fructose, 0.05-5.0 g/L for glucose, 0.05-15.0 g/L for maltose, 0.05-10.0 g/L for maltotriose, and 0.05-5.0 g/L for maltotetraose. The detection limits were 0.005 g/L for fructose, 0.008 g/L for glucose, and 0.01 g/L for maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose. The reliability of the method in terms of precision and accuracy was evaluated in three beer matrices, low alcohol beer, 6% alcohol beer, and beer made with part of adjuncts (4.5% alcohol). Relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged between 1.59 and 5.95% (n = 10), and recoveries ranged between 94 and 98.4%.

  16. 一次性大剂量辅酶A对餐后高甘油三醋血症的影响%Effect of Once High-dose Coenzyme A on Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia after a High-fat Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲; 赵水平; 张晋

    2011-01-01

    explore the effect of once 1000 u coenzyme A (CoA) injection or capsule on postprandial triglyceride level after a high-fat meal in Chinese patients with fasting hypertriglyceridemia. MethodsTen healthy controls and 20 patients with fasting hypertriglyceridemia took a baseline high-fat meal (800 calories, SO g fat ) after diet direction. And blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 4 and 6 h after the baseline meal. On the second day, all patients accepted a high-fat meal again and randomly took 1000 u CoA orally at 30 min before the meal or by intravenous drip immediately after the meal within 1 h. Blood samples were also collected at 0, 2, 4 and 6 h after the second meal. Blood lipids levels were assayed and percentages of increment in postprandial triglyceride level at 2, 4 and 6 h after the meal were calculated. Results The postprandial serum triglyceride levels increased significantly at 2,4, 6 h in patients while only at 2 h in healthy controls ( P < 0. 05 ). Postp-randial serum total cholesterol, high density lipoproteincholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels did not change significantly when compared with their fasting levels, respectively. Taking all patients accepting CoA capsule or injection as a total (n =20) , a significant decrease was found in percentage of increment in postprandial triglyceride level at 6 h after CoA treatment (62.4% ±13. 1 % vs 42. 1% ±9. 2% ,P <0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that both postprandial triglyceride level at 6 h (4. 63 ±2.40 mmol/L vs 3. 80 ±2.08 mmol/L,P <0.05) and percentage of increment in postprandial triglyceride level at 6 h (62. 8% ± 17.7% vs 39.0% ± 14. 9% ,P < 0.05 ) significantly decreased after CoA injection treatment. However, decreases of postprandial triglyceride level and percentage of increment in postprandial triglyceride level did not reach statistical significance in patients taking CoA capsule. Conclusion This small-sample study showed that once 1000 u CoA injection immediately after

  17. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  18. Combination of meal and exercise timing with a high-fat diet influences energy expenditure and obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ohtsu, Teiji; Ikeda, Yuko; Tsubosaka, Miku; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2014-11-01

    In mice, obesity has been observed not only in those freely fed a high-fat diet (HFD) but also in those fed while physically inactive. In contrast, a HFD during physically active periods protects against obesity and the impairments in the circadian rhythm induced by free feeding of a HFD. Although exercise is known to be effective for obesity prevention and management, the optimal timing of exercise has not yet been determined. In the present experiments, we aimed to determine the best combination of daily timing of HFD consumption and exercise for the prevention of HFD-induced weight gain in mice. In this experiment, "morning" refers to the beginning of the active phase (the "morning" for nocturnal animals). Increases in body weight related to free feeding of a HFD was significantly reduced with 4 h of exercise during the late (evening) or middle (noon) active period compared to 4 h of exercise during the early (morning) active period or free access to exercise, which resulted in hours of exercise similar to that of morning exercise. These results suggested that eating in the morning or at noon followed by exercise in the evening could prevent weight gain more effectively than exercise in the morning followed by eating at noon or in the evening. The group fed a HFD for 4 h in the morning had lower body weight than the group fed a HFD for 4 h in the evening without exercise. The last group of experiments tested the hypothesis that there would be an interaction between mealtime and exercise time (i.e. time of day) versus order (i.e. which comes first) effects. We compared groups that exercised for 4 h at noon and were fed either in the morning or evening and groups that were fed for 4 h at noon and either exercised in the morning or evening. We found that the groups that were fed before exercise gained less body and fat weight and more skeletal muscle weight compared to the groups that exercised before eating. Corresponding to the body and fat weight

  19. Twenty-four Hour Endocrine and Metabolic Profiles Following Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup-, Sucrose- Fructose-, and Glucose-Sweetened Beverages with Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have reported that compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations, and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. ...

  20. Diets high in heat-treated soybean meal reduce the histamine-induced epithelial response in the colon of weaned piglets and increase epithelial catabolism of histamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Kröger

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of dietary fermentable protein (fCP and fermentable carbohydrates (fCHO on the colonic epithelial response to histamine in pigs. Thirty-two weaned piglets were fed 4 diets in a 2 × 2 factorial design with low fCP/low fCHO, low fCP/high fCHO, high fCP/low fCHO and high fCP/high fCHO. After 21-23 days, the pigs were killed and tissue from the proximal colon was stimulated with carbachol, histamine, PGE2 or sodium hydrogen sulphide in Ussing chambers. Changes in short-circuit current and tissue conductance were measured. Diamine oxidase, histamine N-methyltransferase, stem cell growth factor receptor, Fc-epsilon receptor I and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene expression was determined. Activities of diamine oxidase and histamine N-methyltransferase and numbers of colonic mast cells were measured. The change in the short-circuit current in response to histamine was lower (P = 0.002 and tended to be lower for PGE2 (P = 0.053 in high fCP groups compared to low fCP groups, irrespective of fCHO. Additionally, the change in tissue conductance after the application of histamine was lower (P = 0.005 in the high fCP groups. The expression of histamine N-methyltransferase mRNA (P = 0.033 and the activities of diamine oxidase (P = 0.001 and histamine N-methyltransferase (P = 0.006 were higher with high fCP in comparison with low fCP. The expression of mast cell markers, stem cell growth factor receptor (P = 0.005 and Fc-epsilon receptor I (P = 0.049 was higher with high fCP diets compared to diets low in fCP, whereas the mast cell count did not differ between groups. The expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator was reduced (P = 0.001 with high fCP diets compared to low fCP diets. The lower epithelial response to histamine and PGE2 and elevated epithelial histamine inactivation suggests an adaptation to high fCP diets.

  1. Diets high in heat-treated soybean meal reduce the histamine-induced epithelial response in the colon of weaned piglets and increase epithelial catabolism of histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Susan; Pieper, Robert; Schwelberger, Hubert G; Wang, Jing; Villodre Tudela, Carmen; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Van Kessel, Andrew G; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of dietary fermentable protein (fCP) and fermentable carbohydrates (fCHO) on the colonic epithelial response to histamine in pigs. Thirty-two weaned piglets were fed 4 diets in a 2 × 2 factorial design with low fCP/low fCHO, low fCP/high fCHO, high fCP/low fCHO and high fCP/high fCHO. After 21-23 days, the pigs were killed and tissue from the proximal colon was stimulated with carbachol, histamine, PGE2 or sodium hydrogen sulphide in Ussing chambers. Changes in short-circuit current and tissue conductance were measured. Diamine oxidase, histamine N-methyltransferase, stem cell growth factor receptor, Fc-epsilon receptor I and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene expression was determined. Activities of diamine oxidase and histamine N-methyltransferase and numbers of colonic mast cells were measured. The change in the short-circuit current in response to histamine was lower (P = 0.002) and tended to be lower for PGE2 (P = 0.053) in high fCP groups compared to low fCP groups, irrespective of fCHO. Additionally, the change in tissue conductance after the application of histamine was lower (P = 0.005) in the high fCP groups. The expression of histamine N-methyltransferase mRNA (P = 0.033) and the activities of diamine oxidase (P = 0.001) and histamine N-methyltransferase (P = 0.006) were higher with high fCP in comparison with low fCP. The expression of mast cell markers, stem cell growth factor receptor (P = 0.005) and Fc-epsilon receptor I (P = 0.049) was higher with high fCP diets compared to diets low in fCP, whereas the mast cell count did not differ between groups. The expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator was reduced (P = 0.001) with high fCP diets compared to low fCP diets. The lower epithelial response to histamine and PGE2 and elevated epithelial histamine inactivation suggests an adaptation to high fCP diets.

  2. Nutritional Risk among Oklahoma Congregate Meal Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Kimberly K.; Hermann, Janice R.; Warde, William D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine if there were differences by demographic variables in response rates to Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) Checklist statements reported by over 50% of Oklahoma Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP) congregate meal participants categorized at high nutritional risk based on cumulative NSI Checklist scores. Design:…

  3. Carbohydrates as allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commins, Scott P

    2015-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates are effective inducers of Th2 responses, and carbohydrate antigens can stimulate the production of glycan-specific antibodies. In instances where the antigen exposure occurs through the skin, the resulting antibody production can contain IgE class antibody. The glycan-stimulated IgE may be non-specific but may also be antigen specific. This review focuses on the production of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants, the recently identified IgE antibody response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), as well as discusses practical implications of carbohydrates in allergy. In addition, the biological effects of carbohydrate antigens are reviewed in setting of receptors and host recognition.

  4. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Parents > Carbohydrates and Diabetes ... many kids with diabetes take to stay healthy. Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar The two main forms of ...

  5. Computerized molecular modeling of carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computerized molecular modleing continues to increase in capability and applicability to carbohydrates. This chapter covers nomenclature and conformational aspects of carbohydrates, perhaps of greater use to carbohydrate-inexperienced computational chemists. Its comments on various methods and studi...

  6. Early endothelial damage detected by circulating particles in baboons fed a diet high in simple carbohydrates in conjunction with saturated or unsaturated fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiang; Hodara, Vida; Meng, Qinghe; Voruganti, V Saroja; Rice, Karen; Michalek, Joel E; Comuzzie, Anthony G; VandeBerg, John L

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that high-fat diets cause blood vessel damage, however, assessing pathological effects accurately and efficiently is difficult. In this study, we measured particle levels of static endothelium (CD31+ and CD105+) and activated endothelium (CD62E+, CD54+ and CD106+) in plasma. We determined individual responses to two dietary regimens in two groups of baboons. One group (n = 10), was fed a diet high in simple carbohydrates and saturated fats (the HSF diet) and the other (n = 8) received a diet high in simple carbohydrates and unsaturated fats (the HUF diet). Plasma samples were collected at 0, 3, and 7 weeks. The percentages of CD31+ and CD62E+ particles were elevated at 3 weeks in animals fed either diet, but these elevations were statistically significant only in animals fed the HUF diet. Surprisingly, both percentages and counts of CD31+ particles were significantly lower at week 7 compared to week 0 and 3 in the HSF group. The median absolute counts of CD105+ particles were progressively elevated over time in the HSF group with a significant increase from week 0 to 7; the pattern was somewhat different for the HUF group with significant increase from week 3 to 7. The counts of CD54+ particles exhibited wide variation in both groups during the dietary challenge, while the median counts of CD106+ particles were significantly lower at week 3 than at week 0 and week 7. Endothelial particles exhibited time-dependent changes, suggesting they were behaving as quantifiable surrogates for the early detection of vascular damage caused by dietary factors.

  7. Sedentary Lifestyle and High-Carbohydrate Intake are Associated with Low-Grade Chronic Inflammation in Post-Menopause: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Bruna Cherubini; Silva, Thaís Rasia da; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in post menopausal women, and inflammation is involved in the atherosclerosis process. Purpose to assess whether dietary pattern, metabolic profile, body composition and physical activity are associated with low-grade chronic inflammation according to high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in postmenopausal women. Methods ninety-five postmenopausal participants, with no evidence of clinical disease, underwent anthropometric, metabolic and hormonal assessments. Usual dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire, habitual physical activity was measured with a digital pedometer, and body composition was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Patients with hs-CRP ≥10 mg/L or using hormone therapy in the last three months before the study were excluded from the analysis. Participants were stratified according to hs-CRP lower or ≥3 mg/L. Sedentary lifestyle was defined as walking fewer than 6 thousand steps a day. Two-tailed Student's t-test, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U or Chi-square (χ(2)) test were used to compare differences between groups. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio of variables for high hs-CRP. Results participants with hs-CRP ≥3 mg/L had higher body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist circumference (WC), triglycerides, glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.01 for all variables) than women with hs-CRP sedentary lifestyle (p sedentary lifestyle (4.7, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.4-15.5) and carbohydrate intake (2.9, 95%CI 1.1-7.7). Conclusions sedentary lifestyle and high-carbohydrate intake were associated with low-grade chronic inflammation and cardiovascular risk in postmenopause.

  8. The impact of price reductions on individuals' choice of healthy meals away from home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    -labelled meals. A Keyhole-labelled meal is particularly low in calories, fat, sugar and salt, but particularly high in fibre. The results suggest that to get the majority of individuals to choose the healthy option regularly it would be necessary to alter the relative price between healthy and less healthy meals...

  9. A low-carbohydrate high-fat diet decreases lean mass and impairs cardiac function in pair-fed female C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jessica; Ericsson, Madelene; Joibari, Masoumeh Motamedi; Anderson, Fredrick; Carlsson, Leif; Nilsson, Stefan K; Sjödin, Anna; Burén, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Excess body fat is a major health issue and a risk factor for the development of numerous chronic diseases. Low-carbohydrate diets like the Atkins Diet are popular for rapid weight loss, but the long-term consequences remain the subject of debate. The Scandinavian low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diet, which has been popular in Scandinavian countries for about a decade, has very low carbohydrate content (~5 E %) but is rich in fat and includes a high proportion of saturated fatty acids. Here we investigated the metabolic and physiological consequences of a diet with a macronutrient composition similar to the Scandinavian LCHF diet and its effects on the organs, tissues, and metabolism of weight stable mice. Female C57BL/6J mice were iso-energetically pair-fed for 4 weeks with standard chow or a LCHF diet. We measured body composition using echo MRI and the aerobic capacity before and after 2 and 4 weeks on diet. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography before and after 4 weeks on diet. The metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry the fourth week of the diet. Mice were sacrificed after 4 weeks and the organ weight, triglyceride levels, and blood chemistry were analyzed, and the expression of key ketogenic, metabolic, hormonal, and inflammation genes were measured in the heart, liver, and adipose tissue depots of the mice using real-time PCR. The increase in body weight of mice fed a LCHF diet was similar to that in controls. However, while control mice maintained their body composition throughout the study, LCHF mice gained fat mass at the expense of lean mass after 2 weeks. The LCHF diet increased cardiac triglyceride content, impaired cardiac function, and reduced aerobic capacity. It also induced pronounced alterations in gene expression and substrate metabolism, indicating a unique metabolic state. Pair-fed mice eating LCHF increased their percentage of body fat at the expense of lean mass already after 2 weeks, and after 4 weeks the

  10. Replacement of Soybean Meal with Animal Origin Protein Meals Improved Ramoplanin A2 Production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Deniz; Kayali, Hulya Ayar

    2016-09-01

    Ramoplanin A2 is the last resort antibiotic for treatment of many high morbidity- and mortality-rated hospital infections, and it is expected to be marketed in the forthcoming years. Therefore, high-yield production of ramoplanin A2 gains importance. In this study, meat-bone meal, poultry meal, and fish meal were used instead of soybean meal for ramoplanin A2 production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076. All animal origin nitrogen sources stimulated specific productivity. Ramoplanin A2 levels were determined as 406.805 mg L(-1) in fish meal medium and 374.218 mg L(-1) in poultry meal medium. These levels were 4.25- and 4.09-fold of basal medium, respectively. However, the total yield of poultry meal was higher than that of fish meal, which is also low-priced. In addition, the variations in pH levels, protein levels, reducing sugar levels, extracellular protease, amylase and lipase activities, and intracellular free amino acid levels were monitored during the incubation period. The correlations between ramoplanin production and these variables with respect to the incubation period were determined. The intracellular levels of L-Phe, D-Orn, and L-Leu were found critical for ramoplanin A2 production. The strategy of using animal origin nitrogen sources can be applied for large-scale ramoplanin A2 production.

  11. Healthy meals on the menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason

    2016-01-01

    in sales. We cannot reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a meal labelled as healthy on the menu, i.e. our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a meal labelled as healthy.......Menu labelling of meals prepared away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper we use a field experiment in Sweden to examine if a restaurant benefits from introducing a meal labelled as healthy on its menu by experiencing an overall increase...

  12. Dose response of whey protein isolate in addition to a typical mixed meal on blood amino acids and hormonal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Scott C; McCargar, Linda; Jelen, Paul; Bell, Gordon J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to investigate the effects of a controlled typical 1-day diet supplemented with two different doses of whey protein isolate on blood amino acid profiles and hormonal concentrations following the final meal. Nine males (age: 29.6 ± 6.3 yrs) completed four conditions in random order: a control (C) condition of a typical mixed diet containing ~10% protein (0.8 g·kg1), 65% carbohydrate, and 25% fat; a placebo (P) condition calorically matched with carbohydrate to the whey protein conditions; a low-dose condition of 0.8 grams of whey protein isolate per kilogram body mass per day (g·kg1·d1; W1) in addition to the typical mixed diet; or a high-dose condition of 1.6 g·kg1·d1 (W2) of supplemental whey protein in addition to the typical mixed diet. Following the final meal, significant (p whey protein supplementation while no changes were observed in the control and placebo conditions. There was no significant group difference for glucose, insulin, testosterone, cortisol, or growth hormone. In conclusion, supplementing a typical daily food intake consisting of 0.8 g of protein·kg1·d1 with a whey protein isolate (an additional 0.8 or 1.6 g·kg1·d1) significantly elevated total amino acids, EAA, BCAA, and leucine but had no effect on glucose, insulin, testosterone, cortisol, or growth hormone following the final meal. Future acute and chronic supplementation research examining the physiological and health outcomes associated with elevated amino acid profiles is warranted.

  13. Carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua) meal in geese diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahle, M; Coleou, J; Haas, C

    1992-07-01

    1. The apparent and true metabolisable energy values of carob pods meal for geese were measured to be 6.1 MJ/kg and 6.6 MJ/kg respectively. 2. Performance from 5 to 12 weeks was examined in geese fed on four diets containing 0, 100, 200 and 300 g/kg of carob pods meal. 3. The inclusion of carob pods meal up to 200 g/kg in geese diets did not affect the performance. 4. At 300 g/kg performance was highly depressed. 5. The digestibility of protein in the diets decreased linearly with an increase in the level of inclusion of carob pods meal. 6. The length of small intestine, large intestine and caeca and the weight of gizzard expressed per kg of body weight increased with an increase in the level of carob pods meal, which is rich in fibre, in the diets.

  14. Effect of Anionic Salt and Highly Fermentable Carbohydrate Supplementations on Urine pH and on Experimentally Induced Hypocalcaemia in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enemark JMD

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of dietary grain on calcium homeostasis. Six rumen-fistulated dairy cows with 3 or more previous lactations and no history of parturient paresis were randomly assigned to a sequence of diets in a crossover study with 4 periods of 10 days each. Dietary treatments were: A control ration consisting of wrap grass silage alone (1, the control ration supplemented with ammonium chloride and ammonium sulphate salt solution (2, control ration following a period with supplementation (3 and control ration supplemented with increasing amounts of barley from 4 to 10 kg/cow per day, expected to produce subclinical rumen acidosis (4. Daily intake of the diets was adjusted to 14 kg DM/cow per day. On day 11, the calcium-regulating mechanisms in cows were challenged until recumbency by a standardized intravenous EDTA infusion and cows were left to recover spontaneously. Anion supplementation and the feeding of highly fermentable carbohydrate lowered urine pH below 7.0 due to subclinical acidosis. During spontaneous recovery from EDTA induced hypocalcaemia, the cows more quickly regained a whole blood free calcium concentration of 1.00 mmol/L if they had most recently been supplemented with either anionic salts or with increasing amounts of barley, as compared to the basic ration. It is concluded that so-called slug-feeding or 'steaming up' with highly fermentable carbohydrates before parturition in milk fever susceptible cows enhanced calcium homeostasis similar to the effect seen in cows on anionic diets.

  15. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jurgoński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex. The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  16. Presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in a high-protein diet affect appetite suppression but not energy expenditure in normal-weight human subjects fed in energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhorst, Margriet A B; Westerterp, Klaas R; van Vught, Anneke J A H; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-11-01

    Two types of relatively high-protein diets, with a normal or low proportion of carbohydrates, have been shown effective for weight loss. The objective was to assess the significance of the presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in high-protein diets for affecting appetite suppression, energy expenditure, and fat oxidation in normal-weight subjects in energy balance. Subjects (aged 23 (sd 3) years and BMI 22·0 (sd 1·9) kg/m2) were stratified in two groups. Each was offered two diets in a randomised cross-over design: group 1 (n 22) - normal protein (NP; 10, 60 and 30 % energy (En%) from protein, carbohydrate and fat), high protein (HP; 30, 40 and 30 En%); group 2 (n 23) - normal protein (NP-g; 10, 60 and 30 En%), high protein, carbohydrate-free (HP-0C; 30, 0 and 70 En%) for 2 d; NP-g and HP-0C were preceded by glycogen-lowering exercise (day 1). Appetite was measured throughout day 2 using visual analogue scales (VAS). Energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation (respiratory quotient; RQ) were measured in a respiration chamber (08.00 hours on day 2 until 07.30 hours on day 3). Fasting plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration was measured (day 3). NP-g and NP did not differ in hunger, EE, RQ and BHB. HP-0C and HP v. NP-g and NP, respectively, were lower in hunger (P diet without than with carbohydrates exchanged for fat. Energy expenditure was not affected by the carbohydrate content of a high-protein diet.

  17. Mechanisms involved in the regulation of photosynthetic efficiency and carbohydrate partitioning in response to low- and high-temperature flooding triggered in winter rye (Secale cereale) lines with distinct pink snow mold resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pociecha, E; Rapacz, M; Dziurka, M; Kolasińska, I

    2016-07-01

    In terms of climate changes and global warming, winter hardiness could be determined by unfavorable environmental conditions other than frost. These could include flooding from melting snow and/or rain, coincident with fungal diseases. Therefore, we designed an experiment to identify potential common mechanisms of flooding tolerance and snow mold resistance, involving the regulation of photosynthetic efficiency and carbohydrate metabolism at low temperatures. Snow mold-resistant and susceptible winter rye (Secale cereale) plants were characterized by considerably different patterns of response to flooding. These differences were clearer at low temperature, thus confirming a possible role of the observed changes in snow mold tolerance. The resistant plants were characterized by lower PSII quantum yields at low temperature, combined with much higher energy flux for energy dissipation from the PSII reaction center. During flooding, the level of soluble carbohydrates increased in the resistant plants and decreased in the susceptible ones. Thus increase in resistant line was connected with a decrease in the energy dissipation rate in PSII/increased photosynthetic activity (energy flux for electron transport), a lower rate of starch degradation and higher rates of sucrose metabolism in leaves. The resistant lines accumulated larger amounts of total soluble carbohydrates in the crowns than in the leaves. Irrespective of flooding treatment, the resistant lines allocated more sugars for cell wall composition, both in the leaves and crowns. Our results clearly indicated that studies on carbohydrate changes at low temperatures or during anoxia should investigate not only the alterations in water-soluble and storage carbohydrates, but also cell wall carbohydrates. The patterns of changes observed after low and high-temperature flooding were different, indicating separate control mechanisms of these responses. These included changes in the photosynthetic apparatus, starch

  18. Protein fractionation byproduct from canola meal for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heendeniya, R G; Christensen, D A; Maenz, D D; McKinnon, J J; Yu, P

    2012-08-01

    Fiber-protein is a byproduct arising from a process for fractionating high-quality protein from canola meal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fiber-protein fraction by examining the chemical profiles, rumen degradation, and intestinal digestive characteristics and determining the nutritive value of the fiber-protein fraction as dietary components for dairy cattle in comparison with commercial canola meal and soybean meal. Available energy values were estimated based on National Research Council guidelines, whereas total true protein content potentially absorbable in the small intestine (DVE) were predicted using the predicted DVE/degraded protein balance (OEB) model. The results show that fiber-protein was a highly fibrous material [neutral detergent fiber (NDF): 556; acid detergent fiber (ADF): 463; acid detergent lignin: 241 g/kg of dry matter (DM)] compared with canola meal (NDF: 254; ADF: 212; acid detergent lignin: 90 g/kg of DM) due to the presence of a higher level of seed hulls in fiber-protein. Compared with canola meal, fiber-protein contained 90 g/kg of DM less crude protein (CP), 25% of which consisted of undegradable acid detergent-insoluble CP. Most of the ruminally undegradable nutrient components present in canola meal appeared to be concentrated into fiber-protein during the manufacturing process and, as a result, fiber-protein showed a consistently lower effective degradability of DM, organic matter, CP, NDF, and ADF compared with both canola meal and soybean meal. Available energy content in fiber-protein contained two-thirds of that of canola meal. The DVE was one-third that of soybean meal and one-fifth that of canola meal [DVE value: 58 vs. 180 (soybean) and 291 g/kg of DM (canola meal)]. The OEB value of fiber protein was positive and about half of that of soybean and canola meal [OEB value: 74 vs. 162 (soybean) and 137 g/kg of DM (canola meal)]. Fiber-protein can be considered as a secondary source of protein in ruminant feed.

  19. The Effects of Substituting Soyabean Meal for Breadfruit Meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The cost benefit arising from feeding Breadfruit meal based diets to 1000 Heterobranchus ... Diets containing 0 % breadfruit meal (diet A – control) were not easily stroked by fed ...

  20. Meal Elements - a Way of optimising ready to eat Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Eva Høy; Friis, Alan; Jacobsen, Peter

    The aim of this project is to develop a concept for improvement of the quality of food produced in large-scale kitchens. Using meal elements in large-scale kitchens in combination with production planning and over-all structuring of activities generally improves the quality of the meal prepared....

  1. A low carbohydrate, high protein diet suppresses intratumoral androgen synthesis and slows castration-resistant prostate tumor growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokidis, H Bobby; Yieng Chin, Mei; Ho, Victor W; Adomat, Hans H; Soma, Kiran K; Fazli, Ladan; Nip, Ka Mun; Cox, Michael; Krystal, Gerald; Zoubeidi, Amina; Tomlinson Guns, Emma S

    2015-06-01

    Dietary factors continue to preside as dominant influences in prostate cancer prevalence and progression-free survival following primary treatment. We investigated the influence of a low carbohydrate diet, compared to a typical Western diet, on prostate cancer (PCa) tumor growth in vivo. LNCaP xenograft tumor growth was studied in both intact and castrated mice, representing a more advanced castration resistant PCa (CRPC). No differences in LNCaP tumor progression (total tumor volume) with diet was observed for intact mice (P = 0.471) however, castrated mice on the Low Carb diet saw a statistically significant reduction in tumor growth rate compared with Western diet fed mice (P = 0.017). No correlation with serum PSA was observed. Steroid profiles, alongside serum cholesterol and cholesteryl ester levels, were significantly altered by both diet and castration. Specifically, DHT concentration with the Low Carb diet was 58% that of the CRPC-bearing mice on the Western diet. Enzymes in the steroidogenesis pathway were directly impacted and tumors isolated from intact mice on the Low Carb diet had higher AKR1C3 protein levels and lower HSD17B2 protein levels than intact mice on the Western diet (ARK1C3: P = 0.074; HSD17B2: P = 0.091, with α = 0.1). In contrast, CRPC tumors from mice on Low Carb diets had higher concentrations of both HSD17B2 (P = 0.016) and SRD5A1 (P = 0.058 with α = 0.1) enzymes. There was no correlation between tumor growth in castrated mice for Low Carb diet versus Western diet and (a) serum insulin (b) GH serum levels (c) insulin receptor (IR) or (d) IGF-1R in tumor tissue. Intact mice fed Western diet had higher serum insulin which was associated with significantly higher blood glucose and tumor tissue IR. We conclude that both diet and castration have a significant impact on the endocrinology of mice bearing LNCaP xenograft tumors. The observed effects of diet on cholesterol and steroid regulation impact tumor tissue DHT specifically and are

  2. Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadie B. Barr

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical evidence has shown that rising obesity rates closely parallel the increased consumption of processed foods (PF consumption in USA. Differences in postprandial thermogenic responses to a whole-food (WF meal vs. a PF meal may be a key factor in explaining obesity trends, but currently there is limited research exploring this potential link. Objective: The goal was to determine if a particular PF meal has a greater thermodynamic efficiency than a comparable WF meal, thereby conferring a greater net-energy intake. Design: Subjective satiation scores and postprandial energy expenditure were measured for 5–6 h after isoenergetic meals were ingested. The meals were either ‘whole’ or ‘processed’ cheese sandwiches; multi-grain bread and cheddar cheese were deemed whole, while white bread and processed cheese product were considered processed. Meals were comparable in terms of protein (15–20%, carbohydrate (40–50%, and fat (33–39% composition. Subjects were healthy women (n=12 and men (n=5 studied in a crossover design. Results: There were no significant differences in satiety ratings after the two meals. Average energy expenditure for the WF meal (137±14.1 kcal, 19.9% of meal energy was significantly larger than for the PF meal (73.1±10.2 kcal, 10.7% of meal energy. Conclusion: Ingestion of the particular PF meal tested in this study decreases postprandial energy expenditure by nearly 50% compared with the isoenergetic WF meal. This reduction in daily energy expenditure has potential implications for diets comprised heavily of PFs and their associations with obesity.

  3. Flavor-Nutrient Learning is Less Rapid with Fat than with Carbohydrate in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelle, Christina Humphries; Warwick, Zoe S.

    2009-01-01

    Flavor-nutrient learning occurs when the post-ingestive consequences of a food are associated with its flavor. As a signal of the food's energy density, flavor-nutrient associations have the potential to contribute to the regulation of meal size. While all calorie sources (fat, carbohydrate, protein, ethanol) can support flavor-nutrient learning, prior research has found that flavor-nutrient associations based on fat may require higher nutrient concentrations and more rigorous experimental protocols than are required to train carbohydrate (cho)-based associations. To further explore potential macronutrient-specific differences in flavor-nutrient learning, the present study compared the time course of acquisition of cho- and fat-based associations. Rats were trained to associate distinctive flavors with high-density (3.2kcal/mL) and low-density (0.2kcal/mL) orally-consumed solutions, either fat (corn oil emulsion) or carbohydrate (sucrose). For each nutrient, both within- and between-groups designs were used to assess (via two-bottle preference testing) whether flavor-nutrient learning had occurred after 2, 4, or 6 training trial pairs. Rats trained with carbohydrate demonstrated preferential intake of the low-density paired flavor after only 2 training pairs; in contrast, rats trained with fat required 6 training pairs. These findings demonstrate differential rapidity of acquisition flavor-nutrient associations. The longer time course of acquisition of fat-based flavor-nutrient associations may be yet another mechanism by which high-fat foods promote overeating. PMID:19303030

  4. Flavor-nutrient learning is less rapid with fat than with carbohydrate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelle, Christina Humphries; Warwick, Zoe S

    2009-06-22

    Flavor-nutrient learning occurs when the post-ingestive consequences of a food are associated with its flavor. As a signal of the food's energy density, flavor-nutrient associations have the potential to contribute to the regulation of meal size. While all calorie sources (fat, carbohydrate, protein, ethanol) can support flavor-nutrient learning, prior research has found that flavor-nutrient associations based on fat may require higher nutrient concentrations and more rigorous experimental protocols than are required to train carbohydrate (cho)-based associations. To further explore potential macronutrient-specific differences in flavor-nutrient learning, the present study compared the time course of acquisition of cho- and fat-based associations. Rats were trained to associate distinctive flavors with high-density (3.2 kcal/mL) and low-density (0.2 kcal/mL) orally-consumed solutions, either fat (corn oil emulsion) or carbohydrate (sucrose). For each nutrient, both within- and between-group designs were used to assess (via two-bottle preference testing) whether flavor-nutrient learning had occurred after 2, 4, or 6 training trial pairs. Rats trained with carbohydrate demonstrated preferential intake of the low-density paired flavor after only 2 training pairs; in contrast, rats trained with fat required 6 training pairs. These findings demonstrate differential rapidity of acquisition flavor-nutrient associations. The longer time course of acquisition of fat-based flavor-nutrient associations may be yet another mechanism by which high-fat foods promote overeating.

  5. Comparison of Insulin-resistance Rat Models Induced by High-fat and High-carbohydrate Diets%不同高能饮食诱发胰岛素抵抗大鼠模型的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 刘源; 赵爽; 高青松; 王志红

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析高猪油日粮及高蔗糖日粮分别诱发胰岛素抵抗大鼠的血液生化指标差异,为此类模型的建立及实验研究提供参考.方法雄性SD大鼠随机分为3组,对照组给予普通日粮,高脂组给予高猪油含量的日粮,高糖组给予高蔗糖含量的日粮.喂养6周,每两周测定空腹血糖、甘油三酯(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-c)、总胆固醇(TCH)、胰岛素,根据胰岛素敏感性指数(ISI)=ln1/(FPG×FINS)评定大鼠的胰岛素敏感性.结果6周后,高脂、高糖组ISI显著低于对照组(P<0.05);猪油组血清胰岛素显著高于对照组(P<0.05)、血清HDL-c显著低于对照组(P<0.05);高蔗糖组血糖、胰岛素均上升,但与对照组无统计学差异;而各组间血清总胆固醇、甘油三酯及体重无明显差异(P>0.05).结论高脂、高糖日粮均可诱发IR大鼠模型,高脂模型具有血清胰岛素显著升高、HDL-c显著降低的特点而高糖模型伴有较高的血糖、胰岛素.%Objective To measure the biochemical parameters in blood of Insulin-resistance rat model induced by high-fat and high-carbohydrate diets. Methods Male SD rats were fed on standard laboratory chow, high-fat diet or high-carbohydrate diet respectively for 6 weeks. Serum glucose ( GLU) , insulin, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol ( TCH) and HDL-cholesterol were measured at fortnightly interval. The insulin sensitivity was estimated by ISI index, ISI = lnl/( FPG x FINS). Results Compared with control after 6 weeks, ISI index significantly decreased in both high-fat and high-carbohydrate groups ( P < 0. 05 ) , and serum insulin was significantly higher and HDL-cholesterol was significant lower in high-fat group ( P < 0. 05 ). Serum GLU and insulin in high-carbohydrate group were higher than those in other groups. However there were mild difference in TG、GLU and body weight among the three groups. Conclusion Both high-fat and high-carbohydrate diets can induce

  6. CARBOHYDRATE-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WHICH BIND TO CARBOHYDRATE BINDING RECEPTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases.......Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases....

  7. The meal as a performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NYBERG, MARIA; Olsson, Viktoria; ÖRTMAN, GERD

    2017-01-01

    . By using Goffman's concept of performance as a theoretical framework together with Bourdieu's thinking on habitus, a deeper understanding of food and meal practices is obtained. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 elderly people (aged between 67 and 87 years) and meal observations were...

  8. Carbohydrates and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  9. Carbohydrates and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  10. Carbohydrate terminology and classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cummings, J H; Stephen, A M

    2007-01-01

    ...) and polysaccharides (DP> or =10). Within this classification, a number of terms are used such as mono- and disaccharides, polyols, oligosaccharides, starch, modified starch, non-starch polysaccharides, total carbohydrate, sugars, etc...

  11. Effect of a high-fat meal on thalidomide pharmacokinetics and the relative bioavailability of oral formulations in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, S K; Scheffler, M R; Kook, K A; Tracewell, W G; Colburn, W A; Stirling, D I; Thomas, S D

    2000-01-01

    The effect of food on the oral pharmacokinetics of thalidomide and the relative bioavailability of two oral thalidomide formulations were determined in an open label, single dose, randomized, three-way crossover study. Five male and eight female healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of 200 mg Celgene thalidomide capsules under fasted and non-fasted conditions, and a single dose of 200 mg tablets of Serral thalidomide under fasted conditions. The high-fat meal resulted in a 0.5-1.5 h absorption lag time, an increased mean C(max), a decreased mean AUC and a delay in mean T(max). The Serral tablet formulation resulted in a lower mean C(max), and slower terminal decline in plasma thalidomide concentrations compared with both Celgene treatments. Mean C(max) concentrations were 1.99+/-0.41 microg/mL (range 1.28-2.76) within 4.00+/-1.13 h (2-5) for the Celgene formulation fasted, 2.17+/-0.51 microg/mL (1.43-3.01) within 6.08+/-2.33 h (3-12) for the Celgene formulation with food, and 1. 05+/-0.31 microg/mL (0.62-1.65) within 6.23+/-1.88 h (5-10) for the Serral formulation fasted. Mean terminal half-lives were 13.50+/-6. 77 h for the Serral product, compared with 5.80+/-1.72 h and 5. 09+/-1.03 h for Celgene fasted and fed, respectively. Celgene's formulation exhibited slightly greater bioavailability than Serral's formulation, with mean ratios of 122% and 110% for Ln-transformed AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-infinity), respectively. The mean C(max) for the Celgene formulation was approximately two times greater than Serral's. Food delayed the onset of absorption of by 0.5-1.5 h, but had little effect on the extent of absorption from the Celgene capsule. Under fasted conditions, the Celgene thalidomide resulted in a two-fold greater C(max) and 10% greater AUC(0-infinity) than the Serral formulation.

  12. Lower glycemic load meals reduce diurnal glycemic oscillations in women with risk factors for gestational diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizirian, Nathalie V; Goletzke, Janina; Brodie, Shannon; Atkinson, Fiona S; Markovic, Tania P; Ross, Glynis P; Buyken, Anette; Brand-Miller, Jennie P

    2017-01-01

    Objective Maternal glycemia plays a key role in fetal growth. We hypothesized that lower glycemic load (GL) meals (lower glycemic index, modestly lower carbohydrate) would substantially reduce day-long glucose variability in women at risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Research design and methods A crossover study of 17 women (mean±SD age 34.8±4 years; gestational weeks 29.3±1.3; body mass index 23.8±4.7 kg/m2) who consumed a low GL or a high GL diet in random order, 1-day each, over 2 consecutive days. Diets were energy-matched and fiber-matched with 5 meals per 24 hours. All food was provided. Continuous glucose monitoring was used to assess diurnal glycemia. Results Maternal glucose levels were 51% lower on the low GL day with lower incremental area under the curve (iAUC±SEM 549±109 vs 1120±198 mmol/L min, p=0.015). Glycemic variability was significantly lower on the low GL day, as demonstrated by a lower average SD (0.7±0.1 vs 0.9±0.1, p<0.001) and lower mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (2.1±0.2 vs 2.7±0.2 mmol/L, p<0.001). Conclusions A lower GL meal plan in pregnancy acutely halves day-long maternal glucose levels and reduces glucose variability, providing further evidence to support the utility of a low GL diet in pregnancy. PMID:28405345

  13. A randomized trial of high-dairy-protein, variable-carbohydrate diets and exercise on body composition in adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Evelyn B; Coffey, Vernon G; Cato, Louise E; Phillips, Stuart M; Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A

    2016-05-01

    This study determined the effects of 16-week high-dairy-protein, variable-carbohydrate (CHO) diets and exercise training (EXT) on body composition in men and women with overweight/obesity. One hundred and eleven participants (age 47 ± 6 years, body mass 90.9 ± 11.7 kg, BMI 33 ± 4 kg/m(2) , values mean ± SD) were randomly stratified to diets with either: high dairy protein, moderate CHO (40% CHO: 30% protein: 30% fat; ∼4 dairy servings); high dairy protein, high CHO (55%: 30%: 15%; ∼4 dairy servings); or control (55%: 15%: 30%; ∼1 dairy serving). Energy restriction (500 kcal/day) was achieved through diet (∼250 kcal/day) and EXT (∼250 kcal/day). Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before, midway, and upon completion of the intervention. Eighty-nine (25 M/64 F) of 115 participants completed the 16-week intervention, losing 7.7 ± 3.2 kg fat mass (P exercise stimulus. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  14. Effects of a low- or a high-carbohydrate diet on performance, energy system contribution, and metabolic responses during supramaximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Pires, Flavio O; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Oliveira, Rodrigo S F; Kiss, Maria Augusta; Bishop, David

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a high- or low-carbohydrate (CHO) diet on performance, aerobic and anaerobic contribution, and metabolic responses during supramaximal exercise. Six physically-active men first performed a cycling exercise bout at 115% maximal oxygen uptake to exhaustion after following their normal diet for 48 h (∼50% of CHO, control test). Seventy-two hours after, participants performed a muscle glycogen depletion exercise protocol, followed by either a high- or low-CHO diet (∼70 and 25% of CHO, respectively) for 48 h, in a random, counterbalanced order. After the assigned diet period (48 h), the supramaximal cycling exercise bout (115% maximal oxygen consumption) to exhaustion was repeated. The low-CHO diet reduced time to exhaustion when compared with both the control and the high-CHO diet (-19 and -32%, respectively, p diet was accompanied by a lower total aerobic energy contribution (-39%) compared with the high-CHO diet (p 0.05). The low-CHO diet was associated with a lower blood lactate concentration (p 0.05). In conclusion, a low-CHO diet reduces both performance and total aerobic energy provision during supramaximal exercise. As peak K(+) concentration was similar, but time to exhaustion shorter, the low-CHO diet was associated with an earlier attainment of peak plasma K(+) concentration.

  15. High-Fat Diet Changes Hippocampal Apolipoprotein E (ApoE in a Genotype- and Carbohydrate-Dependent Manner in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Lane-Donovan

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a currently incurable neurodegenerative disease affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease include genetic risk factors, such as possession of ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4 over the risk-neutral ApoE3 allele, and lifestyle risk factors, such as diet and exercise. The intersection of these two sources of disease risk is not well understood. We investigated the impact of diet on ApoE levels by feeding wildtype, ApoE3, and ApoE4 targeted replacement (TR mice with chow, high-fat, or ketogenic (high-fat, very-low-carbohydrate diets. We found that high-fat diet affected both plasma and hippocampal levels of ApoE in an isoform-dependent manner, with high-fat diet causing a surprising reduction of hippocampal ApoE levels in ApoE3 TR mice. Conversely, the ketogenic diet had no effect on hippocampal ApoE. Our findings suggest that the use of dietary interventions to slow the progression AD should take ApoE genotype into consideration.

  16. High-Fat Diet Changes Hippocampal Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) in a Genotype- and Carbohydrate-Dependent Manner in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-Donovan, Courtney; Herz, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a currently incurable neurodegenerative disease affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease include genetic risk factors, such as possession of ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4) over the risk-neutral ApoE3 allele, and lifestyle risk factors, such as diet and exercise. The intersection of these two sources of disease risk is not well understood. We investigated the impact of diet on ApoE levels by feeding wildtype, ApoE3, and ApoE4 targeted replacement (TR) mice with chow, high-fat, or ketogenic (high-fat, very-low-carbohydrate) diets. We found that high-fat diet affected both plasma and hippocampal levels of ApoE in an isoform-dependent manner, with high-fat diet causing a surprising reduction of hippocampal ApoE levels in ApoE3 TR mice. Conversely, the ketogenic diet had no effect on hippocampal ApoE. Our findings suggest that the use of dietary interventions to slow the progression AD should take ApoE genotype into consideration.

  17. Relationship between small bowel transit time and absorption of a solid meal. Influence of metoclopramide, magnesium sulfate, and lactulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgate, A M; Read, N W

    1983-09-01

    The times taken for a radiolabeled solid meal to empty from the stomach and terminal ileum and the absorption of the components of that meal were measured in 14 patients with terminal ileostomies under control conditions and after administration of either lactulose (40 g) or metoclopramide (20 mg tds), or magnesium sulfate (0.1 g/kg body weight). Absorption of each of the components of the meal was determined by chemical analysis of the ileostomy effluent. The radioisotope proved an excellent marker for the delivery of fat, protein, and carbohydrate residues. All three agents significantly reduced the time taken for the meal to empty from the ileum. This was associated with significant reductions in the absorption of fat, carbohydrate, protein, water, and electrolytes in the case of lactulose and magnesium sulfate. Although metoclopramide reduced transit time to the same degree as the other agents, its effect on absorption of fat, fluid, and electrolytes was much less, and absorption of protein and carbohydrate was unaffected. We therefore conclude that, although agents that accelerate postprandial transit of a meal may diminish absorption of the component of that meal in the small bowel, the extent to which this occurs cannot be predicted by a knowledge of transit kinetics alone and depends on the means by which transit is altered. The action of lactulose on the small intestine causes fluid and fat losses, sufficient to result in diarrhea and steatorrhea in a normal subject.

  18. Digestible and indigestible carbohydrates: interactions with postprandial lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairon, Denis; Play, Barbara; Jourdheuil-Rahmani, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    The balance between fats and carbohydrates in the human diet is still a matter of very active debate. Indeed, the processing of ordinary mixed meals involves complex processes within the lumen of the upper digestive tract for digestion, in the small intestine mucosa for absorption and resecretion, and in peripheral tissues and in the circulation for final handling. The purpose of this review is to focus on available knowledge on the interactions of digestible or indigestible carbohydrates with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in the postprandial state. The observations made in humans after test meals are reported and interpreted in the light of recent findings on the cellular and molecular levels regarding possible interplays between carbohydrates and lipid moieties in some metabolic pathways. Digestible carbohydrates, especially readily digestible starches or fructose, have been shown to exacerbate and/or delay postprandial lipemia, whereas some fiber sources can lower it. While interactions between dietary fibers and the process of lipid digestion and absorption have been studied mainly in the last decades, recent studies have shown that dietary carbohydrate moieties (e.g., glucose) can stimulate the intestinal uptake of cholesterol and lipid resecretion. In addition to the well-known glucose/fructose transporters, a number of transport proteins have recently been involved in intestinal lipid processing, whose implications in such interactions are discussed. The potential importance of postprandial insulinemia in these processes is also evaluated in the light of recent findings. The interactions of carbohydrates and lipid moieties in the postprandial state may result from both acute and chronic effects, both at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

  19. Metabolic syndrome and low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets in the medical school biochemistry curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Makowske, Mary

    2003-09-01

    One of Robert Atkins contributions was to define a diet strategy in terms of an underlying metabolic principle ("the science behind Atkins"). The essential feature is that, by reducing insulin fluxes, lipids are funnelled away from storage and oxidized. Ketosis can be used as an indicator of lipolysis. A metabolic advantage is also proposed: controlled carbohydrates leads to greater weight loss per calorie than other diets. Although the Atkins diet and its scientific rationale are intended for a popular audience, the overall features are consistent with current metabolic ideas. We have used the Atkins controlled-carbohydrate diet as a focal point for teaching nutrition and metabolism in the first-year medical school curriculum. By presenting metabolism in the context of the current epidemic of obesity and of metabolic syndrome and related disorders, we provide direct application of the study of metabolic pathways, a subject not traditionally considered by medical students to be highly relevant to medical practice. We present here a summary of the metabolic basis of the Atkins diet as we teach it to medical students. We also discuss a proposed mechanism for metabolic advantage that is consistent with current ideas and that further brings out ideas in metabolism for students. The topics that are developed include the role of insulin and glucagon in lipolysis, control of lipoprotein lipase, the glucose-glycogen-gluconeogenesis interrelations, carbohydrate-protein interactions and ketosis. In essence, the approach is to expand the traditional feed-fast (post-absorptive) cycles to include the effect of low-carbohydrate meals: the disease states studied are generalized from traditional study of diabetes to include obesity and metabolic syndrome. The ideal diet for weight loss and treatment of metabolic syndrome, if it exists, remains to be determined, but presenting metabolism in the context of questions raised by the Atkins regimen prepares future physicians for

  20. Adolescents' unhealthy eating habits are associated with meal skipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Monteiro, Luana Silva; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2017-10-01

    Meal consumption and diet quality are important for healthy development during adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine the association between meal habits and diet quality in Brazilian adolescents. A school-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 with a probabilistic sample of adolescents ages 14 to 19 y (N = 1139) from high schools in central-western Brazil. Consumption of breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner was assessed to evaluate adolescents' meal profile. The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) was calculated to evaluate diet quality. The association between meal profile and BHEI-R (global estimates and components) was assessed using multivariate linear regression models. Diet was characterized by unhealthy eating: a low consumption of fruits, vegetables, and milk/dairy, and a high consumption of fats and sodium. An unsatisfactory meal profile was observed in 14% of adolescents, whereas daily consumption of breakfast, lunch, and dinner was reported by 47%, 78%, and 52% of adolescents, respectively. Meal profile was positively associated with diet quality. Daily consumption of breakfast was associated with higher BHEI-R scores, lower sodium intake, and greater consumption of fruits and milk/dairy. Daily consumption of lunch was associated with greater consumption of vegetables and "meats, eggs, and legumes," whereas consumption of dinner was associated with an increased consumption of "whole fruits." This study showed a parallelism between daily consumption of meals with healthier eating and greater adherence to traditional Brazilian food habits. Skipping meals was associated with a low-quality diet, especially concerning to the low consumption of fruits and vegetables and a high intake of sodium and calories from solid fats, added sugars, and alcoholic beverages. Therefore, the adoption of regular meal habits may help adolescents improve their diet quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisse Fagt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high salt (=NaCl intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109, and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71. Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion: Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased.

  2. The nutritional content and cost of supermarket ready-meals. Cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remnant, Jennifer; Adams, Jean

    2015-09-01

    Over-reliance on convenience foods, including ready-meals, has been suggested as one contributor to obesity. Little research has systematically explored the nutritional content of supermarket ready-meals. We described the nutritional content and cost of UK supermarket ready-meals. We conducted a survey of supermarket own-brand chilled and frozen ready-meals available in branches of ten national supermarket chains in one city in northern England. Data on price, weight and nutritional content of meals in four ranges ('healthier', luxury, economy and standard) and of six types (macaroni cheese, meat lasagne, cottage pie, chicken tikka masala, fish pie, and sweet and sour chicken) were collected. Nutritional content was compared to ranges used to identify low, medium and high fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt in nationally recommended front-of-pack labelling. 166 ready-meals were included from 41 stores. Overall, ready-meals were high in saturated fat and salt, and low in sugar. One-fifth of meals were low in fat, saturated fat, salt and sugar, including two-thirds of 'healthier' meals. Meals that were low for three out of the four front-of-pack nutrients were the cheapest. Supermarket ready-meals do not have a healthful nutritional profile overall. However, a number of healthier meals were available - particularly amongst meals specifically marked as 'healthier'. There was little evidence that healthier meals necessarily cost more. Further effort is required to encourage producers to improve the nutritional profile of the full range of ready-meals, and not just those specifically labelled as 'healthier'. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. In utero and postnatal exposure to a high-protein or high-carbohydrate diet leads to differences in adipose tissue mRNA expression and blood metabolites in kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Brittany M; Liu, Kari J; Keel, Tonya L; Graves, Thomas K; Swanson, Kelly S

    2009-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to measure the differences in body composition, adipose tissue gene expression, blood metabolite and hormone concentrations, and insulin sensitivity in kittens exposed to high-protein (HP) or high-carbohydrate (HC) nutrition in utero and through the growth period. Eight dams were randomised onto two test diets, and fed the diets throughout gestation and lactation. Male offspring were evaluated for 9 months. Kittens were weaned at 2 months of age onto the same treatment diet as the dam and were allowed to consume diets ad libitum. The HC diet contained 34.3 % crude protein (CP), 19.2 % fat and 30.8 % digestible carbohydrate, while the HP diet contained 52.9 % CP, 23.5 % fat and 10.8 % digestible carbohydrate. Blood samples were collected at 6 months after birth. Body composition was determined at 2 and 8 months of age and an intravenous glucose tolerance test, neutering and adipose tissue biopsy conducted at 8 months of age. Physical activity was quantified at 6 and 9 months. Energy intake, DM intake and body weight were not different between groups. At 2 months, blood TAG were greater (P kittens fed the HP diet. At 8 months, blood leptin was higher (P kittens fed the HC diet, while chemokine receptor 5, hormone-sensitive lipase, uncoupling protein 2, leptin and insulin receptor mRNA were greater (P kittens fed the HP diet. The present results demonstrate some of the changes in blood metabolites and hormones, physical activity and mRNA abundance that occur with feeding high protein levels to kittens.

  4. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubro, S; Astrup, A

    1997-01-04

    To compare importance of rate of initial weight loss for long term outcome in obese patients and to compare efficacy of two different weight maintenance programmes. Subjects were randomised to either rapid or slow initial weight loss. Completing patients were re-randomised to one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib diet or fixed energy intake diet. Patients were followed up one year later. University research department in Copenhagen, Denmark. 43 (41 women) obese adults (body mass index 27-40) who were otherwise healthy living in or around Copenhagen. 8 weeks of low energy diet (2 MJ/day) or 17 weeks of conventional diet (5 MJ/day), both supported by an anorectic compound (ephedrine 20 mg and caffeine 200 mg thrice daily); one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet or fixed energy intake diet ( 5 kg at follow up. Mean initial weight loss was 12.6 kg (95% confidence interval 10.9 to 14.3 kg) in rapid weight loss group and 12.6 (9.9 to 15.3) kg in conventional diet group. Rate of initial weight loss had no effect on weight maintenance after 6 or 12 months of weight maintenance or at follow up. After weight maintenance programme, the ad lib group had maintained 13.2 (8.1 to 18.3) kg of the initial weight loss of 13.5 (11.4 to 15.5) kg, and the fixed energy intake group had maintained 9.7 (6.1 to 13.3) kg of the initial 13.8 (11.8 to 15.7) kg weight loss (group difference 3.5 (-2.4 to 9.3) kg). Regained weight at follow up was greater in fixed energy intake group than in ad lib group (11.3 (7.1 to 15.5) kg v 5.4 (2.3 to 8.6) kg, group difference 5.9 (0.7 to 11.1) kg, P lib group and 40% of fixed energy intake group had maintained a weight loss of > 5 kg (P lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet was superior to fixed energy intake for maintaining weight after a major weight loss. The rate of the initial weight loss did not influence long term outcome.

  5. Performance of broilers fed with snail (Pomacea caniculata meal as substitute to fish meal or meat and bone meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Snail meal was used as a substitution to fish meat and bone meal in broiler rations. Final weightand feed conversion efficiency of the birds, profit and return on investment differed significantly among treatments. Feed consumption and production costs were comparable. Results show that snail meal can replace fish or meat and bone meal in broiler diets.

  6. A Dose-Response Strategy Reveals Differences between Normal-Weight and Obese Men in Their Metabolic and Inflammatory Responses to a High-Fat Meal 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Schwander, Flurina; Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin A.; Buri, Caroline; Portmann, Reto; Egger, Lotti; Chollet, Magali; McTernan, Philip G.; Piya, Milan K.; Gijs, Martin A. M.; Vionnet, Nathalie; Pralong, François; Laederach, Kurt; Vergères, Guy

    2014-01-01

    A dose-response strategy may not only allow investigation of the impact of foods and nutrients on human health but may also reveal differences in the response of individuals to food ingestion based on their metabolic health status. In a randomized crossover study, we challenged 19 normal-weight (BMI: 20–25 kg/m2) and 18 obese (BMI: >30 kg/m2) men with 500, 1000, and 1500 kcal of a high-fat (HF) meal (60.5% energy from fat). Blood was taken at baseline and up to 6 h postprandially and analyzed...

  7. The quality of meal elements for professional prepared meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løje, Hanne; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    Meal elements are convenience products which are partially prepared meal components to be used in professional kitchens. Examples are meat, vegetables or fish which are preprepared for example by heat-treatment before distribution to the professional kitchens. The pre-fried vegetables and meat can...... robust against freezing, thawing and reheating without excessive drip losses as observed from raw or blanched vegetables. The results show that the pre-fried vegetables have a potential to be used as meal elements for professional prepared meals....... for examples be used as ingredients in hot or cold dishes. We have evaluated the quality of several kinds of pre-fried vegetables. The vegetables were prepared in pilot plan using a continuous stir-frying process, frozen and analysis during the thawing period. The results show that the shelf life determined...

  8. Production of high optical purity l-lactic acid from waste activated sludge by supplementing carbohydrate: effect of temperature and pretreatment time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Qiwei; Li, Xiang; Chen, Yinguang; Liu, Yanan; Pan, Yin

    2016-10-01

    It has been widely accepted that the most environmentally beneficial way to treat waste activated sludge (WAS), the byproduct of municipal wastewater treatment plant, is to recover the valuable organic acid. However, the bio-conversion of lactic acid, one of the high added-value chemical, is seldom reported from WAS fermentation. In this paper, l-lactic acid was observed dominant in the WAS fermentation liquid with carbohydrate addition at ambient temperature. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on l-lactic acid and d-lactic acid production was fully discussed: two isomers were rapidly produced and consumed up in one day at mesophilic condition; and almost optically pure l-lactic acid was generated at thermophilic condition, yet time-consuming with yield of l-lactic acid enhancing by 52.9% compared to that at ambient temperature. The study mechanism showed that mesophilic condition was optimal for both production and consumption of l-lactic acid and d-lactic acid, while consumption of l-lactic acid and production of d-lactic acid were severely inhibited at thermophilic condition. Therefore, by maintaining thermophilic for 4 h in advance and subsequently fermenting mesophilic for 34 h, the concentration of l-lactic acid with optical activity of 98.3% was improved to 16.6 ± 0.5 g COD/L at a high specific efficiency of 0.6097/d.

  9. Effects of Low Carbohydrate High Protein (LCHP) diet on atherosclerotic plaque phenotype in ApoE/LDLR-/- mice: FT-IR and Raman imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, T P; Marzec, K M; Chlopicki, S; Maślak, E; Jasztal, A; Franczyk-Żarów, M; Czyżyńska-Cichoń, I; Moszkowski, T; Kostogrys, R B; Baranska, M

    2015-09-22

    Low Carbohydrate High Protein (LCHP) diet displays pro-atherogenic effects, however, the exact mechanisms involved are still unclear. Here, with the use of vibrational imaging, such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman (RS) spectroscopies, we characterize biochemical content of plaques in Brachiocephalic Arteries (BCA) from ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice fed LCHP diet as compared to control, recomended by American Institute of Nutrition, AIN diet. FT-IR images were taken from 6-10 sections of BCA from each mice and were complemented with RS measurements with higher spatial resolution of chosen areas of plaque sections. In aortic plaques from LCHP fed ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice, the content of cholesterol and cholesterol esters was increased, while that of proteins was decreased as evidenced by global FT-IR analysis. High resolution imaging by RS identified necrotic core/foam cells, lipids (including cholesterol crystals), calcium mineralization and fibrous cap. The decreased relative thickness of the outer fibrous cap and the presence of buried caps were prominent features of the plaques in ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice fed LCHP diet. In conclusion, FT-IR and Raman-based imaging provided a complementary insight into the biochemical composition of the plaque suggesting that LCHP diet increased plaque cholesterol and cholesterol esters contents of atherosclerotic plaque, supporting the cholesterol-driven pathogenesis of LCHP-induced atherogenesis.

  10. High-efficiency carbohydrate fermentation to ethanol at temperatures above 40/sup 0/C by Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus isolated from sugar mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P.J.; NcNeil, K.; Watson, K.

    1986-06-01

    A number of yeast strains, isolated from sugar can mills and identified as strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus, were examined for their ability to ferment glucose and cane syrup to ethanol at high temperatures. Several strains were capable of rapid fermentation at temperatures up to 47/sup 0/C. At 43/sup 0/C, >6% (wt/vol) ethanol was produced after 12 to 14 h of fermentation, concurrent with retention of high cell viability (>80%). Although the type strain (CBS 712) of K. marxianus var. marxianus produced up to 6% (wt/vol) ethanol at 43/sup 0/C, cell viability was low, 30 to 50%, and the fermentation time was 24 to 30 h. On the basis of currently available strains, the authors suggest that it may be possible by genetic engineering to construct yeasts capable of fermenting carbohydrates at temperatures close to 50/sup 0/C to produce 10 to 15% (wt/vol) ethanol in 12 to 18 h with retention of cell viability.

  11. [The effects of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on body weight and the expression of gastrointestinal hormones in diet-induced obesity rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-yan; Ma, Li-chuan; Li, Yin-yin; Zhao, Jia-jun; Li, Ming-long

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the effects of long-term high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on body weight and the expression of gastrointestinal hormones in diet-induced obesity rats. Twenty-four diet-induced obesity rat models were established by feeding fat-enriched diet, then were randomly divided into two groups by stratified sampling method by weight: the high-protein diet group (HP, 36.7% of energy from protein), and the normal chow group (NC, 22.4% of energy from protein), 12 rats in each group. The total calorie intake of each rat per day was similar and was maintained for 24 weeks, then body weight, visceral fat mass, fasting plasma ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were determined, as well as protein expression of ghrelin in stomach, GLP-1 in ileum were detected by immunohistochemistry. After 24 weeks, body weight of HP, NC groups were (490.92 ± 39.47) g and (545.55 ± 31.08) g, respectively (t = -3.664, P 0.05), and plasma ghrelin level was negatively correlated to body weight (r = -0.370, t = -1.899, P diet can reduce body weight and visceral fat, increase the expression of ghrelin, and decline GLP-1 expression in diet-induced obesity rats.

  12. Time-dependent changes in the expression of lymphocyte and monocyte cell adhesion molecules after meals of different composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecilla, Esther; González-Muñoz, Miguel; Lahoz, Carlos; Mostaza, Jose

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the acute effect of meals of different composition on the expression of adhesion molecules that play a key role in leucocyte trafficking. A total of twenty apparently healthy subjects randomly consumed three isoenergetic meals 1 week apart: enriched in carbohydrates (CHO), enriched in monounsaturated fat and enriched in saturated fat. Blood samples were obtained before the meals and at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h after meal ingestion. Samples were analysed for LDL resistance to Cu-mediated oxidation and for the surface expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of CD62L, CD162, CD11a, CD11b, CD49d and CD54 by flow cytometry. The present results showed that there were no changes in LDL susceptibility to oxidation within and among the meals. After the CHO-enriched meal, there was a time-dependent increased expression of CD162, CD49d, CD11a and CD54 on PBMC that returned to basal values after 8-10 h. These changes were significantly greater than the ones observed after the consumption of the monounsaturated fat- and the saturated fat-enriched meals and were more evident in lymphocytes than in monocytes. In conclusion, acute ingestion of a CHO-enriched meal induces higher increases of lymphocyte activation markers than fat-enriched meals. These results suggest that long-term consumption of CHO-enriched diets may be associated with a sustained pro-inflammatory state.

  13. Nutritional content of supermarket ready meals and recipes by television chefs in the United Kingdom: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Simon; Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2012-12-14

    To compare the energy and macronutrient content of main meals created by television chefs with ready meals sold by supermarkets, and to compare both with nutritional guidelines published by the World Health Organization and UK Food Standards Agency. Cross sectional study. Three supermarkets with the largest share of the grocery market in the United Kingdom, 2010. 100 main meal recipes from five bestselling cookery books by UK television chefs and 100 own brand ready meals from the three leading UK supermarkets. Number of meals for which the nutritional content complied with WHO recommendations, and the proportion of nutrients classified as red, amber, or green using the UK FSA's "traffic light" system for labelling food. No recipe or ready meal fully complied with the WHO recommendations. The ready meals were more likely to comply with the recommended proportions of energy derived from carbohydrate (18% v 6%, P=0.01) and sugars (83% v 81%, P=0.05) and fibre density (56% v 14% Psupermarkets complied with WHO recommendations. Recipes were less healthy than ready meals, containing significantly more energy, protein, fat, and saturated fat, and less fibre per portion than the ready meals.

  14. Temporal Coordination of Carbohydrate Metabolism during Mosquito Reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Hou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous mosquitoes serve as vectors of multiple devastating human diseases, and many unique physiological features contribute to the incredible evolutionary success of these insects. These functions place high-energy demands on a reproducing female mosquito, and carbohydrate metabolism (CM must be synchronized with these needs. Functional analysis of metabolic gene profiling showed that major CM pathways, including glycolysis, glycogen and sugar metabolism, and citrate cycle, are dramatically repressed at post eclosion (PE stage in mosquito fat body followed by a sharply increase at post-blood meal (PBM stage, which were also verified by Real-time RT-PCR. Consistent to the change of transcript and protein level of CM genes, the level of glycogen, glucose and trehalose and other secondary metabolites are also periodically accumulated and degraded during the reproductive cycle respectively. Levels of triacylglycerols (TAG, which represent another important energy storage form in the mosquito fat body, followed a similar tendency. On the other hand, ATP, which is generated by catabolism of these secondary metabolites, showed an opposite trend. Additionally, we used RNA interference studies for the juvenile hormone and ecdysone receptors, Met and EcR, coupled with transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses to show that these hormone receptors function as major regulatory switches coordinating CM with the differing energy requirements of the female mosquito throughout its reproductive cycle. Our study demonstrates how, by metabolic reprogramming, a multicellular organism adapts to drastic and rapid functional changes.

  15. Disturbed hepatic carbohydrate management during high metabolic demand in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrema, Hilde; Derks, Terry G J; van Dijk, Theo H; Bloks, Vincent W; Gerding, Albert; Havinga, Rick; Tietge, Uwe J F; Müller, Michael; Smit, G Peter A; Kuipers, Folkert; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan

    2008-06-01

    Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase (MCAD) catalyzes crucial steps in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, a process that is of key relevance for maintenance of energy homeostasis, especially during high metabolic demand. To gain insight into the metabolic consequences of MCAD deficiency under these conditions, we compared hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in vivo in wild-type and MCAD(-/-) mice during fasting and during a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute phase response (APR). MCAD(-/-) mice did not become more hypoglycemic on fasting or during the APR than wild-type mice did. Nevertheless, microarray analyses revealed increased hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (Pgc-1alpha) and decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (Ppar alpha) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (Pdk4) expression in MCAD(-/-) mice in both conditions, suggesting altered control of hepatic glucose metabolism. Quantitative flux measurements revealed that the de novo synthesis of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) was not affected on fasting in MCAD(-/-) mice. During the APR, however, this flux was significantly decreased (-20%) in MCAD(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. Remarkably, newly formed G6P was preferentially directed toward glycogen in MCAD(-/-) mice under both conditions. Together with diminished de novo synthesis of G6P, this led to a decreased hepatic glucose output during the APR in MCAD(-/-) mice; de novo synthesis of G6P and hepatic glucose output were maintained in wild-type mice under both conditions. APR-associated hypoglycemia, which was observed in wild-type mice as well as MCAD(-/-) mice, was mainly due to enhanced peripheral glucose uptake. Our data demonstrate that MCAD deficiency in mice leads to specific changes in hepatic carbohydrate management on exposure to metabolic stress. This deficiency, however, does not lead to reduced de novo synthesis of G6P during fasting alone, which may be due to the

  16. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  17. Blood-meal identification in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Valle Hermoso, a high prevalence zone for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaguano, David F; Ponce, Patricio; Baldeón, Manuel E; Santander, Stephanie; Cevallos, Varsovia

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia. In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in the majority of countries. There are no previous reports of phlebotomine sand fly host feeding sources in Ecuador. We identified blood meal sources for phlebotomine sand fly species in Valle Hermoso, a hyper endemic area for leishmaniasis in Ecuador. Phlebotomine sand fly collections were carried out during the dry and rainy seasons. PCR and multiplex PCR were performed from DNA extracted from the abdomens of blood-fed females to specifically identify the avian and mammalian blood meal sources. Avian-blood (77%), mammalian-blood (16%) and mixed avian-mammalian blood (7%) were found in the samples. At the species level, blood from chickens (35.5%), humans (2.8%), cows (2.8%) and dogs (1.9%) was specifically detected. Nyssomyia trapidoi was the most common species of Lutzomyia found that fed on birds. The present results may aid the development of effective strategies to control leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

  18. Carbohydrates in therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcoyne, Michelle; Joshi, Lokesh

    2007-07-01

    Awareness of the importance of carbohydrates in living systems and medicine is growing due to the increasing understanding of their biological and pharmacological relevance. Carbohydrates are ubiquitous and perform a wide array of biological roles. Carbohydrate-based or -modified therapeutics are used extensively in cardiovascular and hematological treatments ranging from inflammatory diseases and anti-thrombotic treatments to wound healing. Heparin is a well-known and widely used example of a carbohydrate-based drug but will not be discussed as it has been extensively reviewed. We will detail carbohydrate-based and -modified therapeutics, both those that are currently marketed or in various stages of clinical trials and those that are potential therapeutics based on promising preclinical investigations. Carbohydrate-based therapeutics include polysaccharide and oligosaccharide anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant and anti-thrombotic agents from natural and synthetic sources, some as an alternative to heparin and others which were designed based on known structure-functional relationships. Some of these compounds have multiple biological effects, showing anti-adhesive, anti-HIV and anti-arthrithic activities. Small molecules, derivatives or mimetics of complement inhibitors, are detailed for use in limiting ischemia/ reperfusion injuries. Monosaccharides, both natural and synthetic, have been investigated for their in vivo anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective properties. Modification by glycosylation of natural products, or glycosylation-mimicking modification, has a significant effect on the parent molecule including increased plasma half-life and refining or increasing desired functions. It is hoped that this review will highlight the vast therapeutic potential of these natural bioactive molecules.

  19. Diabetes type 2 - meal planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest serving size or children's size. YOUR DIABETES CARE TEAM IS THERE TO HELP YOU In the beginning, meal planning may be overwhelming. But it will become easier as your knowledge grows about foods and their effects on your ...

  20. High Protein Pasta is Not More Satiating than High Fiber Pasta at a Lunch Meal, Nor Does it Decrease Mid-Afternoon Snacking in Healthy Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Renee; Timm, Derek; Ahnen, Rylee; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2016-09-01

    This study compared satiety after high protein pasta (16 g protein, 6 g fiber), high fiber pasta (11 g protein, 8 g fiber) or control pasta (11 g protein, 6 g fiber) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Participants were 36 healthy and men and women from the University of Minnesota campus. Fasted men and women ate calorie controlled, but macronutrient different pastas at 12:00 pm along with 500 mL of water. The primary outcome was satiety assessed by Visual Analogue Scales at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min daily after consuming the pastas. Secondary outcomes were calories consumed at an ad libitum snack at 3:00 pm, calories from food intake, gastrointestinal tolerance, and palatability. No differences were found among the pasta treatments for satiety, snacking, or gastrointestinal tolerance. Men ate significantly more calories for the rest of the (P = 0.007) after the high protein pasta versus the high fiber pasta (1701 ± 154 compared with 1083 ± 154) with control pasta being intermediate to the other treatments. No significant differences were found for gastrointestinal tolerance, but the palatability ratings showed the high protein pasta was less tasty (P = 0.03) and less pleasant (P = 0.01) than the other 2 pastas. Satisfaction was positively associated with pleasantness and negatively associated with aftertaste. Our results do not support the idea that high protein or high fiber pasta produces a greater satiety response compared to pasta with lower amounts of either nutrient. It is likely that since pasta is