Sample records for high capillary multi-evaporators

  1. Test results of reliable and very high capillary multi-evaporators / condenser loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Oost, S.; Dubois, M.; Bekaert, G. [Societe Anonyme Belge de Construction Aeronautique - SABCA (Belgium)


    The paper present the results of various SABCA activities in the field of two-phase heat transport system. These results have been based on a critical review and analysis of the existing two-phase loop and of the future loop needs in space applications. The research and the development of a high capillary wick (capillary pressure up to 38 000 Pa) are described. These activities have led towards the development of a reliable high performance capillary loop concept (HPCPL), which is discussed in details. Several loop configurations mono/multi-evaporators have been ground tested. The presented results of various tests clearly show the viability of this concept for future applications. Proposed flight demonstrations as well as potential applications conclude this paper. (authors) 7 refs.

  2. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Annis, P


    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 × 105 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented.

  3. High-performance capillary electrophoresis of glycoconjugates. (United States)

    Novotny, M V; Sudor, J


    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has recently emerged as a highly promising technique for the analysis and structural study of glycoconjugates. This article reviews the current status of CE and its potential in glycobiology. The separation media suitable for the analysis of monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and very large carbohydrate-based biomolecules are discussed. The detection aspects emphasize chemical derivatization approaches to tagging the glycoconjugates of interest for enhanced response in absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  4. Highly conductive, printable pastes from capillary suspensions (United States)

    Schneider, Monica; Koos, Erin; Willenbacher, Norbert


    We have used the capillary suspension phenomenon to design conductive pastes for printed electronic applications, such as front side metallization of solar cells, without non-volatile, organic additives that often deteriorate electrical properties. Adding a small amount of a second, immiscible fluid to a suspension creates a network of liquid bridges between the particles. This capillary force-controlled microstructure allows for tuning the flow behavior in a wide range. Yield stress and low-shear viscosity can be adjusted such that long-term stability is provided by inhibiting sedimentation, and, even more importantly, narrow line widths and high aspect ratios are accessible. These ternary mixtures, called capillary suspensions, exhibit a strong degree of shear thinning that allows for conventional coating or printing equipment to be used. Finally, the secondary fluid, beneficial for stability and processing of the wet paste, completely evaporates during drying and sintering. Thus, we obtained high purity silver and nickel layers with a conductivity two times greater than could be obtained with state-of-the-art, commercial materials. This revolutionary concept can be easily applied to other systems using inorganic or even organic conductive particles and represents a fundamental paradigm change to the formulation of pastes for printed electronics.

  5. Taylor dispersion analysis in coiled capillaries at high flow rates. (United States)

    Lewandrowska, Anna; Majcher, Aldona; Ochab-Marcinek, Anna; Tabaka, Marcin; Hołyst, Robert


    Taylor Dispersion Analysis (TDA) has been performed for analytes moving at high flow rates in long, coiled capillaries. A thin injection zone of the analyte is stretched by the flow and final distribution of concentration of the analyte at the end of the capillary has the gaussian shape. The high flow rates in coiled capillary generate vortices. They convectively mix the analyte across the capillary. This mixing reduces the width of the gaussian distribution several times in comparison to the width obtained in a straight capillary in standard TDA. We have determined an empirical, scaling equation for the width as a function of the flow rate, molecular diffusion coefficient of the analyte, viscosity of the carrier phase, internal radius of the cylindrical capillary, and external radius of the coiled capillary. This equation can be used for different sizes of capillaries in a wide range of parameters without an additional calibration procedure. Our experimental results of flow in the coiled capillary could not be explained by current models based on approximate solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation. We applied the technique to determine the diffusion coefficients of the following analytes: salts, drugs, single amino acids, peptides (from dipeptides to hexapeptides), and proteins.

  6. High lung volume increases stress failure in pulmonary capillaries (United States)

    Fu, Z.; Costello, M. L.; Tsukimoto, K.; Prediletto, R.; Elliott, A. R.; Mathieu-Costello, O.; West, J. B.


    We previously showed that when pulmonary capillaries in anesthetized rabbits are exposed to a transmural pressure (Ptm) of approximately 40 mmHg, stress failure of the walls occurs with disruption of the capillary endothelium, alveolar epithelium, or sometimes all layers. The present study was designed to test whether stress failure occurred more frequently at high than at low lung volumes for the same Ptm. Lungs of anesthetized rabbits were inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 20 cmH2O, perfused with autologous blood at 32.5 or 2.5 cmH2O Ptm, and fixed by intravascular perfusion. Samples were examined by both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared with those of a previous study in which the lung was inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O. There was a large increase in the frequency of stress failure of the capillary walls at the higher lung volume. For example, at 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the number of endothelial breaks per millimeter cell lining was 7.1 +/- 2.2 at the high lung volume compared with 0.7 +/- 0.4 at the low lung volume. The corresponding values for epithelium were 8.5 +/- 1.6 and 0.9 +/- 0.6. Both differences were significant (P less than 0.05). At 52.5 cmH2O Ptm, the results for endothelium were 20.7 +/- 7.6 (high volume) and 7.1 +/- 2.1 (low volume), and the corresponding results for epithelium were 32.8 +/- 11.9 and 11.4 +/- 3.7. At 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the thickness of the blood-gas barrier was greater at the higher lung volume, consistent with the development of more interstitial edema. Ballooning of the epithelium caused by accumulation of edema fluid between the epithelial cell and its basement membrane was seen at 32.5 and 52.5 cmH2O Ptm. At high lung volume, the breaks tended to be narrower and fewer were oriented perpendicular to the axis of the pulmonary capillaries than at low lung volumes. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy measurements agreed well. Our findings provide a physiological

  7. Using capillary properties of oil saturated rock of the Tatar Bobrikov horizon at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukliyev, N.Z.


    Comprehensive studies are reported of the capillary properties of the natural oil saturated rock according to speed of capillary imbibition and water-oil displacement in the capillaries heated to 353 k. The laboratory methods are described. It was established that capillaries containing high temperature water are able to displace only the oil that is moving more freely in the porous sandstone canals as well as to localize a significant portion of the oil in the other sections of the sandstone sample.

  8. High-order harmonic generation in a capillary discharge (United States)

    Rocca, Jorge J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Mumane, Margaret M.; Gaudiosi, David; Grisham, Michael E.; Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Reagan, Brendan A.


    A pre-ionized medium created by a capillary discharge results in more efficient use of laser energy in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from ions. It extends the cutoff photon energy, and reduces the distortion of the laser pulse as it propagates down the waveguide. The observed enhancements result from a combination of reduced ionization energy loss and reduced ionization-induced defocusing of the driving laser as well as waveguiding of the driving laser pulse. The discharge plasma also provides a means to spectrally tune the harmonics by tailoring the initial level of ionization of the medium.

  9. High Performance Wafer-Based Capillary Electrochromatography Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase II research comprises designing, constructing, and testing a chip-based capillary electrochromatography (CEC) prototype for separation and analysis of...

  10. High Performance Wafer-Based Capillary Electrochromatography Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research proposes to develop wafer-based capillary electrochromatography for lab-on-a-chip (LOC) applications. These microfluidic devices will be...

  11. A Zero Dimensional Time-Dependent Model of High-Pressure Ablative Capillary Discharge (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pekker, Leonid


    ... plasma core and the ablative capillary walls. The model includes the thermodynamics of partially ionized plasmas and non-ideal effects taking place in the high density plasma and assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE...

  12. High-Throughput Proteomics Using High Efficiency Multiple-Capillary Liquid Chromatography With On-Line High-Performance ESI FTICR Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yufeng (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Tolic, Nikola (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Zhao, Rui (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Li, Lingjun (Illinois Univ Of-Urbana/Champa); Berger, Scott J.(ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Harkewicz, Richard (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Anderson, Gordon A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Belov, Mikhail E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Smith, Richard D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))


    We report on the design and application of a high-efficiency multiple-capillary liquid chromatography (LC) system for high-throughput proteome analysis. The multiple-capillary LC system was operated at the pressure of 10,000 psi using commercial LC pumps to deliver the mobile phase and newly developed passive feedback valves to switch the mobile phase flow and introduce samples. The multiple-capillary LC system was composed of several serially connected dual-capillary column devices. The dual-capillary column approach was designed to eliminate the time delay for regeneration (or equilibrium) of the capillary column after its use under the mobile phase gradient condition (i.e. one capillary column was used in separation and the other was washed using mobile phase A). The serially connected dual-capillary columns and ESI sources were operated independently, and could be used for either''backup'' operation or with other mass spectrometer(s). This high-efficiency multiple-capillary LC system uses switching valves for all operations and is highly amenable to automation. The separations efficiency of dual-capillary column device, optimal capillary dimensions (column length and packed particle size), suitable mobile phases for electrospray, and the capillary re-generation were investigated. A high magnetic field (11.5 tesla) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was coupled on-line with this high-efficiency multiple-capillary LC system through an electrospray ionization source. The capillary LC provided a peak capacity of {approx}600, and the 2-D capillary LC-FTICR provided a combined resolving power of > 6 x 10 7 polypeptide isotopic distributions. For yeast cellular tryptic digests, > 100,000 polypeptides were typically detected, and {approx}1,000 proteins can be characterized in a single run.

  13. A high voltage pulsed power supply for capillary discharge waveguide applications (United States)

    Abuazoum, S.; Wiggins, S. M.; Issac, R. C.; Welsh, G. H.; Vieux, G.; Ganciu, M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.


    We present an all solid-state, high voltage pulsed power supply for inducing stable plasma formation (density ˜1018 cm-3) in gas-filled capillary discharge waveguides. The pulser (pulse duration of 1 μs) is based on transistor switching and wound transmission line transformer technology. For a capillary of length 40 mm and diameter 265 μm and gas backing pressure of 100 mbar, a fast voltage pulse risetime of 95 ns initiates breakdown at 13 kV along the capillary. A peak current of ˜280 A indicates near complete ionization, and the r.m.s. temporal jitter in the current pulse is only 4 ns. Temporally stable plasma formation is crucial for deploying capillary waveguides as plasma channels in laser-plasma interaction experiments, such as the laser wakefield accelerator.

  14. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for systemic capillary leak syndrome (Clarkson disease). (United States)

    Xie, Zhihui; Chan, Eunice C; Long, Lauren M; Nelson, Celeste; Druey, Kirk M


    Systemic capillary leak syndrome is a highly rare disorder of unknown cause. The disease is characterized by episodes of transient vascular collapse, which leads to hypotensive shock and anasarca. Previous treatment of this potentially devastating condition has been largely ineffective. We evaluated intravenous immunoglobulin prophylactic therapy in a cohort of 29 patients with systemic capillary leak syndrome in a longitudinal follow-up study. All patients received treatments at the discretion of their primary providers and retrospectively via questionnaire-recorded symptoms beginning with their first documented episode of systemic capillary leak syndrome to May 31, 2014. A total of 22 of 29 patients responded to the questionnaire, and 18 of the 22 respondents received monthly prophylaxis with intravenous immunoglobulin during the study period for a median interval of 32 months. The median annual attack frequency was 2.6 per patient before intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and 0 per patient after initiation of intravenous immunoglobulin prophylaxis (P = .0001). A total of 15 of 18 subjects with a history of 1 or more acute systemic capillary leak syndrome episodes experienced no further symptoms while taking intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Intravenous immunoglobulin prophylaxis is associated with a dramatic reduction in the occurrence of systemic capillary leak syndrome attacks in most patients, with minimal side effects. A prospective, randomized trial may be necessary to fully assess the benefits of intravenous immunoglobulin for systemic capillary leak syndrome and to determine the optimal dosage and duration of therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Streptavidin-functionalized capillary immune microreactor for highly efficient chemiluminescent immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zhanjun [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); College of Chemistry and Engineering, Yangzhou University, 88 South University Avenue, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Zong Chen [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ju Huangxian, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yan Feng, E-mail: [Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Prevention and Cure, Nanjing 210009 (China)


    Highlights: {yields} A novel capillary immune microreactor was proposed for highly efficient flow-through chemiluminescent immunoassay. {yields} The microreactor was prepared by functionalizing capillary inner wall with streptavidin for capture of biotinylated antibody. {yields} The proposed immunoassay method showed wide dynamic range, good reproducibility, stability and practicality. {yields} The microreactor was low-cost and disposable, and possessed several advantages over the conventional immunoreactors. - Abstract: A streptavidin functionalized capillary immune microreactor was designed for highly efficient flow-through chemiluminescent (CL) immunoassay. The functionalized capillary could be used as both a support for highly efficient immobilization of antibody and a flow cell for flow-through immunoassay. The functionalized inner wall and the capture process were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Compared to conventional packed tube or thin-layer cell immunoreactor, the proposed microreactor showed remarkable properties such as lower cost, simpler fabrication, better practicality and wider dynamic range for fast CL immunoassay with good reproducibility and stability. Using {alpha}-fetoprotein as model analyte, the highly efficient CL flow-through immunoassay system showed a linear range of 3 orders of magnitude from 0.5 to 200 ng mL{sup -1} and a low detection limit of 0.1 ng mL{sup -1}. The capillary immune microreactor could make up the shortcoming of conventional CL immunoreactors and provided a promising alternative for highly efficient flow-injection immunoassay.

  16. High-throughput viscosity measurement using capillary electrophoresis instrumentation and its application to protein formulation. (United States)

    Allmendinger, Andrea; Dieu, Le-Ha; Fischer, Stefan; Mueller, Robert; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Huwyler, Jörg


    Viscosity characterization of protein formulations is of utmost importance for the development of subcutaneously administered formulations. However, viscosity determinations are time-consuming and require large sample volumes in the range of hundreds of microliters to a few milliliters, depending on the method used. In this article, an automated, high-throughput method is described to determine dynamic viscosity of Newtonian fluids using standard capillary electrophoresis (CE) equipment. CE is an analytical method routinely used for the separation and characterization of proteins. In our set-up, the capillary is filled with the test sample, and a constant pressure is applied. A small aliquot of riboflavin is subsequently loaded into the capillary and used as a dye to monitor movement of protein samples. Migration time of the riboflavin peak moving through the filled capillary is converted to the viscosity by applying the Hagen-Poiseuille's law. The instrument is operated without using an electrical field. Repeatability, robustness, linearity, and reproducibility were demonstrated for different capillary lots and instruments, as well as for different capillary lengths and diameters. Accuracy was verified by comparing the viscosity data obtained by CE instrumentation with those obtained by plate/cone rheometry. The suitability of the method for protein formulations was demonstrated, and limitations were discussed. Typical viscosities in the range of 5-40mPas were reliably measured with this method. Advantages of the CE instrumentation-based method included short measurement times (1-15min), small sample volumes (few microliters) for a capillary with a diameter of 50μm and a length of 20.5cm as well as potential to be suitable for high-throughput measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High-temperature separation with polymer-coated fiber in packed capillary gas chromatography. (United States)

    Saito, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Mitsuhiro; Imaizumi, Motohiro; Ban, Kazuhiro; Abe, Akira; Takeichi, Tsutomu; Wada, Hiroo; Jinno, Kiyokatsu


    High-temperature gas chromatographic separation of several synthetic polymer mixtures with Dexsil-coated fiber-packed columns was studied. A bundle of heat-resistant filaments, Zylon, was longitudinally packed into a short metal capillary, followed by the conventional coating process with Dexsil 300 material. Prior to the packing process the metal capillary was deactivated by the formation of a silica layer. The typical size of the resulting column was 0.3-mm i.d., 0.5-mm o.d., 1-m length, and packed with about 170 filaments of the Dexsil-coated Zylon. The column temperature could be elevated up to 450 degrees C owing to the good thermal stability of the fiber, Dexsil coating, and metal capillary; furthermore, this allowed the separation of low-volatile compounds to be studied.

  18. Determination of oligofructose, a soluble dietary fiber, by high-temperature capillary gas chromatography. (United States)

    Joye, D; Hoebregs, H; Joye, D; Hoebregs, H


    A high-temperature capillary gas chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of oligofructose in foods and food products. Sample preparation involves oxymation and silylation of the extracted sugars. The oximetrimethylsilyl derivatives are analyzed on an apolar capillary column, with detection by flame ionization. The method is accurate, with recovery of spiked samples at >96%. Repeatability was excellent; RSD values of 1.1% were obtained. Other common oligosaccharides, such as malto-, isomalto-, and galactooligosaccharides, and levan do not interfere, making the method specific and reliable.

  19. Changes in labial capillary density on ascent to and descent from high altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert-Kawai, Edward; Coppel, Jonny; Phillip, Hennis; Grocott, Michael; Ince, Can; Martin, Daniel


    Present knowledge of how the microcirculation is altered by prolonged exposure to hypoxia at high altitude is incomplete and modification of existing analytical techniques may improve our knowledge considerably. We set out to use a novel simplified method of measuring in vivo capillary density

  20. Implications of turbulent flow in connecting capillaries used in high performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Halvorson, John; Lenhoff, Abraham M; Dittmann, Monika; Stoll, Dwight R


    The ongoing movement in HPLC toward the use of small columns packed with small particles for high speed separations results in eluted peaks with very small volumetric variances. Avoiding degradation of separation performance under these conditions requires careful consideration of all sources of extra-column peak dispersion. Recent trends towards decreased diameters of connecting capillaries and increased flow rates for analytical-scale separations can result in Reynolds numbers that exceed 2000. This raises the possibility of a transition from laminar to turbulent flow, thereby resulting in a higher than expected pressure drop across the capillary at a given flow rate. In this study we collected pressure drop data as a function of flow rate under many conditions relevant to modern HPLC. The variables studied included capillary diameter (50-120μm) and length (100-550mm), acetonitrile/water composition (0-100%), and temperature (20-80°C). Most of the work involved stainless steel capillaries, but a subset of experiments involved fused silica. We then used the experimental data to train a model that enables prediction of pressure drops for all of the conditions studied. We find that a single global friction factor profile is sufficient to predict pressure drops as a function of flow rate that are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results. The quantitative accuracy of these predictions is generally quite good, with a mean prediction error of about 2% over the entire range of conditions studied. Predictions for some outlying capillaries are not as good, with errors as high as -40%. This variability is probably due mainly to capillary-to-capillary variability, especially in the wall roughness, which is difficult to characterize definitively. We believe the model described here will be very useful to practicing chromatographers for predicting the conditions under which turbulent flow might develop in their connecting capillaries, and the magnitude of the

  1. Comparison of capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography methods for caffeine determination in decaffeinated coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Schaper Bizzotto


    Full Text Available Decaffeinated coffee accounts for 10 percent of coffee sales in the world; it is preferred by consumers that do not wish or are sensitive to caffeine effects. This article presents an analytical comparison of capillary electrophoresis (CE and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods for residual caffeine quantification in decaffeinated coffee in terms of validation parameters, costs, analysis time, composition and treatment of the residues generated, and caffeine quantification in 20 commercial samples. Both methods showed suitable validation parameters. Caffeine content did not differ statistically in the two different methods of analysis. The main advantage of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was the 42-fold lower detection limit. Nevertheless, the capillary electrophoresis (CE detection limit was 115-fold lower than the allowable limit by the Brazilian law. The capillary electrophoresis (CE analyses were 30% faster, the reagent costs were 76.5-fold, and the volume of the residues generated was 33-fold lower. Therefore, the capillary electrophoresis (CE method proved to be a valuable analytical tool for this type of analysis.

  2. Intact-protein trapping columns for proteomic analysis in capillary high-performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Guan, Xia; Yan, Guoquan; Gao, Mingxia; Hong, Guangfeng; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin


    A new type of monolithic trapping columns with high mechanical strength was prepared by thin-layer sol-gel coating method and applied to trapping intact proteins for on-line capillary liquid chromatography. Monolithic trapping columns were fabricated by entrapping C8 reversed-phase particles into the capillary columns through a sol-gel network, which was formed by hydrolysis and polycondensation of methyltriethoxysilane. Hundreds times of trapping/untrapping for intact proteins were carried out. The trapping columns showed long-term stability up to 300 bar. Recovery, loading capacity and reproducibility of trapping columns were evaluated using four proteins. The recovery of four protein mixtures for the C8 monolithic trapping columns was 99.3% on average. The loading capacity of 5 mm × 320 μm i.d. C8 trapping columns for the protein mixtures was 30 μg. Day-to-day relative standard deviation (RSD) values for recoveries of protein mixtures on the same C8 trapping column ranged from 2.34 to 5.87%, column-to-column RSD values were from 3.01 to 6.81%. The C8 trapping columns were used to trap normal mouse liver intact proteins in a capillary liquid chromatography system. Results demonstrated high efficiency of the monolithic trapping columns for trapping intact proteins for proteomic analysis in on-line capillary liquid chromatography system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adsorption detection for polylysine biomolecules based on high-Q silica capillary whispering gallery mode microresonator (United States)

    Wu, Jixuan; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Hao; Song, Binbin


    A silica-capillary-based whispering gallery mode (WGM) microresonator has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the real-time monitoring of the polylysine adsorption process. The spectral characteristics of the WGM resonance dips with high quality factor and good wavelength selectivity have been investigated to evaluate the dynamic process for the binding of polylysine with a capillary surface. The WGM transmission spectrum shows a regular shift with increments of observation time, which could be exploited for the analysis of the polylysine adsorption process. The proposed WGM microresonator system possesses desirable qualities such as high sensitivity, fast response, label-free method, high detection resolution and compactness, which could find promising applications in histology and related bioengineering areas.

  4. Influence of capillary die geometry on wall slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanétrník, D.; Hausnerová, B.; Filip, Petr; Hnátková, E.


    Roč. 325, February (2018), s. 615-619 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-26808S Grant - others:Ministerstvo školství, mládeže a tělovýchovy (MŠMT)(CZ) LO1504 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : powder injection molding * highly filled polymer * wall slip * capillary entrance angle Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2016

  5. High-resolution tracking using large capillary bundles filled with liquid scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Annis, P; Benussi, L; Bruski, N; Buontempo, S; Currat, C; D'Ambrosio, N; Van Dantzig, R; Dupraz, J P; Ereditato, A; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Fanti, V; Feyt, J; Frekers, D; Frenkel, A; Galeazzi, F; Garufi, F; Goldberg, J; Golovkin, S V; Gorin, A M; Grégoire, G; Harrison, K; Höpfner, K; Holtz, K; Konijn, J; Kozarenko, E N; Kreslo, I E; Kushnirenko, A E; Liberti, B; Martellotti, G; Medvedkov, A M; Michel, L; Migliozzi, P; Mommaert, C; Mondardini, M R; Panman, J; Penso, G; Petukhov, Yu P; Rondeshagen, D; Siegmund, W P; Tyukov, V E; Van Beek, G; Vasilchenko, V G; Vilain, P; Visschers, J L; Wilquet, G; Winter, Klaus; Wolff, T; Wörtche, H J; Wong, H; Zimyn, K V


    We have developed large high-resolution tracking detectors based on glass capillaries filled with organic liquid scintillator of high refractive index. These liquid-core scintillating optical fibres act simultaneously as detectors of charged particles and as image guides. Track images projected onto the readout end of a capillary bundle are visualized by an optoelectronic chain consisting of a set of image-intensifier tubes followed by a photosensitive CCD or by an EBCCD camera. Two prototype detectors, each composed of \\hbox{$\\approx 10^6$} capillaries with \\hbox{20$-$25 $\\mu$m} diameter and \\hbox{0.9$-$1.8 m} length, have been tested, and a spatial resolution of the order of \\hbox{20$-$40 $\\mu$m} has been attained. A high scintillation efficiency and a large light-attenuation length, in excess of 3 m, was achieved through special purification of the liquid scintillator. Along the tracks of minimum-ionizing particles, the hit densities obtained were $\\sim$ 8 hits/mm at the readout window, and \\hbox{$\\sim$ 3 ...

  6. High-Throughput Genetic Analysis and Combinatorial Chiral Separations Based on Capillary Electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Wenwan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) offers many advantages over conventional analytical methods, such as speed, simplicity, high resolution, low cost, and small sample consumption, especially for the separation of enantiomers. However, chiral method developments still can be time consuming and tedious. They designed a comprehensive enantioseparation protocol employing neutral and sulfated cyclodextrins as chiral selectors for common basic, neutral, and acidic compounds with a 96-capillary array system. By using only four judiciously chosen separation buffers, successful enantioseparations were achieved for 49 out of 54 test compounds spanning a large variety of pKs and structures. Therefore, unknown compounds can be screened in this manner to identify optimal enantioselective conditions in just one rn. In addition to superior separation efficiency for small molecules, CE is also the most powerful technique for DNA separations. Using the same multiplexed capillary system with UV absorption detection, the sequence of a short DNA template can be acquired without any dye-labels. Two internal standards were utilized to adjust the migration time variations among capillaries, so that the four electropherograms for the A, T, C, G Sanger reactions can be aligned and base calling can be completed with a high level of confidence. the CE separation of DNA can be applied to study differential gene expression as well. Combined with pattern recognition techniques, small variations among electropherograms obtained by the separation of cDNA fragments produced from the total RNA samples of different human tissues can be revealed. These variations reflect the differences in total RNA expression among tissues. Thus, this Ce-based approach can serve as an alternative to the DNA array techniques in gene expression analysis.

  7. Analysis of urinary oligosaccharides in lysosomal storage disorders by capillary high-performance anion-exchange chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, Cees; Poorthuis, Ben J. H. M.; Deelder, André M.; Wuhrer, Manfred


    Many lysosomal storage diseases are characterized by an increased urinary excretion of glycoconjugates and oligosaccharides that are characteristic for the underlying enzymatic defect. Here, we have used capillary high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) hyphenated to mass spectrometry

  8. High-Resolution Studies of Hyaluronic Acid Mixtures through Capillary Gel Electrophoresis. (United States)

    Hong, M; Sudor, J; Stefansson, M; Novotny, M V


    Hyaluronic acid is a negatively charged polysaccharide with a high degree of polydispersity that makes the separation of its oligomers extremely difficult. Through the use of columns filled with a highly viscous polyacrylamide matrix, the unit resolution of hyaluronate oligomers could be achieved, up to at least 80 kDa of mass, through capillary electrophoresis. As analytical application examples, the fractions of enzymatically or ultrasonically degraded hyaluronates were monitored through this method. Because of the very high resolving power, peaks additional to the regular oligomers can be observed that are assumed to be conformers of this regular, unbranched biopolymer.

  9. Highly Sensitive and Miniaturized Fluorescence Detection System with an Autonomous Capillary Fluid Manipulation Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Fang


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel, highly sensitive and ultra-small fluorescent detection system, including an autonomous capillary fluid manipulation chip. The optical detector integrates a LED light source, all necessary optical components, and a photodiode with preamplifier into one package of about 2 cm × 2 cm × 2 cm. Also, the low-cost and simple pumpless microfluidic device works well in sample preparation and manipulation. This chip consists of capillary stop valves and trigger valves which are fabricated by lithography and then bonded with a polydimethylsiloxane-ethylene oxide polymer polydimethylsiloxane (PEO-PDMS cover. The contact angle of the PEO-PDMS can be adjusted by changing the concentration of the PEO. Hence, the fluidic chip can achieve functionalities such as timing features and basic logical functions. The prototype has been tested by fluorescence dye 5-Carboxyfluorescein (5-FAM dissolved into the solvent DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide. The results prove a remarkable sensitivity at a pico-scale molar, around 1.08 pM. The low-cost and miniaturized optical detection system, with a self-control capillary-driven microfluidic chip developed in this work, can be used as the crucial parts in portable biochemical detection applications and point of care testing.

  10. Clickable Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Monolith for Highly Efficient Capillary Chromatographic Separation. (United States)

    Wu, Ci; Liang, Yu; Yang, Kaiguang; Min, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui


    A novel clickable periodic mesoporous organosilica monolith with the surface area up to 1707 m(2) g(-1) was in situ synthesized in the capillary by the one-step condensation of the organobridged-bonded alkoxysilane precursor bis(triethoxysilyl)ethylene. With Si-C bonds in the skeleton, the monolith possesses excellent chemical and mechanical stability. With vinyl groups highly loaded and homogeneously distributed throughout the structure, the monolith can be readily functionalized with functional groups by effective thiol-ene "click" chemistry reaction. Herein, with "click" modification of C18, the obtained monolith was successfully applied for capillary liquid chromatographic separation of small molecules and proteins. The column efficiency could reach 148,000 N/m, higher than most reported hybrid monoliths. Moreover, intact proteins could be separated well with good reproducibility, even after the monolithic column was exposed by basic mobile phase (pH 10.0) overnight, demonstrating the great promising of such monolith for capillary chromatographic separation.

  11. Mapping human brain capillary water lifetime: high-resolution metabolic neuroimaging. (United States)

    Rooney, William D; Li, Xin; Sammi, Manoj K; Bourdette, Dennis N; Neuwelt, Edward A; Springer, Charles S


    Shutter-speed analysis of dynamic-contrast-agent (CA)-enhanced normal, multiple sclerosis (MS), and glioblastoma (GBM) human brain data gives the mean capillary water molecule lifetime (τ(b)) and blood volume fraction (v(b); capillary density-volume product (ρ(†)V)) in a high-resolution (1)H2O MRI voxel (40 μL) or ROI. The equilibrium water extravasation rate constant, k(po) (τ(b)(-1)), averages 3.2 and 2.9 s(-1) in resting-state normal white matter (NWM) and gray matter (NGM), respectively (n = 6). The results (italicized) lead to three major conclusions. (A) k(po) differences are dominated by capillary water permeability (P(W)(†)), not size, differences. NWM and NGM voxel k(po) and v(b) values are independent. Quantitative analyses of concomitant population-averaged k(po), v(b) variations in normal and normal-appearing MS brain ROIs confirm P(W)(†) dominance. (B) P(W)(†) is dominated (>95%) by a trans(endothelial)cellular pathway, not the P(CA)(†) paracellular route. In MS lesions and GBM tumors, P(CA)(†) increases but P(W)(†) decreases. (C) k(po) tracks steady-state ATP production/consumption flux per capillary. In normal, MS, and GBM brain, regional k(po) correlates with literature MRSI ATP (positively) and Na(+) (negatively) tissue concentrations. This suggests that the P(W)(†) pathway is metabolically active. Excellent agreement of the relative NGM/NWM k(po)v(b) product ratio with the literature (31)PMRSI-MT CMR(oxphos) ratio confirms the flux property. We have previously shown that the cellular water molecule efflux rate constant (k(io)) is proportional to plasma membrane P-type ATPase turnover, likely due to active trans-membrane water cycling. With synaptic proximities and synergistic metabolic cooperativities, polar brain endothelial, neuroglial, and neuronal cells form "gliovascular units." We hypothesize that a chain of water cycling processes transmits brain metabolic activity to k(po), letting it report neurogliovascular unit Na

  12. Detection of regulatory polymorphisms: high-throughput capillary DNase I footprinting. (United States)

    Hancock, Matthew; Shephard, Elizabeth A


    We describe a method for high-throughput analysis of protein-binding sites in DNA using 96-well plates and capillary electrophoresis. The genomic DNA or plasmid DNA to be analyzed is amplified using fluorescent primers, incubated with an appropriate nuclear extract and treated with DNase I. Separation of the DNase I-generated fragments and co-analysis of their base sequences identify the position of protein-binding sites in a DNA fragment. The method is applicable to the identification of base changes, e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), that eliminate protein binding to DNA.

  13. Separation of tramadol enantiomers by capillary electrophoresis using highly sulfated cyclodextrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zandkarimi


    Full Text Available In the pharmaceutical industry a continuing need for chiral resolution of drugs for various purposes and in diverse matrices exist. For these reasons, analysts may require a number of different separation systems capable of resolving a given pair of enantiomers. Highly sulfated cyclodextrins (HS-CDs represent a relatively new class of chiral selectors in capillary electrophoresis (CE. In this investigation the use of HS-CDs as chiral selectors in CE for enantioseparation of tramadol, a highly potent analgesic, as the model drug and the influence of the type of selector and its concentration on enantiomeric resolution were studied. All of the available HSCDs ( , and  could resolve tramadol enantiomers, but HS--CD showed better resolution and a baseline resolution was achieved with this selector even at a concentration as low as 0.5% w/v. Additionally, effect of the buffer pH on the enantioresolution was studied. At low pH buffers, in which electroosmotic flow is low in CE, the negatively charged selector prevented the cationic tramadol to migrate out of the capillary even after a long analysis time of 60 minutes. However, at higher pH values (pH=7 or more, the electroosmotic flow is high enough to drag drug-selector complex toward the detector and a reasonable of the enantiomers of the drug was achieved.

  14. High Resolution Tracking Devices Based on Capillaries Filled with Liquid Scintillator

    CERN Multimedia

    Bonekamper, D; Vassiltchenko, V; Wolff, T


    %RD46 %title\\\\ \\\\The aim of the project is to develop high resolution tracking devices based on thin glass capillary arrays filled with liquid scintillator. This technique provides high hit densities and a position resolution better than 20 $\\mu$m. Further, their radiation hardness makes them superior to other types of tracking devices with comparable performance. Therefore, the technique is attractive for inner tracking in collider experiments, microvertex devices, or active targets for short-lived particle detection. High integration levels in the read-out based on the use of multi-pixel photon detectors and the possibility of optical multiplexing allow to reduce considerably the number of output channels, and, thus, the cost for the detector.\\\\ \\\\New optoelectronic devices have been developed and tested: the megapixel Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD), a high resolution image-detector having an outstanding capability of single photo-electron detection; the Vacuum Image Pipeline (VIP), a high-speed gateable pi...

  15. An integrated multiple capillary array electrophoresis system for high-throughput DNA sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X.


    A capillary array electrophoresis system was chosen to perform DNA sequencing because of several advantages such as rapid heat dissipation, multiplexing capabilities, gel matrix filling simplicity, and the mature nature of the associated manufacturing technologies. There are two major concerns for the multiple capillary systems. One concern is inter-capillary cross-talk, and the other concern is excitation and detection efficiency. Cross-talk is eliminated through proper optical coupling, good focusing and immersing capillary array into index matching fluid. A side-entry excitation scheme with orthogonal detection was established for large capillary array. Two 100 capillary array formats were used for DNA sequencing. One format is cylindrical capillary with 150 {micro}m o.d., 75 {micro}m i.d and the other format is square capillary with 300 {micro}m out edge and 75 {micro}m inner edge. This project is focused on the development of excitation and detection of DNA as well as performing DNA sequencing. The DNA injection schemes are discussed for the cases of single and bundled capillaries. An individual sampling device was designed. The base-calling was performed for a capillary from the capillary array with the accuracy of 98%.

  16. Rapid enantioseparation of amlodipine by highly sulfated cyclodextrins using short-end injection capillary electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zandkarimi


    Full Text Available "n  "n Background and the purpose of the study:The use of highly sulfated cyclodextrins (HS-CDs as chiral selectors in capillary electrophoresis (CE has been examined for rapid and reproducible enantioseparation of the model drug amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker. "nMaterials and Methods: Fused silica capillaries with an inner diameter of 50 μm, and a total length of 45.5 cm (8.5 cm to the detector were used. Capillaries were rinsed with polyethylene oxide (PEO once daily. A systematic method development approach was conducted by modifying selected parameters such as the type and concentration of the chiral selector, the buffer pH and concentration of the background electrolyte. "nResults: Baseline separation was achieved at low (i.e. 0.05%w/v concentrations of HS-αCD, but migration time and peak area repeatability were more than 4% and 25% of the relative standard deviation (RSD, respectively. At higher concentrations (>0.3% of HS-αCD, amlodipine was transported to the anode by the carrier ability of HS-αCD. In carrier mode, the migration order of enantiomers was reversed, the migration time was reduced and the peak area repeatability of analysis was improved. The optimum electrophoretic conditions for the stereoselective analysis of amlodipine were obtained in carrier mode with 25 mM sodium phosphate buffer containing 1.25% w/v of HS-αCD at pH 2.5 with an applied voltage of +15 kV. Under these conditions migration time was less than 3 min and within-day migration time and peak area repeatability, were less than 0.4% and 2.1% RSD, respectively. Conclusions: Rapid enantioseparation was achieved with minimum variation in quantitative analysis. These optimized conditions are appropriate for the enantioselective analysis of amlodipine.

  17. High Throughput Sample Preparation and Analysis for DNA Sequencing, PCR and Combinatorial Screening of Catalysis Based on Capillary Array Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yonghua [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Sample preparation has been one of the major bottlenecks for many high throughput analyses. The purpose of this research was to develop new sample preparation and integration approach for DNA sequencing, PCR based DNA analysis and combinatorial screening of homogeneous catalysis based on multiplexed capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence or imaging UV absorption detection. The author first introduced a method to integrate the front-end tasks to DNA capillary-array sequencers. protocols for directly sequencing the plasmids from a single bacterial colony in fused-silica capillaries were developed. After the colony was picked, lysis was accomplished in situ in the plastic sample tube using either a thermocycler or heating block. Upon heating, the plasmids were released while chromsomal DNA and membrane proteins were denatured and precipitated to the bottom of the tube. After adding enzyme and Sanger reagents, the resulting solution was aspirated into the reaction capillaries by a syringe pump, and cycle sequencing was initiated. No deleterious effect upon the reaction efficiency, the on-line purification system, or the capillary electrophoresis separation was observed, even though the crude lysate was used as the template. Multiplexed on-line DNA sequencing data from 8 parallel channels allowed base calling up to 620 bp with an accuracy of 98%. The entire system can be automatically regenerated for repeated operation. For PCR based DNA analysis, they demonstrated that capillary electrophoresis with UV detection can be used for DNA analysis starting from clinical sample without purification. After PCR reaction using cheek cell, blood or HIV-1 gag DNA, the reaction mixtures was injected into the capillary either on-line or off-line by base stacking. The protocol was also applied to capillary array electrophoresis. The use of cheaper detection, and the elimination of purification of DNA sample before or after PCR reaction, will make this approach an

  18. High Efficiency Robust Open Tubular Capillary Electrochromatography Column for the Separation of Peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Faiz; Cheong, Won Jo [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, the carefully designed tri-component copolymer layer was fabricated onto the inner surface of a pretreated silica capillary (52 cm effective length, 50 μm id). The initiator moieties were incorporated onto the capillary inner surface by reaction with 4-chloromehtylphenyl isocyanate followed by sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate. Next, RAFT copolymerization was held upon the initiator moieties and a thin polymer film was made. The observed peak capacity was, of course, lower than those of the state-of-the art gradient HPLC systems. The UPLC system operated in the long gradient elution mode with a long narrow column of sub-3 μm packed particles could achieve the impressive high peak capacity of ca. 1000. On the other hand, a system with a 20 cm column of 0.8 μm particles could achieve a peak capacity of 220 (comparable to our result) under a pressure of 20 000 psi in a gradient time of 20 min. It should be noted that the operational conditions of this study has been optimized to obtain the best column separation efficiency. It was also operated in the isocratic elution mode. A better peak capacity is expected if the operational conditions are tuned to the optimum peak capacity.

  19. A high-resolution tracking hodoscope based on capillary layers filled with liquid scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Bay, A; Bruski, N; Buontempo, S; Currat, C; D'Ambrosio, N; Ekimov, A V; Ereditato, A; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Fanti, V; Frekers, D; Frenkel, A; Golovkin, S V; Govorun, V N; Harrison, K; Koppenburg, P; Kozarenko, E N; Kreslo, I E; Liberti, B; Martellotti, G; Medvedkov, A M; Mondardini, M R; Penso, G; Siegmund, W P; Vasilchenko, V G; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Winter, Klaus; Wörtche, H J


    Results are given on tests of a high-resolution tracking hodoscope based on layers of \\hbox{26-$\\mu$m-bore} glass capillaries filled with organic liquid scintillator (1-methylnaphthalene doped with R39). The detector prototype consisted of three 2-mm-thick parallel layers, with surface areas of $2.1 \\times 21$~cm$^2$. The layers had a centre-to-centre spacing of 6~mm, and were read by an optoelectronic chain comprising two electrostatically focused image intensifiers and an Electron-Bombarded Charge-Coupled Device (EBCCD). Tracks of cosmic-ray particles were recorded and analysed. The observed hit density was 6.6~hits/mm for particles crossing the layers perpendicularly, at a distance of 1~cm from the capillaries' readout end, and 4.2~hits/mm for particles at a distance of 20~cm. A track segment reconstructed in a single layer had an rms residual of $\\sim$~20~$\\mu$m, and allowed determination of the track position in a neighbouring layer with a precision of $\\sim$~170~$\\mu$m. This latter value corresponded to...

  20. Process and product monitoring of recombinant DNA-derived biopharmaceuticals with high-performance capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Sunday, Brooks R; Sydor, Wasyl; Guariglia, Lawrence M; Obara, Julie; Mengisen, Roland


    High-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) has emerged over the past 20 years as a powerful multidimensional separation tool that is orthogonal to HPLC and comparable to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) slab gel methods. HPCE is most frequently applied in the QC release testing of recombinant DNA-derived protein and monoclonal antibody (MAb) biopharmaceuticals. HPCE is a rugged and robust separation tool that can be used like HPLC to monitor the purification process, as well as to analyze bulk drug and drug substances. Examples of the practical applications of the predominant free-solution capillary electrophoresis (FSCE) and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) formats of HPCE, applied for process monitoring and product monitoring of recombinant protein and MAb biotherapeutics, are presented. HPCE has been applied in FSCE mode to monitor the purification of the rDNA-derived protein, recombinant human interleukin-4 (rhIL4). FSCE is demonstrated to be a robust method that can be used to monitor multiple column chromatographic purification processes, such as immobiilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC), ion exchange chromatography (IEC), and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) columns. The FSCE data are used to pool fractions to carry forward for further purification. The FSCE method is compared to the corresponding RP-HPLC method for rhIL4. HPCE has been applied in the CGE mode to monitor the purification of an rDNA-derived IgG4 MAb. CGE is demonstrated to be a convenient and rapid method to profile the purification process, compare purification processes, and provide a fingerprint of the MAb bulk drug that is useful for determining purity and lot-to-lot consistency. The practical advantages and limitations of CGE for process monitoring and product monitoring of MAbs are presented. The CGE method is compared to the high-performance SEC separation of the MAb under nondenaturing (HP-SEC) and denaturing (HP

  1. Anti-Obesity Effect of Artemisia capillaris Extracts in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jung Jang


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the anti-obesity effects of Artemisia capillaris extracts in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese rats. After six weeks feeding with HFD, Wistar male rats (12-weeks-old were divided into three groups: HFD-control group and HFD mixed with 0.4% and 0.8% Artemisia capillaris extracts treated groups. After seven weeks of treatments, the body weight gain of the 0.4% and 0.8% A. capillaris extracts treated groups were significantly less than that of the HFD-control group by 11.8% and 15.4%, respectively. Also, A. capillaris extracts treated groups showed significantly lower serum TG, TC and LDL-c levels in a dose-related manner, while causing the reverse effect in serum HDL-c, and exhibited a hepatoprotective effects in vivo, indicated by reduced hepatic lipid contents, and serum ALT and AST levels. These results show that A. capillaris extracts may prevent body weight increases and improve dyslipidemia in HFD-induced obese rats by enhancing their lipid metabolism.

  2. Highly stabilized, polymer-lipid membranes prepared on silica microparticles as stationary phases for capillary chromatography. (United States)

    Gallagher, Elyssia S; Adem, Seid M; Baker, Christopher A; Ratnayaka, Saliya N; Jones, Ian W; Hall, Henry K; Saavedra, S Scott; Aspinwall, Craig A


    The ability to rapidly screen complex libraries of pharmacological modulators is paramount to modern drug discovery efforts. This task is particularly challenging for agents that interact with lipid bilayers or membrane proteins due to the limited chemical, physical, and temporal stability of conventional lipid-based chromatographic stationary phases. Here, we describe the preparation and characterization of a novel stationary phase material composed of highly stable, polymeric-phospholipid bilayers self-assembled onto silica microparticles. Polymer-lipid membranes were prepared by photochemical or redox initiated polymerization of 1,2-bis[10-(2',4'-hexadieoyloxy)decanoyl]-sn-glycero-2-phosphocholine (bis-SorbPC), a synthetic, polymerizable lipid. The resulting polymerized bis-SorbPC (poly(bis-SorbPC)) stationary phases exhibited enhanced stability compared to particles coated with 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (unpolymerized) phospholipid bilayers when exposed to chemical (50 mM triton X-100 or 50% acetonitrile) and physical (15 min sonication) insults after 30 days of storage. Further, poly(bis-SorbPC)-coated particles survived slurry packing into fused silica capillaries, compared to unpolymerized lipid membranes, where the lipid bilayer was destroyed during packing. Frontal chromatographic analyses of the lipophilic small molecules acetylsalicylic acid, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid showed >44% increase in retention times (Psilica microspheres, suggesting a lipophilic retention mechanism. Phospholipid membrane-functionalized stationary phases that withstand the chemical and physical rigors of capillary LC conditions can substantially increase the efficacy of lipid membrane affinity chromatography, and represents a key advance toward the development of robust membrane protein-functionalized chromatographic stationary phases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. NanoCapillary Network Proton Conducting Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintauro, Peter [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)


    The objective of this proposal is to fabricate and characterize a new class of NanoCapillary Network (NCN) proton conducting membranes for hydrogen/air fuel cells that operate under high temperature, low humidity conditions. The membranes will be intelligently designed, where a high density interconnecting 3-D network of nm-diameter electrospun proton conducting polymer fibers is embedded in an inert (uncharged) water/gas impermeable polymer matrix. The high density of fibers in the resulting mat and the high ion-exchange capacity of the fiber polymer will ensure high proton conductivity. To further enhance water retention, molecular silica will be added to the sulfonated polymer fibers. The uncharged matrix material will control water swelling of the high ion-exchange capacity proton conducting polymer fibers and will impart toughness to the final nanocapillary composite membrane. Thus, unlike other fuel cell membranes, the role of the polymer support matrix will be decoupled from that of the proton-conducting channels. The expected final outcome of this 5-year project is the fabrication of fuel cell membranes with properties that exceed the DOE’s technical targets, in particular a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at a temperature less than or equal to120°C and 25-50% relative humidity.

  4. An Improved Multi-Evaporator Adsorption Desalination Cycle for GCC Countries

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil


    In Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, cogeneration based desalination processes consume almost 25% of the total annual energy and it is increasing at 2.2% annually. The high fresh water demand is attributed to high gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate, 24%, and the high water languishes, more than 10%. Over the past two decades, GCC countries have spent tens of billion dollars to expand their present and planned desalination capacities. It is foreseeable that with business-as-usual scenario, the domestic oil consumption of Saudi Arabia may exceed its production capacity by 2040. Innovative and sustainable water production solutions are needed urgently for future water supplies without environment impact. In this paper, a hybrid desalination cycle is proposed by integrating multi cascaded-evaporators (CE) with an adsorption cycle (AD). In this new innovative cycle, AD desorbed vapors are supplied to the CE to exploit the latent condensation energy within the evaporators arranged in both pressures-temperatures cascaded manner to improves the performance ratio (PR) of the cycle. Hybrid cycle shows more than 10 folds water production improvement as compared to conventional AD cycle due to synergetic effect. This concept is demonstrated in a laboratory pilot plant using a 3 cascaded evaporators pilot and simulation of 8 evaporators hybrid cycle.

  5. A multi evaporator desalination system operated with thermocline energy for future sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil


    All existing commercial seawater desalination processes, i.e. thermally-driven and membrane-based reverse osmosis (RO), are operated with universal performance ratios (UPR) varying up to 105, whilst the UPR for an ideal or thermodynamic limit (TL) of desalination is at 828. Despite slightly better UPRs for the RO plants, all practical desalination plants available, hitherto, operate at only less than 12% of the TL, rendering them highly energy intensive and unsustainable for future sustainability. More innovative desalination methods must be sought to meet the needs of future sustainable desalination and these methods should attain an upper UPR bound of about 25 to 30% of the TL. In this paper, we examined the efficacy of a multi-effect distillation (MED) system operated with thermocline energy from the sea; a proven desalination technology that can exploit the narrow temperature gradient of 20°C all year round created between the warm surface seawater and the cold-seawater at depths of about 300–600m. Such a seawater thermocline (ST)-driven MED system, simply called the ST-MED process, has the potential to achieve up to 2 folds improvement in desalination efficiency over the existing methods, attaining about 18.8% of the ideal limit. With the major energy input emanated from the renewable solar, the ST-MED is truly a “green desalination” method of low global warming potential, best suited for tropical coastal shores having bathymetry depths of 300m or more.

  6. Changes in labial capillary density on ascent to and descent from high altitude [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Gilbert-Kawai


    Full Text Available Present knowledge of how the microcirculation is altered by prolonged exposure to hypoxia at high altitude is incomplete and modification of existing analytical techniques may improve our knowledge considerably. We set out to use a novel simplified method of measuring in vivo capillary density during an expedition to high altitude using a CytoCam incident dark field imaging video-microscope. The simplified method of data capture involved recording one-second images of the mucosal surface of the inner lip to reveal data about microvasculature density in ten individuals. This was done on ascent to, and descent from, high altitude. Analysis was conducted offline by two independent investigators blinded to the participant identity, testing conditions and the imaging site.  Additionally we monitored haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit data to see if we could support or refute mechanisms of altered density relating to vessel recruitment. Repeated sets of paired values were compared using Kruskall Wallis Analysis of Variance tests, whilst comparisons of values between sites was by related samples Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Correlation between different variables was performed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, and concordance between analysing investigators using intra-class correlation coefficient. There was a significant increase in capillary density from London on ascent to high altitude; median capillaries per field of view area increased from 22.8 to 25.3 (p=0.021. There was a further increase in vessel density during the six weeks spent at altitude (25.3 to 32.5, p=0.017. Moreover, vessel density remained high on descent to Kathmandu (31.0 capillaries per field of view area, despite a significant decrease in haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit. Using a simplified technique, we have demonstrated an increase in capillary density on early and sustained exposure to hypobaric hypoxia at thigh altitude, and that this remains

  7. Tantala-based sol-gel coating for capillary microextraction on-line coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Tran, MinhPhuong; Turner, Erica B; Segro, Scott S; Fang, Li; Seyyal, Emre; Malik, Abdul


    A sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent, consisting of chemically integrated tantalum (V) ethoxide (TaEO) and polypropylene glycol methacrylate (PPGM), was developed for capillary microextraction (CME). The sol-gel sorbent was synthesized within a fused silica capillary through hydrolytic polycondensation of TaEO and chemical incorporation of PPGM into the evolving sol-gel tantala network. A part of the organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel network evolving in the vicinity of the capillary walls had favorable conditions to get chemically bonded to the silanol groups on the capillary surface forming a surface-bonded coating. The newly developed sol-gel sorbent was employed to isolate and enrich a variety of analytes from aqueous samples for on-line analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector. CME was performed on aqueous samples containing trace concentrations of analytes representing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, amines, nucleosides, and nucleotides. This sol-gel hybrid coating provided efficient extraction with CME-HPLC detection limits ranging from 4.41pM to 28.19 pM. Due to direct chemical bonding between the sol-gel sorbent coating and the fused silica capillary inner surface, this sol-gel sorbent exhibited enhanced solvent stability. The sol-gel tantala-based sorbent also exhibited excellent pH stability over a wide pH range (pH 0-pH 14). Furthermore, it displayed great performance reproducibility in CME-HPLC providing run-to-run HPLC peak area relative standard deviation (RSD) values between 0.23% and 3.83%. The capillary-to-capillary RSD (n=3), characterizing capillary preparation method reproducibility, ranged from 0.24% to 4.11%. The results show great performance consistency and application potential for the sol-gel tantala-PPGM sorbent in various fields including biomedical, pharmaceutical, and environmental areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High-performance genetic analysis on microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis plastic chips fabricated by injection molding. (United States)

    Dang, Fuquan; Tabata, Osamu; Kurokawa, Masaya; Ewis, Ashraf A; Zhang, Lihua; Yamaoka, Yoshihisa; Shinohara, Shouji; Shinohara, Yasuo; Ishikawa, Mitsuru; Baba, Yoshinobu


    We have developed a novel technique for mass production of microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis (mu-CAE) plastic chips for high-speed, high-throughput genetic analysis. The mu-CAE chips, containing 10 individual separation channels of 50-microm width, 50-microm depth, and a 100-microm lane-to-lane spacing at the detection region and a sacrificial channel network, were fabricated on a poly(methyl methacrylate) substrate by injection molding and then bonded manually using a pressure-sensitive sealing tape within several seconds at room temperature. The conditions for injection molding and bonding were carefully characterized to yield mu-CAE chips with well-defined channel and injection structures. A CCD camera equipped with an image intensifier was used to monitor simultaneously the separation in a 10-channel array with laser-induced fluorescence detection. High-performance electrophoretic separations of phiX174 HaeIII DNA restriction fragments and PCR products related to the human beta-globin gene and SP-B gene (the surfactant protein B) have been demonstrated on mu-CAE plastic chips using a methylcellulose sieving matrix in individual channels. The current work demonstrated greatly simplified the fabrication process as well as a detection scheme for mu-CAE chips and will bring the low-cost mass production and application of mu-CAE plastic chips for genetic analysis.

  9. A High Position Resolution X-ray Detector: an Edge on Illuminated Capillary Plate Combined with a Gas Amplification Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Iacobaeus, C.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Ostling, J.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Peskov, V.; Tokanai, F.


    We have developed and successfully tested a prototype of a new type of high position resolution hybrid X-ray detector. It contains a thin wall lead glass capillary plate converter of X-rays combined with a microgap parallel-plate avalanche chamber filled with gas at 1 atm. The operation of these converters was studied in a wide range of X-ray energies (from 6 to 60 keV) at incident angles varying from 0-90 degree. The detection efficiency, depending on the geometry, photon energy, incident angle and the mode of operation, was between 5-30 percent in a single step mode and up to 50 percent in a multi-layered combination. Depending on the capillary geometry, the position resolution achieved was between 0.050-0.250 mm in digital form and was practically independent of the photon energy or gas mixture. The usual lead glass capillary plates operated without noticeable charging up effects at counting rates of 50 Hz/mm2, and hydrogen treated capillaries up to 10E5 Hz/mm2. The developed detector may open new possibil...

  10. [Determination of penicillin intermediate and three penicillins in milk by high performance capillary electrophoresis]. (United States)

    Tian, Chunqiu; Tan, Huarong; Gao, Liping; Shen, Huqin; Qi, Kezong


    A high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of penicillin intermediate and penicillins in milk, including 6-amino-penicillanic acid (6-APA), penicillin G (PEN), ampicillin (AMP) and amoxicillin (AMO). The main parameters including the ion concentration and pH value of running buffer, separation voltage and column temperature were optimized systematically by orthogonal test. The four penicillins (PENs) were baseline separated within 4.5 min with the running buffer of 40 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate-20 mmol/L borax solution (pH 7.8), separation voltage of 28 kV and column temperature of 30 degrees C. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 1.56 - 100 mg/L, and the correlation coefficients (r2) were between 0.9979 and 0.9998. The average recoveries at three spiked levels were in the range of 84.91% - 96.72% with acceptable relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.11% - 9.11%. The method is simple, fast, accurate and suitable for the determination of penicillins in real samples.

  11. Windowless microfluidic platform based on capillary burst valves for high intensity x-ray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vig, Asger Laurberg; Enevoldsen, Nikolaj; Thilsted, Anil Haraksingh; Eriksen, Johan; Kristensen, Anders [Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark, Building 345east, Orsteds Plads, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Haldrup, Kristoffer; Feidenhans' l, Robert; Nielsen, Martin Meedom [Centre for Molecular Movies, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen East (Denmark)


    We propose and describe a microfluidic system for high intensity x-ray measurements. The required open access to a microfluidic channel is provided by an out-of-plane capillary burst valve (CBV). The functionality of the out-of-plane CBV is characterized with respect to the diameter of the windowless access hole, ranging from 10 to 130 {mu}m. Maximum driving pressures from 22 to 280 mbar corresponding to refresh rates of the exposed sample from 300 Hz to 54 kHz is demonstrated. The microfluidic system is tested at beamline ID09b at the ESRF synchrotron radiation facility in Grenoble, and x-ray scattering measurements are shown to be feasible and to require only very limited amounts of sample, <1 ml/h of measurements without recapturing of sample. With small adjustments of the present chip design, scattering angles up to 30 deg. can be achieved without shadowing effects and integration on-chip mixing and spectroscopy appears straightforward.

  12. Capillary suspensions as beneficial formulation concept for high energy density Li-ion battery electrodes (United States)

    Bitsch, Boris; Gallasch, Tobias; Schroeder, Melanie; Börner, Markus; Winter, Martin; Willenbacher, Norbert


    We introduce a novel formulation concept to prepare high capacity graphite electrodes for lithium ion batteries. The concept is based on the capillary suspension phenomenon: graphite and conductive agent are dispersed in an aqueous binder solution and the organic solvent octanol is added as immiscible, secondary fluid providing the formation of a sample-spanning network resulting in unique stability and coating properties. No additional processing steps compared to conventional slurry preparation are required. The resulting ultra-thick electrodes comprise mass loadings of about 16.5 mg cm-2, uniform layer thickness, and superior edge contours. The adjustment of mechanical energy input ensures uniform distribution of the conductive agent and sufficient electronic conductivity of the final dry composite electrode. The resulting pore structure is due to the stable network provided by the secondary fluid which evaporates residue-free during drying. Constant current-constant potential (CC-CP) cycling clearly indicates that the corresponding microstructure significantly improves the kinetics of reversible Li+ (de-) intercalation. A double layer electrode combining a conventionally prepared layer coated directly onto the Cu current collector with an upper layer stabilized with octanol was prepared applying wet-on-wet coating. CC-CP cycling data confirms that staged porosity within the electrode cross section results in superior electrochemical performance.

  13. High efficiency polyethylene glycol diacrylate monoliths for reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography of small molecules. (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pankaj; Lawson, John S; Tolley, H Dennis; Lee, Milton L


    Highly cross-linked monolithic networks (i.e., polyethylene glycol diacrylate, PEGDA) synthesized from monomers containing varying ethylene oxide chain lengths were fabricated inside fused silica capillary columns for use in liquid chromatography (LC) of small molecules. Tergitol was used as a surfactant porogen in combination with other typical organic liquid porogens. Column performance was correlated with quantitative descriptors of the physical/chemical properties of the monomers and porogens using a statistical model. Solubility and viscosity values of the components were identified as important predictors of monolith morphology and efficiency. The chromatographic retention mechanism was determined to be principally reversed-phase (RP) with additional hydrogen bonding between the polar groups of the analytes and the ethylene oxide groups embedded in the monolith structure. The fabricated monolithic columns were evaluated under RPLC conditions using phenols, hydroxy benzoic acids, and alkyl parabens as test compounds. Isocratic elution of hydroxy benzoic acids at a linear velocity of 0.04 cm/s using a PEGDA-700 monolith gave chromatographic peaks with little tailing (i.e., tailing factorphenol standards (3 different columns). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Urea functionalized surface-bonded sol-gel coating for on-line hyphenation of capillary microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Jillani, Shehzada Muhammad Sajid; Alhooshani, Khalid


    Sol-gel urea functionalized-[bis(hydroxyethyl)amine] terminated polydimethylsiloxane coating was developed for capillary microextraction-high performance liquid chromatographic analysis from aqueous samples. A fused silica capillary is coated from the inside with surface bonded coating material and is created through in-situ sol-gel reaction. The urea-functionalized coating was immobilized to the inner surface of the capillary by the condensation reaction of silanol groups of capillary and sol-solution. The characterization of the coating material was successfully done by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, field emission scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. To make a setup of online capillary microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography, the urea functionalized capillary was installed in the HPLC manual injection port. The analytes of interest were pre-concentrated in the coated sampling loop, desorbed by the mobile phase, chromatographically separated on C-18 column, and analyzed by UV detector. Sol-gel coated capillaries were used for online extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of phenols, ketones, aldehydes, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. This newly developed coating showed excellent extraction for a variety of analytes ranging from highly polar to non-polar in nature. The analysis using sol-gel coating showed excellent overall sensitivity in terms of lower detection limits (S/N = 3) for the analytes (0.10 ng mL -1 -14.29 ng mL -1 ) with acceptable reproducibility that is less than 12.0%RSD (n = 3). Moreover, the capillary to capillary reproducibility of the analysis was also tested by changing the capillary of the same size. This provided excellent%RSD of less than 10.0% (n = 3). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of carbohydrates by high-performance capillary electrophoresis with indirect absorbance detection. (United States)

    Lee, Y H; Lin, T I


    High-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) methods with indirect absorbance detection (IAD) have been developed for the determination of carbohydrates, e.g. glucose, fructose, rhamnose, ribose, maltose, lactose, sucrose and gluconic acid. The suitability and performance of six background electrolytes (BGEs), i.e., 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA), 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 1,3-dihydroxynaphthalene, phenylacetic acid, p-cresol and sorbic acid, for the IAD method were investigated. The effects of the concentration of the BGE, pH and temperature on the CE separation of these analytes were evaluated. NAA was found to be best suited as the carrier buffer and background absorbance provider for the detection at 222 nm. The optimal CE performance was found when employing 2 mM NAA, pH 12.2, at 25 degrees C. In comparison with the previous method that used sorbate as the BGE, the present method utilizing NAA shows a 3-6 fold increase in the separation efficiency and a 2-5 fold improvement in the detection limit. The calculated number of theoretical plates is in the range of 1.0-3.0 x 10(5). The precision of the present method for most sugar analytes, measured by the coefficient of variation (C.V.), typically, is less than 1% for the migration time and better than 3% for the peak height and peak area (n = 6). The detection limit is about 0.1 mM for all analytes, except for ribose for which it is about 0.2 mM. This new method is fast, accurate and can be readily applied to real biological samples for quantitative determination of selected carbohydrates.

  16. In situ electrochemical high-energy X-ray diffraction using a capillary working electrode cell geometry. (United States)

    Young, Matthias J; Bedford, Nicholas M; Jiang, Naisheng; Lin, Deqing; Dai, Liming


    The ability to generate new electrochemically active materials for energy generation and storage with improved properties will likely be derived from an understanding of atomic-scale structure/function relationships during electrochemical events. Here, the design and implementation of a new capillary electrochemical cell designed specifically for in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction measurements is described. By increasing the amount of electrochemically active material in the X-ray path while implementing low-Z cell materials with anisotropic scattering profiles, an order of magnitude enhancement in diffracted X-ray signal over traditional cell geometries for multiple electrochemically active materials is demonstrated. This signal improvement is crucial for high-energy X-ray diffraction measurements and subsequent Fourier transformation into atomic pair distribution functions for atomic-scale structural analysis. As an example, clear structural changes in LiCoO2 under reductive and oxidative conditions using the capillary cell are demonstrated, which agree with prior studies. Accurate modeling of the LiCoO2 diffraction data using reverse Monte Carlo simulations further verifies accurate background subtraction and strong signal from the electrochemically active material, enabled by the capillary working electrode geometry.

  17. A new sieving matrix for DNA sequencing, genotyping and mutation detection and high-throughput genotyping with a 96-capillary array system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Capillary electrophoresis has been widely accepted as a fast separation technique in DNA analysis. In this dissertation, a new sieving matrix is described for DNA analysis, especially DNA sequencing, genetic typing and mutation detection. A high-throughput 96 capillary array electrophoresis system was also demonstrated for simultaneous multiple genotyping. The authors first evaluated the influence of different capillary coatings on the performance of DNA sequencing. A bare capillary was compared with a DB-wax, an FC-coated and a polyvinylpyrrolidone dynamically coated capillary with PEO as sieving matrix. It was found that covalently-coated capillaries had no better performance than bare capillaries while PVP coating provided excellent and reproducible results. The authors also developed a new sieving Matrix for DNA separation based on commercially available poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). This sieving matrix has a very low viscosity and an excellent self-coating effect. Successful separations were achieved in uncoated capillaries. Sequencing of M13mp18 showed good resolution up to 500 bases in treated PVP solution. Temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis and PVP solution was applied to mutation detection. A heteroduplex sample and a homoduplex reference were injected during a pair of continuous runs. A temperature gradient of 10 C with a ramp of 0.7 C/min was swept throughout the capillary. Detection was accomplished by laser induced fluorescence detection. Mutation detection was performed by comparing the pattern changes between the homoduplex and the heteroduplex samples. High throughput, high detection rate and easy operation were achieved in this system. They further demonstrated fast and reliable genotyping based on CTTv STR system by multiple-capillary array electrophoresis. The PCR products from individuals were mixed with pooled allelic ladder as an absolute standard and coinjected with a 96-vial tray. Simultaneous one-color laser-induced fluorescence

  18. Capillary flow in porous media under highly reduced gravity investigated through high altitude parabolic aircraft flights and NASA space shuttle flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, L.L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Wassmuth, F. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Stasiuk, E.N. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Hart, D. [Centre for Cold Ocean Resources Engineering, St. John' s, NF (Canada); Legros, J.C. [Brussels Univ., Brussels (Belgium); Smirnov, N.N. [Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Several enhanced oil recovery methods are being developed to economically recover waterflooded residual oil. The challenge is comparable to understanding the mechanisms involved when liquid contaminants in soil are filtered and mixed with groundwater and then transported by convective flows. Multiphase flow and trapping of fluids in porous media are greatly affected by wettability and capillary forces. However, fluid flow in porous media is also strongly governed by gravity effects. In this study, a series of high altitude aircraft parabolic flights were conducted in which capillary flow experiments were performed in porous media using different fluids. Three capillary flow experiments were conducted on a shuttle flight where gravity was not a factor. This paper presents a newly developed finite-difference numerical model for two-dimensional homogeneous fluid flow in a porous medium confined by a horizontal bottom, two vertical boundaries and a free surface. The model describes movement of fluid flow in response to applied pressure gradients. It also considers capillary flow caused by surface tension. The simulator can be used to predict the effect of changing properties such as gravitational acceleration, permeability, pore radii, surface tension, liquid viscosity and wettability. The study showed that interfacial phenomena in highly reduced gravity conditions can be applied to problems associated with fluid handling in various types of space vehicles. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  19. High resolution separations of charge variants and disulfide isomers of monoclonal antibodies and antibody drug conjugates using ultra-high voltage capillary electrophoresis with high electric field strength. (United States)

    Henley, W Hampton; He, Yan; Mellors, J Scott; Batz, Nicholas G; Ramsey, J Michael; Jorgenson, James W


    Ultra-high voltage capillary electrophoresis with high electric field strength has been applied to the separation of the charge variants, drug conjugates, and disulfide isomers of monoclonal antibodies. Samples composed of many closely related species are difficult to resolve and quantify using traditional analytical instrumentation. High performance instrumentation can often save considerable time and effort otherwise spent on extensive method development. Ideally, the resolution obtained for a given CE buffer system scales with the square root of the applied voltage. Currently available commercial CE instrumentation is limited to an applied voltage of approximately 30kV and a maximum electric field strength of 1kV/cm due to design limitations. The instrumentation described here is capable of safely applying potentials of at least 120kV with electric field strengths over 2000V/cm, potentially doubling the resolution of the best conventional CE buffer/capillary systems while decreasing analysis time in some applications. Separations of these complex mixtures using this new instrumentation demonstrate the potential of ultra-high voltage CE to identify the presence of previously unresolved components and to reduce analysis time for complex mixtures of antibody variants and drug conjugates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Photoluminescence properties of highly dispersed ZnO quantum dots in polyvinylpyrrolidone nanotubes prepared by a single capillary electrospinning. (United States)

    Li, X H; Shao, C L; Liu, Y C; Chu, X Y; Wang, C H; Zhang, B X


    Highly dispersed ZnO quantum dots (QDs) in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanotubes have been prepared by a single capillary electrospinning. The structure and optical properties characterizations were performed by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, absorption, photoluminescence, and resonant Raman spectra. In the composites, PVP molecules passivate the surface defects of ZnO QDs and prevent the aggregations of ZnO QDs. As a result, the composites exhibit narrower band edge emissions and less laser thermal effects. Blueshifted band gap, enlarged exciton energy, and less exciton-longitudinal optical (LO) phonon interaction due to the quantum confinement effect have also been observed.

  1. Lymphocyte subpopulations in high endothelial venules and lymphatic capillaries of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in the rat. (United States)

    Otsuki, Y; Ito, Y; Magari, S


    The subpopulations of lymphocytes and non-lymphoid cells in high endothelial venules (HEV) and in lymphatic capillaries surrounding lymphoid follicles in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) were examined by electron microscopy after preembedding the tissue and staining with an immunoperoxidase technique. The results were compared with those obtained in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) reported previously. Monoclonal mouse-anti-rat T cell, IgG, IgM, IgA, and Ia antisera were used. Plasma cells that were reactive to anti-IgG, anti-IgM, and anti-IgA were detected as cells in which the 3',3'-diaminobenzidine tetrahydroxychloride reaction product was localized in rough endoplasmic reticulum and perinuclear spaces but not on plasma membranes. These plasma cells did not occur in either lymphatic capillaries or HEV in BALT as they did in GALT. Cells with surface Ig (sIg cells), T-cell antigen (T cells), and Ia antigen (Ia cells) were present in BALT. T cells were located predominantly in the follicular area opposite the bronchial epithelium; IgM- and IgG-reactive cells were found in the follicular area adjacent to the bronchial epithelium; and IgA-positive cells were found in the lateral part of the area where the T cells were localized (T-cell area). Ia cells were abundant throughout BALT and in moderate numbers in the epithelium. A striking observation was the presence of "nurse-cell"-like structures in the periphery of BALT. The percentages of T, sIgG, sIgM, and sIgA cells in the HEV were 54.7%, 2.4%, 28.9%, and 27.3%, respectively, and in the lymphatic capillaries, 41.2%, 3.8%, 38.2%, and 21.2%, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Capillary origami


    Py, Charlotte; Reverdy, Paul; Doppler, L.; Bico, J.; Roman, B.; Baroud, Charles,


    International audience; The hairs of a wet dog rushing out from a pond assemble into bundles; this is a common example of the effect of capillary forces on flexible structures. From a practical point of the deformation and adhesion of compliant structures induced by interfacial forces may lead to disastrous effects in mechanical microsystems.

  3. Dynamic behavior of radiant cooling system based on capillary tubes in walls made of high performance concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Svendsen, Svend


    using cooling water for the radiant cooling system with a temperature only about 4K lower than the temperature of the room air. The relatively high speed reaction of the designed system is a result of the slim construction of the sandwich wall elements made of high performance concrete. (C) 2015...... the small amount of fresh air required by standards to provide a healthy indoor environment.This paper reports on experimental analyses evaluating the dynamic behavior of a test room equipped with a radiant cooling system composed of plastic capillary tubes integrated into the inner layer of sandwich wall...... elements made of high performance concrete. The influence of the radiant cooling system on the indoor climate of the test room in terms of the air, surface and operative temperatures and velocities was investigated.The results show that the temperature of the room air can be kept in a comfortable range...

  4. High-Throughput Analysis With 96-Capillary Array Electrophoresis and Integrated Sample Preparation for DNA Sequencing Based on Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Gang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The purpose of this research was to improve the fluorescence detection for the multiplexed capillary array electrophoresis, extend its use beyond the genomic analysis, and to develop an integrated micro-sample preparation system for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The authors first demonstrated multiplexed capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) separations in a 96-capillary array system with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Migration times of four kinds of fluoresceins and six polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are normalized to one of the capillaries using two internal standards. The relative standard deviations (RSD) after normalization are 0.6-1.4% for the fluoresceins and 0.1-1.5% for the PAHs. Quantitative calibration of the separations based on peak areas is also performed, again with substantial improvement over the raw data. This opens up the possibility of performing massively parallel separations for high-throughput chemical analysis for process monitoring, combinatorial synthesis, and clinical diagnosis. The authors further improved the fluorescence detection by step laser scanning. A computer-controlled galvanometer scanner is adapted for scanning a focused laser beam across a 96-capillary array for laser-induced fluorescence detection. The signal at a single photomultiplier tube is temporally sorted to distinguish among the capillaries. The limit of detection for fluorescein is 3 x 10-11 M (S/N = 3) for 5-mW of total laser power scanned at 4 Hz. The observed cross-talk among capillaries is 0.2%. Advantages include the efficient utilization of light due to the high duty-cycle of step scan, good detection performance due to the reduction of stray light, ruggedness due to the small mass of the galvanometer mirror, low cost due to the simplicity of components, and flexibility due to the independent paths for excitation and emission.

  5. Determination of D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone from brewed kombucha broth by high-performance capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Wang, Kan; Gan, Xuhua; Tang, Xinyun; Wang, Shuo; Tan, Huarong


    Kombucha is a health tonic. D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone (DSL), a component of kombucha, inhibits the activity of glucuronidase, an enzyme indirectly related with cancers. To date, there is no efficient method to determine the content of DSL in kombucha samples. In this paper, we report a rapid and simple method for the separation and determination of DSL in kombucha samples, using the high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) method with diode array detection (DAD). With optimized conditions, DSL can be separated in a 50 cm length capillary at a separation voltage of 20 kV in 40 mmol/L borax buffer (pH 6.5) containing 30 mmol/L SDS and 15% methanol (v/v). Quantitative evaluation of DSL was determined by ultraviolet absorption at lambda=190 nm. The relationship between the peak areas and the DSL concentrations, in a specified working range with linear response, was determined by first-order polynomial regression over the range 50-1500 microg/mL with a detection limit of 17.5 microg/mL. Our method demonstrated excellent reproducibility and accuracy with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 5% DSL content (n=5). This is the first report to determine DSL by HPCE. We have successfully applied this method to determine DSL in kombucha samples in various fermented conditions. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. DNA-protein binding assays from a single sea urchin egg: a high-sensitivity capillary electrophoresis method.


    Xian, J; Harrington, M G; Davidson, E H


    A capillary electrophoresis method has been developed to study DNA-protein complexes by mobility-shift assay. This method is at least 100 times more sensitive than conventional gel mobility-shift procedures. Key features of the technique include the use of a neutral coated capillary, a small amount of linear polymer in the separation medium, and use of covalently dye-labeled DNA probes that can be detected with a commercially available laser-induced fluorescence monitor. The capillary method ...

  7. Capillary electrophoresis of diuretics. (United States)

    Riekkola, M L; Jumppanen, J H


    The review surveys the application of capillary electrophoresis to the screening, identification and determination of diuretics and probenecid. The number of publications is still limited, but the studies already published clearly show that capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography are excellent alternatives for the investigation of diuretics. High accuracy identifications of diuretics and probenecid, even in urine samples, can be obtained when CZE is used with the marker techniques. This review paper has been written from the viewpoint of practical use and some hints are given for future CE studies on diuretics.

  8. [Recent advances in the application of high performance capillary electrophoresis for food safety]. (United States)

    Dong, Yalei; Chen, Xiaojiao; Hu, Jing; Chen, Xingguo


    In recent years, food safety incidents become a serious social problem. Foods are usually complex mixtures consisting of a large diversity of molecules. Analysis of foods is a topic that demands the development of rapid, robust, efficient, sensitive and cost-effective analytical methodologies. Therefore, new techniques for food safety purpose are required by analytical chemists. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a popular separation technique that possesses fast and efficient performances in an automated way with minimum consumption of sample and reagents. Nowadays, CE represents a desired strategy for the determination of many compounds or molecules in various kinds of food. In this paper, the review intends to provide the recent innovative developments reported in food safety analysis using CE methods for a full overview. As a fundamental review, it focuses on the introduction and detection of several common hazardous materials existing in food such as non-food additives, pesticide residues, veterinary drug residues, heavy metal ion contaminants, toxins, biphenol A and phthalates in packaging materials and so on. Furthermore, this review prospects the main development direction of CE in this field for the future. A total of 63 papers published during the period of Jan 2009 - Jun 2012 are included in the present review.

  9. Comparative study between capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography in 'guarana' based phytopharmaceuticals. (United States)

    Sombra, Lorena L; Gómez, María R; Olsina, Roberto; Martínez, Luis D; Silva, María F


    The last years have seen a significant increase in the use of herbal medicines and their preparations all over the world. Adulterations with synthetic drugs are common problems with phytopharmaceutical products and this can potentially cause adverse effects. In consequence, it is important to determine the presence of synthetic drugs in herbal medicines to ensure their efficacy and safety. In this study, guarana derivatives were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE), and the results were compared with those obtained by the HPLC technique. In order to obtain adequate fingerprints, and search for adulterants, caffeine was used as the marker compound. This separation method was applied to analyze the seed powder and commercial tablets of Paulinia cupana Mart. The methodology performance was evaluated in terms of specificity, sensitivity and precision. The results are in agreement with those obtained by the HPLC method. Furthermore, the analysis time of the CE method is up to two times shorter than the respective parameter in HPLC and solvent consumption is more than 100-fold less.

  10. Comparison of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography on fingerprint of Cnidium monnieri. (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Zhang, Xinyong; Tan, Xiying; Wu, Menghua; Xianga, Bingren


    In our studies, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) was employed in fingerprint analysis of Cnidium monnieri for the first time. Average chromatography of 10 batches Cnidium monnieri from Jiangsu province, China, which have long been considered as the original and genuine herbal medicine, was first established as the characteristic fingerprint. Within 25 min the major effective components were separated by 18 mM borate, 12 mM phosphate and 50 mM SDS (pH 9.2) containing 20% methanol. The relative standard deviations of migration times and peak areas were less than 5%. As a new approach of fingerprint, MKCE was compared to the conventional approach-HPLC in our experiments. The fingerprint developed by HPLC comprised 8 peaks that were collected within 40 min. Relative standard deviation (RSD) values of retention times of corresponding peaks in HPLC analysis were very small (maximum 3% and average 0.9%). In conclusion, each two methods had its advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, besides HPLC, MEKC as a feasible method, could be used in the development of fingerprint of Cnidium monnieri.

  11. Separation of Tic-hydantoin enantiomers, potent sigma-1 agonists, by high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Cabordery, A C; Toussaint, M; Bonte, J P; Melnyk, P; Vaccher, C; Foulon, C


    Stereospecific separations of seven Tic-hydantoin sigma-1 agonists were performed by both HPLC method using derivatized cellulose and amylose chiral stationary phases and capillary electrophoresis (CE) method using neutral and anionic cyclodextrins added in the background electrolyte (BGE). An optimal baseline separation (R(s)>3.3 with analysis timesphase methodology. CE was used as an alternative technique to HPLC for the Tic-hydantoin derivatives separation. The enantiomers were fully resolved with highly sulfated beta-cyclodextrins at pH 2.5 (R(s)>1.5 with analysis times <11min). Both methods were validated in terms of linearity, detection and quantification limits. They were used to check the enantiomeric purity of the enantiomers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of thermal performance of capillary micro tubes integrated into the building sandwich element made of high performance concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomas; Svendsen, Svend


    The thermal performance of radiant heating and cooling systems (RHCS) composed of capillary micro tubes (CMT) integrated into the inner plate of sandwich elements made of high performance concrete (HPC) was investigated in the article. Temperature distribution in HPC elements around integrated CMT...... was studied. Thermal heat flux on the inner surface of HPC element, and the increase of heat losses to the outside environment were carefully investigated. Calculations were carried out for different temperatures of the circulating fluid, different spacing between CMT and different thicknesses of the inner...... HPC layer covering the CMT. This paper shows that CMT integrated into the thin plate of sandwich element made of HPC can supply the energy needed for heating (cooling) and at the same time create the comfortable and healthy environment for the occupants. This solution is very suitable for heating...

  13. Oligosaccharide analysis by capillary-scale high-pH anion-exchange chromatography with on-line ion-trap mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Bruggink, Cees; Wuhrer, Manfred; Koeleman, Carolien A M; Barreto, Victor; Liu, Yan; Pohl, Chris; Ingendoh, Arnd; Hokke, Cornelis H; Deelder, André M


    A capillary-scale high-pH anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) system for the analysis of carbohydrates was developed, in combination with two parallel on-line detection methods of sub-picomolar sensitivity: (1) pulsed amperometric detection (PAD); (2) capillary-scale desalting followed by electrospray ion-trap (IT) mass spectrometry (MS). The capillary chromatographic system combined the superb selectivity of HPAEC that allows routine separation of isomeric oligosaccharides with the information on monosaccharide sequence and linkage positions obtained by MS/MS fragmentation using the IT-MS. The applicability of the system in biomedical research was demonstrated by its use for the analysis of a urine sample of a GM1-gangliosidosis patient. Isomeric glycans in the sample could be resolved by HPAEC and assigned on the basis of the monosaccharide linkage information revealed by on-line IT-MS/MS.

  14. Lung membrane conductance and capillary volume derived from the NO and CO transfer in high-altitude newcomers. (United States)

    Martinot, Jean-Benoît; Mulè, Massimiliano; de Bisschop, Claire; Overbeek, Maria J; Le-Dong, Nhat-Nam; Naeije, Robert; Guénard, Hervé


    Acute exposure to high altitude may induce changes in carbon monoxide (CO) membrane conductance (DmCO) and capillary lung volume (Vc). Measurements were performed in 25 lowlanders at Brussels (D0), at 4,300 m after a 2- or 3-day exposure (D2,3) without preceding climbing, and 5 days later (D7,8), before and after an exercise test, under a trial with two arterial pulmonary vasodilators or a placebo. The nitric oxide (NO)/CO transfer method was used, assuming both infinite and finite values to the NO blood conductance (θNO). Doppler echocardiography provided hemodynamic data. Compared with sea level, lung diffusing capacity for CO increased by 24% at D2,3 and is returned to control at D7,8. The acute increase in lung diffusing capacity for CO resulted from increases in DmCO and Vc with finite and infinite θNO assumptions. The alveolar volume increased by 16% at D2,3 and normalized at D7,8. The mean increase in systolic arterial pulmonary pressure at rest at D2,3 was minimal. In conclusion, the acute increase in Vc may be related to the increase in alveolar volume and to the increase in capillary pressure. Compared with the infinite θNO value, the use of a finite θNO value led to about a twofold increase in DmCO value and to a persistent increase in DmCO at D7,8 compared with D0. After exercise, DmCO decreased slightly less in subjects treated by the vasodilators, suggesting a beneficial effect on interstitial edema.

  15. Effects of Coix seed oil on human retinal capillary endothelial cells proliferation and VEGF expression in high glucose environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li


    Full Text Available AIM: To study the effects of different concentrations of Coix seed oil on human retinal capillary endothelial cells(HRCECsproliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFexpression in high glucose environment.METHODS: HRCECs extracted from human fresher eyeball and cultured in vitro, and ultimately used in the experiment were the growth of 3rd~4th cells, the experimental were divided into blank control group, low glucose control group, high glucose control group, high glucose +(50μL/mL, 100μL/mL, 200μL/mLdifferent concentrations Coix seed oil group. Detecting the multiplication of HRCECs by MTT, the immunocytochemical method was employed to detect the each group HRCECs of VEGF expression.RESULTS:MTT assay results showed that: different concentrations of coix seed oil acted at HRCECs for 48h, inhibition of cell proliferation was significant difference compared with high glucose control group(PP>0.05. Immunocytochemical assay showed that: 50μL/mL, 100μL/mL, 200μL/mL Coix seed oil acted at HRCECs 48h, the expression of VEGF decreased significantly compared with the high glucose control group(PPCONCLUSION:Coix seed oil can inhibit the HRCECs proliferation and suppress the VEGF expression in high glucose environment.

  16. Selectivity in capillary electrokinetic separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, R.A; de Jong, G.J.; Ensing, K


    This review gives a survey of selectivity modes in capillary electrophoresis separations in pharmaceutical analysis and bioanalysis. Despite the high efficiencies of these separation techniques, good selectivity is required to allow quantitation or identification of a Chemistry and Toxicology,

  17. Heat and liquid transport in heat pipe evaporators with high-performance capillary structures; Waerme- und Fluessigkeitstransport in Verdampfern von Waermerohren mit Hochleistungskapillarstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.


    The heat and liquid transport in heat pipe evaporators with high-performance capillary structures was investigated. The capillary structures consist of open axial grooves connected by micro-grooves. Experiments were carried out on a test stand enabling simulation of heat and liquid transport in a heat pipe. Theoretical investigations focused on the narrow region of the microzone in which the liquid-vapour phase boundary meets the wall and in which hat transfer is particularly intensive. High-performance capillary structures have much higher heat transfer coefficients than conventional capillary structures. The experimental heat transfer coefficients were well predicted qualitatively, and in most cases also quantitatively, by the theoretical investigations. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird der Waerme- und Fluessigkeitstransport in Verdampfern von Waermerohren mit Hochleistungskapillarstrukturen untersucht. Die Kapillarstrukturen bestehen aus offenen Axialrillen, die mit Mikrorillen untereinander verbunden sind. Die experimentellen Untersuchungen werden mit Hilfe eines Versuchsstands durchgefuehrt, der die Simulation des Waermeund Fluessigkeitstransports in einem Waermerohr ermoeglicht. Bei den theoretischen Untersuchungen liegt der Schwerpunkt auf der Modellierung des schmalen Bereichs der Mikrozone, in dem die Phasengrenze Fluessigkeit-Dampf auf die Wand trifft. Hier ist im Vergleich zum uebrigen Bereich (Makrozone) der Waermetransport besonders intensiv. Die Hochleistungskapillarstrukturen haben im Vergleich zu herkoemmlichen Kapillarstrukturen mit offenen Axialrillen deutlich hoehere Waermedurchgangskoeffizienten. Die theoretischen Untersuchungen sagen qualitativ und mit wenigen Einschraenkungen auch quantitativ die experimentell bestimmten Waermedurchgangskoeffizienten gut voraus. (orig.)

  18. [Fast separation and analysis of water-soluble vitamins in spinach by capillary electrophoresis with high voltage]. (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqin; You, Huiyan


    In capillary electrophoresis, 0-40 kV (even higher) voltage can be reached by a connecting double-model high voltage power supply. In the article, water-soluble vitamins, VB1, VB2, VB6, VC, calcium D-pantothenate, D-biotin, nicotinic acid and folic acid in vegetable, were separated by using the high voltage power supply under the condition of electrolyte water solution as running buffer. The separation conditions, such as voltage, the concentration of buffer and pH value etc. , were optimized during the experiments. The results showed that eight water-soluble vitamins could be baseline separated in 2.2 min at 40 kV applied voltage, 25 mmol/L sodium tetraborate buffer solution (pH 8.8). The water-soluble vitamins in spinach were quantified and the results were satisfied. The linear correlation coefficients of the water-soluble vitamins ranged from 0.9981 to 0.9999. The detection limits ranged from 0.2 to 0.3 mg/L. The average recoveries ranged from 88.0% to 100.6% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) range of 1.15%-4.13% for the spinach samples.

  19. Capillary Electrophoresis-Nanoelectrospray Ionization-Selected Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry via a True Sheathless Metal-Coated Emitter Interface for Robust and High-Sensitivity Sample Quantification. (United States)

    Guo, Xuejiang; Fillmore, Thomas L; Gao, Yuqian; Tang, Keqi


    A new sheathless transient capillary isotachophoresis (CITP)/capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE)-MS interface, based on a commercially available capillary with an integrated metal-coated ESI emitter, was developed in this study aiming at overcoming the reproducibility and ruggedness problems suffered to a certain degree by almost all the available CE-MS interfaces, and pushing the CE-MS technology suitable for routine sample analysis with high sensitivity. The new CITP/CZE-MS interface allows the electric contact between ESI voltage power supply and the CE separation liquid by using a conductive liquid that comes in contact with the metal-coated surface of the ESI emitter, making it a true sheathless CE-MS interface. Stable electrospray was established by avoiding the formation of gas bubbles from electrochemical reaction inside the CE capillary. Crucial operating parameters, such as sample loading volume, flow rate, and separation voltage, were systematically evaluated for their effects on both CITP/CZE separation efficiency and MS detection sensitivity. Around one hundred CITP/CZE-MS analyses can be easily achieved by using the new sheathless CITP/CZE interface without a noticeable loss of metal coating on the ESI emitter surface, or degrading of the ESI emitter performance. The reproducibility in analyte migration time and quantitative performance of the new interface was experimentally evaluated to demonstrate a LOQ below 5 attomole.

  20. Simultaneous determination of caffeine, paracetamol, and ibuprofen in pharmaceutical formulations by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and by capillary electrophoresis with conductivity detection. (United States)

    Cunha, Rafael R; Chaves, Sandro C; Ribeiro, Michelle M A C; Torres, Lívia M F C; Muñoz, Rodrigo A A; Dos Santos, Wallans T P; Richter, Eduardo M


    Paracetamol, caffeine and ibuprofen are found in over-the-counter pharmaceutical formulations. In this work, we propose two new methods for simultaneous determination of paracetamol, caffeine and ibuprofen in pharmaceutical formulations. One method is based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and the other on capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection. The separation by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection was achieved on a C18 column (250×4.6 mm(2), 5 μm) with a gradient mobile phase comprising 20-100% acetonitrile in 40 mmol L(-1) phosphate buffer pH 7.0. The separation by capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection was achieved on a fused-silica capillary (40 cm length, 50 μm i.d.) using 10 mmol L(-1) 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate and 10 mmol L(-1) β-alanine with pH adjustment to 10.4 with lithium hydroxide as background electrolyte. The determination of all three pharmaceuticals was carried out in 9.6 min by liquid chromatography and in 2.2 min by capillary electrophoresis. Detection limits for caffeine, paracetamol and ibuprofen were 4.4, 0.7, and 3.4 μmol L(-1) by liquid chromatography and 39, 32, and 49 μmol L(-1) by capillary electrophoresis, respectively. Recovery values for spiked samples were between 92-107% for both proposed methods. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. [Highly efficient and rapid capillary electrophoretic analysis of seven organic acid additives in beverages using polymeric ionic liquid as additive]. (United States)

    Han, Haifeng; Wang, Qing; Liu, Xi; Jiang, Shengxiang


    A new capillary electrophoretic method for the rapid and direct separation of seven organic acids in beverages was developed, with poly (1-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide) as the reliable background electrolyte modifier to reverse the direction of anode electroosmotic flow (EOF) severely. Several factors that affected the separation efficiency were investigated in detail. The optimal running buffer consisted of 125 mmol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 6.5) and 0.01 g/L poly (1-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide). Highly efficient separation (105,000 to 636,000 plates/m) was achieved within 4 min and standard deviations of the migration times (n=3) were lower than 0.0213 min under optimal conditions. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) ranged from 0.001 to 0.05 g/L. The present method was applied to determine a beverage sample (Mirinda) for sodium citrate, benzoic acid and sorbic acid with concentration of 2.64, 0.10 and 0.08 g/L, respectively. The recoveries of the three analytes in the sample were 100.3%, 100.7% and 131.7%, respectively. The method is simple, rapid, inexpensive, and can be applied to determine organic acids as additives in beverages.

  2. Distributive shock due to systemic capillary leak syndrome treated with high-dose immunosuppression. (United States)

    Sheehan, James Robert; Keating, Liza; Chan, Antoni; Walden, Andrew


    A female patient in her 60s presented with a history of malaise, chills, headache and vomiting. She was in shock on presentation with a high haematocrit and a low albumin with evidence of rhabdomyolysis. Severe limb and truncal oedema developed with worsening hypotension leading to intensive care unit admission for multiple organ support. Extensive radiological, microbiological and immunological work up was negative with the exception of a monoclonal gammopathy. A review of patient investigations led to a diagnosis of Clarkson's disease. Treatment with high-dose methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulins led to a rapid decline in the creatine kinase (CK) level and vasopressor requirements. The patient was discharged home on long-term terbutaline and has made a good recovery.

  3. Practical capillary electrophoresis

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberger, Robert


    In the 1980s, capillary electrophoresis (CE) joined high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as the most powerful separation technique available to analytical chemists and biochemists. Published research using CE grew from 48 papers in the year of commercial introduction (1988) to 1200 in 1997. While only a dozen major pharmaceutical and biotech companies have reduced CE to routine practice, the applications market is showing real or potential growth in key areas, particularly in the DNA marketplace for genomic mapping and forensic identification. For drug development involving small molecules (including chiral separations), one CE instrument can replace 10 liquid chromatographs in terms of speed of analysis. CE also uses aqueous rather than organic solvents and is thus environmentally friendlier than HPLC. The second edition of Practical Capillary Electrophoresis has been extensively reorganized and rewritten to reflect modern usage in the field, with an emphasis on commercially available apparatus and ...

  4. Simultaneous Multiphase PIV of Capillary Waves on a High Velocity Liquid Jet (United States)

    Andre, Matthieu; Bardet, Philippe


    Relaxation of a laminar boundary layer below the free surface of a jet is inviscidly unstable and can roll-up which generates millimeter size waves. The latter largely modify important characteristics of jets such as heat and mass transfers between phases and can lead to breakup, or air entrainment. Two dimensional linear stability analysis predicts the initial disturbance wavelength and growth rate for inviscid flows; it does not take into account the effects of viscosity, non-linearity, or actual boundary layer profile. Because of the small temporal and spatial scales associated with this flow, few experimental data are available. Data acquisition is further complicated by the presence of a free surface with steep waves. The current experiment consists in a 20.3 mm × 146.0 mm water slab laminar jet flowing onto a transparent open-channel at a Reynolds number of 2.9 × 104 to 1.4 × 105. Two high speed cameras are employed to obtain velocity fields simultaneously in the liquid and in the gas phase with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Fluorescent dye is added in the liquid in order to improve interface detection. Each phase is recorded at 10 kHz, leading to a temporal resolution of 100 μs and high magnification lenses give a spatial resolution of 200 μm. The results confirm the mechanism of formation of the short surface waves. Generation of surface vorticity is identified in high curvature regions. Knowledge of the velocities in both phases allows studying vorticity flux through the free surface. The latter stage of wave growth can be accompanied by the formation of a vortex pair in the liquid and air entrapment.

  5. Guiding of highly charged ions through Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-capillaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, P. [Atomic Physics, Fysikum, AlbaNova Physics Centre, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Soroka, I.L. [Atomic Physics, Fysikum, AlbaNova Physics Centre, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, A. [Department of Materials Chemistry, The Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Schuch, R. [Atomic Physics, Fysikum, AlbaNova Physics Centre, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail:


    Over the past years, our group has performed experiments on ion guiding in nano-capillary membranes of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In this paper we report the results from our recent experiments on guiding of 7 keV Ne{sup 7+}-ions in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-capillaries of about 1/200 aspect ratio. We will compare these experimental findings with previously obtained and published results of different membrane materials.

  6. Analysis of quinapril by two solvent-saving methods: application of capillary column high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance detection and LDI-TOF-MS. (United States)

    Lu, Chi-Yu; Wang, Yi-Rou; Chen, Su-Hwei; Feng, Chia-Hsien


    A capillary column high-performance liquid chromatography (CapLC) method and a laser desorption ionization-time of flight (LDI-TOF)-MS method are described for the determination of quinapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Effective separation was achieved by using a C18 capillary column at a flow rate of 10 microL/min. For CapLC, quinapril and 7-hydroxycoumarin (internal standard) were detected at 210 and 320 nm, respectively. Phenformin replaced 7-hydroxycoumarin as the internal standard for the LDI-TOF-MS method successfully developed to detect quinapril. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 1-100 micro/mL in these two methods. For high throughput purposes, the LDI-TOF-MS method was simpler and faster than the CapLC method. Both green methods were suitably validated and successfully applied to determine quinapril in commercial tablets.

  7. Identification of Vibrio cholerae serotypes in high-risk marine products with non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Zhou, Chen; Li, Ming; Sun, Chengjun; Zou, Haimin; Wu, Xin; Zhang, Liyin; Tao, Siyuan; Wang, Bingyue; Li, Yongxin


    Vibrio cholerae, a natural inhabitant of the marine environment, poses a threat to human health, and its new epidemic variants have been reported. A method of multiplex polymerase chain reaction-capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence (PCR-CE-LIF) detection has been developed to detect and identify V. cholerae in marine products sensitively, rapidly, and reliably. Four sets of primers were selected to amplify genus-specific VCC gene, O139 serogroup-specific O139 gene, O1 serogroup-specific O1 gene, and ctxA gene associated with the CT toxin of enterotoxigenic V. cholerae. The PCR products were detected using CE-LIF with SYBR Gold serving as the DNA fluorescent dye. The parameters of PCR and the separation conditions of CE-LIF were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, V. cholerae was detected and four serotypes were identified simultaneously within 8 min. The alignment analysis showed that the PCR products had good agreement with the published sequences from GenBank, indicating that the primers selected in this study had high specificity and the PCR results were reliable. The proposed method could detect 5 to 20 cfu/ml V. cholerae. The intraday precisions of migration time and peak area of DNA marker and PCR products were in the ranges of 1.60-2.56% and 1.60-6.29%, respectively. The specificity results showed that only five standard bacteria used in this study showed the specific peaks when the target bacteria were mixed with seven other common intestinal pathogenic bacteria at the same concentration. The assay was applied to 71 high-risk marine products, and different serotypes of V. cholerae could be identified sensitively and reliably. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The high aerobic capacity of a small, marsupial rat-kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata) is matched by the mitochondrial and capillary morphology of its skeletal muscles. (United States)

    Webster, Koa N; Dawson, Terence J


    We examined the structure-function relationships that underlie the aerobic capacities of marsupial mammals that hop. Marsupials have relatively low basal metabolic rates (BMR) and historically were seen as 'low energy' mammals. However, the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus (family Macropodidae), has aerobic capacities equivalent to athletic placentals. It has an extreme aerobic scope (fAS) and its large locomotor muscles feature high mitochondrial and capillary volumes. M. rufus belongs to a modern group of kangaroos and its high fAS is not general for marsupials. However, other hopping marsupials may have elevated aerobic capacities. Bettongia penicillata, a rat-kangaroo (family Potoroidae), is a small (1 kg), active hopper whose fAS is somewhat elevated. We examined the oxygen delivery system in its muscles to ascertain links with hopping. An elevated fAS of 23 provided a relatively high maximal aerobic oxygen consumption ( ) in B. penicillata; associated with this is a skeletal muscle mass of 44% of body mass. Ten muscles were sampled to estimate the total mitochondrial and capillary volume of the locomotor muscles. Values in B. penicillata were similar to those in M. rufus and in athletic placentals. This small hopper had high muscle mitochondrial volume densities (7.1-11.9%) and both a large total capillary volume (6 ml kg(-1) body mass) and total capillary erythrocyte volume (3.2 ml kg(-1)). Apparently, a considerable aerobic capacity is required to achieve the benefits of the extended stride in fast hopping. Of note, the ratio of to total muscle mitochondrial volume in B. penicillata was 4.9 ml O(2) min(-1) ml(-1). Similar values occur in M. rufus and also placental mammals generally, not only athletic species. If such relationships occur in other marsupials, a fundamental structure-function relationship for oxygen delivery to muscles likely originated with or before the earliest mammals.

  9. In situ electrochemical high-energy X-ray diffraction using a capillary working electrode cell geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Matthias J.; Bedford, Nicholas M.; Jiang, Naisheng; Lin, Deqing; Dai, Liming


    The ability to generate new electrochemically active materials for energy generation and storage with improved properties will likely be derived from an understanding of atomic-scale structure/function relationships during electrochemical events. Here, the design and implementation of a new capillary electrochemical cell designed specifically forin situhigh-energy X-ray diffraction measurements is described. By increasing the amount of electrochemically active material in the X-ray path while implementing low-Zcell materials with anisotropic scattering profiles, an order of magnitude enhancement in diffracted X-ray signal over traditional cell geometries for multiple electrochemically active materials is demonstrated. This signal improvement is crucial for high-energy X-ray diffraction measurements and subsequent Fourier transformation into atomic pair distribution functions for atomic-scale structural analysis. As an example, clear structural changes in LiCoO2under reductive and oxidative conditions using the capillary cell are demonstrated, which agree with prior studies. Accurate modeling of the LiCoO2diffraction data using reverse Monte Carlo simulations further verifies accurate background subtraction and strong signal from the electrochemically active material, enabled by the capillary working electrode geometry.

  10. Evaluation of capillary and myofiber density in the pectoralis major muscles of rapidly growing, high-yield broiler chickens during increased heat stress. (United States)

    Joiner, K S; Hamlin, G A; Lien, A R J; Bilgili, S F


    Skeletal muscle development proceeds from early embryogenesis through marketing age in broiler chickens. While myofiber formation is essentially complete at hatching, myofiber hypertrophy can increase after hatch by assimilation of satellite cell nuclei into myofibers. As the diameter of the myofibers increases, capillary density peripheral to the myofiber is marginalized, limiting oxygen supply and subsequent diffusion into the myofiber, inducing microischemia. The superficial and deep pectoralis muscles constitute 25% of the total body weight in a market-age bird; thus compromise of those muscle groups can have profound economic impact on broiler production. We hypothesized that marginal capillary support relative to the hypertrophic myofibers increases the incidence of microischemia, especially in contemporary high-yield broilers under stressing conditions such as high environmental temperatures. We evaluated the following parameters in four different broiler strains at 39 and 53 days of age when reared under thermoneutral (20 to 25 C) versus hot (30 to 35 C) environmental conditions: capillary density, myofiber density and diameter, and degree of myodegeneration. Our data demonstrate that myofiber diameter significantly increased with age (P > or = 0.0001), while the absolute numbers of capillaries, blood vessels, and myofibers visible in five 400 x microscopic fields decreased (P > or = 0.0001). This is concomitant with marginalization of vascular support in rapidly growing myofibers. The myofiber diameter was significantly lower with hot environmental temperatures (P > or = 0.001); therefore, the absolute number of myofibers visible in five 400X microscopic fields was significantly higher. The incidence and subjective degree of myodegeneration characterized by loss of cross-striations, myocyte hyperrefractility, sarcoplasmic vacuolation, and nuclear pyknosis or loss also increased in hot conditions. Differences among strains were not observed.

  11. Extreme ultraviolet capillary discharge lasers (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah; West, Andrew; Tallents, Greg


    An extreme ultraviolet capillary discharge laser has recently been installed at the University of York. The laser produces EUV radiation of wavelength 46.9nm, with pulse durations of approximately 1.2ns and energies of up to 50 μJ. A population inversion is produced by a high voltage electrical discharge passing through an argon filled capillary tube. Within the capillary, radial pinching of the argon plasma through JxB force causes the pressure and temperature of the plasma to increase which causes amplification between 3p -3s (J = 0-1) transitions producing EUV radiation. Laser optimisation, calibration of detectors and designs for initial experiments to produce warm dense matter by focusing onto solid targets are presented. The plasmas formed by the EUV laser irradiation of solid targets can be shown to produce warm dense matter in a regime where the ionization equilibrium is dominated by radiative ionization.

  12. Ultra-high aspect ratio Si nanowires fabricated with plasma etching: plasma processing, mechanical stability analysis against adhesion and capillary forces and oleophobicity (United States)

    Zeniou, A.; Ellinas, K.; Olziersky, A.; Gogolides, E.


    Room-temperature deep Si etching using time-multiplexed deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) processes is investigated to fabricate ultra-high aspect ratio Si nanowires (SiNWs) perpendicular to the silicon substrate. Nanopatterning is achieved using either top-down techniques (e.g. electron beam lithography) or colloidal polystyrene (PS) sphere self-assembly. The latter is a faster and more economical method if imperfections in diameter and position can be tolerated. We demonstrate wire radii from below 100 nm to several micrometers, and aspect ratios (ARs) above 100:1 with etching rates above 1 μm min-1 using classical mass flow controllers with pulsing rise times of seconds. The mechanical stability of these nanowires is studied theoretically and experimentally against adhesion and capillary forces. It is shown that above ARs of the order of 50:1 for spacing 1 μm, SiNWs tend to bend due to adhesion forces between them. Such large adhesion forces are due to the high surface energy of silicon. Wetting the SiNWs with water and drying also gives rise to capillary forces. We find that capillary forces may be less important for SiNW collapse/bending compared to adhesion forces of dry SiNWs, contrary to what is observed for polymeric nanowires/nanopillars which have a much lower surface energy compared to silicon. Finally we show that SiNW arrays have oleophobic and superoleophobic properties, i.e. they exhibit excellent anti-wetting properties for a wide range of liquids and oils due to the re-entrant profile produced by the DRIE process and the well-designed spacing.

  13. Investigation of folic acid stability in fortified instant noodles by use of capillary electrophoresis and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Hau Fung Cheung, Rodney; Morrison, Paul D; Small, Darryl M; Marriott, Philip J


    A single enzyme treatment with alpha-amylase, prior to the quantification of added folic acid (FA) in fortified instant fried Asian noodles with analysis performed by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with UV detection, is described. The method was validated and optimized for capillary electrophoresis (CE) with separation achieved using a 8 mM phosphate-12 mM borate run buffer with 5% MeOH at pH 9.5. FA was well separated from matrix components with nicotinic acid (NA) employed as an internal standard. In a comparative study, separation of FA was performed using HPLC with a mobile phase consisting of 27% MeOH (v/v) in aqueous potassium phosphate buffer (3.5 mM KH(2)PO(4) and 3.2 mM K(2)HPO(4)), pH 8.5, and containing 5 mM tetrabutylammonium dihydrogen phosphate as an ion-pairing agent. For both methods, excellent results were obtained for various analytical parameters including linearity, accuracy and precision. The limit of detection was calculated to be 2.2 mg/L for CE without sample stacking and 0.10 mg/L with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sample extraction involved homogenization and enzymatic extraction with alpha-amylase. Results indicated that FA was stable during four main stages of instant fried noodle manufacturing (dough crumbs, cut sheets, steaming and frying).

  14. Capillary-based three-dimensional immunosensor assembly for high-performance detection of carcinoembryonic antigen using laser-induced fluorescence spectrometry. (United States)

    Yu, Qiaoling; Wang, Xu; Duan, Yixiang


    A novel capillary-based three-dimensional (3D) fluoroimmunosensor for carcinoembryonic antigen detection was explored for the first time. The immunosensor was designed in symmetrical cylinder structure and fabricated with capillary tubes encapsulated in a quartz tube. The 3D design of the sensor increased the area of sensing surface, flexibility in light path design and efficiency of fluorescence collection by aluminum foil, resulting in analytical performance improvement. The CEA immunosensor was constructed in double antibody sandwich format. Fluorescence signals from DyLight 550-labeled antibody were measured using a laser-induced fluorescence spectrometry. There is an obvious improvement in the linear detection range of 0.7-80 ng/mL. This novel 3D immunosensor dramatically improved the detection limit (1.1 pmol/L CEA) and sensitivity. Assay validation studies indicated that the correlation coefficient reached 0.9935, with recoveries of 92.82-118.81%. Furthermore, the immunosensor was successfully applied to CEA determination in actual saliva specimens with high sensitivity and acceptable precision. Regarding accuracy, the results obtained by 3D immunosensor were not significantly different (t test) from those obtained by validated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. This new 3D CEA immunosensor was demonstrated to be a high-performance tool for CEA diagnostics.

  15. Development of a capillary high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry method for the determination of VLIVP antihypertensive peptide in soybean crops. (United States)

    Puchalska, Patrycja; García, M Concepción; Marina, M Luisa


    Soybean peptide VLIVP presents a very high antihypertensive activity (IC50 value 1.69μM), even higher than extensively studied IPP and VPP peptides from milk. Nevertheless, no much attention has been paid to this peptide and there is no method enabling its determination in soybeans. The aim of this work was the development of an analytical methodology for this purpose. A methodology consisting of the extraction of soybean proteins, their digestion with Protease P enzyme, their chromatographic separation using capillary-HPLC, and IT-MS detection was optimized. Protein extraction was performed by the use of high intensity focused ultrasounds to obtain a reduced extraction time. Optimization of chromatographic and mass spectrometry parameters enabled the separation of VLIVP peptide within just 7min and its sensitive detection. The analytical characteristics of the capillary-HPLC-IT-MS method were evaluated through the study of linearity, LOD, LOQ, study of the presence of matrix interferences, precision, and recovery. The method enabled to detect as low as 3.6ng of peptide and to determine as low as 12ng of peptide in 1g of soybean (as dry basis). Finally, the developed method was applied to the determination of the antihypertensive peptide VLIVP in different soybean varieties. The results showed the highest yield of VLIVP peptide in variety Mazowiecka II from Poland. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Separation and determination of peptide metabolite of Bacillus licheniformis in a microbial fuel cell by high-speed capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Bai, Ruiguang; Cai, Xiaoyu; Lin, Ping; Ma, Lihong


    A method using high-speed capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography and a microbial fuel cell was applied to determine the metabolite of the peptides released by Bacillus licheniformis. Two peptides, l-carnosine and l-alanyl-l-glutamine were used as the substrate to feed Bacillus licheniformis in a microbial fuel cell. The metabolism process of the bacterium was monitored by analyzing the voltage outputs of the microbial fuel cell. A home-made spontaneous injection device was applied to perform high-speed capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, tryptophan, glycine, valine, tyrosine and the two peptides could be rapidly separated within 2.5 min with micellar electrokinetic chromatography mode. Then the method was applied to analyze the solutions sampled from the microbial fuel cell. After 92 h running, valine, as the metabolite, was successfully detected with concentration 3.90 × 10 -5 M. The results demonstrated that Bacillus licheniformis could convert l-carnosine and l-alanyl-l-glutamine into valine. The method employed in this work was proved to have great potential in analysis of metabolites, such as amino acids, for microorganisms. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. High-separation efficiency micro-fabricated multi-capillary gas chromatographic columns for simulants of the nerve agents and blister agents (United States)

    Li, Yi; Du, Xiaosong; Wang, Yang; Tai, Huiling; Qiu, Dong; Lin, Qinghao; Jiang, Yadong


    To achieve both high speed and separation efficiency in the separation of a mixture of nerve and blister agent simulants, a high-aspect-ratio micro-fabricated multi-capillary column (MCC, a 50-cm-long, 450-μm-deep, and 60-μm-wide four-capillary column) was fabricated by the application of the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) techniques. Mixtures of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants - dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), triethyl phosphate (TEP), and methyl salicylate - were used as samples. The fabricated MCC allowed for the separation of all the components of the gaseous mixture within 24 s, even when the difference in boiling point was 4°C, as in the case of TEP and methyl salicylate. Furthermore, interfering agents - dichloromethane, ethanol, and toluene - were also included in the subsequent gaseous mixture samples. The boiling point of these six components ranged from 78°C to 219°C. All six components were clearly separated within 70 s. This study is the first to report the clear separation of gas mixtures of components with close boiling points. The column efficiency was experimentally determined to be 12,810 plates/m.

  18. Intramedullary capillary haemangioma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, T


    Intramedullary capillary haemangioma is extremely rare and only four cases have been previously reported. We describe a further case, outlining the clinical, radiological, surgical and pathological features.

  19. Fast high-throughput method for the determination of acidity constants by capillary electrophoresis: I. Monoprotic weak acids and bases. (United States)

    Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Bosch, Elisabeth; Rosés, Martí


    A new and fast method to determine acidity constants of monoprotic weak acids and bases by capillary zone electrophoresis based on the use of an internal standard (compound of similar nature and acidity constant as the analyte) has been developed. This method requires only two electrophoretic runs for the determination of an acidity constant: a first one at a pH where both analyte and internal standard are totally ionized, and a second one at another pH where both are partially ionized. Furthermore, the method is not pH dependent, so an accurate measure of the pH of the buffer solutions is not needed. The acidity constants of several phenols and amines have been measured using internal standards of known pK(a), obtaining a mean deviation of 0.05 pH units compared to the literature values.

  20. Capillary Isotachophoresis-Nanoelectrospray Ionization-Selected Reaction Monitoring MS via a Novel Sheathless Interface for High Sensitivity Sample Quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chenchen (Chloe); Lee, Cheng S.; Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi


    A novel sheathless CITP/CZE-MS interface featuring a large i.d. separation capillary and a detachable small i.d. ESI emitter was developed in this study to simultaneously achieve large sample loading capacity and stable nanoESI operation. Crucial operating parameters, including sample loading volume, flow rate, and separation window, were systematically investigated to attain optimum CITP/CZE separation efficiency and MS detection sensitivity. The performance of CITP/CZE-nanoESI-MS using the new sheathless interface was evaluated for its achievable low limit of quantitation (LOQ) by analyzing targeted peptides, leu-enkephalin and angiotensin II, spiked in a BSA tryptic digest matrix at different concentrations. A linear dynamic range spanning 4.5 orders of magnitude and a 10 pM LOQ with excellent measurement reproducibility were obtained experimentally for both targeted peptides, representing a 5-fold sensitivity improvement as compared to using the sheath liquid interface developed previously.

  1. Gradient elution in capillary electrochromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anex, D.; Rakestraw, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Yan, Chao; Dadoo, R.; Zare, R.N. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    In analogy to pressure-driven gradient techniques in high-performance liquid chromatography, a system has been developed for delivering electroosmotically-driven solvent gradients for capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Dynamic gradients with sub-mL/min flow rates are generated by merging two electroosmotic flows that are regulated by computer-controlled voltages. These flows are delivered by two fused-silica capillary arms attached to a T-connector, where they mix and then flow into a capillary column that has been electrokinetically packed with 3-mm reversed-phase particles. The inlet of one capillary arm is placed in a solution reservoir containing one mobile phase and the inlet of the other is placed in a second reservoir containing a second mobile phase. Two independent computer-controlled programmable high-voltage power supplies (0-50 kV)--one providing an increasing ramp and the other providing a decreasing ramp--are used to apply variable high-voltage potentials to the mobile phase reservoirs to regulate the electroosmotic flow in each arm. The ratio of the electroosmotic flow rates between the two arms is changed with time according to the computer-controlled voltages to deliver the required gradient profile to the separation column. Experiments were performed to confirm the composition of the mobile phase during a gradient run and to determine the change of the composition in response to the programmed voltage profile. To demonstrate the performance of electroosmotically-driven gradient elution in CEC, a mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was separated in less than 90 minutes. This gradient technique is expected to be well-suited for generating not only solvent gradients in CEC, but also other types of gradients such as pH- and ionic-strength gradients in capillary electrokinetic separations and analyses.

  2. Comparative study of the use of high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis for determination of phenolic compounds in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, D. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. de Quimica; Pocurull, E. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. de Quimica; Marce, R.M. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. de Quimica; Borrull, F. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. de Quimica; Calull, M. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. de Quimica


    A comparative study of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) for determination of eleven EPA priority phenols in water samples is discussed. The repeatability, linearity and detection limits of both methods are compared. A solid-phase extraction method using a highly cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer sorbent is used for the off-line preconcentration process in order to determine these compounds in water at low levels. Both methods are used to determine phenolic compounds in Ebro river and industrial waste water. Identification was achieved by comparison of the UV spectra corresponding to the different peaks, acquired with a diode-array detector, with those in a spectral library. (orig.)

  3. Profiling the glycoforms of the intact alpha subunit of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin by high-resolution capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Thakur, Dipak; Rejtar, Tomas; Karger, Barry L; Washburn, Nathaniel J; Bosques, Carlos J; Gunay, Nur S; Shriver, Zachary; Venkataraman, Ganesh


    With the rapid growth of complex heterogeneous biological molecules, effective techniques that are capable of rapid characterization of biologics are essential to ensure the desired product characteristics. To address this need, we have developed a method for analysis of intact glycoproteins based on high-resolution capillary electrophoretic separation coupled to an LTQ-FT mass spectrometer. We evaluated the performance of this method on the alpha subunit of mouse cell line-derived recombinant human chorionic gonadotrophin (r-alpha hCG), a protein that is glycosylated at two sites and is part of the clinically relevant gonadotrophin family. Analysis of r-alpha hCG, using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with a separation time under 20 min, resulted in the identification of over 60 different glycoforms with up to nine sialic acids. High-resolution CE-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FT-MS) allowed separation and analysis of not only intact glycoforms with different numbers of sialic acids but also intact glycoforms that differed by the number and extent of neutral monosaccharides. The high mass resolution of the FT-MS enabled a limited mass range to be targeted for the examination of the protein glycoforms, simplifying the analysis without sacrificing accuracy. In addition, the limited mass range resulted in a fast scan speed that enhanced the reproducibility of the relative quantitation of individual glycoforms. The intact glycoprotein analysis was complemented with the analysis of the tryptic glycopeptides and glycans of r-alpha hCG to enable the assignment of glycan structures to individual sites, resulting in a detailed characterization of the protein. Samples of r-alpha hCG obtained from a CHO cell line were also analyzed and briefly shown to be significantly different from the murine cell line product. Taken together, the results suggest that the CE coupled to high-resolution FT-MS can be one of the effective tools for in-process monitoring as well as for

  4. Specific adsorption of phosphate ions on proteins evidenced by capillary electrophoresis and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Rabiller-Baudry, M; Chaufer, B


    Specific adsorption of phosphate ions at pH=7.0 was studied on different proteins, either counter-ions of phosphate (lysozyme, lactoferrin) or co-ion of phosphate (alpha-lactalbumin). The theoretical electrophoretic mobility of globular proteins lysozyme and alpha-lactalbumin (apo and holo (+1 calcium per molecule) forms) was compared with those measured by capillary electrophoresis in phosphate at pH 7.0, versus the ionic strength (I) in the range 0-0.775 mol L(-1). The specific adsorption of phosphate ions was evidenced by difference. From the experimental charge number (Z(eff)) of protein in phosphate medium, a phosphate content per protein molecule was determined at pH=7.0. * For lactoferrin (pI=8-9), the electrophoretic mobility (mu) was constant and negative, highlighting a charge reversal due to phosphate adsorption. * For alpha-lactalbumin (holo form) experimental mu was roughly constant and more negative than predicted. Z(eff) increased continuously from -4 to -11 in the ionic strength range from 0.005 to 0.775 mol l(-1), respectively. Accordingly, one to six phosphates were bound per molecule, respectively. * For lysozyme, experimental electrophoretic mobility was positive but lower than predicted. Z(eff) was only discrete values +5 for I in the range 0.001-0.020 mol l(-1) and about +3 in the range 0.050-0.500 mol l(-1), whereas the theoretical Z value was +7 at pH = 7.0. Lysozyme bounds one phosphate at low ionic strength and about two-three at higher ionic strength. Reversed-phase HPLC confirms that adsorption of phosphate is different for the three proteins.

  5. Monoclonal gammopathy missed by capillary zone electrophoresis


    Schild, Christof; Egger, Florence; Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc


    Background: Serum protein electrophoresis is used as a screening test for monoclonal gammopathies. Here, we present a case of a high-concentration monoclonal immunoglobulin (M-protein) that was missed by serum protein electrophoresis on a Capillarys 2 capillary zone electrophoresis system. The aim of our study was to identify the reason for the failure of the system to detect the M-protein. Methods: M-protein solubility was examined in response to temperature, pH, ionic strength, the chaotrop...

  6. Novel Micro-Capillary Electrochromatography for Mars Organic Detector Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research proposes to develop a powerful new technology - next generation Micro-Capillary Electrochromatography - a high performance and low power...

  7. Novel Micro-Capillary Electrochromatography for Mars Organic Detector Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research proposes to develop a powerful new technology - next generation Micro-Capillary Electrochromatography ? a high performance and low power...

  8. Capillary electrochromatography using fibers as stationary phases. (United States)

    Jinno, K; Watanabe, H; Saito, Y; Takeichi, T


    Fiber-packed capillary columns have been evaluated in chromatographic performance in capillary electrochromatography (CEC). The change of electroosmotic flow (EOF) velocity and selectivity using different kinds of fiber materials was examined. Although the EOF velocity among the different fiber packed columns was almost the same, retention of parabens was larger on the Kevlar-packed column than on the Zylon-packed one, and was larger on the as-span-type fiber-packed column than on the high-modulus-type packed one. Using 200 microm ID x 5 cm Kevlar packed column combined with a 100 microm ID x 20 cm precolumn capillary and a 530 microm ID x 45 cm postcolumn capillary, the separation of three parabens within 30 s was achieved. Other compounds were also separated in a few minutes by the fiber-packed CEC method.

  9. Bioanalytical Applications of Fluorescence Line-Narrowing and Non-Line-Narrowing Spectroscopy Interfaced with Capillary Electrophoresis and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Kenneth Paul [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are widely used analytical separation techniques with many applications in chemical, biochemical, and biomedical sciences. Conventional analyte identification in these techniques is based on retention/migration times of standards; requiring a high degree of reproducibility, availability of reliable standards, and absence of coelution. From this, several new information-rich detection methods (also known as hyphenated techniques) are being explored that would be capable of providing unambiguous on-line identification of separating analytes in CE and HPLC. As further discussed, a number of such on-line detection methods have shown considerable success, including Raman, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), and fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy (FLNS). In this thesis, the feasibility and potential of combining the highly sensitive and selective laser-based detection method of FLNS with analytical separation techniques are discussed and presented. A summary of previously demonstrated FLNS detection interfaced with chromatography and electrophoresis is given, and recent results from on-line FLNS detection in CE (CE-FLNS), and the new combination of HPLC-FLNS, are shown.

  10. A Novel Capillary Electrophoresis-Based High-Throughput Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction System for the Simultaneous Detection of Nine Pathogens in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-long Wu


    Full Text Available Here we aimed to develop a capillary electrophoresis-based high-throughput multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR system for the simultaneous detection of nine pathogens in swine. Nine pairs of specific primers and a set of universal primers were designed; the multiplex PCR was established. The specificity and cross-reactivity of this assay were examined, and the detection limit was determined using serial 10-fold dilutions of plasmids containing the target sequences. The assay was further tested using 144 clinical samples. We found that the nine specific amplification peaks were observed, and the assay had a high degree of specificity, without nonspecific amplification. The simultaneous detection limit for the nine viruses reached 10000 copies μL−1 when all of the premixed viral targets were present. Seventy-seven of the clinical samples tested positive for at least one of the viruses; the principal viral infections in the clinical samples were porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. This approach has much potential for further development of high-throughput detection tools for the diagnosis of diseases in animals.

  11. Highly reproducible Capillary Gel Electrophoresis (CGE) of DNA fragments using uncoated columns. Detection of genetically modified maize by PCR-CGE


    García-Cañas, Virginia; González García, Ramón; Cifuentes, Alejandro


    In this work a capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) method is presented that yields reproducible separations of DNA fragments using commercially available polymers together with bare fused silica capillaries. The method combines a washing routine of the column with 0.1 M hydrochloride acid followed by a rinsing step with a solution containing 1% polyvinyl alcohol. The use of this procedure together with a running Tris-phosphate-EDTA buffer containing 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) at pH 7.3 gi...

  12. Gas-Filled Capillary Model (United States)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.


    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration — Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment.

  13. Chiral separation by capillary electrochromatography. (United States)

    Gübitz, G; Schmid, M G


    The state of art in chiral capillary electrochromatography is reviewed. Chiral separations by capillary electrochromatography were carried out using capillaries packed with chiral stationary phases or achiral stationary phases in combination with a chiral selector added to the mobile phase. Furthermore, the use of open tubular capillaries containing the chiral selector coated to the capillary wall was also reported. Among other separation principles moleculary imprinted polymers represent a challenging approach for chiral capillary electrochromatography. A recent trend is the use of polymeric continuous beds with a chiral selector incorporated.

  14. In situ analysis of proteins at high temperatures mediated by capillary-flow hydrothermal UV-vis spectrophotometer with a water-soluble chromogenic reagent. (United States)

    Kawamura, Kunio; Nagayoshi, Hiroki; Yao, Toshio


    In situ monitoring of quantities, interactions, and conformations of proteins is essential for the study of biochemistry under hydrothermal environments and the analysis of hyperthermophilic organisms in natural hydrothermal systems on Earth. We have investigated the potential of a capillary-flow hydrothermal UV-vis spectrophotometer (CHUS) for performing in situ measurements of proteins and determining their behavior at extremely high temperatures, in combination with a chromogenic reagents probe, which interacts with the proteins. The spectral shift obtained using a combination of water-soluble porphyrin (TPPS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was the best among the spectral shifts obtained using different combinations of chromogenic reagents and proteins. The association behavior of TPPS with BSA was investigated in detail using CHUS at temperatures up to 175 degrees C and the association constant (K(ass)) of TPPS with BSA was successfully determined at temperatures up to 100 degrees C. The lnK(ass) values were inversely proportional to the T(-1) values in the temperature range 50-100 degrees C. These analyses showed for the first time that the decrease of association of TPPS with BSA is due to the conformational change, fragmentation, and/or denaturing of BSA rather than the decrease of the hydrophobic association between TPPS and BSA. This study conclusively demonstrates the usability of the CHUS system with a chromogenic reagent as an in situ detection and measurement system for thermostable proteins at extremely high temperatures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomimetic Unidirectional Capillary Action (United States)

    Rupert, Eric; Moran, Patrick; Dahl, Jason


    In arid environments animals require specialized adaptations to collect adequate water. The Texas horned lizard (P. cornutum) has superhydrophylic skin which draws water out of moist soil or directly from water sources. The water then makes its way into the lizard's unidirectional capillary system, made of overlapping scales, which serves to channel water to its mouth. Testing different channel geometries, repeated ``D'' shaped chambers as in Commans et al. (2015) and truncated isosceles triangle chambers, as found in P. cornutum, we show the ability to have passive, unidirectional, fluid transport. Tests were carried out with the capillaries in a horizontal configuration. While both capillary geometries produced the desired traits, the triangular chambers showed superior unidirectionality, with no observed back flow, while ``D'' chambers showed back flow under testing conditions. The chambers provided similar flow rates. These types of channel systems will find use in microfluidics, notably in medical, printing, and lab-on-chip applications.

  16. How Capillary Rafts Sink

    CERN Document Server

    Protiere, S; Aristoff, J; Stone, H


    We present a fluid dynamics video showing how capillary rafts sink. Small objects trapped at an interface are very common in Nature (insects walking on water, ant rafts, bubbles or pollen at the water-air interface, membranes...) and are found in many multiphase industrial processes. Thanks to Archimedes principle we can easily predict whether an object sinks or floats. But what happens when several small particles are placed at an interface between two fluids. In this case surface tension also plays an important role. These particles self-assemble by capillarity and thus form what we call a "capillary raft". We show how such capillary rafts sink for varying sizes of particles and define how this parameter affects the sinking process.

  17. High-throughput glycosylation analysis of therapeutic immunoglobulin G by capillary gel electrophoresis using a DNA analyzer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reusch, D.; Haberger, M.; Kailich, T.; Heidenreich, A.K.; Kampe, M.; Bulau, P.; Wuhrer, M.


    The Fc glycosylation of therapeutic antibodies is crucial for their effector functions and their behavior in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. To monitor the Fc glycosylation in bioprocess development and characterization, high-throughput techniques for glycosylation analysis are needed. Here,

  18. Head group-functionalized poly(ethyleneglycol)-lipid (PEG-lipid) surface modification for highly selective analyte extractions on capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers. (United States)

    Schadock-Hewitt, Abby J; Pittman, Jennifer J; Christensen, Kenneth A; Marcus, R Kenneth


    Polypropylene (PP) capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers were modified by adsorption of a head group-functionalized lipid to generate analyte-specific surfaces for application as a stationary phase in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or solid phase extraction (SPE). The aliphatic moiety of the lipid adsorbs strongly to the hydrophobic PP surface, with the hydrophilic active head groups orienting themselves toward the more polar mobile phase, thus allowing for interactions with the desired solutes. Initial proof-of-concept was achieved by adsorbing a biotin-poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized lipid to the surface of the PP C-CP fibers. Surface modification and uniformity was evaluated by binding streptavidin labeled with Texas Red (SAv-TR) to the biotin moiety. Isolation of SAv-TR from a mixture in neat buffer and in cleared lysate demonstrated the capability of the modified fibers to extract an analyte of interest from a complex viscous mixture. It is believed that this surface modification approach is generally applicable to a diversity of selective protein immobilization applications, including clinical diagnostics and preparative scale HPLC on C-CP fibers as well as to other hydrophobic supports.

  19. Analysis of free nucleotide monophosphates in human milk and effect of pasteurisation or high-pressure processing on their contents by capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Mateos-Vivas, María; Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Encarnación; Domínguez-Álvarez, Javier; García-Gómez, Diego; Ramírez-Bernabé, Rosario; Carabias-Martínez, Rita


    A simple, efficient and green analytical method for the determination of free nucleotide monophosphates in human milk is proposed. It involves centrifugal ultrafiltration (CUF) as sample treatment and capillary electrophoresis-electrospray mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) for separation and simultaneous quantification. The optimised method, applied to the analysis of human milk samples, included their dilution (1:5) with water followed by CUF treatment. No matrix effects were found. The method provided limits of detection between 0.08 and 0.13 μg mL(-1) and limits of quantification between 0.26 and 0.43 μg mL(-1). The intralaboratory repeatability and reproducibility afforded relative standard deviation values lower than 10%. The method was applied to the study of the effects of Holder pasteurisation and high-pressure processing on the nucleotide contents in samples from a human milk bank. The results showed concentration values between 0.5 and 10 μg mL(-1), with higher concentrations for the samples treated by pasteurisation. The effect of freezing time on the content of nucleotides was also assessed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Highly sensitive method for the quantification of trans-linolenic acid isomers in trilinolenin of edible oils using an ionic liquid capillary column. (United States)

    Guo, Qin; Jiang, Fan; Jin, Jing; Li, Qingpeng; Wang, Feng; Wang, Qiang; Ha, Yiming


    The polarities of linolenic acid isomers are very similar, and only a few studies to date have attempted to separate α-linolenic acid (ALA) isomers completely. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by developing and validating an accurate method for the analysis of ALA isomers in trilinolenin at 200, 220 and 240 °C using a gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector equipped with an SLB-IL111 capillary column. Results showed that eight ALA isomer standards were separated effectively using these optimized gas chromatographic conditions. The coefficient of determination was r(2) > 0.9994 in the linear range of each ALA isomer. The obtained limits of detection and limits of quantification of the ALA isomers were 0.02-0.08 ppm and 0.05-0.22 ppm, respectively. A high degree of reproducibility and percent recoveries between 96.2% and 106.5%, with coefficients of variation ranging from 0.82% to 0.97%, were achieved. The developed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of ALA isomers in heated pure trilinolenin as well as to trilinolenin in various edible oils, and the TALA isomerization pathways in heated trilinolenin were verified. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Detection of compound heterozygous of hb constant spring and hb q-Thailand by capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Pornprasert, Sakorn; Punyamung, Manoo


    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) has proven to be superior to a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the detection of hemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS). Thus the aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of CE and HPLC for the detection of Hb CS in samples with compound heterozygous of Hb CS and Hb Q-Thailand. Hemoglobin analysis was performed in blood samples of 2 patients with compound heterozygous of Hb CS and Hb Q-Thailand by using HPLC and CE. The HPLC chromatogram and CE electrophoregram of the two techniques were compared. Hb CS was not found on HPLC chromatogram while Hb QA2 (α2 (QT)δ2), a derivative of Hb Q-Thailand, was presented at the retention time of 4.70-4.80 min and it was close to the retention time of Hb CS. On CE electrophoregram, Hb CS was presented at zone 2 (Z2) and it was distinctly separated from Hb QA2 which was presented at Z1. Therefore, CE was more efficient to the HPLC for diagnosis of compound heterozygous of Hb CS and Hb Q-Thailand.

  2. Investigation of six bioactive anthraquinones in slimming tea by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance capillary electrophoresis with diode-array detection. (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Su, Ming; Liang, Shuxuan; Sun, Hanwen


    A rapid and effective method for effective separation and rapid simultaneous determination of six bioactive anthraquinones by capillary zone electrophoresis was developed. An accelerated solvent extraction procedure was used for the extraction of anthraquinones from slimming tea. Under the optimized conditions, the effective separation of six anthraquinones was achieved within 8 min. Good linearity was achieved, with a correlation coefficient (r) of ⩾ 0.999. The limit of detection ranged from 0.33 to 1.40 μg mL(-1). The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) of the six analytes was in the range of 2.3-3.9% and 3.2-4.9%, respectively. The average recovery of the six analytes from real tea samples was in the range of 86.15-98.30% with the RSD of 1.04-4.99%. The developed and validated method has speediness, high sensitivity, recovery and precision, and can be applied for the quality control of slimming tea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An axial approach to detection in capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, John Aaron [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Our approach involves on-axis illumination of the compounds inside the capillary detection region and is applied to absorbance and fluorescence detection. Absorbance measurements were made by focussing an incident laser beam into one capillary end; by using signals collected over the entire length of analyte band, this enhances the analytical path length of conventional absorbance detection 60x. This instrument offers a 15x improvement in detection limits. Three fluorescence detection experiments are discussed, all of which involve insertion of an optical fiber into capillary. The first uses a high refractive index liquid phase to obtain total internal reflectance along capillary axis, this reducing light scatter. The second uses a charge-coupled device camera for simultaneous imaging of a capillary array (this may be useful in genome sequencing, etc.). The third is a study of fluid motion inside the capillary under pressure-driven and electroosmotic flow. The thesis is divided into four parts. Figs, tabs.

  4. High-density platinum nanoparticle-decorated titanium dioxide nanofiber networks for efficient capillary photocatalytic hydrogen generation (United States)

    Zhaodong Li; Chunhua Yao; Yi-Cheng Wang; Solomon Mikael; Sundaram Gunasekaran; Zhenqiang Ma; Zhiyong Cai; Xudong Wang


    Aldehyde-functionalized cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were applied to synthesize Pt nanoparticles (NPs) on CNF surfaces via on-site Pt ion reduction and achieve high concentration and uniform Pt NP loading. ALD could then selectively deposit TiO2 on CNFs and keep the Pt NPs uncovered due to their drastically different hydro-affinity properties. The...

  5. Highly-efficient capillary photoelectrochemical water splitting using cellulose nanofiber-templated TiO 2 photoanodes (United States)

    Zhaodong Li; Chunhua Yao; Yanhao Yu; Zhiyong Cai; Xudong Wang


    Among current endeavors to explore renewable energy technologies, photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting holds great promise for conversion of solar energy to chemical energy. [ 1–4 ] Light absorption, charge separation, and appropriate interfacial redox reactions are three key aspects that lead to highly efficient solar energy conversion. [ 5–10 ] Therefore,...

  6. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry with microliter-scale loading capacity, 140 min separation window and high peak capacity for bottom-up proteomics. (United States)

    Chen, Daoyang; Shen, Xiaojing; Sun, Liangliang


    Better peptide separation is required for bottom-up proteomics for further improving the proteome coverage. The two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) systems only explore differences among peptides in their hydrophobicity (reversed-phase, RP) and charge (strong cation/anion exchange, SCX/SAX). Alternative separation techniques with different separation mechanisms are required to further improve the separation. Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is an attractive alternative because it has high efficiency for separation of biomolecules and it separates analytes based on their size-to-charge ratios, complementary with LC. However, the low loading capacity and narrow separation window of CZE limit its wide application for large-scale proteomics. In this manuscript, we present an automated CZE-mass spectrometry (MS) system for solving those issues. The CZE-MS system can approach at least half-a-microliter loading capacity with good robustness and reproducibility, can routinely use over 12% of the available sample in the sample vial for analysis, and can generate a 140 min separation window and high peak capacity (∼380) for complex proteome analysis. The results represent the highest peak capacity and the widest separation window of CZE for peptide separation with a microliter-scale loading capacity. It is the first time that CZE-MS approaches both the microliter-scale loading capacity and over 2-hour separation window for analysis of complex samples. The automated CZE-MS system dramatically reduces the gap between CZE-MS and RPLC-MS in terms of loading capacity, separation window and peak capacity. It truly opens the door for large-scale bottom-up proteomics using CZE-MS.

  7. Restructuring and aging in a capillary suspension. (United States)

    Koos, Erin; Kannowade, Wolfgang; Willenbacher, Norbert


    The rheological properties of capillary suspensions, suspensions with small amounts of an added immiscible fluid, are dramatically altered with the addition of the secondary fluid. We investigate a capillary suspension to determine how the network ages and restructures at rest and under applied external shear deformation. The present work uses calcium carbonate suspended in silicone oil (11 % solids) with added water as a model system. Aging of capillary suspensions and their response to applied oscillatory shear is distinctly different from particulate gels dominated by the van der Waals forces. The suspensions dominated by the capillary force are very sensitive to oscillatory flow, with the linear viscoelastic regime ending at a deformation of only 0.1% and demonstrating power-law aging behavior. This aging persists for long times at low deformations or for shorter times with a sudden decrease in the strength at higher deformations. This aging behavior suggests that the network is able to rearrange and even rupture. This same sensitivity is not demonstrated in shear flow where very high shear rates are required to rupture the agglomerates returning the apparent viscosity of capillary suspensions to the same viscosity as for the pure vdW suspension. A transitional region is also present at intermediate water contents wherein the material response depends very strongly on the type, strength, and duration of the external forcing.

  8. Raman spectroscopic measurements of CO2 density: Experimental calibration with high-pressure optical cell (HPOC) and fused silica capillary capsule (FSCC) with application to fluid inclusion observations (United States)

    Wang, X.; Chou, I-Ming; Hu, W.; Burruss, Robert; Sun, Q.; Song, Y.


    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful method for the determination of CO2 densities in fluid inclusions, especially for those with small size and/or low fluid density. The relationship between CO2 Fermi diad split (Δ, cm−1) and CO2 density (ρ, g/cm3) has been documented by several previous studies. However, significant discrepancies exist among these studies mainly because of inconsistent calibration procedures and lack of measurements for CO2fluids having densities between 0.21 and 0.75 g/cm3, where liquid and vapor phases coexist near room temperature.In this study, a high-pressure optical cell and fused silica capillary capsules were used to prepare pure CO2 samples with densities between 0.0472 and 1.0060 g/cm3. The measured CO2 Fermi diad splits were calibrated with two well established Raman bands of benzonitrile at 1192.6 and 1598.9 cm−1. The relationship between the CO2 Fermi diad split and density can be represented by: ρ = 47513.64243 − 1374.824414 × Δ + 13.25586152 × Δ2 − 0.04258891551 × Δ3(r2 = 0.99835, σ = 0.0253 g/cm3), and this relationship was tested by synthetic fluid inclusions and natural CO2-rich fluid inclusions. The effects of temperature and the presence of H2O and CH4 on this relationship were also examined.

  9. Capillary Transit Time Heterogeneity Is Associated with Modified Rankin Scale Score at Discharge in Patients with Bilateral High Grade Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibu Mundiyanapurath

    Full Text Available Perfusion weighted imaging (PWI is inherently unreliable in patients with severe perfusion abnormalities. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of a novel index of microvascular flow-patterns, so-called capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH to that of the commonly used delay parameter Tmax in patients with bilateral high grade internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS.Consecutive patients with bilateral ICAS ≥ 70%NASCET who underwent PWI were retrospectively examined. Maps of CTH and Tmax were analyzed with a volumetric approach using several thresholds. Predictors of favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale at discharge 0-2 were identified using univariate and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis.Eighteen patients were included. CTH ≥ 30s differentiated best between patients with favorable and unfavorable outcome when both hemispheres were taken into account (sensitivity 83%, specificity 73%, area under the curve [AUC] 0.833 [confidence interval (CI 0.635; 1.000]; p = 0.027. The best discrimination using Tmax was achieved with a threshold of ≥ 4s (sensitivity 83%, specificity 64%, AUC 0.803 [CI 0.585;1.000]; p = 0.044. The highest AUC was found for left sided volume with CTH ≥ 15s (sensitivity 83%, specificity 91%, AUC 0.924 [CI 0.791;1.000]; p = 0.005.The study suggests that CTH is superior to Tmax in discriminating ICAS patients with favorable from non-favorable outcome. This finding may reflect the simultaneous involvement of large vessels and microvessels in ICAS and underscore the need to diagnose and manage both aspects of the disease.

  10. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos


    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration, and surfactant concentration; on the other hand, the contact angle responds to interfacial tensions, surface topography, invasion velocity, and chemical interactions. Interfaces are not isolated but interact through the fluid pressure and respond to external fields. Jumps, snap-offs and percolating wetting liquids along edges and crevices are ubiquitous in real, non-cylindrical porous networks. Pore- and macroscale instabilities together with pore structure variability-and-correlation favor fluid trapping and hinder recovery efficiency. The saturation-pressure characteristic curve is affected by the saturation-history, flow-rate, the mechanical response of the porous medium, and time-dependent reactive and diffusive processes; in addition, there are salient differences between unsaturation by internal gas nucleation and gas invasion. Capillary forces add to other skeletal forces in the porous medium and can generate open-mode discontinuities when the capillary entry pressure is high relative to the effective stress. Time emerges as an important variable in mixed-fluid conditions and common quasi-static analyses may fail to capture the system response.

  11. Immobilization of antibodies as a versatile tool in hybridized capillary electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, K; Paulus, A

    Hybridization of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and immunoassays (IA) can theoretically lead to highly sensitive and selective assays. Immobilization of antibodies in the capillaries employed for CE can be achieved either by adsorption to the capillary wall, which was coated prior to use in order to

  12. Generation of intense soft X-rays from capillary discharge plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At Laser Plasma Division, RRCAT, a program on high voltage capillary discharge had been started. The system consists of a 400 kV Marx bank, water line capacitor, spark gap and capillary chamber. The initial results of the emission of intense short soft X-ray pulses (5–10 ns) from the capillary discharge are reported.

  13. Innovative method of direct determination of the content of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and sulfur compounds by capillary high-resolution gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Baizhumanova


    Full Text Available Based on determination of individual Hydrocarbon (paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and Sulphur components of fuels and their mixture on the thin bonded of absorber (the stationary phase is a 100-metre silica capillary column, containing 0.5μm film thickness of bonded dimethylpolysiloxane phase by means of the selective solvents (mobile phase combined with technique of ionization of separated compounds by Flame Ionization Detector (FID and Sulphur Chemiluminescence Detector (SCD.

  14. Ion guiding in alumina capillaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhász, Z.; Sulik, B.; Biri, S.


    Transmission of a few keV impact energy Ne ions through capillaries in anodic alumina membranes has been studied with different ion counting methods using an energy dispersive electrostatic spectrometer, a multichannel plate (MCP) array and sensitive current-measurement. In the present work, we...... focus our attention to the measurements with the MCP array. The alumina capillaries were prepared by electro-chemical oxidation of aluminium foils. For the present experiments guiding of 3-6 keV Ne ions has been studied in two samples with capillary diameter of about 140 nm and 260 nm and with capillary...

  15. A fully automated 384 capillary array for DNA sequencer. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qingbo; Kane, T


    Phase I SpectruMedix has successfully developed an automatic 96-capillary array DNA prototype based on the multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system originated from Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Iowa State University. With computer control of all steps involved in a 96-capillary array running cycle, the prototype instrument (the SCE9600) is now capable of sequencing 450 base pairs (bp) per capillary, or 48,000 bp per instrument run within 2 hrs. Phase II of this grant involved the advancement of the core 96 capillary technologies, as well as designing a high density 384 capillary prototype. True commercialization of the 96 capillary instrument involved finalization of the gel matrix, streamlining the instrument hardware, creating a more reliable capillary cartridge, and further advancement of the data processing software. Together these silos of technology create a truly commercializable product (the SCE9610) capable of meeting the operation needs of the sequencing centers.

  16. Alcohols and wide-bore capillaries in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Porras, S P; Jussila, M; Sinervo, K; Riekkola, M L


    The feasibility of using C1-C5 alcohols as electrolyte solutions in nonaqueous capillary zone electrophoresis was investigated. The separation of basic narcotic analgesics and acidic diuretics was modified by changing the alcohol in an electrolyte solution containing alcohol-acetonitrile-acetic acid (50:49:1, v/v) and 20 mM ammonium acetate while other experimental conditions were kept constant. The alcohols studied were methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and 1-pentanol. The results indicate that even longer-chain alcohols can be used in nonaqueous capillary zone electrophoresis and, because of the lower currents they allow, they are especially advantageous in wider capillaries. Basic analytes were separated in 200 microm and 320 microm ID capillaries with 1-butanol-acetonitrile-acetic acid (50:49:1, v/v) containing 20 mM ammonium acetate as electrolyte solution. Problems related to the use of wide-bore capillaries are discussed.

  17. Bacterial surface layer proteins as a novel capillary coating material for capillary electrophoretic separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefanía, E-mail: [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Stigter, Edwin C.A. [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Molecular Cancer Research, Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht, Wilhelmina Kinder Ziekenhuis, Lundlaan 6, 3584, EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Lindenburg, Petrus W.; Hankemeier, Thomas [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands)


    A novel concept for stable coating in capillary electrophoresis, based on recrystallization of surface layer proteins on hydrophobized fused silica capillaries, was demonstrated. Surface layer protein A (SlpA) from Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria was extracted, purified and used for coating pre-silanized glass substrates presenting different surface wettabilities (either hydrophobic or hydrophilic). Contact angle determination on SlpA-coated hydrophobic silica slides showed that the surfaces turned to hydrophilic after coating (53 ± 5°), due to a protein monolayer formation by protein-surface hydrophobic interactions. Visualization by atomic force microscopy demonstrated the presence of a SlpA layer on methylated silica slides displaying a surface roughness of 0.44 ± 0.02 nm. Additionally, a protein layer was visualized by fluorescence microscopy in methylated silica capillaries coated with SlpA and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled. The SlpA-coating showed an outstanding stability, even after treatment with 20 mM NaOH (pH 12.3). The electroosmotic flow in coated capillaries showed a partial suppression at pH 7.50 (3.8 ± 0.5 10{sup −9} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}) when compared with unmodified fused silica (5.9 ± 0.1 10{sup −8} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}). To demonstrate the potential of this novel coating, the SlpA-coated capillaries were applied for the first time for electrophoretic separation, and proved to be very suitable for the isotachophoretic separation of lipoproteins in human serum. The separations showed a high degree of repeatability (absolute migration times with 1.1–1.8% coefficient-of-variation (CV) within a day) and 2–3% CV inter-capillary reproducibility. The capillaries were stable for more than 100 runs at pH 9.40, and showed to be an exceptional alternative for challenging electrophoretic separations at long-term use. - Highlights: • New coating using recrystallized surface-layer proteins on

  18. Carboxylic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as immobilized stationary phase in capillary electrochromatography. (United States)

    Sombra, Lorena; Moliner-Martínez, Yolanda; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel


    Carboxylic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWNT) have been immobilized into a fused-silica capillary for capillary electrochromatography. The c-MWNT were successfully incorporated after the silanization and coupling with glutaraldehyde on the inner surface of the capillary. The electrochromatographic features of the c-MWNT immobilized stationary phase have been evaluated for the analysis of different compounds of pharmaceutical interest. The results indicated high electrochromatographic resolution, good capillary efficiency and retention factors. In addition, highly reproducible results between runs, days and capillaries were obtained.

  19. Capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.D.; Wahl, J.H.; Goodlett, D.R.; Hofstadler, S.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))


    The hallmarks of GC/MS are its speed, selectivity, and sensitivity. Unfortunately, however, both GC and the conventional ionization methods used in MS require sample volatilization. The 1980's saw the genesis and rapid development of a high-resolution separation method, capillary electrophoresis (CE). The ability to manipulate and inject extremely small sample volumes, steps that are generally problematic with LC, provides a basis for using CE to confront extreme analytical challenges. In addition, CE has the flexibility provided by a range of formats and a plethora of methods for manipulating injection conditions and separation specificity. Currently at least a dozen laboratories are actively involved in developing and applying CE/MS techniques. Although the focus here is on CE/MS using electrospray ionization interfaces, other methods have been reported. 51 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Guiding of charged particles through capillaries in insulating materials (United States)

    Stolterfoht, Nikolaus; Yamazaki, Yasunori


    Studies of charged particle guiding through capillaries in insulating materials, performed during the last decade, are reviewed in a comprehensive manner. First, the principles of capillary guiding of slow highly charged ions are introduced describing the self-organized formation of charge patches. Basic quantities are defined, such as the guiding power characterizing a capillary. Challenges of the guiding experiments are pointed out. Then, experiments are described with emphasis on the guiding of highly charged ions in the keV energy range. Samples with an array of nanocapillaries as well as single macrocapillaries are treated. Emission profiles of transmitted ions are analyzed to establish scaling laws for the guiding angle, which quantifies the guiding power. Oscillations of the mean ion emission angle reveal the temporal dynamics of the charge patch formation. Next, experiments with ions of high (MeV) energies are focused on single tapered capillaries allowing for the production of a microbeam for various applications. Experiments concerning electrons are presented showing that apart from being elastically scattered these negative particles may enter into the capillary surface where they suffer energy losses. Finally, theoretical concepts of the capillary guiding are discussed. Simulations based on different charge transport methods clearly support the understanding of the guiding mechanisms. Altogether, capillary guiding involves several novel phenomena for which understanding have progressed far beyond their infancy.

  1. Vacuum scanning capillary photoemission microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aseyev, S.A.; Cherkun, A P; Mironov, B N


    We demonstrate the use of a conical capillary in a scanning probe microscopy for surface analysis. The probe can measure photoemission from a substrate by transmitting photoelectrons along the capillary as a function of probe position. The technique is demonstrated on a model substrate consisting...

  2. Monoclonal gammopathy missed by capillary zone electrophoresis. (United States)

    Schild, Christof; Egger, Florence; Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc


    Serum protein electrophoresis is used as a screening test for monoclonal gammopathies. Here, we present a case of a high-concentration monoclonal immunoglobulin (M-protein) that was missed by serum protein electrophoresis on a Capillarys 2 capillary zone electrophoresis system. The aim of our study was to identify the reason for the failure of the system to detect the M-protein. M-protein solubility was examined in response to temperature, pH, ionic strength, the chaotropic agent urea and the reducing agent 2-mercaptoethanol. Precipitation of the M-protein was not cold-induced, but solubility decreased at pH 8.5 or higher, when the pH approached the apparent isoelectric point. The M-protein also precipitated in alkaline Capillarys 2 electrophoresis buffer (pH 10), which was the reason for the false-negative electrophoresis result. Precipitation of the M-protein was not related to the ionic strength of the buffer. Solubility improved in presence of urea. Pre-treatment of serum with 2-mercaptoethanol revealed the missing M-protein peak of 36 g/L on the electropherogram. This case shows that insolubility of M-proteins in alkaline buffer is one possible cause of false-negative results on capillary zone electrophoresis systems. False-negative results should be considered, especially when accompanying laboratory results are inconsistent with the electropherogram.

  3. On hydraulics of capillary tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Aloyan


    Full Text Available The article considers the laws of motion of water in the capillary tubes, taken as a model for flowing well, on the analogical net count device. For capillary tube the lower limit value of flow rate is empirically determined above which the total hydraulic resistance of the capillary is practically constant. The specificity of the phenomenon is that the regime of motion, by a Reynolds number, for a given flow rate still remains laminar. This circumstance can perplex the specialists, so the author invites them to the scientific debate on the subject of study. Obviously, to identify the resulting puzzle it is necessary to conduct a series of experiments using capillaries of different lengths and diameters and with different values of overpressure. The article states that in tubes with very small diameter the preliminary magnitude of capillary rise of water in the presence of flow plays no role and can be neglected.

  4. Creeping motion of long bubbles and drops in capillary tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westborg, Henrik; Hassager, Ole


    at high capillary numbers. Furthermore the flow of a viscous drop through a doughnut shaped constriction in a capillary tube has been simulated. The simulations show that snap-off may be initiated by a sudden drop in the flow rate after the drops have protruded for some distance beyond the throat...... and the snap-off time increases with increasing capillary number. Snap-off without a sudden decrease of the flow rate does not seem to occur in constrictions of circular cross section....

  5. Highly sensitive trivalent copper chelate–luminol chemiluminescence system for capillary electrophoresis chiral separation and determination of ofloxacin enantiomers in urine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Yue Xie


    Full Text Available A simple, fast and sensitive capillary electrophoresis (CE strategy combined with chemiluminescence (CL detection for analysis of ofloxacin (OF enantiomers was established in the present work. Sulfonated β-cyclodextrin (β-CD was used as the chiral additive being added into the running buffer of luminol–diperiodatocuprate (III (K5[Cu(HIO62], DPC chemiluminescence system. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method was successfully applied to separation and analysis of OF enantiomers with the detection limits (S/N=3 of 8.0 nM and 7.0 nM for levofloxacin and dextrofloxacin, respectively. The linear ranges were both 0.010–100 μM. The method was utilized for analyzing OF in urine; the results obtained were satisfactory and recoveries were 89.5–110.8%, which demonstrated the reliability of this method. This approach can also be further extended to analyze different commercial OF medicines. Keywords: Ofloxacin, Chiral analysis, Sulfonated-β-CD, Capillary electrophoresis, Chemiluminescence

  6. High-performance liquid-phase separation of glycosides. III. Determination of total glucosinolates in cabbage and rapeseed by capillary electrophoresis via the enzymatically released glucose. (United States)

    Karcher, A; Melouk, H A; El Rassi, Z


    A selective and sensitive method for the determination of total glucosinolates (GSs) in plant extracts by capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection was developed. It was based on the enzymatically released glucose from glucosinolates in the presence of the hydrolyzing enzyme myrosinase. The released glucose was converted to gluconic acid (GA) by the action of glucose oxidase. The resulting GA was then labeled selectively with the fluorescent tag 7-aminonaphthalene-1, 3-disulfonic acid (ANDSA). The peak area resulting from the GA-ANDSA derived from free and bound glucose was subtracted from the peak area of the GA-ANDSA resulting from the free glucose in the sample. This gave the total glucosinolates in the sample. The peak areas were normalized to the internal standard, N-acetylneuraminic acid derivatized with ANDSA. The method was validated using four different plant extracts, white cabbage leaves, rapeseed leaves, rapeseed roots, and rapeseed seeds. Furthermore, a capillary electrophoresis-UV detection method for profiling GS in plant extracts was developed. In addition to providing a fingerprint of the glucosinolates in plant extracts, the method allowed the experimenter to rapidly check the various steps involved in the extraction and sample cleanup. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. Growth of metal-organic framework HKUST-1 in capillary using liquid-phase epitaxy for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography and capillary liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Wenpeng; Chen, Zilin


    Much attention is being paid to applying metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as stationary phases in chromatography because of their fascinating properties, such as large surface-to-volume ratios, high levels of porosity, and selective adsorption. HKUST-1 is one of the best-studied face-centered-cubic MOF containing nano-sized channels and side pockets for film growth. However, growth of HKUST-1 framework inside capillary column as stationary phase for capillary electrochromatography is a challenge work. In this work, we carry out the growth of HKUST-1 on the inner wall of capillary by using liquid-phase epitaxy process at room temperature. The fabricated HKUST-1@capillary can be successfully used for the separation of substituted benzene including methylbenzene, ethylbenzene, styrene, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, benzene series, phenolic acids, and benzoic acids derivates. High column efficiency of 1.5×10(5) N/m for methylbenzene was achieved. The formation of HKUST-1 grown in the capillary was confirmed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy images, Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray diffraction. The column showed long lifetime and excellent stability. The relative standard deviations for intra-day and inter-day repeatability of the HKUST-1@capillary were lower than 7%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing vitamin D nutritional status: Is capillary blood adequate? (United States)

    Jensen, M E; Ducharme, F M; Théorêt, Y; Bélanger, A-S; Delvin, E


    Venous blood is the usual sample for measuring various biomarkers, including 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD). However, it can prove challenging in infants and young children. Hence the finger-prick capillary collection is an alternative, being a relatively simple procedure perceived to be less invasive. We elected to validate the use of capillary blood sampling for 25OHD quantification by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). Venous and capillary blood samples were simultaneously collected from 15 preschool-aged children with asthma 10days after receiving 100,000IU of vitamin-D3 or placebo and 20 apparently healthy adult volunteers. 25OHD was measured by an in-house LC/MS-MS method. The venous 25OHD values varied between 23 and 255nmol/l. The venous and capillary blood total 25OHD concentrations highly correlated (r(2)=0.9963). The mean difference (bias) of capillary blood 25OHD compared to venous blood was 2.0 (95% CI: -7.5, 11.5) nmol/l. Our study demonstrates excellent agreement with no evidence of a clinically important bias between venous and capillary serum 25OHD concentrations measured by LC/MS-MS over a wide range of values. Under those conditions, capillary blood is therefore adequate for the measurement of 25OHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison between capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography for the study of the occurrence of patulin in apple juice intended for infants. (United States)

    Murillo-Arbizu, M; González-Peñas, E; Amézqueta, S


    Apple juice samples intended for infants purchased in Navarra (Spain) have been analyzed for PAT occurrence. Two capillary electrophoresis methods, based on a MEKC and a CEC system, and an HPLC method were evaluated for the aforementioned study. The CEC system gave less satisfying separations and several practical problems, so samples have been analyzed by MEKC and HPLC. Both methods have been comparable in terms of recovery, precision, limits of detection, volume of organic solvents used and adequate selectivity with regard to PAT and HMF. The analysis time in HPLC has been slightly lower than in the MEKC methodology. The PAT levels obtained in apple juice by both validated methods showed a strong correlation (papple juices samples were in a range between day(-1) considering a body weight of 10 kg and an apple juice consumption of 130 mL day(-1), 26% of the PMTDI recommended by JECFA. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface Tension and Capillary Rise (United States)

    Walton, Alan J.


    Discussion of the shortcomings of textbook explanations of surface tension, distinguishing between concepts of tension and capillary rise. The arguments require only a clear understanding of Newtonian mechanics, notably potential energy. (DF)

  11. Preparation of hydrophilic monolithic capillary column by in situ photo-polymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone and acrylamide for highly selective and sensitive enrichment of N-linked glycopeptides. (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Yuan, Huiming; Qu, Yanyan; Liang, Yu; Jiang, Bo; Wu, Qi; Deng, Nan; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui


    In this study, a novel kind of amide functionalized hydrophilic monolith was synthesized by the in situ photo-polymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NVP), acrylamide (AM), and N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) in a UV transparent capillary, and successfully applied for hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) based enrichment of N-linked glycopeptides. With 2 μg of the tryptic digests of IgG as the sample, after enrichment, 18 glycopeptides could be identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis. Furthermore, with the mixture of BSA and IgG digests (10,000:1, m/m) as the sample, 6 N-linked glycopeptides were unambiguously identified after enrichment, indicating the high selectivity and good specificity of such material. Moreover, such a monolithic capillary column was also applied for the N-glycosylation sites profiling of 6 μg protein digests from HeLa cells and 1 μL human serum. In total, 530 and 262 unique N-glycosylated peptides were identified, respectively, corresponding to 282 and 124N-glycoproteins, demonstrating its great potential for the large scale glycoproteomics analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nonlinear waves in capillary electrophoresis (United States)

    Ghosal, Sandip; Chen, Zhen


    Electrophoretic separation of a mixture of chemical species is a fundamental technique of great usefulness in biology, health care and forensics. In capillary electrophoresis the sample migrates in a microcapillary in the presence of a background electrolyte. When the ionic concentration of the sample is sufficiently high, the signal is known to exhibit features reminiscent of nonlinear waves including sharp concentration ‘shocks’. In this paper we consider a simplified model consisting of a single sample ion and a background electrolyte consisting of a single co-ion and a counterion in the absence of any processes that might change the ionization states of the constituents. If the ionic diffusivities are assumed to be the same for all constituents the concentration of sample ion is shown to obey a one dimensional advection diffusion equation with a concentration dependent advection velocity. If the analyte concentration is sufficiently low in a suitable non-dimensional sense, Burgers’ equation is recovered, and thus, the time dependent problem is exactly solvable with arbitrary initial conditions. In the case of small diffusivity either a leading edge or trailing edge shock is formed depending on the electrophoretic mobility of the sample ion relative to the background ions. Analytical formulas are presented for the shape, width and migration velocity of the sample peak and it is shown that axial dispersion at long times may be characterized by an effective diffusivity that is exactly calculated. These results are consistent with known observations from physical and numerical simulation experiments. PMID:20238181

  13. Fast preparation of a highly efficient organic monolith via photo-initiated thiol-ene click polymerization for capillary liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Chen, Lianfang; Ou, Junjie; Liu, Zhongshan; Lin, Hui; Wang, Hongwei; Dong, Jing; Zou, Hanfa


    A novel organic monolith was firstly prepared in a UV-transparent fused-silica capillary by a single-step approach via photo-initiated thiol-ene click polymerization reaction of 1,2,4-trivinylcyclohexane (TVCH) and pentaerythriol tetra(3-mercaptopropionate) (4SH) within 10min. The effects of both composition of prepolymerization solution and polymerization time on the morphology and permeability of monolithic column were investigated in detail. Then, the optimal condition was acquired to fabricate a homogeneous and permeable organic monolith. The chemical groups of the monolithic column were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The SEM graphs showed the organic monolith possessed a uniform porous structure, which promotes the highest column efficiency of ∼133,000 plates per meter for alkylbenzenes at the linear velocity of 0.65mm/s in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Finally, the organic monolithic column was further applied for separation of basic compounds, pesticides and EPA610, indicating satisfactory separation ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of the gas/plasma plume and self-focusing in a gas-filled capillary discharge waveguide for high-power laser-plasma applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ciocarlan, C.; Islam, M. R.; Ersfeld, B.; Abuazoum, S.; Wilson, R.; Aniculaesei, C.; Welsh, G. H.; Vieux, G.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; 10.1063/1.4822333


    The role of the gas/plasma plume at the entrance of a gas-filled capillary discharge plasma waveguide in increasing the laser intensity has been investigated. Distinction is made between neutral gas and hot plasma plumes that, respectively, develop before and after discharge breakdown. Time-averaged measurements show that the on-axis plasma density of a fully expanded plasma plume over this region is similar to that inside the waveguide. Above the critical power, relativistic and ponderomotive selffocusing lead to an increase in the intensity, which can be nearly a factor of 2 compared with the case without a plume. When used as a laser plasma wakefield accelerator, the enhancement of intensity can lead to prompt electron injection very close to the entrance of the waveguide. Self-focusing occurs within two Rayleigh lengths of the waveguide entrance plane in the region, where the laser beam is converging. Analytical theory and numerical simulations show that, for a density of 3.01018 cm3, the peak normalized...

  15. Determination of diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide in water between 268 and 473 K in a high-pressure capillary optical cell with in situ Raman spectroscopic measurements (United States)

    Lu, Wanjun; Guo, Huirong; Chou, I.-Ming; Burruss, R.C.; Li, Lanlan


    Accurate values of diffusion coefficients for carbon dioxide in water and brine at reservoir conditions are essential to our understanding of transport behavior of carbon dioxide in subsurface pore space. However, the experimental data are limited to conditions at low temperatures and pressures. In this study, diffusive transfer of carbon dioxide in water at pressures up to 45 MPa and temperatures from 268 to 473 K was observed within an optical capillary cell via time-dependent Raman spectroscopy. Diffusion coefficients were estimated by the least-squares method for the measured variations in carbon dioxide concentration in the cell at various sample positions and time. At the constant pressure of 20 MPa, the measured diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide in water increase with increasing temperature from 268 to 473 K. The relationship between diffusion coefficient of carbon dioxide in water [D(CO2) in m2/s] and temperature (T in K) was derived with Speedy–Angell power-law approach as: D(CO2)=D0[T/Ts-1]m where D0 = 13.942 × 10−9 m2/s, Ts = 227.0 K, and m = 1.7094. At constant temperature, diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide in water decrease with pressure increase. However, this pressure effect is rather small (within a few percent).

  16. Bacterial surface layer proteins as a novel capillary coating material for capillary electrophoretic separations. (United States)

    Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefanía; Stigter, Edwin C A; Lindenburg, Petrus W; Hankemeier, Thomas


    A novel concept for stable coating in capillary electrophoresis, based on recrystallization of surface layer proteins on hydrophobized fused silica capillaries, was demonstrated. Surface layer protein A (SlpA) from Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria was extracted, purified and used for coating pre-silanized glass substrates presenting different surface wettabilities (either hydrophobic or hydrophilic). Contact angle determination on SlpA-coated hydrophobic silica slides showed that the surfaces turned to hydrophilic after coating (53 ± 5°), due to a protein monolayer formation by protein-surface hydrophobic interactions. Visualization by atomic force microscopy demonstrated the presence of a SlpA layer on methylated silica slides displaying a surface roughness of 0.44 ± 0.02 nm. Additionally, a protein layer was visualized by fluorescence microscopy in methylated silica capillaries coated with SlpA and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled. The SlpA-coating showed an outstanding stability, even after treatment with 20 mM NaOH (pH 12.3). The electroosmotic flow in coated capillaries showed a partial suppression at pH 7.50 (3.8 ± 0.5 10(-9) m(2) V(-1) s(-1)) when compared with unmodified fused silica (5.9 ± 0.1 10(-8) m(2) V(-1) s(-1)). To demonstrate the potential of this novel coating, the SlpA-coated capillaries were applied for the first time for electrophoretic separation, and proved to be very suitable for the isotachophoretic separation of lipoproteins in human serum. The separations showed a high degree of repeatability (absolute migration times with 1.1-1.8% coefficient-of-variation (CV) within a day) and 2-3% CV inter-capillary reproducibility. The capillaries were stable for more than 100 runs at pH 9.40, and showed to be an exceptional alternative for challenging electrophoretic separations at long-term use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impacts on oil recovery from capillary pressure and capillary heterogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bognoe, Thomas


    The main conclusions drawn from this thesis are; 7 scientific papers are published on a broad variety of subjects, and describes in detail the experiments and research treated in this thesis. Scientific research has been performed, investigating the subjects of capillary pressure and capillary heterogeneities from different angles. This thesis discusses the findings in this study and aims to illustrate the benefits of the results obtained for further development of other experiments, and/or even the industrial benefits in field development. The methods for wettability alteration have developed throughout the work. From producing heterogeneous wettability alterations, the methods have improved to giving both radial and lateral uniform wettability alterations, which also remains unaltered throughout the duration of the experimental work. The alteration of wettability is dependent on initial water saturation, flow rate, aging time and crude oil composition. Capillary pressure and relative permeability curves have been measured for core plugs at different wettabilities using conventional centrifuge methods. The trends observed are mostly consistent with theory. The production mechanisms of strongly and moderately water wet chalk has been investigated. At strongly water wet conditions in fractured chalk; the flow is governed by capillary forces, showing strong impact from the fractures. At moderately water wet conditions, the impact of the fractures are absent, and a dispersed water front is observed during the displacement. The oil recovery is about the same, at the two wettabilities. Fracture crossing mechanisms at the same wettability conditions have been mapped. And the observations are consistent with those of the water floods. During strongly water wet displacement, the fracture crossing is occurring once the inlet core has reached endpoint of spontaneous imbibition. At moderately water wet conditions the fracture crossing is less abrupt, and creation of wetting

  18. Optothermally actuated capillary burst valve (United States)

    Eriksen, Johan; Bilenberg, Brian; Kristensen, Anders; Marie, Rodolphe


    We demonstrate the optothermal actuation of individual capillary burst valves in an all-polymer microfluidic device. The capillary burst valves are realised in a planar design by introducing a fluidic constriction in a microfluidic channel of constant depth. We show that a capillary burst valve can be burst by raising the temperature due to the temperature dependence of the fluid surface tension. We address individual valves by using a local heating platform based on a thin film of near infrared absorber dye embedded in the lid used to seal the microfluidic device [L. H. Thamdrup et al., Nano Lett. 10, 826-832 (2010)]. An individual valve is burst by focusing the laser in its vicinity. We demonstrate the capture of single polystyrene 7 μm beads in the constriction triggered by the bursting of the valve.

  19. Genetic variability of Artemisia capillaris (Wormwood capillary) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic variability among individuals of Artemisia capillaris from state of Terengganu, Malaysia was examined by using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. The samples were collected from differences regional in Terengganu State. The genomic DNA was extracted from the samples leaves.

  20. On production and asymmetric focusing of flat electron beams using rectangular capillary discharge plasmas (United States)

    Bagdasarov, G. A.; Bobrova, N. A.; Boldarev, A. S.; Olkhovskaya, O. G.; Sasorov, P. V.; Gasilov, V. A.; Barber, S. K.; Bulanov, S. S.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Schroeder, C. B.; van Tilborg, J.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.; Levato, T.; Margarone, D.; Korn, G.; Kando, M.; Bulanov, S. V.


    A method for the asymmetric focusing of electron bunches, based on the active plasma lensing technique, is proposed. This method takes advantage of the strong inhomogeneous magnetic field generated inside the capillary discharge plasma to focus on the ultrarelativistic electrons. The plasma and magnetic field parameters inside the capillary discharge are described theoretically and modeled with dissipative magnetohydrodynamic computer simulations enabling analysis of the capillaries of rectangle cross-sections. Large aspect ratio rectangular capillaries might be used to transport electron beams with high emittance asymmetries, as well as assist in forming spatially flat electron bunches for final focusing before the interaction point.

  1. Gravimetric capillary method for kinematic viscosity measurements (United States)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Iwan, J.; Alexander, D.; Jin, Wei-Qing


    A novel version of the capillary method for viscosity measurements of liquids is presented. Viscosity data can be deduced in a straightforward way from mass transfer data obtained by differential weighing during the gravity-induced flow of the liquid between two cylindrical chambers. Tests of this technique with water, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol suggest that this arrangement provides an accuracy of about +/- 1 percent. The technique facilitates operation under sealed, isothermal conditions and, thus can readily be applied to reactive and/or high vapor pressure liquids.

  2. Evolution of the mammary capillary network and carbonic anhydrase activity throughout lactation and during somatotropin treatment in goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Cvek, Katarina; Dahlborn, Kristina


    During the normal course of lactation, mammary metabolic activity and blood flow are closely correlated. Six lactating goats were used in this experiment to test the hypothesis that the capillary network and the capillary enzyme, carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC are important regulatory factors...... months post partum. In mammary sections, CA activity was determined histochemically and alveolar and capillary structures by image analyses upon azure blue staining. In early lactation, alveoli were large and surrounded by many small capillaries with high CA activity. As lactation progressed, capillaries...

  3. Capillary spreading of contact line over a sinking sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Jin; Fezzaa, Kamel; An, Jim; Sun, Tao; Jung, Sunghwan


    The contact line dynamics over a sinking solid sphere are investigated in comparison with classical spreading theories. Experimentally, high-speed imaging systems with optical light or x-ray illumination are employed to accurately measure the spreading motion and dynamic contact angle of the contact line. Millimetric spheres are controlled to descend with a constant speed ranging from 7.3 × 10-5 to 0.79 m/s. We observed three different spreading stages over a sinking sphere, which depends on the contact line velocity and contact angle. These stages consistently showed the characteristics of capillarity-driven spreading as the contact line spreads faster with a higher contact angle. The contact line velocity is observed to follow a classical capillary-viscous model at a high Ohnesorge number (> 0.02). For the cases with a relatively low Ohnesorge number (< 0.02), the contact line velocity is significantly lower than the speed predicted by the capillary-viscous balance. This indicates the existence of an additional opposing force (inertia) for a decreasing Ohnesorge number. The capillary-inertial balance is only observed at the very beginning of the capillary rise, in which the maximum velocity is independent of the sphere’s sinking speed. Additionally, we observed the linear relation between the contact line velocity and the sphere sinking speed during the second stage, which represents capillary adjustment by dynamic contact angle.

  4. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry using noncovalently coated capillaries for the analysis of biopharmaceuticals. (United States)

    Haselberg, R; Brinks, V; Hawe, A; de Jong, G J; Somsen, G W


    In this work, the usefulness of capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization time-of-flight-mass spectrometry for the analysis of biopharmaceuticals was studied. Noncovalently bound capillary coatings consisting of Polybrene-poly(vinyl sulfonic acid) or Polybrene-dextran sulfate-Polybrene were used to minimize protein and peptide adsorption, and achieve good separation efficiencies. The potential of the capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) system to characterize degradation products was investigated by analyzing samples of the drugs, recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and oxytocin, which had been subjected to prolonged storage, heat exposure, and/or different pH values. Modifications could be assigned based on accurate masses as obtained with time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) and migration times with respect to the parent compound. For heat-exposed rhGH, oxidations, sulfonate formation, and deamidations were observed. Oxytocin showed strong deamidation (up to 40%) upon heat exposure at low pH, whereas at medium and high pH, mainly dimer (>10%) and trisulfide formation (6-7%) occurred. Recombinant human interferon-β-1a (rhIFN-β) was used to evaluate the capability of the CE-MS method to assess glycan heterogeneity of pharmaceutical proteins. Analysis of this N-glycosylated protein revealed a cluster of resolved peaks which appeared to be caused by at least ten glycoforms differing merely in sialic acid and hexose N-acetylhexosamine composition. Based on the relative peak area (assuming an equimolar response per glycoform), a quantitative profile could be derived with the disialytated biantennary glycoform as most abundant (52%). Such a profile may be useful for in-process and quality control of rhIFN-β batches. It is concluded that the separation power provided by combined capillary electrophoresis and TOF-MS allows discrimination of highly related protein species.

  5. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia. (United States)

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek


    Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory's parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low.

  6. Precise measurement of inner diameter of mono-capillary optic using X-ray imaging technique. (United States)

    Kwon, Soonmu; Lim, Jae Hong; Namba, Yoshiharu; Chon, Kwon Su


    Mono-capillary optics have been applied to increase the performance of X-ray instruments. However, performance of a mono-capillary optic strongly depends on the shape accuracy, which is determined by the diameters of the inner hollow of the capillary along the axial direction. To precisely determine the inner diameter of the capillary optic used in X-ray imaging technique, which aims to replace the conventional method using a visible microscope. High spatial resolution X-ray images of the mono-capillary optic were obtained by a synchrotron radiation beamline. The inner diameter of the mono-capillary optic was measured and analyzed by the pixel values of the X-ray image. Edge enhancement effect was quite useful in determining the inner diameter, and the accuracy of the diameter determination was less than 1.32 μm. Many images obtained by scanning the mono-capillary optic along the axial direction were combined, and the axial profile, consisting of diameters along the axial direction, was obtained from the combined image. The X-ray imaging method could provide an accurate measurement with slope error of±19 μrad. Applying X-ray imaging technique to determine the inner diameter of a mono-capillary optic can contribute to increasing fabrication accuracy of the mono-capillary optic through a feedback process between the fabrication and measurement of its diameter.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore K. Mohanty


    Recovery and recovery rate of oil, gas and condensates depend crucially on their relative permeability. Relative permeability in turn depends on the pore structure, wettability and flooding conditions, which can be represented by a set of dimensionless groups including capillary and bond numbers. The effect of flooding conditions on drainage relative permeabilities is not well understood and is the overall goal of this project. This project has three specific objectives: to improve the centrifuge relative permeability method, to measure capillary and bond number effects experimentally, and to develop a pore network model for multiphase flows. A centrifuge has been built that can accommodate high pressure core holders and x-ray saturation monitoring. The centrifuge core holders can operate at a pore pressure of 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) and an overburden pressure of 17 MPa (2500 psi). The effect of capillary number on residual saturation and relative permeability in drainage flow has been measured. A pore network model has been developed to study the effect of capillary numbers and viscosity ratio on drainage relative permeability. Capillary and Reynolds number dependence of gas-condensate flow has been studied during well testing. A method has been developed to estimate relative permeability parameters from gas-condensate well test data.

  8. Capillary waves with surface viscosity (United States)

    Shen, Li; Denner, Fabian; Morgan, Neal; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele


    Experiments over the last 50 years have suggested a correlation between the surface (shear) viscosity and the stability of a foam or emulsion. With recent techniques allowing more accurate measurements of the elusive surface viscosity, we examine this link theoretically using small-amplitude capillary waves in the presence of the Marangoni effect and surface viscosity modelled via the Boussinesq-Scriven model. The surface viscosity effect is found to contribute a damping effect on the amplitude of the capillary wave with subtle differences to the effect of the convective-diffusive Marangoni transport. The general wave dispersion is augmented to take into account the Marangoni and surface viscosity effects, and a first-order correction to the critical damping wavelength is derived. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Shell University Technology Centre for fuels and lubricants.

  9. Centrifuge modelling of capillary rise


    Depountis, N.; DAVIES, MCR; Harris, C; Burkhart, S; THOREL, L; A. Rezzoug; Konig, D; Merrifield, C; CRAIG, WH


    This paper reports results from centrifuge tests designed to investigate capillary rise in soils subjected to different gravitational fields. The experimental programme is part of the EU-funded NECER project (Network of European Centrifuges for Environmental Geotechnic Research), whose objective is to investigate the appropriateness of geotechnical centrifuge modelling for the investigation of geoenvironmental problems, particularly with reference to partially saturated soils. The tests were ...

  10. Capillary Electrophoresis - Optical Detection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepaniak, M. J.


    Molecular recognition systems are developed via molecular modeling and synthesis to enhance separation performance in capillary electrophoresis and optical detection methods for capillary electrophoresis. The underpinning theme of our work is the rational design and development of molecular recognition systems in chemical separations and analysis. There have been, however, some subtle and exciting shifts in our research paradigm during this period. Specifically, we have moved from mostly separations research to a good balance between separations and spectroscopic detection for separations. This shift is based on our perception that the pressing research challenges and needs in capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography relate to the persistent detection and flow rate reproducibility limitations of these techniques (see page 1 of the accompanying Renewal Application for further discussion). In most of our work molecular recognition reagents are employed to provide selectivity and enhance performance. Also, an emerging trend is the use of these reagents with specially-prepared nano-scale materials. Although not part of our DOE BES-supported work, the modeling and synthesis of new receptors has indirectly supported the development of novel microcantilevers-based MEMS for the sensing of vapor and liquid phase analytes. This fortuitous overlap is briefly covered in this report. Several of the more significant publications that have resulted from our work are appended. To facilitate brevity we refer to these publications liberally in this progress report. Reference is also made to very recent work in the Background and Preliminary Studies Section of the Renewal Application.

  11. Capillary stretching of elastic fibers (United States)

    Protiere, Suzie; Stone, Howard A.; Duprat, Camille


    Fibrous media consisting of constrained flexible fibers can be found in many engineered systems (membranes in filters, woven textile, matted paper). When such materials interact with a liquid, the presence of liquid/air interfaces induces capillary forces that deform the fibers. To model this interaction we study the behaviour of a finite volume of liquid deposited on two parallel flexible fibers clamped at both ends. A tension along the fibers is imposed and may be varied. We show that the system undergoes various morphological changes as the interfiber distance, the elasticity and the tension of the fibers are varied. For a certain range of parameters, the liquid spreads along the fibers and pulls them together, leading to the ``zipping'' of the fibers. This capillary adhesion can then be enhanced or reduced by changing the tension within the fibers. We will show that balancing stretching and capillary forces allows the prediction of this transition as well as the conditions for which detachment of the fibers occurs. These results may be used to prevent the clogging of fibrous membranes or to optimize the capture of liquids.

  12. Suppressing Crack Formation in Particulate Systems by Utilizing Capillary Forces. (United States)

    Schneider, Monica; Maurath, Johannes; Fischer, Steffen B; Weiß, Moritz; Willenbacher, Norbert; Koos, Erin


    Cracks, formed during the drying of particulate films, can reduce the effectiveness or even render products useless. We present a novel, generic approach to suppress crack formation in thin films made from hard particle suspensions, which are otherwise highly susceptible to cracking, using the capillary force between particles present when a trace amount of an immiscible liquid is added to a suspension. This secondary liquid preserves the particle cohesion, modifying the structure and increasing the drying rate. Crack-free films can be produced at thicknesses much greater than the critical cracking thickness for a suspension without capillary interactions, and even persists after sintering. This capillary suspension strategy is applicable to a broad range of materials, including suspensions of metals, semiconductive and ceramic oxides, or glassy polymeric particles, and can be easily implemented in many industrial processes since it is based on well-established unit operations. Promising fields of application include ceramic foils and printed electronic devices.

  13. Selective extraction and analysis of catecholamines in rat blood microdialysate by polymeric ionic liquid-diphenylboric acid-packed capillary column and fast separation in high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector. (United States)

    Zhou, Xinguang; Zhu, Anwei; Shi, Guoyue


    Concentration of blood catecholamines (CAs) is linked to a host of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension and stenocardia. The matrix interferences and low concentration require tedious sample pretreatment methods before quantitative analysis by the gold standard method of high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD). Solid phase extraction (SPE) has been widely used as the pretreatment technique. Here, a facile polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-diphenylboric acid (DPBA)-packed capillary column was prepared to selectively extract dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NE) and epinephrine (E) prior to their quantitative analysis by a fast separation in HPLC-ECD method, while microdialysis sampling method was applied to get the analysis sample. Parameters that influenced desorption efficiency, such as pH, salt concentration, acetonitrile content and wash time, were examined and optimized. The proposed method, combining microdialysis sampling technique, SPE and HPLC-ECD system, was successfully applied to detect CAs in rat blood microdialysate with high sensitivity and selectivity in small sample volumes (5-40μl) and a short analysis time (8min), yielding good reproducibility (RSD 6.5-7.7%) and spiked recovery (91-104.4%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Progression of Diabetic Capillary Occlusion: A Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Fu


    Full Text Available An explanatory computational model is developed of the contiguous areas of retinal capillary loss which play a large role in diabetic maculapathy and diabetic retinal neovascularization. Strictly random leukocyte mediated capillary occlusion cannot explain the occurrence of large contiguous areas of retinal ischemia. Therefore occlusion of an individual capillary must increase the probability of occlusion of surrounding capillaries. A retinal perifoveal vascular sector as well as a peripheral retinal capillary network and a deleted hexagonal capillary network are modelled using Compucell3D. The perifoveal modelling produces a pattern of spreading capillary loss with associated macular edema. In the peripheral network, spreading ischemia results from the progressive loss of the ladder capillaries which connect peripheral arterioles and venules. System blood flow was elevated in the macular model before a later reduction in flow in cases with progression of capillary occlusions. Simulations differing only in initial vascular network structures but with identical dynamics for oxygen, growth factors and vascular occlusions, replicate key clinical observations of ischemia and macular edema in the posterior pole and ischemia in the retinal periphery. The simulation results also seem consistent with quantitative data on macular blood flow and qualitative data on venous oxygenation. One computational model applied to distinct capillary networks in different retinal regions yielded results comparable to clinical observations in those regions.

  15. Near- and supercritical water as a diameter manipulation and surface roughening agent in fused silica capillaries. (United States)

    Karásek, Pavel; Planeta, Josef; Roth, Michal


    The prospects of near- and supercritical water for treatment of the inner surfaces of fused silica capillaries have been tested employing an in-lab-assembled apparatus. Unlike all other agents used for the purpose, water cannot introduce any undesirable heteroatoms to the treated surface. Theoretical background for this work comes from the well-known fact that water near its critical point can solubilize silica. The results show that depending on the temperature, water flow rate, flow mode, and exposure time, high-temperature water has wide-ranging effects on both the surface roughness and the internal diameter profile along the length of the treated capillary. By judicious selection of the operating conditions, tapered capillaries of various profiles for applications in electromigration techniques can be prepared with relatively high reproducibility. The water-treated fused silica capillaries with uniform internal diameter appear to be useful for preparation of monolithic silica capillary columns.

  16. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectromet of intact proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domínguez-Vega, Elena; Haselberg, Rob; Somsen, Govert W.


    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) has proven to be a powerful analytical tool for the characterization of intact proteins. It combines the high separation efficiency, short analysis time, and versatility of CE with the mass selectivity and sensitivity offered by MS

  17. Atomic-force-controlled capillary electrophoretic nanoprinting of proteins. (United States)

    Lovsky, Yulia; Lewis, Aaron; Sukenik, Chaim; Grushka, Eli


    The general nanoprinting and nanoinjection of proteins on non-conducting or conducting substrates with a high degree of control both in terms of positional and timing accuracy is an important goal that could impact diverse fields from biotechnology (protein chips) to molecular electronics and from fundamental studies in cell biology to nanophotonics. In this paper, we combine capillary electrophoresis (CE), a separation method with considerable control of protein movement, with the unparalleled positional accuracy of an atomic force microscope (AFM). This combination provides the ability to electrophoretically or electroosmotically correlate the timing of protein migration with AFM control of the protein deposition at a high concentration in defined locations and highly confined volumes estimated to be 2 al. Electrical control of bovine serum albumin printing on standard protein-spotting glass substrates is demonstrated. For this advance, fountain pen nanolithography (FPN) that uses cantilevered glass-tapered capillaries is amended with the placement of electrodes on the nanopipette itself. This results in imposed voltages that are three orders of magnitude less than what is normally used in capillary electrophoresis. The development of atomic-force-controlled capillary electrophoretic printing (ACCEP) has the potential for electrophoretic separation, with high resolution, both in time and in space. The large voltage drop at the tip of the tapered nanopipettes allows for significant increases in concentration of protein in the small printed volumes. All of these attributes combine to suggest that this methodology should have a significant impact in science and technology.

  18. Capillary electrophoresis/inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: development and optimization of a high resolution analytical tool for the size-based characterization of nanomaterials in dietary supplements. (United States)

    Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak K; Linder, Sean W


    We report the development and optimization of a system consisting of capillary electrophoresis (CE) interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for rapid and high resolution speciation and characterization of metallic (e.g., gold, platinum, and palladium) nanoparticles in a dietary supplement. Multiple factors, including surfactant type and concentration, pH of running buffer, and applied voltage, were investigated to optimize the separation conditions. It was found that by using the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) in the running buffer the separation resolution was significantly improved, allowing for easy distinction of adjacent size fractions in a gold nanoparticle mixture with very small size differences (e.g., 5, 15, 20, and 30 nm). The type and concentration of the surfactant was found to be critical in obtaining sufficient separation while applied voltage and pH values of the running buffers largely affected the elution times by varying the electroosmotic flow. Quantum dots were used as mobility markers to eliminate the run-to-run variation. The diameters of the nanoparticles followed a linear relationship with their relative electrophoretic mobility, and size information on unknown samples could be extrapolated from a standard curve. The accuracy and precision of this method was confirmed using 10 and 30 nm gold nanoparticle standard reference materials. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercially available metallic nanoparticle-based dietary supplements, as evidenced by good agreement between the particle sizes calculated by CE/ICPMS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  19. Characterization of cis- and trans-octadecenoic acid positional isomers in edible fat and oil using gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector equipped with highly polar ionic liquid capillary column. (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Asanuma, Masaharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Kojima, Koichi; Nagai, Toshiharu; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro


    In this study, the characterisation of all cis- and trans-octadecenoic acid (C18:1) positional isomers in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO) and milk fat, which contain several cis- and trans-C18:1 positional isomers, was achieved by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector equipped with a highly polar ionic liquid capillary column (SLB-IL111). Prior to analysis, the cis- and trans-C18:1 fractions in PHVO and milk fat were separated using a silver-ion cartridge. The resolution of all cis-C18:1 positional isomers was successfully accomplished at the optimal isothermal column temperature of 120 °C. Similarly, the positional isomers of trans-C18:1, except for trans-6-C18:1 and trans-7-C18:1, were separated at 120 °C. The resolution of trans-6-C18:1 and trans-7-C18:1 isomers was made possible by increasing the column temperature to 160 °C. This analytical method is suitable for determining the cis- and trans-C18:1 positional isomers in edible fats and oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparative study on analytical method of total alkaloids from cortex Phellodendri amurens by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang


    Full Text Available A pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC method with post-column detection cell has been developed for the analysis of total alkaloids of cortex Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Rutaceae. The separation of total alkaloids (berberine, palmatine, oatrorrhizine, magnoflorine, phellodendrine, candicine, menisperine was optimized by compositions of the mobile phase, ionic strength of buffers, pH value, and applied voltage. Separation of total alkaloids was achieved within 11 min by using a mobile phase of Na2HPO4-citric acid solution-acetonitrile (pH 4.00; 3 mM (60:40, v/v and applying a voltage of -10 kV. This method showed satisfactory retention times and peak shapes. Meanwhile, a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC has also been established for the separation of total alkaloids extracted from cortex Phellodendri amurens. Baseline separation of total alkaloids was achieved within 25 min by using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid with 0.1 g sodium dodecanesulphonate per 100 mL (35:65, v/v. Compared to conventional RP-HPLC, pCEC led to higher column efficiency, less consumption of reagent, and shorter analysis time.

  1. Capillary pumped loop body heat exchanger (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore D. (Inventor); Wren, deceased, Paul (Inventor)


    A capillary pumped loop for transferring heat from one body part to another body part, the capillary pumped loop comprising a capillary evaporator for vaporizing a liquid refrigerant by absorbing heat from a warm body part, a condenser for turning a vaporized refrigerant into a liquid by transferring heat from the vaporized liquid to a cool body part, a first tube section connecting an output port of the capillary evaporator to an input of the condenser, and a second tube section connecting an output of the condenser to an input port of the capillary evaporator. A wick may be provided within the condenser. A pump may be provided between the second tube section and the input port of the capillary evaporator. Additionally, an esternal heat source or heat sink may be utilized.

  2. Condensation nucleation light scattering detection for capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Szostek, B; Koropchak, J A


    We describe two means for interfacing condensation nucleation light scattering detection to capillary electrophoresis (CE). With the first method, a fused-silica capillary was used for the separation and the CE was grounded through a Nafion membrane that also connected the system to a microconcentric pneumatic nebulizer. Limits of detection (LODs) for underivatized amino acids were at the low microgram per milliliter level, and separation efficiencies were ∼9 times lower than the optimum predicted for these species based on the injection plug width and axial dispersion by diffusion. LODs were limited by background nonvolatiles resulting from dissolution of fused silica at the high pHs used for the separations. An alternate system employed PEEK capillaries which acted as the separation capillary and also as the inner nebulizer capillary. In this case, the exit end of the capillary was coated with conductive paint which extended to the tip of the nebulizer, was in contact with the CE buffer, and was grounded to complete the CE circuit. Response was nonlinear and the separation efficiency of this system was somewhat lower than that for the Nafion membrane system. Response as peak heights for all of the amino acids and peptides studied was nearly identical on a mass basis. With this system, much lower background signals were obtained, and as a result, LODs for underivatized amino acids and peptides were below the 1 μg/mL level, corresponding to less than 10 pg or less than 100 fmol injected. Both systems were fairly simple, effective means to generate aerosols with the low flows of CE and should be applicable to interfacing of other aerosol-based detectors with CE.

  3. Polydopamine coated capillaries for CE separations


    Partyka, Jan


    We have tested CE separation of selected samples in capillaries with polydopamine modified surface. The capillaries were modified by polydopamine or polydopamine with an additive. The polydopamine coating with additive represents a simple and effective procedure for capillary alteration by another modificator such as hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose etc. In this work, we represent separation data from PrinCE system with UV detection for peptides, proteins and oligosaccha...

  4. Determination of thromboxanes, leukotrienes and lipoxins using high-temperature capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and on-line sample preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sandra Rinne; Kleiveland, Charlotte Ramstad; Kassem, Moustapha


    culture supernatants was developed and validated. In the present method, a high temperature (70 degrees C) was used for the separation on the analytical column to obtain efficient chromatography of the thromboxanes. An on-line sample preparation was performed, where peptides/proteins contained...

  5. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) nanoparticle-coated capillary with oriented antibody immobilization for immunoaffinity in-tube solid phase microextraction: Preparation and characterization. (United States)

    Ying, Ling-Ling; Ma, Yuan-Chun; Xu, Bei; Wang, Xian-Hua; Dong, Lin-Yi; Wang, Dong-Mei; Liu, Kun; Xu, Liang


    A combination between modification with nanoparticles (NP) and oriented antibody immobilization (OAI) on the inner face of capillary was for the first time developed for immunoaffinity in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to promise high antigen extraction capacity. β2-microglobin (β2MG) and cystatin C (Cys-C) were selected as model antigens. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) NPs were chemically immobilized onto the capillary by a ring-opening reaction. Antibodies for β2MG and Cys-C were immobilized on the NPs through OAI. Scanning electron micrograph of the OAI capillary clearly showed that the PGMA NPs were coated onto the inner surface of capillary in a dense monolayer. In addition, random antibody immobilized (RAI) capillaries and OAI capillaries without NP were also prepared as controls. The extraction capacities of OAI capillaries were 2.02 and 2.18mgm(-1) for β2MG and Cys-C, and were about 5 and 6 times as many as RAI capillaries and OAI capillaries without NP, respectively. The resultant capillaries were used as in-tube SPME materials to enrich β2MG and Cys-C for particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay. When using 1.0mgL(-1) standard solutions, the recoveries of OAI capillaries, RAI capillaries and OAI capillaries without NP were 103.6% and 96.8%, 48.5% and 31.5%, and 24.2% and 25.7% for β2MG and Cys-C, respectively. Furthermore, the method quantitation limit by OAI capillaries was 5 and 10 times lower than that by RAI capillaries and OAI capillaries without NP, respectively. This result indicated that the NP-coated capillaries with OAI are more suitable for using as immunoaffinity in-tube SPME materials than that with RAI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxygen exchange in silicone rubber capillaries. (United States)

    Heineken, F G; Predecki, P K; Filley, G F


    Capillaries of 7 and 12.5 mu diameter have been fabricated in silicone rubber. Whole blood treated with heparin has been perfused through these capillaries. Under flowing conditions, no clotting or other clumping effects have been observed and red cells appear to maintain a constant velocity. Oxygen transfer data to and from saline perfusing the 12.5 mu diameter capillaries have been obtained in order to determine how rapidly O2 will permeate the silicone rubber film. The data indicate that the capillaries simulate lung tissue oxygen exchange and will allow for the first time the experimental determination of oxygen exchange kinetics in flowing whole blood.

  7. DNA sequencing with capillary electrophoresis and single cell analysis with mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, N.


    Since the first demonstration of the laser in the 1960`s, lasers have found numerous applications in analytical chemistry. In this work, two different applications are described, namely, DNA sequencing with capillary gel electrophoresis and single cell analysis with mass spectrometry. Two projects are described in which high-speed DNA separations with capillary gel electrophoresis were demonstrated. In the third project, flow cytometry and mass spectrometry were coupled via a laser vaporization/ionization interface and individual mammalian cells were analyzed. First, DNA Sanger fragments were separated by capillary gel electrophoresis. A separation speed of 20 basepairs per minute was demonstrated with a mixed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) sieving solution. In addition, a new capillary wall treatment protocol was developed in which bare (or uncoated) capillaries can be used in DNA sequencing. Second, a temperature programming scheme was used to separate DNA Sanger fragments. Third, flow cytometry and mass spectrometry were coupled with a laser vaporization/ionization interface.

  8. Development of a high-throughput glycoanalysis method for the characterization of oligosaccharides in human milk utilizing multiplexed capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. (United States)

    Kottler, Robert; Mank, Marko; Hennig, René; Müller-Werner, Beate; Stahl, Bernd; Reichl, Udo; Rapp, Erdmann


    During the last decade, enormous progress regarding knowledge about composition and properties of human milk (HM) has been made. Besides nutrition, the three macro-nutrients: proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates combine a large variety of properties and functions. Especially, complex oligosaccharides emerge as important dietary factors during early life with multiple functions. The characterization of these HM oligosaccharides (HMOS) within the total carbohydrate fraction is prerequisite to understand the relationship between milk composition and biological effects. Therefore, extended studies of large donor cohorts and thus, new high-throughput glycoanalytical methods are needed. The developed method comprises sample preparation, as well as analysis of HMOS by multiplexed CGE with LIF detection (xCGE-LIF). Via a respective database the generated "fingerprints" (normalized electropherograms) could be used for structural elucidation of HMOS. The method was tested on HM samples from five different donors, partly sampled as a series of lactation time points. HMOS could be easily identified and quantified. Consequently, secretor and Lewis status of the donors could be determined, milk typing could be performed and quantitative changes could be monitored along lactation time course. The developed xCGE-LIF based "real" high-throughput HMOS analysis method enables qualitative and quantitative high-performance profiling of the total carbohydrate fraction composition of large sets of samples. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Capillary rafts and their destabilization (United States)

    Protiere, Suzie; Abkarian, Manouk; Aristoff, Jeffrey; Stone, Howard


    Small objects trapped at an interface are very common in Nature (insects walking on water, ant rafts, bubbles or pollen at the water-air interface, membranes...) and are found in many multiphase industrial processes. The study of such particle-laden interfaces is therefore of practical as well as fundamental importance. Here we report experiments on the self-assembly of spherical particles into capillary rafts at an oil-water interface and elucidate how such rafts sink. We characterize different types of sinking behavior and show that it is possible to obtain "armored droplets," whereby the sinking oil is encapsulated within a shell of particles.

  10. Capillary electrophoresis theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Paul D


    This book is designed to be a practical guide, used by wide audience, including those new to CE, those more experienced, routine users, those interested in technology development, and those involved with applications research. References have been emphasized to allow the reader to explore the detailed specifics and theoretical foundations.This book draws together the rapidly evolving, diverse, and multidisciplinary subject of capillary electrophoresis (CE). It is designed as a practical guide to be used by a wide audience, including those new to CE as well as more experienced users. T

  11. Capillary spreading of contact line over a sinking sphere (United States)

    Kim, Seong Jin; Fezzaa, Kamel; An, Jim; Sun, Tao; Jung, Sunghwan


    The contact line dynamics over a sinking solid sphere are investigated in comparison to classical spreading theories. Experimentally, high-speed imaging systems with optical light or x-ray illumination are employed to accurately measure the spreading motion and dynamic contact angle of the contact line. Millimetric spheres are controlled to descend with a constant speed ranging from 7.3 × 10-5 to 0.79 m/s. We observed three different spreading stages over a sinking sphere, which depends on the contact line velocity and contact angle. These stages consistently showed the characteristics of capillarity-driven spreading as the contact line spreads faster with a higher contact angle. The contact line velocity is observed to follow a classical capillary-viscous model at a high Ohnesorge number (>0.02). For the cases with a relatively low Ohnesorge number (balance. This indicates the existence of an additional opposing force (inertia) for a decreasing Ohnesorge number. The capillary-inertial balance is only observed at the very beginning of the capillary rise, in which the maximum velocity is independent of the sphere's sinking speed. Additionally, we observed the linear relationship between the contact line velocity and the sphere sinking speed during the second stage, which represents capillary adjustment by the dynamic contact angle.

  12. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail:; Lega, J., E-mail:


    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  13. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Conventional Splicing Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Acedo, Alberto; García-Casado, Zaida


    Rare sequence variants in "high-risk" disease genes, often referred as unclassified variants (UVs), pose a serious challenge to genetic testing. However, UVs resulting in splicing alterations can be readily assessed by in vitro assays. Unfortunately, analytical and clinical interpretation...... of these assays is often challenging. Here, we explore this issue by conducting splicing assays in 31 BRCA2 genetic variants. All variants were assessed by RT-PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and direct sequencing. If assays did not produce clear-cut outputs (Class-2 or Class-5 according to analytical...... International Agency for Research on Cancer guidelines), we performed qPCR and/or minigene assays. The latter were performed with a new splicing vector (pSAD) developed by authors of the present manuscript (patent #P201231427 CSIC). We have identified three clinically relevant Class-5 variants (c.682-2A>G, c...

  14. Use of high-conductivity sample solution with sweeping-micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography for trace-level quantification of paliperidone in human plasma. (United States)

    Liu, Hsiang-Yin; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Tsai, I-Lin; Kuo, Ching-Hua


    Paliperidone is a new antipsychotic drug with a relatively low therapeutic concentration of 20-60 ng/mL. We established an accurate and sensitive CE method for the determination of paliperidone concentrations in human plasma in this study. To minimize matrix effect caused by quantification errors, paliperidone was extracted from human plasma using Oasis HLB SPE cartridges with three-step washing procedure. To achieve sensitive quantification of paliperidone in human plasma, a high-conductivity sample solution with sweeping-MEKC method was applied for analysis. The separation is performed in a BGE composed of 75 mM phosphoric acid, 100 mM SDS, 12% acetonitrile, and 15% tetrahydrofuran. Sample solution consisted of 10% methanol in 250 mM phosphoric acid and the conductivity ratio between sample matrix and BGE was 2.0 (γ, sample/BGE). The results showed it able to detect paliperidone in plasma samples at concentration as low as 10 ng/mL (S/N = 3) with a linear range between 20 and 200 ng/mL. Compared to the conventional MEKC method, the sensitivity enhancement factor of the developed sweeping-MEKC method was 100. Intra- and interday precision of peak area ratios were less than 6.03%; the method accuracy was between 93.4 and 97.9%. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of plasma samples of patients undergoing paliperidone treatment. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    Hudack, S; McMaster, P D


    A technique has been developed for the demonstration of lymphatic capillaries in the ear of the mouse by means of vital dyes and for tests of their permeability under normal and pathological conditions. The lymphatics become visible as closed channels from which the dyes escape secondarily into the tissue. Some of them, cross-connections, with extremely narrow lumen, would seem ordinarily not to be utilized. There is active flow along the lymphatics of the mouse ear under ordinary circumstances. The movement of dye was always toward the main collecting system. The valves of the lymphatics as well as fluid flow prevented distal spread. There was in addition slow migration, apparently interstitial in character, but in the same general direction, of dots of color produced by the local injection of dye. The normal permeability of the lymphatics was studied with dyes of graded diffusibility. Their walls proved readily permeable for those highly diffusible pigments that the blood capillaries let through easily, but retained those that the latter retained. Finely particulate matter (India ink, "Hydrokollag"), they did not let pass. No gradient of permeability was observed to exist along them such as exists along the blood capillaries of certain organs. The observed phenomena of lymphatic permeability, like those of the permeability of the blood capillaries, can be explained on the assumption that the lymphatic wall behaves like a semipermeable membrane.

  16. Letrozole Determination by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis and UV Spectrophotometry Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Aura


    Full Text Available Objective: Letrozole is a highly potent oral nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor triazole derivative. The aim of this study was to quantify letrozole from bulk, pharmaceutical formulation, and spiked urine samples by developing a simple, rapid and cost effective capillary electrophoresis method. Methods: A capillary zone electrophoresis method was optimized and validated. Additionally, an UV spectrophotometry method was used for comparing results. Results:The capillary zone electrophoresis method using a 90 mM sodium tetraborate background electrolyte proved to be an efficient method for determination of letrozole in a very short time, less than 2 minutes, using 20 kV voltage, 50 mbar/2 seconds pressure and 50°C temperature as optimum parameters. Additionally, the UV spectrophotometry method proved to be simple and efficient to quantify letrozole from bulk material and pharmaceutical formulation with linearity of response between 5 to 20 μg·mL-1 concentrations. For both methods, validation parameters, including linearity, detection and quantification limits were determined. Also we proved that our electrophoretic method has potential in analyzing letrozole from biological samples, obtaining encouraging results on estimation of letrozole from spiked urine samples without any special treatment. Conclusions: To quantify letrozole from bulk material, pharmaceutical preparations, and spiked urine samples the capillary zone electrophoresis method using a tetraborate sodium background electrolyte has proven to be simple and appropriate. Also a simple UV spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for the same purposes.

  17. 16S-23S Internal Transcribed Spacer Region PCR and Sequencer-Based Capillary Gel Electrophoresis has Potential as an Alternative to High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Identification of Slowly Growing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shradha Subedi

    Full Text Available Accurate identification of slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (SG-NTM of clinical significance remains problematic. This study evaluated a novel method of SG-NTM identification by amplification of the mycobacterial 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS region followed by resolution of amplified fragments by sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE. Fourteen American Type Culture Collection (ATCC strains and 103 clinical/environmental isolates (total n = 24 species of SG-NTM were included. Identification was compared with that achieved by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, in-house PCR and 16S/ITS sequencing. Isolates of all species yielded a SCGE profile comprising a single fragment length (or peak except for M. scrofulaceum (two peaks. SCGE peaks of ATCC strains were distinct except for peak overlap between Mycobacterium kansasii and M. marinum. Of clinical/environmental strains, unique peaks were seen for 7/17 (41% species (M. haemophilum, M. kubicae, M. lentiflavum, M. terrae, M. kansasii, M. asiaticum and M. triplex; 3/17 (18% species were identified by HPLC. There were five SCGE fragment length types (I-V each of M. avium, M. intracellulare and M. gordonae. Overlap of fragment lengths was seen between M. marinum and M. ulcerans; for M. gordonae SCGE type III and M. paragordonae; M. avium SCGE types III and IV, and M. intracellulare SCGE type I; M. chimaera, M. parascrofulaceum and M. intracellulare SCGE types III and IV; M. branderi and M. avium type V; and M. vulneris and M. intracellulare type V. The ITS-SCGE method was able to provide the first line rapid and reproducible species identification/screening of SG-NTM and was more discriminatory than HPLC.

  18. 16S-23S Internal Transcribed Spacer Region PCR and Sequencer-Based Capillary Gel Electrophoresis has Potential as an Alternative to High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Identification of Slowly Growing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (United States)

    Subedi, Shradha; Kong, Fanrong; Jelfs, Peter; Gray, Timothy J.; Xiao, Meng; Sintchenko, Vitali; Chen, Sharon C-A


    Accurate identification of slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (SG-NTM) of clinical significance remains problematic. This study evaluated a novel method of SG-NTM identification by amplification of the mycobacterial 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region followed by resolution of amplified fragments by sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Fourteen American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains and 103 clinical/environmental isolates (total n = 24 species) of SG-NTM were included. Identification was compared with that achieved by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in-house PCR and 16S/ITS sequencing. Isolates of all species yielded a SCGE profile comprising a single fragment length (or peak) except for M. scrofulaceum (two peaks). SCGE peaks of ATCC strains were distinct except for peak overlap between Mycobacterium kansasii and M. marinum. Of clinical/environmental strains, unique peaks were seen for 7/17 (41%) species (M. haemophilum, M. kubicae, M. lentiflavum, M. terrae, M. kansasii, M. asiaticum and M. triplex); 3/17 (18%) species were identified by HPLC. There were five SCGE fragment length types (I–V) each of M. avium, M. intracellulare and M. gordonae. Overlap of fragment lengths was seen between M. marinum and M. ulcerans; for M. gordonae SCGE type III and M. paragordonae; M. avium SCGE types III and IV, and M. intracellulare SCGE type I; M. chimaera, M. parascrofulaceum and M. intracellulare SCGE types III and IV; M. branderi and M. avium type V; and M. vulneris and M. intracellulare type V. The ITS-SCGE method was able to provide the first line rapid and reproducible species identification/screening of SG-NTM and was more discriminatory than HPLC. PMID:27749897

  19. On the Asymmetric Focusing of Low-Emittance Electron Bunches via Active Lensing by Using Capillary Discharges (United States)

    Bulanov, Stepan; Bagdasarov, Gennadiy; Bobrova, Nadezhda; Boldarev, Alexey; Olkhovskaya, Olga; Sasorov, Pavel; Gasilov, Vladimir; Barber, Samuel; Gonsalves, Anthony; Schroeder, Carl; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim; Levato, Tadzio; Margarone, Daniele; Korn, Georg; Kando, Masaki; Bulanov, Sergei


    A novel method for asymmetric focusing of electron beams is proposed. The scheme is based on the active lensing technique, which takes advantage of the strong inhomogeneous magnetic field generated inside the capillary discharge plasma to focus the ultrarelativistic electrons. The plasma and magnetic field parameters inside a capillary discharge are described theoretically and modeled with dissipative MHD simulations to enable analysis of capillaries of oblong rectangle cross-sections implying that large aspect ratio rectangular capillaries can be used to form flat electron bunches. The effect of the capillary cross-section on the electron beam focusing properties were studied using the analytical methods and simulation- derived magnetic field map showing the range of the capillary discharge parameters required for producing the high quality flat electron beams.

  20. Flow Behaviour of Creosote-in-Water Emulsions through Straight and Square Wave Capillary Tubes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Podolsak, A.K; Tiu, C


    ...) and water-in-creosote (W/O) emulsions at moderate shear rates. This paper investigates the flow of O/Wemulsions in straight and square-wave capillaries at high shear rates, as a preludeto predicting timber treatability...


    AbstractHigh speed capillary liquid chromatographic separations using a simple home made system constructed from readily available inexpensive components have been studied. Using thermally stable zirconia and titania based packing, the separation of eight alkylbenzene...

  2. In-capillary self-assembly study of quantum dots and protein using fluorescence coupled capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Wang, Jianhao; Li, Jingyan; Li, Jinchen; Qin, Yuqin; Wang, Cheli; Qiu, Lin; Jiang, Pengju


    As a vast number of novel materials in particular inorganic nanoparticles have been invented and introduced to all aspects of life, public concerns about how they might affect our ecosystem and human life continue to arise. Such incertitude roots at a fundamental question of how inorganic nanoparticles self-assemble with biomolecules in solution. Various techniques have been developed to probe the interaction between particles and biomolecules, but very few if any can provide advantages of both rapid and convenient. Herein, we report a systematic investigation on quantum dots (QDs) and protein self-assembly inside a capillary. QDs and protein were injected to a capillary one after another. They were mixed inside the capillary when a high voltage was applied. Online separation and detection were then achieved. This new method can also be used to study the self-assembly kinetics of QDs and protein using the Hill equation, the KD value for the self-assembly of QDs and protein was calculated to be 8.8 μM. The obtained results were compared with the previous out of-capillary method and confirmed the effectiveness of the present method. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Capillaries modified by noncovalent anionic polymer adsorption for capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, L; Hansen, S H; Gammelgaard, Bente


    capillaries was (4.9+/-0.1) x 10(-4) cm2V(-1)s(-1) in a pH-range of 2-10 (ionic strength = 30 mM). When alkaline compounds were used as test substances intracapillary and intercapillary migration time variations (n = 6) were less than 1% relative standard deviation (RSD) and 2% RSD, respectively in the entire...... pH range. The coating was fairly stable in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and this made it possible to perform fast MEKC separations at low pH. When neutral compounds were used as test substances, the intracapillary migration time variations (n = 6) were less than 2% RSD in a pH range of 2...

  4. The Capillary Fluidics of Espresso (United States)

    Ott, Nathan; Wollman, Drew; Graf, John; Weislogel, Mark


    Espresso is enjoyed by tens of millions of people daily. The coffee is distinguished by a complex low density colloid of emulsified oils. Due to gravity, these oils rise to the surface forming a foam lid called the crema. In this work we present a variety of large length scale capillary fluidic effects for espresso in a gravity-free environment. Drop tower tests are performed to establish brief microgravity conditions under which spontaneous capillarity-driven behavior is observed. Because the variety of espresso drinks is extensive, specific property measurements are made to assess the effects of wetting and surface tension for `Italian' espresso, caffe latte, and caffe Americano. To some, the texture and aromatics of the crema play a critical role in the overall espresso experience. We show how in the low-g environment this may not be possible. We also suggest alternate methods for enjoying espresso aboard spacecraft. NASA NNX09AP66A, Glenn Research Center.

  5. Capillary Discharge XUV Radiation Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nevrkla


    Full Text Available A device producing Z-pinching plasma as a source of XUV radiation is described. Here a ceramic capacitor bank pulse-charged up to 100 kV is discharged through a pre-ionized gas-filled ceramic tube 3.2 mm in diameter and 21 cm in length. The discharge current has amplitude of 20 kA and a rise-time of 65 ns. The apparatus will serve as experimental device for studying of capillary discharge plasma, for testing X-ray optics elements and for investigating the interaction of water-window radiation with biological samples. After optimization it will be able to produce 46.9 nm laser radiation with collision pumped Ne-like argon ions active medium. 

  6. Paramecium swimming in capillary tube

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Saikat; Jung, Sunghwan


    Swimming organisms in their natural habitat navigate through a wide array of geometries and chemical environments. Interaction with the boundaries is ubiquitous and can significantly modify the swimming characteristics of the organism as observed under ideal conditions. We study the dynamics of ciliary locomotion in Paramecium multimicronucleatum and observe the effect of the solid boundaries on the velocities in the near field of the organism. Experimental observations show that Paramecium executes helical trajectories that slowly transition to straight line motion as the diameter of the capillary tubes decrease. Theoretically this system is modeled as an undulating cylinder with pressure gradient and compared with experiments; showing that such considerations are necessary for modeling finite sized organisms in the restrictive geometries.

  7. Efficient organic monoliths prepared by γ-radiation induced polymerization in the evaluation of histone deacetylase inhibitors by capillary(nano)-high performance liquid chromatography and ion trap mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Badaloni, Elena; Barbarino, Marcella; Cabri, Walter; D'Acquarica, Ilaria; Forte, Michela; Gasparrini, Francesco; Giorgi, Fabrizio; Pierini, Marco; Simone, Patrizia; Ursini, Ornella; Villani, Claudio


    New monolithic HPLC columns were prepared by γ-radiation-triggered polymerization of hexyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate monomers in the presence of porogenic solvents. Polymerization was carried out directly within capillary (250-200 μm I.D.) and nano (100-75 μm I.D.) fused-silica tubes yielding highly efficient columns for cap(nano)-LC applications. The columns were applied in the complete separation of core (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) and linker (H1) histones under gradient elution with UV and/or electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) detections. Large selectivity towards H1, H2A-1, H2A-2, H2B, H3-1, H3-2 and H4 histones and complete separation were obtained within 8 min time windows, using fast gradients and very high linear flow velocities, up to 11 mm/s for high throughput applications. The method developed was the basis of a simple and efficient protocol for the evaluation of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones from NCI-H460 human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and HCT-116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. The study was extended to monitoring the level of histone acetylation after inhibition of Histone DeACetylase (HDAC) enzymes with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), the first HDAC inhibitor approved by the FDA for cancer therapy. Attractive features of our cap(nano)-LC/MS approach are the short analysis time, the minute amount of sample required to complete the whole procedure and the stability of the polymethacrylate-based columns. A lab-made software package ClustMass was ad hoc developed and used to elaborate deconvoluted mass spectral data (aligning, averaging, clustering) and calculate the potency of HDAC inhibitors, expressed through a Relative half maximal Inhibitory Concentration parameter, namely R_IC(50) and an averaged acetylation degree. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Capillary bedside blood glucose measurement in neonates: missing a diagnosis of galactosemia. (United States)

    Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Öcal, Murat; Tanrıverdi, Sibel; Baysal, Birsen; Deniz, Ahmet; Öncel, Kahraman; Demirbilek, Hüseyin


    A number of factors may lead to inaccuracy in measurement of capillary blood glucose with a glucometer. Measurement of other carbohydrate molecules such as galactose and fructose along with glucose can potentially be a cause of error. We report a newborn patient who was referred to our hospital with conjugated bilirubinemia, hepatomegaly and high capillary blood glucose levels measured with a glucometer. Simultaneous biochemical measurements revealed normal blood glucose levels. Further investigation led to a diagnosis of classical galactosemia. Capillary blood glucose level measured with glucometer also dropped to normal values following cessation of breastfeeding and initiation of feeding with a lactose-free formula.

  9. Comprehensive analysis of the capillary depth in deep penetration laser welding (United States)

    Fetzer, Florian; Boley, Meiko; Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas


    Laser welding is the state of the art joining technology regarding productivity and thermal loads and stress on the workpiece. In deep penetration laser welding the quality of the resultant welds strongly depends on the stability of the capillary. The highly dynamic depth fluctuations are of major influence on the controllability of the laser welding process and on the prevention of weld defects. In the present paper the capillary dynamics is investigated by means of time- and spatially resolved in-process X-ray imaging and optical coherence tomography. The X-ray diagnostics allows measuring the geometry of the capillary with frame rates of 1 kHz, while the optical coherence tomography enables the determination of the capillary depth with an acquisition rate of up to 70 kHz. These measurements are correlated to time varying input laser power to provide profound insight in the dynamics of the laser welding process. The measurements are performed for copper, aluminum and mild steel. The capillary depth resulting from arbitrary laser power modulation was investigated. Thereby, the response of the capillary depth to laser power changes was determined. Based on these measurements the changes of the capillary depth in deep penetration laser welding were described by methods known from control theory. These analyses can be utilized to optimize control strategies, to calibrate transient simulations of deep penetration laser welding and to identify the influence of material properties.

  10. In-capillary self-assembly and proteolytic cleavage of polyhistidine peptide capped quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianhao; Li, Jingyan; Li, Jinchen; Liu, Feifei [School of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Life Science, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213164 (China); Zhou, Xiang; Yao, Yi [Changzhou Qianhong Bio-pharma Co. Ltd, Changzhou 213164, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Cheli [School of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Life Science, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213164 (China); Qiu, Lin, E-mail: [School of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Life Science, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213164 (China); Jiang, Pengju, E-mail: [School of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Life Science, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213164 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)


    A new method using fluorescence coupled capillary electrophoresis (CE-FL) for monitoring self-assembly and proteolytic cleavage of hexahistidine peptide capped quantum dots (QDs) inside a capillary has been developed in this report. QDs and the ATTO 590-labeled hexahistidine peptide (H6-ATTO) were injected into a capillary, sequentially. Their self-assembly inside the capillary was driven by a metal-affinity force which yielded a new fluorescence signal due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The highly efficient separation of fluorescent complexes and the FRET process were analyzed using CE-FL. The self-assembly of QDs and biomolecules was found to effectively take place inside the capillary. The kinetics of the assembly was monitored by CE-FL, and the approach was extended to the study of proteolytic cleavage of surface conjugated peptides. Being the first in-depth analysis of in-capillary nanoparticle–biomolecule assembly, the novel approach reported here provides inspiration to the development of QD-based FRET probes for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • We examined the self-assembly QDs with H6-ATTO inside a capillary. • We prove CE-FL to be a powerful method to resolve QDs-H6-ATTO complex. • We achieve chromatographic separation of QDs-H6-ATTO complex. • We discovered a novel strategy for the online detection of thrombin. • This technique integrated “injection, mixing, reaction, separation and detection”.

  11. Capillary condensation between disks in two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Tamir; Ipsen, John Hjorth


    Capillary condensation between two two-dimensional wetted circular substrates (disks) is studied by an effective free energy description of the wetting interface. The interfacial free-energy potential is developed on the basis of the theory for the wetting of a single disk, where interfacial...... capillary fluctuations play a dominant role. A simple approximative analytical expression of the interfacial free energy is developed and is validated numerically. The capillary condensation is characterized by the analysis of the coverage of the condensed phase, its stability, and asymptotic behaviors...

  12. A pressure-driven capillary electrophoretic system with injection valve sampling. (United States)

    Han, Chao; Sun, Jiannan; Liu, Jinhua; Cheng, Heyong; Wang, Yuanchao


    To improve repeatability and efficiency and to simplify the operation procedure of capillary electrophoresis (CE), a pressurized CE system (p-CE) with injection valve sampling was developed. It consisted of one high-pressure pump, a six-port injection valve, a PEEK cross, a separation and back pressure capillary, an ultraviolet-visible detector and a high voltage power supply. The pressure-driven flow ranging from 4.5 nL min(-1) to 0.81 μL min(-1) in the separation capillary was produced by splitting to the flow from the high-pressure pumps (0.005-0.4 mL min(-1)). Nano-volume sample injection (system, the new commercial capillary could be directly used without any wash, and the capillary-flush process between runs was also eliminated. In this case, the analytes were driven toward the outlet of the separation capillary by the pressurized flow, the electric field force and minute electroosmotic flow, and they were separated owing to the electrophoretic mobility. The p-CE system allows for the independent variation of the pressurized flow rate and electrical field and electrophoretic separation of good repeatability (below 3%) under high electrical fields (500-1000 V cm(-1)) and flow rate gradient modes. The feasibility of the p-CE system in real analysis was demonstrated by iodate quantification in iodized table salts. The separation of iodide and iodate was realized within 0.3 min, proving its high analytical speed.

  13. Charging YOYO-1 on capillary wall for online DNA intercalation and integrating this approach with multiplex PCR and bare narrow capillary-hydrodynamic chromatography for online DNA analysis. (United States)

    Chen, Huang; Zhu, Zaifang; Lu, Joann Juan; Liu, Shaorong


    Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been widely utilized for high-throughput pathogen identification. Often, a dye is used to intercalate the amplified DNA fragments, and identifications of the pathogens are carried out by DNA melting curve analysis or gel electrophoresis. Integrating DNA amplification and identification is a logic path toward maximizing the benefit of multiplex PCR. Although PCR and gel electrophoresis have been integrated, replenishing the gels after each run is tedious and time-consuming. In this technical note, we develop an approach to address this issue. We perform multiplex PCR inside a capillary, transfer the amplified fragments to a bare narrow capillary, and measure their lengths online using bare narrow capillary-hydrodynamic chromatography (BaNC-HDC), a new technique recently developed in our laboratory for free-solution DNA separation. To intercalate the DNA with YOYO-1 (a fluorescent dye) for BaNC-HDC, we flush the capillary column with a YOYO-1 solution; positively charged YOYO-1 is adsorbed (or charged) onto the negatively charged capillary wall. As DNA molecules are driven down the column for separation, they react with the YOYO-1 stored on the capillary wall and are online-intercalated with the dye. With a single YOYO-1 charging, the column can be used for more than 40 runs, although the fluorescence signal intensities of the DNA peaks decrease gradually. Although the dye-DNA intercalation occurs during the separation, it does not affect the retention times, separation efficiencies, or resolutions.

  14. A nanoengineered peptidic delivery system with specificity for human brain capillary endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Linping; Moghimi, Seyed Moein


    avidity of the majority of the so-called ‘brain-specific’ nanoparticles to the brain capillary endothelial cells has been poor, even during in vitro conditions. We have addressed this issue and designed a versatile peptidic nanoplatform with high binding avidity to the human cerebral capillary endothelial...... cells. This was achieved by selecting an appropriate phage-derived peptide with high specificity for human brain capillary endothelial cells, which following careful structural modifications spontaneously formed a nanoparticle-fiber network. The peptidic network was characterized fully and its uptake...... by the human brain capillary endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 was confirmed by live-cell fluorescent microscopy and quantified by flow cytometry. Recognition and internalization was medicated by two receptors leading to endolysosomal accumulation. Furthermore, the network was capable of delivering functional si...

  15. In-situ functionalized monolithic polysiloxane-polymethacrylate composite materials from polythiol-ene double click reaction in capillary column format for enantioselective nano-high-performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Wolter, Marc; Lämmerhofer, Michael


    This work reports on the proof-of-principle of preparation of novel one step in-situ functionalized monolithic polysiloxane-polymethacrylate composite materials in capillary columns for enantioselective nano-HPLC using a thiol-ene click reaction. Quinine carbamate as functional monomer and ethylene dimethacrylate as crosslinker were both used as ene components in a thermally initiated double click-type polymerization reaction with poly(3-mercaptopropyl)methylsiloxane as thiol component in presence of 1-propanol as porogenic solvent. Elemental analysis and on-capillary fluorescence measurement proved the successful incorporation of the functional chiral monomer into the polymer. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed a macroporous polymer morphology which is typical for a nucleation and growth mechanism of pore formation. The individual microglobules appear relatively spherical and smooth indicating a non-porous nature. Nano-HPLC experiments of the chiral monolithic capillary column provided successful enantiomer separation of N-3,5-dinitrobenzoylleucine as test compound in polar organic elution mode clearly documenting the successful implementation of the proposed concept towards new functionalized monolithic composite materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The synthesis and study of monolithic capillary columns for ion chromatography of anions (United States)

    Kurganov, A. A.; Korolev, A. A.; Viktorova, E. N.; Kanat'eva, A. Yu.


    The physicochemical and chromatographic parameters of ion-exchange monolithic matrices and capillary columns on their basis were measured. A method was suggested for producing high-efficiency ionexchange monolithic capillary columns with the monolith structure optimized for efficient selective separation of anions in ion chromatography. The influence of the conditions of synthesis of monoliths on their porosity, permeability, the structure of the monolith layer, and the impedance of monolithic columns on their basis was investigated.

  17. [Development of chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis for enantioseparation of D,L-amino acids]. (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyu; Qi, Li; Su, Yuan; Qiao, Juan; Chen, Yi


    Enantioseparation of D, L-amino acids is of great significance in life science. As one of the most useful methods, chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis possesses many advantages, including high efficiency, fast speed and tunable migration order, and it has attracted great research interest. This review summarizes the development of chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis for enantioseparation of D, L-amino acids in recent years.

  18. Polydopamine-functionalized poly(ether ether ketone) tube for capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Wenpeng; Liu, Yikun; Yu, Xinhong; Chen, Zilin


    Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is a hyphenated technique that combines the advantages like low sample consumption, high separation efficiency, short analytical time in CE and high sensitivity, powerful molecular structure elucidation in MS. Polyimide-coated fused silica capillary has become the most dominant capillary for CE, but it suffers from swelling and aminolysis of polyimide coating when treated with organic solvents and alkaline buffer in the CE-MS interface in which the polyimide coating at the end of the capillary is exposed to the solution, and this phenomenon can result in current instability, irregular electrospray and clogging at outlet after prolonged use. In this work, poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) capillary was explored as separation capillary for CE-MS. The problems like swelling and aminolysis of polyimide coating were solved due to the high thermal and chemical stability of PEEK material. After modification with polydopamine, PEEK capillary (PD-PEEK) can generate adjustable electroosmotic flow and provide good separation selectivity. The zwitterion polymer of polydopamine can provide cathodic electroosmotic flow (EOF) at high pH value (pH ≥ 5) and anodic EOF at low pH value (pH ≤ 4), and the EOF mobility can also be adjusted by controlling the modification time of polydopamine. Good separation performance was obtained in the analysis for several classes of compounds including amino acids, phenols and plant hormones at rational EOF direction. Repeatability of the PD-PEEK capillary was studied, with relative standard deviations for intra-day, inter-day runs and between tubes less than 4.94%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pediatric Nasal Lobular Capillary Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M. Virbalas


    Full Text Available Background. LCH is a benign vascular growth of the skin and mucous membranes commonly affecting the head and neck. Since it was first described in the nineteenth century, this entity has been variously known as “human botryomycosis” and “pyogenic granuloma.” The shifting nomenclature reflects an evolving understanding of the underlying pathogenesis. We review the histopathology of and current epidemiological data pertaining to LCH which suggests that the development of these lesions may involve a hyperactive inflammatory response influenced by endocrine factors. We report two new cases of pediatric lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH of the nasal cavity and review current theories regarding the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of nasal LCH. Methods. Retrospective case series. Case Series. Two adolescent females presented with symptoms of recurrent epistaxis, nasal obstruction, and epiphora. Both patients underwent computed tomography imaging and biopsy of their intranasal mass. The tumors were excised using image-guided transnasal endoscopic technique. Seven other cases of nasal LCH have been reported to date in the pediatric population. Conclusion. Nasal LCH is a rare cause of an intranasal mass and is associated with unilateral epistaxis, nasal obstruction, and epiphora. We advocate for image-guided endoscopic excision of LCH in the adolescent population.

  20. Capillary breakup of fluid threads within confinement (United States)

    Hu, Guoqing; Xue, Chundong; Chen, Xiaodong


    Fluid thread breakup is a widespread phenomenon in nature, industry, and daily life. Driven by surface tension (or capillarity) at low flow-rate condition, the breakup scenario is usually called capillary instability or Plateau-Rayleigh instability. Fluid thread deforms under confinement of ambient fluid to form a fluid neck. Thinning of the neck at low flow-rate condition is quasistatic until the interface becomes unstable and collapses to breakup. Underlying mechanisms and universalities of both the stable and unstable thinning remain, however, unclear and even contradictory. Here we conduct new numerical and experimental studies to show that confined interfaces are not only stabilized but also destabilized by capillarity at low flow-rate condition. Capillary stabilization is attributed to confinement-determined internal pressure that is higher than capillary pressure along the neck. Two origins of capillary destabilization are identified: one is confinement-induced gradient of capillary pressure along the interface; the other is the competition between local capillary pressure and internal pressure. This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11402274, 11272321, and 11572334).

  1. A capillary-based probe for in situ detection of enhanced fluorescence signals (United States)

    Long, F.; Xiao, R.; Zhu, A. N.; Shi, H. C.; Wang, S. Q.


    A simple, compact, and high sensitivity capillary-based probe for the in situ detection of fluorescence signals with high sensitivity is demonstrated. A home-made single-multi-mode fiber coupler that is coaxially aligned with the capillary-based probe provides for the transmission of excitation light and the collection and transmission of fluorescence. We propose a conceptually straightforward theoretical model to optimize the factors affecting the fluorescence-capture capability of the capillary-based probe. The fluorescence signal detected by fiber-optic spectroscopy non-linearly increases with the length of the capillary-based probe. In addition, the thicker the capillary tube wall is, the less the fluorescence signals determined are. The performance of the proposed probe is evaluated experimentally by measuring the fluorescence spectra of Cy5.5 dye and blue-green algae. The experimental results show that the proposed probe provides more than a ten-fold increase in fluorescence signal compared with direct measurements by a flat-tipped multi-mode fiber probe. The advantages of the capillary-based probe, which include its simple and compact structure, excellent light collection efficiency, requirement of small sample volume, and recoverability of samples, allow its wide application to in situ detection in the medical, forensic, biological, geological, and environmental fields with high sensitivity.

  2. Measurements of capillary system degradation. [liquid hydrogen propellant retention capability (United States)

    Warren, R. P.; Butz, J. R.; Maytum, C. D.; Fester, D. A.; Young, G. M.


    The effects of vibration, flow transients, and warm gas pressurization on capillary acquisition system performance were evaluated. The degradation observed under wide band random and high frequency sinusoidal vibration was of a substantially different nature from that obtained under low frequency sinusoidal vibration. With the former, ingestion of small gas bubbles into the liquid region was correlated by a hydrostatic model, while the capillary stability was destroyed and liquid was lost from the liquid region with the latter. No degradation was observed as a result of flow transients in a flight-type multichannel screen device, but it was observed in a transparent laboratory device. Liquid hydrogen outflow tests were conducted with a multilayer dual-screen-liner system with both helium and hydrogen pressurant gases. The tendency towards dryout of the device with hydrogen pressurant was found to increase with increasing pressurant temperature and length of prepressurization period. Dryout did not occur with helium pressurant.

  3. Isoelectric focusing in continuously tapered fused silica capillary prepared by etching with supercritical water. (United States)

    Slais, Karel; Horká, Marie; Karásek, Pavel; Planeta, Josef; Roth, Michal


    This communication indicates the potential of etching with sub- and/or supercritical water for reproducible preparation of fused-silica capillaries with tapered geometry suitable for capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) with electroosmotic displacement. The etching procedure provided a single-piece combination of the tapered separation space with a cylindrical connection of the detection window to the electrode vial. Selected proteins and colored pI markers were used as model analytes. A comparison with conventional cylindrical capillary under comparable applied voltage and analysis time was made, and the resultant peaks were compared in terms of peak resolution under optimized conditions. In CIEF carried out in a tapered capillary with the inlet cross-section three times larger than the cross-section at the detection window, three to four times higher resolutions of corresponding peak pairs were obtained. The method described opens the way to increase the number of separable compounds without resorting to excessively high voltage.

  4. Axial Confocal Tomography of Capillary-Contained Colloidal Structures. (United States)

    Liber, Shir R; Indech, Ganit; van der Wee, Ernest B; Butenko, Alexander V; Kodger, Thomas E; Lu, Peter J; Schofield, Andrew B; Weitz, David A; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Sloutskin, Eli


    Confocal microscopy is widely used for three-dimensional (3D) sample reconstructions. Arguably, the most significant challenge in such reconstructions is posed by the resolution along the optical axis being significantly lower than in the lateral directions. In addition, the imaging rate is lower along the optical axis in most confocal architectures, prohibiting reliable 3D reconstruction of dynamic samples. Here, we demonstrate a very simple, cheap, and generic method of multiangle microscopy, allowing high-resolution high-rate confocal slice collection to be carried out with capillary-contained colloidal samples in a wide range of slice orientations. This method, realizable with any common confocal architecture and recently implemented with macroscopic specimens enclosed in rotatable cylindrical capillaries, allows 3D reconstructions of colloidal structures to be verified by direct experiments and provides a solid testing ground for complex reconstruction algorithms. In this paper, we focus on the implementation of this method for dense nonrotatable colloidal samples, contained in complex-shaped capillaries. Additionally, we discuss strategies to minimize potential pitfalls of this method, such as the artificial appearance of chain-like particle structures.

  5. 3D Printing by Multiphase Silicone/Water Capillary Inks. (United States)

    Roh, Sangchul; Parekh, Dishit P; Bharti, Bhuvnesh; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Velev, Orlin D


    3D printing of polymers is accomplished easily with thermoplastics as the extruded hot melt solidifies rapidly during the printing process. Printing with liquid polymer precursors is more challenging due to their longer curing times. One curable liquid polymer of specific interest is polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This study demonstrates a new efficient technique for 3D printing with PDMS by using a capillary suspension ink containing PDMS in the form of both precured microbeads and uncured liquid precursor, dispersed in water as continuous medium. The PDMS microbeads are held together in thixotropic granular paste by capillary attraction induced by the liquid precursor. These capillary suspensions possess high storage moduli and yield stresses that are needed for direct ink writing. They could be 3D printed and cured both in air and under water. The resulting PDMS structures are remarkably elastic, flexible, and extensible. As the ink is made of porous, biocompatible silicone that can be printed directly inside aqueous medium, it can be used in 3D printed biomedical products, or in applications such as direct printing of bioscaffolds on live tissue. This study demonstrates a number of examples using the high softness, elasticity, and resilience of these 3D printed structures. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Solvent jet desorption capillary photoionization-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Haapala, Markus; Teppo, Jaakko; Ollikainen, Elisa; Kiiski, Iiro; Vaikkinen, Anu; Kauppila, Tiina J; Kostiainen, Risto


    A new ambient mass spectrometry method, solvent jet desorption capillary photoionization (DCPI), is described. The method uses a solvent jet generated by a coaxial nebulizer operated at ambient conditions with nitrogen as nebulizer gas. The solvent jet is directed onto a sample surface, from which analytes are extracted into the solvent and ejected from the surface in secondary droplets formed in collisions between the jet and the sample surface. The secondary droplets are directed into the heated capillary photoionization (CPI) device, where the droplets are vaporized and the gaseous analytes are ionized by 10 eV photons generated by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) krypton discharge lamp. As the CPI device is directly connected to the extended capillary inlet of the MS, high ion transfer efficiency to the vacuum of MS is achieved. The solvent jet DCPI provides several advantages: high sensitivity for nonpolar and polar compounds with limit of detection down to low fmol levels, capability of analyzing small and large molecules, and good spatial resolution (250 μm). Two ionization mechanisms are involved in DCPI: atmospheric pressure photoionization, capable of ionizing polar and nonpolar compounds, and solvent assisted inlet ionization capable of ionizing larger molecules like peptides. The feasibility of DCPI was successfully tested in the analysis of polar and nonpolar compounds in sage leaves and chili pepper.

  7. Capillary-Inertial Colloidal Catapult upon Drop Coalescence (United States)

    Chavez, Roger; Liu, Fangjie; Feng, James; Chen, Chuan-Hua


    To discharge micron-sized particles such as colloidal contaminants and biological spores, an enormous power density is needed to compete against the strong adhesive forces between the small particles and the supporting surface as well as the significant air friction exerted on the particles. Here, we demonstrate a colloidal catapult that achieves such a high power density by extracting surface energy released upon drop coalescence within an extremely short time period, which is governed by the capillary-inertial process converting the released surface energy into the bulk inertia of the merged drop. When two drops coalesce on top of a spherical particle, the resulting capillary-inertial oscillation is perturbed by the solid particle, giving rise to a net momentum eventually propelling the particle to launch from the supporting surface. The measured launching velocity follows a scaling law that accounts for the redistribution of the momentum of the merged drop onto the particle-drop complex, and is therefore proportional to the capillary-inertial velocity characterizing the coalescing drops. The interfacial flow process associated with the colloidal catapult is elucidated with both high-speed imaging and phase-field simulations.

  8. Capillary regeneration in scleroderma: stem cell therapy reverses phenotype?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo N Fleming


    Full Text Available Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease with a characteristic vascular pathology. The vasculopathy associated with scleroderma is one of the major contributors to the clinical manifestations of the disease.We used immunohistochemical and mRNA in situ hybridization techniques to characterize this vasculopathy and showed with morphometry that scleroderma has true capillary rarefaction. We compared skin biopsies from 23 scleroderma patients and 24 normal controls and 7 scleroderma patients who had undergone high dose immunosuppressive therapy followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplant. Along with the loss of capillaries there was a dramatic change in endothelial phenotype in the residual vessels. The molecules defining this phenotype are: vascular endothelial cadherin, a supposedly universal endothelial marker required for tube formation (lost in the scleroderma tissue, antiangiogenic interferon alpha (overexpressed in the scleroderma dermis and RGS5, a signaling molecule whose expression coincides with the end of branching morphogenesis during development and tumor angiogenesis (also overexpressed in scleroderma skin. Following high dose immunosuppressive therapy, patients experienced clinical improvement and 5 of the 7 patients with scleroderma had increased capillary counts. It was also observed in the same 5 patients, that the interferon alpha and vascular endothelial cadherin had returned to normal as other clinical signs in the skin regressed, and in all 7 patients, RGS5 had returned to normal.These data provide the first objective evidence for loss of vessels in scleroderma and show that this phenomenon is reversible. Coordinate changes in expression of three molecules already implicated in angiogenesis or anti-angiogenesis suggest that control of expression of these three molecules may be the underlying mechanism for at least the vascular component of this disease. Since rarefaction has been little studied, these data may have

  9. Capillary electrokinetic separations with optical detection. Technical progress report, February 1, 1993--January 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepaniak, M.J.


    This program seeks the development of capillary electrokinetic separation techniques and associated optical methods of detection. Fundamental studies of pertinent separation and band broadening mechanisms are being conducted, with the emphasis on understanding systems that include highly-ordered assemblies as running buffer additives. The additives include cyclodextrins, affinity reagents, and soluble (entangled) polymers and are employed with capillary electrophoresis, CE and/or micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, MECC modes of separation. The utility of molecular modeling techniques for predicting the effects of highly ordered assemblies on the retention behavior of isomeric compounds is under investigation. The feasibility of performing separations using a non-aqueous solvent/fullerene electrochromatographic system is being explored. The analytical methodologies associated with these capillary separation techniques are being advanced through the development of retention programming instumentation/techniques and new strategies for performing optical detection. The advantages of laser fluorimetry are extended through the inclusion of fluorogenic, reagents in the running buffer. These reagents include oligonucleotide intercalation reagents for detecting DNA fragments. Chemiluminescence detection using post-capillary reactors/flow cells is also in progress. Successful development of these separation and detection systems will fill current voids in the capabilities of capillary separation techniques.

  10. Footprinting with an automated capillary DNA sequencer. (United States)

    Yindeeyoungyeon, W; Schell, M A


    Footprinting is a valuable tool for studying DNA-protein contacts. However, it usually involves expensive, tedious and hazardous steps such as radioactive labeling and analyses on polyacrylamide sequencing gels. We have developed an easy four-step footprinting method involving (i) the generation and purification of a PCR fragment that is fluorescently labeled at one end with 6-carboxyfluorescein; (ii) brief exposure of the fragment to a DNA-binding protein and then DNase I; (iii) spin-column purification; and (iv) analysis of partial digestion products on the ABI Prism 310 capillary DNA sequencer/genetic analyzer. Very detailed and sensitive footprints of large (> 400 bp) DNA fragments can be easily obtained, as illustrated by our use of this method to characterize binding of PhcA, a LysR-type activator, to two sites greater than 100 bp apart in the 5' untranslated region of xpsR, one of its regulated target genes. The advantages of this new method are that it (i) uses long-lived, safe and easy-to-make fluorescently labeled target fragments; (ii) uses sensitive, robust and highly reproducible fragment analysis using an automated DNA sequencer, instead of gel electrophoresis and autoradiography; and (iii) is cost effective.

  11. Salt Sensitivity Determined From Capillary Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Oberleithner


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: A significant rise of blood pressure in response to a given salt load is a weak indication of high salt sensitivity, supposed to foster the development of arterial hypertension and related diseases in later life. In search of an alternative method we recently developed the salt blood test (SBT, a new concept for quantifying salt sensitivity (SS. Based on this concept, namely that red blood cells (RBC report on salt sensitivity, the SBT-mini was developed. Methods: The SBT-mini utilizes a droplet of capillary blood mixed with a ‘smart' Na+ cocktail. Red blood cells (RBC of this mixture are allowed to sediment by gravity in a glass tube. SS is quantified by measuring RBC sedimentation rate. 90 healthy volunteers (39 males, 51 females; mean age: 23±0.5 years were evaluated and ‘standard values' for males and females were derived. Results: Sodium buffer capacity of female blood is about 20 % smaller as compared to male blood due to the lower hematocrit of females. SS of an individual is related to the mean standard value (set to 100 % of the respective male/female cohort. High SS (> 120 % has been found in 31 % of males and 28 % of females. Conclusions: SS can be estimated derived from the individual RBC sodium buffer capacity as measured by the SBT-mini. About one third of a healthy test cohort exhibits a high sensitivity to salt. Reduction of sodium consumption to at least two grams per day (equals five grams of NaCl per day as suggested by the WHO is recommended, particularly for individuals with high salt sensitivity.

  12. Effect of using polyimide capillaries during thermal experiments on the particle size distribution of supported Pt nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gámez-Mendoza, Liliana; Resto, Oscar; Martínez-Iñesta, María


    Kapton HN-type polyimide capillaries are commonly used as sample holders for transmission X-ray experiments at temperatures below 673 K because of their thermal stability, high X-ray transmittance and low cost. Using high-angle annular dark field scanning high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, this work shows that using polyimide capillaries leads to the overgrowth of supported Pt nanoparticles during reduction at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (Tg= 658 K) owing to an outgassing of water from the polyimide. Quartz capillaries were also studied and this overgrowth was not observed.

  13. Evaluation of the analytical performances of a portable, 18-parameter hemometric system using capillary blood samples for blood donor enrolment. (United States)

    Pierelli, L; Zennaro, F; Patti, D; Miceli, M; Iudicone, P; Mannella, E


    Blood donor enrolment process is frequently based on the sole capillary haemoglobin (Hb) evaluation while platelet donors by apheresis also requires platelet (Plt) count. The 'sole Hb' approach prevents a complete donor evaluation and does not allow Plt donor enrolment. To extend blood counts before donations, we evaluated the performances of a multiparametric counter using capillary blood. The ABX Micros 60 (Micros 60) blood analyzer was employed on capillary blood and compared with venous counts by a reference counter (Coulter AcT 5diff) in a first series of 416 donors and in a second series of 136, after a 3-month period of routine use of this study counter. An average of 50 microl of capillary blood was collected whose 10 microl had been aspirated by Micros 60. High correlations were found between capillary counts using Micros 60 and venous counts using the reference counter. Mean Plt counts differed of 37 x 10(9)/l less for capillary approach in the first series of comparisons, but decreased to 10 x 10(9)/l less in the second series due to a greater expertise of operators in capillary sampling. All other parameters were accurate and never reached clinical relevance albeit they showed statistically significant differences. Data on Micros 60 demonstrated that capillary predonation counts may represent a feasible and effective approach to realize an accurate enrolment process of blood and Plt donors.

  14. Determination of vanillin in vanilla perfumes and air by capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Minematsu, Saaya; Xuan, Guang-Shan; Wu, Xing-Zheng


    The present study investigated capillary electrophoretic detection of vanillin in vanilla perfume and air. An UV-absorbance detector was used in a home-made capillary electrophoretic instrument. A fused silica capillary (outer diameter: 364 μm, inner diameter: 50 μm) was used as a separation capillary, and a high electric voltage (20 kV) was applied across the two ends of the capillary. Total length of the capillary was 70 cm, and the effective length was 55 cm. Experimental results showed that the vanillin peak was detected at about 600, 450, and 500 seconds when pH of running buffers in CE were 7.2, 9.3, and 11.5, respectively. The peak area of vanillin was proportional to its concentration in the range of 0-10(-2) mol/L. The detection limit was about 10(-5) mol/L. Vanillin concentration in a 1% vanilla perfume sample was determined to be about 3×10(-4) mol/L, agreed well with that obtained by a HPLC method. Furthermore, determination of vanillin in air by combination of CE and active carbon adsorption method was investigated. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Automation and integration of multiplexed on-line sample preparation with capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, H.


    The purpose of this research is to develop a multiplexed sample processing system in conjunction with multiplexed capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The concept from DNA template to called bases was first demonstrated with a manually operated single capillary system. Later, an automated microfluidic system with 8 channels based on the same principle was successfully constructed. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were implemented to manage flow direction and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into a corresponding size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at {approximately} 60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at {approximately} 70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. DNA sequencing data from this system allow base calling up to 460 bases with accuracy of 98%.

  16. Dynamics of colloidal particles with capillary interactions. (United States)

    Domínguez, Alvaro; Oettel, Martin; Dietrich, S


    We investigate the dynamics of colloids at a fluid interface driven by attractive capillary interactions. At submillimeter length scales, the capillary attraction is formally analogous to two-dimensional gravity. In particular it is a nonintegrable interaction and it can be actually relevant for collective phenomena in spite of its weakness at the level of the pair potential. We introduce a mean-field model for the dynamical evolution of the particle number density at the interface. For generic values of the physical parameters the homogeneous distribution is found to be unstable against large-scale clustering driven by the capillary attraction. We also show that for the instability to be observable, the appropriate values for the relevant parameters (colloid radius, surface charge, external electric field, etc.) are experimentally well accessible. Our analysis contributes to current studies of the structure and dynamics of systems governed by long-ranged interactions and points toward their experimental realizations via colloidal suspensions.

  17. Novel absorption detection techniques for capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Yongjun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as one of the most versatile separation methods. However, efficient separation is not sufficient unless coupled to adequate detection. The narrow inner diameter (I.D.) of the capillary column raises a big challenge to detection methods. For UV-vis absorption detection, the concentration sensitivity is only at the μM level. Most commercial CE instruments are equipped with incoherent UV-vis lamps. Low-brightness, instability and inefficient coupling of the light source with the capillary limit the further improvement of UV-vis absorption detection in CE. The goals of this research have been to show the utility of laser-based absorption detection. The approaches involve: on-column double-beam laser absorption detection and its application to the detection of small ions and proteins, and absorption detection with the bubble-shaped flow cell.

  18. Passive recruitment of circulating leukocytes into capillary sprouts from existing capillaries in a microfluidic system. (United States)

    Forouzan, Omid; Burns, Jennie M; Robichaux, Jennifer L; Murfee, Walter L; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S


    Recent evidence implicating leukocytes in angiogenesis raises the question of whether leukocytes and other cells circulating with the blood in microvascular networks can home to capillary sprouts intraluminally. This study describes an investigation of leukocyte trafficking in sprouting capillaries fabricated using soft lithography. The leukocytes passing with whole blood through existing capillaries were able to enter microfabricated capillary sprouts of variable length and sprouting angle due to the mechanical interaction with red blood cells (RBCs) at the sprouting bifurcation, in spite of the complete absence of blood flow through the blind-ended sprouts or any chemoattractants. The RBCs formed "comet tails" (the densely packed cellular trains forming behind leukocytes as they move through narrow capillaries) and effectively pushed leukocytes into the microfabricated sprouts while bypassing them at the sprouting bifurcation. Individual sprouts filled with several leukocytes, as wells as RBCs and platelets, were observed. The results of this study suggest that (i) blood cells are likely present in capillary sprouts throughout their development, (ii) leukocytes and other circulating cells may use this mechanism to home to capillary sprouts intraluminally for direct engraftment, and (iii) tissues may use this phenomenon as another mechanism for local recruitment of leukocytes from the blood stream.

  19. Intracerebral Capillary Hemangioma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Young; Kim, Jae Kyun; Byun, Jun Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Chung Ang University Medical Center, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eon Sub [Dept. of Radiology, Chung Ang University Medical Center, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Intracerebral capillary hemangiomas are very rare benign vascular tumors that mostly occur during infancy. We described a 69-year-old man with generalized tonic-clonic seizures who was diagnosed with an intracranial mass. Multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography studies were performed for evaluation of brain, and there was a well-enhancing mass found in the right temporal lobe without a definite feeding vessel. The patient underwent surgery and the pathologic examination demonstrated marked proliferation of small vessels with a lobular pattern in the brain parenchyma, which was confirmed to be capillary hemangioma.

  20. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cao


    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc. Methods: Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Results: Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Conclusion: Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. Impact of the study: This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing. Keywords: Epoc, Capillary, Transport, Blood gas, Point of care

  1. Usage of Capillary Electrophoresis for screening common Hemoglobinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are most common inherited disorders in the world approximately 7 percent of the worldwide population and 5-6 percent of population of Iran are carriers. For control of this inherited hemoglobin disorders need to accurate screening by more advanced and more accurate methods. This study explains features of current Iran hemoglobin disorders, nominates the accessible methods for screening them and introduces the capillary zone electrophoresis as a rapid & more accurate method. The required data were extracted of various articles and then for good explanation, current Iran hemoglobinopathies properties were showed in the tables and electropherograms of important hemoglobin disorders in Iran population were provided for help to interpretation results of blood tests by capillary zone electrophoresis method. Hemoglobin disorders are including thalassemias & hemoglobin variants Disruption in the production and malfunction of globin chains cause types of hemoglobin disorders. We cannot introduce one of clinical laboratory tests as critical and basic method for screening and distinguishing types of inherited hemoglobin disorders as alone. For distinguishing the types of them must be prepared enough information and data of the hemoglobin disorders and for more accurate analysis must be used simultaneously different methods as Gel electrophoresis, High performance liquid chromatography, Isoelectric focusing, Capillary zone electrophoresis or molecular tests. The capillary electrophoresis is an accurate and rapid method for screening types of the hemoglobin disorders. Other side this method cannot analyze all of them, so must be used biochemical, biophysical and molecular methods for confirmation the results. This review showed we can use the capillary electrophoresis and HPLC as two complementary methods for hemoglobinopathies screening. We can analyze by the methods more hemoglobin disorders and decrease more laboratory errors. Moreover

  2. A capillary viscometer designed for the characterization of biocompatible ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, J., E-mail:; Odenbach, S.


    Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles are receiving a growing interest in biomedical research. These ferrofluids can, e.g., be used for the treatment of cancer, making use of the drug targeting principle or using an artificially induced heating. To enable a safe application the basic properties of the ferrofluids have to be well understood, including the viscosity of the fluids if an external magnetic field is applied. It is well known that the viscosity of ferrofluids rises if a magnetic field is applied, where the rise depends on shear rate and magnetic field strength. In case of biocompatible ferrofluids such investigations proved to be rather complicated as the experimental setup should be close to the actual application to allow justified predictions of the effects which have to be expected. Thus a capillary viscometer, providing a flow situation comparable to the flow in a blood vessel, has been designed. The glass capillary is exchangeable and different inner diameters can be used. The range of the shear rates has been adapted to the range found in the human organism. The application of an external magnetic field is enabled with two different coil setups covering the ranges of magnetic field strengths required on the one hand for a theoretical understanding of particle interaction and resulting changes in viscosity and on the other hand for values necessary for a potential biomedical application. The results show that the newly designed capillary viscometer is suitable to measure the magnetoviscous effect in biocompatible ferrofluids and that the results appear to be consistent with data measured with rotational rheometry. In addition, a strong change of the flow behaviour of a biocompatible ferrofluid was proven for ranges of the shear rate and the magnetic field strength expected for a potential biomedical application. - Highlights: • A capillary viscometer to characterize biocompatible ferrofluids is presented. • Shear rates and capillary diameters

  3. Elastic deformation due to tangential capillary forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, S.; Marchand, Antonin; Andreotti, Bruno; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus


    A sessile liquid drop can deform the substrate on which it rests if the solid is sufficiently “soft.” In this paper we compute the detailed spatial structure of the capillary forces exerted by the drop on the solid substrate using a model based on Density Functional Theory. We show that, in addition

  4. Ameliorative potential of Artemisia Capillaris Formula on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Artemisia Capillaris Formula (ACF), a traditional Chinese medicinal therapy, has been used clinically in China to treat Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) for many years. However, the mechanism of action of this treatment on NAFLD is still unknown. The goal of the present study is to test whether ...

  5. Capillary-Patterns for Biometric Authentication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paloma Benedicto, J.; Bruekers, A.A.M.; Presura, C.N.; Garcia Molina, G.


    In this report, we present a method using the capillary structuresunder the "distal interphalangeal joint" (DIP joint), which is located between the second and third (distal) phalanges of the finger, for achieving secure biometric authentication. Images of the DIPjoint are acquired using a

  6. Numerical simulations of capillary barrier field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C.E. [Univ. of Wollongong (Australia); Stormont, J.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Numerical simulations of two capillary barrier systems tested in the field were conducted to determine if an unsaturated flow model could accurately represent the observed results. The field data was collected from two 7-m long, 1.2-m thick capillary barriers built on a 10% grade that were being tested to investigate their ability to laterally divert water downslope. One system had a homogeneous fine layer, while the fine soil of the second barrier was layered to increase its ability to laterally divert infiltrating moisture. The barriers were subjected first to constant infiltration while minimizing evaporative losses and then were exposed to ambient conditions. The continuous infiltration period of the field tests for the two barrier systems was modelled to determine the ability of an existing code to accurately represent capillary barrier behavior embodied in these two designs. Differences between the field test and the model data were found, but in general the simulations appeared to adequately reproduce the response of the test systems. Accounting for moisture retention hysteresis in the layered system will potentially lead to more accurate modelling results and is likely to be important when developing reasonable predictions of capillary barrier behavior.

  7. Imbibition of ``Open Capillary'': Fundamentals and Applications (United States)

    Tani, Marie; Kawano, Ryuji; Kamiya, Koki; Okumura, Ko


    Control or transportation of small amount of liquid is one of the most important issues in various contexts including medical sciences or pharmaceutical industries to fuel delivery. We studied imbibition of ``open capillary'' both experimentally and theoretically, and found simple scaling laws for both statics and dynamics of the imbibition, similarly as that of imbibition of capillary tubes. Furthermore, we revealed the existence of ``precursor film,'' which developed ahead of the imbibing front, and the dynamics of it is described well by another scaling law for capillary rise in a corner. Then, to show capabilities of open capillaries, we demonstrated two experiments by fabricating micro mixing devices to achieve (1) simultaneous multi-color change of the Bromothymol blue (BTB) solution and (2) expression of the green florescent protein (GFP). This research was partly supported by ImPACT Program of Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (Cabinet Office, Government of Japan). M. T. is supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Research Fellowships for Young Scientists.

  8. Eletrocromatografia capilar: contextualização, estado da arte e perspectivas Capillary electrochromatography: contextualization, state-of-the-art and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Pinotti Segato


    Full Text Available Capillary electrochromatography (CEC is a separation technique in which the mobile phase flow is based on the application of a voltage across a packed capillary, which generates an electroosmotic flow that transports the analytes along the capillary toward the detector. As it combines the separation mechanisms of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and of capillary electrophoresis (CE, CEC can be considered a hybrid of HPLC and CE. This review presents some fundamental aspects of CEC and is focused on the instrumental advances of the technique, such as column technology, operation modes and detection systems, presenting recent papers on these topics and some applications and perspectives about CEC.

  9. Nanoparticle-based capillary electroseparation of proteins in polymer capillaries under physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, C.; Harwigsson, I.; Becker, K.


    of nanoparticles, i.e. in CE mode, the protein samples adsorbed completely to the capillary walls and could not be recovered. In contrast, nanoparticle-based capillary electroseparation resolved green fluorescent protein from several of its impurities within I min. Furthermore, a mixture of native green...... fluorescent protein and two of its single-amino-acid-substituted variants was separated within 2.5 min with efficiencies of 400 000 plates/m. The nanoparticles prevent adsorption by introducing a large interacting surface and by obstructing the attachment of the protein to the capillary wall. A one...... at protein friendly conditions. The developed capillary-based method facilitates future electrochromatography of proteins on polymer-based microchips under physiological conditions and enables the initial optimization of separation conditions in parallel to the chip development....

  10. Influence of local capillary trapping on containment system effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Steven [University Of Texas At Austin, Austin, TX (United States). Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering


    , approaching a percolation threshold while non-barrier regions remain numerous. The maximum possible extent of LCT thus occurs at Pc,entrycrit near this threshold. Testing predictions of this simple algorithm against full-physics simulations of buoyancy-driven CO2 migration support the concept of critical capillary entry pressure. However, further research is needed to determine whether a single value of critical capillary entry pressure always applies and how that value can be determined a priori. Simulations of injection into high-resolution (cells 0.3 m on a side) 2D and 3D heterogeneous domains show two characteristic behaviors. At small gravity numbers (vertical flow velocity much less than horizontal flow velocity) the CO2 fills local traps as well as regions that would act as local barriers if CO2 were moving only due to buoyancy. When injection ceases, the CO2 migrates vertically to establish large saturations within local traps and residual saturation elsewhere. At large gravity numbers, the CO2 invades a smaller portion of the perforated interval. Within this smaller swept zone the local barriers are not invaded, but local traps are filled to large saturation during injection and remain during post-injection gravity-driven migration. The small gravity number behavior is expected in the region within 100 m of a vertical injection well at anticipated rates of injection for commercial GCS. Simulations of leakage scenarios (through-going region of large permeability imposed in overlying seal) indicate that LCT persists (i.e. CO2 remains held in a large fraction of the local iv traps) and the persistence is independent of injection rate during storage. Simulations of leakage for the limiting case of CO2 migrating vertically from an areally extensive emplacement in the lower portion of a reservoir showed similar strong persistence of LCT. This research has two broad

  11. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system. (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Edwards, Rachel; Chairez, Janette; Devaraj, Sridevi


    Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc). Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory) was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics) was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer) for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Yongzheng; Rausch, Sarah J.; Geng, Tao; Jambovane, Sachin R.; Kelly, Ryan T.


    Here we show that a closed pneumatic microvalve on a PDMS chip can serve as a semipermeable membrane under an applied potential, enabling current to pass through while blocking the passage of charged analytes. Enrichment of both anionic and cationic species has been demonstrated, and concentration factors of ~70 have been achieved in just 8 s. Once analytes are concentrated, the valve is briefly opened and the sample is hydrodynamically injected onto an integrated microchip or capillary electrophoresis (CE) column. In contrast to existing preconcentration approaches, the membrane-based method described here enables both rapid analyte concentration as well as high resolution separations.

  13. Capillary waves at microdroplet coalescence with a liquid layer (United States)

    Fedorets, A. A.; Marchuk, I. V.; Strizhak, P. A.; Kabov, O. A.


    The quickly damped capillary waves generated at coalescence of microdroplets (diameter of up to 100 µm), formed in a gas atmosphere at water vapor condensation, with the horizontal layer of water are studied experimentally. Evaporation takes place at intensive local heating of liquid from the substrate side. To visualize and measure the deformations, the Schlieren technique and high-speed video (up to 54000 f/s) are applied. The measured wave amplitude varies within 1-6 μm, and this is consistent with the magnitude of the surface energy of coalescing microdroplets. The waves are generated by the energy of droplet surface.

  14. Guiding of slow Ne{sup 7+}-ions through insulating nano-capillaries of various geometrical cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, P; Zhang, H Q; Akram, N; Schuch, R [Department of Atomic Physics, Fysikum, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Soroka, I L [Department of Materials Chemistry, Angstroem Laboratory, S-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Trautmann, C, E-mail: skog@physto.s, E-mail: schuch@physto.s [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)


    We have studied guiding of slow highly charged ions through PET, SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and now, for the first time, insulating nano-capillaries of non-circular cross-section. The guiding effect is been explained by self-organized formation of charge patches on the inner capillary walls. We investigate the effects of the geometrical cross-section on the distribution of Ne{sup 7+}-ions transmitted through nano-capillaries of rhombic cross-section in muscovite mica, using ion beams of different kinetic energies.

  15. A complete soil hydraulic model accounting for capillary and adsorptive water retention, capillary and film conductivity, and hysteresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakai, Masaru; Van Genuchten, Martinus Th; Alazba, A. A.; Setiawan, Budi Indra; Minasny, Budiman


    A soil hydraulic model that considers capillary hysteretic and adsorptive water retention as well as capillary and film conductivity covering the complete soil moisture range is presented. The model was obtained by incorporating the capillary hysteresis model of Parker and Lenhard into the hydraulic

  16. Capillary electrokinetic separations with optical detection. Technical progress report, February 1, 1994--January 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepaniak, M.J.


    This multifarious research program is dedicated to the development of capillary electrokinetic separation techniques and associated optical methods of detection. Currently, research is directed at three general objectives. First, fundamental studies of pertinent separation and band broadening mechanisms are being conducted, with the emphasis on achieving rapid separations and understanding separation systems that include highly-ordered assemblies as running buffer additives. Second, instrumentation and methodologies associated with these capillary separation techniques are being advanced. Third, applications of these separation and detection systems should fill current voids in the capabilities of capillary separation techniques. In particular, it should be possible to perform rapid, highly efficient, and selective separations of hydrophobic compounds (e.g., higher MW polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fullerenes), certain optical isomers, DNA fragments, and various pollutants including certain heavy metals.

  17. Density measurement in a laser-plasma-accelerator capillary using Raman scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Weineisen


    Full Text Available Laser wakefield accelerators have shown 1 GeV electron beams with some 10 pC charge from centimeter-length gas capillaries. The electrons are accelerated by the field of a plasma wave trailing an intense laser pulse. For improving the stability, electron injection and acceleration should be separated. One possible scheme is self-injection with a plasma density gradient and subsequent acceleration at constant density. This can be realized by embedding a high-density gas jet into a capillary. A critical parameter for this scheme to work is the realization of a specific density gradient, therefore a robust measurement is desirable. A new method utilizing the density dependence of Raman scattering has been used to characterize the high-density region of a neutral gas within a capillary with a few ten micrometer longitudinal resolution. This allowed us to measure a density drop of a factor of 4 within 200 micrometers.

  18. In vivo monitoring of serotonin in the striatum of freely moving rats with one minute temporal resolution by online microdialysis-capillary high-performance liquid chromatography at elevated temperature and pressure. (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Jaquins-Gerstl, Andrea; Nesbitt, Kathryn M; Rutan, Sarah C; Michael, Adrian C; Weber, Stephen G


    Online monitoring of serotonin in striatal dialysate from freely moving rats was carried out for more than 16 h at 1 min time resolution using microdialysis coupled online to a capillary HPLC system operating at about 500 bar and 50 °C. Several aspects of the system were optimized toward robust, in vivo online measurements. A two-loop, eight-port rotary injection valve demonstrated better consistency of continuous injections than the more commonly used two-loop, 10-port valve. A six-port loop injector for introducing stimulating solutions (stimulus injector) was placed in-line between the syringe pump and microdialysis probe. We minimized solute dispersion by using capillary tubing (75 μm inside diameter, 70 cm long) for the probe inlet and outlet. In vitro assessment of concentration dispersion during transport with a 30 s time resolution showed that the dispersion standard deviation for serotonin was well within the desired system temporal resolution. Each 30 or 60 s measurement reflects the integral of the true time response over the measurement time. We have accounted for this mathematically in determining the concentration dispersion during transport. The delay time between a concentration change at the probe and its detection is 7 min. The timing of injections from the stimulus injector and the cycle time for the HPLC monitoring of the flow stream were controlled. The electrochemical detector contained a 13 μm spacer to minimize detector dead volume. During in vivo experiments, retention time and separation efficiency were stable and reproducible. There was no statistically significant change over 5.5 h in the electrochemical detector sensitivity factor for serotonin. Dialysate serotonin concentrations change significantly in response to a 120 mM K(+) stimulus. Release of serotonin evoked by a 10 min, 120 mM K(+) stimulation, but not for other K(+) stimuli, exhibited a reproducible, oscillating profile of dialysate serotonin concentration versus time

  19. Capillary rise simulation of saline waters of different concentrations in sandy soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthawit Jitrapinate


    Full Text Available Soil salinity causes corrosion of engineering structures worldwide. The main cause of soil salinization is capillary rise of saline groundwater. Soil salinity can be mitigated once the capillary rise of saline groundwater in soils is understood. The objective of this paper is to present experimental results of capillary rising rates of different salt concentration waters in three sandy soils. Each sample comprised of a soil column 300-mm height and 50-mm in diameter steeped in a 25-mm deep saline water pool for a time period to allow for the capillary action to develop. The salinity strength varied from fresh water, EC = 2 dS/m, to medium saline (50, 100, and 150 dS/m, and to high saline water (200 dS/m. It was found that the highest rate of capillary rise occurred in medium saline waters, while the lowest is the fresh water. The very saline water has lower rate than the medium ones but higher than fresh water.

  20. A novel PEG coating immobilized onto capillary through polydopamine coating for separation of proteins in CE. (United States)

    Zeng, Rongju; Luo, Zhaofeng; Zhou, Dan; Cao, Fuhu; Wang, Yanmei


    The antifouling PEG-immobilized capillary was introduced for the protein separation in CE through mussel adhesive protein inspired polydopamine coating for the first time. The polydopamine, formed by spontaneous oxidative polymerization of dopamine at alkaline in the inner surface of capillary, was exploited to immobilize amine-functionalized PEG onto the capillary surface. During the process, polydopamine-graft-PEG copolymer was formed via Michael addition or Schiff base reactions. The polymer coating was observed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and SEM. And both of them indicated the formation of the polymer coating. A comparative study of EOF showed that the novel coating could provide effective suppression of EOF and minimized adsorption of proteins. As a consequence, fast and efficient separations of three proteins such as lysozyme, cytochrome c, and ribonuclease A were obtained within a broad pH range. Furthermore, the long-term stability of polydopamine-graft-PEG coating in consecutive protein separation runs and the high separation efficiency proved that this novel coating was capable of minimizing protein adsorption during the capillary separation. The successful capillary performance also was demonstrated in the separation of protein mixture and milk powder samples at acidic pH.

  1. X-ray optics of tapered capillaries. (United States)

    Balaic, D X; Nugent, K A


    The optics of x-ray concentration by tapered glass capillaries is analyzed in terms of a phase-space construction describing their transmission efficiency. The parameters defining the intensity gain are given in terms of parameters describing the x-ray source used, the capillary taper profile, and glass characteristics. We introduce some key concepts in understanding these devices: the extreme ray and a phase-space description of sources and optics. They are used to develop an analytical formulation for the optimum gain characteristics of generalized tapers for use with synchrotrons and other low-divergence sources. This general solution is solved further for the case of conical taper profile. The predictions of this theory are compared with the results of three-dimensional, ray-tracing simulations of x-ray concentration efficiency for conical and paraboloidal tapers.

  2. Intraoral capillary haemangioma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Parimi


    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are common benign vascular tumors of the head and neck region which account for 7% of all benign tumors of infancy and childhood. Adults are rarely affected, and they have a female predilection. Based on the microscopic appearance, they are classified into capillary, cavernous, mixed, and sclerosing variety. Incidence of intraoral capillary hemangioma (CH is infrequent, and its topographical presentation on the palatal mucosa and gingiva marks extreme rarity. They are uncommonly encountered by the dentists. The aim of this article is to present a case of CH in a 46-year-old male who presented with a swelling on the posterior hard palate on the left side involving the palatal gingiva and palatal mucosa.

  3. Transversally periodic solitary gravity–capillary waves (United States)

    Milewski, Paul A.; Wang, Zhan


    When both gravity and surface tension effects are present, surface solitary water waves are known to exist in both two- and three-dimensional infinitely deep fluids. We describe here solutions bridging these two cases: travelling waves which are localized in the propagation direction and periodic in the transverse direction. These transversally periodic gravity–capillary solitary waves are found to be of either elevation or depression type, tend to plane waves below a critical transverse period and tend to solitary lumps as the transverse period tends to infinity. The waves are found numerically in a Hamiltonian system for water waves simplified by a cubic truncation of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator. This approximation has been proved to be very accurate for both two- and three-dimensional computations of fully localized gravity–capillary solitary waves. The stability properties of these waves are then investigated via the time evolution of perturbed wave profiles. PMID:24399922

  4. Capillary blood collecting system for glucose determination.


    Wiles, P G; Watkins, P J


    A method of self collection of blood is described for use by diabetic patients unable, or unwilling, to determine their own blood glucose, and for when accurate results are required for research purposes. A commercially available 'flask' capillary blood collecting system can be used to collect 50 microliters blood for glucose determination on a Yellow Springs analyser. The results are accurate when compared to Auto Analyzer (r = 0.988) and are unaffected by storage at 4 degrees C for up to 28...

  5. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface (United States)

    D`Silva, A.


    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conductors is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer. 1 fig.

  6. a Comprehensive Model for Capillary Pressure Difference across a Drop/bubble Flowing Through a Constricted Capillary (United States)

    Liang, Mingchao; Wei, Junhong; Han, Hongmei; Fu, Chengguo; Liu, Jianjun


    The capillary pressure is one of the crucial parameters in many science and engineering applications such as composite materials, interface science, chemical engineering, oil exploration, etc. The drop/bubble formation and its mechanisms that affect the permeability of porous media have steadily attracted much attention in the past. When a drop/bubble moves from a larger capillary to a smaller one, it is often obstructed by an additional pressure difference caused by the capillary force. In this paper, a comprehensive model is derived for the capillary pressure difference when a drop/bubble flows through a constricted capillary, i.e. a geometrically constricted passage with an abrupt change in radius. The proposed model is expressed as a function of the smaller capillary radius, pore-throat ratio, contact angle, surface tension and length of the drop/bubble in the smaller capillary. The model predictions are compared with the available experimental data, and good agreement is found between them.

  7. The order of condensation in capillary grooves. (United States)

    Rascón, Carlos; Parry, Andrew O; Nürnberg, Robert; Pozzato, Alessandro; Tormen, Massimo; Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo


    We consider capillary condensation in a deep groove of width L. The transition occurs at a pressure p(co)(L) described, for large widths, by the Kelvin equation p(sat) - p(co)(L) = 2σ cosθ/L, where θ is the contact angle at the side walls and σ is the surface tension. The order of the transition is determined by the contact angle of the capped end θcap; it is continuous if the liquid completely wets the cap, and first-order otherwise. When the transition is first-order, corner menisci at the bottom of the capillary lead to a pronounced metastability, determined by a complementary Kelvin equation Δp(L) = 2σ sinθcap/L. On approaching the wetting temperature of the capillary cap, the corner menisci merge and a single meniscus unbinds from the bottom of the groove. Finite-size scaling shifts, crossover behaviour and critical singularities are determined at mean-field level and beyond. Numerical and experimental results showing the continuous nature of condensation for θcap = 0 and the influence of corner menisci on adsorption isotherms are presented.

  8. Microfab-less Microfluidic Capillary Electrophoresis Devices. (United States)

    Segato, Thiago P; Bhakta, Samir A; Gordon, Matthew; Carrilho, Emanuel; Willis, Peter A; Jiao, Hong; Garcia, Carlos D


    Compared to conventional bench-top instruments, microfluidic devices possess advantageous characteristics including great portability potential, reduced analysis time (minutes), and relatively inexpensive production, putting them on the forefront of modern analytical chemistry. Fabrication of these devices, however, often involves polymeric materials with less-than-ideal surface properties, specific instrumentation, and cumbersome fabrication procedures. In order to overcome such drawbacks, a new hybrid platform is proposed. The platform is centered on the use of 5 interconnecting microfluidic components that serve as the injector or reservoirs. These plastic units are interconnected using standard capillary tubing, enabling in-channel detection by a wide variety of standard techniques, including capacitively-coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D). Due to the minimum impact on the separation efficiency, the plastic microfluidic components used for the experiments discussed herein were fabricated using an inexpensive engraving tool and standard Plexiglas. The presented approach (named 5(2)-platform) offers a previously unseen versatility: enabling the assembly of the platform within minutes using capillary tubing that differs in length, diameter, or material. The advantages of the proposed design are demonstrated by performing the analysis of inorganic cations by capillary electrophoresis on soil samples from the Atacama Desert.

  9. Drinking in Space: The Capillary Beverage Experiment (United States)

    Wollman, Andrew; Weislogel, Mark; Jenson, Ryan; Graf, John; Pettit, Donald; Kelly, Scott; Lindgren, Kjell; Yui, Kimiya


    A selection from as many as 50 different drinks including coffees, teas, and fruit smoothies are consumed daily by astronauts aboard the International Space Station. For practical reasons, the drinks are generally sipped through straws inserted in sealed bags. We present the performance of a special cup designed to allow the drinking operation in much the same manner as on earth, only with the role of gravity replaced by the combined effects of surface tension, wetting, and special container geometry. One can finally `smell the coffee.' Six so-called Space Cups are currently in orbit as part of the Capillary Beverage Experiment which aims to demonstrate specific passive control of poorly wetting aqueous capillary systems through a fun mealtime activity. The mathematical fluid mechanical design process with full numerical simulations is presented alongside experimental results acquired using a drop tower and low-g aircraft before complete characterization aboard the Space Station. Astronaut commentary is both humorous and informative, but the insightful experimental results of the potable space experiment testify to the prospects of new no-moving-parts capillary solutions for certain water-based life support operations aboard spacecraft.

  10. Capillary instability on a hydrophilic stripe (United States)

    Speth, Raymond L.; Lauga, Eric


    A recent experiment showed that cylindrical segments of water filling a hydrophilic stripe on an otherwise hydrophobic surface display a capillary instability when their volume is increased beyond the critical volume at which their apparent contact angle on the surface reaches 90° (Gau et al 1999 Science 283 46-9). Surprisingly, the fluid segments did not break up into droplets—as would be expected for a classical Rayleigh-Plateau instability—but instead displayed a long-wavelength instability where all excess fluid gathered in a single bulge along each stripe. We consider here the dynamics of the flow instability associated with this setup. We perform a linear stability analysis of the capillary flow problem in the inviscid limit. We first confirm previous work showing that all cylindrical segments are linearly unstable if (and only if) their apparent contact angle is larger than 90°. We then demonstrate that the most unstable wavenumber for the surface perturbation decreases to zero as the apparent contact angle of the fluid on the surface approaches 90°, allowing us to re-interpret the creation of bulges in the experiment as a zero-wavenumber capillary instability. A variation of the stability calculation is also considered for the case of a hydrophilic stripe located on a wedge-like geometry.

  11. Capillary instability on a hydrophilic stripe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speth, Raymond L [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lauga, Eric [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411 (United States)], E-mail:


    A recent experiment showed that cylindrical segments of water filling a hydrophilic stripe on an otherwise hydrophobic surface display a capillary instability when their volume is increased beyond the critical volume at which their apparent contact angle on the surface reaches 90 deg. (Gau et al 1999 Science 283 46-9). Surprisingly, the fluid segments did not break up into droplets-as would be expected for a classical Rayleigh-Plateau instability-but instead displayed a long-wavelength instability where all excess fluid gathered in a single bulge along each stripe. We consider here the dynamics of the flow instability associated with this setup. We perform a linear stability analysis of the capillary flow problem in the inviscid limit. We first confirm previous work showing that all cylindrical segments are linearly unstable if (and only if) their apparent contact angle is larger than 90 deg. We then demonstrate that the most unstable wavenumber for the surface perturbation decreases to zero as the apparent contact angle of the fluid on the surface approaches 90 deg, allowing us to re-interpret the creation of bulges in the experiment as a zero-wavenumber capillary instability. A variation of the stability calculation is also considered for the case of a hydrophilic stripe located on a wedge-like geometry.

  12. Student Design Challenges in Capillary Flow (United States)

    Stocker, Dennis P.; Wollman, Andrew; Hall, Nancy R.; Weislogel, Mark; DeLombard, Richard


    For some grade 8-12 students, capillary flow has bridged the gap between the classroom and research facility, from normal gravity to microgravity. In the past four years, NASA and the Portland State University (PSU) have jointly challenged students to design test cells, using Computer-Aided Design (CAD), to study capillary action in microgravity as PSU has done on the International Space Station (ISS). Using the student-submitted CAD drawings, the test cells were manufactured by PSU and tested in their 2.1-second drop tower. The microgravity results were made available online for student analysis and reporting. Over 100 such experiments have been conducted, where there has been participation from 15 states plus a German school for the children of U.S. military personnel. In 2016, a related NASA challenge was held in partnership with the ASGSR, again, based on the research conducted by PSU. In this challenge, grade 9-12 students designed and built devices using capillary action to launch droplets as far as possible in NASAs 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Example results will be presented by students at this conference. The challenges engage students in ISS science and technology and can inspire them to pursue technical careers.

  13. GeV Electron Beams from a Capillary Discharge Guided Laser Plasma Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Lin, Chen; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, Cameron; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim


    Laser plasma acceleration (LPA) up to 1 GeV has been realized at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory by using a capillary discharge waveguide. In this paper, the capillary discharge guided LPA system including a broadband single-shot electron spectrometer is described. The spectrometer was designed specifically for LPA experiments and has amomentumacceptance of 0.01 - 1.1 GeV/c with a percent level resolution. Experiments using a 33 mm long, 300 mu m diameter capillary demonstrated the generation of high energy electron beams up to 1 GeV. By de-tuning discharge delay from optimum guiding performance, selftrapping and acceleration were found to be stabilized producing 460 MeV electron beams.

  14. Process-morphology scaling relations quantify self-organization in capillary densified nanofiber arrays. (United States)

    Kaiser, Ashley L; Stein, Itai Y; Cui, Kehang; Wardle, Brian L


    Capillary-mediated densification is an inexpensive and versatile approach to tune the application-specific properties and packing morphology of bulk nanofiber (NF) arrays, such as aligned carbon nanotubes. While NF length governs elasto-capillary self-assembly, the geometry of cellular patterns formed by capillary densified NFs cannot be precisely predicted by existing theories. This originates from the recently quantified orders of magnitude lower than expected NF array effective axial elastic modulus (E), and here we show via parametric experimentation and modeling that E determines the width, area, and wall thickness of the resulting cellular pattern. Both experiments and models show that further tuning of the cellular pattern is possible by altering the NF-substrate adhesion strength, which could enable the broad use of this facile approach to predictably pattern NF arrays for high value applications.

  15. Capillary force between wetted nanometric contacts and its application to atomic force microscopy. (United States)

    Crassous, Jérôme; Ciccotti, Matteo; Charlaix, Elisabeth


    We extend to the case of perfect wetting the exact calculation of Orr et al. (J. Fluid. Mech. 1975, 67, 723) for a pendular ring connecting two dry surfaces. We derive an approximate analytical expression for the capillary force between two highly curved surfaces covered by a wetting liquid film. The domain of validity of this expression is assessed and extended by a custom-made numerical simulation based on the full exact mathematical description. In the case of attractive liquid-solid van der Waals interactions, the capillary force increases monotonically with decreasing vapor pressure up to several times its saturation value. This accurate description of the capillary force makes it possible to estimate the adhesion force between wet nanoparticles; it can also be used to quantitatively interpret pull-off forces measured by atomic force microscopy.

  16. Research of the capillary structure heat removal efficiency under divertor conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistunovich, V.I. [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ``Kurchatovskij Inst.``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, A.V. [Stock Corp. `Prana`, Moscow (Russian Federation); Evtikhin, V.A. [Stock Corp. `Prana`, Moscow (Russian Federation); Korjavin, V.M. [Fusion Dept. Ministry of Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lyublinski, I.E. [Stock Corp. `Prana`, Moscow (Russian Federation); Petrov, V.B. [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ``Kurchatovskij Inst.``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khripunov, B.I. [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ``Kurchatovskij Inst.``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shapkin, V.V. [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ``Kurchatovskij Inst.``, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Experimental models of capillary structure for liquid metal fusion reactor divertor simulation have been designed, manufactured and tested in order to estimate the behaviour and possibilities of plasma-facing components based on lithium capillary system at long-pulse high heat load. The power load on the capillary target structures up to 50 MW/m{sup 2} was provided by electron beam with electron energy {<=}10 keV. The exposition-time was up to several minutes and was limited by the lithium quantity in the supply vessel. The operation parameters of the models determined in the experiments are in accordance with there design estimations. The tests of various model constructions at the divertor relevant power loads have shown promise for the new concept of a divertor taking into account long life and reliability. (orig.).

  17. Surfactant Protein D Levels in Umbilical Cord Blood and Capillary Blood of Premature Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Marianne; Holmskov, Uffe; Husby, Steffen


    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a collectin that plays an important role in the innate immune system and takes part in the surfactant homeostasis by regulating the surfactant pool size. The aims of this study were to investigate the values of SP-D in umbilical cord blood and capillary blood...... of premature infants and to relate the levels to perinatal conditions. A total of 254 premature infants were enrolled in the present study. Umbilical cord blood was drawn at the time of birth and capillary blood at regular intervals throughout the admission. The concentration of SP-D in umbilical cord blood...... and capillary blood was measured using ELISA technique. The median concentration of SP-D in umbilical cord blood was twice as high as in mature infants, 769 ng/mL (range 140-2,551), with lowest values in infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and rupture of membranes (ROM). The median concentration...

  18. Synchrotron radiation microtomography of Taylor bubbles in capillary two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Stephan [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, P.O. Box 510119, Dresden (Germany); Santos Rolo, Tomy dos; Baumbach, Tilo [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hampel, Uwe [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, P.O. Box 510119, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (TUD), AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering, Dresden (Germany)


    We report on a study to measure the three-dimensional shape of Taylor bubbles in capillaries using synchrotron radiation in conjunction with ultrafast radiographic imaging. Moving Taylor bubbles in 2-mm round and square capillaries were radiographically scanned with an ultrahigh frame rate of up to 36,000 fps and 5.6-μm pixel separation. Consecutive images were properly processed to yield 2D transmission radiographs of high contrast-to-noise ratio. Application of 3D tomographic image reconstruction disclosed the 3D bubble shape. The results provide a reference data base for development of sophisticated interface resolving CFD computations. (orig.)

  19. Structural evidence for counter-current flow in proximal tubules versus pertitubular capillaries in the rat kidney. Evaluation of the counter-current mechanism between the proximal convoluted tubules and the peritubular capillaries in the rat nephron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faarup, P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Hegedüs, V


    BACKGROUND: In spite of the very high exchange of water and solutes between the proximal tubules and the peritubular capillaries, very little is known about flow directions in these two interrelated structures. We therefore developed a morphological technique suitable for the quantitative...... evaluation of a counter-current system between the proximal convoluted tubules and the peritubular capillaries in rat renal cortex. METHODS: In male pentothal-anesthetized Wistar rats (body weight 200-250 g), India ink was injected into the aorta above the renal arteries, followed by instant freezing...... of the right kidney in isopentane at -165 degrees C, and subsequent freeze-substitution in alcohol. In microscopic slides from kidneys in which only 20-55% of the cortical peritubular capillary loops was filled with ink--representing the arterial end of the capillaries--and in which the proximal tubular...

  20. Proper Use of Capillary Number in Chemical Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Guo


    Full Text Available Capillary number theory is very important for chemical flooding enhanced oil recovery. The difference between microscopic capillary number and the microscopic one is easy to confuse. After decades of development, great progress has been made in capillary number theory and it has important but sometimes incorrect application in EOR. The capillary number theory was based on capillary tube bundles and Darcy’s law hypothesis, and this should always be kept in mind when used in chemical flooding EOR. The flow in low permeability porous media often shows obvious non-Darcy effects, which is beyond Darcy’s law. Experiments data from ASP flooding and SP flooding showed that remaining oil saturation was not always decreasing as capillary number kept on increasing. Relative permeability was proved function of capillary number; its rate dependence was affected by capillary end effects. The mobility control should be given priority rather than lowering IFT. The displacement efficiency was not increased as displacement velocity increased as expected in heavy oil chemical flooding. Largest capillary number does not always make highest recovery in chemical flooding in heterogeneous reservoir. Misuse of CDC in EOR included the ignorance of mobility ratio, Darcy linear flow hypothesis, difference between microscopic capillary number and the microscopic one, and heterogeneity caused flow regime alteration. Displacement of continuous oil or remobilization of discontinuous oil was quite different.

  1. Polydopamine as an adhesive coating for open tubular capillary electrochromatography. (United States)

    Martma, Kert; Habicht, Kaia-Liisa; Ramirez, Xochitl M; Tepp, Kersti; Käämbre, Tuuli; Volobujeva, Olga; Shimmo, Ruth


    Polydopamine (PolyD) coating was used as an adhesive layer in the preparation of biological stationary phases for open tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC). The influence of coating solution freshness, coating time, temperature and dopamine hydrochloride concentration on the PolyD layer formation was studied. The performance of the polyD coating was monitored by measuring the electro-osmotic flow in coated capillaries. Following polyD coating of the capillary, secondary layer material (e.g. cell membrane solutions, phospholipid mixtures or mitochondria) was inserted into the capillary for at least 1 h. The performance of these double-coated capillaries (a polyD layer+a biological material layer) was compared with capillaries containing the respective biological material directly attached to the capillary wall. The study reveals that the presence of polyD layer in fused silica capillaries improves the performance of lipid and membrane fragment coatings in capillaries. At the same time, the thickness of the polyD layer does not have marked impact on the secondary coatings. Analysis with test analytes demonstrated that double-coated capillaries can be applied to study membrane-drug interactions. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Capillary density and capillary-to-fibre ratio in vastus lateralis muscle of untrained and trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Kilarski


    Full Text Available Muscle fibre profile area (Af, volume density (Vv, capillary-to-fibre ratio (CF and number of capillaries per fibre square millimetre (CD were determined from needle biopsies of vastus lateralis of twenty-four male volunteers (mean ± SD: age 25.4±5.8 years, height 178.6±5.5 cm, body mass 72.1±7.7 kg of different training background. Seven subjects were untrained students (group A, nine were national and sub-national level endurance athletes (group B with the background of 7.8±2.9 years of specialised training, and eight subjects were sprint-power athletes (group C with 12.8±8.7 years of specialised training. Muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis were analysed histochemically for mATPase. Capillaries were visualized and counted using CD31 antibodies against endothelial cells. There were significant differences in the Vv of type I and type II muscle fibres in both trained groups, B (51.8%; 25.6% and C (50.5%; 26.4%. However, in untrained group A that was treated as a reference group, the difference between Vv of type I and type II fibres was less prominent, nevertheless statistically significant (42.1%; 35.1%. There was also a significant difference in CF: 1.9 in group A and 2.1 in groups B and C. The number of capillaries per mm2 (CD was 245 (group A, 308 (group B and 325 (group C. Significant differences (P<0.05 in CF and CD, were found only between group A (1.9; 245 and both groups of trained men, B and C (2.1; 308 and 325. However, endurance athletes (group B, such as long-distance runners, cyclists and cross country skiers, did not differ from the athletes representing short term, high power output sports (group C such as ice hockey, karate, ski-jumping, volleyball, soccer and modern dance.

  3. Optical-resolution photoacoustic imaging through thick tissue with a thin capillary as a dual optical-in acoustic-out waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Simandoux, Olivier; Gateau, Jerome; Huignard, Jean-Pierre; Moser, Christophe; Psaltis, Demetri; Bossy, Emmanuel


    We demonstrate the ability to guide high-frequency photoacoustic waves through thick tissue with a water-filled silica-capillary (150 \\mu m inner diameter and 30 mm long). An optical-resolution photoacoustic image of a 30 \\mu m diameter absorbing nylon thread was obtained by guiding the acoustic waves in the capillary through a 3 cm thick fat layer. The transmission loss through the capillary was about -20 dB, much lower than the -120 dB acoustic attenuation through the fat layer. The overwhelming acoustic attenuation of high-frequency acoustic waves by biological tissue can therefore be avoided by the use of a small footprint capillary acoustic waveguide for remote detection. We finally demonstrate that the capillary can be used as a dual optical-in acoustic-out waveguide, paving the way for the development of minimally invasive optical-resolution photoacoustic endoscopes free of any acoustic or optical elements at their imaging tip.

  4. Physico-chemical characterization of liposomes and drug substance-liposome interactions in pharmaceutics using capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzen, Ulrik; Østergaard, Jesper


    of liposomes. The use of liposome electrokinetic chromatography and capillary electrophoresis for determination of liposome/water partitioning and characterization of drug-liposome interactions is reviewed. A number of studies indicate that capillary electrophoresis may have a role in the characterization......Liposomes are self-assembled phospholipid vesicles and have numerous research and therapeutic applications. In the pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences liposomes find use as models of biological membranes, partitioning medium and as drug carriers. The present review addresses the use of capillary...... of liposome drug delivery systems, e.g., for the investigation of encapsulation efficiency and drug leakage. The well-known characteristics of capillary electrophoresis, i.e., low sample volume requirement, high separation efficiency in aqueous media without a stationary phase, minimal sample preparation...

  5. Determination of thioglycolic acid in cosmetics by capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Xie, Na; Ding, Xiaojing; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Shan; Wang, Zhi


    A new and simple method for the accurate determination of thioglycolic acid (TGA) in cosmetics was developed using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with diode array detection at 236nm. The CE separation was performed on an uncoated fused silica capillary with a separation buffer solution containing 300mmolL(-1) tri-sodium phosphate and 0.5mmolL(-1) cetyltrimethylammonium bromide at a voltage of -5kV. Both the intra- and inter-day precisions of the method were 1.4%. The calibration curve between the corrected peak areas and the concentrations of the TGA was linear within the concentration range of 0.006-1.0mgmL(-1) with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.002mgmL(-1) (S/N=3) and 0.006mgmL(-1) (S/N=10), respectively. The average recoveries at the spiked levels of 0.125, 0.250 and 0.500mgmL(-1) were 96.9%, 102.3% and 94.0% with the relative standard derivations of 2.1%, 3.9% and 2.2%, respectively. The method was cross-validated by both high performance liquid chromatographic and ion chromatographic method. Eighty-five commercial depilatory creams and hair-treatment products were analyzed with satisfactory results. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of transient dynamics of capillary assisted particle assembly yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virganavičius, D. [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, K. Baršausko St. 59, Kaunas LT-51423 (Lithuania); Laboratory of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Juodėnas, M. [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, K. Baršausko St. 59, Kaunas LT-51423 (Lithuania); Tamulevičius, T., E-mail: [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, K. Baršausko St. 59, Kaunas LT-51423 (Lithuania); Department of Physics, Kaunas University of Technology, Studentų St. 50, Kaunas LT-51368 (Lithuania); Schift, H. [Laboratory of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Tamulevičius, S. [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, K. Baršausko St. 59, Kaunas LT-51423 (Lithuania); Department of Physics, Kaunas University of Technology, Studentų St. 50, Kaunas LT-51368 (Lithuania)


    Highlights: • Regular particles arrays were assembled by capillary force assisted deposition. • Deposition yield dynamics was investigated at different thermal velocity regimes. • Yield transient behavior was approximated with logistic function. • Pattern density influence for switching behavior was assessed. - Abstract: In this paper, the transient behavior of the particle assembly yield dynamics when switching from low yield to high yield deposition at different velocity and thermal regimes is investigated. Capillary force assisted particle assembly (CAPA) using colloidal suspension of green fluorescent 270 nm diameter polystyrene beads was performed on patterned poly (dimethyl siloxane) substrates using a custom-built deposition setup. Two types of patterns with different trapping site densities were used to assess CAPA process dynamics and the influence of pattern density and geometry on the deposition yield transitions. Closely packed 300 nm diameter circular pits ordered in hexagonal arrangement with 300 nm pitch, and 2 × 2 mm{sup 2} square pits with 2 μm spacing were used. 2-D regular structures of the deposited particles were investigated by means of optical fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. The fluorescence micrographs were analyzed using a custom algorithm enabling to identify particles and calculate efficiency of the deposition performed at different regimes. Relationship between the spatial distribution of particles in transition zone and ambient conditions was evaluated and quantified by approximation of the yield profile with a logistic function.

  7. Capillary Deformations of Bendable Films

    KAUST Repository

    Schroll, R. D.


    We address the partial wetting of liquid drops on ultrathin solid sheets resting on a deformable foundation. Considering the membrane limit of sheets that can relax compression through wrinkling at negligible energetic cost, we revisit the classical theory for the contact of liquid drops on solids. Our calculations and experiments show that the liquid-solid-vapor contact angle is modified from the Young angle, even though the elastic bulk modulus (E) of the sheet is so large that the ratio between the surface tension γ and E is of molecular size. This finding indicates a new elastocapillary phenomenon that stems from the high bendability of very thin elastic sheets rather than from material softness. We also show that the size of the wrinkle pattern that emerges in the sheet is fully predictable, thus resolving a puzzle in modeling "drop-on-a-floating-sheet" experiments and enabling a quantitative, calibration-free use of this setup for the metrology of ultrathin films. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  8. Capillary electrokinetic separation techniques for profiling of drugs and related products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.J; Somsen, G.W; de Jong, G.J.

    Capillary electrokinetic separation techniques offer high efficiency and peak capacity, and can be very useful for the analysis of samples containing a large variety of (unknown) compounds. Such samples are frequently met in impurity profiling of drugs (detection of potential impurities in a

  9. Capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection for fast and reliable apolipoprotein E genotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, GW; Welten, HTME; Mulder, FP; Swart, CW; Kema, IP; de Jong, GJ


    The use of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection for the rapid determination of apolipoprotein E (apoE) genotypes was studied. High resolution and sensitive detection of the concerned DNA restriction fragments was achieved using CE buffers with

  10. Micro capillary glass plates as a gaseous detector of photons and particles

    CERN Document Server

    Giunji, S; Sakuraï, H; Silin, E; Sokolova, T; Radionov, I


    We demonstrate that Micro Capillary Glass Plate (MCGPs) can be combined with high efficiency SbCs and bialkali photocathodes. We also report the first results from tests of MCGP combined with solid converters of X-ray photons and with secondary electron emitters.

  11. Evaluation of phytic acid as a buffer additive for the separation of proteins in capillary electrophoresis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraart, J.R.; Schouten, Y.; Gooijer, C.; Lingeman, H.


    The use of phytic acid to improve protein analysis by capillary electrophoresis (CE) is becoming more and more popular. Due to its size and number of negative charges (up to 12) it provides a high ionic strength combined with a low conductance resulting in an efficient decrease of wall adsorption

  12. Capillary force lithography: fabrication of functional polymer templates as versatile tools for nanolithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinink, C.M.; Péter, M.; Maury, P.A.; de Boer, Meint J.; Kuipers, L.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David


    The implementation of high-resolution polymer templates fabricated by capillary force lithography (CFL) is explored both in nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and in the wet-etching of metals. Several different thermoplastic and UV-curable polymers and types of substrates are incorporated into the

  13. The role of capillary electrophoresis in metabolic profiling studies employing multiple analytical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, M.G.M.; Somsen, G.W.; de Jong, G.J.


    Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is increasingly used for the targeted and untargeted analysis of metabolites in biological samples. CE-MS is particularly useful for the profiling of highly polar metabolites without the need for derivatization and/or extensive sample preparation.

  14. Comparison of capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography methods for caffeine determination in decaffeinated coffee Comparação de métodos por eletroforese capilar e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência para a determinação de cafeína em café descafeinado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Schaper Bizzotto


    Full Text Available Decaffeinated coffee accounts for 10 percent of coffee sales in the world; it is preferred by consumers that do not wish or are sensitive to caffeine effects. This article presents an analytical comparison of capillary electrophoresis (CE and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods for residual caffeine quantification in decaffeinated coffee in terms of validation parameters, costs, analysis time, composition and treatment of the residues generated, and caffeine quantification in 20 commercial samples. Both methods showed suitable validation parameters. Caffeine content did not differ statistically in the two different methods of analysis. The main advantage of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was the 42-fold lower detection limit. Nevertheless, the capillary electrophoresis (CE detection limit was 115-fold lower than the allowable limit by the Brazilian law. The capillary electrophoresis (CE analyses were 30% faster, the reagent costs were 76.5-fold, and the volume of the residues generated was 33-fold lower. Therefore, the capillary electrophoresis (CE method proved to be a valuable analytical tool for this type of analysis.O comércio de café descafeinado constitui 10% das vendas mundiais de café, sendo preferido pelos consumidores que não desejam ou são sensíveis aos efeitos da cafeína. Este artigo apresenta uma comparação analítica de métodos por eletroforese capilar (CE e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC para a quantificação de cafeína residual em café descafeinado, quanto aos parâmetros de validação, custos, tempo de análise, composição e tratamento dos resíduos gerados, bem como quantificação de cafeína em 20 amostras comerciais. Ambos os métodos apresentaram parâmetros de validação adequados. O teor de cafeína não diferiu estatisticamente pelos dois métodos. A vantagem do método por HPLC foi o limite de detecção 42 vezes mais baixo. Não obstante, o

  15. Pericytes as Inducers of Rapid, Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-Dependent Capillary Damage during Ischemia. (United States)

    Underly, Robert G; Levy, Manuel; Hartmann, David A; Grant, Roger I; Watson, Ashley N; Shih, Andy Y


    Blood-brain barrier disruption (BBB) and release of toxic blood molecules into the brain contributes to neuronal injury during stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases. While pericytes are builders and custodians of the BBB in the normal brain, their impact on BBB integrity during ischemia remains unclear. We imaged pericyte-labeled transgenic mice with in vivo two-photon microscopy to examine the relationship between pericytes and blood plasma leakage during photothrombotic occlusion of cortical capillaries. Upon cessation of capillary flow, we observed that plasma leakage occurred with three times greater frequency in regions where pericyte somata adjoined the endothelium. Pericyte somata covered only 7% of the total capillary length in cortex, indicating that a disproportionate amount of leakage occurred from a small fraction of the capillary bed. Plasma leakage was preceded by rapid activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) at pericyte somata, which was visualized at high resolution in vivo using a fluorescent probe for matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 activity, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-gelatin. Coinjection of an MMP-9 inhibitor, but not an MMP-2 inhibitor, reduced pericyte-associated FITC-gelatin fluorescence and plasma leakage. These results suggest that pericytes contribute to rapid and localized proteolytic degradation of the BBB during cerebral ischemia. Pericytes are a key component of the neurovascular unit and are essential for normal BBB function. However, during acute ischemia, we find that pericytes are involved in creating rapid and heterogeneous BBB disruption in the capillary bed. The mechanism by which pericytes contribute to BBB damage warrants further investigation, as it may yield new therapeutic targets for acute stroke injury and other neurological diseases involving capillary flow impairment. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/370129-12$15.00/0.

  16. Fiber pigtailed thin wall capillary coupler for excitation of microsphere WGM resonator in chemical sensing (United States)

    Wang, Hanzheng; Lan, Xinwei; Huang, Jie; Yuan, Lei; Xiao, Hai


    Optical microresonators have been proven as an effective means for sensitive chemical sensors development. The changes in refractive index near the resonator surface lead to the effective refractive index change and thus a shift at certain resonance wavelength. The high quality (Q) whispering gallery modes (WGMs) contributed by the rotationally symmetric structures will interact with the local circumstances through the evanescent field. The high sensitivity in detection was achieved by the long photon lifetime of the high-Q resonator (thus the long light-environment interaction path). In this paper, we present our recent research on using fiber pigtailed capillary coupler for WGM resonator excitation and its sensing applications. Capillary tube with wall thickness of several microns was used as the waveguide. The PMMA microsphere and porous glass microsphere (PGM) were integrated with the etched capillary tube for different sensing purposes. The Q-factors and free spectrum ranges (FSR) of different types of microspheres were measured by coupling light into the microsphere using novel fiber pigtailed capillary coupler. Chemical vapor at different concentrations were tested using PGM microresonator. This alignment free structure provides a new sensing probe based on WGM resonator concept.

  17. Simulation of collagen solution flow in rectangular capillary (United States)

    Kysela, Bohus; Skocilas, Jan; Zitny, Rudolf; Stancl, Jaromir; Houska, Milan; Landfeld, Ales

    The viscoelastic properties of foods and polymers can be evaluated from flow of the material in capillary with specified dimension and shape. The extrusion rheometer equipped by capillary with rectangular cross-section was used for determination of the rheological behaviour of water collagen solution. The measurements of the axial profiles in longitudinal direction of the total stresses at capillary wall were performed for various shear rates. The linear viscoelastic model of Oldroyd B type: White-Metzner model was used for simulation of fluid flow in OpenFOAM software package. The simulations describe the effect of relaxation time on wall total stress in convergent-divergent capillary.

  18. Capillary Rarefaction Associates with Albuminuria: The Maastricht Study. (United States)

    Martens, Remy J H; Henry, Ronald M A; Houben, Alfons J H M; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Kroon, Abraham A; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Schram, Miranda T; Sep, Simone J S; Schaper, Nicolaas C; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Muris, Dennis M J; Gronenschild, Ed H B M; van der Sande, Frank M; Leunissen, Karel M L; Kooman, Jeroen P; Stehouwer, Coen D A


    Albuminuria may be a biomarker of generalized (i.e., microvascular and macrovascular) endothelial dysfunction. According to this concept, endothelial dysfunction of the renal microcirculation causes albuminuria by increasing glomerular capillary wall permeability and intraglomerular pressure, the latter eventually leading to glomerular capillary dropout (rarefaction) and further increases in intraglomerular pressure. However, direct evidence for an association between capillary rarefaction and albuminuria is lacking. Therefore, we examined the cross-sectional association between the recruitment of capillaries after arterial occlusion (capillary density during postocclusive peak reactive hyperemia) and during venous occlusion (venous congestion), as assessed with skin capillaroscopy, and albuminuria in 741 participants of the Maastricht Study, including 211 participants with type 2 diabetes. Overall, 57 participants had albuminuria, which was defined as a urinary albumin excretion ≥30 mg/24 h. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the lowest tertile of skin capillary recruitment during postocclusive peak reactive hyperemia had an odds ratio for albuminuria of 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 4.80) compared with those in the highest tertile. Similarly, a comparison between the lowest and the highest tertiles of capillary recruitment during venous congestion yielded an odds ratio of 2.89 (95% confidence interval, 1.27 to 6.61) for participants in the lowest tertile. In conclusion, lower capillary density of the skin microcirculation independently associated with albuminuria, providing direct support for a role of capillary rarefaction in the pathogenesis of albuminuria. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  19. A computational model of hemodynamic parameters in cortical capillary networks. (United States)

    Safaeian, Navid; Sellier, Mathieu; David, Tim


    The analysis of hemodynamic parameters and functional reactivity of cerebral capillaries is still controversial. To assess the hemodynamic parameters in the cortical capillary network, a generic model was created using 2D voronoi tessellation in which each edge represents a capillary segment. This method is capable of creating an appropriate generic model of cerebral capillary network relating to each part of the brain cortex because the geometric model is able to vary the capillary density. The modeling presented here is based on morphometric parameters extracted from physiological data of the human cortex. The pertinent hemodynamic parameters were obtained by numerical simulation based on effective blood viscosity as a function of hematocrit and microvessel diameter, phase separation and plasma skimming effects. The hemodynamic parameters of capillary networks with two different densities (consistent with the variation of the morphometric data in the human cortical capillary network) were analyzed. The results show pertinent hemodynamic parameters for each model. The heterogeneity (coefficient variation) and the mean value of hematocrits, flow rates and velocities of the both network models were specified. The distributions of blood flow throughout the both models seem to confirm the hypothesis in which all capillaries in a cortical network are recruited at rest (normal condition). The results also demonstrate a discrepancy of the network resistance between two models, which are derived from the difference in the number density of capillary segments between the models. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Capillary depth measurement for process control (United States)

    Dorsch, F.; Dubitzky, W.; Effing, L.; Haug, P.; Hermani, J.-P.; Plasswich, S.


    In laser welding applications optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to measure the capillary depth for process monitoring and process control. A controlled constant weld depth is expected to run applications closer to their process limits and reduce the number of destructive sample inspections. An essential premise is a reliable weld depth measurement independent from influencing factors. This work analyzes the influence of laser power, beam diameter, feed rate, and work piece material on the weld depth measured using the OCT technology. The results obtained by using fixed laser optics are compared to the corresponding results from scanner optics.

  1. Electroviscous effects in capillary filling of nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Kristensen, Anders


    a maximum in the mesoscopic regime where the channel height (or more generally the hydraulic radius) is comparable to the screening length. However, for realistic estimates of central parameters, we find that the electroviscous contribution to the apparent viscosity is at most a 1% effect.......We theoretically examine the widespread hypothesis of an electroviscous origin of the increase in apparent viscosity observed in recent experiments on capillary filling of nanochannels. Including Debye-layer corrections to the hydraulic resistance, we find that the apparent viscosity reaches...

  2. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry of carbohydrates (United States)

    Zaia, Joseph


    The development of methods for capillary electrophoresis (CE) with on-line mass spectrometric detection (CE/MS) is driven by the need for accurate, robust and sensitive glycomics analysis for basic biomedicine, biomarker discovery, and analysis of recombinant protein therapeutics. One important capability is to profile glycan mixtures with respect to the patterns of substituents including sialic acids, acetate, sulfate, phosphate, and other groups. There is additional need for an MS-compatible separation system capable of resolving carbohydrate isomers. This review summarizes applications of CS/MS to analysis of carbohydrates, glycoproteins and glycopeptides that have appeared since 2008. Readers are referred to recent comprehensive reviews covering earlier publications. PMID:23386333

  3. Capillary loss on nailfold capillary microscopy is associated with mortality in systemic sclerosis. (United States)

    Pavan, Thais Rohde; Bredemeier, Markus; Hax, Vanessa; Capobianco, Karina Gatz; da Silva Mendonça Chakr, Rafael; Xavier, Ricardo Machado


    The objective of this study is to test the association of the severity of nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) abnormalities with mortality in systemic sclerosis (SSc). One hundred and seventy SSc patients underwent an extensive evaluation (including high-resolution computed tomography, pulmonary function tests, and Doppler echocardiography) at baseline following a standard protocol. Capillary loss on NFC was evaluated using the avascular score (AS, ranging from 0 to 3), and the mean number of ectasias, megacapillaries, and hemorrhages per finger was also recorded. After a mean period of 10.1 ± 4.9 years, the life status of the patients was ascertained. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for statistical analysis. Overall, 73 patients died. By univariate Cox analysis, the AS was significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.64, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.19, p = 0.001). In our study, this association was stronger than that of race, gender, anticentromere antibodies, anti-topoisomerase I antibodies, and form of disease and had similar strength to that of skin score in univariate analyses. However, after controlling for a combination of variables (age, skin score, gender, race, signs of peripheral ischemia, and extent of interstitial lung disease, all independently associated with mortality), the association of AS with mortality was blunted (HR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.65, p = 0.445). Other NFC variables were not related to mortality. AS was associated with higher risk of death and, despite not having an independent association with mortality after controlling for a set of demographic and clinical variables, may be a useful tool in prognostic evaluation of SSc.

  4. Abnormalities in the Fiber Composition and Capillary Architecture in the Soleus Muscle of Type 2 Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Murakami


    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is linked to impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake and storage. This study aimed to investigate the fiber type distributions and the three-dimensional (3D architecture of the capillary network in the skeletal muscles of type 2 diabetic rats. Muscle fiber type transformation, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH activity, capillary density, and 3D architecture of the capillary network in the soleus muscle were determined in 36-week-old Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats as an animal model of nonobese type 2 diabetes and age-matched Wistar (Cont rats. Although the soleus muscle of Cont rats comprised both type I and type IIA fibers, the soleus muscle of GK rats had only type I fibers. In addition, total SDH activity in the soleus muscle of GK rats was significantly lower than that in Cont rats because GK rats had no high-SDH activity type IIA fiber in the soleus muscle. Furthermore, the capillary diameter, capillary tortuosity, and microvessel volume in GK rats were significantly lower than those in Cont rats. These results indicate that non-obese diabetic GK rats have muscle fiber type transformation, low SDH activity, and reduced skeletal muscle capillary content, which may be related to the impaired glucose metabolism characteristic of type 2 diabetes.

  5. Moisture Transfer in Concrete: Numerical Determination of the Capillary Conductivity Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Elie


    Full Text Available We numerically investigated moisture transfer in buildings made of concrete. We considered three types of concrete: normal concrete, pumice concrete and cellular concrete. We present the results of a 1-D liquid water flow in such materials. We evaluated the moisture distribution in building materials using the Runge-Kutta fourth-and-fifth-order method. The DOPRI5 code was used as an integrator. The model calculated the resulting moisture content and other moisture-dependent physical parameters. The moisture curves were plotted. The dampness data obtained was utilized for the numerical computation of the coefficient of the capillary conductivity of moisture. Different profiles of this coefficient are represented. Calculations were performed for four different values of the outdoor temperature: -5°C, 0°C, 5°C and 10°C. We determined that the curves corresponding to small time intervals of wetting are associated with great amplitudes of the capillary conductivity . The amplitudes of the coefficient of the capillary conductivity decrease as the time interval increases. High outdoor temperatures induce high amplitudes of the coefficient of the capillary conductivity.

  6. An innovative technique for estimating water saturation from capillary pressure in clastic reservoirs (United States)

    Adeoti, Lukumon; Ayolabi, Elijah Adebowale; James, Logan


    A major drawback of old resistivity tools is the poor vertical resolution and estimation of hydrocarbon when applying water saturation (Sw) from historical resistivity method. In this study, we have provided an alternative method called saturation height function to estimate hydrocarbon in some clastic reservoirs in the Niger Delta. The saturation height function was derived from pseudo capillary pressure curves generated using modern wells with complete log data. Our method was based on the determination of rock type from log derived porosity-permeability relationship, supported by volume of shale for its classification into different zones. Leverette-J functions were derived for each rock type. Our results show good correlation between Sw from resistivity based method and Sw from pseudo capillary pressure curves in wells with modern log data. The resistivity based model overestimates Sw in some wells while Sw from the pseudo capillary pressure curves validates and predicts more accurate Sw. In addition, the result of Sw from pseudo capillary pressure curves replaces that of resistivity based model in a well where the resistivity equipment failed. The plot of hydrocarbon pore volume (HCPV) from J-function against HCPV from Archie shows that wells with high HCPV have high sand qualities and vice versa. This was further used to predict the geometry of stratigraphic units. The model presented here freshly addresses the gap in the estimation of Sw and is applicable to reservoirs of similar rock type in other frontier basins worldwide.

  7. Comparison of the Novel Human Papillomavirus 4 Auto-capillary Electrophoresis Test with the Hybrid Capture 2 Assay and with the PCR HPV Typing Set Test in the Detection of High-Risk HPV Including HPV 16 and 18 Genotypes in Cervical Specimens (United States)

    Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Seung Hun; Kim, Jong Kee; Han, Jeong Hyun


    The aim of this study was to compare the novel human papillomavirus (HPV) detection method, the HPV 4 Auto-capillary Electrophoresis (ACE) test with the hybrid capture (HC) 2 assay for the detection of high-risk HPVs. In addition, we compared the HPV 4 ACE test with the polymerase chain reaction HPV Typing Set test for the detection of HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotypes. One hundred ninety-nine cervical swab samples obtained from women with previous abnormal Pap smears were subjected to testing with the three HPV tests. The HPV 4 ACE test and the HC 2 assay showed substantial agreement for detection of high-risk HPVs (85.4%, kappa=0.71). The HPV 4 ACE test also showed substantial agreement with the PCR HPV Typing Set test in the detection of HPV 16 and HP V 18 genotypes (89.9%, kappa=0.65). In correlation with cytologic results, the sensitivities and specificities of the HPV 4 ACE test and HC 2 assay were 92.9% vs. 92.9% and 48.1% vs. 50.8%, respectively, when high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were regarded as abnormal cytologies. The novel HPV 4 ACE test is a valuable tool for the detection of high-risk HPVs and for genotyping of HPV 16 and HPV 18. PMID:19654936

  8. Observations of gravity-capillary lump interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Masnadi, Naeem


    In this experimental study, we investigate the interaction of gravity-capillary solitary waves generated by two surface pressure sources moving side by side at constant speed. The nonlinear response of a water surface to a single source moving at a speed just below the minimum phase speed of linear gravity-capillary waves in deep water ($c_{min}\\approx23$ cm s$^{-1}$) consists of periodic generation of pairs of three-dimensional solitary waves (or lumps) in a V-shaped pattern downstream of the source. In the reference frame of the laboratory, these unsteady lumps propagate in a direction oblique to the motion of the source. In the present experiments, the strength of the two sources is adjusted to produce nearly identical responses and the free surface deformations are visualized using photography-based techniques. The first lumps generated by the two sources move in intersecting directions that make a half angle of approximately 15 degrees and collide in the center-plane between the sources. A steep depressi...

  9. Capillary wrinkling of thin bilayer polymeric sheets (United States)

    Chang, Jooyoung; Menon, Narayanan; Russell, Thomas

    We have investigated capillary force induced wrinkling on a floated polymeric bilayer thin sheet. The origin of the wrinkle pattern is compressional hoop stress caused by the capillary force of a water droplet placed on the floated polymeric thin sheet afore investigated. Herein, we study the effect of the differences of surface energy arising from the hydrophobicity of Polystyrene (PS Mw: 97 K, Contact Angle: 88 º) and the hydrophilicity of Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA Mw: 99K, Contact Angle: 68 º) on two sides of a bilayer film. We measure the number and the length of the wrinkles by broadly varying the range of thicknesses of top (9 nm to 550 nm) and bottom layer (25 nm to 330 nm). At the same, there is only a small contrast in mechanical properties of the two layers (PS E = 3.4 GPa, and PMMA E = 3 GPa). The number of the wrinkles is not strongly affected by the composition (PS(Top)/PMMA(Bottom) or PMMA(Top)/PS(Bottom)) and the thickness of each and overall bilayer system. However, the length of the wrinkle is governed by the contact angle of the drop on the top layer of bilayer system. We also compare this to the wrinkle pattern obtained in monolayer systems over a wide range of thickness from PS and PMMA (7 nm to 1 μm). W.M. Keck Foundation.

  10. Biomolecular detection with an interferometric microfiber-capillary optofluidic sensor (United States)

    Liang, Lili; Jin, Long; Guan, Bai-Ou


    We have developed a chip-scale optofluidic sensor for biomolecular detection, by tapering laterally aligned silica microfiber and capillary to form a modal interferometer. With the pre-immobilization of DNA probes, the sensor is capable of selectively detecting single-stranded microRNA-let7a (molecular weight: 6.5 k) by measuring the spectral shift of the interferometric spectrum. A log-linear response from 2 nM to 20 μM and a minimum detectable concentration of 212 pM (1.43 ng/mL) have been achieved. The sensor is promising for future diagnosis applications due to its high sensitivity, resistance to environmental perturbations, improved portability, and intrinsic connection to fiber optic measurement.

  11. Characterization of Microdialysis Acidification for Capillary Isoelectric Focusing Microelectrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A microdialysis junction, based on a microdialysis membrane connecting a separate capillary and a short, sharply tapered microelectrospray emitter capillary, is demonstrated for on-line combination of capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

  12. Two classes of capillary optical fibers: refractive and photonic (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.


    This paper is a digest tutorial on some properties of capillary optical fibers (COF). Two basic types of capillary optical fibers are clearly distinguished. The classification is based on propagation mechanism of optical wave. The refractive, singlemode COF guides a dark hollow beam of light (DHB) with zero intensity on fiber axis. The photonic, singlemode COF carries nearly a perfect axial Gaussian beam with maximum intensity on fiber axis. A subject of the paper are these two basic kinds of capillary optical fibers of pure refractive and pure photonic mechanism of guided wave transmission. In a real capillary the wave may be transmitted by a mixed mechanism, refractive and photonic, with strong interaction of photonic and refractive guided wave modes. Refractive capillary optical fibers are used widely for photonic instrumentation applications, while photonic capillary optical fibers are considered for trunk optical communications. Replacement of classical, single mode, dispersion shifted, 1550nm optimized optical fibers for communications with photonic capillaries would potentially cause a next serious revolution in optical communications. The predictions say that such a revolution may happen within this decade. This dream is however not fulfilled yet. The paper compares guided modes in both kinds of optical fiber capillaries: refractive and photonic. The differences are emphasized indicating prospective application areas of these fibers.

  13. Pre-, on- and post-column derivatization in capillary electrophoresis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardelmeijer, H.A.; Waterval, J.C.M.; Lingeman, H.; van 't Hof, R.; Bult, A.; Underberg, W.J.M.


    This survey gives a short overview of the various reagents and procedures that can be used for pre-, post- and on-column derivatization in capillary electrophoresis. First there is an introduction about capillary electrophoresis as an analytical technique; this is followed by a discussion of the

  14. CD105 expression in oral capillary hemangiomas and cavernous hemangiomas. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Tsuchiya, Motomi; Nomoto, Shouta; Matsue, Yasuyoshi; Nishikawa, Yohichi; Takamura, Tsuyoshi; Oki, Hidero; Komiyama, Kazuo


    Capillary hemangioma (capillary lobular hemangioma) and cavernous hemangioma (venous malformation) are relatively common oral tumors/malformations and are characterized by increased numbers of normal and abnormal blood vessels. However, the causes of these lesions are not well understood. CD105 (endoglin) is predominantly expressed in proliferating blood endothelial cells (ECs). We analyzed expressions of CD105, CD34, von Willebrand factor, Ki-67, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A in 31 capillary hemangiomas and 34 cavernous hemangiomas. Staining scores were calculated as the product of the proportion score and intensity score. Morphologically normal oral mucosa specimens (n = 10) were simultaneously evaluated as normal controls. As compared with cavernous hemangiomas and normal controls, capillary hemangiomas had higher staining scores for CD105, VEGF-A, and COX-2. The Ki-67 labeling index was significantly higher in capillary hemangiomas than in cavernous hemangiomas and normal controls (P characteristics of capillary and cavernous hemangiomas are quite different. The ECs of capillary hemangiomas actively proliferated and were generally regulated by VEGF-A. In contrast, the ECs of cavernous hemangiomas lacked proliferative activity. These results suggest that angiogenesis and vasodilatation of pre-existing blood vessels are important in the development of capillary hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma, respectively.

  15. Ultrastructure of skeletal muscle capillaries under conditions of space mission. (United States)

    Volodina, A V; Pozdnyakov, O M


    Capillaries of the rat forepaw skeletal muscles were examined on day 14 of space mission and on days 1 and 14 after landing. Ultrastructural studies revealed apoptosis caused by muscle fiber atrophy and necrobiotic changes eventuating in coagulation or monocellular necrosis of endothelial cells. Formation of capillaries was detected, which can be regarded as an adaptive reaction to injuries caused by space mission factors.

  16. Potential of capillary electrophoresis for the profiling of propolis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.J; Somsen, G.W; de Jong, G.J.


    The usefulness of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with diode array detection for the profiling of Propolis, a hive product, is investigated. Water extracts of Propolis were analyzed with both capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) at pH 7.0 and 9.3, and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC)

  17. Comparison of monolithic silica and polymethacrylate capillary columns for LC. (United States)

    Moravcová, Dana; Jandera, Pavel; Urban, Jiri; Planeta, Josef


    Organic polymer monolithic capillary columns were prepared in fused-silica capillaries by radical co-polymerization of ethylene dimethacrylate and butyl methacrylate monomers with azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator of the polymerization reaction in the presence of various amounts of porogenic solvent mixtures and different concentration ratios of monomers and 1-propanol, 1,4-butanediol, and water. The chromatographic properties of the organic polymer monolithic columns were compared with those of commercial silica-based particulate and monolithic capillary and analytical HPLC columns. The tests included the determination of H-u curves, column permeabilities, pore distribution by inversed-SEC measurements, methylene and polar selectivities, and polar interactions with naphthalenesulphonic acid test samples. Organic polymer monolithic capillary columns show similar retention behaviour to chemically bonded alkyl silica columns for compounds with different polarities characterized by interaction indices, Ix, but have lower methylene selectivities and do not show polar interactions with sulphonic acids. The commercial capillary and analytical silica gel-based monolithic columns showed similar selectivities and provided symmetrical peaks, indicating no significant surface heterogeneities. To allow accurate characterization of the properties of capillary monolithic columns, the experimental data should be corrected for extra-column contributions. With 0.3 mm ID capillary columns, corrections for extra-column volume contributions are sufficient, but to obtain true information on the efficiency of 0.1 mm ID capillary columns, the experimental bandwidths should be corrected for extra-column contributions to peak broadening.

  18. A Simple Double-Source Model for Interference of Capillaries (United States)

    Hou, Zhibo; Zhao, Xiaohong; Xiao, Jinghua


    A simple but physically intuitive double-source model is proposed to explain the interferogram of a laser-capillary system, where two effective virtual sources are used to describe the rays reflected by and transmitted through the capillary. The locations of the two virtual sources are functions of the observing positions on the target screen. An…

  19. Image-guided optical measurement of blood oxygen saturation within capillary vessels (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Akons, Kfir; Zeidan, Adel; Yeheskely-Hayon, Daniella; Minai, Limor; Yelin, Dvir


    Values of blood oxygenation levels are useful for assessing heart and lung conditions, and are frequently monitored during routine patient care. Independent measurement of the oxygen saturation in capillary blood, which is significantly different from that of arterial blood, is important for diagnosing tissue hypoxia and for increasing the accuracy of existing techniques that measure arterial oxygen saturation. Here, we developed a simple, non-invasive technique for measuring the reflected spectra from individual capillary vessels within a human lip, allowing local measurement of the blood oxygen saturation. The optical setup includes a spatially incoherent broadband light that was focused onto a specific vessel below the lip surface. Backscattered light was imaged by a camera for identifying a target vessel and pointing the illumination beam to its cross section. Scattered light from the vessel was then collected by a single-mode fiber and analyzed by a fast spectrometer. Spectra acquired from small capillary vessels within a volunteer lip showed the characteristic oxyhemoglobin absorption bands in real time and with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Measuring capillary oxygen saturation using this technique would potentially be more accurate compared to existing pulse oximetry techniques due to its insensitivity to the patient's skin color, pulse rate, motion, and medical condition. It could be used as a standalone endoscopic technique for measuring tissue hypoxia or in conjunction with conventional pulse oximetry for a more accurate measurement of oxygen transport in the body.

  20. Influence of Van Der Waals Force on Static Behavior of Nano/micromirrors Under Capillary Force (United States)

    Moeenfard, Hamid; Darvishian, Ali; Zohoor, Hassan; Ahmadian, Mohammad Taghi


    In the current paper, the effect of van der Waals (vdW) force on the static behavior and pull-in characteristics of nano/micromirrors under capillary force is investigated. At first, the dimensionless equation governing the static behavior of nano/micromirrors is obtained. The dependence of the critical tilting angle on the physical and geometrical parameters of the nano/micromirror and its supporting torsional beams is investigated. It is found that the existence of vdW force can considerably reduce the stability limits of the nano/micromirror. It is also found that rotation angle of the mirror due to capillary force highly depends on the vdW force applied to the mirror. Finally, analytical tool Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) is utilized for prediction of the nano/micromirror behavior under combined capillary and vdW force. It is observed that a sixth order perturbation approximation accurately predicts the rotation angle and stability limits of the mirror. The results of this paper can be used for successful fabrication of nano/micromirrors using wet etching release process where capillary force plays a major role in the system.

  1. Simultaneous determination of rifabutin and human serum albumin in pharmaceutical formulations by capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Ermolenko, Yu; Anshakova, A; Osipova, N; Kamentsev, M; Maksimenko, O; Balabanyan, V; Gelperina, S

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was used for determination of rifabutin (RFB), an anti-tuberculosis antibiotic drug, in various pharmaceutical formulations. Apart from that, simultaneous determination of RFB and human serum albumin (HSA) was performed. Electrophoretic behaviour of RFB was examined at various pH levels. CE conditions: a quartz capillary tube (internal diameter 75mm, effective length 50cm, total length 60cm), the capillary temperature was 25°С, the voltage applied to the capillary tube was +20kV, the UV detection wavelength was 214nm, hydrodynamic injection of the sample was performed at 30mbar for 5s, tetraborate buffer solution (0.01М, рН9.2). The obtained results are characterized by high efficiency (number of theoretical plates up to 260,000) and sufficient sensitivity (LOQ starting from 0.02μg/ml for RFB). The obtained data are in good accord with both HPLC results (for RFB) and spectrophotometry (for HSA). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dependence of Capillary Properties of Contemporary Clinker Bricks on Their Microstructure (United States)

    Wesołowska, Maria; Kaczmarek, Anna


    Contemporary clinker bricks are applied for outer layers of walls built from other materials and walls which should have high durability and aesthetic qualities. The intended effect depends not only on the mortar applied but also on clinker properties. Traditional macroscopic tests do not allow to predict clinker behaviour in contact with mortars and external environment. The basic information for this issue is open porosity of material. It defines the material ability to absorb liquids: rain water (through the face wall surface) and grout from mortar (through base surface). The main capillary flow goes on in pores with diameters from 300 to 3000nm. It is possible to define pore distribution and their size using the Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry method. The aim of these research is evaluation of clinker brick capillary properties (initial water absorption and capillary rate) and analysis of differences in microstructure of the face and base wall of a product. Detailed results allowed to show pore distribution in function of their diameters and definition of pore amount responsible for capillary flow. Based on relation between volume function differential and pore diameter, a differential distribution curve was obtained which helped to determine the dominant diameters. The results obtained let us state that face wall of bricks was characterized with the lowest material density and open porosity. In this layer (most burnt) part of pores could be closed by locally appearing liquid phase during brick burning. Thus density is lower comparing to other part of the product.

  3. A new post-column reactor-laser induced fluorescence detector for capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liling, Zhang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), a powerful separation method based on the differential migration of charged species under the influence of an electric field, has been widely used for separations covering from small ions to big biomolecules. Chapter 1 describes the method, then discusses detection of the separated analytes by laser induced fluorescence and by chemical derivatization, and the use of O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) as a post-column reagent. Chapter 2 describes a post-column reactor which uses two narrow bore capillaries connected coaxially. This reactor differs from other coaxial reactors in terms of capillary dimensions, reagent flow control, ease of construction and most importantly, better limits of detection. The derivatization reagent is electroosmotically driven into the reaction capillary and the reagent flow rate is independently controlled by a high voltage power supply. Amino acids, amines and proteins, derivatized by OPA/2-mercaptoethanol using this post-column reactor coupled with LIF detection, show low attomole mass limits of detection, and for the first time, the authors demonstrate single cell capability with a post-column derivatization scheme. The single cell capability shows that this reactor could find applications in assaying non-fluorescent or electrochemically inactive components in individual biological cells in the future.

  4. Experimental and calculated basis of the lithium capillary system as divertor material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, N.V. [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ``Kurchatovskij Inst.``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Belan, V.G. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Evtihin, V.A. [State Enterprise ``Red Star``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Golubchikov, L.G. [RF Ministry of Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khripunov, V.I. [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ``Kurchatovskij Inst.``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Korjavin, V.M. [RF Ministry of Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lyublinski, I.E. [State Enterprise ``Red Star``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maynashev, V.S. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Petrov, V.B. [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ``Kurchatovskij Inst.``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pistunovich, V.I. [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ``Kurchatovskij Inst.``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pozharov, V.A. [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ``Kurchatovskij Inst.``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Podkovirnov, V.I. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Shapkin, V.V. [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ``Kurchatovskij Inst.``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, A.V. [State Enterprise ``Red Star``, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    First results as experimental and calculated basis of a new concept are described in the paper. Experimental models of liquid lithium capillary structure have been tested at long-pulse high heat loads. The power loads on the capillary target up to 50 MW/m{sup 2} were provided by an electron beam with electron energy {<=}9 keV in a longitudinal magnetic field of 0.25 T. Seven experiments were performed with the different capillary targets. The effects of disruption discharges in tokamaks have been simulated by means of magnetized plasma flows with pulse length of 0.2 ms, electron density of 10{sup 22} m{sup 3} and energy density up to 4 MJ/m{sup 2}. The plasma flow was generated by a quasistationary plasma accelerator and interacted with a lithium capillary structure. 2D modelling of the ITER divertor with a lithium target is presented as the first step in the validation of a new divertor concept. A lithium radiative divertor scenario has been examined for the ITER using DDIC95 code. First calculations have shown that thermal loads on the divertor plates are reduced down to 1.3 MW/m{sup 2}. The main power is radiated in the divertor. (orig.).

  5. Exercise-induced capillary growth in human skeletal muscle and the dynamics of VEGF. (United States)

    Hoier, Birgitte; Hellsten, Ylva


    In skeletal muscle, growth of capillaries is an important adaptation to exercise training that secures adequate diffusion capacity for oxygen and nutrients even at high-intensity exercise when increases in muscle blood flow are profound. Mechanical forces present during muscle activity, such as shear stress and passive stretch, lead to cellular signaling, enhanced expression of angiogenic factors, and initiation of capillary growth. The most central angiogenic factor in skeletal muscle capillary growth is VEGF. During muscle contraction, VEGF increases in the muscle interstitium, acts on VEGF receptors on the capillary endothelium, and thereby stimulates angiogenic processes. A primary source of muscle interstitial VEGF during exercise is the skeletal muscle fibers which contain large stores of VEGF within vesicles. We propose that, during muscle activity, these VEGF-containing vesicles are redistributed toward the sarcolemma where the contents are secreted into the extracellular fluid. VEGF mRNA expression is increased primarily after exercise, which allows for a more rapid replenishment of VEGF stores lost through secretion during exercise. Future studies should focus on elucidating mechanisms and regulation of VEGF secretion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Red blood cell orientation in pulmonary capillaries and its effect on gas diffusion. (United States)

    Nabors, L Karina; Baumgartner, William A; Janke, Steven J; Rose, James R; Wagner, Wiltz W; Capen, Ronald L


    When alveoli are inflated, the stretched alveolar walls draw their capillaries into oval cross sections. This causes the disk-shaped red blood cells to be oriented near alveolar gas, thereby minimizing diffusion distance. We tested these ideas by measuring red blood cell orientation in histological slides from rapidly frozen rat lungs. High lung inflation did cause the capillaries to have oval cross sections, which constrained the red blood cells within them to flow with their broad sides facing alveolar gas. Low lung inflation stretched alveolar walls less and allowed the capillaries to assume a circular cross section. The circular luminal profile permitted the red blood cells to have their edges facing alveolar gas, which increased the diffusion distance. Using a finite-element method to calculate the diffusing capacity of red blood cells in the broad-side and edge-on orientations, we found that edge-on red blood cells had a 40% lower diffusing capacity. This suggests that, when capillary cross sections become circular, whether through low-alveolar volume or through increased microvascular pressure, the red blood cells are likely to be less favorably oriented for gas exchange.

  7. Self-assembly of a functional electronic circuit directed by capillary interactions (United States)

    Reynolds, K.; O'Riordan, A.; Redmond, G.


    We report on the use of capillary interactions to drive the self-assembly of an electronic circuit based on mesoscale building blocks. The specific target structure is a linear heterotetramer comprising non-identical millimetre-scale cubic blocks that, following assembly, forms a functioning astable multivibrator circuit. Importantly, the self-assembly process is designed to be unconstrained, i.e., each of the blocks are free to move in any way during assembly. To this end, solder droplets are selectively patterned on the block faces. On contact, capillary interactions between shape complimentary solder patterns on the blocks cause the molten solder droplets to coalesce and the blocks to self-assemble. In this way, capillary forces direct the alignment, registration, linking and electrical interconnection of each block during the assembly process. This demonstration of mesoscale self-assembly mediated by capillary interactions illustrates that the application of unconventional assembly paradigms to complex structure fabrication is feasible and that these approaches may yet yield viable strategies for fabrication of highly integrated systems.

  8. ssDNA degradation along capillary electrophoresis process using a Tris buffer. (United States)

    Ric, Audrey; Ong-Meang, Varravaddheay; Poinsot, Verena; Martins-Froment, Nathalie; Chauvet, Fabien; Boutonnet, Audrey; Ginot, Frédéric; Ecochard, Vincent; Paquereau, Laurent; Couderc, François


    Tris-Acetate buffer is currently used in the selection and the characterization of ssDNA by capillary electrophoresis (CE). By applying high voltage, the migration of ionic species into the capillary generates a current that induces water electrolysis. This phenomenon is followed by the modification of the pH and the production of Tris derivatives. By injecting ten times by capillary electrophoresis ssDNA (50 nM), the whole oligonucleotide was degraded. In this paper, we will show that the Tris buffer in the running vials is modified along the electrophoretic process by electrochemical reactions. We also observed that the composition of the metal ions changes in the running buffer vials. This phenomenon, never described in CE, is important for fluorescent ssDNA analysis using Tris buffer. The oligonucleotides are degraded by electrochemically synthesized species (present in the running Tris vials) until it disappears, even if the separation buffer in the capillary is clean. To address these issues, we propose to use a sodium phosphate buffer that we demonstrate to be electrochemically inactive. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Experimental study on nonmonotonicity of capillary desaturation curves in a 2-D pore-network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriquez de Castro, Antonio [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Shokri, Nima [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Karadimitriou, Nikolaos [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joekar-Niasar, Vahid [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)


    Immiscible displacement in a porous medium is important in many applications such as soil remediation and enhanced oil recovery. When gravitational forces are negligible, two-phase immiscible displacement at the pore level is controlled by capillary and viscous forces whose relative importance is quantified through the dimensionless capillary number Ca and the viscosity ratio M between liquid phases. Depending on the values of Ca and M, capillary fingering, viscous fingering, or stable displacement may be observed resulting in a variety of patterns affecting the phase entrapment. The Capillary Desaturation Curve (CDC), which represents the relationship between the residual oils saturation and Ca, is an important relation to describe the phase entrapment at a given Ca. In the present study, we investigate the CDC as influenced by the viscosity ratio. A comprehensive series of experiments using a high-resolution microscope and state-of-the-art micromodels were conducted. The CDCs were calculated and the effects of Ca and M on phase entrapments were quantified. The results show that CDCs are not necessarily monotonic for all M.

  10. Optical carbon dioxide sensor based on fluorescent capillary array (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wen, Zhihui; Yang, Bo; Yang, Xuefeng

    A novel carbon dioxide (CO2) gas sensor based on capillary array is presented. The capillary array is composed of 51 capillaries and modified by fluorescent dye 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS, PTS-) and tetraoctylammonium cation (TOA+) doped porous ethyl cellulose. A Y-fiber is used to transmit exciting light and fluorescence. A fiber optic pigtail-contained spectrophotometer is used to collect and deal with optical signals. Due to its structural features, each capillary has the two rolling-up layers of inner and outer sensing films, which make the 2 cm long capillary array has large sensing area about 12.81 cm2 and the fluorescence signal easily be collected. The sensing probe has advantages such as small volume, compact structure and large sensing area. The results demonstrate that the sensor has a linear response in the CO2 volume ratio range from 0 to 10%.

  11. Capillary lactate as a tool for the triage nurse among patients with SIRS at emergency department presentation: a preliminary report. (United States)

    Manzon, Cyril; Barrot, Loïc; Besch, Guillaume; Barbot, Olivier; Desmettre, Thibaut; Capellier, Gilles; Piton, Gaël


    The triage nurse is involved in the early identification of the most severe patients at emergency department (ED) presentation. However, clinical criteria alone may be insufficient to identify them correctly. Measurement of capillary lactate concentration at ED presentation may help to discriminate these patients. The primary objective of this study was to identify the prognostic value of capillary lactate concentration measured by the triage nurse among patients presenting to the ED. This was a prospective observational study, performed in the ED of a university hospital. At ED presentation, capillary lactate measurement was performed by the triage nurse among patients presenting with a clinical criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Clinical variables usually used to determine severity were collected at presentation. Twenty-eight-day mortality and MEDS score were recorded. One hundred seventy-six patients with clinical SIRS presented to the ED. Median age was 72 years, and 28-day mortality was 16%. Capillary lactate at ED presentation was significantly higher among 28-day non-survivors than among survivors (5.7 mmol.L(-1) [3.2 to 7.4] vs 2.9 mmol.L(-1) [1.9 to 5.2], p = 0.003). A score based on mottling and capillary lactate concentration >3.6 mmol.L(-1) was significantly associated with 28-day mortality (area under curve, AUC = 0.75), independently of the MEDS score (AUC = 0.79) for the prediction of 28-day mortality (AUC global model 0.87). A high capillary lactate concentration measured by the triage nurse among patients presenting to the ED with clinical SIRS is associated with a high risk of death. A score calculated by the triage nurse, based on mottling and capillary lactate concentration, appears to be useful for identifying the most severe patients.

  12. Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillaries as porous layer open tubular columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and capillary chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, Artaches A. [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); W.M. Keck FT-ICR-MS Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sanz Rodriguez, Estrella; Deverell, Jeremy A. [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); McCord, James; Muddiman, David C. [W.M. Keck FT-ICR-MS Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Paull, Brett, E-mail: [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)


    Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillary columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and liquid chromatographic separations is presented. Columns contained 126 internal parallel 4 μm channels, each containing a wall bonded porous monolithic type polystyrene-divinylbenzene layer in open tubular column format (PLOT). Modification longitudinal homogeneity was monitored using scanning contactless conductivity detection and scanning electron microscopy. The multichannel open tubular capillary column showed channel diameter and polymer layer consistency of 4.2 ± 0.1 μm and 0.26 ± 0.02 μm respectively, and modification of 100% of the parallel channels with the monolithic polymer. The modified multi-channel capillaries were applied to the in-capillary micro-extraction of water samples. 500 μL of water samples containing single μg L{sup −1} levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were extracted at a flow rate of 10 μL min{sup −1}, and eluted in 50 μL of acetonitrile for analysis using HPLC with fluorescence detection. HPLC LODs were 0.08, 0.02 and 0.05 μg L{sup −1} for acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, with extraction recoveries of between 77 and 103%. The modified capillaries were also investigated briefly for direct application to liquid chromatographic separations, with the retention and elution of a standard protein (cytochrome c) under isocratic conditions demonstrated, proving chromatographic potential of the new column format, with run-to-run retention time reproducibility of below 1%. - Highlights: • Novel PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for in-capillary micro-extraction. • New method for micro-extraction of PAHs and HPLC-FL detection at sub-ppb levels. • Demonstration of PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for capillary bioseparations.

  13. Albuminuria and overall capillary permeability of albumin in acute altitude hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J M; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Feldt-Rasmussen, B


    The mechanism of proteinuria at high altitude is unclear. Renal function and urinary excretion rate of albumin (Ualb) at rest and during submaximal exercise and transcapillary escape rate of 125I-labeled albumin (TERalb) were investigated in 12 normal volunteers at sea level and after rapid and p....... The elevated TERalb suggests an overall increase in capillary permeability, including the glomerular endothelium, as the critical factor in high-altitude induced albuminuria....

  14. Albuminuria and overall capillary permeability of albumin in acute altitude hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J M; Olsen, N V; Feldt-Rasmussen, B


    and passive ascent to 4,350 m. The calcium antagonist isradipine (5 mg/day; n = 6) or placebo (n = 6) was administered to abolish hypoxia-induced rises in blood pressure. Lithium clearance and urinary excretion of beta 2-microglobulin were used to evaluate renal tubular function. High altitude increased Ualb....... The elevated TERalb suggests an overall increase in capillary permeability, including the glomerular endothelium, as the critical factor in high-altitude induced albuminuria....

  15. On-line simultaneous and rapid separation of anions and cations from a single sample using dual-capillary sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Gaudry, Adam J; Guijt, Rosanne M; Macka, Mirek; Hutchinson, Joseph P; Johns, Cameron; Hilder, Emily F; Dicinoski, Greg W; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Haddad, Paul R; Breadmore, Michael C


    A novel capillary electrophoresis (CE) approach has been developed for the simultaneous rapid separation and identification of common environmental inorganic anions and cations from a single sample injection. The method utilised a sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis instrument (SI-CE) with capacitively-coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) constructed in-house from commercial-off-the-shelf components. Oppositely charged analytes from a single sample plug were simultaneously injected electrokinetically onto two separate capillaries for independent separation and detection. Injection was automated and may occur from a syringe or be directly coupled to an external source in a continuous manner. Software control enabled high sample throughput (17 runs per hour for the target analyte set) and the inclusion of an isolation valve allowed the separation capillaries to be flushed, increasing throughput by removing slow migrating species as well as improving repeatability. Various environmental and industrial samples (subjected only to filtering) were analysed in the laboratory with a 3 min analysis time which allowed the separation of 23 inorganic and small organic anions and cations. Finally, the system was applied to an extended automated analysis of Hobart Southern Water tap water for a period of 48 h. The overall repeatability of the migration times of a 14 analyte standard sample was less than 0.74% under laboratory conditions. LODs ranged from 5 to 61 μg L(-1). The combination of automation, high confidence of peak identification, and low limits of detection make this a useful system for the simultaneous identification of a range of common inorganic anions and cations for discrete or continuous monitoring applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gut microbiota - architects of small intestinal capillaries. (United States)

    Khandagale, Avinash; Reinhardt, Christoph


    The commensal gut microbiota is an environmental factor that exerts manifold effects on host physiology. One obvious trait is the impact of this densely colonized ecosystem on small intestinal mucosal vascularization. At present, the microbiota-triggered signaling pathways influencing small intestinal renewal, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling are largely unexplored. While the interplay of gut microbial communities with pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, in intestinal homeostasis is increasingly understood, it is unresolved how commensal microbiota affect the signaling pathways responsible for the formation of capillary networks in the intestinal mucosa. It is evident that intestinal vascular remodeling and renewal is disturbed in case of dysbiosis of this densely colonized microbial ecosystem, in particular under conditions of intestinal inflammation, but the effects of individual components of the gut microbiota are elusive. This review article provides an overview on the revealed microbiota-host interactions, influencing angiogenesis and vascular remodeling processes in the small intestine.

  17. Microfluidic schemes using electrical and capillary forces (United States)

    Jones, T. B.


    The laboratory-on-a-chip (LOC) and indeed virtually all the technology of microTAS (micro-total-analysis systems) rely upon some microfluidic subsystem to control, transport, and manipulate small liquid masses. The most promising of these subsystems use electrical forces, which have the advantages of voltage-based control and dominance over gravity and capillarity in the 10 to 103 micron diameter range. Gravity is usually ignorable on this scale, but the interactions of electrical and capillary forces are more complex. In particular, microstructures can be designed to exploit this interplay for the cases of electrowetting on dielectric-coated electrodes (EWOD) and liquid dielectrophoresis (DEP). The complementary nature of the two effects explains the operation of droplet-based microfluidic systems in general, and the so-called DEP droplet dispenser in particular.

  18. Capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry based metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Buko


    Full Text Available Capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry (CE-MS is a powerful orthogonal technique capable of filling in gaps in the identification, quantitation and isomeric resolution of many small hydrophilic and charged metabolites. The metabolome is a large complex mixture of molecules for which not one technique nor a combination of techniques can optimally identify and measure it in it’s entirety. LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR have been the widely used for metabolomics for the past 20 years for a wide range of applications, each technique having shown uniqueness and advantages, for specific applications or target metabolic chemical space. CE-MS captures a unique metabolic chemical space beyond these standard methods providing another window into metabolomics profiling. This review will focus on the recent publications published within 2016 focusing on biotechnology and pharmaceutical applications of CE-MS.

  19. Gravity-capillary free-surface flows

    CERN Document Server

    Vanden-Broeck, Jean-Marc


    Free surface problems occur in many aspects of science and of everyday life such as the waves on a beach, bubbles rising in a glass of champagne, melting ice, pouring flows from a container and sails billowing in the wind. Consequently, the effect of surface tension on gravity-capillary flows continues to be a fertile field of research in applied mathematics and engineering. Concentrating on applications arising from fluid dynamics, Vanden-Broeck draws upon his years of experience in the field to address the many challenges involved in attempting to describe such flows mathematically. Whilst careful numerical techniques are implemented to solve the basic equations, an emphasis is placed upon the reader developing a deep understanding of the structure of the resulting solutions. The author also reviews relevant concepts in fluid mechanics to help readers from other scientific fields who are interested in free boundary problems.

  20. Separation of oligopeptides, nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides using capillary electrophoresis/electrochromatography with sol-gel modified inner capillary wall. (United States)

    Svobodová, Jana; Kofroňová, Olga; Benada, Oldřich; Král, Vladimír; Mikšík, Ivan


    The aim of this article is to study the modification of an inner capillary wall with sol-gel coating (pure silica sol-gel or silica sol-gel containing porphyrin-brucine conjugate) and determine its influence on the separation process using capillary electrophoresis/electrochromatography method. After modification of the inner capillary surface the separation of analytes was performed using two different phosphate buffers (pH 2.5 and 9.0) and finally the changes in electrophoretic mobilities of various samples were calculated. To confirm that the modification of the inner capillary surface was successful, the parts of the inner surfaces of capillaries were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The analytes used as testing samples were oligopeptides, nucleosides, nucleobases and finally nucleotides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Surface tension of supercooled water determined by using a counterpressure capillary rise method. (United States)

    Vinš, Václav; Fransen, Maurice; Hykl, Jiří; Hrubý, Jan


    Measurements of the surface tension of supercooled water down to -25 °C have been reported recently (Hrubý et al. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2014, 5, 425-428). These experiments did not show any anomalous temperature dependence of the surface tension of supercooled water reported by some earlier measurements and molecular simulations. In the present work, this finding is confirmed using a counterpressure capillary rise method (the counterpressure method) as well as through the use of the classical capillary rise method (the height method). In the counterpressure method, the liquid meniscus inside the vertical capillary tube was kept at a fixed position with an in-house developed helium distribution setup. A preset counterpressure was applied to the liquid meniscus when its temperature changed from a reference temperature (30 °C) to the temperature of interest. The magnitude of the counterpressure was adjusted such that the meniscus remained at the same height, thus compensating the change of the surface tension. One advantage of the counterpressure method over the height method consists of avoiding the uncertainty due to a possible variation of the capillary diameter along its length. A second advantage is that the equilibration time due to the capillary flow of the highly viscous supercooled water can be shortened. For both the counterpressure method and the height method, the actual results are relative values of surface tension with respect to the surface tension of water at the reference temperature. The combined relative standard uncertainty of the relative surface tensions is less than or equal to 0.18%. The new data between -26 and +30 °C lie close to the IAPWS correlation for the surface tension of ordinary water extrapolated below 0.01 °C and do not exhibit any anomalous features.

  2. Neutral hydrophilic coatings for capillary electrophoresis prepared by controlled radical polymerization. (United States)

    Navarro, Fabián H; Gómez, Jorge E; Espinal, José H; Sandoval, Junior E


    In the present study, porous silica particles as well as impervious fused-silica wafers and capillary tubes were modified with hydrophilic polymers (hydroxylated polyacrylamides and polyacrylates), using a surface-confined grafting procedure based on atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) which was also surface-initiated from α-bromoisobutyryl groups. Initiator immobilization was achieved by hydrosilylation of allyl alcohol on hydride silica followed by esterification of the resulting propanol-bonded surface with α-bromoisobutyryl bromide. Elemental analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopies on silica micro-particles, atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and profilometry on fused-silica wafers, as well as CE on fused-silica tubes were used to characterize the chemically modified silica substrate at different stages. We studied the effect of monomer concentration as well as cross-linker on the ability of the polymer film to reduce electroosmosis and to prevent protein adsorption (i. e., its non-fouling capabilities) and found that the former was rather insensitive to both parameters. Surface deactivation towards adsorption was somewhat more susceptible to monomer concentration and appeared also to be favored by a low concentration of the cross-linker. The results show that hydrophilic polyacrylamide and polyacrylate coatings of controlled thickness can be prepared by ATRP under very mild polymerization conditions (aqueous solvent, room temperature and short reaction times) and that the coated capillary tubes exhibit high efficiencies for protein separations (0.3-0.6 million theoretical plates per meter) as well as long-term hydrolytic stability under the inherently harsh conditions of capillary isoelectric focusing. Additionally, there was no adsorption of lysozyme on the coated surface as indicated by a complete recovery of the basic enzyme. Furthermore, since polymerization is confined to the inner capillary surface, simple precautions (e.g., solution filtration

  3. [The microvasculature and microcirculation of the peri-macular capillary network. New diagnostic possibilities with the scanning laser ophthalmoscope]. (United States)

    Wolf, S; Arend, O; Jung, F; Toonen, H; Bertram, B; Reim, M


    The scanning laser technique makes it possible for the first time to perform objective measurements of blood flow velocities in retinal capillaries. This new technique allows for continuous recording of retinal pictures at high resolution. Only the quality of the optical media of the eye limits the resolution of the retinal image. Sequences with a sample frequency of up to 50 images/s can be stored using a digital recorder. In these digital sequences the moving blood stream in retinal capillaries is visible. Segments of high and low fluorescence can be observed moving through the capillary network of the perifoveal capillaries. The flow velocities of these segments can be measured objectively using image analysis. In addition, morphologic information about the perifoveal capillary bed can be obtained by this new technique. Determination of flow velocities and morphological parameters give an objective means of assessing oxygen supply to the macular tissue. Furthermore, the degree of changes in the perifoveal microcirculation may provide objective data for estimating the prognosis of diabetic or senile maculopathy. Further investigation is needed to examine the relationship between changes in perifoveal microcirculation and the development of macular edema in various diseases.

  4. Pulmonary surfactant surface tension influences alveolar capillary shape and oxygenation. (United States)

    Ikegami, Machiko; Weaver, Timothy E; Grant, Shawn N; Whitsett, Jeffrey A


    Alveolar capillaries are located in close proximity to the alveolar epithelium and beneath the surfactant film. We hypothesized that the shape of alveolar capillaries and accompanying oxygenation are influenced by surfactant surface tension in the alveolus. To prove our hypothesis, surfactant surface tension was regulated by conditional expression of surfactant protein (SP)-B in Sftpb(-/-) mice, thereby inhibiting surface tension-lowering properties of surfactant in vivo within 24 hours after depletion of Sftpb. Minimum surface tension of isolated surfactant was increased and oxygen saturation was significantly reduced after 2 days of SP-B deficiency in association with deformation of alveolar capillaries. Intravascularly injected 3.2-mum-diameter microbeads through jugular vein were retained within narrowed pulmonary capillaries after reduction of SP-B. Ultrastructure studies demonstrated that the capillary protrusion typical of the normal alveolar-capillary unit was reduced in size, consistent with altered pulmonary blood flow. Pulmonary hypertension and intrapulmonary shunting are commonly associated with surfactant deficiency and dysfunction in neonates and adults with respiratory distress syndromes. Increased surfactant surface tension caused by reduction in SP-B induced narrowing of alveolar capillaries and oxygen desaturation, demonstrating an important role of surface tension-lowering properties of surfactant in the regulation of pulmonary vascular perfusion.

  5. Colloid mobilization and transport during capillary fringe fluctuations. (United States)

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Zollars, Richard L


    Capillary fringe fluctuations due to changing water tables lead to displacement of air-water interfaces in soils and sediments. These moving air-water interfaces can mobilize colloids. We visualized colloids interacting with moving air-water interfaces during capillary fringe fluctuations by confocal microscopy. We simulated capillary fringe fluctuations in a glass-bead-filled column. We studied four specific conditions: (1) colloids suspended in the aqueous phase, (2) colloids attached to the glass beads in an initially wet porous medium, (3) colloids attached to the glass beads in an initially dry porous medium, and (4) colloids suspended in the aqueous phase with the presence of a static air bubble. Confocal images confirmed that the capillary fringe fluctuations affect colloid transport behavior. Hydrophilic negatively charged colloids initially suspended in the aqueous phase were deposited at the solid-water interface after a drainage passage, but then were removed by subsequent capillary fringe fluctuations. The colloids that were initially attached to the wet or dry glass bead surface were detached by moving air-water interfaces in the capillary fringe. Hydrophilic negatively charged colloids did not attach to static air-bubbles, but hydrophobic negatively charged and hydrophilic positively charged colloids did. Our results demonstrate that capillary fringe fluctuations are an effective means for colloid mobilization.

  6. Dual-opposite injection capillary electrophoresis: Principles and misconceptions. (United States)

    Blackney, Donna M; Foley, Joe P


    Dual-opposite injection capillary electrophoresis (DOI-CE) is a separation technique that utilizes both ends of the capillary for sample introduction. The electroosmotic flow (EOF) is suppressed to allow all ions to reach the detector quickly. Depending on the individual electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes of interest and the effective length that each analyte travels to the detection window, the elution order of analytes in a DOI-CE separation can vary widely. This review discusses the principles, applications, and limitations of dual-opposite injection capillary electrophoresis. Common misconceptions regarding DOI-CE are clarified. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A combination of single-drop microextraction and open tubular capillary electrochromatography with carbon nanotubes as stationary phase for the determination of low concentration of illicit drugs in horse urine. (United States)

    Stege, Patricia W; Lapierre, Alicia V; Martinez, Luis D; Messina, Germán A; Sombra, Lorena L


    In this study we developed an interesting alternative to HPLC-mass spectrometry for the quantification of seven important drugs of abuse in racehorses. The procedure proposed in this work is a combination of single-drop microextraction (SDME) and an open tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) using multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCTs) immobilized into a fused-silica capillary as a stationary phase. The SDME showed to be a powerful tool for extraction/preconcentration of the seven drugs analyzed in the study, showing an enrichment factor between 38- and 102-fold depending on the drug. We have investigated the electrophoretic features of MWCTs immobilized fused-silica capillary by covalent modification of the inner surface of the capillary. The results show a good run-to-run, day-to-day and capillary-to-capillary reproducibility of the method. Compared with the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), the coating of the capillary allowed the separation of the analytes with high resolution, with less band-broadening and without distortion of the baseline. The interactions between the analytes and the MWCTs resulted in an increased migration time and probably this was the reason of the front tailing effect. The results showed a good capillary efficiencies and an improved of the electrophoretic separation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rugged large volume injection for sensitive capillary LC-MS environmental monitoring (United States)

    Roberg-Larsen, Hanne; Abele, Silvija; Demir, Deniz; Dzabijeva, Diana; Amundsen, Sunniva F.; Wilson, Steven R.; Bartkevics, Vadims; Lundanes, Elsa


    A rugged and high throughput capillary column (cLC) LC-MS switching platform using large volume injection and on-line automatic filtration and filter back-flush (AFFL) solid phase extraction (SPE) for analysis of environmental water samples with minimal sample preparation is presented. Although narrow columns and on-line sample preparation are used in the platform, high ruggedness is achieved e.g. injection of 100 non-filtrated water samples would did not result in a pressure rise/clogging of the SPE/capillary columns (inner diameter 300 µm). In addition, satisfactory retention time stability and chromatographic resolution were also features of the system. The potential of the platform for environmental water samples was demonstrated with various pharmaceutical products, which had detection limits (LOD) in the 0.05 - 12.5 ng/L range. Between-day and within-day repeatability of selected analytes were RSD.

  9. Electromigration behavior of polysaccharides in capillary electrophoresis under pulsed-field conditions. (United States)

    Sudor, J; Novotny, M


    Various polysaccharides can successfully migrate through entangled polymer solutions during high-voltage capillary electrophoresis. For neutral polysaccharides, complexation with borate provides the electric charge needed for electromigration, while a fluorescent tag is needed to detect the solute bands with adequate sensitivity. At constant potentials between 50 and 300 V/cm, the charged polysaccharides undergo molecular stretching, resisting the desired separation according to their molecular mass. This problem can be overcome through the use of variable fields, pulsed along the separation capillary at a 180 degree angle. Variables of the pulsing experiment appear to have a profound influence on molecular shape rearrangements of polysaccharides with respect to the separation medium, as demonstrated here with highly efficient separations of polydextrans (8,000-2,000,000 Da).

  10. Rugged Large Volume Injection for Sensitive Capillary LC-MS Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Roberg-Larsen


    Full Text Available A rugged and high throughput capillary column (cLC LC-MS switching platform using large volume injection and on-line automatic filtration and filter back-flush (AFFL solid phase extraction (SPE for analysis of environmental water samples with minimal sample preparation is presented. Although narrow columns and on-line sample preparation are used in the platform, high ruggedness is achieved e.g., injection of 100 non-filtrated water samples did not result in a pressure rise/clogging of the SPE/capillary columns (inner diameter 300 μm. In addition, satisfactory retention time stability and chromatographic resolution were also features of the system. The potential of the platform for environmental water samples was demonstrated with various pharmaceutical products, which had detection limits (LOD in the 0.05–12.5 ng/L range. Between-day and within-day repeatability of selected analytes were <20% RSD.

  11. Desing of a laser-triggered driver for fast capillary discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmidt, Jiří; Koláček, Karel; Boháček, Vladislav; Prukner, Václav; Frolov, Oleksandr; Štraus, Jaroslav


    Roč. 54, suppl.C (2004), C321-C325 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /21st/. Praha, 14.06.2004-17.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : capillary discharge, soft X-ray radiation, high current pulse discharge Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  12. Reconstruction of hepatic stellate cell-incorporated liver capillary structures in small hepatocyte tri-culture using microporous membranes. (United States)

    Kasuya, Junichi; Sudo, Ryo; Masuda, Genta; Mitaka, Toshihiro; Ikeda, Mariko; Tanishita, Kazuo


    In liver sinusoids, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) locate the outer surface of microvessels to form a functional unit with endothelia and hepatocytes. To reconstruct functional liver tissue in vitro, formation of the HSC-incorporated sinusoidal structure is essential. We previously demonstrated capillary formation of endothelial cells (ECs) in tri-culture, where a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) microporous membrane was intercalated between the ECs and hepatic organoids composed of small hepatocytes (SHs), i.e. hepatic progenitor cells, and HSCs. However, the high thickness and low porosity of the membranes limited heterotypic cell-cell interactions, which are essential to form HSC-EC hybrid structures. Here, we focused on the effective use of the thin and highly porous poly( d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microporous membranes in SH-HSC-EC tri-culture to reconstruct the HSC-incorporated liver capillary structures in vitro. First, the formation of EC capillary-like structures was induced on Matrigel-coated PLGA microporous membranes. Next, the membranes were stacked on hepatic organoids composed of small SHs and HSCs. When the pore size and porosity of the membranes were optimized, HSCs selectively migrated to the EC capillary-like structures. This process was mediated in part by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signalling. In addition, the HSCs were located along the outer surface of the EC capillary-like structures with their long cytoplasmic processes. In the HSC-incorporated capillary tissues, SHs acquired high levels of differentiated functions, compared to those without ECs. This model will provide a basis for the construction of functional, thick, vascularized liver tissues in vitro. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Neutral hydrophilic coatings for capillary electrophoresis prepared by controlled radical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Fabián H.; Gómez, Jorge E.; Espinal, José H.; Sandoval, Junior E., E-mail:


    In the present study, porous silica particles as well as impervious fused-silica wafers and capillary tubes were modified with hydrophilic polymers (hydroxylated polyacrylamides and polyacrylates), using a surface-confined grafting procedure based on atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) which was also surface-initiated from α-bromoisobutyryl groups. Initiator immobilization was achieved by hydrosilylation of allyl alcohol on hydride silica followed by esterification of the resulting propanol-bonded surface with α-bromoisobutyryl bromide. Elemental analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopies on silica micro-particles, atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and profilometry on fused-silica wafers, as well as CE on fused-silica tubes were used to characterize the chemically modified silica substrate at different stages. We studied the effect of monomer concentration as well as cross-linker on the ability of the polymer film to reduce electroosmosis and to prevent protein adsorption (i. e., its non-fouling capabilities) and found that the former was rather insensitive to both parameters. Surface deactivation towards adsorption was somewhat more susceptible to monomer concentration and appeared also to be favored by a low concentration of the cross-linker. The results show that hydrophilic polyacrylamide and polyacrylate coatings of controlled thickness can be prepared by ATRP under very mild polymerization conditions (aqueous solvent, room temperature and short reaction times) and that the coated capillary tubes exhibit high efficiencies for protein separations (0.3–0.6 million theoretical plates per meter) as well as long-term hydrolytic stability under the inherently harsh conditions of capillary isoelectric focusing. Additionally, there was no adsorption of lysozyme on the coated surface as indicated by a complete recovery of the basic enzyme. Furthermore, since polymerization is confined to the inner capillary surface, simple precautions (e.g., solution

  14. Flow and injection characteristics of pharmaceutical parenteral formulations using a micro-capillary rheometer. (United States)

    Allahham, Ayman; Stewart, Peter; Marriott, Jennifer; Mainwaring, David E


    A micro-capillary rheometer consisted of a fine needle with an internal diameter of 347 microm attached to a 1 ml removable-needle syringe within an Instron device that operated in compression mode to provide various crosshead speeds ranging from 150 to 950 mm min(-1) covering typical clinical injection rates, and that determined the resulting force on the plunger. The crosshead speed and the resulting force were used to calculate the shear rate and the shear stress respectively. These were used in standard capillary flow expressions together with an independent measurement of the wall frictional force and allowed the viscosity of parenteral Newtonian solutions and non-Newtonian suspensions to be measured quantitatively and their rheological behaviour in needles of clinical dimensions to be established. Commercial pharmaceutical parenteral formulations consisting of three oil-based solutions and three aqueous suspensions were chosen for this study. The net injection forces were also obtained and it was shown that both the oil-based solutions and the aqueous suspensions covered similar ranges. The viscosities for the parenteral solutions were determined from the slope of the linear regression (R(2)>0.97) between shear stress and shear rate and ranged between 0.029 and 0.060 Pas. For the aqueous suspensions examined, viscosities decreased from low shear rate to high shear rate, following a power-law model and indicating a pseudo plastic behaviour. Standardisation of the micro-capillary rheometer with Newtonian silicone oils calibrated with a Rheometrics Fluids Spectrometer showed viscosity values consistent between the rotational flow measurements and capillary flow measurements which were within 5% and showed very high degrees of reproducibility between replicate samples. This degree of reproducibility allowed differences in the contribution of the wall frictional force to the required plunger force for both the oil-based and aqueous parenteral formulations to be

  15. From single to multiple microcoil flow probe NMR and related capillary techniques: a review. (United States)

    Gökay, Ozan; Albert, Klaus


    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most important and powerful instrumental analytical techniques for structural elucidation of unknown small and large (complex) isolated and synthesized compounds in organic and inorganic chemistry. X-ray crystallography, neutron scattering (neutron diffraction), and NMR spectroscopy are the only suitable methods for three-dimensional structure determination at atomic resolution. Moreover, these methods are complementary. However, by means of NMR spectroscopy, reaction dynamics and interaction processes can also be investigated. Unfortunately, this technique is very insensitive in comparison with other spectrometric (e.g., mass spectrometry) and spectroscopic (e.g., infrared spectroscopy) methods. Mainly through the development of stronger magnets and more sensitive solenoidal microcoil flow probes, this drawback has been successfully counteracted. Capillary NMR spectroscopy increases the mass-based sensitivity of the NMR spectroscopic analysis up to 100-fold compared with conventional 5-mm NMR probes, and thus can be coupled online and off-line with other microseparation and detection techniques. It offers not only higher sensitivity, but in many cases provides better quality spectra than traditional methods. Owing to the immense number of compounds (e.g., of natural product extracts and compound libraries) to be examined, single microcoil flow probe NMR spectroscopy will soon be far from being sufficiently effective as a screening method. For this reason, an inevitable trend towards coupled microseparation-multiple microcoil flow probe NMR techniques, which allow simultaneous online and off-line detection of several compounds, will occur. In this review we describe the current status and possible future developments of single and multiple microcoil capillary flow probe NMR spectroscopy and its application as a high-throughput tool for the analysis of a large number of mass-limited samples. The advantages

  16. Targeted Functionalization of Nanoparticle Thin Films via Capillary Condensation

    KAUST Repository

    Gemici, Zekeriyya


    Capillary condensation, an often undesired natural phenomenon in nanoporous materials, was used advantageously as a universal functionalization strategy in nanoparticle thin films assembled layer-by-layer. Judicious choice of nanoparticle (and therefore pore) size allowed targeted capillary condensation of chemical vapors of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules across film thickness. Heterostructured thin films with modulated refractive index profiles produced in this manner exhibited broadband antireflection properties with an average reflectance over the visible region of the spectrum of only 0.4%. Capillary condensation was also used to modify surface chemistry and surface energy. Photosensitive capillary-condensates were UV-cross-linked in situ. Undesired adventitious condensation of humidity could be avoided by condensation of hydrophobic materials such as poly(dimethyl siloxane). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  17. 20 Years of Fatty Acid Analysis by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcone Augusto Leal de Oliveira


    Full Text Available A review taking into account the literature reports covering 20 years of fatty acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis is presented. This paper describes the evolution of fatty acid analysis using different CE modes such as capillary zone electrophoresis, non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography employing different detection systems, such as ultraviolet-visible, capacitively coupled contactless conductivity, laser-induced fluorescence and mass spectrometry. In summary, the present review signals that CE seems to be an interesting analytical separation technique that is very useful for screening analysis or quantification of the usual fatty acids present in different matrices, offering short analysis times and a simple sample preparation step as inherent advantages in comparison with the classical methodology, making it a separation technique that is very attractive for quality control in industry and government agencies.

  18. Design of Nano- and Microfibrous Channels for Fast Capillary Flow. (United States)

    Shou, Dahua; Fan, Jintu


    The speed of capillary flow is a key bottleneck in improving the performance of nano- and microfluidic devices for various applications including microfluidic diagnostics, thermal management heat pipes, micro-molding devices, functional fabrics, and oil-water separators. Here we present a novel nano- or microfibrous hollow wedged channel (named as W-Channel) which can significantly speed up the capillary flow. The capillary flow in the initial 100 seconds in the nanofibrous W-Channel was shown to be 8 times faster than that in the single-layer strip of the same material when placed vertically and over 20 times faster when placed horizontally. The enhanced flow under gravity is attributed to the adaptive interplay of capillary pressure and flow resistance within the triangular hollow wedge between the fibrous layers. The W-Channel can be fabricated following a simple procedure using inexpensive materials such as electrospun nanofibers or microfibrous filter papers.

  19. Transverse vertical dispersion in groundwater and the capillary fringe. (United States)

    Klenk, I D; Grathwohl, P


    Transverse dispersion is the most relevant process in mass transfer of contaminants across the capillary fringe (both directions), dilution of contaminants, and mixing of electron acceptors and electron donors in biodegrading groundwater plumes. This paper gives an overview on literature values of transverse vertical dispersivities alpha(tv) measured at different flow velocities and compares them to results from well-controlled laboratory-tank experiments on mass transfer of trichloroethene (TCE) across the capillary fringe. The measured values of transverse vertical dispersion in the capillary fringe region were larger than in fully saturated media, which is credited to enhanced tortuosity of the flow paths due to entrapped air within the capillary fringe. In all cases, the values observed for alpha(tv) were model, based on the mean square displacement and the pore size accounting for only partial diffusive mixing at increasing flow velocities, shows very good agreement with measured and published data.

  20. Capillary pericytes regulate cerebral blood flow in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Catherine N; Reynell, Clare; Gesslein, Bodil


    Increases in brain blood flow, evoked by neuronal activity, power neural computation and form the basis of BOLD (blood-oxygen-level-dependent) functional imaging. Whether blood flow is controlled solely by arteriole smooth muscle, or also by capillary pericytes, is controversial. We demonstrate...... blood flow, capillaries dilate before arterioles and are estimated to produce 84% of the blood flow increase. In pathology, ischaemia evokes capillary constriction by pericytes. We show that this is followed by pericyte death in rigor, which may irreversibly constrict capillaries and damage the blood......-brain barrier. Thus, pericytes are major regulators of cerebral blood flow and initiators of functional imaging signals. Prevention of pericyte constriction and death may reduce the long-lasting blood flow decrease that damages neurons after stroke....

  1. Omphalocele and alveolar capillary dysplasia: a new association.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, L.C.; Mol, A.C. de; Bulten, J.; Staak, F.H.J.M. van der; Heijst, A.F.J. van


    OBJECTIVE: First report of an infant with coexistent omphalocele and alveolar capillary dysplasia. DESIGN: Descriptive case report. SETTING: Neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENT: We describe a term infant with omphalocele and respiratory insufficiency

  2. Enantiomeric purity determination of tamsulosin by capillary electrophoresis using cyclodextrins and a polyacrylamide-coated capillary. (United States)

    Kavalírová, Andrea; Pospísilová, Marie; Karlícek, Rolf


    The chiral separation of racemic tamsulosin hydrochloride (TH) was carried out using cyclodextrin (CD)-mediated capillary electrophoresis (CE) with DAD at 200 nm. The best separation of enantiomers of the studied compound was achieved at 20 kV with 30 cm x 50 microm I.D. polyacrylamide (PAA)-coated fused-silica capillary (effective length 20 cm) and running buffer with sulfated-beta-CD (S-beta-CD) as chiral selector. Other selected native or derivatized CDs were also tested: beta-CD (5, 15 mmol l(-1)), carboxymethyl-beta-CD (5, 30 mmol l(-1)), dimethyl-beta-CD (15 mmol l(-1)) and hydroxypropyl-beta-CD (5, 30 mmol l(-1)). Several parameters such as capillary pretreatment, buffer type and concentration, pH of background electrolyte, methanol content, separation temperature and voltage, were optimized. The excellent baseline separation of chiral TH was successfully achieved within 12 min using 100 mmol l(-1) phosphate buffer with pH 2.5 containing 1.7 mmol l(-1) S-beta-CD. Rectilinear calibration range was 50.0-500.0 mumol l(-1) of each enantiomer (r = 0.9993-0.9996). The method was applied to the assay of R-TH in Omnic, capsules (nominal content 0.4 mg per capsule) with R.S.D. 2.75% (n = 6), recovery 99.3-101.7% and it was suitable for the chiral purity control of the active enantiomer in the pharmaceutical.

  3. Capillary Array Waveguide Amplified Fluorescence Detector for mHealth (United States)

    Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham


    Mobile Health (mHealth) analytical technologies are potentially useful for carrying out modern medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings. Effective mHealth devices for underserved populations need to be simple, low cost, and portable. Although cell phone cameras have been used for biodetection, their sensitivity is a limiting factor because currently it is too low to be effective for many mHealth applications, which depend on detection of weak fluorescent signals. To improve the sensitivity of portable phones, a capillary tube array was developed to amplify fluorescence signals using their waveguide properties. An array configured with 36 capillary tubes was demonstrated to have a ~100X increase in sensitivity, lowering the limit of detection (LOD) of mobile phones from 1000 nM to 10 nM for fluorescein. To confirm that the amplification was due to waveguide behavior, we coated the external surfaces of the capillaries with silver. The silver coating interfered with the waveguide behavior and diminished the fluorescence signal, thereby proving that the waveguide behavior was the main mechanism for enhancing optical sensitivity. The optical configuration described here is novel in several ways. First, the use of capillaries waveguide properties to improve detection of weak florescence signal is new. Second we describe here a three dimensional illumination system, while conventional angular laser waveguide illumination is spot (or line), which is functionally one-dimensional illumination, can illuminate only a single capillary or a single column (when a line generator is used) of capillaries and thus inherently limits the multiplexing capability of detection. The planar illumination demonstrated in this work enables illumination of a two dimensional capillary array (e.g. x columns and y rows of capillaries). In addition, the waveguide light propagation via the capillary wall provides a third dimension for illumination along the axis of the capillaries. Such an

  4. Possibilities of testing capillary absorption on microcores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čeh Arpad


    Full Text Available During inspection of reinforced concrete structures from the aspect of durability evaluation of concrete, the present methods generally use the test results obtained by the sophisticated and expensive equipment, which are usually not universal purpose, ie. they can be used only for one segment of durability evaluation of the concrete. This way any additional information about the condition of concrete is valuable, especially if it is not require an additional testing with special equipment. Tests of concrete and reinforced concrete with microcore drilling is considered to be a semi- destructive method, which slightly damages the structure itself, and it is primarily used for testing carbonation, density and absorption of concrete. The paper presents the results of capillary absorption according to SRPS EN 480-5 on standard-size samples and on the microcores extracted from cube form samples with edge length of 20 cm. In the article the testing results of penetration of water under pressure are also presented on the same samples, on which we previously gained microcores. These tests were carried out on with concrete mixtures designed for the most demanding exposure classes according to EN 206-1 and using a variety of additives that are known to affect the structure of pores and consequently also the durability of a hardened concrete.

  5. Fabricating PFPE Membranes for Capillary Electrophoresis (United States)

    Lee, Michael C.; Willis, Peter A.; Greer, Frank; Rolland, Jason


    A process has been developed for fabricating perfluoropolyether (PFPE) membranes that contain microscopic holes of precise sizes at precise locations. The membranes are to be incorporated into laboratory-on-a-chip microfluidic devices to be used in performing capillary electrophoresis. The present process is a modified version of part of the process, described in the immediately preceding article, that includes a step in which a liquid PFPE layer is cured into solid (membrane) form by use of ultraviolet light. In the present process, one exploits the fact that by masking some locations to prevent exposure to ultraviolet light, one can prevent curing of the PFPE in those locations. The uncured PFPE can be washed away from those locations in the subsequent release and cleaning steps. Thus, holes are formed in the membrane in those locations. The most straightforward way to implement the modification is to use, during the ultraviolet-curing step, an ultraviolet photomask similar to the photomasks used in fabricating microelectronic devices. In lieu of such a photomask, one could use a mask made of any patternable ultraviolet-absorbing material (for example, an ink or a photoresist).

  6. Optimization of metallic X-ray capillary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mroczka, R.; Bartosik, P. [Department of Chemistry, KUL - John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Krasnicka 102, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Sawlowicz, Z. [Institute of Geological Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Skrzypiec, K. [Marie Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Falkenberg, G. [HASYLAB (Germany); Wojcik, J.; Zukocinski, G. [Marie Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Kuczumow, A. [Department of Chemistry, KUL - John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Krasnicka 102, 20-718 Lublin (Poland)], E-mail:


    Among all of X-ray capillaries, those produced from metals attract special attention due to their specific advantages: less severe limitations on the value of the critical reflection angle, better control of the capillary shape, the maintenance of the straight main axis. The metallic, single bounce capillaries with gold and rhodium internal surfaces described in this paper are produced according to the original method invented at KUL. The production of the capillaries started from the formation of the internal steel mandrel of a designed shape that was later covered with another metal and finally pressed with the epoxy-resin. Then the mandrel was removed by the combination of mechanical and chemical actions. The shape of capillaries was controlled with the laser scan micrometer. The long-distance shape distortions, obeying so-called waviness correlation length were pointed out. The capillaries produced in our laboratory were characterized by the waviness amplitudes reaching 40-80 nm with correlation length about 300 {mu}m. The symmetry of the opening and the straight shape of the main axis were investigated with the optical microscope and laser light transmitted through the capillary and registered with the CCD camera. The symmetry was found close to circular. The internal surface of the capillary was studied on the longitudinal cross-sections by means of the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The surface roughness (rms) was determined, the parameter defining the ability of the surface to reflect X-rays efficiently in the total reflection mode. The best gold surfaces produced up-to-now had the rms {approx} 2 nm, as measured on 1 {mu}m x 1 {mu}m areas. The results of preliminary exercises with synchrotron radiation were demonstrated.

  7. Monitoring of enzymatic reactions using capillary electrophoresis with conductivity detection


    Schuchert-Shi, Aiping


    Capillary electrophoresis combined with contactless conductivity detection allows to separate and detect the ionic species, which are neither UV absorbing nor fluorescent. This thesis focuses on the applications of this method on enzymatic reactions in different analytical tasks. First, the non-ionic species ethanol, glucose, ethyl acetate and ethyl butyrate were made accessible for analysis by capillary electrophoresis via charged products or byproducts obtained in enzymati...

  8. General representation of capillary flow dynamics under microgravity condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stange, M.; Dreyer, M.; Rath, H.J. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Angewandte Raumfahrttechnologie und Mikrogravitation (ZARM)


    The flow of liquid through circular cylindrical tubes driven by the capillary force is studied. The equation for the meniscus acceleration is derived from an integral relation for linear momentum for an arbitrary moving and deformable control volume. Scaling this equation with the capillary force yields a dimensionless description of the meniscus motion. It is found that the process is subdivided into three domains which are separated by two characteristic times that are derived from the dominating forces. (orig.)

  9. General representation of capillary flow dynamics under microgravity condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stange, M.; Dreyer, M.; Rath, H.J. (Bremen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Angewandte Raumfahrttechnologie und Mikrogravitation (ZARM))


    The flow of liquid through circular cylindrical tubes driven by the capillary force is studied. The equation for the meniscus acceleration is derived from an integral relation for linear momentum for an arbitrary moving and deformable control volume. Scaling this equation with the capillary force yields a dimensionless description of the meniscus motion. It is found that the process is subdivided into three domains which are separated by two characteristic times that are derived from the dominating forces. (orig.)

  10. Capillary photoelectrode structures for photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic cells (United States)

    Wang, Xudong; Li, Zhaodong; Cai, Zhiyong; Yao, Chunhua


    Photocatalytic structures having a capillary-force based electrolyte delivery system are provided. Also provided are photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic cells incorporating the structures and methods for using the cells to generate hydrogen and/or oxygen from water. The photocatalytic structures use an electrolyte-transporting strip comprising a porous network of cellulose nanofibers to transport electrolyte from a body of the electrolyte to a porous photoelectrode or a porous photocatalytic substrate via capillary force.

  11. Alteration in the rheologic properties of plasmodium knowlesi-infected red cells. A possible mechanism for capillary obstruction (United States)

    Miller, Louis H.; Usami, Shunichi; Chien, Shu


    Red cells parasitized by Plasmodium knowlesi concentrate within the microcirculation of many organs including cerebral capillaries in rhesus monkeys. The possibility that P. knowlesi could alter the rheologic properties of red cells so that they are trapped within capillaries was investigated in the present study. The viscosity of P. knowlesi-infected red cells suspended in Ringer's solution was increased at all shear rates at hematocrits above 30%. At moderate parasitemia the resistance to flow through 5 μ polycarbonate sieves was increased; at high parasitemia the pores were obstructed. Mature trophozoites caused more obstruction than young trophozoites (rings) at any given level of parasitemia. The reduction of deformability of red cells infected by schizonts of P. knowlesi was further demonstrated by their exclusion from rouleaux in a plasma suspension. Therefore, the red cells infected by P. knowlesi become less deformable, and this reduction in red cell deformability may explain the obstruction of cerebral capillaries. Images PMID:4996884

  12. Analysis of Proteins, Protein Complexes, and Organellar Proteomes Using Sheathless Capillary Zone Electrophoresis - Native Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Belov, Arseniy M.; Viner, Rosa; Santos, Marcia R.; Horn, David M.; Bern, Marshall; Karger, Barry L.; Ivanov, Alexander R.


    Native mass spectrometry (MS) is a rapidly advancing field in the analysis of proteins, protein complexes, and macromolecular species of various types. The majority of native MS experiments reported to-date has been conducted using direct infusion of purified analytes into a mass spectrometer. In this study, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was coupled online to Orbitrap mass spectrometers using a commercial sheathless interface to enable high-performance separation, identification, and structural characterization of limited amounts of purified proteins and protein complexes, the latter with preserved non-covalent associations under native conditions. The performance of both bare-fused silica and polyacrylamide-coated capillaries was assessed using mixtures of protein standards known to form non-covalent protein-protein and protein-ligand complexes. High-efficiency separation of native complexes is demonstrated using both capillary types, while the polyacrylamide neutral-coated capillary showed better reproducibility and higher efficiency for more complex samples. The platform was then evaluated for the determination of monoclonal antibody aggregation and for analysis of proteomes of limited complexity using a ribosomal isolate from E. coli. Native CZE-MS, using accurate single stage and tandem-MS measurements, enabled identification of proteoforms and non-covalent complexes at femtomole levels. This study demonstrates that native CZE-MS can serve as an orthogonal and complementary technique to conventional native MS methodologies with the advantages of low sample consumption, minimal sample processing and losses, and high throughput and sensitivity. This study presents a novel platform for analysis of ribosomes and other macromolecular complexes and organelles, with the potential for discovery of novel structural features defining cellular phenotypes (e.g., specialized ribosomes). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Enhanced detection of PCR products through use of TOTO and YOYO intercalating dyes with laser induced fluorescence--capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Srinivasan, K; Morris, S C; Girard, J E; Kline, M C; Reeder, D J


    Recent developments in the chemical synthesis of DNA-binding dyes have enhanced detection of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products by capillary electrophoresis. These dyes are dimers of thiazole orange (TOTO) or oxazole orange (YOYO) and have a very high binding affinity for DNA (Haugland, 1992). These dyes show enhanced fluorescence signals when they bind to double-stranded DNA and their fluorescence in the unbound state is almost zero, making them extremely useful in detecting minute (fg) quantities of DNA. We report here the utility of these dyes in DNA typing applications using a laser-induced fluorescence detector in conjunction with a capillary electrophoresis system.

  14. Investigation of the π and σ Components of Mercury Capillary Lamp Radiation in the Presence of the Transverse Zeeman Effect (United States)

    Abramochkin, A. I.; Tatur, V. V.; Tikhomirov, A. A.


    The intensities of the π and of the sum of the σ+ and σ- components of radiation emitted by low-pressure mercury capillary lamps filled with mercury of the natural isotopic composition are investigated in the transverse Zeeman effect experiment. The effect of the magnetic induction, inner diameter of the capillary, high-frequency excitation voltage of the lamp, and environmental temperature on the relationship between these intensities is estimated. It is established that the intensity of the σ component is always less than the sum of the intensities of σ+ and σ- components.

  15. Principles of Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography Applied in Pharmaceutical Analysis (United States)

    Hancu, Gabriel; Simon, Brigitta; Rusu, Aura; Mircia, Eleonora; Gyéresi, Árpád


    Since its introduction capillary electrophoresis has shown great potential in areas where electrophoretic techniques have rarely been used before, including here the analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The large majority of pharmaceutical substances are neutral from electrophoretic point of view, consequently separations by the classic capillary zone electrophoresis; where separation is based on the differences between the own electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes; are hard to achieve. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, a hybrid method that combines chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles, extends the applicability of capillary electrophoretic methods to neutral analytes. In micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, surfactants are added to the buffer solution in concentration above their critical micellar concentrations, consequently micelles are formed; micelles that undergo electrophoretic migration like any other charged particle. The separation is based on the differential partitioning of an analyte between the two-phase system: the mobile aqueous phase and micellar pseudostationary phase. The present paper aims to summarize the basic aspects regarding separation principles and practical applications of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, with particular attention to those relevant in pharmaceutical analysis. PMID:24312804

  16. Optical carbon dioxide sensor based on fluorescent capillary array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    Full Text Available A novel carbon dioxide (CO2 gas sensor based on capillary array is presented. The capillary array is composed of 51 capillaries and modified by fluorescent dye 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS, PTS− and tetraoctylammonium cation (TOA+ doped porous ethyl cellulose. A Y-fiber is used to transmit exciting light and fluorescence. A fiber optic pigtail-contained spectrophotometer is used to collect and deal with optical signals. Due to its structural features, each capillary has the two rolling-up layers of inner and outer sensing films, which make the 2 cm long capillary array has large sensing area about 12.81 cm2 and the fluorescence signal easily be collected. The sensing probe has advantages such as small volume, compact structure and large sensing area. The results demonstrate that the sensor has a linear response in the CO2 volume ratio range from 0 to 10%. Keywords: Carbon dioxide chemical sensor, Fluorescence sensor, Capillary array

  17. Coaxial flow-gating interface for capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr


    A coaxial flow-gating interface is described in which the separation capillary passes through the sampling capillary. Continuous flow of the sample solution flowing out of the sampling capillary is directed away from the injection end of the separation capillary by counter-current flow of the gating solution. During the injection, the flow of the gating solution is interrupted, so that a plug of solution is formed at the inlet into the separation capillary, from which the sample is hydrodynamically injected. Flow-gating interfaces are originally designed for on-line connection of capillary electrophoresis with analytical flow-through methods. The basic properties of the described coaxial flow-gating interface were obtained in a simplified arrangement in which a syringe pump with sample solution has substituted analytical flow-through method. Under the optimized conditions, the properties of the tested interface were determined by separation of K + , Ba 2+ , Na + , Mg 2+ and Li + ions in aqueous solution at equimolar concentrations of 50 μM. The repeatability of the migration times and peak areas evaluated for K + , Ba 2+ and Li + ions and expressed as relative standard deviation did not exceed 1.4%. The interface was used to determine lithium in mineral water and taurine in an energy drink. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Principles of Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography Applied in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Gyéresi


    Full Text Available Since its introduction capillary electrophoresis has shown great potential in areas where electrophoretic techniques have rarely been used before, including here the analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The large majority of pharmaceutical substances are neutral from electrophoretic point of view, consequently separations by the classic capillary zone electrophoresis; where separation is based on the differences between the own electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes; are hard to achieve. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, a hybrid method that combines chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles, extends the applicability of capillary electrophoretic methods to neutral analytes. In micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, surfactants are added to the buffer solution in concentration above their critical micellar concentrations, consequently micelles are formed; micelles that undergo electrophoretic migration like any other charged particle. The separation is based on the differential partitioning of an analyte between the two-phase system: the mobile aqueous phase and micellar pseudostationary phase. The present paper aims to summarize the basic aspects regarding separation principles and practical applications of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, with particular attention to those relevant in pharmaceutical analysis.

  19. Dipyridamole-induced neoformation of capillaries in the rat heart. Quantitative stereological study on papillary muscles. (United States)

    Mall, G; Schikora, I; Mattfeldt, T; Bodle, R


    Eighteen young male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups of equal size. Each experimental animal was treated with the powerful vasodilating drug dipyridamole (4 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally twice daily) for a period of 6 weeks. The control animals received sham injections with saline. The rats were fixed by retrograde vascular perfusion. Seven transverse and two longitudinal sections per animal were randomly selected from the left ventricular papillary muscles for stereological investigation. Length density of capillaries (length of capillaries per unit of tissue volume), surface density of capillaries (surface area of capillaries per unit of tissue volume) and the "true" three-dimensional capillary-fiber ratio (length of capillaries per unit length of myocardial fibers) were estimated by means of the Dimroth-Watson distribution, a mathematical model of directional statistics which assumes that the capillary directions scatter around the longitudinal axis of the muscle. This model was recently introduced into the stereology of myocardial capillaries and leads to a more accurate quantitation of the capillary network than parameters used hitherto, such as the "capillary density" (number of capillary profiles per mm2 of cross sectional area) and the "capillary-fiber ratio" (number of capillary profiles per number of myofiber profiles in cross sections). After chronic dipyridamole treatment, the length density of myocardial capillaries (+5%; p less than 0.02), the surface density of capillaries (+8%, p less than 0.01) and the three-dimensional capillary-fiber ratio (+6%, p less than 0.05) were increased. It is therefore concluded that the vasodilating drug dipyridamole evokes capillary growth in the heart which may be induced by mechanical factors via the enhanced myocardial blood flow. Investigation of the frequency distribution of capillary directions in space in both groups provided evidence that the capillary growth resulted from neoformation of

  20. Analysis of anthocyanins in red onion using capillary electrophoresis-time of flight-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Petersson, Erik V; Puerta, Angel; Bergquist, Jonas; Turner, Charlotta


    For the first time, a capillary electrophoresis-time of flight-mass spectrometry analysis method for detecting anthocyanins in red onion was developed. The analysis method included the use of silica capillaries coated with poly-LA 313 (polycationic amine-containing polymer) and an MS-compatible volatile background electrolyte (BGE). The method was environmentally friendly and sensitive; and its rapidness combined with an acidic BGE helped in preventing anthocyanin degradation. By using high-resolution TOF-MS with pre-run tuning of masses, low mass errors were achieved in the determination of conjugated anthocyanins in red onion, and a simultaneous up-front fragmentation provided confirmation of the aglycon backbone for their secure identification. Most anthocyanins (at least seven out of ten) known in red onion from the literature were found, as well as one new for this matrix.

  1. Guiding of charged particle beams in curved capillary-discharge waveguides (United States)

    Pompili, R.; Castorina, G.; Ferrario, M.; Marocchino, A.; Zigler, A.


    A new method able to transport charged particle beams along a curved path is presented. It is based on curved capillary-discharge waveguides where the induced azimuthal magnetic field is used to focus the beam and, at the same time, keep it close to the capillary axis. We show that such a solution is highly tunable, it allows to develop compact structures providing large deflecting angles and, unlike conventional solutions based on bending magnets, preserves the beam longitudinal phase space. Such a feature, in particular, is very promising when dealing with ultra-short bunches for which non-trivial manipulations on the longitudinal phase spaces are usually required when employing conventional deflecting devices.

  2. Ultrafast Capillary Electrophoresis Isolation of DNA Aptamer for the PCR Amplification-Based Small Analyte Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle eFiore


    Full Text Available Here, we report a new homogeneous DNA amplification-based aptamer assay for small analyte sensing. The aptamer of adenosine chosen as the model analyte was split into two fragments able to assemble in the presence of target. Primers were introduced at extremities of one fragment in order to generate the amplifiable DNA component. The amount of amplifiable fragment was quantifiable by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR amplification and directly reliable on adenosine concentration. This approach combines the very high separation efficiency and the homogeneous format (without immobilization of capillary electrophoresis and the sensitivity of real time PCR amplification. An ultrafast isolation of target-bound split aptamer (60 s was developed by designing a capillary electrophoresis input/ouput scheme. Such method was successfully applied to the determination of adenosine with a LOD of 1 µM.

  3. Diffusive-dispersive mass transfer in the capillary fringe: Impact of water table fluctuations and heterogeneities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grathwohl, Peter; Haberer, Cristina; Ye, Yu

    and the dispersion coefficients are the same as below the water table. Water table fluctuations cause temporarily increased fluxes of oxygen into groundwater during draining conditions and entrapped air after water table rise. High-permeability inclusions in the capillary fringe enhance mass transfer of oxygen......Diffusive–dispersive mass transfer in the capillary fringe is important for many groundwater quality issues such as transfer of volatile compounds into (and out of) the groundwater, the supply of oxygen for aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons as well as for precipitation of minerals (e.g. iron...... to the underlying anoxic groundwater by increased dispersion due to flow focusing and by significant air trapping in the coarse material inclusions....

  4. Capillary electrophoretic study of individual exocytotic events in single mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Andrea Ming-Wei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The peak profile of individual degranulation events from the on-column release of serotonin from single rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs) was monitored using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced native fluorescence detection (CE-LINF). Serotonin, an important biogenic amine, is contained in granules (0.25 fL) within RPMCs and is extruded by a process termed exocytosis. The secretagogue, Polymyxin B sulfate, was used as the CE running buffer after injection of a single RPMC into the separation capillary to stimulate the release of the granules. Because the release process occurs on a ms time scale, monitoring individual exocytotic events is possible with the coupling of high-speed CE and LINF detection.

  5. Quantification of sugars in breakfast cereals using capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Toutounji, Michelle R; Van Leeuwen, Matthew P; Oliver, James D; Shrestha, Ashok K; Castignolles, Patrice; Gaborieau, Marianne


    About 80% of the Australian population consumes breakfast cereal (BC) at least five days a week. With high prevalence rates of obesity and other diet-related diseases, improved methods for monitoring sugar levels in breakfast cereals would be useful in nutrition research. The heterogeneity of the complex matrix of BCs can make carbohydrate analysis challenging or necessitate tedious sample preparation leading to potential sugar loss or starch degradation into sugars. A recently established, simple and robust free solution capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was used in a new application to 13 BCs (in Australia) and compared with several established methods for quantification of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates identified in BCs by CE included sucrose, maltose, glucose and fructose. The CE method is simple requiring no sample preparation or derivatization and carbohydrates are detected by direct UV detection. CE was shown to be a more robust and accurate method for measuring carbohydrates than Fehling method, DNS (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid) assay and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Determining lead, cadmium and mercury in cosmetics using sweeping via dynamic chelation by capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Ling; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Chen, Yen-Ling


    International limits have been established for metal impurities in cosmetics to prevent overexposure to heavy metal ions. Sweeping via dynamic chelation was developed using capillary electrophoresis to analyze lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) impurities in cosmetics. The sweeping via dynamic chelation mechanism involves a large volume of metal ions being swept by a small quantity of chelating agents that were electrokinetically injected into the capillary to chelate metal ions and increase the detection sensitivity. The optimized conditions were as follows: Firstly, the capillary was rinsed by a 0.6 mM TTAB solution to reverse the EOF. The sample solution, which was diluted using 25 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6.0), was injected into the capillary using a pressure of 3.5 psi for 99.9 s. Then, EDTA was injected at -25 kV for 1 min from the EDTA buffer (25 mM ammonium acetate containing 0.6 mM TTAB and 5 mM EDTA), and the metal ions were swept and stacked simultaneously. Finally, the separation was performed at -20 kV using a separation buffer (100 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6.0)). A small quantity of chelating agents introduced into the capillary could yield 33-, 50- and 100-fold detection improvements for Pb, Cd and Hg, respectively, more sensitive than conventional capillary zone electrophoresis. Correlation coefficients greater than 0.998 indicated that this method exhibited good linearity. The relative standard deviation and relative error were less than 8.7%, indicating high precision and accuracy. The recovery value of the homemade lotion, which was employed to simulate the real sample matrix, was 93-104%, which indicated that the sample matrix does not affect the quantitative results. Finally, commercial cosmetics were employed to demonstrate the feasibility of the method to determine Pb, Cd and Hg without complicated sample pretreatment. Graphical Abstract The procedure of analyzing metal ions in cosmetics by sweeping via dynamic chelation.

  7. Earlobe arterialized capillary blood gas analysis in the intensive care unit: a pilot study. (United States)

    Vaquer, Sergi; Masip, Jordi; Gili, Gisela; Gomà, Gemma; Oliva, Joan Carles; Frechette, Alexandre; Evetts, Simon; Russomano, Thais; Artigas, Antonio


    Earlobe arterialized capillary blood gas analysis can be used to estimate arterial gas content and may be suitable for diagnosis and management of critically ill patients. However, its utility and applicability in the ICU setting remains unexplored. A prospective observational validation study was designed to evaluate this technique in a cohort of mechanically ventilated adult critically ill patients admitted to a polyvalent ICU. Precision and agreement between capillary gas measures and arterial references was examined. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) diagnosis capabilities with the proposed technique were also evaluated. Finally, factors associated with sampling failure were explored. Fifty-five patients were included into this study. Precision of capillary samples was high (Coefficient of Variation PO2 = 9.8%, PCO2 = 7.7%, pH = 0.3%). PO2 measures showed insufficient agreement levels (Concordance Correlation Coefficient = 0.45; bias = 12 mmHg; percentage of error = 19.3%), whereas better agreement was observed for PCO2 and pH (Concordance Correlation Coefficient = 0.94 and 0.93 respectively; depreciable bias; percentage of error 11.4% and 0.5% respectively). The sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing ARDS were 100% and 92.3% using capillary gasometric measures. Sampling was unsuccessful in 43.6% of cases due to insufficient blood flow. Age > 65 years was independently associated with failure (odds ratio = 1.6), however hemodynamic failure and norepinephrine treatment were also influencing factors. Earlobe capillary blood gas analysis is precise and can be useful for detecting extreme gasometrical values. Diagnosis of ARDS can be done accurately using capillary measurements. Although this technique may be insufficient for precise management of patients in the ICU, it has the potential for important benefits in the acute phase of various critical conditions and in other critical care arenas, such as in emergency

  8. Controlled enzyme-immobilisation on capillaries for microreactors for peptide mapping. (United States)

    Bossi, A; Guizzardi, L; D'Acunto, M R; Righetti, P G


    In the present paper, the covalent immobilisation of the digesting enzyme trypsin has been achieved through photo-immobilisation on a portion of a silica capillary, thus leading to the construction of a capillary electrophoretic (CE)-microreactor for peptide mapping. The CE-microreactor is characterised by being a single piece, thus ensuring no fluidic or electrical leakage. The enzyme was immobilised with a surface density of 15.8 microg/cm(2), the stability was high (80% after 38 days) and the rate of conversion was 0.2 ng/s. On-line protein mapping was tested with proteins of different dimensions, showing competitiveness in terms of time (completed map within 15 min) and exhaustive maps of small proteins. The results of the CE-microreactor and the potential to immobilise biocomponents easily on a desired portion of the capillary indicate further developments towards the construction of a variety of miniaturised enzymatic screening devices for high-throughput screening analysis.

  9. Reduction of the capillary water absorption of foamed concrete by using the porous aggregate (United States)

    Namsone, E.; Sahmenko, G.; Namsone, E.; Korjakins, A.


    The article reports on the research of reduction of the capillary water absorption of foamed concrete (FC) by using the porous aggregate such as the granules of expanded glass (EG) and the cenospheres (CS). The EG granular aggregate is produced by using recycled glass and blowing agents, melted down in high temperature. The unique structure of the EG granules is obtained where the air is kept closed inside the pellet. The use of the porous aggregate in the preparation process of the FC samples provides an opportunity to improve some physical and mechanical properties of the FC, classifying it as a product of high-performance. In this research the FC samples were produced by adding the EG granules and the CS. The capillary water absorption of hardened samples has been verified. The pore size distribution has been determined by microscope. It is a very important characteristic, specifically in the cold climate territories–where temperature often falls below zero degrees. It is necessary to prevent forming of the micro sized pores in the final structure of the material as it reduces its water absorption capacity. In addition, at a below zero temperature water inside these micro sized pores can increase them by expanding the stress on their walls during the freezing process. Research of the capillary water absorption kinetics can be practical for prevision of the FC durability.

  10. Evaluation of poly([2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) cationic polymer capillary coating for capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography separations. (United States)

    McGettrick, Julie R; Palmer, Christopher P


    Capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography are typically carried out in unmodified fused-silica capillaries under conditions that result in a strong negative zeta potential at the capillary wall and a robust cathodic electroosmotic flow. Modification of the capillary wall to reverse the zeta potential and mask silanol sites can improve separation performance by reducing or eliminating analyte adsorption, and is essential when conducting electrokinetic chromatography separations with cationic latex nanoparticle pseudo-stationary phases. Semipermanent modification of the capillary walls by coating with cationic polymers has proven to be facile and effective. In this study, poly([2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) polymers were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and used as physically adsorbed semipermanent coatings for capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography separations. An initial synthesis of poly([2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) polymer coating produced strong and stable anodic electroosmotic flow of -5.7 to -5.4 × 10-4 cm2 /V⋅s over the pH range of 4-7. Significant differences in the magnitude of the electroosmotic flow and effectiveness were observed between synthetic batches, however. For electrokinetic chromatography separations, the best performing batches of poly([2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) polymer performed as well as the commercially available cationic polymer polyethyleneimine, whereas polydiallylammonium chloride and hexadimethrine bromide did not perform well. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Screening for the presence of drugs in serum and urine using different separation modes of capillary electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, C.M; Douma, J.W; Franke, J.P.; de Zeeuw, R.A; Ensing, K


    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a modern separation technique that has some distinct advantages for toxicological analysis, such as a high efficiency, fast analysis, flexibility, and complementary separation mechanisms to chromatographic methods. CE can be applied in various modes, which each have

  12. Native fluorescence detection of biomolecular and pharmaceutical compounds in capillary electrophoresis: detector designs, performance and applications: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kort, B.J.; de Jong, G.J.; Somsen, G.W.


    This review treats the coupling of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with fluorescence detection (Flu) for the analysis of natively fluorescent biomolecular and pharmaceutical compounds. CE-Flu combines the excellent separation efficiency of CE with the high selectivity and sensitivity of Flu. In

  13. Effect of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on capillary filtration coefficient. (United States)

    Andrade, R S; Wangensteen, O D; Jo, J K; Tsai, M Y; Bolman, R M


    We previously demonstrated that surfactant dilution and inhibition occur immediately after pulmonary artery flushing with hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution. Consequently, we speculated that increased capillary permeability contributed to these surfactant changes. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and additionally performed a biochemical analysis of surfactant. We used a murine isolated, perfused lung model to measure the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamic parameters, to determine the wet to dry weight ratio, and to evaluate surfactant by biochemical analysis of lung lavage fluid. We defined three study groups. In group I (controls), we harvested lungs without hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing, and measured Kfc immediately. In group II (in situ flush), we harvested lungs after hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing with modified Euro-Collins solution, and then measured Kfc. Experiments in groups I and II were designed to evaluate persistent changes in Kfc after pulmonary artery flushing. In group III (ex vivo flush), we flushed lungs ex vivo to evaluate transient changes in Kfc during hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing. Groups I and II did not differ significantly in capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamics. Group II showed significant alterations on biochemical surfactant analysis and a significant increase in wet-to-dry weight ratio, when compared with group I. In group III, we observed a significant transient increase in capillary filtration coefficient during pulmonary artery flushing. Hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing transiently increases the capillary filtration coefficient, leads to an increase in the wet to dry weight ratio, and induces biochemical surfactant changes. These findings could be explained by the effects of hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution on pulmonary capillary

  14. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing Immunoassay for Fat Cell Differentiation Proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary G Johlfs

    Full Text Available Profiling cellular proteome is critical to understanding signal integration during cell fate determination. In this study, the capability of capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF immunoassays to detect post-translational modifications (PTM of protein isoforms is demonstrated. cIEF immunoassays exhibit protein detection sensitivity at up to 5 orders of magnitude higher than traditional methods. This detection ultra-sensitivity permits proteomic profiling of several nanograms of tissue samples. cIEF immunoassays are employed to simultaneously profile three protein kinases during fat cell differentiation: cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PKG-I of the nitric oxide (NO signaling pathway, protein kinase B (Akt of the insulin signaling pathway, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway. Interestingly, a switch in the expression level of PKG- isoforms is observed during fat cell differentiation. While both PKG-Iα and PKG-Iβ isoforms are present in preadipocytes, only PKG-Iβ isoform is expressed in adipocytes. On the other hand, the phosphorylation level increases for Akt while decreases for ERK1 and ERK2 following the maturation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Taken together, cIEF immunoassay provides a highly sensitive means to study fat cell differentiation proteomics. cIEF immunoassay should be a powerful proteomics tool to study complex protein signal integration in biological systems.

  15. Sucrose Hydrolysis in a Bespoke Capillary Wall-Coated Microreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Carvalho


    Full Text Available Microscale technology has been increasingly used in chemical synthesis up to production scale, but in biocatalysis the implementation has been proceeding at a slower pace. In this work, the design of a low cost and versatile continuous flow enzyme microreactor is described that illustrates the potential of microfluidic reactors for both the development and characterization of biocatalytic processes. The core structure of the developed reactor consists of an array of capillaries with 450 μm of inner diameter with their inner surface functionalized with (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES and glutaraldehyde where Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase was covalently bound. The production of invert sugar syrup through enzymatic sucrose hydrolysis was used as model system. Once the microreactor assembly reproducibility and the immobilized enzyme behavior were established, the evaluation of the immobilized enzyme kinetic parameters was carried out at flow rates ranging from 20.8 to 219.0 μL·min−1 and substrate concentrations within 2.0%–10.0% (w/v. Despite the impact of immobilization on the kinetic parameters, viz. Km(app was increased two fold and Kcat showed a 14-fold decrease when compared to solution phase invertase, the immobilization proved highly robust. For a mean residence time of 48.8 min, full conversion of 5.0% (w/v sucrose was observed over 20 days.

  16. Spatial resolution of confocal XRF technique using capillary optics. (United States)

    Dehlinger, Maël; Fauquet, Carole; Lavandier, Sebastien; Aumporn, Orawan; Jandard, Franck; Arkadiev, Vladimir; Bjeoumikhov, Aniouar; Tonneau, Didier


    XRF (X-ray fluorescence) is a powerful technique for elemental analysis with a high sensitivity. The resolution is presently limited by the size of the primary excitation X-ray beam. A test-bed for confocal-type XRF has been developed to estimate the ultimate lateral resolution which could be reached in chemical mapping using this technique. A polycapillary lens is used to tightly focus the primary X-ray beam of a low power rhodium X-ray source, while the fluorescence signal is collected by a SDD detector through a cylindrical monocapillary. This system was used to characterize the geometry of the fluorescent zone. Capillary radii ranging from 50 μm down to 5 μm were used to investigate the fluorescence signal maximum level This study allows to estimate the ultimate resolution which could be reached in-lab or on a synchrotron beamline. A new tool combining local XRF and scanning probe microscopy is finally proposed.

  17. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for glycoscreening in biomedical research. (United States)

    Zamfir, Alina; Peter-Katalinić, Jasna


    Application of capillary electrophoresis (CE) in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem MS to glycoscreening in biomedical projects is highlighted. In the first part recent CE-MS experiments by sheath liquid CE and multiple stage MS are reported. Neutral and negatively charged N-glycan mixtures from ribonuclease B and fetuin, high-mannose type N-glycoforms, oligosaccharides from lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Haemophilus influenzae, polysaccharides of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were analyzed. A particular emphasis is devoted to the applicability of novel off- and on-line CE-MS and tandem MS methods for screening of proteoglycan-derived oligosaccharides, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as hyaluronates from Streptococcus agalactiae, chondroitin/dermatan sulfates (CS/DS) from bovine aorta and human skin fibroblast decorin, and heparin/heparan sulfate (HS) from porcine and bovine mucosa. The performance of CE-MS/MS for identification of glycoforms in glycopeptides and glycoproteins is illustrated by experiments performed on complex mixtures from urine of patients suffering from a hereditary N-acetylhexosaminidase deficiency (Schindler's disease) and urine of patients suffering from cancer cachexia. For determination of glycosylation patterns in glycoproteins like enzymes and antibodies by CE/MS, both CE-matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and CE-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS were functional. Finally, the potential of CE-ESI-MS strategy in glycolipid analysis is demonstrated for gangliosides from bovine brain for which particular CE buffer conditions are required.

  18. Heat of capillary condensation in nanopores: new insights from the equation of state. (United States)

    Tan, Sugata P; Piri, Mohammad


    Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) coupled with the Young-Laplace equation is a recently developed equation of state (EOS) that successfully presents not only the capillary condensation but also the pore critical phenomena. The development of this new EOS allows further investigation of the heats involved in condensation. Compared to the conventional approaches, the EOS calculations present the temperature-dependent behavior of the heat of capillary condensation as well as that of the contributing effects. The confinement effect was found to be the strongest at the pore critical point. Therefore, contrary to the bulk heat condensation that vanishes at the critical point, the heat of capillary condensation in small pores shows a minimum and then increases with temperature when approaching the pore critical temperature. Strong support for the existence of the pore critical point is also discussed as the volume expansivity of the condensed phase in confinement was found to increase dramatically near the pore critical temperature. At high reduced temperatures, the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was found to apply better for confined fluids than it does for bulk fluids.

  19. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis and detection of mid-spectrum biological warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, C.A.; Townsley, C.


    DRE Suffield has initiated a research program to develop methods and equipment for field detection and laboratory identification of mid-spectrum agents, molecules of biological origin such as proteins, peptides and toxins. In this study, a highly efficient and reproducible capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed to separate and identify a series of nine peptides of defence interest: bradykinin, bradykinin fragment 1-5, substance P,ARG8-vasopressin, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, bombesin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin, and oxytocin. Using a 50 micrometer x 47 cm capillary column, 22.5 kV separation voltage and a 100 mM pH 2.5 phosphate buffer, all nine peptide could separated in under 10 minutes. Three strategies, which could be used in a fully automated field detection and identification system, were demonstrated for the identification of unknown peptides: comparison of migration times, comparison of electrophoretic mobilities, and co-injection of multiple reference standards. These experiments demonstrate that a separation based analytical method such as capillary electrophoresis could form the basis of a generic detection system for mid-spectrum protein and peptide toxins.

  20. Sapphire capillaries for laser-driven wakefield acceleration in plasma. Fs-laser micromachining and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, Jan-Patrick


    Plasma wakefields are a promising approach for the acceleration of electrons with ultrahigh (10 to 100 GV/m) electric fields. Nowadays, high-intensity laser pulses are routinely utilized to excite these large-amplitude plasma waves. However, several detrimental effects such as laser diffraction, electron-wake dephasing and laser depletion may terminate the acceleration process. Two of these phenomena can be mitigated or avoided by the application of capillary waveguides, e.g. fabricated out of sapphire for longevity. Capillaries may compensate for laser diffraction like a fiber and allow for the creation of tapered gas-density profiles working against the dephasing between the accelerating wave and the particles. Additionally, they offer the possibility of controlled particle injection. This thesis is reporting on the set up of a laser for fs-micromachining of capillaries of almost arbitrary shapes and a test stand for density-profile characterization. These devices will permit the creation of tailored gas-density profiles for controlled electron injection and acceleration inside plasma.

  1. Effects of Different Waveforms on the Performance of Active Capillary Dielectric Barrier Discharge Ionization Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Dumlao, Morphy C; Xiao, Dan; Zhang, Daming; Fletcher, John; Donald, William A


    Active capillary dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI) is emerging as a compact, low-cost, and robust method to form intact ions of small molecules for detection in near real time by portable mass spectrometers. Here, we demonstrate that by using a 10 kHz, ~2.5 kV p-p high-voltage square-wave alternating current plasma, active capillary DBDI can consume less than 1 μW of power. In contrast, the power consumed using a sine and triangle alternating current waveform is more than two orders of magnitude higher than that for the square waveform to obtain a similar voltage for plasma generation. Moreover, the plasma obtained using a square waveform can be significantly more homogenous than that obtained using sine and triangle waveforms. Protonated dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and deprotonated perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) can be detected at about the same or higher abundances using square-wave DBDI mass spectrometry compared with the use of sine and triangle waveforms. By use of benzylammonium thermometer ions, the extent of internal energy deposition using square, sine, or triangle waveform excited plasmas are essentially the same at the optimum voltages for ion detection. Using an H-bridge circuit driving a transformer optimized to reduce losses, square-wave active capillary DBDI can be continuously powered for ~50 h by common 9 V-battery (PP3). Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  2. Determination of preservatives in soft drinks by capillary electrophoresis with ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives. (United States)

    Sun, Bingbing; Qi, Li; Wang, Minglin


    A capillary electrophoresis method for separating preservatives with various ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives has been developed. The performances for separation of the preservatives using five ionic liquids with different anions and different substituted group numbers on imidazole ring were studied. After investigating the influence of the key parameters on the separation (the concentration of ionic liquids, pH, and the concentration of borax), it has been found that the separation efficiency could be improved obviously using the ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives and tested preservatives were baseline separated. The proposed capillary electrophoresis method exhibited favorable quantitative analysis property of the preservatives with good linearity (r(2) = 0.998), repeatability (relative standard deviations ≤ 3.3%) and high recovery (79.4-117.5%). Furthermore, this feasible and efficient capillary electrophoresis method was applied in detecting the preservatives in soft drinks, introducing a new way for assaying the preservatives in food products. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Breakup Behavior of a Capillary Bridge on a Hydrophobic Stripe Separating Two Hydrophilic Stripes (United States)

    Hartmann, Maximilian; Hardt, Steffen


    The breakup dynamics of a capillary bridge on a hydrophobic area between two liquid filaments occupying two parallel hydrophilic stripes is studied experimentally. In addition calculations with the finite-element software Surface Evolver are performed to obtain the corresponding stable minimal surfaces. Droplets of de-ionized water are placed on substrates with alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes of different width. Their volume decreases by evaporation. This results in a droplet shaped as the letter ``H'' covering two hydrophilic stripes separated by one hydrophobic stripe. The width of the capillary bridge d(t) on the hydrophobic stripe during the breakup process is observed using a high-speed camera mounted on a bright-field microscope. The results of the experiments and the numerical studies show that the critical width dcrit, indicating the point where the capillary bridge becomes unstable, mainly depends on the width ratio of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes. It is found that the time derivative of d(t) first decreases after dcrit has been reached. The final breakup dynamics then follows a t 2 / 3 scaling. We kindly acknowledge the financial support by the German Research Foundation (DFG) within the Collaborative Research Centre 1194 ``Interaction of Transport and Wetting Processes'', Project A02a.

  4. Nanocellulose crystals derivative-silica hybrid sol open tubular capillary column for enantioseparation. (United States)

    Dong, Shuqing; Sun, Yaming; Zhang, Xia; Li, Hui; Luo, Guoying; Zhao, Liang


    Broad spectrum separation of chiral compounds is a challenge task for analysts. It is significant for preparation of chiral stationary phase and selection of separation technology in the field. Here, we present a novel nanocellulose crystals (NCCs) which were derivation with 3,5-dimethylphenyl isocynate (DMPC) and silane with 3-triethoxysilylpropylisocyanate form sol in tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and layer-by-layer self-assembly in the inner of capillary to fabricate the organic-inorganic hybrid open tubular capillary column (DMPC/NCCs-OTC) for enantiomers separation by capillary electrochromatography technology (CEC). The experimental results verified that this coating column has the broad spectrum separation ability and high resolution efficiency for thirteen different enantiomers at the optimal CEC conditions. The mechanizations of DMPC/NCCs-OTC modified layer numbers and structure effect on chiral separation performance have been investigated and compared. Although the limitation and difficulty in fabrication of open tubular coating column, this work provided the preparation method of stability, controlled, long column life, adequate repeatability and satisfied enantioseparation performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of Capillary Loop Convective Polymerase Chain Reaction Platform with Real-Time Fluorescence Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Pin Chou


    Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction (PCR has been one of the principal techniques of molecular biology and diagnosis for decades. Conventional PCR platforms, which work by rapidly heating and cooling the whole vessel, need complicated hardware designs, and cause energy waste and high cost. On the other hand, partial heating on the various locations of vessels to induce convective solution flows by buoyancy have been used for DNA amplification in recent years. In this research, we develop a new convective PCR platform, capillary loop convective polymerase chain reaction (clcPCR, which can generate one direction flow and make the PCR reaction more stable. The U-shaped loop capillaries with 1.6 mm inner diameter are designed as PCR reagent containers. The clcPCR platform utilizes one isothermal heater for heating the bottom of the loop capillary and a CCD device for detecting real-time amplifying fluorescence signals. The stable flow was generated in the U-shaped container and the amplification process could be finished in 25 min. Our experiments with different initial concentrations of DNA templates demonstrate that clcPCR can be applied for precise quantification. Multiple sample testing and real-time quantification will be achieved in future studies.

  6. Mapping molecular adhesion sites inside SMIL coated capillaries using atomic force microscopy recognition imaging. (United States)

    Leitner, Michael; Stock, Lorenz G; Traxler, Lukas; Leclercq, Laurent; Bonazza, Klaus; Friedbacher, Gernot; Cottet, Hervé; Stutz, Hanno; Ebner, Andreas


    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is a powerful analytical technique for fast and efficient separation of different analytes ranging from small inorganic ions to large proteins. However electrophoretic resolution significantly depends on the coating of the inner capillary surface. High technical efforts like Successive Multiple Ionic Polymer Layer (SMIL) generation have been taken to develop stable coatings with switchable surface charges fulfilling the requirements needed for optimal separation. Although the performance can be easily proven in normalized test runs, characterization of the coating itself remains challenging. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows for topographical investigation of biological and analytical relevant surfaces with nanometer resolution and yields information about the surface roughness and homogeneity. Upgrading the scanning tip to a molecular biosensor by adhesive molecules (like partly inverted charged molecules) allows for performing topography and recognition imaging (TREC). As a result, simultaneously acquired sample topography and adhesion maps can be recorded. We optimized this technique for electrophoresis capillaries and investigated the charge distribution of differently composed and treated SMIL coatings. By using the positively charged protein avidin as a single molecule sensor, we compared these SMIL coatings with respect to negative charges, resulting in adhesion maps with nanometer resolution. The capability of TREC as a functional investigation technique at the nanoscale was successfully demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dll4-containing exosomes induce capillary sprout retraction in a 3D microenvironment (United States)

    Sharghi-Namini, Soheila; Tan, Evan; Ong, Lee-Ling Sharon; Ge, Ruowen; Asada, H. Harry


    Delta-like 4 (Dll4), a membrane-bound Notch ligand, plays a fundamental role in vascular development and angiogenesis. Dll4 is highly expressed in capillary endothelial tip cells and is involved in suppressing neighboring stalk cells to become tip cells during angiogenesis. Dll4-Notch signaling is mediated either by direct cell-cell contact or by Dll4-containing exosomes from a distance. However, whether Dll4-containing exosomes influence tip cells of existing capillaries is unknown. Using a 3D microfluidic device and time-lapse confocal microscopy, we show here for the first time that Dll4-containing exosomes causes tip cells to lose their filopodia and trigger capillary sprout retraction in collagen matrix. We demonstrate that Dll4 exosomes can freely travel through 3D collagen matrix and transfer Dll4 protein to distant tip cells. Upon reaching endothelial sprout, it causes filopodia and tip cell retraction. Continuous application of Dll4 exosomes from a distance lead to significant reduction of sprout formation. This effect correlates with Notch signaling activation upon Dll4-containing exosome interaction with recipient endothelial cells. Furthermore, we show that Dll4-containing exosomes increase endothelial cell motility while suppressing their proliferation. These data revealed novel functions of Dll4 in angiogenesis through exosomes. PMID:24504253

  8. Group Velocity Measurements in Laser-Heated Capillary Discharge Waveguides for Laser-Plasma Accelerators (United States)

    Pieronek, C. V.; Daniels, J.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Benedetti, C.; Leemans, W. P.


    To date, the most energetic electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators have been produced using gas-filled capillary discharge waveguides, which increase the acceleration length by mitigating diffraction of the driving laser pulse. To reach higher electron beam energies, lower plasma density is required to reduce bunch dephasing. However, confinement of the driver is reduced for lower plasma density, reducing the acceleration length. A laser-heated capillary discharge waveguide, where the discharge is heated by a coaxial laser pulse, was proposed to create a steeper density gradient at lower density. Here the first measurements of group velocity in laser-heated capillary discharges, obtained via spectral interferometry, are presented. Increase of the driver group velocity and reduction in on-axis plasma density by laser-heating are shown. Work supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Additional support by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-1415596.

  9. Percolation study for the capillary ascent of a liquid through a granular soil (United States)

    Cárdenas-Barrantes, Manuel Antonio; Muñoz, José Daniel; Araujo, Nuno Machado


    Capillary rise plays a crucial role in the construction of road embankments in flood zones, where hydrophobic compounds are added to the soil to suppress the rising of water and avoid possible damage of the pavement. Water rises through liquid bridges, menisci and trimers, whose width and connectivity depends on the maximal half-length λ of the capillary bridges among grains. Low λs generate a disconnect structure, with small clusters everywhere. On the contrary, for high λ, create a percolating cluster of trimers and enclosed volumes that form a natural path for capillary rise. Hereby, we study the percolation transition of this geometric structure as a function of λ on a granular media of monodisperse spheres in a random close packing. We determine both the percolating threshold λc = (0.049 ± 0.004)R (with R the radius of the granular spheres), and the critical exponent of the correlation length v = 0.830 ± 0.051, suggesting that the percolation transition falls into the universality class of ordinary percolation.

  10. Observations of capillary barriers and preferential flow in layered snow during cold laboratory experiments (United States)

    Avanzi, Francesco; Hirashima, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Katsushima, Takafumi; De Michele, Carlo


    Data of liquid water flow around a capillary barrier in snow are still limited. To gain insight into this process, we carried out observations of dyed water infiltration in layered snow at 0 °C during cold laboratory experiments. We considered three different finer-over-coarser textures and three different water input rates. By means of visual inspection, horizontal sectioning, and measurements of liquid water content (LWC), capillary barriers and associated preferential flow were characterized. The flow dynamics of each sample were also simulated solving the Richards equation within the 1-D multi-layer physically based snow cover model SNOWPACK. Results revealed that capillary barriers and preferential flow are relevant processes ruling the speed of water infiltration in stratified snow. Both are marked by a high degree of spatial variability at centimeter scale and complex 3-D patterns. During unsteady percolation of water, observed peaks in bulk volumetric LWC at the interface reached ˜ 33-36 vol % when the upper layer was composed by fine snow (grain size smaller than 0.5 mm). However, LWC might locally be greater due to the observed heterogeneity in the process. Spatial variability in water transmission increases with grain size, whereas we did not observe a systematic dependency on water input rate for samples containing fine snow. The comparison between observed and simulated LWC profiles revealed that the implementation of the Richards equation reproduces the existence of a capillary barrier for all observed cases and yields a good agreement with observed peaks in LWC at the interface between layers.

  11. Mapping molecular adhesion sites inside SMIL coated capillaries using atomic force microscopy recognition imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Michael [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Stock, Lorenz G. [Division of Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Molecular Biology, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Tools for the Characterization of Biosimilars, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Traxler, Lukas [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Leclercq, Laurent [Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM, UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier), Place Eugène Bataillon, CC 1706, 34095 Montpellier (France); Bonazza, Klaus; Friedbacher, Gernot [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Cottet, Hervé [Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM, UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier), Place Eugène Bataillon, CC 1706, 34095 Montpellier (France); Stutz, Hanno [Division of Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Molecular Biology, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Tools for the Characterization of Biosimilars, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Ebner, Andreas, E-mail: [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria)


    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is a powerful analytical technique for fast and efficient separation of different analytes ranging from small inorganic ions to large proteins. However electrophoretic resolution significantly depends on the coating of the inner capillary surface. High technical efforts like Successive Multiple Ionic Polymer Layer (SMIL) generation have been taken to develop stable coatings with switchable surface charges fulfilling the requirements needed for optimal separation. Although the performance can be easily proven in normalized test runs, characterization of the coating itself remains challenging. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows for topographical investigation of biological and analytical relevant surfaces with nanometer resolution and yields information about the surface roughness and homogeneity. Upgrading the scanning tip to a molecular biosensor by adhesive molecules (like partly inverted charged molecules) allows for performing topography and recognition imaging (TREC). As a result, simultaneously acquired sample topography and adhesion maps can be recorded. We optimized this technique for electrophoresis capillaries and investigated the charge distribution of differently composed and treated SMIL coatings. By using the positively charged protein avidin as a single molecule sensor, we compared these SMIL coatings with respect to negative charges, resulting in adhesion maps with nanometer resolution. The capability of TREC as a functional investigation technique at the nanoscale was successfully demonstrated. - Highlights: • SMIL coating allows generation of homogeneous ultra-flat surfaces. • Molecular electrostatic adhesion forces can be determined in the inner wall of CZE capillary with picoNewton accuracy. • Topographical images and simultaneously acquired adhesion maps yield morphological and chemical information at the nanoscale.

  12. Viscoelastic capillary flow: the case of whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rabaud


    Full Text Available The dynamics of spontaneous capillary flow of Newtonian fluids is well-known and can be predicted by the Lucas-Washburn-Rideal (LWR law. However a wide variety of viscoelastic fluids such as alginate, xanthan and blood, does not exhibit the same Newtonian behavior.In this work we consider the Herschel-Bulkley (HB rheological model and Navier-Stokes equation to derive a generic expression that predicts the capillary flow of non-Newtonian fluids. The Herschel-Bulkley rheological model encompasses a wide variety of fluids, including the Power-law fluids (also called Ostwald fluids, the Bingham fluids and the Newtonian fluids. It will be shown that the proposed equation reduces to the Lucas-Washburn-Rideal law for Newtonian fluids and to the Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch-Mooney (WRM law for power-law fluids. Although HB model cannot reduce to Casson’s law, which is often used to model whole blood rheology, HB model can fit the whole blood rheology with the same accuracy.Our generalized expression for the capillary flow of non-Newtonian fluid was used to accurately fit capillary flow of whole blood. The capillary filling of a cylindrical microchannel by whole blood was monitored. The blood first exhibited a Newtonian behavior, then after 7 cm low shear stress and rouleaux formation made LWR fails to fit the data: the blood could not be considered as Newtonian anymore. This non-Newtonian behavior was successfully fit by the proposed equation.

  13. On the performance of capillary barriers as landfill cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kämpf


    Full Text Available Landfills and waste heaps require an engineered surface cover upon closure. The capping system can vary from a simple soil cover to multiple layers of earth and geosynthetic materials. Conventional design features a compacted soil layer, which suffers from drying out and cracking, as well as root and animal intrusion. Capillary barriers consisting of inclined fine-over-coarse soil layers are investigated as an alternative cover system. Under unsaturated conditions, the textural contrast delays vertical drainage by capillary forces. The moisture that builds up above the contact will flow downdip along the interface of the layers. Theoretical studies of capillary barriers have identified the hydraulic properties of the layers, the inclination angle, the length of the field and the infiltration rate as the fundamental characteristics of the system. However, it is unclear how these findings can lead to design criteria for capillary barriers. To assess the uncertainty involved in such approaches, experiments have been carried out in a 8 m long flume and on large scale test sites (40 m x 15 m. In addition, the ability of a numerical model to represent the relevant flow processes in capillary barriers has been examined.

  14. Early regimes of water capillary flow in slit silica nanochannels. (United States)

    Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens H; Mejía, Andrés; Zambrano, Harvey A


    Molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to investigate the initial stages of spontaneous imbibition of water in slit silica nanochannels surrounded by air. An analysis is performed for the effects of nanoscopic confinement, initial conditions of liquid uptake and air pressurization on the dynamics of capillary filling. The results indicate that the nanoscale imbibition process is divided into three main flow regimes: an initial regime where the capillary force is balanced only by the inertial drag and characterized by a constant velocity and a plug flow profile. In this regime, the meniscus formation process plays a central role in the imbibition rate. Thereafter, a transitional regime takes place, in which, the force balance has significant contributions from both inertia and viscous friction. Subsequently, a regime wherein viscous forces dominate the capillary force balance is attained. Flow velocity profiles identify the passage from an inviscid flow to a developing Poiseuille flow. Gas density profiles ahead of the capillary front indicate a transient accumulation of air on the advancing meniscus. Furthermore, slower capillary filling rates computed for higher air pressures reveal a significant retarding effect of the gas displaced by the advancing meniscus.

  15. Surface tension in microsystems engineering below the capillary length

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Pierre


    This book describes how surface tension effects can be used by engineers to provide mechanical functions in miniaturized products (<1 mm). Even if precursors of this field such as Jurin or Laplace already date back to the 18th century, describing surface tension effects from a mechanical perspective is very recent. The originality of this book is to consider the effects of capillary bridges on solids, including forces and torques exerted both statically and dynamically by the liquid along the 6 degrees-of-freedom. It provides a comprehensive approach to various applications, such as capillary adhesion (axial force), centering force in packaging and micro-assembly (lateral force) and recent developments such as a capillary motor (torque). It devises how surface tension can be used to provide mechanical functions such as actuation (bubble-actuated compliant table), sealing and tightness, energy harvesting, nanodispending.

  16. Pepsin-modified chiral monolithic column for affinity capillary electrochromatography. (United States)

    Hong, Tingting; Chi, Cuijie; Ji, Yibing


    Pepsin-modified affinity monolithic capillary electrochromatography, a novel microanalysis system, was developed by the covalent bonding of pepsin on silica monolith. The column was successfully applied in the chiral separation of (±)-nefopam. Furthermore, the electrochromatographic performance of the pepsin-functionalized monolith for enantiomeric analysis was evaluated in terms of protein content, pH of running buffer, sample volume, buffer concentration, applied voltage, and capillary temperature. The relative standard deviation (%RSD) values of retention time (intraday affinity monolith used in this research opens a new path of exploring particularly versatile class of enzymes to develop enzyme-modified affinity capillary monolith for enantioseparation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Characterization of angiogenin receptors on bovine brain capillary endothelial cells. (United States)

    Chamoux, M; Dehouck, M P; Fruchart, J C; Spik, G; Montreuil, J; Cecchelli, R


    The mitogenic effect of bovine milk angiogenin was studied on bovine brain capillary and aortic endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. The proliferation of only bovine brain capillary endothelial cells was detected at concentrations ranging from 10 to 1,000 ng/ml, with a maximum effect at 100 ng/ml. This mitogenic activity may be correlated with a specific binding of angiogenin which was demonstrated only to bovine brain capillary endothelial cells. [125I]-labeled angiogenin binding was time and concentration dependent and saturable. Scatchard analyses of binding data showed evidence of a single class of binding sites with an apparent dissociation constant of 5.10(-10)M. The molecular mass of the angiogenin receptor (49 kDa) was determined by ligand blotting.

  18. Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome: Is Methylene Blue the Silver Bullet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Umbrello


    Full Text Available Background. Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS is a rare disorder characterized by unexplained, recurrent episodes of transient, abrupt increase in endothelial permeability, leading to severe hypotension, generalized edema, and hemoconcentration. Case Report. We report the case of a patient suffering from systemic capillary leak syndrome and present a possible interpretation of the pathophysiology of this condition. Besides the classical triad of hypotension, edema, and hemoconcentration, we recorded increased levels of methemoglobin, an index of NO overproduction. We present a possible interpretation of the pathophysiology of this condition based on the fast and complete reversal of symptoms after methylene blue administration (which opposes NO-induced effects and speculate that increased NO levels could be implicated in the pathophysiology of the capillary leak phase. Why should an emergency physician be aware of this? The safety of this treatment and its fluid- and cathecolamine-sparing effect deserve consideration and further research.

  19. The application of capillary microsampling in GLP toxicology studies. (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Tom; Dillen, Lieve; Stieltjes, Hans; Zwart, Loeckie de; Feyen, Bianca; Diels, Luc; Vroman, Ann; Timmerman, Philip


    Capillary microsampling (CMS) to collect microplasma volumes is gradually replacing traditional, larger volume sampling from rats in GLP toxicology studies. About 32 µl of blood is collected with a capillary, processed to plasma and stored in a 10- or 4-µl capillary which is washed out further downstream in the laboratory. CMS has been standardized with respect to materials, assay validation experiments and application for sample analysis. The implementation of CMS has resulted in blood volume reductions in the rat from 300 to 32 µl per time point and the elimination of toxicokinetic satellite groups in the majority of the rat GLP toxicology studies. The technique has been successfully applied in 26 GLP studies for 12 different projects thus far.

  20. Capillary-inertial colloidal catapults upon drop coalescence (United States)

    Chavez, Roger L.; Liu, Fangjie; Feng, James J.; Chen, Chuan-Hua


    Surface energy released upon drop coalescence is known to power the self-propelled jumping of liquid droplets on superhydrophobic solid surfaces, and the jumping droplets can additionally carry colloidal payloads toward self-cleaning. Here, we show that drop coalescence on a spherical particle leads to self-propelled launching of the particle from virtually any solid surface. The main prerequisite is an intermediate wettability of the particle, such that the momentum from the capillary-inertial drop coalescence process can be transferred to the particle. By momentum conservation, the launching velocity of the particle-drop complex is proportional to the capillary-inertial velocity based on the drop radius and to the fraction of the liquid mass in the total mass. The capillary-inertial catapult is not only an alternative mechanism for removing colloidal contaminants, but also a useful model system for studying ballistospore launching.

  1. Analyses of anticancer drugs by capillary electrophoresis: a review. (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Haque, Ashanul; Wani, Waseem A; Saleem, Kishwar; Al Za'abi, Mohammed


    Capillary electrophoresis is a fast, inexpensive and low detection limit technique for the analysis of anticancer drugs. It has been used to analyze various anticancer drugs in biological samples, pharmaceutical preparations and environmental matrices. It has also been used to detect various cancer biomarkers in cancer patients. The present article describes the state-of-the art of capillary electrophoresis for the analyses of anticancer drugs. Various drugs discussed belong to several groups such as antimitotic agents, nucleoside analogs, antibiotics, topoisomerase inhibitors and DNA intercalating agents. In addition, efforts have also been made to discuss sample preparation, applications of capillary electrophoresis in genomic research, optimization and future perspectives. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. In-capillary approach to eliminate SDS interferences in antibody analysis by capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Montealegre, Cristina; Kiessig, Steffen; Moritz, Bernd; Neusüß, Christian


    Capillary electrophoresis is an important technique for the characterization of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), especially in the pharmaceutical context. However, identification is difficult as upscaling and hyphenation of used methods directly to mass spectrometry is often not possible due to separation medium components that are incompatible with MS detection. Here a CE-MS method for the analysis of mAbs is presented analyzing SDS-complexed samples. To obtain narrow and intensive peaks of SDS-treated antibodies, an in-capillary strategy was developed based on the co-injection of positively charged surfactants and methanol as organic solvent. For samples containing 0.2% (v/v) of SDS, recovered MS peak intensities up to 97 and 95% were achieved using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or benzalkonium chloride, respectively. Successful removal of SDS was shown in neutral coated capillaries but also in a capillary with a positively charged coating applying reversed polarity. The usefulness of this in-capillary strategy was demonstrated also for other proteins and for antibodies dissolved in up to 10% v/v SDS solution, and in other SDS-containing matrices, including the sieving matrix used in a standard CE-SDS method and gel-buffers applied in SDS-PAGE methods. The developed CE-MS approaches enable fast and reproducible characterization of SDS-complexed antibodies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Density functional study of condensation in capped capillaries. (United States)

    Yatsyshin, P; Savva, N; Kalliadasis, S


    We study liquid adsorption in narrow rectangular capped capillaries formed by capping two parallel planar walls (a slit pore) with a third wall orthogonal to the two planar walls. The most important transition in confined fluids is arguably condensation, where the pore becomes filled with the liquid phase which is metastable in the bulk. Depending on the temperature T, the condensation in capped capillaries can be first-order (at T≤Tcw) or continuous (at T>Tcw), where Tcw is the capillary wetting temperature. At T>Tcw, the capping wall can adsorb mesoscopic amounts of metastable under-condensed liquid. The onset of condensation is then manifested by the continuous unbinding of the interface between the liquid adsorbed on the capping wall and the gas filling the rest of the capillary volume. In wide capped capillaries there may be a remnant of wedge filling transition, which is manifested by the adsorption of liquid drops in the corners. Our classical statistical mechanical treatment predicts a possibility of three-phase coexistence between gas, corner drops and liquid slabs adsorbed on the capping wall. In sufficiently wide capillaries we find that thick prewetting films of finite length may be nucleated at the capping wall below the boundary of the prewetting transition. Prewetting then proceeds in a continuous manner manifested by the unbinding interface between the thick and thin films adsorbed on the side walls. Our analysis is based on a detailed numerical investigation of the density functional theory for the fluid equilibria for a number of illustrative case studies.

  4. Effects of patulin on thymus capillary of rats. (United States)

    Gül, Nursel; Ozsoy, Nesrin; Osmanagaoglu, Ozlem; Selmanoğlu, Güldeniz; Koçkaya, E Arzu


    Patulin is a mycotoxin that is produced by species of Penicillum, Aspergillus, and Byssochylamys molds that may grow on a variety of foods including fruit, grains and cheese. Patulin, at a dose of 0.1 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) was administered orally to growing male rats aged 5-6 weeks for a period of 60 or 90 days. The dose of patulin used in the present study was based on estimated human exposure levels. At the end of these periods, the thymus glands of patulin-treated and control Wistar rats were removed and ultrastructural changes in capillary cells of the thymus of patulin-treated Wistar rats were determined by electron microscopy. The walls of thymus capillaries of the 60-day patulin-treated rat groups (P-60) exhibited degeneration observable in electron microscopic sections. For example, loss of cytoplasm and mitochondrial cristae of cells, swollen endothelial cells, increased thickness of the basement membrane, closed lumen of capillaries, accumulation of fibrous material at the periphery of the capillaries and nuclear anomalies were seen in these sections. Such degeneration and changes were also observed in sections of capillaries of the 90-day patulin-treated rat groups (P-90). The levels of degeneration of endothelial cell nucleus of P-90 were greater than those of P-60. This study demonstrated the ultrastructural degeneration of thymus capillary cells of patulin-treated rats. The results obtained from this study may provide a guide to research dealing with the toxic effects of patulin on tissue and organ ultrastructure. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A compact, low cost Marx bank for generating capillary discharge plasmas (United States)

    Dyson, A. E.; Thornton, C.; Hooker, S. M.


    We describe in detail a low power Compact Marx Bank (CMB) circuit that can provide 20 kV, 500 A pulses of approximately 100-200 ns duration. One application is the generation of capillary discharge plasmas of density ≈1018 cm-3 used in laser plasma accelerators. The CMB is triggered with a high speed solid state switch and gives a high voltage output pulse with a ns scale rise time into a 50 Ω load (coaxial cable) with 45 kV are demonstrated in air discharges.

  6. Effect of air on water capillary flow in silica nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey; Walther, Jens Honore; Oyarzua, Elton


    in sub 10 nm silica channels. The capillary filling speed is computed in channels subjected to different air pressures. In order to describe the interactions between the species, an effective force field is developed, which is calibrated by reproducing the water contact angle. The results show...... that the capillary filling speed qualitatively follows the classical Washburn model, however, quantitatively it is lower than expected. Furthermore, it is observed that the deviations increase as air pressure is higher. We attribute the deviations to amounts of air trapped at the silica-water interface which leads...

  7. Capillary electrophoresis for characterization of low molecular weight heparins. (United States)

    Ramasamy, I; Kennedy, J; Tan, K


    In many instances, low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) have replaced unfractionated heparins for prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism. Each LMWH is a specific compound with its own physicochemical and pharmacological properties. These properties are critical in determining the therapeutic efficacy of the product. In recent times, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as a means of analytical separation of biological molecules. There are few reports, however, detailing the separation of whole heparins by capillary electrophoresis. This paper reports the use of CE to characterize LMWH without prior oligosaccharide release, labeling, or derivatization. The paper also focuses on the advantages of CE separation for the monitoring of product consistency.

  8. [De novo growth of a capillary hemangioma of the conjunctiva]. (United States)

    Fernández-Vega Cueto, L; Tresserra, F; de la Paz, M F


    A 22-year-old woman patient, diagnosed with an inclusion cyst of the conjunctiva in the nasal sector of the left eye, who after 2 shot/needle injections in the lesion came to our clinic with a dense subconjunctival hemorrhage in four quadrants and with severe pain. After excision biopsy, a capillary hemangioma of the conjunctiva was diagnosed. Conjunctival capillary hemangioma is mainly a benign lesion, asymptomatic and mostly congenital in origin, its progression or de novo growth is rare in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Antiresonant hollow core fiber with seven nested capillaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonio-Lopez, Jose E.; Habib, Selim; Van Newkirk, Amy


    We report an antiresonant hollow core fiber formed of 7 non-touching capillaries with inner tubes. The fiber has a core diameter of ∼33μm and a core wall of ∼780nm of thickness. We demonstrate robust single mode operation at 1064nm and broad transmission bandwidth.......We report an antiresonant hollow core fiber formed of 7 non-touching capillaries with inner tubes. The fiber has a core diameter of ∼33μm and a core wall of ∼780nm of thickness. We demonstrate robust single mode operation at 1064nm and broad transmission bandwidth....

  10. Intravenous pyogenic granuloma or intravenous lobular capillary hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghekiere, Olivier; Galant, Christine; Berg, Bruno Vande [Cliniques Universitaires St. Luc, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium)


    Lobular capillary hemangioma is a vascular neoplasm that commonly occurs as a cutaneous tumor. When it involves the skin and mucosal surfaces, ulceration and suppuration may occur, hence the classic term of pyogenic granuloma. Intravenous pyogenic granuloma is a rare solitary form of lobular capillary hemangioma that usually occurs in the veins of the neck and upper extremities. We report the ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a pyogenic intravenous granuloma localized in the right cephalic vein. The imaging and pathological findings and the differential diagnoses are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Intralesional bleomycin for the treatment of periocular capillary hemangiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick P Smit


    Full Text Available Periocular infantile capillary hemangiomas do not always respond well to conventional treatment modalities such as systemic or intralesional corticosteroids, radiotherapy or debulking surgery. The authors describe the use of intralesional bleomycin injections (IBIs to treat potentially amblyogenic lesions in two cases where other modalities have failed. In both cases monthly IBIs successfully cleared the visual axis of the affected eye before the age of 1 year thus preventing permanent sensory deprivation amblyopia. A total of five and nine injections, respectively, were used and no significant side effects were noted. IBI appears to be a useful alternative in the treatment of periocular capillary hemangiomas refractory to more conventional modalities.

  12. Reliable and Accurate Release of Micro-Sized Objects with a Gripper that Uses the Capillary-Force Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Uran


    Full Text Available There have been recent developments in grippers that are based on capillary force and condensed water droplets. These are used for manipulating micro-sized objects. Recently, one-finger grippers have been produced that are able to reliably grip using the capillary force. To release objects, either the van der Waals, gravitational or inertial-forces method is used. This article presents methods for reliably gripping and releasing micro-objects using the capillary force. The moisture from the surrounding air is condensed into a thin layer of water on the contact surfaces of the objects. From the thin layer of water, a water meniscus between the micro-sized object, the gripper and the releasing surface is created. Consequently, the water meniscus between the object and the releasing surface produces a high enough capillary force to release the micro-sized object from the tip of the one-finger gripper. In this case, either polystyrene, glass beads with diameters between 5–60 µm, or irregularly shaped dust particles of similar sizes were used. 3D structures made up of micro-sized objects could be constructed using this method. This method is reliable for releasing during assembly and also for gripping, when the objects are removed from the top of the 3D structure—the so-called “disassembling gripping” process. The accuracy of the release was lower than 0.5 µm.

  13. Experimental study of heterogeneity-induced capillary trapping in the context of leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites (United States)

    Liang, B.; Clarens, A. F.


    Leakage of CO2 from geologic carbon sequestration sites could undermine the long-term goal of reducing emissions to the atmosphere. Despite this, leakage processes, especially the vertical transport of gases through geologic formations overlaying target repositories, are poorly characterized. The goal of this work was to experimentally assess how sub-basin scale heterogeneity in overlaying formations could reduce CO2 leakage. High-pressure columns packed with sand and glass beads of different sizes were used to create a capillary barrier, which is an analog of low-permeability inter-beds. Transport of the resulting plume was recorded in real time using electrical resistivity. The effect of pressure, temperature, permeability, surface wettability, and CO2 flow rate were all assessed. Real-time monitoring and quantification of CO2 saturation suggests that capillary heterogeneity trapping is primarily controlled by permeability contrast, pressure, temperature and water/CO2 wettability on mineral surfaces. The amount of trapping was considerably enhanced when permeability contrasted increased, showing a good agreement with equilibrium capillary pressure - saturation analysis in the literature. Temperature and pressure controlled experiments demonstrated the sensitivity of capillary trapping to geothermal and pressure gradient. Wettability alterations also increased initial trapping when more CO2-philic materials is presented and a much greater increase in residual trapping (defined as 10 pore volume water re-imbibition). Variation of leakage rate was not shown to result in significant difference in the overall saturation values, but the stability of the trapped plume was reduced at high CO2 injection rates. These results suggest that local capillary trapping could contribute to secondary trapping and slow the buoyancy-driven rise of CO2. These measurements could have important implications for minimizing risk associated with leakage from carbon sequestration sites.

  14. A design tool for predicting the capillary transport characteristics of fuel cell diffusion media using an artificial neural network (United States)

    Kumbur, E. C.; Sharp, K. V.; Mench, M. M.

    Developing a robust, intelligent design tool for multivariate optimization of multi-phase transport in fuel cell diffusion media (DM) is of utmost importance to develop advanced DM materials. This study explores the development of a DM design algorithm based on artificial neural network (ANN) that can be used as a powerful tool for predicting the capillary transport characteristics of fuel cell DM. Direct measurements of drainage capillary pressure-saturation curves of the differently engineered DMs (5, 10 and 20 wt.% PTFE) were performed at room temperature under three compressions (0, 0.6 and 1.4 MPa) [E.C. Kumbur, K.V. Sharp, M.M. Mench, J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(12) (2007) B1295-B1304; E.C. Kumbur, K.V. Sharp, M.M. Mench, J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(12) (2007) B1305-B1314; E.C. Kumbur, K.V. Sharp, M.M. Mench, J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(12) (2007) B1315-B1324]. The generated benchmark data were utilized to systematically train a three-layered ANN framework that processes the feed-forward error back propagation methodology. The designed ANN successfully predicts the measured capillary pressures within an average uncertainty of ±5.1% of the measured data, confirming that the present ANN model can be used as a design tool within the range of tested parameters. The ANN simulations reveal that tailoring the DM with high PTFE loading and applying high compression pressure lead to a higher capillary pressure, therefore promoting the liquid water transport within the pores of the DM. Any increase in hydrophobicity of the DM is found to amplify the compression effect, thus yielding a higher capillary pressure for the same saturation level and compression.

  15. Pharmacological therapy can increase capillary density in post-infarction remodeled rat hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kerckhoven, R; van Veghel, R; Saxena, PR; Schoemaker, RG


    Objective: Postinfarction hypertrophied hearts have been shown to display a lower capillary density and reduced mechanical efficiency amplified by tachycardia. We investigated whether pharmacological reduction of postinfarction tachycardia would induce capillary growth by treating myocardial

  16. MeV ion beam extraction into air with a glass capillary filled with He (United States)

    Asamura, Moemi; Masatsugu, Misaki; Ishii, Kunikazu; Ogawa, Hidemi


    In order to obtain an intense ion beam, we have newly developed He-capillary optics, which is a tapered glass capillary filled with low pressure He gas to extract ion beam into atmospheric air. We have measured the energy spectra of an ion beam extracted from the He-capillary as a function of He gas pressure. We have observed that the intensity of the extracted ion beam is enhanced by using the He-capillary with He gas, although peak energy is shifted to a lower energy. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the performance of the He-capillary in detail, we have measured the intensity distribution of the ion beam via the He-capillary by using a 25 µm pinhole slit and have found that the He-capillary optics provides an intense ion beam without further spread of the extracted ion beam. Here, we discuss transmission properties of the ion beam via the He- capillary.

  17. Dual-channel capillary electrophoresis for simultaneous determination of cations and anions. (United States)

    Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr


    An original electrophoresis apparatus for simultaneous rapid determination of cations and anions has been designed and tested. The separation part of the apparatus consists of two identical fused-silica capillaries, each with a length of 10.5cm and inner diameter of 25μm. The injection space is formed by the crossing of four channels in a plexiglass cross-piece. The capillaries pass through two opposing channels and their injection ends are located opposite one another at a distance of approx. 0.5mm in the centre of the crossing point. The exit ends of the capillaries are placed in vessels containing the background electrolyte in which are immersed the electrodes of a high-voltage source. Contactless conductivity detectors with semi-cylindrical electrodes are located 2cm from the exit ends of the capillaries. The injection part of the apparatus consists of two piezoelectric micro-pumps bringing the solution through another channel in the cross-piece to the injection ends of the capillary. During the injection, the sample is brought through one of them and is injected electrokinetically for a defined time. Then the sample zone is forced out of the injection space by a stream of background electrolyte from the second micro-pump. The timing of the injection process is computer-controlled. Thus the equipment can be considered to constitute electrophoresis in one capillary with injection into its centre. The use of short capillaries and miniature micro-pumps without other mechanical components enabled the construction of the apparatus on a board with dimensions of 20×25cm. The proposed equipment was used to test simultaneous separation of a mixture of cations and anions, NH4(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), ClO3(-) and F(-), in BGE with composition 500mM HAc+20mM Tris+2mM 18-crown-6 (pH 3.3). Baseline separation of all the components was achieved in time less than 1min. Quantification of the content of nitrate nitrogen (determined as

  18. Influence of roughness on capillary forces between hydrophilic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, P. J.; Palasantzas, G.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    Capillary forces have been measured by atomic force microscopy in the plate-sphere setup between gold, borosilicate glass, GeSbTe, titanium, and UV-irradiated amorphous titanium-dioxide surfaces. The force measurements were performed as a function contact time and surface roughness in the range

  19. Capillary electrophoresis-based assessment of nanobody affinity and purity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haselberg, Rob; Oliveira, Sabrina; van der Meel, Roy; Somsen, Govert W; de Jong, Gerhardus J


    Drug purity and affinity are essential attributes during development and production of therapeutic proteins. In this work, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used to determine both the affinity and composition of the biotechnologically produced "nanobody" EGa1, the binding fragment of a

  20. Numerical Simulation of Particle Distribution in Capillary Membrane during Backwash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anik Keller


    Full Text Available The membrane filtration with inside-out dead-end driven UF-/MF- capillary membranes is an effective process for particle removal in water treatment. Its industrial application increased in the last decade exponentially. To date, the research activities in this field were aimed first of all at the analysis of filtration phenomena disregarding the influence of backwash on the operation parameters of filtration plants. However, following the main hypothesis of this paper, backwash has great potential to increase the efficiency of filtration. In this paper, a numerical approach for a detailed study of fluid dynamic processes in capillary membranes during backwash is presented. The effect of particle size and inlet flux on the backwash process are investigated. The evaluation of these data concentrates on the analysis of particle behavior in the cross sectional plane and the appearance of eventually formed particle plugs inside the membrane capillary. Simulations are conducted in dead-end filtration mode and with two configurations. The first configuration includes a particle concentration of 10% homogeneously distributed within the capillary and the second configuration demonstrates a cake layer on the membrane surface with a packing density of 0:6. Analyzing the hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles shows that the lift force plays the main role in defining the particle enrichment areas. The operation parameters contribute in enhancing the lift force and the heterogeneity to anticipate the clogging of the membrane.

  1. Multi-source driven capillary plane radiation air conditioning system (United States)

    Hu, Juanjuan; Qu, Mofeng; Wang, Huasheng; Ni, Shiyao


    A new absorption refrigeration system, which is driven by solar energy, biomass energy and geothermal energy simultaneously, was designed with capillaries as its radiation surface. Likewise, variations of water temperature in the capillaries with the change in both time and its flow rate were experimentally researched as well as how COP of the system varies with the surrounding temperature. The following conclusions have been obtained: Common refrigeration demand can be met by the system after its operation in 1 hour; with the increase in water flow rate in the capillaries, its temperature, which drops down after an increase, gets its peak value at the flow rate of 4.5-5.5 L/min; COP of the system decreases with the rise of surrounding temperature, thus it's better to keep it from direct sunlight. With the utilization of natural energy and the structure of capillaries, the system's advantages in simple structure, low cost, environment-friendly working process and nice performance lead to promising application prospects, especially in residence refrigeration in countryside.

  2. whistler oscillitons and capillary-gravity generalized solitons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nonlinear stationary waveforms in two completely different systems, namely, electromagnetic-fluid waves in a magnetic plasma and capillary-gravity water waves, are compared and contrasted. These systems display common features and are amenable to a Hamiltonian description. More importantly, however, is the fact ...

  3. Wavelength-resolved fluorescence detector for microchip capillary electrophoresis separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, S.; Karst, U.


    A wavelength-resolved fluorescence detector for microchip and capillary separations is developed. It consists of a xenon lamp as flexible excitation source, a fluorescence microscope, a spectrograph with exchangeable gratings (150 and 600 lines/mm) and an intensified CCD camera. In contrast to

  4. An analytical model for enantioseparation process in capillary electrophoresis (United States)

    Ranzuglia, G. A.; Manzi, S. J.; Gomez, M. R.; Belardinelli, R. E.; Pereyra, V. D.


    An analytical model to explain the mobilities of enantiomer binary mixture in capillary electrophoresis experiment is proposed. The model consists in a set of kinetic equations describing the evolution of the populations of molecules involved in the enantioseparation process in capillary electrophoresis (CE) is proposed. These equations take into account the asymmetric driven migration of enantiomer molecules, chiral selector and the temporary diastomeric complexes, which are the products of the reversible reaction between the enantiomers and the chiral selector. The solution of these equations gives the spatial and temporal distribution of each species in the capillary, reproducing a typical signal of the electropherogram. The mobility, μ, of each specie is obtained by the position of the maximum (main peak) of their respective distributions. Thereby, the apparent electrophoretic mobility difference, Δμ, as a function of chiral selector concentration, [ C ] , can be measured. The behaviour of Δμ versus [ C ] is compared with the phenomenological model introduced by Wren and Rowe in J. Chromatography 1992, 603, 235. To test the analytical model, a capillary electrophoresis experiment for the enantiomeric separation of the (±)-chlorpheniramine β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) system is used. These data, as well as, other obtained from literature are in closed agreement with those obtained by the model. All these results are also corroborate by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation.

  5. Patients with and without Posttransplant Capillary Leak Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Reikvam


    Full Text Available Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is commonly used in the treatment of younger patients with severe hematological diseases, and endothelial cells seem to be important for the development of several posttransplant complications. Capillary leak syndrome is a common early posttransplant complication where endothelial cell dysfunction probably contributes to the pathogenesis. In the present study we investigated whether the pretreatment serum metabolic profile reflects a risk of posttransplant capillary leak syndrome. We investigated the pretransplant serum levels of 766 metabolites for 80 consecutive allotransplant recipients. Patients with later capillary leak syndrome showed increased pretherapy levels of metabolites associated with endothelial dysfunction (homocitrulline, adenosine altered renal regulation of fluid and/or electrolyte balance (betaine, methoxytyramine, and taurine and altered vascular function (cytidine, adenosine, and methoxytyramine. Additional bioinformatical analyses showed that capillary leak syndrome was also associated with altered purine/pyrimidine metabolism (i.e., metabolites involved in vascular regulation and endothelial functions, aminoglycosylation (possibly important for endothelial cell functions, and eicosanoid metabolism (also involved in vascular regulation. Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the pretransplant metabolic status can be a marker for posttransplant abnormal fluid and/or electrolyte balance.

  6. Characterization of metal/humic acid systems by Capillary Electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staden JJ van; Hoop MAGT van den; Cleven R; LAC


    Metal-humic acid systems have been characterised applying Capillary Electrophoresis (CE). Appropriate experimental conditions with respect to carrier electrolyte, pH range, salt concentration, humic acid concentration and the applied potential, have been optimised. The influence of multivalent metal

  7. Variability of Capillary Refill Time among Physician Measurements. (United States)

    Sheridan, David C; Baker, Steven D; Kayser, Susan A; Jones, David; Hansen, Matthew L


    The assessment of capillary refill time (CRT) is a common physical examination technique. However, despite its importance and its widespread use, there is little standardization, which can lead to inaccurate assessments. In this article, we assessed how different physicians estimate CRT. We hypothesized that when different physicians are presented with the same recordings of CRT, clinicians will, on average, provide different CRT estimates. Using recordings of different fingertip compressions, physicians assessed and documented when capillary refill had returned to normal. Videos were recorded of the fingertips only, with no other identifying markers or subject characteristics provided. Videos were shown at one-quarter speed to allow time for recognition and response to the capillary refill. The primary outcome was physician estimates of CRT for each video recording. An analysis of variance regression revealed significant differences in physician estimates of CRT when examining the same CRT videos from 34 subjects. Further regression analyses reveal the importance of controlling for the physician that is examining the patient when predicting a patient's CRT. Results indicate that some physicians gave, on average, slower CRT estimates, whereas others gave, on average, faster CRT estimates. Objective approaches and innovations in assessment of capillary refill have the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy of this important clinical examination finding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid inorganic ion analysis using quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwe, E.X.; Lüttge, Regina; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert


    Rapid quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) for online monitoring of drinking water enabling inorganic ion separation in less than 15s is presented. Comparing cationic and anionic standards at different concentrations the analysis of cationic species resulted in non-linear

  9. Capillary-force measurement on SiC surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedighi, M.; Svetovoy, V. B.; Palasantzas, G.


    Capillary forces have been measured by atomic force microscopy in the sphere-plate geometry, in a controlled humidity environment, between smooth silicon carbide and borosilicate glass spheres. The force measurements were performed as a function of the rms surface roughness similar to 4-14 nm mainly

  10. Pathogenetics of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szafranski, P.; Gambin, T.; Dharmadhikari, A.V.; Akdemir, K.C.; Jhangiani, S.N.; Schuette, J.; Godiwala, N.; Yatsenko, S.A.; Sebastian, J.; Madan-Khetarpal, S.; Surti, U.; Abellar, R.G.; Bateman, D.A.; Wilson, A.L.; Markham, M.H.; Slamon, J.; Santos-Simarro, F.; Palomares, M.; Nevado, J.; Lapunzina, P.; Chung, B.H.; Wong, W.L.; Chu, Y.W.; Mok, G.T.; Kerem, E.; Reiter, J.; Ambalavanan, N.; Anderson, S.A.; Kelly, D.R.; Shieh, J.; Rosenthal, T.C.; Scheible, K.; Steiner, L.; Iqbal, M.A.; McKinnon, M.L.; Hamilton, S.J.; Schlade-Bartusiak, K.; English, D.; Hendson, G.; Roeder, E.R.; DeNapoli, T.S.; Littlejohn, R.O.; Wolff, D.J.; Wagner, C.L.; Yeung, A.; Francis, D.; Fiorino, E.K.; Edelman, M.; Fox, J.; Hayes, D.A.; Janssens, S.; Baere, E. De; Menten, B.; Loccufier, A.; Vanwalleghem, L.; Moerman, P.; Sznajer, Y.; Lay, A.S.; Kussmann, J.L.; Chawla, J.; Payton, D.J.; Phillips, G.E.; Brosens, E.; Tibboel, D.; Klein, A.; Maystadt, I.; Fisher, R.; Sebire, N.; Male, A.; Chopra, M.; Pinner, J.; Malcolm, G.; Peters, G.; Arbuckle, S.; Lees, M.; Mead, Z.; Quarrell, O.; Sayers, R.; Owens, M.; Shaw-Smith, C.; Lioy, J.; McKay, E.; Leeuw, N. de; Feenstra, I.; Spruijt, L.; Elmslie, F.; Thiruchelvam, T.; Bacino, C.A.; Langston, C.; Lupski, J.R.; Sen, P.; Popek, E.; Stankiewicz, P.


    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a lethal lung developmental disorder caused by heterozygous point mutations or genomic deletion copy-number variants (CNVs) of FOXF1 or its upstream enhancer involving fetal lung-expressed long noncoding RNA genes

  11. Desing of a new driver for fast capillary discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláček, Karel; Boháček, Vladislav; Schmidt, Jiří; Šunka, Pavel; Řípa, Milan; Ullschmied, Jiří; Fuciman, Marcel


    Roč. 11, č. 11 (2001), s. Pr2-613 ISSN 1155-4339 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : capillary Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.401, year: 2001

  12. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for the analysis of biopharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haselberg, Rob; De Jong, Gerhardus J.; Somsen, Govert W.


    Developments in the fields of protein chemistry and pharmaceutical biotechnology have increased the demand for suitable analytical techniques for the characterization of intact proteins. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) has proven to be a powerful tool for this

  13. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for the analysis of Biopharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haselberg, Rob; de Jong, Gerhardus J.; Somsen, Govert W.


    Developments in the fields of protein chemistry and pharmaceutical biotechnology have increased the demand for suitable analytical techniques for the characterization of intact proteins. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) has proven to be a powerful tool for this

  14. Atomic-scale friction : thermal effects and capillary condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jinesh, Kochupurackal Balakrishna Pillai


    This work entitled as "Atomic-scale friction: thermal effects and capillary condensation" is a study on the fundamental aspects of the origin of friction from the atomic-scale. We study two realistic aspects of atomic-scale friction, namely the effect of temperature and the effect of relative

  15. Drop Pinch-Off for Discrete Flows from a Capillary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson M.C.T.


    Full Text Available The problem of drop formation and pinch-off from a capillary tube under the influence of gravity has been extensively studied when the internal capillary pressure gradient is constant. This ensures a continuous time independent flow field inside the capillary tube typically of the Poiseuille flow type. Characteristic drop ejection behaviour includes: periodic drop ejection, drop ejection with associated satellite production, complex dripping, chaotic behaviour and jetting. It is well known that this characteristic behaviour is governed by the Weber (We and Ohnesorge (Oh numbers (for a given Bond number and may be delineated in a We verses Oh operability diagram. An in-depth physical understanding of drop ejection is also of great importance to industry where the tight control of drop size and ejection velocity are of critical importance in industrial processes such as sealants used in electronics assembly and inkjet printing. However, the use of such a continuous flow approach for drop ejection in industry is often impractical since such flows cannot be operator controlled. For this reason it is important to investigate so-called discrete pipe flows where the flow can be turned on and off at will. This means the flow inside the pipe is now time-dependent being controlled in a step-wise fashion. As a first stage in the investigation of drop pinch-off behaviour in discrete pipe flows this paper will study the critical pinch-off time required for drop ejection starting from a pendant drop. This is the discrete amount of time the pipe flow is turned on for in order for a drop to be ejected from the capillary. A Newtonian incompressible free-surface CFD flow code developed at the University of Leeds is used to investigate the critical pinch-off time for a range of internal pipe velocities (the central flow maximum in Poiseuille flow. It is found that the time required for drop ejection to occur decreases exponentially with internal pipe velocity

  16. Cortical capillary dysfunction in patients suspected of Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Gyldensted, Louise; Nagenthiraja, Kartheeban

    Vascular risk factors are suspected to play a role in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Recently, a model that relates capillary dysfunction to the development of AD was proposed[1]. The model predicts that capillary dysfunction in form of increased capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH...

  17. In Vivo Microscopy Reveals Extensive Embedding of Capillaries within the Sarcolemma of Skeletal Muscle Fibers (United States)

    Glancy, Brian; Hsu, Li-Yueh; Dao, Lam; Bakalar, Matthew; French, Stephanie; Chess, David J.; Taylor, Joni L.; Picard, Martin; Aponte, Angel; Daniels, Mathew P.; Esfahani, Shervin; Cushman, Samuel; Balaban, Robert S.


    Objective To provide insight into mitochondrial function in vivo, we evaluated the 3D spatial relationship between capillaries, mitochondria, and muscle fibers in live mice. Methods 3D volumes of in vivo murine Tibialis anterior muscles were imaged by multi-photon microscopy (MPM). Muscle fiber type, mitochondrial distribution, number of capillaries, and capillary-to-fiber contact were assessed. The role of myoglobin-facilitated diffusion was examined in myoglobin knockout mice. Distribution of GLUT4 was also evaluated in the context of the capillary and mitochondrial network. Results MPM revealed that 43.6 ± 3.3% of oxidative fiber capillaries had ≥ 50% of their circumference embedded in a groove in the sarcolemma, in vivo. Embedded capillaries were tightly associated with dense mitochondrial populations lateral to capillary grooves and nearly absent below the groove. Mitochondrial distribution, number of embedded capillaries, and capillary-to-fiber contact were proportional to fiber oxidative capacity and unaffected by myoglobin knockout. GLUT4 did not preferentially localize to embedded capillaries. Conclusions Embedding capillaries in the sarcolemma may provide a regulatory mechanism to optimize delivery of oxygen to heterogeneous groups of muscle fibers. We hypothesize that mitochondria locate to paravascular regions due to myofibril voids created by embedded capillaries, not to enhance the delivery of oxygen to the mitochondria. PMID:25279425

  18. Separation of large DNA fragments by capillary electrophoresis under pulsed-field conditions. (United States)

    Sudor, J; Novotny, M V


    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), using an entangled polyacrylamide solution, was applied to large DNA samples under pulsed-field conditions. Highly efficient separations were achieved under biased sinusoidal field and field-inversion pulsing regimes. The separations that were obtained with 8.3-48.5 kb lambda DNA standards and 48.5 kb-1 Mb lambda DNA concatamers (modified with ethidium bromide) clearly demonstrate a dramatic improvement in the separation time (roughly, 10-50 times) over the conventionally used slab-gel techniques. Moreover, the CZE method appears much more sensitive and amenable to component quantification and method automation.

  19. Interfacing capillary electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry by direct injection nebulization for selenium speciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, Lars; Gammelgaard, Bente; Jons, O.


    A demountable direct injection high efficiency nebulizer operating at low sample uptake rates was developed and used for coupling of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). When the nebulizer was used for continuous sample introduction, detection...... for speciation of aqueous selenium standards. The interface was operated in the self-aspirating mode with a sheath liquid uptake of 10 muL min(-1). The CE-ICP-MS system resulted in baseline separation of selenate, selenite, selenocystine and selenomethionine within a total analysis time of 5.4 min. Detection...

  20. Optical coherence tomography angiography-based capillary velocimetry (United States)

    Wang, Ruikang K.; Zhang, Qinqin; Li, Yuandong; Song, Shaozhen


    Challenge persists in the field of optical coherence tomography (OCT) when it is required to quantify capillary blood flow within tissue beds in vivo. We propose a useful approach to statistically estimate the mean capillary flow velocity using a model-based statistical method of eigendecomposition (ED) analysis of the complex OCT signals obtained with the OCT angiography (OCTA) scanning protocol. ED-based analysis is achieved by the covariance matrix of the ensemble complex OCT signals, upon which the eigenvalues and eigenvectors that represent the subsets of the signal makeup are calculated. From this analysis, the signals due to moving particles can be isolated by employing an adaptive regression filter to remove the eigencomponents that represent static tissue signals. The mean frequency (MF) of moving particles can be estimated by the first lag-one autocorrelation of the corresponding eigenvectors. Three important parameters are introduced, including the blood flow signal power representing the presence of blood flow (i.e., OCTA signals), the MF indicating the mean velocity of blood flow, and the frequency bandwidth describing the temporal flow heterogeneity within a scanned tissue volume. The proposed approach is tested using scattering phantoms, in which microfluidic channels are used to simulate the functional capillary vessels that are perfused with the scattering intralipid solution. The results indicate a linear relationship between the MF and mean flow velocity. In vivo animal experiments are also conducted by imaging mouse brain with distal middle cerebral artery ligation to test the capability of the method to image the changes in capillary flows in response to an ischemic insult, demonstrating the practical usefulness of the proposed method for providing important quantifiable information about capillary tissue beds in the investigations of neurological conditions in vivo.

  1. Polydopamine-supported immobilization of covalent-organic framework-5 in capillary as stationary phase for electrochromatographic separation. (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Tang, Pingxiu; Kong, Deying; Mao, Zhenkun; Chen, Zilin


    Covalent-organic frameworks (COFs) are attractive materials for their fascinating properties, such as rigid structures, exceptional thermal stabilities, low densities, and permanent porosity with specific surface areas, which indicate potential for application in chromatography similar to related metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). However, the utilization of COFs in analytical chemistry is far behind as compared to that of the MOFs due to the challenging work of their immobilization. Here, we have successfully demonstrated the growth of the boron COF-5 on the inner wall of the fused silica capillary by a developed polydopamine-supported method. Combined with the layer-by-layer strategy, multilayer COF-5-coated capillary was obtained. The formation of COF-5 on polydopamine-coated substrate has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. A novel stationary phase of COF-5 was developed on the basis of successful growth of COF-5 on polydopamine for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC). Baseline separation of neutral, acidic and basic analytes was achieved on multilayer COF-5-coated capillary column. The fabricated capillary columns showed high column efficiency (154,060 plates/m for methylbenzene), excellent stability and repeatability. The precision (relative standard deviation (RSD), n=3) of retention time, peak height, and peak area for tested neutral compounds were in the range of 1.2-1.3%, 1.8-4.2%, and 0.9-2.4%, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, it was the first demonstration that COF-5 was developed as a novel stationary phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of α-thalassaemia in neonates on cord blood and dried blood spot samples by capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Alauddin, H; Langa, M; Mohd Yusoff, M; Raja Sabudin, R Z A; Ithnin, A; Abdul Razak, N F; Sardi, N H; Hussin, N H


    Haemoglobin Bart's (Hb Bart's) level is associated with α-thalassaemia traits in neonates, enabling early diagnosis of α-thalassaemia. The study aimed to detect and quantify the Hb Bart's using Cord Blood (CB) and CE Neonat Fast Hb (NF) progammes on fresh and dried blood spot (DBS) specimen respectively by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Capillarys Hemoglobin (E) Kit (for CB) and Capillarys Neonat Hb Kit (for NF) were used to detect and quantify Hb Bart's by CE in fresh cord blood and dried blood spot (DBS) specimens respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using the β-Thal Short Programme was also performed concurrently with CE analysis. Confirmation was obtained by multiplex ARMS Gap PCR. This study was performed on 600 neonates. 32/600 (5.3%) samples showed presence of Hb Bart's peak using the NF programme while 33/600 (5.5%) were positive with CB programme and HPLC methods. The range of Hb Bart's using NF programme and CB programme were (0.5-4.1%) and (0.5-7.1%), respectively. Molecular analysis confirmed all positive samples possessed α-thalassaemia genetic mutations, with 23/33 cases being αα/--SEA, four -α3.7/-α3.7, two αα/-α3.7 and three αα/ααCS. Fifty Hb Bart's negative samples were randomly tested for α-genotypes, three were also found to be positive for α-globin gene mutations. Thus, resulting in sensitivity of 91.7% and 88.9% and specificity of 100% for the Capillarys Cord Blood programme and Capillarys Neonat Fast programme respectively. Both CE programmes using fresh or dried cord blood were useful as a screening tool for α-thalassaemia in newborns. All methods show the same specificity (100%) with variable, but acceptable sensitivities in the detection of Hb Bart.

  3. The relationship between interleukin-6 in saliva, venous and capillary plasma, at rest and in response to exercise. (United States)

    Cullen, T; Thomas, A W; Webb, R; Hughes, M G


    IL-6 plays a mechanistic role in conditions such as metabolic syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome and clinical depression and also plays a major role in inflammatory and immune responses to exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of resting and post exercise IL-6 when measured in venous plasma, saliva and capillary plasma. Five male and five females completed 2 separate exercise trials, both of which involved standardized exercise sessions on a cycle ergometer. Venous blood and saliva samples were taken immediately before and after Trial A, venous and capillary blood samples were taken immediately before and after Trial B. IL-6 values were obtained using a high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In Trial A venous plasma IL-6 increased significantly from 0.4±0.14pg/ml to 0.99±0.29pg/ml (Presponses were not correlated at rest, post exercise or when expressed as an exercise induced change. In Trial B venous and capillary plasma IL-6 increased significantly (venous: 0.22±0.18 to 0.74±0.28pg/ml (P⩽0.01); capillary: 0.37±0.22 to 1.08±0.30pg/ml (Presponses did not correlate at rest (r=0.59, P=0.07) but did correlate post exercise (r=0.79, P⩾0.001) and when expressed as an exercise induced change (r=0.71, P=0.02). Saliva does not appear to reflect systemic IL-6 responses, either at rest or in response to exercise. Conversely, capillary plasma responses are reflective of systemic IL-6 responses to exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential use of cord blood for Hb E hemoglobinopathy screening programme using capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Wan Mohd Saman, W A; Hassan, R; Mohd Yusoff, S; Che Yaakob, C A; Abdullah, N A F; Ghazali, S; Mohd Radzi, M A R; Bahar, R


    Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies are inherited red blood cell disorders found worldwide. Hemoglobin (Hb) E disorder is one of the hemoglobinopathies known to have the high prevalence in South East Asia. Most of transfusion-dependent thalassemias were genotypically compound heterozygous Hb E/ β-thalassemia. In Malaysia, the national screening program for thalassemia was implemented for early pregnancy or secondary school girls; however many participants do not turn-up and missed the screening test. Screening for thalassemia using samples from cord blood is an alternative choice as it is a readily available source of blood and hence early detection of the disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential use of cord blood for the screening of HbE hemoglobinopathy by using capillary electrophoresis (CE). Cord blood samples were collected from 300 newborns of healthy mothers. Hematological parameters were determined and hemoglobin quantitation for all cord blood samples were performed using capillary electrophoresis system (CES) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Majority of cord blood samples (63%) revealed Hb AF followed by Hb AFA2 (20%). Hb AFE was detected in 10.7% with the mean value of Hb E ranging from 2.3%-11.1%. Hemoglobin E was detected in cord blood using capillary electrophoresis system. It can be recommended in areas where Hb E/β is prevalent. Implementation of a screening strategy using CE on cord blood sampling will identify the disease early. With regular follow-up on these patients, the status of their disease can be determined earlier and appropriate management implemented.

  5. Exploitation of a microporous organic polymer as a stationary phase for capillary gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Cuiming; Liu, Shuqin; Xu, Jianqiao; Ding, Yajuan; Ouyang, Gangfeng, E-mail:


    Microporous organic polymers (MOPs) have emerged as a new class of functional porous materials with unique characteristics and potential uses in diverse areas. However, the field of MOPs for gas chromatographic (GC) separations has not been well explored. Herein, a MOP namely KAPs-1 was dynamic coated onto a capillary column for the first time. The fabricated column exhibited a nonpolar nature and the column efficiency for n-dodecane was up to 7769 plates m{sup −1}. The KAPs-1 coated column showed high GC separation performance for a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including the challenging ethylbenzene and xylene isomers, which could not be resolved at baseline on the commercial 5% phenyl polysiloxane stationary phase. Moreover, the relative standard deviations for five replicate determinations of the studied analytes were 0.0–0.6%, 0.9–3.2%, 1.1–5.9%, 0.8–3.7% for retention time, peak area, peak height and peak width, respectively. To investigate the interaction between some analytes and the stationary phase, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were also evaluated. The results of this study show it is very promising to utilize MOPs as stationary phases for capillary GC. - Highlights: • A microporous organic polymer was explored as a novel stationary phase for capillary GC. • The column showed high separation performance for VOCs including the challenging ethylbenzene and xylene isomers. • Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for BTEXs were determined to study the analyte-stationary phase interaction.

  6. Pressure refilled polyacrylamide columns for the separation of oligonucleotides by capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Sudor, J; Foret, F; Bocek, P


    The separation of oligonucleotides by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was studied in fused silica separation capillaries filled by linear (noncrosslinked) polyacrylamide (PAA) solutions, introduced into the capillary from the stock by pressure after each analysis. The time-consuming in-capillary polymerization step could thus be avoided, and fast and reproducible repetition of the analyses was assured. The PAA concentrations varied within the range of 3-10% and both the reproducibility of the analyses and the stability of the solution in the capillary, with and without a chemically treated inner wall, were tested. Ferguson plots were used to assess the size selectivity of the separation.

  7. New capillary number definition for displacement of residual nonwetting phase in natural fractures (United States)

    AlQuaimi, B. I.; Rossen, W. R.


    We propose a new capillary number for flow in fractures starting with a force balance on a trapped ganglion in a fracture. The new definition is validated with laboratory experiments using five distinctive model fractures. Capillary desaturation curves were generated experimentally using water-air forced imbibition. The residual saturation-capillary number relationship obtained from different fractures, which vary in aperture and roughness, can be represented approximately by a single curve in terms of the new definition of the capillary number. They do not fit a single trend using the conventional definition of the capillary number.

  8. Capillary electrophoresis separation of neutral organic compounds, pharmaceutical drugs, proteins and peptides, enantiomers, and anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Wei -Liang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Addition of a novel anionic surfactant, namely lauryl polyoxyethylene sulfate, to an aqueous-acetonitrile electrolyte makes it possible to separate nonionic organic compounds by capillary electrophoresis. Separation is based on differences in the association between analytes and the surfactant. Highly hydrophobic compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons are well separated by this new surfactant. Migration times of analytes can be readily changed over an unusually large range by varying the additive concentration and the proportion of acetonitrile in the electrolyte. Several examples are given, including the separation of four methylbenz[a]anthracene isomers and the separation of normal and deuterated acetophenone. The effect of adding this new surfactant to the acidic electrolyte was also investigated. Incorporation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in the electrolyte is shown to dynamically coat the capillary and reverse electroosmotic flow. Chiral recognition mechanism is studied using novel synthetic surfactants as chiral selectors, which are made from amino acids reacting with alkyl chloroformates. A satisfactory separation of both inorganic and organic anions is obtained using electrolyte solutions as high as 5 M sodium chloride using direct photometric detection. The effect of various salts on electrophoretic and electroosmotic mobility is further discussed. Several examples are given under high-salt conditions.

  9. Intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Sabri; Alomari, Ahmad I.; Chaudry, Gulraiz [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Kozakewich, Harry P. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Fishman, Steven J. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Mulliken, John B. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Plastic and Oral Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)


    Infantile hemangiomas demonstrate a pattern of proliferative growth in infancy followed by a slow phase of involution. In contrast a rare type of vascular tumor, intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma, usually presents beyond the period of infancy with nonspecific symptoms and no evidence of involution. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical, imaging, histopathological characteristics and management of intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma. We performed a retrospective review of a 20-year period to identify children diagnosed with intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma. Patient demographics, imaging and histopathological findings were recorded. We included 18 children (10 boys, 8 girls) with histologically proven intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma - and adequate imaging. The mean age at presentation was 8.1 years (range 1 day to 19 years). Twelve lesions involved muscles of the extremities, 4 were located in the trunk and 2 were in the head and neck. MRI had been performed in all children and demonstrated a soft-tissue mass with flow voids, consistent with fast flow. The lesion was well-circumscribed in 16 children and intralesional fat was seen in 14. Doppler US demonstrated a heterogeneous lesion, predominantly isoechoic to surrounding muscle, with enlarged arterial feeders. Enlarged feeding arteries, inhomogeneous blush and lack of arteriovenous shunting were noted on angiography (n = 5). The most common histopathological findings were lobules of capillaries with plump endothelium and at least some adipose tissue. The lesions were excised in six children. Two children were lost to follow-up. In the remaining 10, follow-up MRI studies ranging from 3 months to 10 years showed that the lesion enlarged in proportion to the child (n = 7), demonstrated slow growth (n = 2) or remained stable (n = 1). There was no change in imaging characteristics on follow-up. Intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma is a rare benign vascular tumor of

  10. Static Response of Microbeams due to Capillary and Electrostatic Forces

    KAUST Repository

    Bataineh, Ahmad M.


    Micro-sensors or micro-switches usually operate under the effect of electrostatic force and could face some environmental effects like humidity, which may lead to condensation underneath the beams and create strong capillary forces. Those tiny structures are principally made of microbeams that can undergo instabilities under the effect of those created huge capillary forces. In fact, during the fabrication of microbeams, there is an important step to separate the beam from its substrate (wet etching). After this step, the microstructure is dried, which may causes the onset of some droplets of water trapped underneath the beam that could bring about a huge capillary force pulling it toward its substrate. If this force is bigger than the microbeam\\'s restoring force, it will become stuck to the substrate. This paper investigates the instability scenarios of both clamped-clamped (straight and curved) and cantilever (straight and curled) microbeams under the effect of capillary and/or electrostatic forces. The reduced order modeling (ROM) based on the Galerkin procedure is used to solve the nonlinear beam equations. The non-ideal boundaries are modeled by adding springs. The volume of the fluid between the beam and the substrate underneath it is varied and the relation between the volume of the water and the stability of the beam is shown. An analysis for the factors of which should be taken in to consideration in the fabrication processes to overcome the instability due to huge capillary forces is done. Also the size of the electrode for the electrostatic force is varied to show the effect on the micro-switch stability. A variation of the pull-in voltage with some specific beam parameters and with more than one case of electrode size is shown. It is found that capillary forces have a pronounced effect on the stability of microbeams. It is also found that the pull-in length decreases as the electrode size increases. It is also shown that the pull-in voltage decreases

  11. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis and detection of mid-spectrum biological warfare agents. Suffield memorandum No. 1463

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, C.A.


    Mid-spectrum biological warfare agents such as proteins, peptides, and toxins are often difficult to analyze and often require individually developed assay methods for detection and identification. In this regard, capillary electrophoresis is an important, emerging technique for separation and quantitation of peptides and proteins, providing separation efficiencies up to two orders of magnitude greater than high performance liquid chromatography. The technique can also analyze a broad range of compounds, has a simple instrument design which can be automated, and has low sample volume requirements. In this study, a highly efficient and reproducible capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed to separate and identify a series of nine peptides of defense interest including bradykinin, leucine enkephalin, and oxytocin. The paper demonstrates three strategies which could be used in a fully automated field detection and identification system for unknown peptides.

  12. Evaluation of capillary zone electrophoresis for charge heterogeneity testing of monoclonal antibodies. (United States)

    Moritz, Bernd; Schnaible, Volker; Kiessig, Steffen; Heyne, Andrea; Wild, Markus; Finkler, Christof; Christians, Stefan; Mueller, Kerstin; Zhang, Li; Furuya, Kenji; Hassel, Marc; Hamm, Melissa; Rustandi, Richard; He, Yan; Solano, Oscar Salas; Whitmore, Colin; Park, Sung Ae; Hansen, Dietmar; Santos, Marcia; Lies, Mark


    with a 30cm capillary which demonstrates that an increased stability indicating potential can be combined with the increased separation velocity and high throughput capability of a shorter capillary. Separation can be performed in as little as approx. 3min allowing high throughput applications. The intercompany study delivered precise results without explicit training of the participating labs in the method prior to the study (standard deviations in the range of 1%). It was demonstrated that CZE is an alternative platform technology for the charge heterogeneity testing of antibodies in the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulation and application of micro X-ray fluorescence based on an ellipsoidal capillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jing; Li, Yude; Wang, Xingyi; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Lin, Xiaoyan, E-mail:


    Highlights: • A micro X-ray fluorescence setup based on an ellipsoidal capillary was presented. • The optimal parameters of ellipsoidal capillary were designed. • The 2D mapping image of biological sample was obtained. - Abstract: A micro X-ray fluorescence setup was presented, based on an ellipsoidal capillary and a traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Using Ray-tracing principle, we have simulated the transmission path of X-ray beam in the ellipsoidal capillary and designed the optimal parameters of the ellipsoidal capillary for the micro X-ray fluorescence setup. We demonstrate that ellipsoidal capillary is well suited as condenser for the micro X-ray fluorescence based on traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Furthermore, we obtain the 2D mapping image of the leaf blade sample by using the ellipsoidal capillary we designed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Bertram


    Full Text Available Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is a chronic renal disorder characterized by segmental glomerular lesions and widespread podocyte foot process effacement. We have previously shown that glomerular enlargement (hypertrophy precedes the development of FSGS in an animal model not previously thought to involve glomerular hypertrophy. This hypertrophy involved growth of glomerular capillaries. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the capillary growth involved an increase in the number of capillaries per glomerulus, or lengthening of existing capillaries. In addition, we examined the contribution of glomerular cell hyperplasia to the hypertrophy. We found that glomerular capillary growth in this model appears to primarily involve lengthening of existing capillaries rather that sprouting of new capillaries, and that glomerular cell proliferation contributes to the glomerular hypertrophy.

  15. Digital 3D reconstructions using histological serial sections of lung tissue including the alveolar capillary network. (United States)

    Grothausmann, Roman; Knudsen, Lars; Ochs, Matthias; Mühlfeld, Christian


    Grothausmann R, Knudsen L, Ochs M, Mühlfeld C. Digital 3D reconstructions using histological serial sections of lung tissue including the alveolar capillary network. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 312: L243-L257, 2017. First published December 2, 2016; doi:10.1152/ajplung.00326.2016-The alveolar capillary network (ACN) provides an enormously large surface area that is necessary for pulmonary gas exchange. Changes of the ACN during normal or pathological development or in pulmonary diseases are of great functional impact and warrant further analysis. Due to the complexity of the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the ACN, 2D approaches are limited in providing a comprehensive impression of the characteristics of the normal ACN or the nature of its alterations. Stereological methods offer a quantitative way to assess the ACN in 3D in terms of capillary volume, surface area, or number but lack a 3D visualization to interpret the data. Hence, the necessity to visualize the ACN in 3D and to correlate this with data from the same set of data arises. Such an approach requires a large sample volume combined with a high resolution. Here, we present a technically simple and cost-efficient approach to create 3D representations of lung tissue ranging from bronchioles over alveolar ducts and alveoli up to the ACN from more than 1 mm sample extent to a resolution of less than 1 μm. The method is based on automated image acquisition of serially sectioned epoxy resin-embedded lung tissue fixed by vascular perfusion and subsequent automated digital reconstruction and analysis of the 3D data. This efficient method may help to better understand mechanisms of vascular development and pathology of the lung. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. A three-dimensional neural spheroid model for capillary-like network formation. (United States)

    Boutin, Molly E; Kramer, Liana L; Livi, Liane L; Brown, Tyler; Moore, Christopher; Hoffman-Kim, Diane


    In vitro three-dimensional neural spheroid models have an in vivo-like cell density, and have the potential to reduce animal usage and increase experimental throughput. The aim of this study was to establish a spheroid model to study the formation of capillary-like networks in a three-dimensional environment that incorporates both neuronal and glial cell types, and does not require exogenous vasculogenic growth factors. We created self-assembled, scaffold-free cellular spheroids using primary-derived postnatal rodent cortex as a cell source. The interactions between relevant neural cell types, basement membrane proteins, and endothelial cells were characterized by immunohistochemistry. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine if endothelial network structures had lumens. Endothelial cells within cortical spheroids assembled into capillary-like networks with lumens. Networks were surrounded by basement membrane proteins, including laminin, fibronectin and collagen IV, as well as key neurovascular cell types. Existing in vitro models of the cortical neurovascular environment study monolayers of endothelial cells, either on transwell inserts or coating cellular spheroids. These models are not well suited to study vasculogenesis, a process hallmarked by endothelial cell cord formation and subsequent lumenization. The neural spheroid is a new model to study the formation of endothelial cell capillary-like structures in vitro within a high cell density three-dimensional environment that contains both neuronal and glial populations. This model can be applied to investigate vascular assembly in healthy or disease states, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, or neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of retinal capillary nonperfusion in fundus fluorescein angiogram of diabetic retinopathy. (United States)

    Rasta, Seyed Hossein; Nikfarjam, Shima; Javadzadeh, Alireza


    Retinal capillary nonperfusion (CNP) is one of the retinal vascular diseases in diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients. As there is no comprehensive detection technique to recognize CNP areas, we proposed a different method for computing detection of ischemic retina, non-perfused (NP) regions, in fundus fluorescein angiogram (FFA) images. Whilst major vessels appear as ridges, non-perfused areas are usually observed as ponds that are surrounded by healthy capillaries in FFA images. A new technique using homomorphic filtering to correct light illumination and detect the ponds surrounded in healthy capillaries on FFA images was designed and applied on DR fundus images. These images were acquired from the diabetic patients who had referred to the Nikookari hospital and were diagnosed for diabetic retinopathy during one year. Our strategy was screening the whole image with a fixed window size, which is small enough to enclose areas with identified topographic characteristics. To discard false nominees, we also performed a thresholding operation on the screen and marked images. To validate its performance we applied our detection algorithm on 41 FFA diabetic retinopathy fundus images in which the CNP areas were manually delineated by three clinical experts. Lesions were found as smooth regions with very high uniformity, low entropy, and small intensity variations in FFA images. The results of automated detection method were compared with manually marked CNP areas so achieved sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 78%, and accuracy of 91%.The result was present as a Receiver operating character (ROC) curve, which has an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.796 with 95% confidence intervals. This technique introduced a new automated detection algorithm to recognize non-perfusion lesions on FFA. This has potential to assist detecting and managing of ischemic retina and may be incorporated into automated grading diabetic retinopathy structures.

  18. Chemiluminescence generation and detection in a capillary-driven microfluidic chip (United States)

    Ramon, Charlotte; Temiz, Yuksel; Delamarche, Emmanuel


    The use of microfluidic technology represents a strong opportunity for providing sensitive, low-cost and rapid diagnosis at the point-of-care and such a technology might therefore support better, faster and more efficient diagnosis and treatment of patients at home and in healthcare settings both in developed and developing countries. In this work, we consider luminescence-based assays as an alternative to well-established fluorescence-based systems because luminescence does not require a light source or expensive optical components and is therefore a promising detection method for point-of-care applications. Here, we show a proof-of-concept of chemiluminescence (CL) generation and detection in a capillary-driven microfluidic chip for potential immunoassay applications. We employed a commercial acridan-based reaction, which is catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). We investigated CL generation under flow conditions using a simplified immunoassay model where HRP is used instead of the complete sandwich immunocomplex. First, CL signals were generated in a capillary microfluidic chip by immobilizing HRP on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sealing layer using stencil deposition and flowing CL substrate through the hydrophilic channels. CL signals were detected using a compact (only 5×5×2.5 cm3) and custom-designed scanner, which was assembled for less than $30 and comprised a 128×1 photodiode array, a mini stepper motor, an Arduino microcontroller, and a 3D-printed housing. In addition, microfluidic chips having specific 30-μm-deep structures were fabricated and used to immobilize ensembles of 4.50 μm beads functionalized with HRP so as to generate high CL signals from capillary-driven chips.

  19. Further developments of capillary absorption spectrometers using small hollow-waveguide fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, James F.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.; Kriesel, Jason M.


    Our objective is to enhance quantification of stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios to better than 1‰ relative isotope precision for sample sizes < 1 pico-mole. A newer variant Capillary Absorption Spectrometer (CAS) is described using a proprietary linear-taper hollow waveguide in conjunction with wavelength and frequency modulation techniques of tunable laser absorption spectrometry. Previous work used circular capillaries with uniform 1 mm ID to measure 13C/12C ratios with ≥ 20 pico-mole samples to ≤ 10 ppm (1‰ precision against standards) [1]. While performing fairly well, it generated residual modal noise due to multipath propagation in the hollow-waveguides (HWGs). This system has been utilized with laser ablation-catalytic combustion techniques to analyze small resolution (~ 25 μm spot diameter) laser ablation events on solids. Using smaller ID capillary waveguides could improve detection limits and spatial resolutions. Reducing an IR compatible hollow waveguide’s inner diameter (ID) to < 300 μm, reduces modal noise significantly for mid-IR operation, but feedback noise with high gain semiconductor lasers can become problematic. A proprietary linear-taper small waveguide (mean ID = 0.35 mm, L = 1 m) was tested to understand whether modal noise and optical feedback effects could be simultaneously reduced. We see better mode filtering and, significant reductions of feedback noise under favorable coupling of a multi-spatial mode QC laser to the smaller ID of the linear-tapered HWG. We demonstrate that better modal coupling operation is consistent with Liouville’s theorem, where greater suppression of feedback from spurious scatter within the HWG occurs by injecting the laser into the smaller ID port. Our progress on developing lighter weight, potentially fieldable alternatives to Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometers (IRMS) with a small volume (≤ 0.1 cm3) CAS system will be discussed and compared to other competitive systems.

  20. The relationship between odontoblasts and pulp capillaries in the process of enamel- and cementum-related dentin formation in rat incisors. (United States)

    Ohshima, H; Yoshida, S


    The relationship between odontoblasts and pulp capillaries in the process of dentinogenesis was studied in rat lower incisors, both on the labial and lingual sides, using light and transmission electron microscopy. The odontoblasts showed remarkable differences from the apical to the incisal end. Near the apical end of the tooth, "immature odontoblasts", which were thought to be involved in the formation of the mantle dentin, were arranged in a single layer, and continuous capillaries were located just beneath the odontoblasts. In the middle of the tooth, "mature odontoblasts" with highly developed cell organelles and notable processes formed a pseudostratified layer; fenestrated capillaries were found between these cells close to the predentin. The height of the odontoblast layer and the rate of dentin deposition on the labial (enamel-related) side was significantly greater than that on the lingual (cementum-related) side. Near the incisal end, cementum-related odontoblasts gradually decreased in height and number to become "post-odontoblasts" that produced atubular dentin; continuous capillaries were located subjacent to the post-odontoblasts. On the labial (enamel-related) side, however, odontoblasts retained their pseudostratification; fenestrated capillaries were still observed in the odontoblast layer. No atubular dentin was formed on the labial side.

  1. Charging YOYO-1 on Capillary Wall for Online DNA Intercalation and Integrating This Approach with Multiplex PCR and Bare Narrow Capillary–Hydrodynamic Chromatography for Online DNA Analysis (United States)


    Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been widely utilized for high-throughput pathogen identification. Often, a dye is used to intercalate the amplified DNA fragments, and identifications of the pathogens are carried out by DNA melting curve analysis or gel electrophoresis. Integrating DNA amplification and identification is a logic path toward maximizing the benefit of multiplex PCR. Although PCR and gel electrophoresis have been integrated, replenishing the gels after each run is tedious and time-consuming. In this technical note, we develop an approach to address this issue. We perform multiplex PCR inside a capillary, transfer the amplified fragments to a bare narrow capillary, and measure their lengths online using bare narrow capillary–hydrodynamic chromatography (BaNC-HDC), a new technique recently developed in our laboratory for free-solution DNA separation. To intercalate the DNA with YOYO-1 (a fluorescent dye) for BaNC-HDC, we flush the capillary column with a YOYO-1 solution; positively charged YOYO-1 is adsorbed (or charged) onto the negatively charged capillary wall. As DNA molecules are driven down the column for separation, they react with the YOYO-1 stored on the capillary wall and are online-intercalated with the dye. With a single YOYO-1 charging, the column can be used for more than 40 runs, although the fluorescence signal intensities of the DNA peaks decrease gradually. Although the dye-DNA intercalation occurs during the separation, it does not affect the retention times, separation efficiencies, or resolutions. PMID:25555111

  2. In-capillary probing of quantum dots and fluorescent protein self-assembly and displacement using Förster resonance energy transfer. (United States)

    Wang, Jianhao; Fan, Jie; Li, Jinchen; Liu, Li; Wang, Jianpeng; Jiang, Pengju; Liu, Xiaoqian; Qiu, Lin


    Herein, a Förster resonance energy transfer system was designed, which consisted of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots donor and mCherry fluorescent protein acceptor. The quantum dots and the mCherry proteins were conjugated to permit Förster resonance energy transfer. Capillary electrophoresis with fluorescence detection was used for the analyses for the described system. The quantum dots and mCherry were sequentially injected into the capillary, while the real-time fluorescence signal of donor and acceptor was simultaneously monitored by two channels with fixed wavelength detectors. An effective separation of complexes from free donor and acceptor was achieved. Results showed quantum dots and hexahistidine tagged mCherry had high affinity and the assembly was affected by His6 -mCherry/quantum dot molar ratio. The kinetics of the self-assembly was calculated using the Hill equation. The microscopic dissociation constant values for out of- and in-capillary assays were 10.49 and 23.39 μM, respectively. The capillary electrophoresis with fluorescence detection that monitored ligands competition assay further delineated the different binding capacities of histidine containing peptide ligands for binding sites on quantum dots. This work demonstrated a novel approach for the improvement of Förster resonance energy transfer for higher efficiency, increased sensitivity, intuitionistic observation, and low sample requirements of the in-capillary probing system. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. On-line nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis and electrospray mass spectrometry of tricyclic antidepressants and metabolic profiling of amitriptyline by Cunninghamella elegans. (United States)

    Liu, C S; Li, X F; Pinto, D; Hansen, E B; Cerniglia, C E; Dovichi, N J


    An on-line nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis-electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) technique was developed using a commercial ion spray interface. The nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis ESI-MS system was used to profile tricyclic antidepressants of similar structures and mass-to-charge ratios. We found that pure methanol can be used as a sheath liquid to obtain stable ion spray from nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis. The flow rate of the coaxial nebulizing gas affected baseline signals, separation efficiency, and migration times. Other nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis operating conditions and electrospray parameters were optimized for enhanced baseline separation and high sensitivity detection. The effect of sample stacking on separation and detection was evaluated. The calculated detection limits were approximately 3 pg injected onto the capillary. ESI mass spectra of tricyclic antidepressants from a single quadrupole MS were obtained and elucidated. The information was used to propose fragmentation pathways of the tricyclic antidepressants. The method was also used to analyze the metabolites of amitriptyline produced by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans. Sixteen metabolites were detected and most of them were tentatively identified as demethylated and/or hydroxylated, and/or N-oxidized products.

  4. Polyethylene glycol-stabilized lipid disks as model membranes in interaction studies based on electrokinetic capillary chromatography and quartz crystal microbalance. (United States)

    Vainikka, Kati; Reijmar, Karin; Yohannes, Gebrenegus; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Edwards, Katarina; Jussila, Matti; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa


    Distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC)/cholesterol/distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE)-polyethylene glycol 5000 [PEG(5000)] lipid disks, mimicking biological membranes, were used as pseudostationary phase in partial filling electrokinetic capillary chromatography (EKC) to study interactions between pharmaceuticals and lipid disks. Capillaries were coated either noncovalently with a poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone)-based copolymer or covalently with polyacrylamide to mask the negative charges of the fused-silica capillary wall and to minimize interactions between positively charged pharmaceuticals and capillary wall. Although the noncovalent copolymer coating method was faster, better stability of the covalent polyacrylamide coating at physiological pH 7.4 made it more reliable in partial filling EKC studies. Migration times of pharmaceuticals were proportional to the amount of lipids in the pseudostationary phase, and partition coefficients were successfully determined. Because the capillary coatings almost totally suppressed the electroosmotic flow, it was not practical to use the EKC-based method for partition studies involving large molecules with low mobilities. Hence, the applicability of the biomembrane mimicking lipid disks for interactions studies with large molecules was verified by the quartz crystal microbalance technique. Biotinylated lipid disks were then immobilized on streptavidin-coated sensor chip surface, and interactions with a high-molecular-mass molecule, lysozyme, were studied. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation were used to clarify the sizes of lipid disks used. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A singularity-free analytic solution of rise dynamics of a liquid in a vertical cylindrical capillary


    Zhong, Xiaoxu; Sun, Bohua; Liao, Shijun


    Capillary driven flow is a famous problem in fluid dynamics which dates back to Leonardo da Vinci. In this paper, we apply an analytic approximation method for highly nonlinear problem, namely the homotopy analysis method (HAM), to a model of the meniscus movement in a uniform vertical circular tube. Convergent explicit series solution is successfully obtained. Our results agree well with the numerical results given by the symbolic computing software Mathematica using six-order Runge-Kutta me...

  6. Identification of the capillary transfer coefficient in porous building materials (United States)

    Vala, J.; Jarošová, P.


    Physical description of the capillary transfer of water (or other liquids) in porous building material comes out from the thermomechanical principle of mass balance and from the Fick law, nonlinear only in the multiplicative capillary transfer coefficient. However, such seemingly simple formulation leads to the non-trivial theory of solvability and convergence of sequences of approximate solutions even for direct problems. The analysis of inverse problems relies on various simplified approaches, whose mutual relations, including those to the related direct problems, are not very transparent: some additional least squares, regression, etc. tricks are often hidden in computational algorithms. This paper demonstrates the general formulation, containing most identification approaches used in practice as certain special cases, both those using the 3-dimensional integration and those relying on (semi-)analytical formulae relying on the very special geometrical configurations. An illustrative example shows the possibility of implementation of the sketched algorithms in the MATLAB environment.

  7. Percolation and Burgers' dynamics in a model of capillary formation (United States)

    Coniglio, A.; de Candia, A.; di Talia, S.; Gamba, A.


    Capillary networks are essential in vertebrates to supply tissues with nutrients. Experiments of in vitro capillary formation show that cells randomly spread on a gel matrix autonomously organize to form vascular networks. Cells form disconnected networks at low densities and connected ones above a critical density. Above the critical density the network is characterized by a typical mesh size ˜200 μm , which is approximately constant on a wide range of density values. In this paper we present a full characterization of a recently proposed model which reproduces the main features of the biological system, focusing on its dynamical properties, on the fractal properties of patterns, and on the percolative phase transition. We discuss the relevance of the model in relation with some experiments in living beings and proposed diagnostic methods based on the measurement of the fractal dimension of vascular networks.

  8. A combined capillary cooling system for cooling fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ana Paula; Pelizza, Pablo Rodrigo; Galante, Renan Manozzo; Bazzo, Edson [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (LabCET/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Engenharia de Sistemas Termicos], Emails:,,,


    The operation temperature control has an important influence over the PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) performance. A two-phase heat transfer system is proposed as an alternative for cooling and thermal control of PEMFC. The proposed system consists of a CPL (Capillary Pumped Loop) connected to a set of constant conductance heat pipes. In this work ceramic wick and stainless mesh wicks have been used as capillary structure of the CPL and heat pipes, respectively. Acetone has been used as the working fluid for CPL and deionized water for the heat pipes. Experimental results of three 1/4 inch stainless steel outlet diameter heats pipes and one CPL have been carried out and presented in this paper. Further experiments are planned coupling the proposed cooling system to a module which simulates the fuel cell. (author)

  9. Fabrication of Monolithic Bridge Structures by Vacuum-Assisted Capillary-Force Lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Kwak, Rhokyun


    Monolithic bridge structures were fabricated by using capillary-force lithography (CFL), which was developed for patterning polymers over a large area by combining essential features of nanoimprint lithography and capillarity. A patterned soft mold was placed on a spin-coated UV-curable resin on a substrate. The polymer then moved into the cavity of the mold by capillary action and then solidified after exposure to UV radiation. The uncured resin was forced to migrate into the cavity of a micropatterned PDMS mold by capillarity, and then exposed to UV radiation under a high-energy mercury lamp with intensity. A rotary pump was then turned on, decreasing the air pressure in the chamber. SEM images were taken with a high-resolution SEM at an acceleration voltage greater than 15 kV. It was observed that when the air pressure was rapidly reduced to a low vacuum, the top layer moved into the nanochannels with a meniscus at the interface between the nanoscale PUA and the base structure.

  10. Zwitterionic silica-based monolithic capillary columns for isocratic and gradient hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Moravcová, Dana; Planeta, Josef; Kahle, Vladislav; Roth, Michal


    This study introduces zwitterionic monolithic capillary columns intended for isocratic and gradient HILIC separations. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns (100 μm × 150 mm) prepared by acidic hydrolysis of tetramethoxysilane in the presence of polyethylene glycol and urea were modified by a sulfoalkylbetaine zwitterion ([2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)-ammonium hydroxide) to HILIC stationary phase. The prepared columns were evaluated under the isocratic and gradient separation conditions using a standard mixture containing nucleic acid bases, nucleosides, and 2-deoxynucleosides. Mobile phases contained high concentration of acetonitrile (95-85%, v/v) and 5-50mM ammonium acetate or ammonium formate in the pH range of 3-6. The synthesized columns showed a long-term stability under the separation conditions while the high permeability and efficiency originating from dual structure of the silica monolith were preserved. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the retention times of tested solutes were lower than 2% under the isocratic conditions and lower than 3.5% under the gradient conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Herbicide and plant growth regulator analysis by capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Eash, D T; Bushway, R J


    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a relatively new analytical technique that is just beginning to be employed in the area of pesticide residue analysis. With the development of more sensitive detectors and in conjunction with CE separation powers, it should be a well accepted technique for pesticide residue analysis in the future. This review describes CE methods that have been developed to analyze herbicides and grow regulators in water, soil and food.

  12. Capillary-contacting horizontal cells in the rodent retina


    Mojumder, Deb Kumar


    Horizontal cells, the interneurons in the distal retina, provide feedback control of the photoreceptor synaptic output at the first synapse in the visual pathway. This article, using immunohistological and confocal microscopy techniques, presents anatomical evidence that in rat and mouse retina, the horizontal cell processes are in contact with retinal capillaries as are retinal glial cells. This glia-like property of horizontal cells in these two species, also previously reported in tree shr...

  13. Pump effect of a capillary discharge in electrically conductive liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Baerdemaeker, F.; Šimek, Milan; Leys, C.; Verstraete, W.


    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2007), s. 473-485 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1043403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : water * conductive * capillary * AC discharge * pump Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.747, year: 2007

  14. Refined Desing of a New Driver for Fast Capillary Discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláček, Karel; Boháček, Vladislav; Schmidt, Jiří; Šunka, Pavel; Řípa, Milan; Kravárik, J.


    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2001), s. 117-120 ISSN 0029-5922. [International Worshop on Dense Magnetised Plasma,IWDMP' 2000. Kudowa Zdroj, 12.09.2000-14.09.2000] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA 055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : capillary Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2001

  15. Desing of a new driver for fast capillary discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláček, Karel; Boháček, Vladislav; Schmidt, Jiří; Šunka, Pavel; Ullschmied, Jiří; Řípa, Milan; Fuciman, Marcel


    Roč. 11, - (2001), s. Pr2/613-616 ISSN 1155-4339 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/98/0831; GA MŠk LA 055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : capillary discharge, Marx generator, Blumline line Subject RIV: Bl - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.401, year: 2001

  16. Metabolic Memory Phenomenon and Accumulation of Peroxynitrite in Retinal Capillaries

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    Renu A. Kowluru


    Full Text Available Aim. Diabetic retinopathy resists reversal after good glycemic control (GC is reinitiated, and preexisting damage at the time of intervention is considered as the major factor in determining the outcome of the GC. This study is to investigate the role of peroxynitrite accumulation in the retinal capillaries in the failure of retinopathy to reverse after reestablishment of GC, and to determine the effect of this reversal on the activity of the enzyme responsible for scavenging mitochondrial superoxide, MnSOD. Methods. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, 6 months of poor glycemic control (PC, glycated hemoglobin, GHb>12.0% was followed by 6 additional months of GC (GHb about 6%. The trypsin-digested retinal microvessels were prepared for immunostaining of nitrotyrosine (a measure of peroxynitrite and for counting the number of acellular capillaries (a measure of histopathology. The retina from the other eye was used to quantify nitrotyrosine concentration, MnSOD activity and the total antioxidant capacity. Results. Reversal of hyperglycemia after 6 months of PC had no significant effect on nitrotyrosine concentration in the retina, on the nitrotyrosine-positive retinal capillary cells and on the number of acellular capillaries; the values were similar in PC-GC and PC groups. In the same rats retinal MnSOD activity remained inhibited and the total antioxidant capacity was subnormal 6 months after cessation of PC. Conclusions. Peroxynitrite accumulation in the retinal microvasculature, the site of histopathology, fails to normalize after reversal of hyperglycemia, and superoxide remains inadequately scavenged. This failure of reversal of peroxynitrite accumulation could be, in part, responsible for the resistance of diabetic retinopathy to reverse after termination of PC.

  17. Pathogenetics of Alveolar Capillary Dysplasia with Misalignment of Pulmonary Veins


    Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Gambin, Tomasz; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V.; Akdemir, Kadir Caner; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Schuette, Jennifer; Godiwala, Nihal; Yatsenko, Svetlana A.; Sebastian, Jessica; Madan-Khetarpal, Suneeta; Surti, Urvashi; Abellar, Rosanna G.; Bateman, David A.; Wilson, Ashley L.; Markham, Melinda H.


    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a lethal lung developmental disorder caused by heterozygous point mutations or genomic deletion copy-number variants (CNVs) of FOXF1 or its upstream enhancer involving fetal lung-expressed long noncoding RNA genes LINC01081 and LINC01082. Using custom-designed array comparative genomic hybridization, Sanger sequencing, whole exome sequencing (WES), and bioinformatic analyses, we studied 22 new unrelated families (20...

  18. Papillary capillary activation in Terson syndrome. (United States)

    Lüke, Julia; Tatar, Olcay; Lüeke, Matthias; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Grisanti, Salvatore


    We report the immunopathology and histopathology of a patient with Terson syndrome. The design was an observational case-report. Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining for endoglin (CD105) of an eye from a patient with subarachnoid haemorrhage and Terson syndrome was performed. Immunohistology revealed high papillary endoglin expression. Up-regulation of endoglin indicates activation of endothelial cells. This may suggest a regeneration process after the acute insult.

  19. Condensation and evaporation transitions in deep capillary grooves. (United States)

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Parry, Andrew O


    We study the order of capillary condensation and evaporation transitions of a simple fluid adsorbed in a deep capillary groove using a fundamental measure density functional theory (DFT). The walls of the capillary interact with the fluid particles via long-ranged, dispersion, forces while the fluid-fluid interaction is modelled as a truncated Lennard-Jones-like potential. We find that below the wetting temperature Tw condensation is first-order and evaporation is continuous with the metastability of the condensation being well described by the complementary Kelvin equation. In contrast above Tw both phase transitions are continuous and their critical singularities are determined. In addition we show that for the evaporation transition above Tw there is an elegant mapping, or covariance, with the complete wetting transition occurring at a planar wall. Our numerical DFT studies are complemented by analytical slab model calculations which explain how the asymmetry between condensation and evaporation arises out of the combination of long-ranged forces and substrate geometry.

  20. Preliminary communication: imiquimod in mixed capillary/lymphatic malformation. (United States)

    Bongiorno, M R; Aricò, M


    The present authors reported a 14-year-old white boy who visited the present authors' dermatology department in January 2004. Physical examination revealed multiple translucent and hemorrhagic vesicles and skin-colored nodules on the chin. The lesion had grown slowly in size over the previous 7 years. The objective of this study is to estimate the exact mechanism of action of topical imiquimod on mixed capillary/lymphatic malformation. After 4 weeks of therapy the lesions were less protuberant. At the follow-up examination after a further 2 months of therapy, there was partial clinical regression of the capillary component with a return to normal skin color. One month after termination of therapy the lesions had completely regressed and there was no evidence of recurrence of the hemangiomatous section. The present authors' case suggests the efficacy of the use of topical imiquimod and this therapeutic modality may be of particular benefit in superficial type of capillary/lymphatic malformation, in which the destructive intervention may be undesirable.