WorldWideScience

Sample records for high capacity excellent

  1. Self-assembly synthesis of 3D graphene-encapsulated hierarchical Fe3O4 nano-flower architecture with high lithium storage capacity and excellent rate capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yating; Huang, Jian; Lin, Liang; Xie, Qingshui; Yan, Mengyu; Qu, Baihua; Wang, Laisen; Mai, Liqiang; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2017-10-01

    Graphene-encapsulated hierarchical metal oxides architectures can efficiently combine the merits of graphene and hierarchical metal oxides, which are deemed as the potential anode material candidates for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries due to the synergistic effect between them. Herein, a cationic surfactant induced self-assembly method is developed to construct 3D Fe3O4@reduction graphene oxide (H-Fe3O4@RGO) hybrid architecture in which hierarchical Fe3O4 nano-flowers (H-Fe3O4) are intimately encapsulated by 3D graphene network. Each H-Fe3O4 particle is constituted of rod-shaped skeletons surrounded by petal-like nano-flakes that are made up of enormous nanoparticles. When tested as the anode material in lithium-ion batteries, a high reversible capacity of 2270 mA h g-1 after 460 cycles is achieved under a current density of 0.5 A g-1. More impressively, even tested at a large current density of 10 A g-1, a decent reversible capacity of 490 mA h g-1 can be retained, which is still higher than the theoretical capacity of traditional graphite anode, demonstrating the remarkable lithium storage properties. The reasons for the excellent electrochemical performance of H-Fe3O4@RGO electrode have been discussed in detail.

  2. Porous α-MoO3/MWCNT nanocomposite synthesized via a surfactant-assisted solvothermal route as a lithium-ion-battery high-capacity anode material with excellent rate capability and cyclability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feng; Yuan, Anbao; Xu, Jiaqiang; Hu, Pengfei

    2015-07-22

    A high-performance α-MoO3/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposite material is synthesized via a novel surfactant-assisted solvothermal process followed by low-temperature calcination. Its structure, composition, and morphology are characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, carbon element analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption determination, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Its electrochemical performance as a high-capacity lithium-ion-battery anode material is investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic discharge/recharge methods. This composite material exhibits not only high capacity but also excellent rate capability and cyclability. For example, when the discharge/charge current density is increased from 0.1 to 2 A g(-1), the reversible charge capacity is only decreased from 1138.3 to 941.4 mAh g(-1), giving a capacity retention of 82.7%. Even if it is cycled at a high current density of 20 A g(-1), a reversible charge capacity of 490.2 mAh g(-1) is still retained, showing a capacity retention of 43.1%. When it is repeatedly cycled at a current of 0.5 A g(-1), the initial reversible charge capacity is 1041.1 mAh g(-1). A maximum charge capacity of 1392.2 mAh g(-1) is achieved at the 292th cycle. After 300 cycles, a high charge capacity of 1350.3 mAh g(-1) is maintained. Enhancement of the electrical conduction contributed by the MWCNT composite component as well as the loose and porous texture of the MoO3/MWCNT composite is suggested to be responsible for the excellent performance.

  3. Binder-free network-enabled MoS2-PPY-rGO ternary electrode for high capacity and excellent stability of lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, D.; Wang, D. H.; Tang, W. J.; Xia, X. H.; Zhang, Y. J.; Wang, X. L.; Gu, C. D.; Tu, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    A unique MoS2-based composite composed of MoS2 nanosheets wrapped by a conductive polypyrrole (PPY) layer and closely incorporated within reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets is prepared by all-solution method. As a free-binder electrode for lithium-ion batteries, the ternary electrode delivers an initial discharge capacity of 1428 mAh g-1, maintains 1070 mAh g-1 after 400 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1, and also exhibits superior rate capacity of 600 mAh g-1 at a high current density of 2000 A g-1. The enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to the advantageous combination of the 3D hierarchically rGO skeleton and in-situ formed conductive PPY coating. This design route represents a new direction for high-performance lithium ion batteries and related energy storage application with advanced nanostructured materials.

  4. Gervais High School: 100% Committed to Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principal Leadership, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Gervais High School--with a senior class of 80 and a total enrollment of 337--may be small in size compared to its neighbors, but it has demonstrated over the last four years the ability to think big in pursuit of excellence. A decade ago, Gervais had a well-earned reputation in Oregon's Willamette Valley as a drug-ridden, gang-infested…

  5. Future High Capacity Backbone Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan

    This thesis - Future High Capacity Backbone Networks - deals with the energy efficiency problems associated with the development of future optical networks. In the first half of the thesis, novel approaches for using multiple/single alternative energy sources for improving energy efficiency...... the context of the integrated control plane structure. Results show improvements of energy efficiency over three types of traffic, while still keeping acceptable QoS levels for high priority traffic....

  6. High Information Capacity Quantum Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    the quantum nature of light), and detector reset time. Algorithmic : We provide a method for spatiotemporally-regularized estimation of intensity and...High Information Capacity Quantum Imaging This is the final report for the DARPA InPho program. In reality, we finished this program in early 2013...Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Quantum Imaging, Photon Counting, LIDAR REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11

  7. The Africa Center for Biostatistical Excellence: a proposal for enhancing biostatistics capacity for sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machekano, Rhoderick; Young, Taryn; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Musonda, Patrick; Sartorius, Ben; Todd, Jim; Fegan, Greg; Thabane, Lehana; Chikte, Usuf

    2015-11-30

    Sub-Saharan Africa has a shortage of well-trained biomedical research methodologists, in particular, biostatisticians. In July 2014, a group of biostatisticians and researchers from the region attended a brainstorming workshop to identify ways in which to reduce the deficit in this critical skill. The workshop recognized that recommendations from previous workshops on building biostatistics capacity in sub-Saharan Africa had not been implemented. The discussions culminated with a proposal to setup an Africa Center for Biostatistical Excellence, a collaborative effort across academic and researcher institutions within the region, as a vehicle for promoting biostatistics capacity building through specialized academic masters programs as well as regular workshops targeting researchers.

  8. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  9. High capacity immobilized amine sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Filburn, Thomas

    2007-10-30

    A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  10. A macro-driven Excel template for determining the anaerobic capacity using an air-braked ergometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, J P; Sainsbury, D A; Withers, R T

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a microcomputer system for automating the process of data collection, calculation and display of anaerobic capacity tests on an air-braked ergometer. The use of the spreadsheet Excel and associated 'Dalog' program represents an advance on current software which estimates the anaerobic capacity from work performed alone. Numerous calculations are required when air-braked, rather than friction-braked erogometers are used. Each 1 s power output collected during an all-out sprint on the ergometer is corrected against the criterion of a dynamic calibration rig and adjusted for differences in barometric pressure, ambient temperature and humidity. The Excel template features a series of macros invoked by buttons imbedded in the spreadsheet. Their selection displays various dialogue boxes which request input related to the calculation of oxygen deficit and related variables. Selecting the final macro prints a summary table and charts which include: power output, fatigue index, mechanical work performed, % aerobic contribution to work, oxygen demand, oxygen consumption and anaerobic capacity as determined by the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit.

  11. The Survey and Analysis of Excellent Senior High School Physics Teachers' Professional Growth Actuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haibin; Liu, Tingting

    2010-01-01

    Excellent senior high school physics teachers are the backbone power in the new course reform of physics in China. The excellent senior high school physics teachers' professional growth actuality in Shandong is surveyed in this article by the self-made "Questionnaire of Excellent Senior High School Physics Teachers' Professional Growth",…

  12. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-07-23

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 10(8) tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes.

  13. High capacity optical links for datacentre connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Usuga, Mario; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    There is a timely and growing demand for high capacity optical data transport solutions to provide connectivity inside data centres and between data centres located at different geographical locations. The requirements for reach are in the order of 2 km for intra-datacentre and up to 100 km for i...

  14. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  15. High-capacity nanocarbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haitao; Sun, Xianzhong; Zhang, Xiong; Lin, He; Wang, Kai; Ma, Yanwei, E-mail: ywma@mail.iee.ac.cn

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The nanocarbon anodes in lithium-ion batteries deliver a high capacity of ∼1100 mA h g{sup −1}. • The nanocarbon anodes exhibit excellent cyclic stability. • A novel structure of carbon materials, hollow carbon nanoboxes, has potential application in lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: High energy and power density of secondary cells like lithium-ion batteries become much more important in today’s society. However, lithium-ion battery anodes based on graphite material have theoretical capacity of 372 mA h g{sup −1} and low charging-discharging rate. Here, we report that nanocarbons including mesoporous graphene (MPG), carbon tubular nanostructures (CTN), and hollow carbon nanoboxes (HCB) are good candidate for lithium-ion battery anodes. The nanocarbon anodes have high capacity of ∼1100, ∼600, and ∼500 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 A g{sup −1} for MPG, CTN, and HCB, respectively. The capacity of 181, 141, and 139 mA h g{sup −1} at 4 A g{sup −1} for MPG, CTN, and HCB anodes is retained. Besides, nanocarbon anodes show high cycling stability during 1000 cycles, indicating formation of a passivating layer—solid electrolyte interphase, which support long-term cycling. Nanocarbons, constructed with graphene layers which fulfill lithiation/delithiation process, high ratio of graphite edge structure, and high surface area which facilitates capacitive behavior, deliver high capacity and improved rate-capability.

  16. Pierce County High School: Excellence Is the Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principal Leadership, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article features Pierce County High School in rural southeast Georgia whose 965 students, almost half of whom are from economically disadvantaged families, have demonstrated what a focus on student learning can accomplish. In 2004, the school ranked at the bottom of the state in students passing the high school graduation tests, and only 55%…

  17. [Executive functions and high intellectual capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Riba, S; Viana-Saenz, L

    2016-01-01

    High intellectual capacity is a process in development in which the executive functions (inhibition, working memory and flexibility) play a role in the optimal manifestation of their potential. To explore the effectiveness of executive functioning among the profiles of high capacity giftedness and (convergent or divergent) talent. The study examines 78 children with high intellectual capacity aged 8-15 years with profiles of giftedness (n = 21), convergent talent (n = 39) or divergent talent (n = 18). A series of tests were administered including the Battery of Differential and General Aptitudes or the Differential Aptitude Test (depending on the age) and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, as well as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Corsi Test and the Go-No Go Test by means of the Psychology Experiment Building Language platform. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed to determine the relationship between executive function and intellectual profile. Significant differences are obtained between the profiles studied and the executive functions of flexibility and inhibition, but not in working memory. Working memory is similar across the profiles studied, but the complex profile of giftedness displays better executive functioning, with greater flexibility and inhibition than talent, especially of the convergent type.

  18. High Capacity Radio over Fiber Transmission Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    . This achievement has satisfied the requirements on transmission robustness and high capacity of next generation hybrid optical fibre-wireless networks. One important contribution of this thesis is the novel concept of photonic downconversion with free-running pulsed laser source for phase modulated Radio...... confirmed that this configuration provides high linear end-to-end transmission links and is capable of transparent transport of high spectral efficient modulation formats. Furthermore, this thesis introduces a novel approach for the generation and detection of high speed wireless signals in mm...... of the writing of this thesis. In conclusion, the results presented in this thesis demonstrate the feasibility of photonic technologies for the generation, distribution and detection of high speed wireless signals. Furthermore, it opens the prospects for next generation hybrid wireless-wired access networks...

  19. Fabrication of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels with excellent mechanical and pitting corrosion properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-bing Li; Zhou-hua Jiang; Yang Cao; Zu-rui Zhang

    2009-01-01

    18Cr18Mn2Mo0.9N high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel exhibits high strength and good ductility at room temperature. The steel shows typical duc-tile-brittle transition behavior and excellent pitting corrosion resistance properties.

  20. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, International Center for Applied Mechanics and School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Suo, Zhigang, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Kavli Institute of Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-13

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  1. Building the UPPA high capacity tensiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Joao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High capacity tensiometers (HCTs are sensors capable of directly measuring tensile pore water pressure (suction in soils. HCTs are typically composed of a casing that encapsulates a high air entry value ceramic filter, a water reservoir and a pressure sensing element. Since the creation of the first HCT by Ridley and Burland in 1993 at Imperial College London, HCTs have been almost exclusively built and used in academic research. The limited use in industrial applications can be explained by a lack of unsaturated soil mechanics knowledge among engineering practitioners but also by the technical difficulties associated to the direct measurement of tensile water pressures beyond the cavitation limit of -100kPa. In this paper, we present the recent design and manufacture of a new HCT at the Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour (UPPA in France. Different prototypes were tried by changing the main components of the device including the type of ceramic filter, pressure transducer and geometry of the external casing. In particular, two ceramic filters of distinct porosity, three pressure transducers with distinct materials/geometries and four casing designs were tested.

  2. Towards green high capacity optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesk, I.; Mohd Warip, M. N.; Idris, S. K.; Osadola, T. B.; Andonovic, I.

    2012-02-01

    The demand for fast, secure, energy efficient high capacity networks is growing. It is fuelled by transmission bandwidth needs which will support among other things the rapid penetration of multimedia applications empowering smart consumer electronics and E-businesses. All the above trigger unparallel needs for networking solutions which must offer not only high-speed low-cost "on demand" mobile connectivity but should be ecologically friendly and have low carbon footprint. The first answer to address the bandwidth needs was deployment of fibre optic technologies into transport networks. After this it became quickly obvious that the inferior electronic bandwidth (if compared to optical fiber) will further keep its upper hand on maximum implementable serial data rates. A new solution was found by introducing parallelism into data transport in the form of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) which has helped dramatically to improve aggregate throughput of optical networks. However with these advancements a new bottleneck has emerged at fibre endpoints where data routers must process the incoming and outgoing traffic. Here, even with the massive and power hungry electronic parallelism routers today (still relying upon bandwidth limiting electronics) do not offer needed processing speeds networks demands. In this paper we will discuss some novel unconventional approaches to address network scalability leading to energy savings via advance optical signal processing. We will also investigate energy savings based on advanced network management through nodes hibernation proposed for Optical IP networks. The hibernation reduces the network overall power consumption by forming virtual network reconfigurations through selective nodes groupings and by links segmentations and partitionings.

  3. Excellence in Urban High Schools: An Emerging District/School Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.; And Others

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the District/Secondary School Study. The study had two purposes: (1) to identify ways of managing urban high schools to produce excellence, and (2) to recommend policy-relevant guidance to existing school and district administrators. The study design focused on the testing of two specific theories…

  4. Creating Realistic 3D Graphics with Excel at High School--Vector Algebra in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of an experiment in which Excel applications that depict rotatable and sizable orthographic projection of simple 3D figures with face overlapping were developed with thirty gymnasium (high school) students of age 17-19 as an introduction to 3D computer graphics. A questionnaire survey was conducted to find out…

  5. Developing Leadership Capacity in Others: An Examination of High School Principals' Personal Capacities for Fostering Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Kristin Shawn; Klar, Hans W.; Hammonds, Hattie L.; Buskey, Frederick C.

    2017-01-01

    In this multisite case study, we examine the personal capacities of six high school principals who have developed the leadership capacities of other leaders in their respective schools. Participants were purposefully selected by two teams of researchers in two states of the United States, one on the east coast and one on the west coast, who…

  6. Crystalline-Amorphous Core−Shell Silicon Nanowires for High Capacity and High Current Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2009-01-14

    Silicon is an attractive alloy-type anode material for lithium ion batteries because of its highest known capacity (4200 mAh/g). However silicon\\'s large volume change upon lithium insertion and extraction, which causes pulverization and capacity fading, has limited its applications. Designing nanoscale hierarchical structures is a novel approach to address the issues associated with the large volume changes. In this letter, we introduce a core-shell design of silicon nanowires for highpower and long-life lithium battery electrodes. Silicon crystalline- amorphous core-shell nanowires were grown directly on stainless steel current collectors by a simple one-step synthesis. Amorphous Si shells instead of crystalline Si cores can be selected to be electrochemically active due to the difference of their lithiation potentials. Therefore, crystalline Si cores function as a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway while amorphous shells store Li ions. We demonstrate here that these core-shell nanowires have high charge storage capacity (̃1000 mAh/g, 3 times of carbon) with ̃90% capacity retention over 100 cycles. They also show excellent electrochemical performance at high rate charging and discharging (6.8 A/g, ̃20 times of carbon at 1 h rate). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  7. Capacity Bounds and High-SNR Capacity of MIMO Intensity-Modulation Optical Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2017-06-01

    The capacity of the intensity modulation direct detection multiple-input multiple-output channel is studied. Therein, the nonnegativity constraint of the transmit signal limits the applicability of classical schemes, including precoding. Thus, new ways are required for deriving capacity lower and upper bounds for this channel. To this end, capacity lower bounds are developed by deriving the achievable rates of two precoding-free schemes: Channel inversion and QR decomposition. The achievable rate of a DC-offset SVD-based scheme is also derived as a benchmark. Then, capacity upper bounds are derived and compared against the lower bounds. As a result, the capacity at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is characterized for the case where the number of transmit apertures is not larger than the number of receive apertures, and is shown to be achievable by the QR decomposition scheme. This is shown for a channel with average intensity or peak intensity constraints. For a channel with both constraints, the high-SNR capacity is approximated within a small gap. Extensions to a channel with more transmit apertures than receive apertures are discussed, and capacity bounds for this case are derived.

  8. Diaceno[a,e]pentalenes: An Excellent Molecular Platform for High-Performance Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunming; Xu, Shengjie; Zhu, Weigang; Zhu, Xiaozhang; Hu, Wenping; Li, Zhibo; Wang, Zhaohui

    2015-11-16

    Three diaceno[a,e]pentalene analogues with pendant sterically bulky di-tert-butylphenyl groups have been designed and synthesized. With the extension of the conjugated molecular framework, the molecular arrangement is apparently tuned by the balance between the π-extended surface and pendant alkyl or aryl substituents. Theoretical calculations of the morphologies were in good agreement with the experimental results. Ambient-stable field-effect transistors based on dianthraceno[a,e]pentalene (DAP) have been fabricated, which exhibited excellent hole mobilities (up to 6.55 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)). Thus, this study has shown that diaceno[a,e]pentalenes are stable even with an extraordinarily large π-surface area, and may thus serve as excellent molecular platforms for further exploring high-performance semiconducting materials.

  9. High-Capacity, High-Voltage Composite Oxide Cathode Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagh, Nader M.

    2015-01-01

    This SBIR project integrates theoretical and experimental work to enable a new generation of high-capacity, high-voltage cathode materials that will lead to high-performance, robust energy storage systems. At low operating temperatures, commercially available electrode materials for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries do not meet energy and power requirements for NASA's planned exploration activities. NEI Corporation, in partnership with the University of California, San Diego, has developed layered composite cathode materials that increase power and energy densities at temperatures as low as 0 degC and considerably reduce the overall volume and weight of battery packs. In Phase I of the project, through innovations in the structure and morphology of composite electrode particles, the partners successfully demonstrated an energy density exceeding 1,000 Wh/kg at 4 V at room temperature. In Phase II, the team enhanced the kinetics of Li-ion transport and electronic conductivity at 0 degC. An important feature of the composite cathode is that it has at least two components that are structurally integrated. The layered material is electrochemically inactive; however, upon structural integration with a spinel material, the layered material can be electrochemically activated and deliver a large amount of energy with stable cycling.

  10. Facile fabrication of Si mesoporous nanowires for high-capacity and long-life lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jizhang; Yang, Li; Rousidan, Saibihai; Fang, Shaohua; Zhang, Zhengxi; Hirano, Shin-Ichi

    2013-10-01

    Si has the second highest theoretical capacity among all the known anode materials for lithium ion batteries, whereas it is vulnerable to pulverization and crumbling upon lithiation/delithiation. Herein, Si mesoporous nanowires prepared by a scalable and cost-effective procedure are reported for the first time. Such nanowire morphology and mesoporous structure can effectively buffer the huge lithiation-induced volume expansion of Si, therefore contributing to excellent cycling stability and high-rate capability. Reversible capacities of 1826.8 and 737.4 mA h g-1 can be obtained at 500 mA g-1 and a very high current density of 10 A g-1, respectively. After 1000 cycles at 2500 mA g-1, this product still maintains a high capacity of 643.5 mA h g-1.Si has the second highest theoretical capacity among all the known anode materials for lithium ion batteries, whereas it is vulnerable to pulverization and crumbling upon lithiation/delithiation. Herein, Si mesoporous nanowires prepared by a scalable and cost-effective procedure are reported for the first time. Such nanowire morphology and mesoporous structure can effectively buffer the huge lithiation-induced volume expansion of Si, therefore contributing to excellent cycling stability and high-rate capability. Reversible capacities of 1826.8 and 737.4 mA h g-1 can be obtained at 500 mA g-1 and a very high current density of 10 A g-1, respectively. After 1000 cycles at 2500 mA g-1, this product still maintains a high capacity of 643.5 mA h g-1. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images; N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm; long-term cycling performance at 500 mA g-1 comparison with other literature. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03955b

  11. Photovoltaics for high capacity space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1988-01-01

    The anticipated energy requirements of future space missions will grow by factors approaching 100 or more, particularly as a permanent manned presence is established in space. The advances that can be expected in solar array performance and lifetime, when coupled with advanced, high energy density storage batteries and/or fuel cells, will continue to make photovoltaic energy conversion a viable power generating option for the large systems of the future. The specific technologies required to satisfy any particular set of power requirements will vary from mission to mission. Nonetheless, in almost all cases the technology push will be toward lighter weight and higher efficiency, whether of solar arrays of storage devices. This paper will describe the content and direction of the current NASA program in space photovoltaic technology. The paper will also discuss projected system level capabilities of photovoltaic power systems in the context of some of the new mission opportunities under study by NASA, such as a manned lunar base, and a manned visit to Mars.

  12. Radiation Tolerant, High Capacity Non-Volatile Memory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for reliable, high capacity, radiation tolerant nonvolatile memory exists in many Human space flight applications. Most projects rely on COTS hardware for a...

  13. Graphdiyne oxides as excellent substrate for electroless deposition of Pd clusters with high catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hetong; Yu, Ping; Wang, Yuexiang; Han, Guangchao; Liu, Huibiao; Yi, Yuanping; Li, Yuliang; Mao, Lanqun

    2015-04-29

    Graphdiyne (GDY), a novel kind of two-dimensional carbon allotrope consisting of sp- and sp(2)-hybridized carbon atoms, is found to be able to serve as the reducing agent and stabilizer for electroless deposition of highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles owing to its low reduction potential and highly conjugated electronic structure. Furthermore, we observe that graphdiyne oxide (GDYO), the oxidation form of GDY, can be used as an even excellent substrate for electroless deposition of ultrafine Pd clusters to form Pd/GDYO nanocomposite that exhibits a high catalytic performance toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The high catalytic performance is considered to benefit from the rational design and electroless deposition of active metal catalysts with GDYO as the support.

  14. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  15. High visual working memory capacity in trait social anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Moriya

    Full Text Available Working memory capacity is one of the most important cognitive functions influencing individual traits, such as attentional control, fluid intelligence, and also psychopathological traits. Previous research suggests that anxiety is associated with impaired cognitive function, and studies have shown low verbal working memory capacity in individuals with high trait anxiety. However, the relationship between trait anxiety and visual working memory capacity is still unclear. Considering that people allocate visual attention more widely to detect danger under threat, visual working memory capacity might be higher in anxious people. In the present study, we show that visual working memory capacity increases as trait social anxiety increases by using a change detection task. When the demand to inhibit distractors increased, however, high visual working memory capacity diminished in individuals with social anxiety, and instead, impaired filtering of distractors was predicted by trait social anxiety. State anxiety was not correlated with visual working memory capacity. These results indicate that socially anxious people could potentially hold a large amount of information in working memory. However, because of an impaired cognitive function, they could not inhibit goal-irrelevant distractors and their performance decreased under highly demanding conditions.

  16. High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal–Organic Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Gándara, Felipe; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Lee, Seungkyu; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of porous materials to store natural gas in vehicles requires large amounts of methane per unit of volume. Here we report the synthesis, crystal structure and methane adsorption properties of two new aluminum metal–organic frameworks, MOF-519 and MOF-520. Both materials exhibit permanent porosity and high methane volumetric storage capacity: MOF-519 has a volumetric capacity of 200 and 279 cm3 cm–3 at 298 K and 35 and 80 bar, respectively, and MOF-520 has a volumetric capacity of 162 ...

  17. [Strive for excellence and addiction to body movement: a risk model in high-level athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, C

    2000-04-01

    Champion athletes strive to attain a personal goal defined by a socially constructed image of psychomotor performance to be accomplished at the moment of the championship celebration. This intrapsychic process is initiated by a transformation of the body, programmed and controlled by repeated training. The athlete's body becomes accustomed to ritualized obsessive movements, favoring the feeling of self-fulfillment solely during muscular effort (contraction/relaxation, displacement). This social goal of excellence implies personal adaptation involving an addictive link to movement: a mechanism uniquely valid in high level sports. Twelve years experience in psychological support of high-level athletes participating in Olympic sports has led to an analysis of this adaptive mechanism and a proposed psychopathological model of its invasion of the athlete's psychic economy.

  18. PEEK: An excellent precursor for activated carbon production for high temperature application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, I.P.P.; Goncalves, F.A.M.M.; Nabais, J.M.V.; Ribeiro Carrott, M.M.L.; Carrott, P.J.M. [Centro de Quimica de Evora and Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Evora, Colegio Luis Antonio Verney, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal)

    2009-02-15

    A series of activated carbons (AC) with high apparent surface area and very high micropore volumes were prepared from granulated PEEK (poly[oxy-1,4-phenylene-oxy-1,4-phenylene-carbonyl-1,4-phenylene]) by physical activation with CO{sub 2} at different temperatures and different activation times. The carbonisation yields at 873, 1073 and 1173 K were 57, 52 and 51%. As the activation temperature increased, between 873 and 1173 K, the burn-off, the micropore volume and mean pore size increased too. Those prepared at 1173 K, with 74% burn-off, present an extremely high apparent surface area (2874 m{sup 2} g{sup -} {sup 1}) and a very high micropore volume (1.27 cm{sup 3} g{sup -} {sup 1}). The presence of pyrone groups, identified by FTIR, on the AC surface corroborates the prevalence of a basic point of zero charge, always higher than 9.2. The thermal stability was checked by thermogravimetric analysis and as the carbonisation temperature increased the thermal stability of the char increased too. All AC obtained from PEEK by physical activation at 1173 K are thermally resistant, as at 1073 K the loss of the initial mass was less than 15%. The collective results confirm that PEEK is an excellent precursor for preparing AC with a high carbonisation yield, a high micropore volume and apparent surface area and a very high resistance at elevated temperature. (author)

  19. Holographic memory module with ultra-high capacity and throughput

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir A. Markov, Ph.D.

    2000-06-04

    High capacity, high transfer rate, random access memory systems are needed to archive and distribute the tremendous volume of digital information being generated, for example, the human genome mapping and online libraries. The development of multi-gigabit per second networks underscores the need for next-generation archival memory systems. During Phase I we conducted the theoretical analysis and accomplished experimental tests that validated the key aspects of the ultra-high density holographic data storage module with high transfer rate. We also inspected the secure nature of the encoding method and estimated the performance of full-scale system. Two basic architectures were considered, allowing for reversible compact solid-state configuration with limited capacity, and very large capacity write once read many memory system.

  20. One-Pot Hydrothermal Synthesis of LiMn2O4 Cathode Material with Excellent High-Rate and Cycling Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qianqian; Wang, Xingyao; Zhang, Han

    2016-08-01

    The spinel LiMn2O4 was prepared by a one-step hydrothermal method using acetone as the reductant under different hydrothermal temperatures. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that optimal LiMn2O4 particles (LMO-120) were synthesized at the temperature of 120°C and the particles were well distributed and about 410 nm in size. Electrochemical performance showed that the as-prepared LiMn2O4 particles exhibited a higher initial discharge capacity than commercial LiMn2O4 (131.5 mAh g-1 versus 115.6 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C). An excellent discharge capacity retention rate of 94.07% was observed after 60 charge-discharge cycles. On the other hand, when cycled at the high rate of 1 C, the optimal LiMn2O4 in this work showed a high discharge capacity of 107.5 mAh g-1 in contrast to only 92.3 mAh g-1 of the commercial LiMn2O4. These results indicate that LMO-120 showed excellent electrochemical performance, especially the prolonged cycling life and high-rate performance, which suggested that this spinel LiMn2O4 has promise for practical application as a high-rate cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

  1. Development of high capacity Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, J. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 7-24-1, Narashinodai, Funabashi-shi, Chiba 274-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: junnosuke_imura@yahoo.co.jp; Shinoki, S.; Sato, T.; Iwata, N.; Yamamoto, H.; Yasohama, K. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 7-24-1, Narashinodai, Funabashi-shi, Chiba 274-8501 (Japan); Ohashi, Y.; Nomachi, H.; Okumura, N. [Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd., 2-1, Asahi-machi, Kariya, Aichi 448-8650 (Japan); Nagaya, S.; Tamada, T.; Hirano, N. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 1, Toshin-cho, Higashi-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi 261-8680 (Japan)

    2007-10-01

    We have been developing a Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler, aiming for a cooling capacity of 200 W at 80 K for a superconducting magnetic energy storage system. In this work, we adopted stainless steel meshes for the regenerator of the cryocooler, and studied the influences of the mesh number on the cooling capacity. The prepared mesh numbers were 150, 200, 250, 350 and 400. Using 250 mesh, and at a frequency of 45 Hz and power consumption of 3.1 kW, the achievable lowest temperature and cooling capacity at 80 K was 46.2 K and 123 W, respectively. Furthermore, in order to optimize the performance, some regenerators were made by stacking several kinds of meshes with different stacking orders. Using these regenerators, we have obtained a high cooling capacity of 169 W at 80 K with power consumption of 4 kW.

  2. Development of high capacity Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, J.; Shinoki, S.; Sato, T.; Iwata, N.; Yamamoto, H.; Yasohama, K.; Ohashi, Y.; Nomachi, H.; Okumura, N.; Nagaya, S.; Tamada, T.; Hirano, N.

    2007-10-01

    We have been developing a Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler, aiming for a cooling capacity of 200 W at 80 K for a superconducting magnetic energy storage system. In this work, we adopted stainless steel meshes for the regenerator of the cryocooler, and studied the influences of the mesh number on the cooling capacity. The prepared mesh numbers were #150, 200, 250, 350 and 400. Using #250 mesh, and at a frequency of 45 Hz and power consumption of 3.1 kW, the achievable lowest temperature and cooling capacity at 80 K was 46.2 K and 123 W, respectively. Furthermore, in order to optimize the performance, some regenerators were made by stacking several kinds of meshes with different stacking orders. Using these regenerators, we have obtained a high cooling capacity of 169 W at 80 K with power consumption of 4 kW.

  3. High methane storage capacity in aluminum metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gándara, Felipe; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Lee, Seungkyu; Yaghi, Omar M

    2014-04-09

    The use of porous materials to store natural gas in vehicles requires large amounts of methane per unit of volume. Here we report the synthesis, crystal structure and methane adsorption properties of two new aluminum metal-organic frameworks, MOF-519 and MOF-520. Both materials exhibit permanent porosity and high methane volumetric storage capacity: MOF-519 has a volumetric capacity of 200 and 279 cm(3) cm(-3) at 298 K and 35 and 80 bar, respectively, and MOF-520 has a volumetric capacity of 162 and 231 cm(3) cm(-3) under the same conditions. Furthermore, MOF-519 exhibits an exceptional working capacity, being able to deliver a large amount of methane at pressures between 5 and 35 bar, 151 cm(3) cm(-3), and between 5 and 80 bar, 230 cm(3) cm(-3).

  4. High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal–Organic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The use of porous materials to store natural gas in vehicles requires large amounts of methane per unit of volume. Here we report the synthesis, crystal structure and methane adsorption properties of two new aluminum metal–organic frameworks, MOF-519 and MOF-520. Both materials exhibit permanent porosity and high methane volumetric storage capacity: MOF-519 has a volumetric capacity of 200 and 279 cm3 cm–3 at 298 K and 35 and 80 bar, respectively, and MOF-520 has a volumetric capacity of 162 and 231 cm3 cm–3 under the same conditions. Furthermore, MOF-519 exhibits an exceptional working capacity, being able to deliver a large amount of methane at pressures between 5 and 35 bar, 151 cm3 cm–3, and between 5 and 80 bar, 230 cm3 cm–3. PMID:24661065

  5. Micro-machined high capacity silicon load cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijze, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to improve the performance of high capacity conventional load cells or force sensors by using silicon as the base material. Silicon is used because it offers the possibility of realising small, light, low cost and high performance mechanical sensor

  6. Highly basic CaO nanoparticles in mesoporous carbon materials and their excellent catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Pradeep Kumar; Chokkalingam, Anand; Priya, Subramaniam V; Balasubramanian, Veerappan V; Benziger, Mercy R; Aldeyab, Salem S; Jayavell, Ramasamy; Ariga, Katsukiho; Vinu, Ajayan

    2012-06-01

    Highly basic CaO nanoparticles immobilized mesoporous carbon materials (CaO-CMK-3) with different pore diameters have been successfully prepared by using wet-impregnation method. The prepared materials were subjected to extensive characterization studies using sophisticated techniques such as XRD, nitrogen adsorption, HRSEM-EDX, HRTEM and temperature programmed desorption of CO2 (TPD of CO2). The physico-chemical characterization results revealed that these materials possess highly dispersed CaO nanoparticles, excellent nanopores with well-ordered structure, high specific surface area, large specific pore volume, pore diameter and very high basicity. We have also demonstrated that the basicity of the CaO-CMK-3 samples can be controlled by simply varying the amount of CaO loading and pore diameter of the carbon support. The basic catalytic performance of the samples was investigated in the base-catalyzed transesterification of ethylacetoacetate by aryl, aliphatic and cyclic primary alcohols. CMK-3 catalyst with higher CaO loading and larger pore diameter was found to be highly active with higher conversion within a very short reaction time. The activity of 30% CaO-CMK3-150 catalyst for transesterification of ethylacetoacetate using different alcohols increases in the following order: octanol > butanol > cyclohexanol > benzyl alcohol > furfuryl alcohol.

  7. Children's exercise capacity at high altitude in Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianba; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stigum, Hein; Ouzhuluobu; Bjertness, Espen

    2014-11-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (exercise capacity) is a vital parameter in the evaluation of adaptation to high altitude, providing an index of the integrated function of the oxygen transport system. Previous studies of maximal oxygen uptake in population at high altitude have mainly focused on adults and adolescents, though data on children are uncommon. Maximal oxygen uptake can be measured directly, using an oxygen analyser, or indirectly through the development of equations for estimation from the maximal power output (W(max)). Such estimations and studies of the physiological aspects of children's capacity to work and live at different altitudes in Tibet ancestry were not reported previously, although differences similar to those seen in adults may be expected to occur. The present paper summarized the findings of studies on exercise capacity among children living at high altitude in Tibet.

  8. Sulfide capacity of high alumina blast furnace slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Amitabh; Görnerup, Märten; Seetharaman, S.; Lahiri, A. K.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfide capacities of high alumina blast furnace slags were experimentally determined using the gas-slag equilibration technique. Two different slag systems were considered for the current study, namely, CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 quaternary and CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-TiO2 quinary system. The liquid slag was equilibrated with the Ar-CO-CO2-SO2 gas mixture. Experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 1773 to 1873 K. The effects of temperature, basicity, and the MgO and TiO2 contents of slags on sulfide capacity were studied. As expected, sulfide capacity was found to increase with the increase in temperature and basicity. At the higher experimental temperature, titania decreases the sulfide capacity of slag. However, at the lower temperature, there was no significant effect of titania on the sulfide capacity of slag. Sulfide capacity increases with the increase in MgO content of slag if the MgO content is more than 5 pct.

  9. Hollow Carbon Nanofiber-Encapsulated Sulfur Cathodes for High Specific Capacity Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Guangyuan

    2011-10-12

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathode for effective trapping of polysulfides and demonstrate experimentally high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling of the cells. The hollow carbon nanofiber arrays were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, through thermal carbonization of polystyrene. The AAO template also facilitates sulfur infusion into the hollow fibers and prevents sulfur from coating onto the exterior carbon wall. The high aspect ratio of the carbon nanofibers provides an ideal structure for trapping polysulfides, and the thin carbon wall allows rapid transport of lithium ions. The small dimension of these nanofibers provides a large surface area per unit mass for Li2S deposition during cycling and reduces pulverization of electrode materials due to volumetric expansion. A high specific capacity of about 730 mAh/g was observed at C/5 rate after 150 cycles of charge/discharge. The introduction of LiNO3 additive to the electrolyte was shown to improve the Coulombic efficiency to over 99% at C/5. The results show that the hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur structure could be a promising cathode design for rechargeable Li/S batteries with high specific energy. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Heat capacity measurements on high T sub c superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Oezcan, S

    1998-01-01

    temperature interval. The phase transition jump increases with the increasing of oxygen amount in the CuO sub 2 layers. The hight of the jump is varying from 1.5% to 3.5% of the total specific heat which is the nature of the bulk superconductivity. The small coherence length increases fluctuation effects and also causes the dependence of superconducting properties on structural defects. The fluctuation effects on the heat capacity of YBCO is investigated on the sample that shows clear superconducting properties. In this work, a heat capacity measurement system which has high sensitivity and reproducibility designed and constructed. The investigation of the effect of oxygen stoichiometry on the superconducting properties of high T sub c superconductors was aimed. For this purpose electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity experiment were performed. The constructed system is a computerized adiabatic calorimeter which has temperature resolution of about 0.1 mk and operates in the temperatu...

  11. High Capacity and Resistance to Additive Noise Audio Steganography Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Ismael Shahadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the art of message hiding in a cover signal without attracting attention. The requirements of the good steganography algorithm are security, capacity, robustness and imperceptibility, all them are contradictory, therefore, satisfying all together is not easy especially in audio cover signal because human auditory system (HAS has high sensitivity to audio modification. In this paper, we proposed a high capacity audio steganography algorithm with good resistance to additive noise. The proposed algorithm is based on wavelet packet transform and blocks matching. It has capacity above 35% of the input audio file size with acceptable signal to noise ratio. Also, it is resistance to additive Gaussian noise to about 25 db. Furthermore, the reconstruction of actual secret messages does not require the original cover audio signal.

  12. Incommensurate Graphene Foam as a High Capacity Lithium Intercalation Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paronyan, Tereza M.; Thapa, Arjun Kumar; Sherehiy, Andriy; Jasinski, Jacek B.; Jangam, John Samuel Dilip

    2017-01-01

    Graphite’s capacity of intercalating lithium in rechargeable batteries is limited (theoretically, 372 mAh g‑1) due to low diffusion within commensurately-stacked graphene layers. Graphene foam with highly enriched incommensurately-stacked layers was grown and applied as an active electrode in rechargeable batteries. A 93% incommensurate graphene foam demonstrated a reversible specific capacity of 1,540 mAh g‑1 with a 75% coulombic efficiency, and an 86% incommensurate sample achieves above 99% coulombic efficiency exhibiting 930 mAh g‑1 specific capacity. The structural and binding analysis of graphene show that lithium atoms highly intercalate within weakly interacting incommensurately-stacked graphene network, followed by a further flexible rearrangement of layers for a long-term stable cycling. We consider lithium intercalation model for multilayer graphene where capacity varies with N number of layers resulting LiN+1C2N stoichiometry. The effective capacity of commonly used carbon-based rechargeable batteries can be significantly improved using incommensurate graphene as an anode material.

  13. New Low-Sn Zr Cladding Alloys with Excellent Autoclave Corrosion Resistance and High Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqian Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that low-Sn Zr alloys are a good candidate to improve the corrosion resistance of Zr cladding alloys in nuclear reactors, presenting excellent corrosion resistance and high strength. The present work developed a new alloy series of Zr-0.25Sn-0.36Fe-0.11Cr-xNb (x = 0.4~1.2 wt % to investigate the effect of Nb on autoclave corrosion resistance. Alloy ingots were prepared by non-consumable arc-melting, solid-solutioned, and then rolled into thin plates with a thickness of 0.7 mm. It was found that the designed low-Sn Zr alloys exhibit excellent corrosion resistances in three out of pile autoclave environments (distilled water at 633 K/18.6 MPa, 70 ppm LiOH solution at 633 K/18.6 MPa, and superheated water steam at 673 K/10.3 MPa, as demonstrated by the fact of the Zr-0.25Sn-0.36Fe-0.11Cr-0.6Nb alloy shows a corrosion weight gain ΔG = 46.3 mg/dm2 and a tensile strength of σUTS = 461 MPa following 100 days of exposure in water steam. The strength of the low-Sn Zr alloy with a higher Nb content (x = 1.2 wt % is enhanced up to 499 MPa, comparable to that of the reference high-Sn N36 alloy (Zr-1.0Sn-1.0Nb-0.25Fe, wt %. Although the strength improvement is at a slight expense of corrosion resistance with the increase of Nb, the corrosion resistance of the high-Nb alloy with x = 1.2 (ΔG = 90.4 mg/dm2 for 100-day exposure in the water steam is still better than that of N36 (ΔG = 103.4 mg/dm2.

  14. Fabrications of High-Capacity Alpha-Ni(OH2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Hsiung Young

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Three different methods were used to produce α-Ni(OH2 with higher discharge capacities than the conventional β-Ni(OH2, specifically a batch process of co-precipitation, a continuous process of co-precipitation with a phase transformation step (initial cycling, and an overcharge at low temperature. All three methods can produce α-Ni(OH2 or α/β mixed-Ni(OH2 with capacities higher than that of conventional β-Ni(OH2 and a stable cycle performance. The second method produces a special core–shell β-Ni(OH2/α-Ni(OH2 structure with an excellent cycle stability in the flooded half-cell configuration, is innovative and also already mass-production ready. The core–shell structure has been investigated by both scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The shell portion of the particle is composed of α-Ni(OH2 nano-crystals embedded in a β-Ni(OH2 matrix, which helps to reduce the stress originating from the lattice expansion in the β-α transformation. A review on the research regarding α-Ni(OH2 is also included in the paper.

  15. Excel Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Citigroup,one of the World top 500 companies,has now settled in Excel Center,Financial Street. The opening ceremony of Excel Center and the entry ceremony of Citigroup in the center were held on March 31.Government leaders of Xicheng District,the Excel CEO and the heads of Asia-Pacific Region leaders of Citibank all participated in the ceremony.

  16. Capacity of High-Speed Powerline Communication in Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deny Hamdani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Powerline Communication (PLC Systems intents to use the mains network in vehicles for high-speed data transmission. Carrier frequencies in the range of MHz are required to establish data rates of some megabits per second. In this paper, typical reference channels extracted from channel measurements are presented and computation results of their capacities according to Shannon's theorem are presented. Furthermore, the effect of limitations of frequency range and power spectral density of transmitted signal on achievable capacity is investigated. This paper outlines an assessment for theoretical channel capacity and achievable data rates of vehicular PLC transmission schemes. Finally, EMC (Electromagnetics Compatibility constraint according to CISPR 25 (Comite International Special des Perturbations Radioelectrique - The International Special Committee on Radio Interference is deeply considered.

  17. Application of Excel in Estimating the Vertical Bearing Capacity of Pile Foundation%Excel在桩基竖向承载力估算中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤苏南

    2013-01-01

    Use Excel's strong functions of data looking for, data calculation and data processing, carry out the estimation of vertical bearing capacity of single-pile comply with the common formula, large diameter pile formula, socket-pile formula, anti-pull up pile formula, later inject mortar formula etc. only need to set up its function, formula and simple macro order, enter the stratum data and the parameter of pile foundation calculation. Specially fit for the pile foundation scheme selection for the large and complicated project with different location, different device, different pile type, different pile diameter and different pile end bearing layer, largely enhance the work efficiency.%  利用Excel强大的数据查找、计算、处理功能,只需进行Excel的函数、公式、简单宏命令设置,输入地层数据和桩基计算参数,就能按桩基的通用公式、大直径桩公式、嵌岩桩公式、抗拔桩公式、后注浆公式等,进行单桩竖向承载力估算。尤其适用于大型或复杂工程中不同工点、不同装置、不同桩型、不同桩径、不同桩端持力层等多种条件下的桩基方案比选,可以大大提高工作效率。

  18. Defining excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, B

    1993-05-01

    Excellence in the pharmacy profession, particularly pharmacy management, is defined. Several factors have a significant effect on the ability to reach a given level of excellence. The first is the economic and political climate in which pharmacists practice. Stricter controls, reduced resources, and the velocity of change all necessitate nurturing of values and a work ethic to maintain excellence. Excellence must be measured by the services provided with regard to the resources available; thus, the ability to achieve excellence is a true test of leadership and innovation. Excellence is also time dependent, and today's innovation becomes tomorrow's standard. Programs that raise the level of patient care, not those that aggrandize the profession, are the most important. In addition, basic services must be practiced at a level of excellence. Quality assessment is a way to improve care and bring medical treatment to a higher plane of excellence. For such assessment to be effective and not punitive, the philosophy of the program must be known, and the goal must be clear. Excellence in practice is dependent on factors such as political and social norms, standards of practice, available resources; perceptions, time, the motivation to progress to a higher level, and the continuous innovation required to reshape the profession to meet the needs of society.

  19. High capacity 30 K remote helium cooling loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollier, T.; Tanchon, J.; Icart, Y.; Ravex, A.

    2014-01-01

    Absolut System has built several 50 K remote helium cooling loops used as high capacity and very low vibration cooling source into large wavelength IR detectors electro-optical characterization test benches. MgB2 based superconducting electro-technical equipment's under development require also distributed high cooling power in the 20-30 K temperature range. Absolut System has designed, manufactured and tested a high capacity 30 K remote helium cooling loop. The equipment consists of a CRYOMECH AL325 type cooler, a CP830 type compressor package used as room temperature circulator and an intermediate LN2 bath cooling used between two recuperator heat exchangers (300 K-77 K and 77 K-20 K). A cooling capacity of 30 W @ 20 K or 80 W @ 30 K has been demonstrated on the application heat exchanger, with a 4-meter remote distance ensured by a specifically designed gas circulation flexible line. The design and the performance will be reported in this paper.

  20. Facile synthesis of novel tunable highly porous CuO nanorods for high rate lithium battery anodes with realized long cycle life and high reversible capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Gong, Huaxu; Wang, Caihua; Wang, Dake; Tang, Kaibin; Qian, Yitai

    2012-11-07

    Various CuO nanostructures have been well studied as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs); however, there are few reports on the synthesis of porous CuO nanostructures used for anode materials, especially one-dimensional (1D) porous CuO. In this work, novel 1D highly porous CuO nanorods with tunable porous size were synthesized in large-quantities by a new, friendly, but very simple approach. We found that the pore size could be controlled by adjusting the sintering temperature in the calcination process. With the rising of calcination temperature, the pore size of CuO has been tuned in the range of ∼0.4 nm to 22 nm. The porous CuO materials have been applied as anode materials in LIBs and the effects of porous size on the electrochemical properties were observed. The highly porous CuO nanorods with porous size in the range of ∼6 nm to 22 nm yielded excellent high specific capacity, good cycling stability, and high rate performance, superior to that of most reported CuO nanocomposites. The CuO material delivers a high reversible capacity of 654 mA h g(-1) and 93% capacity retention over 200 cycles at a rate of 0.5 C. It also exhibits excellent high rate capacity of 410 mA h g(-1) even at 6 C. These results suggest that the facile synthetic method of producing a tunable highly porous CuO nanostructure can realize a long cycle life with high reversible capacity, which is suitable for next-generation high-performance LIBs.

  1. Excellent catalytic effects of highly crumpled graphene nanosheets on hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of magnesium hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Wang, Yijing; Xu, Changchang; Qiu, Fangyuan; An, Cuihua; Li, Li; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2013-01-01

    Highly crumpled graphene nanosheets (GNS) with a BET surface area as high as 1159 m2 g-1 was fabricated by a thermal exfoliation method. A systematic investigation was performed on the hydrogen sorption properties of MgH2-5 wt% GNS nanocomposites acquired by ball-milling. It was found that the as-synthesized GNS exhibited a superior catalytic effect on hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of MgH2. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and isothermal hydrogenation/dehydrogenation measurements indicated that both hydrogen sorption capacity and dehydrogenation/hydrogenation kinetics of the composites improved with increasing milling time. The composites MgH2-GNS milled for 20 h can absorb 6.6 wt% H2 within 1 min at 300 °C and 6.3 wt% within 40 min at 200 °C, even at 150 °C, it can also absorb 6.0 wt% H2 within 180 min. It was also demonstrated that MgH2-GNS-20 h could release 6.1 wt% H2 at 300 °C within 40 min. In addition, microstructure measurements based on XRD, SEM, TEM as well as Raman spectra revealed that the grain size of thus-prepared MgH2-GNS nanocomposites decreased with increasing milling time, moreover, the graphene layers were broken into smaller graphene nanosheets in a disordered and irregular manner during milling. It was confirmed that these smaller graphene nanosheets on the composite surface, providing more edge sites and hydrogen diffusion channels, prevented the nanograins from sintering and agglomerating, thus, leading to promotion of the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics of MgH2.Highly crumpled graphene nanosheets (GNS) with a BET surface area as high as 1159 m2 g-1 was fabricated by a thermal exfoliation method. A systematic investigation was performed on the hydrogen sorption properties of MgH2-5 wt% GNS nanocomposites acquired by ball-milling. It was found that the as-synthesized GNS exhibited a superior catalytic effect on hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of MgH2. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and isothermal hydrogenation

  2. High-Temperature, High-Load-Capacity Radial Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenza, Andrew; Montague, Gerald; Kascak, Albert; Palazzolo, Alan; Jansen, Ralph; Jansen, Mark; Ebihara, Ben

    2005-01-01

    A radial heteropolar magnetic bearing capable of operating at a temperature as high as 1,000 F (=540 C) has been developed. This is a prototype of bearings for use in gas turbine engines operating at temperatures and speeds much higher than can be withstood by lubricated rolling-element bearings. It is possible to increase the maximum allowable operating temperatures and speeds of rolling-element bearings by use of cooling-air systems, sophisticated lubrication systems, and rotor-vibration- damping systems that are subsystems of the lubrication systems, but such systems and subsystems are troublesome. In contrast, a properly designed radial magnetic bearing can suspend a rotor without contact, and, hence, without need for lubrication or for cooling. Moreover, a magnetic bearing eliminates the need for a separate damping system, inasmuch as a damping function is typically an integral part of the design of the control system of a magnetic bearing. The present high-temperature radial heteropolar magnetic bearing has a unique combination of four features that contribute to its suitability for the intended application: 1. The wires in its electromagnet coils are covered with an insulating material that does not undergo dielectric breakdown at high temperature and is pliable enough to enable the winding of the wires to small radii. 2. The processes used in winding and potting of the coils yields a packing factor close to 0.7 . a relatively high value that helps in maximizing the magnetic fields generated by the coils for a given supplied current. These processes also make the coils structurally robust. 3. The electromagnets are of a modular C-core design that enables replacement of components and semiautomated winding of coils. 4. The stator is mounted in such a manner as to provide stable support under radial and axial thermal expansion and under a load as large as 1,000 lb (.4.4 kN).

  3. Learning Motivation and Performance Excellence in Adolescents with High Intellectual Potential: What Really Matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Hella; Phillipson, Shane N.

    2009-01-01

    In the development of performance excellence, the relative roles played by intellectual ability and motivation remain speculative. This study investigates the role played by general intelligence, school environment, self-efficacy, and aspects of personal identity in the formation of learning motivation in German students attending the Gymnasium…

  4. High-capacity hydrogen storage in Al-adsorbed graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Z. M.; Peeters, F. M.

    2010-05-01

    A high-capacity hydrogen storage medium—Al-adsorbed graphene—is proposed based on density-functional theory calculations. We find that a graphene layer with Al adsorbed on both sides can store hydrogen up to 13.79wt% with average adsorption energy -0.193eV/H2 . Its hydrogen storage capacity is in excess of 6wt% , surpassing U. S. Department of Energy (DOE’s) target. Based on the binding-energy criterion and molecular-dynamics calculations, we find that hydrogen storage can be recycled at near ambient conditions. This high-capacity hydrogen storage is due to the adsorbed Al atoms that act as bridges to link the electron clouds of the H2 molecules and the graphene layer. As a consequence, a two-layer arrangement of H2 molecules is formed on each side of the Al-adsorbed graphene layer. The H2 concentration in the hydrogen storage medium can be measured by the change in the conductivity of the graphene layer.

  5. Excel simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Verschuuren, Gerard M

    2013-01-01

    Covering a variety of Excel simulations, from gambling to genetics, this introduction is for people interested in modeling future events, without the cost of an expensive textbook. The simulations covered offer a fun alternative to the usual Excel topics and include situations such as roulette, password cracking, sex determination, population growth, and traffic patterns, among many others.

  6. High voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William C. (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides high capacity and high voltage Li-ion batteries that have a carbonaceous cathode and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution comprising LiF salt and an anion receptor that binds the fluoride ion. The batteries can comprise dual intercalating electrode Li ion batteries. Methods of the present invention use a cathode and electrode pair, wherein each of the electrodes reversibly intercalate ions provided by a LiF salt to make a high voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion battery. The present methods and systems provide high-capacity batteries particularly useful in powering devices where minimizing battery mass is important.

  7. High-capacity composite adsorbents for nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiainen, Peter; Rokebul Anower, M; Larsson, Per-Olof

    2011-08-05

    Cytopore™ is a bead-shaped, macroporous and easily compressible cellulose-based anion-exchange material intended for cultivation of anchor-dependent animal cells. Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) is a strong, non-compressible, high voidage (97%) matrix material that can be cut to desired geometrical shapes. Cytopore and RVC were combined to cylindrical composites (25 mm × 10 mm) fitted inside chromatography columns. The composite combined the advantageous properties of both its constituents, making it suitable for column chromatography. The composite could withstand very high flow rates without compaction of the bed (>25 column volumes/min; 4000 cm h(-1)). Chromatography runs with tracers showed a low HETP value (0.3mm), suggesting that pore flow was in operation. The dynamic binding capacities (10% breakthrough) per gram of dry weight Cytopore were determined for several compounds including DNA and RNA and were found to be 240-370 mg/g. The composite was used to isolate pUC 18-type plasmids from a cleared alkaline lysate in a good yield. Confocal microscopy studies showed that plasmids were bound not only to the surface of the Cytopore material but also within the matrix walls, thus offering an explanation to the very high binding capacities observed. The concept of using a composite prepared from a mechanically weak, high-binding material and a strong scaffold material may be applied to other systems as well.

  8. High Capacity Secure Image Steganography Based on Contourlet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoom Shahryari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an image steganography technique which embeds secret data without making explicit modifications to the image. The proposed method simultaneously provides both imperceptibility and undetectability. We decompose image by contourlet transform and determine nonsmooth regions. Embedding data in these regions cause less degradation in image quality. Contourlet sub-bands are divided into 3×3 blocks. Central coefficient of each block is considered for embedding if they belong to edgy regions. Experiments show that this method can achieve high embedding capacity while remains undetectable by Farid's universal steganalysis technique.

  9. Cycloaddition in peptides for high-capacity optical storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Brian; Berg, Rolf Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Photodimerization of chromophores attached to a short peptide chain is investigated for high-capacity optical digital storage with UV lasers. The length and rigidity of the peptide chain assure an optimal distance and orientation of the chromophores for effective photodimerization. Using a theory...... developed by Tomlinson, the absorption cross section for the dimerization process in a uracil-ornithine-based hexamer is determined to be 9 x 10(-20) cm(2). A large change in the transmission due to irradiation in the UV area may make it possible to realize multilevel storage in a thin film of the peptides....

  10. Pore structure of SWNTs with high hydrogen storage capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨全红; 刘畅; 刘敏; 樊彦贞; 成会明; 王茂章

    2002-01-01

    This paper reveals, by analyses of nitrogen cryo-adsorption isotherm, the energetic and structural heterogeneity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) which has a high hydrogen storage capacity. It was found that SWNTs had manifold pore structures and distributed surface energy. By comparison of the pore structures and energy distributions of SWNTs before and after hydrogen adsorption, it is preliminarily indicated that hydrogen adsorption occurred in micropores and mesopores with smaller diameter, and that the pores of different diameters determined different hydrogen adsorption processes and underwent different structure changes during hydrogen adsorption.

  11. University Rankings in Action? The Importance of Rankings and an Excellence Competition for University Choice of High-Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstschraer, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes how high-ability students respond to different indicators of university quality when applying for a university. Are prospective students influenced by quality indicators of a university ranking or by an excellence status awarded within a nationwide competition? And if so, are some quality dimensions, e.g. research reputation,…

  12. High-capacity quantum Fibonacci coding for key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, David S.; Lawrence, Nate; Trevino, Jacob; Dal Negro, Luca; Sergienko, Alexander V.

    2013-03-01

    Quantum cryptography and quantum key distribution (QKD) have been the most successful applications of quantum information processing, highlighting the unique capability of quantum mechanics, through the no-cloning theorem, to securely share encryption keys between two parties. Here, we present an approach to high-capacity, high-efficiency QKD by exploiting cross-disciplinary ideas from quantum information theory and the theory of light scattering of aperiodic photonic media. We propose a unique type of entangled-photon source, as well as a physical mechanism for efficiently sharing keys. The key-sharing protocol combines entanglement with the mathematical properties of a recursive sequence to allow a realization of the physical conditions necessary for implementation of the no-cloning principle for QKD, while the source produces entangled photons whose orbital angular momenta (OAM) are in a superposition of Fibonacci numbers. The source is used to implement a particular physical realization of the protocol by randomly encoding the Fibonacci sequence onto entangled OAM states, allowing secure generation of long keys from few photons. Unlike in polarization-based protocols, reference frame alignment is unnecessary, while the required experimental setup is simpler than other OAM-based protocols capable of achieving the same capacity and its complexity grows less rapidly with increasing range of OAM used.

  13. Macro-mesoporous hollow carbon spheres as anodes for lithium-ion batteries with high rate capability and excellent cycling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xinyang; Sun, Wang; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Fang; Yang, Yuxiang; Lu, Chengyi; Wang, Zhenhua; Rooney, David; Sun, Kening

    2016-11-01

    In this work, nanostructured macro-mesoporous hollow carbon spheres (MMHCSs) with high surface areas (396 m2 g-1) were synthesized as anode materials via a facile template-based method. A macroporous structure was created on the surfaces of the mesoporous hollow carbon spheres without destroying their spherical structure by etching in 20% HF. The unique nanostructure (imperfect hollow spheres) and the beneficial characteristics of amorphous carbon gave the MMHCSs a high reversible capacity of 530 mAh g-1 at 2.5 A g-1 over 1000 cycles. Remarkably, the MMHCSs retained an excellent rate capability of 180 mAh g-1 at 60 A g-1, which was superior to that of perfectly structured mesoporous hollow carbon spheres (without macropore (MHCSs)).

  14. Excel Dashboards & Reports

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The go to resource for how to use Excel dashboards and reports to better conceptualize data. Many Excel books do an adequate job of discussing the individual functions and tools that can be used to create an "Excel Report." What they don't offer is the most effective ways to present and report data. Offering a comprehensive review of a wide array of technical and analytical concepts, Excel Reports and Dashboards helps Excel users go from reporting data with simple tables full of dull numbers, to presenting key information through the use of high-impact, meaningful reports and dashboards that w

  15. Excel 2010 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Abbott

    2011-01-01

    Get the most out of Excel 2010 with Excel 2010 Made Simple - learn the key features, understand what's new, and utilize dozens of time-saving tips and tricks to get your job done. Over 500 screen visuals and clear-cut instructions guide you through the features of Excel 2010, from formulas and charts to navigating around a worksheet and understanding Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and macros. Excel 2010 Made Simple takes a practical and highly effective approach to using Excel 2010, showing you the best way to complete your most common spreadsheet tasks. You'll learn how to input, format,

  16. When high-capacity readers slow down and low-capacity readers speed up: Working memory and locality effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eNicenboim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German, while taking into account readers’ working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008 and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slow-down produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005. Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions.

  17. Capacity analysis for high-speed terahertz wireless communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    We report on the analytical capacity analysis of terahertz wireless communications supporting 275–325 GHz frequency band. Our goal in this paper is to provide design guidelines for close proximity links with transmission capacity beyond 100 Gbit/s.......We report on the analytical capacity analysis of terahertz wireless communications supporting 275–325 GHz frequency band. Our goal in this paper is to provide design guidelines for close proximity links with transmission capacity beyond 100 Gbit/s....

  18. High Capacity data hiding using LSB Steganography and Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Ahmed Laskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The network provides a method of communication to distribute information to the masses. With the growthof data communication over computer network, the security of information has become a major issue.Steganography and cryptography are two different data hiding techniques. Steganography hides messagesinside some other digital media. Cryptography, on the other hand obscures the content of the message. Wepropose a high capacity data embedding approach by the combination of Steganography andcryptography. In the process a message is first encrypted using transposition cipher method and then theencrypted message is embedded inside an image using LSB insertion method. The combination of these twomethods will enhance the security of the data embedded. This combinational methodology will satisfy therequirements such as capacity, security and robustness for secure data transmission over an open channel.A comparative analysis is made to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by computingMean square error (MSE and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR. We analyzed the data hiding techniqueusing the image performance parameters like Entropy, Mean and Standard Deviation. The stego imagesare tested by transmitting them and the embedded data are successfully extracted by the receiver. The mainobjective in this paper is to provide resistance against visual and statistical attacks as well as highcapacity.

  19. High-Capacity Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and multifunctional operation. This paper describes a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) that has been designed to meet performance requirements for future life support systems. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. We have built and tested a flight-like, high-capacity LCAR, demonstrated its performance in thermal vacuum tests, and explored the feasibility of an ISS demonstration test of a SEAR system. The new LCAR design provides the same cooling capability as prior LCAR prototypes while enabling over 30% more heat absorbing capacity. Studies show that it should be feasible to demonstrate SEAR operation in flight by coupling with an existing EMU on the space station.

  20. Mesoporous Silicon-Based Anodes for High Capacity, High Performance Li-ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new high capacity anode composite based on mesoporous silicon is proposed. By virtue of a structure that resembles a pseudo one-dimensional phase, the active...

  1. Mesoporous Silicon-Based Anodes for High Capacity, High Performance Li-ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new high capacity anode composite based on mesoporous silicon is proposed. By virtue of a structure that resembles a pseudo one-dimensional phase, the active anode...

  2. Why Excel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    This article is not the usual Excel pedagogy fare in that it does not provide an application or example taught via a spreadsheet. Instead, it briefly reviews the history of spreadsheets in the economics classroom and explores the current environment, with an emphasis on modern learning theory. The conclusion is not surprising: spreadsheets improve…

  3. Sourcing Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2011-01-01

    Sourcing Excellence is one of the key performance indicators (KPIs) in this world of ever changing sourcing strategies. Manufacturing companies need to access and diagnose the reliability and competencies of existing suppliers in order to coordinate and develop them. This would help in managing...

  4. Hydrophilic carbon clusters as therapeutic, high capacity antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Errol L. G.; Duong, MyLinh T.; Bitner, Brittany R.; Marcano, Daniela C.; Tour, James M.; Kent, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress reflects an excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is a hallmark of several acute and chronic human pathologies. While many antioxidants have been investigated, the majority have demonstrated poor efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we discuss limitations of current antioxidants and describe a new class of nanoparticle antioxidants, poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized hydrophilic carbon clusters (PEG-HCCs). PEG-HCCs show high capacity to annihilate ROS such as superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, show no reactivity toward nitric oxide, and can be functionalized with targeting moieties without loss of activity. Given these properties, we propose that PEG-HCCs offer an exciting new area of study for treatment of numerous ROS-induced human pathologies. PMID:25175886

  5. Design optimization of cast Cu-Al-Be-B alloys for high clamping capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigated high-damping Cu-Al-Be-B cast alloys using metallographic analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrical resistance measurements for transformation temperatures. The results showed that beryllium can stabilize β phase, resulting in a thermo-elastic martensite microstructure leading to high-damping capacity in cast Cu-Al-BeB alloys. Trace additions of boron to Cu-Al-Be alloys can significantly refine the grains, providing high strength and ductility to the alloys. A factorial design of experiment method was used to optimize the composition and properties of cast Cu-Al-BeB alloys. The optimal microstructure for thermo-elastic martensite can be obtained by adjusting the amounts of aluminum and beryllium to eutectoid or pseudo-eutectoid compositions. An optimized cast Cu-Al-Be-B alloy was developed to provide excellent mechanical properties, tensile strength σb = 767 MPa, elongation δ = 7.62 %, and damping capacity S. D.C =18.70%.

  6. [High intellectual capacity, problem-solving and creativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia; Pascual-Sufrate, M Teresa

    2013-02-22

    The aim of the study is focused on the characteristics and components of creativity as a multidimensional construct in the context of intelligence, divergent thinking and problem solving, and their incorporation into the definition and explanation of intellectual functioning of giftedness and talent. It shows the progress of the investigation from the initial postulates of Guilford about the nature and cognitive processes involved in the creative act, its features and components, development and differential expression in the high intellectual ability, and the neurological correlates neuropsychological research is beginning to show. We present the results obtained with 41 participants with high intellectual capacity profiles of giftedness or talent of 6 to 14 years. We measure their cognitive skills through BADyG or DAT tests, and creative skills by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), in two measuring points. Analyses show comparatively among high ability profiles: 1) the creative measurement stability between the two time points, 2) statistically significant differences between the creative components of fluency, flexibility and originality, related to the profiles of giftedness or talent (convergent or divergent), 3) the statistically significant changes among the scores of the creative components, at all ages studied.

  7. Optimal Capacity Conversion for Product Transitions Under High Service Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hongmin; Graves, Stephen C.; Huh, Woonghee Tim

    2012-01-01

    We consider the capacity planning problem during a product transition in which demand for a new-generation product gradually replaces that for the old product. Capacity for the new product can be acquired both by purchasing new production lines and by converting existing production lines for the old product. Furthermore, in either case, the new product capacity is “retrofitted” to be flexible, i.e., to be able to also produce the old product. This capacity planning problem arises regularly at...

  8. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p temperature compared to rats born with low exercise capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs.

  9. High-capacity conductive nanocellulose paper sheets for electrochemically controlled extraction of DNA oligomers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Razaq

    Full Text Available Highly porous polypyrrole (PPy-nanocellulose paper sheets have been evaluated as inexpensive and disposable electrochemically controlled three-dimensional solid phase extraction materials. The composites, which had a total anion exchange capacity of about 1.1 mol kg(-1, were used for extraction and subsequent release of negatively charged fluorophore tagged DNA oligomers via galvanostatic oxidation and reduction of a 30-50 nm conformal PPy layer on the cellulose substrate. The ion exchange capacity, which was, at least, two orders of magnitude higher than those previously reached in electrochemically controlled extraction, originated from the high surface area (i.e. 80 m(2 g(-1 of the porous composites and the thin PPy layer which ensured excellent access to the ion exchange material. This enabled the extractions to be carried out faster and with better control of the PPy charge than with previously employed approaches. Experiments in equimolar mixtures of (dT(6, (dT(20, and (dT(40 DNA oligomers showed that all oligomers could be extracted, and that the smallest oligomer was preferentially released with an efficiency of up to 40% during the reduction of the PPy layer. These results indicate that the present material is very promising for the development of inexpensive and efficient electrochemically controlled ion-exchange membranes for batch-wise extraction of biomolecules.

  10. High-Capacity Conductive Nanocellulose Paper Sheets for Electrochemically Controlled Extraction of DNA Oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaq, Aamir; Nyström, Gustav; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert; Nyholm, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Highly porous polypyrrole (PPy)-nanocellulose paper sheets have been evaluated as inexpensive and disposable electrochemically controlled three-dimensional solid phase extraction materials. The composites, which had a total anion exchange capacity of about 1.1 mol kg−1, were used for extraction and subsequent release of negatively charged fluorophore tagged DNA oligomers via galvanostatic oxidation and reduction of a 30–50 nm conformal PPy layer on the cellulose substrate. The ion exchange capacity, which was, at least, two orders of magnitude higher than those previously reached in electrochemically controlled extraction, originated from the high surface area (i.e. 80 m2 g−1) of the porous composites and the thin PPy layer which ensured excellent access to the ion exchange material. This enabled the extractions to be carried out faster and with better control of the PPy charge than with previously employed approaches. Experiments in equimolar mixtures of (dT)6, (dT)20, and (dT)40 DNA oligomers showed that all oligomers could be extracted, and that the smallest oligomer was preferentially released with an efficiency of up to 40% during the reduction of the PPy layer. These results indicate that the present material is very promising for the development of inexpensive and efficient electrochemically controlled ion-exchange membranes for batch-wise extraction of biomolecules. PMID:22195031

  11. A Novel TiNi/AlSi Composite with High Strength and High Damping Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuwei LIU; Xiuyan LI; Desheng YAN; Haichang JIANG; Lijian RONG

    2008-01-01

    A novel TiNi/AlSi composite with high compressive strength and high damping capacity was obtained by infiltrating Al-12%Si alloy into porous TiNi alloy.It had been found that the high compressive strength (440 MPa) of TiNi/AlSi composite is due to the increase of effective carrying area after infiltrating Al-12%Si alloy,while the high damping capacity is contributed to TiNi carcass,Al-12%Si filling material and micro-slipping at the interface.

  12. Surface and bulk modified high capacity layered oxide cathodes with low irreversible capacity loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthiram, Arumugam (Inventor); Wu, Yan (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention includes compositions, surface and bulk modifications, and methods of making of (1-x)Li[Li.sub.1/3Mn.sub.2/3]O.sub.2.xLi[Mn.sub.0.5-yNi.sub.0.5-yCo.sub.2- y]O.sub.2 cathode materials having an O3 crystal structure with a x value between 0 and 1 and y value between 0 and 0.5, reducing the irreversible capacity loss in the first cycle by surface modification with oxides and bulk modification with cationic and anionic substitutions, and increasing the reversible capacity to close to the theoretical value of insertion/extraction of one lithium per transition metal ion (250-300 mAh/g).

  13. Managing for Excellence in Urban High Schools: District and School Roles. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.; White, J. Lynne

    This 3-year study attempted to identify school and district management practices that produce exemplary urban high schools. Information was gathered from 40 high schools with the following characteristics: (1) offering a comprehensive curriculum with no examination requirements; (2) located in one of the 166 largest and densest central cities; and…

  14. [A failed improvement in pulmonary function and exercise capacity with carvedilol in congestive heart failure despite an excellent effect on left ventricular function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzi, M; Pontone, G; Trevisi, N; Lomanto, M; Matturri, M; Agostoni, P

    1998-02-01

    This study was aimed at investigating in chronic heart failure (CHF) the effects that beta-blockade with carvedilol may have on lung function, and their relationship with left ventricular (LV) performance and peak exercise oxygen uptake (VO2p). CHF causes disturbances in ventilation and pulmonary gas transfer (stress failure of alveolar-capillary membrane) that participate in limiting VO2p. Carvedilol improves LV function and not VO2p. Twenty-one NYHA functional class II-III patients were randomized (2 to 1) to carvedilol (25 mg bid., 14 patients) or placebo (7 patients) for 6 months. Rest forced expiratory volume (FEV1), vital capacity (VC), total lung capacity (TLC), carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO), its alveolar-capillary membrane component (DM), pulmonary venous and transmitral flows (for monitoring changes in LV end-diastolic pressure, EDP), LV diastolic (EDD) and systolic (ESD) dimensions, stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), fiber shortening velocity (VCF) were measured at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. VO2p, peak ratio of dead space to tidal volume (VD/VTp), ventilatory equivalent for CO2 production (VE/VCO2), VO2 at anaerobic threshold (VO2at) were also determined. FEV1, VC, TLC, DLCO, DM were impaired in CHF compared to 14 volunteers, and did not vary with treatment. Carvedilol reduced EDP, EDD, ESD, and increased EF, SV, VCF, without affecting VO2p, VO2at, VD/VTp, VE/VCO2, at 3 and 6 months. Placebo was ineffective. In CHF, carvedilol exerts neutral effects on ventilation and pulmonary gas transfer and ameliorates LV function at rest. This proves that antifailure treatment may not be similarly effective on cardiac and pulmonary function; and does not contradict the possibility that persistence of lung impairment may contribute to lack of improvement in exercise performance with carvedilol.

  15. Tracking inhomogeneity in high-capacity lithium iron phosphate batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, William A.; Zhong, Zhong; Tsakalakos, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) is one of the few techniques that can internally probe a sealed battery under operating conditions. In this paper, we use EDXRD with ultrahigh energy synchrotron radiation to track inhomogeneity in a cycled high-capacity lithium iron phosphate cell under in-situ and operando conditions. A sequence of depth-profile x-ray diffraction spectra are collected with 40 μm resolution as the cell is discharged. Additionally, nine different locations of the cell are tracked independently throughout a second discharge process. In each case, a two-peak reference intensity ratio analysis (RIR) was used on the LiFePO4 311 and the FePO4 020 reflections to estimate the relative phase abundance of the lithiated and non-lithiated phases. The data provide a first-time look at the dynamics of electrochemical inhomogeneity in a real-world battery. We observe a strong correlation between inhomogeneity and overpotential in the galvanic response of the cell. Additionally, the data closely follow the behavior that is predicted by the resistive-reactant model originally proposed by Thomas-Alyea. Despite a non-linear response in the independently measured locations, the behavior of the ensemble is strikingly linear. This suggests that effects of inhomogeneity can be elusive and highlights the power of the EDXRD technique.

  16. Space qualification of high capacity grooved heat pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, M.; Mullender, B.; Druart, J. [SABCA, Societe Anomyme Belgel de Construction Aeronautique (Belgium); Supper, W.; Beddows, A. [ESTEC-The (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    Based on the thermal requirements of the future telecommunication satellites, the development of a High Capacity Grooved Heat Pipe (HPG), was contracted by ESA to SABCA leading to an aluminium extruded heat pipe (outer diameter of 25 mm) based on a multi re-entrant grooves design. After an intensive acceptance test campaign whose results showed a good confidence in the design and the fulfillment of the required specifications of heat transport and on tilt capability (experimental maximum heat transport capability of 1500 Watt metres for a vapour temperature of 20 deg C), similar heat pipes have been developed with various outer diameters (11 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm) and with various shapes (circular outer shapes, integrated saddles). Several of these heat pipes were tested during two parabolic flight campaigns, by varying the heat loads during the micro-gravity periods. This HGP heat pipe family is now being submitted to a space qualification program according to ESA standards (ESA PSS-49), both in straight and bent configuration. Within this qualification, the heat pipes are submitted to an extended test campaign including environmental (random/sinus vibration, constant acceleration) and thermal tests (thermal performance, thermal cycle, thermal soak, ageing). (authors) 9 refs.

  17. Late-maturing cooking rice Sensyuraku has excellent properties, equivalent to sake rice, for high-quality sake brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzawa, Yoshihiko; Satoh, Kenji; Satoh, Yuko; Ohno, Satomi; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Katsumata, Kazuaki; Kume, Kazunori; Watanabe, Ken-Ichi; Mizunuma, Masaki; Hirata, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Low protein content and sufficient grain rigidity are desired properties for the rice used in high-quality sake brewing such as Daiginjo-shu (polishing ratio of the rice, less than 50%). Two kinds of rice, sake rice (SR) and cooking rice (CR), have been used for sake brewing. Compared with those of SR, analyses of CR for high-quality sake brewing using highly polished rice have been limited. Here we described the original screening of late-maturing CR Sensyuraku (SEN) as rice with low protein content and characterization of its properties for high-quality sake brewing. The protein content of SEN was lower than those of SR Gohyakumangoku (GOM) and CR Yukinosei (YUK), and its grain rigidity was higher than that of GOM. The excellent properties of SEN with respect to both water-adsorption and enzyme digestibility were confirmed using a Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA). Further, we confirmed a clear taste of sake produced from SEN by sensory evaluation. Thus, SEN has excellent properties, equivalent to those of SR, for high-quality sake brewing.

  18. Design of high-capacity fiber-optic transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhi Ming

    2001-08-01

    We study the design of fiber-optic transport systems and the behavior of fiber amplifiers/lasers with the aim of achieving higher capacities with larger amplifier spacing. Solitons are natural candidates for transmitting short pulses for high-capacity fiber-optic networks because of its innate ability to use two of fiber's main defects, fiber dispersion and fiber nonlinearity to balance each other. In order for solitons to retain its dynamic nature, amplifiers must be placed periodically to restore powers to compensate for fiber loss. Variational analysis is used to study the long-term stability of a periodical- amplifier system. A new regime of operation is identified which allows the use of a much longer amplifier spacing. If optical fibers are the blood vessels of an optical communication system, then the optical amplifier based on erbium-doped fiber is the heart. Optical communication systems can avoid the use of costly electrical regenerators to maintain system performance by being able to optically amplify the weakened signals. The length of amplifier spacing is largely determined by the gain excursion experienced by the solitons. We propose, model, and demonstrate a distributed erbium-doped fiber amplifier which can drastically reduce the amount of gain excursion experienced by the solitons, therefore allowing a much longer amplifier spacing and superior stability. Dispersion management techniques have become extremely valuable tools in the design of fiber-optic communication systems. We have studied in depth the advantage of different arnplification schemes (lumped and distributed) for various dispersion compensation techniques. We measure the system performance through the Q factor to evaluate the added advantage of effective noise figure and smaller gain excursion. An erbium-doped fiber laser has been constructed and characterized in an effort to develop a test bed to study transmission systems. The presence of mode-partition noise in an erbium

  19. High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) Mg-Zn-Ca Alloys with Excellent Biodegradation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, J.; Becker, M.; Martinelli, E.; Weinberg, A. M.; Mingler, B.; Kilian, H.; Pogatscher, S.; Uggowitzer, P. J.; Löffler, J. F.

    2014-04-01

    This article deals with the development of fine-grained high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) magnesium alloys intended for use as biodegradable implant material. The alloys contain solely low amounts of Zn and Ca as alloying elements. We illustrate the development path starting from the high-Zn-containing ZX50 (MgZn5Ca0.25) alloy with conventional purity, to an ultrahigh-purity ZX50 modification, and further to the ultrahigh-purity Zn-lean alloy ZX10 (MgZn1Ca0.3). It is shown that alloys with high Zn-content are prone to biocorrosion in various environments, most probably because of the presence of the intermetallic phase Mg6Zn3Ca2. A reduction of the Zn content results in (Mg,Zn)2Ca phase formation. This phase is less noble than the Mg-matrix and therefore, in contrast to Mg6Zn3Ca2, does not act as cathodic site. A fine-grained microstructure is achieved by the controlled formation of fine and homogeneously distributed (Mg,Zn)2Ca precipitates, which influence dynamic recrystallization and grain growth during hot forming. Such design scheme is comparable to that of HSLA steels, where low amounts of alloying elements are intended to produce a very fine dispersion of particles to increase the material's strength by refining the grain size. Consequently our new, ultrapure ZX10 alloy exhibits high strength (yield strength R p = 240 MPa, ultimate tensile strength R m = 255 MPa) and simultaneously high ductility (elongation to fracture A = 27%), as well as low mechanical anisotropy. Because of the anodic nature of the (Mg,Zn)2Ca particles used in the HSLA concept, the in vivo degradation in a rat femur implantation study is very slow and homogeneous without clinically observable hydrogen evolution, making the ZX10 alloy a promising material for biodegradable implants.

  20. Sourcing Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2011-01-01

    Sourcing Excellence is one of the key performance indicators (KPIs) in this world of ever changing sourcing strategies. Manufacturing companies need to access and diagnose the reliability and competencies of existing suppliers in order to coordinate and develop them. This would help in managing...... in manufacturing companies. In addition, an advanced approach to sourcing involves integrating and coordinating suppliers, common materials, processes, designs and technologies across worldwide buying, design and operating locations. However, since most manufacturing companies do not have well-developed suppliers...... for global sourcing strategies in place, improvement opportunities in this area are attractive and as yet largely unrealized. Shifting from a narrow, cost-reduction emphasis with suppliers to an emphasis on globally integrated and coordinated sourcing strategies with well-developed suppliers would improve...

  1. A distillation tray with high efficiency and excellent operating flexibility for viscous mixture separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow-guided sieve-valve tray(FGS-VTwith high efficiency was designed to overcome the shortcoming of low operating flexibility of the flow-guided sieve tray. Its dimensions and geometry, as well as structure characteristics, were presented. The hydrodynamics and mass transfer performance, including dry-plate pressure drop, wet plate-pressure drop, weeping, entrainment and tray efficiency, of two types of FGS-VTs (FGS-VTs with 14 and 8 valves, respectively and one flow-guided sieve tray were tested in an air-water-oxygen cold model experiment with a 0.6 m diameter plexiglass column. The results demonstrate that FGS-VT with 14 valves works better than FGS-VT with 8 valves, and in comparison with the flow-guided sieve tray, the flow-guided sieve-valve tray with 14 valves has higher tray efficiency, bigger operating flexibility, and lower wet-plate pressure drop (when all the valves are opened fully.Additionally, two typical applications to separate the mixture with high viscosity, solid, powder, easy-to-foam or easy self-polymerization components proved the unique advantages of FGS-VT.

  2. Holographic imaging of crowded fields: high angular resolution imaging with excellent quality at very low cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schödel, R.; Yelda, S.; Ghez, A.; Girard, J. H.; Labadie, L.; Rebolo, R.; Pérez-Garrido, A.; Morris, M. R.

    2013-02-01

    We present a method for speckle holography that is optimized for crowded fields. Its two key features are an iterative improvement of the instantaneous point spread functions (PSFs) extracted from each speckle frame and the (optional) simultaneous use of multiple reference stars. In this way, high signal-to-noise ratio and accuracy can be achieved on the PSF for each short exposure, which results in sensitive, high-Strehl reconstructed images. We have tested our method with different instruments, on a range of targets, and from the N[10 μm] to the I[0.9 μm] band. In terms of PSF cosmetics, stability and Strehl ratio, holographic imaging can be equal, and even superior, to the capabilities of currently available adaptive optics (AO) systems, particularly at short near-infrared to optical wavelengths. It outperforms lucky imaging because it makes use of the entire PSF and reduces the need for frame selection, thus, leading to higher Strehl and improved sensitivity. Image reconstruction a posteriori, the possibility to use multiple reference stars and the fact that these reference stars can be rather faint means that holographic imaging offers a simple way to image large, dense stellar fields near the diffraction limit of large telescopes, similar to, but much less technologically demanding than, the capabilities of a multiconjugate AO system. The method can be used with a large range of already existing imaging instruments and can also be combined with AO imaging when the corrected PSF is unstable.

  3. Optical signal processing for enabling high-speed, highly spectrally efficient and high capacity optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Muhammad Irfan

    The unabated demand for more capacity due to the ever-increasing internet traffic dictates that the boundaries of the state of the art maybe pushed to send more data through the network. Traditionally, this need has been satisfied by multiple wavelengths (wavelength division multiplexing), higher order modulation formats and coherent communication (either individually or combined together). WDM has the ability to reduce cost by using multiple channels within the same physical fiber, and with EDFA amplifiers, the need for O-E-O regenerators is eliminated. Moreover the availability of multiple colors allows for wavelength-based routing and network planning. Higher order modulation formats increases the capacity of the link by their ability to encode data in both the phase and amplitude of light, thereby increasing the bits/sec/Hz as compared to simple on-off keyed format. Coherent communications has also emerged as a primary means of transmitting and receiving optical data due to its support of formats that utilize both phase and amplitude to further increase the spectral efficiency of the optical channel, including quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK). Polarization multiplexing of channels can double capacity by allowing two channels to share the same wavelength by propagating on orthogonal polarization axis and is easily supported in coherent systems where the polarization tracking can be performed in the digital domain. Furthermore, the forthcoming IEEE 100 Gbit/s Ethernet Standard, 802.3ba, provides greater bandwidth, higher data rates, and supports a mixture of modulation formats. In particular, Pol-MUX QPSK is increasingly becoming the industry's format of choice as the high spectral efficiency allows for 100 Gbit/s transmission while still occupying the current 50 GHz/channel allocation of current 10 Gbit/s OOK fiber systems. In this manner, 100 Gbit/s transfer speeds using current fiber links, amplifiers, and filters

  4. High-Capacity and Self-Stabilized Manganese Carbonate Microspheres as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Wang, Shiyao; Wang, Yafei; Meng, Wen; Deng, Bohua; Qu, Deyu; Xie, Zhizhong; Liu, Jinping

    2016-09-28

    Manganese carbonate (MnCO3) is an attractive anode material with high capacity based on conversion reaction for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but its application is mainly hindered by poor cycling performance. Building nanostructures/porous structures and nanocomposites has been demonstrated as an effective strategy to buffer the volume changes and maintain the electrode integrity for long-term cycling. It is widely believed that microsized MnCO3 is not suitable for use as anode material for LIBs because of its poor conductivity and the absence of nanostructure. Herein, different from previous reports, spherical MnCO3 with the mean diameters of 6.9 μm (MnCO3-B), 4.0 μm (MnCO3-M), and 2.6 μm (MnCO3-S) were prepared via controllable precipitation and utilized as anode materials for LIBs. It is interesting that the as-prepared MnCO3 microspheres demonstrate both high capacity and excellent cycling performance comparable to their reported nanosized counterparts. MnCO3-B, MnCO3-M, and MnCO3-S deliver reversible specific capacities of 487.3, 573.9, and 656.8 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles, respectively. All the MnCO3 microspheres show capacity retention more than 90% after the initial stage. The advantages of MnCO3 microspheres were investigated via constant-current charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicate that there should be substantial structure transformation from microsized particle to self-stabilized nanostructured matrix for MnCO3 at the initial charge/discharge stage. The evolution of EIS during charge/discharge clearly indicates the formation and stabilization of the nanostructured matrix. The self-stabilized porous matrix maintains the electrode structure to deliver excellent cycling performance, and contributes extra capacity beyond conversion reaction.

  5. Free-space optical communications with peak and average constraints: High SNR capacity approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2015-09-07

    The capacity of the intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM-DD) free-space optical channel with both average and peak intensity constraints is studied. A new capacity lower bound is derived by using a truncated-Gaussian input distribution. Numerical evaluation shows that this capacity lower bound is nearly tight at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), while it is shown analytically that the gap to capacity upper bounds is a small constant at high SNR. In particular, the gap to the high-SNR asymptotic capacity of the channel under either a peak or an average constraint is small. This leads to a simple approximation of the high SNR capacity. Additionally, a new capacity upper bound is derived using sphere-packing arguments. This bound is tight at high SNR for a channel with a dominant peak constraint.

  6. High-powered conveyor systems: long distance, downhill, open-pit, and high capacity conveyors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelzer, H.K.

    1978-01-01

    Paper indicates the conditions under which belt conveyors are superior to other forms of transport, the limitations of these conveyors. Long distance, downhill, open-pit and high capacity conveyor installations are described, including a 60-mile long conveyor in the Sahara.

  7. High reversible capacity of SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian Peichao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, No. 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhu Xuefeng [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Liang Shuzhao; Li Zhong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, No. 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang Weishen [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Wang Haihui, E-mail: hhwang@scut.edu.c [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, No. 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-04-30

    Highlights: {yields} Gas-liquid interfacial reaction was used to prepare SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite. {yields} SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite as an anode for lithium-ion batteries. {yields} It exhibited high reversible specific capacity and excellent cycle capability. {yields} Graphene sheets can improve the cycling performance and reverible capacity of SnO{sub 2}. - Abstract: A gas-liquid interfacial synthesis approach has been developed to prepare SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite. The as-prepared nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observation revealed the homogeneous distribution of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles (2-6 nm in size) on graphene matrix. The electrochemical performances were evaluated by using coin-type cells versus metallic lithium. The SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite prepared by the gas-liquid interface reaction exhibits a high reversible specific capacity of 1304 mAh g{sup -1} at a current density of 100 mA g{sup -1} and excellent rate capability, even at a high current density of 1000 mA g{sup -1}, the reversible capacity was still as high as 748 mAh g{sup -1}. The electrochemical test results show that the SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite prepared by the gas-liquid interfacial synthesis approach is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  8. High Working Memory Capacity Predicts Less Retrieval Induced Forgetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mall, Jonathan T.; Morey, Candice C.

    2013-01-01

    Background : Working Memory Capacity (WMC) is thought to be related to executive control and focused memory search abilities. These two hypotheses make contrasting predictions regarding the effects of retrieval on forgetting. Executive control during memory retrieval is believed to lead to retrieval

  9. On the High Altitude Platform (HAP W-CDMA System Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de Haro-Ariet

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a downlink power control model, based on a n-thpower distance law, is evaluated for high altitude platform station(HAPS W-CDMA systems. The downlink capacity using this model iscompared with the uplink capacity. It is shown that the uplink capacityis higher than the downlink capacity.

  10. Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoplatelets with Excellent Tribological Properties under High Contact Pressure as Water-Based Lubricant Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongdong; Liu, Yuhong; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Bibo; Xu, Sailong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-03-01

    High efficient and sustainable utilization of water-based lubricant is essential for saving energy. In this paper, a kind of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets is synthesized and well dispersed in water due to the surface modification with oleylamine. The excellent tribological properties of the oleylamine-modified Ni-Al LDH (NiAl-LDH/OAm) nanoplatelets as water-based lubricant additives are evaluated by the tribological tests in an aqueous environment. The modified LDH nanoplatelets are found to not only reduce the friction but also enhance the wear resistance, compared with the water-based cutting fluid and lubricants containing other particle additives. By adding 0.5 wt% LDH nanoplatelets, under 1.5 GPa initial contact pressure, the friction coefficient, scar diameter, depth and width of the wear track dramatically decrease by 83.1%, 43.2%, 88.5% and 59.5%, respectively. It is considered that the sufficiently small size and the excellent dispersion of NiAl-LDH/OAm nanoplatelets in water are the key factors, so as to make them enter the contact area, form a lubricating film and prevent direct collision of asperity peaks. Our investigations demonstrate that the LDH nanoplatelet as a water-based lubricant additive has a great potential value in industrial application.

  11. A Novel and High Capacity Audio Steganography Algorithm Based on Adaptive Data Embedding Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Ismael Shahadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel and high embedding capacity audio steganography scheme based on Lifting Wavelet Transform (LWT and adaptive embedding positions is proposed. Specifically, the message data is inserted in the imperceptible positions that chosen from the coefficients of detail sub-bands taking advantage of our proposed Weighted Block Matching (WBM. The WBM is preceded by preparing the cover audio in order to select the bits-positions that can possibly be used for embedding from each detail coefficient based on coefficient amplitude then copy the contents of the selected bits-positions and arrange them in blocks of bits. Also, the message data is arranged in blocks of bits after preprocessed and encrypted. The WBM computes the matching between each message block and whole extracted cover blocks to find the similarity between them. This process help to provide optimal locations to hide the message blocks. These locations are considered as a stego-key that is ciphered and hided within the final detail sub-band which is specified for this purpose. The proposed approach attains higher security than other fixed embedding positions approaches because the random positions for the embedded message blocks based on adaptive selection for embedding positions. Experimental results show that the proposed technique is not only has very high embedding capacity (exceed 300 kbps with excellent transparency (above 35 dB for the cover to noise ratio, but also achieve lossless massage retrieved. Comparisons with the related audio steganography algorithms also show that our proposed scheme outperforms all the selected algorithms.

  12. High-capacity, low-tortuosity, and channel-guided lithium metal anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Luo, Wei; Wang, Chengwei; Li, Yiju; Chen, Chaoji; Song, Jianwei; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Emily M.; Xu, Shaomao; Yang, Chunpeng; Wang, Yanbin; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-04-01

    Lithium metal anode with the highest capacity and lowest anode potential is extremely attractive to battery technologies, but infinite volume change during the Li stripping/plating process results in cracks and fractures of the solid electrolyte interphase, low Coulombic efficiency, and dendritic growth of Li. Here, we use a carbonized wood (C-wood) as a 3D, highly porous (73% porosity) conductive framework with well-aligned channels as Li host material. We discovered that molten Li metal can infuse into the straight channels of C-wood to form a Li/C-wood electrode after surface treatment. The C-wood channels function as excellent guides in which the Li stripping/plating process can take place and effectively confine the volume change that occurs. Moreover, the local current density can be minimized due to the 3D C-wood framework. Therefore, in symmetric cells, the as-prepared Li/C-wood electrode presents a lower overpotential (90 mV at 3 mAṡcm-2), more-stable stripping/plating profiles, and better cycling performance (˜150 h at 3 mAṡcm-2) compared with bare Li metal electrode. Our findings may open up a solution for fabricating stable Li metal anode, which further facilitates future application of high-energy-density Li metal batteries.

  13. SU-8 photoresist-derived electrospun carbon nanofibres as high-capacity anode material for lithium ion battery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M KAKUNURI; S KAUSHIK; A SAINI; C S SHARMA

    2017-06-01

    A binder-free carbon nanofibres web over stainless-steel wafer current collector was fabricated by controlled pyrolysis of electrospun SU-8 photoresist nanofibres. Electrochemical performance of the as-prepared carbon nanofibresweb was investigated by performing charge–discharge experiments at different current densities. At low current density (37.2 mA g$^{−1}, 0.1$C$), SU-8-derived carbon nanofabric showed a large initial discharge capacity (1417 mAh g$^{−1}$) with sufficiently higher initial coulombic efficiency ($\\sim$55%). More importantly, this carbon nanofibres web also exhibited excellent rate performance with considerably higher specific capacities at higher current densities (358 mAh g$^{−1}$ at 1C). This superior electrochemical performance, in particular at high current rates, can be attributed to small lithium ion diffusion length andresilience in entangled carbon nanofibres to accommodate volume changes during charging and discharging.

  14. Equestrian Excellence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROSEANNE; GERIN

    2008-01-01

    Hong Kong provides horses, officials and spectators with 5-star facilitieswhile the new and highly impressive Olympic venues in Beijing have received the lion’s share of media attention, the two main

  15. High Energy Physics Forum for Computational Excellence: Working Group Reports (I. Applications Software II. Software Libraries and Tools III. Systems)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Salman [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Roser, Robert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Computing plays an essential role in all aspects of high energy physics. As computational technology evolves rapidly in new directions, and data throughput and volume continue to follow a steep trend-line, it is important for the HEP community to develop an effective response to a series of expected challenges. In order to help shape the desired response, the HEP Forum for Computational Excellence (HEP-FCE) initiated a roadmap planning activity with two key overlapping drivers -- 1) software effectiveness, and 2) infrastructure and expertise advancement. The HEP-FCE formed three working groups, 1) Applications Software, 2) Software Libraries and Tools, and 3) Systems (including systems software), to provide an overview of the current status of HEP computing and to present findings and opportunities for the desired HEP computational roadmap. The final versions of the reports are combined in this document, and are presented along with introductory material.

  16. High Energy Physics Forum for Computational Excellence: Working Group Reports (I. Applications Software II. Software Libraries and Tools III. Systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Habib, Salman; LeCompte, Tom; Marshall, Zach; Borgland, Anders; Viren, Brett; Nugent, Peter; Asai, Makoto; Bauerdick, Lothar; Finkel, Hal; Gottlieb, Steve; Hoeche, Stefan; Sheldon, Paul; Vay, Jean-Luc; Elmer, Peter; Kirby, Michael; Patton, Simon; Potekhin, Maxim; Yanny, Brian; Calafiura, Paolo; Dart, Eli; Gutsche, Oliver; Izubuchi, Taku; Lyon, Adam; Petravick, Don

    2015-01-01

    Computing plays an essential role in all aspects of high energy physics. As computational technology evolves rapidly in new directions, and data throughput and volume continue to follow a steep trend-line, it is important for the HEP community to develop an effective response to a series of expected challenges. In order to help shape the desired response, the HEP Forum for Computational Excellence (HEP-FCE) initiated a roadmap planning activity with two key overlapping drivers -- 1) software effectiveness, and 2) infrastructure and expertise advancement. The HEP-FCE formed three working groups, 1) Applications Software, 2) Software Libraries and Tools, and 3) Systems (including systems software), to provide an overview of the current status of HEP computing and to present findings and opportunities for the desired HEP computational roadmap. The final versions of the reports are combined in this document, and are presented along with introductory material.

  17. Calculating ellipse area by the Monte Carlo method and analysing dice poker with Excel at high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports on lessons in which 18-19 years old high school students modelled random processes with Excel. In the first lesson, 26 students formulated a hypothesis on the area of ellipse by using the analogy between the areas of circle, square and rectangle. They verified the hypothesis by the Monte Carlo method with a spreadsheet model developed in the lesson. In the second lesson, 27 students analysed the dice poker game. First, they calculated the probability of the hands by combinatorial formulae. Then, they verified the result with a spreadsheet model developed in the lesson. The students were given a questionnaire to find out if they found the lesson interesting and contributing to their mathematical and technological knowledge.

  18. Robust electrodes based on coaxial TiC/C-MnO2 core/shell nanofiber arrays with excellent cycling stability for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuming; Peng, Xiang; Li, Wan; Li, Limin; Gao, Biao; Wu, Guosong; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K

    2015-04-17

    A coaxial electrode structure composed of manganese oxide-decorated TiC/C core/shell nanofiber arrays is produced hydrothermally in a KMnO4 solution. The pristine TiC/C core/shell structure prepared on the Ti alloy substrate provides the self-sacrificing carbon shell and highly conductive TiC core, thus greatly simplifying the fabrication process without requiring an additional reduction source and conductive additive. The as-prepared electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of 645 F g(-1) at a discharging current density of 1 A g(-1) attributable to the highly conductive TiC/C and amorphous MnO2 shell with fast ion diffusion. In the charging/discharging cycling test, the as-prepared electrode shows high stability and 99% capacity retention after 5000 cycles. Although the thermal treatment conducted on the as-prepared electrode decreases the initial capacitance, the electrode undergoes capacitance recovery through structural transformation from the crystalline cluster to layered birnessite type MnO2 nanosheets as a result of dissolution and further electrodeposition in the cycling. 96.5% of the initial capacitance is retained after 1000 cycles at high charging/discharging current density of 25 A g(-1). This study demonstrates a novel scaffold to construct MnO2 based SCs with high specific capacitance as well as excellent mechanical and cycling stability boding well for future design of high-performance MnO2-based SCs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Temporal Processing Capacity in High-Level Visual Cortex Is Domain Specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigliani, Anthony; Weiner, Kevin S; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-09-09

    Prevailing hierarchical models propose that temporal processing capacity--the amount of information that a brain region processes in a unit time--decreases at higher stages in the ventral stream regardless of domain. However, it is unknown if temporal processing capacities are domain general or domain specific in human high-level visual cortex. Using a novel fMRI paradigm, we measured temporal capacities of functional regions in high-level visual cortex. Contrary to hierarchical models, our data reveal domain-specific processing capacities as follows: (1) regions processing information from different domains have differential temporal capacities within each stage of the visual hierarchy and (2) domain-specific regions display the same temporal capacity regardless of their position in the processing hierarchy. In general, character-selective regions have the lowest capacity, face- and place-selective regions have an intermediate capacity, and body-selective regions have the highest capacity. Notably, domain-specific temporal processing capacities are not apparent in V1 and have perceptual implications. Behavioral testing revealed that the encoding capacity of body images is higher than that of characters, faces, and places, and there is a correspondence between peak encoding rates and cortical capacities for characters and bodies. The present evidence supports a model in which the natural statistics of temporal information in the visual world may affect domain-specific temporal processing and encoding capacities. These findings suggest that the functional organization of high-level visual cortex may be constrained by temporal characteristics of stimuli in the natural world, and this temporal capacity is a characteristic of domain-specific networks in high-level visual cortex. Significance statement: Visual stimuli bombard us at different rates every day. For example, words and scenes are typically stationary and vary at slow rates. In contrast, bodies are dynamic

  20. Striving for Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattke, Fabian; Blaschke, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    no significant effects. Besides top management team composition, we find that a high number of faculties and a broad inclusion of internal status groups (students, tenured faculty, academic and administrative staff) and external stakeholders in decision making processes may enhance academic excellence......, the study contributes to the body of literature on strategic leadership in pluralistic organizations. It highlights the importance of heterogeneous governance structures and modular organization designs for achieving academic excellence. Practical implications: - The paper may inform practitioners...

  1. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sira Maria Karvinen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of heat , i.e. thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect body temperature. Here we use rat models that differ for maximal running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten HCR and ten LCR female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after one year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001. Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a marked impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001 allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c and OXPHOS contents in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050. These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0.050, but not that of HCRs. In conclusion, rats born with high intrinsic aerobic capacity and better health have higher body temperature compared to rats born with low aerobic

  2. Striving for Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattke, Fabian; Blaschke, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    in administrative or leading positions and policy makers concerned with higher education. The more diverse a top management team is in terms of multiple disciplinary backgrounds, the more likely they succeed in driving the university towards academic excellence. Originality/value: - The study is among the first......Purpose: - The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence of top management team diversity on academic excellence in universities. Academic excellence is conceptualized as successfully gaining funds for inter-organizational research collaborations, interdisciplinary graduate schools......, and high ranked scientific reputation. Design/methodology/approach: -The study applies upper echelon theory to universities. Three hypotheses are developed: 1) (Overall) top management team heterogeneity is positively associated with successful funding of excellence clusters, 2) (Overall) top management...

  3. Facile synthesis of a mechanically robust and highly porous NiO film with excellent electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luoyuan; Zhang, Guoge; Liu, Yan; Li, Wenfang; Lu, Wei; Huang, Haitao

    2016-05-01

    Considerable research is being conducted in searching for effective anode catalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Although significant progress has been achieved, it is still challenging to prepare non-Pt catalysts with both excellent activity and good durability. Herein, a highly porous NiO film is developed by a facile and fast anodization approach. The anodic NiO film demonstrates a high surface area, large mesopore volume and small crystallite size, leading to facilitated adsorption of reaction species, easy electrolyte penetration and fast reaction kinetics. Furthermore, as anodic NiO is grown in situ on a metallic substrate with strong adhesion strength and good electrical contact, it can be used directly as an anode catalyst for methanol oxidation without the need to add any binder or conducting agent. Such an additive-free approach greatly expedites the catalyst preparation process. The anodic NiO shows lower methanol oxidation potential, higher oxidation current and better catalytic durability than most of the state-of-the-art Ni-based catalysts reported elsewhere. As anodization is a simple, low cost and easily scaled up method, the work described here provides an exciting direction to speed up the practical application of alkaline DMFCs.Considerable research is being conducted in searching for effective anode catalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Although significant progress has been achieved, it is still challenging to prepare non-Pt catalysts with both excellent activity and good durability. Herein, a highly porous NiO film is developed by a facile and fast anodization approach. The anodic NiO film demonstrates a high surface area, large mesopore volume and small crystallite size, leading to facilitated adsorption of reaction species, easy electrolyte penetration and fast reaction kinetics. Furthermore, as anodic NiO is grown in situ on a metallic substrate with strong adhesion strength and good electrical contact

  4. On the heat capacity of liquids at high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Stishov, S M

    2016-01-01

    Making use of a simple approximation for the evolution of the radial distribution function, we calculate the temperature dependence of the heat capacity $C_v$ of Ar at constant density. $C_v$ decreases with temperature roughly according to the law $\\sim T^{-1/4}$, slowly approaching the hard sphere asymptotic value $C_v=\\frac{3}{2}R$. However, the asymptotic value of $C_v$ is not reachable at reasonable temperatures , but stays close to 1.7--1.8 $R$ over a wide range of temperatures after passing a " magic " $2R$ value at about 2000 K. Nevertheless these values has nothing to do with loss of vibrational degrees of freedom, but arises as a result of a temperature variation of the collision diameter $\\sigma$. \\end{abstract}

  5. Economic viability of transmission capacity expansion at high wind penetrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    With growing wind power penetrations in many countries, grid and system integration becomes more and more important issues. This is particularly the case in countries or regions with good wind resources as well as substantial installed wind power capacity as found in e.g. Northern Europe. At 20......% penetration in Western Denmark, the issue is pertinent here in relation to future plans of further expansion which is planned in accordance with the Danish Government’s climate change mitigation initiatives. This paper analyses the potential economic benefit of selling excess electricity production...... investments and analyses of the Nord Pool price variations. The analyses are done for varying degrees of wind power penetrations ranging from 20% of the West Danish electricity demand up to 100% of the demand. The analyses demonstrate, that while there is an economic potential for some expansion in some years...

  6. High capacity adsorption media and method of producing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Troy J.; Mann, Nicholas R.; Todd, Terry A.; Herbst, Ronald S.

    2010-10-05

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  7. Elpipes for the High Capacity Backbone of an Asian Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roger Faulkner

    2011-01-01

    Elpipes are polymer-insulated underground HVDC electric pipelines based on metallic conductors. Etpipes use relatively rigid extruded conductors designed for higher capacity and efficiency that are practical for overhead pow- er lines. Rigid insulation may be used. In this paper, we discuss the technical trade-offs for etpipes, and application of elpipes linking load centers to remote dispatchable hydro power, energy storage sites, and large dispatchable loads, to achieve load leveling through nonqocal storage and dispatchable loads, via the HVDC grid. Elpipes with voltage source converters (VSC) enable placing many AC/DC power taps on a single HVDC loop. It is advantageous to build up a continental scale HVDC grid from local loops that tie together 10-20 taps.

  8. Hierarchical Cellular Structures in High-Capacity Cellular Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, R K; Agrawal, N K

    2011-01-01

    In the prevailing cellular environment, it is important to provide the resources for the fluctuating traffic demand exactly in the place and at the time where and when they are needed. In this paper, we explored the ability of hierarchical cellular structures with inter layer reuse to increase the capacity of mobile communication network by applying total frequency hopping (T-FH) and adaptive frequency allocation (AFA) as a strategy to reuse the macro and micro cell resources without frequency planning in indoor pico cells [11]. The practical aspects for designing macro- micro cellular overlays in the existing big urban areas are also explained [4]. Femto cells are inducted in macro / micro / pico cells hierarchical structure to achieve the required QoS cost effectively.

  9. MIMO Intensity-Modulation Channels: Capacity Bounds and High SNR Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2016-10-01

    The capacity of MIMO intensity modulation channels is studied. The nonnegativity of the transmit signal (intensity) poses a challenge on the precoding of the transmit signal, which limits the applicability of classical schemes in this type of channels. To resolve this issue, capacity lower bounds are developed by using precoding-free schemes. This is achieved by channel inversion or QR decomposition to convert the MIMO channel to a set of parallel channels. The achievable rate of a DC-offset SVD based scheme is also derived as a benchmark. Then, a capacity upper bound is derived and is shown to coincide with the achievable rate of the QR decomposition based scheme at high SNR, consequently characterizing the high-SNR capacity of the channel. The high-SNR gap between capacity and the achievable rates of the channel inversion and the DC-offset SVD based schemes is also characterized. Finally, the ergodic capacity of the channel is also briefly discussed.

  10. Electrospun titania-based fibers for high areal capacity Li-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Ethan C.; Wycisk, Ryszard; Pintauro, Peter N.

    2015-05-01

    Electrospinning is utilized to prepare composite fiber Li-ion battery anodes containing titania and carbon nanoparticles with a poly (acrylic acid) binder. The electrospun material exhibits a stable charge/discharge capacity with only 5% capacity fade over 450 cycles at 0.5 C. Compared to a conventional slurry cast electrode of the same composition, the electrospun anode demonstrates 4-fold higher capacity retention (31% vs. 7.9%) at a charge/discharge rate of 5 C. Electrospinning is also used to prepare ultrathick anodes (>1 mm) with areal capacities up to 3.9 mAh cm-2. Notably, the thick electrodes exhibit areal capacities of 2.5 and 1.3 mAh cm-2 at 1 C and 2 C, respectively. Electrospun anodes with densely packed fibers have a 2 C volumetric capacity which exceeds that of the slurry cast material (21.2 and 17.5 mAh cm-3, respectively). The excellent performance of the electrospun anodes is attributed to interfiber voids which provide complete electrolyte intrusion, a large electrode/electrolyte interface, and short Li+ transport pathways between the electrolyte and titania nanoparticles.

  11. A systematic approach to high and stable discharge capacity for scaling up the lithium-sulfur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mohammad Rejaul; Wang, Jiazhao; Liang, Xin; Liu, Hua-Kun; Dou, Shi-Xue

    2015-04-01

    A systematic approach to improving the performance of the Li-S battery is presented, based on applying high energy ball milling to create a porous sulfur-carbon composite, insertion of a free-standing layer, and adoption of a new charging method. Surface area analysis and field emission scanning electron microscope imaging show that the ball-milled sulfur powder has a porous structure and very high specific surface area. A vacuum-filtrated single-walled carbon nanotube free-standing layer is inserted in between the sulfur cathode and the separator. It is believed that high-surface-area porous sulfur will help to increase the conductivity of the elemental sulfur due to better adhesion between the conducting carbon and the sulfur, while the free-standing layer will sequester longer chain polysulfides, which are responsible for the well-known shuttling phenomenon. By the combination of these methods, we have achieved excellent capacity and cycle life. Finally, a new charging method which will largely prevent the formation of longer chain polysulfides is also applied to increase the capacity retention. It is believed that with the combination of ball milling, the free-standing layer, and the new charging method, it is possible to commercialize the Li-S battery with better capacity and cycle life.

  12. Facet-Controlling Agents Free Synthesis of Hematite Crystals with High-Index Planes: Excellent Photodegradation Performance and Mechanism Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dahu; Huang, Yang; Zhou, Cuifeng; Liu, Zongwen; Ren, Jichang; Zhang, Ruiqin; Wang, Jianhai; Zhang, Yuanjian; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya; Zhi, Chunyi

    2016-01-13

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) crystals with uniform size and structure are synthesized through very facile one-pot hydrothermal methods without any additive. The as-synthesized sub-micrometer-sized α-Fe2O3 crystals with small surface areas perform superb visible light photodegradation activities, even much better than most other α-Fe2O3 nanostructures with large surface areas. Profound mechanism analyses reveal that the microwave-assisted hydrothermal (Mic-H) synthesized α-Fe2O3 is enclosed by 12 high-index {2-15} facets. The structure and the low unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the high-index planes result in the excellent photocatalytic activity. This is the first report on the formation of {2-15} plane group of hematite, and the synthesis of the hematite particles with the {2-15} planes is very simple and no any facet-controlling agent is used. This study may pave the way to further performance enhancement and practical applications of the cheap hematite materials.

  13. Excellence in School Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.

    1985-01-01

    Lists objectives for excellence/exemplary programs in middle/junior high school science as perceived by a group of middle/junior high school science teachers. These objectives focus on: (1) goals; (2) curricula; (3) instruction; (4) teachers; and (5) evaluation. (JN)

  14. Highly porous organic polymers bearing tertiary amine group and their exceptionally high CO2 uptake capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Ruth; Bhaumik, Asim

    2015-02-01

    We report a very simple and unique strategy for synthesis of a tertiary amine functionalized high surface area porous organic polymer (POP) PDVTA-1 through the co-polymerization of monomers divinylbenzene (DVB) and triallylamine (TAA) under solvothermal reaction conditions. Two different PDVTA-1 samples have been synthesized by varying the molar ratio of the monomers. The porous polymeric materials have been thoroughly characterized by solid state 13C CP MAS-NMR, FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy, N2 sorption, HR TEM and FE SEM to understand its chemical environment, nanostructure, bonding, morphology and related surface properties. PDVTA-1 with higher amine content (DVB/TAA=4.0) showed exceptionally high CO2 uptake capacity of 85.8 wt% (19.5 mmol g-1) at 273 K and 43.69 wt% (9.93 mmol g-1) at 298 K under 3 bar pressure, whereas relatively low amine loaded material (DVB/TAA=7.0) shows uptake capacity of 59.2 wt% (13.45 mmol g-1) at 273 K and 34.36 wt% (7.81 mmol g-1) at 298 K. Highly porous nanostructure together with very high surface area and basicity at the surface due to the presence of abundant basic tertiary amine N-sites in the framework of PDVTA-1 could be responsible for very high CO2 adsorption.

  15. Experiences and challenges running CERN's high capacity tape archive

    CERN Document Server

    Cancio, Germ; Kruse, Daniele Francesco; Leduc, Julien; Cano, Eric; Murray, Steven

    2015-01-01

    CERN's tape-based archive system has collected over 70 Petabytes of data during the first run of the LHC. The Long Shutdown is being used for migrating the complete 100 Petabytes data archive to higher-density tape media. During LHC Run 2, the archive will have to cope with yearly growth rates of up to 40-50 Petabytes. In this contribution, we describe the scalable setup for coping with the storage and long-term archival of such massive data amounts. We also review the challenges resulting and mechanisms devised for measuring and enhancing availability and reliability, as well as ensuring the long-term integrity and bit-level preservation of the complete data repository. The procedures and tools for the proactive and efficient operation of the tape infrastructure are described, including the features developed for automated problem detection, identification and notification. Finally, we present an outlook in terms of future capacity requirements growth and how it matches the expected tape technology evolution...

  16. Silicon oxide based high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Lopez, Herman A.; Kumar, Sujeet

    2017-03-21

    Silicon oxide based materials, including composites with various electrical conductive compositions, are formulated into desirable anodes. The anodes can be effectively combined into lithium ion batteries with high capacity cathode materials. In some formulations, supplemental lithium can be used to stabilize cycling as well as to reduce effects of first cycle irreversible capacity loss. Batteries are described with surprisingly good cycling properties with good specific capacities with respect to both cathode active weights and anode active weights.

  17. OTDM Networking for Short Range High-Capacity Highly Dynamic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medhin, Ashenafi Kiros

    This PhD thesis aims at investigating the possibility of designing energy-efficient high-capacity (up to Tbit/s) optical network scenarios, leveraging on the effect of collective switching of many bits simultaneously, as is inherent in high bit rate serial optical data signals. The focus...... is on short range highly dynamic networks, catering to data center needs. The investigation concerns optical network scenarios, and experimental implementations of high bit rate serial data packet generation and reception, scalable optical packet labeling, simple optical label extraction and stable ultra......-fast optical packet switching, with the constraint that there must be potential energy savings, which is also evaluated. A survey of the current trends in data centers is given and state-of-the-art research approaches are mentioned. Optical time-division multiplexing is proposed and demonstrated to generate...

  18. High throughput assay for evaluation of reactive carbonyl scavenging capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vidal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many carbonyl species from either lipid peroxidation or glycoxidation are extremely reactive and can disrupt the function of proteins and enzymes. 4-hydroxynonenal and methylglyoxal are the most abundant and toxic lipid-derived reactive carbonyl species. The presence of these toxics leads to carbonyl stress and cause a significant amount of macromolecular damages in several diseases. Much evidence indicates trapping of reactive carbonyl intermediates may be a useful strategy for inhibiting or decreasing carbonyl stress-associated pathologies. There is no rapid and convenient analytical method available for the assessment of direct carbonyl scavenging capacity, and a very limited number of carbonyl scavengers have been identified to date, their therapeutic potential being highlighted only recently. In this context, we have developed a new and rapid sensitive fluorimetric method for the assessment of reactive carbonyl scavengers without involvement glycoxidation systems. Efficacy of various thiol- and non-thiol-carbonyl scavenger pharmacophores was tested both using this screening assay adapted to 96-well microplates and in cultured cells. The scavenging effects on the formation of Advanced Glycation End-product of Bovine Serum Albumin formed with methylglyoxal, 4-hydroxynonenal and glucose-glycated as molecular models were also examined. Low molecular mass thiols with an α-amino-β-mercaptoethane structure showed the highest degree of inhibitory activity toward both α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and dicarbonyls. Cysteine and cysteamine have the best scavenging ability toward methylglyoxal. WR-1065 which is currently approved for clinical use as a protective agent against radiation and renal toxicity was identified as the best inhibitor of 4-hydroxynonenal.

  19. Development of a high capacity longwall conveyor. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, C

    1982-05-01

    The objectives of this program were to develop, fabricate, and demonstrate a longwall conveying system capable of transporting coal at a rate of 9000 tons/day (1000 tons/hr) and capable of accommodating a surge rate of 20 tons/min. The equipment was required to have the structural durability to perform with an operating availability of 90%. A review of available literature and discussions with longwall operators identified the problem areas of conveyor design that required attention. The conveyor under this contract was designed and fabricated with special attention given to these areas, and also to be easily maintainable. The design utilized twin 300 hp drives and twin inboard 26-mm chain at 270 ft/min; predictions of capacity and reliability based on the design indicating that it would satisfy the program requirements. Conveyor components were critically tested and the complete conveyor was surface-tested, the results verifying the design specifications. In addition, an instrumentation system was developed with analysis by computer techniques to monitor the performance of the conveyor. The conveyor was installed at a selected mine site, and it was the intention to monitor its performance over the entire longwall panel. Monitoring of the conveyor performance was conducted over approximately one-third of the longwall panel, at which point further effort was suspended. However, during the monitored period, data collected from various sources showed the conveyor to have exhibited its capability of transporting coal at the desired rate, and also to have conformed to the program requirements of reliability and availability.

  20. Development of a high capacity longwall conveyor. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, C

    1982-05-01

    The objectives of this program were to develop, fabricate, and demonstrate a longwall conveying system capable of transporting coal at a rate of 9000 tons/day (1000 tons/hr) and capable of accommodating a surge rate of 20 tons/min. The equipment was required to have the structural durability to perform with an operating availability of 90%. A review of available literature and discussions with longwall operators identified the problem areas of conveyor design that required attention. The conveyor under this contract was designed and fabricated with special attention given to these areas, and also to be easily maintainable. The design utilized twin 300 hp drives and twin inboard 26-mm chain at 270 ft/min; predictions of capacity and reliability based on the design indicating that it would satisfy the program requirements. Conveyor components were critically tested and the complete conveyor was surface-tested, the results verifying the design specifications. In addition, an instrumentation system was developed with analysis by computer techniques to monitor the performance of the conveyor. The conveyor was installed at a selected mine site, and it was the intention to monitor its performance over the entire longwall panel. Monitoring of the conveyor performance was conducted over approximately one-third of the longwall panel, at which point further effort was suspended. However, during the monitored period, data collected from various sources showed the conveyor to have exhibited its capability of transporting coal at the desired rate, and also to have conformed to the program requirements of reliability and availability.

  1. Reduced graphene oxide as a stable and high-capacity cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ghulam; Mehmood, Asad; Ha, Heung Yong; Kim, Jaehoon; Chung, Kyung Yoon

    2017-01-01

    We report the feasibility of using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as a cost-effective and high performance cathode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Graphene oxide is synthesized by a modified Hummers’ method and reduced using a solid-state microwave irradiation method. The RGO electrode delivers an exceptionally stable discharge capacity of 240 mAh g−1 with a stable long cycling up to 1000 cycles. A discharge capacity of 134 mAh g−1 is obtained at a high current density of 600 mA g−1, and the electrode recovers a capacity of 230 mAh g−1 when the current density is reset to 15 mA g−1 after deep cycling, thus demonstrating the excellent stability of the electrode with sodium de/intercalation. The successful use of the RGO electrode demonstrated in this study is expected to facilitate the emergence of low-cost and sustainable carbon-based materials for SIB cathode applications. PMID:28098231

  2. Reduced graphene oxide as a stable and high-capacity cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ghulam; Mehmood, Asad; Ha, Heung Yong; Kim, Jaehoon; Chung, Kyung Yoon

    2017-01-01

    We report the feasibility of using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as a cost-effective and high performance cathode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Graphene oxide is synthesized by a modified Hummers’ method and reduced using a solid-state microwave irradiation method. The RGO electrode delivers an exceptionally stable discharge capacity of 240 mAh g-1 with a stable long cycling up to 1000 cycles. A discharge capacity of 134 mAh g-1 is obtained at a high current density of 600 mA g-1, and the electrode recovers a capacity of 230 mAh g-1 when the current density is reset to 15 mA g-1 after deep cycling, thus demonstrating the excellent stability of the electrode with sodium de/intercalation. The successful use of the RGO electrode demonstrated in this study is expected to facilitate the emergence of low-cost and sustainable carbon-based materials for SIB cathode applications.

  3. High-Capacity Short-Range Optical Communication Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna

    Over the last decade, we have observed a tremendous spread of end-user mobile devices. The user base of a mobile application can grow or shrink by millions per day. This situation creates a pressing need for highly scalable server infrastructure; a need nowadays satisfied through cloud computing...... offered by data centers. As the popularity of cloud computing soars, the demand for high-speed, short-range data center links grows. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) and multimode fibers (MMF) prove especially well-suited for such scenarios. VCSELs have high modulation bandwidths...

  4. Fast High Capacity Annular Gas Puff Valve Design Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruden, Edward

    2000-10-01

    A fast opening gas valve design concept is presented that can theoretically inject a few grams of D2 gas radially outward into a coaxial annular vacuum region with a radius of about 10 cm in less that 100 μ s. The concept employs a single turn 20-30 T pulsed magnetic field coil that axially accelerates an Mg alloy ring, which seals a gas plenum, to high velocity, releasing the gas. Both coil and ring are profiled to minimize stress in the ring. Such a device could be used to supply the initial gas load for a proposed 5 MJ Dense Plasma Focus driven by AFRL's Shiva Star Capacitor bank. The intent here is keep the vacuum current feed insulator under high vacuum during the discharge to avoid surface breakdown. Alternatively, a high energy rep ratable plasma flow opening switch could be supplied with such a valve. This work is funded by the USAF.

  5. 30 CFR 75.1107-10 - High expansion foam devices; minimum capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High expansion foam devices; minimum capacity. 75.1107-10 Section 75.1107-10 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... foam devices; minimum capacity. (a) On unattended underground equipment the amount of water...

  6. Capacity Payments in Restructured Markets under Low and High Penetration Levels of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    remain in implementing capacity markets that provide both adequate operational and investment incentives, particularly under high-VRE scenarios with greater need for flexible capacity.

  7. Superhydrophobic hBN-Regulated Sponges with Excellent Absorbency Fabricated Using a Green and Facile Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ying Zhou; Yao Wang; Tengfei Liu; Gang Xu; Guangming Chen; Huayi Li; Lichun Liu; Qiqi Zhuo; Jiaoxia Zhang; Chao Yan

    2017-01-01

    .... This superhydrophobic sponge (with a contact angle >150°) exhibits excellent absorption performance for oils and organic solvents, including good selectivity, high capacity (up to 175 g[ANO TELEIA]g-1...

  8. A High-Capacity and Long-Cycle-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Architecture: Silver Nanoparticle-Decorated SnO2/NiO Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chanhoon; Jung, Ji-Won; Yoon, Ki Ro; Youn, Doo-Young; Park, Soojin; Kim, Il-Doo

    2016-12-27

    The combination of high-capacity and long-term cyclability has always been regarded as the first priority for next generation anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). To meet these requirements, the Ag nanoparticle decorated mesoporous SnO2/NiO nanotube (m-SNT) anodes were synthesized via an electrospinning process, followed by fast ramping rate calcination and subsequent chemical reduction in this work. The one-dimensional porous hollow structure effectively alleviates a large volume expansion during cycling as well as provides a short lithium-ion duffusion length. Furthermore, metallic nickel (Ni) nanoparticles converted from the NiO nanograins during the lithiation process reversibly decompose Li2O during delithiation process, which significantly improves the reversible capacity of the m-SNT anodes. In addition, Ag nanoparticles uniformly decorated on the m-SNT via a simple chemical reduction process significantly improve rate capability and also contribute to long-term cyclability. The m-SNT@Ag anodes exhibited excellent cycling stability without obvious capacity fading after 500 cycles with a high capacity of 826 mAh g(-1) at a high current density of 1000 mA g(-1). Furthermore, even at a very high current density of 5000 mA g(-1), the charge-specific capacity remained as high as 721 mAh g(-1), corresponding to 60% of its initial capacity at a current density of 100 mA g(-1).

  9. Frequency Assignment for Joint Aerial Layer Network High-Capacity Backbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-11

    ARL-TR-8093•AUG 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Frequency Assignment for Joint Aerial Layer Network High-Capacity Backbone by Peng Wang and Brian...2017 US Army Research Laboratory Frequency Assignment for Joint Aerial Layer Network High-Capacity Backbone by Peng Wang and Brian Henz Computational...Rev. 8/98)    Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 August 2017 Technical Report Frequency Assignment for Joint Aerial Layer Network High-Capacity Backbone

  10. Separation of intact proteins on γ-ray-induced polymethacrylate monolithic columns: A highly permeable stationary phase with high peak capacity for capillary high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Patrizia; Pierri, Giuseppe; Foglia, Patrizia; Gasparrini, Francesca; Mazzoccanti, Giulia; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Ursini, Ornella; Ciogli, Alessia; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Polymethacrylate-based monolithic capillary columns, prepared by γ-radiation-induced polymerization, were used to optimize the experimental conditions (nature of the organic modifiers, the content of trifluoroacetic acid and the column temperature) in the separation of nine standard proteins with different hydrophobicities and a wide range of molecular weights. Because of the excellent permeability of the monolithic columns, an ion-pair reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry method has been developed by coupling the column directly to the mass spectrometer without a flow-split and using a standard electrospray interface. Additionally, the high working flow and concomitant high efficiency of these columns allowed us to employ a longer column (up to 50 cm) and achieve a peak capacity value superior to 1000. This work is motivated by the need to develop new materials for high-resolution chromatographic separation that combine chemical stability at elevated temperatures (up to 75°C) and a broad pH range, with a high peak capacity value. The advantage of the γ-ray-induced monolithic column lies in the batch-to-batch reproducibility and long-term high-temperature stability. Their proven high loading capacity, recovery, good selectivity and high permeability, moreover, compared well with that of a commercially available poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) monolithic column, which confirms that such monolithic supports might facilitate analysis in proteomics.

  11. Integration of high capacity materials into interdigitated mesostructured electrodes for high energy and high power density primary microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikul, James H.; Liu, Jinyun; Braun, Paul V.; King, William P.

    2016-05-01

    Microbatteries are increasingly important for powering electronic systems, however, the volumetric energy density of microbatteries lags behind that of conventional format batteries. This paper reports a primary microbattery with energy density 45.5 μWh cm-2 μm-1 and peak power 5300 μW cm-2 μm-1, enabled by the integration of large volume fractions of high capacity anode and cathode chemistry into porous micro-architectures. The interdigitated battery electrodes consist of a lithium metal anode and a mesoporous manganese oxide cathode. The key enabler of the high energy and power density is the integration of the high capacity manganese oxide conversion chemistry into a mesostructured high power interdigitated bicontinuous cathode architecture and an electrodeposited dense lithium metal anode. The resultant energy density is greater than previously reported three-dimensional microbatteries and is comparable to commercial conventional format lithium-based batteries.

  12. Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Gang; Haran, Bala; Popov, Branko N.

    Capacity fade of Sony US 18650 Li-ion batteries cycled using different discharge rates was studied at ambient temperature. The capacity losses were estimated after 300 cycles at 2 C and 3 C discharge rates and were found to be 13.2 and 16.9% of the initial capacity, respectively. At 1 C discharge rate the capacity lost was only 9.5%. The cell cycled at high discharge rate (3 C) showed the largest internal resistance increase of 27.7% relative to the resistance of the fresh cells. The rate capability losses were proportional with the increase of discharge rates. Half-cell study and material and charge balances were used to quantify the capacity fade due to the losses of primary active material (Li +), the secondary active material (LiCoO 2/C)) and rate capability losses. It was found that carbon with 10.6% capacity loss after 300 cycles dominates the capacity fade of the whole cell at high discharge rates (3 C). A mechanism is proposed which explains the capacity fade at high discharge rates.

  13. High-capacity thick cathode with a porous aluminum current collector for lithium secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hidetoshi; Kubota, Masaaki; Nemoto, Miyu; Masuda, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yuichi; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2016-12-01

    A high-capacity thick cathode has been studied as one of ways to improve the energy density of lithium secondary batteries. In this study, the LiFePO4 cathode with a capacity per unit area of 8.4 m Ah cm-2 corresponding to four times the capacity of conventional cathodes has been developed using a three-dimensional porous aluminum current collector called "FUSPOROUS". This unique current collector enables the smooth transfer of electrons and Li+-ions through the thick cathode, resulting in a good rate capability (discharge capacity ratio of 1.0 C/0.2 C = 0.980) and a high charge-discharge cycle performance (80% of the initial capacity at 2000th cycle) even though the electrode thickness is 400 μm. To take practical advantage of the developed thick cathode, conceptual designs for a 10-Ah class cell were also carried out using graphite and lithium-metal anodes.

  14. High Aerobic Capacity Mitigates Changes in the Plasma Metabolomic Profile Associated with Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falegan, Oluyemi S; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Hepple, Russ T; Shearer, Jane

    2017-02-03

    Advancing age is associated with declines in maximal oxygen consumption. Declines in aerobic capacity not only contribute to the aging process but also are an independent risk factor for morbidity, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Although statistically convincing, the relationships between aerobic capacity, aging, and disease risk remain largely unresolved. To this end, we employed sensitive, system-based metabolomics approach to determine whether enhanced aerobic capacity could mitigate some of the changes seen in the plasma metabolomic profile associated with aging. Metabolomic profiles of plasma samples obtained from young (13 month) and old (26 month) rats bred for low (LCR) or high (HCR) running capacity using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) were examined. Results demonstrated strong profile separation in old and low aerobic capacity rats, whereas young and high aerobic capacity rat models were less predictive. Significantly differential metabolites between the groups include taurine, acetone, valine, and trimethylamine-N-oxide among other metabolites, specifically citrate, succinate, isovalerate, and proline, were differentially increased in older HCR animals compared with their younger counterparts. When interactions between age and aerobic capacity were examined, results demonstrated that enhanced aerobic capacity could mitigate some but not all age-associated alterations in the metabolomic profile.

  15. Paternity analysis in Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheta, Margarida; Dionísio, F Miguel; Fonseca, Luís; Pires, Ana M

    2007-12-01

    Paternity analysis using microsatellite information is a well-studied subject. These markers are ideal for parentage studies and fingerprinting, due to their high-discrimination power. This type of data is used to assign paternity, to compute the average selfing and outcrossing rates and to estimate the biparental inbreeding. There are several public domain programs that compute all this information from data. Most of the time, it is necessary to export data to some sort of format, feed it to the program and import the output to an Excel book for further processing. In this article we briefly describe a program referred from now on as Paternity Analysis in Excel (PAE), developed at IST and IBET (see the acknowledgments) that computes paternity candidates from data, and other information, from within Excel. In practice this means that the end user provides the data in an Excel sheet and, by pressing an appropriate button, obtains the results in another Excel sheet. For convenience PAE is divided into two modules. The first one is a filtering module that selects data from the sequencer and reorganizes it in a format appropriate to process paternity analysis, assuming certain conventions for the names of parents and offspring from the sequencer. The second module carries out the paternity analysis assuming that one parent is known. Both modules are written in Excel-VBA and can be obtained at the address (www.math.ist.utl.pt/~fmd/pa/pa.zip). They are free for non-commercial purposes and have been tested with different data and against different software (Cervus, FaMoz, and MLTR).

  16. Multi-core Fibers in Submarine Networks for High-Capacity Undersea Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md; Morioka, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Application of multi-core fibers in undersea networks for high-capacity submarine transmission systems is studied. It is demonstrated how different architectures of submerged branching unit affect network component counts in long-haul undersea transmission systems......Application of multi-core fibers in undersea networks for high-capacity submarine transmission systems is studied. It is demonstrated how different architectures of submerged branching unit affect network component counts in long-haul undersea transmission systems...

  17. A Highly Energetic N-Rich Zeolite-Like Metal-Organic Framework with Excellent Air Stability and Insensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jun-Sheng; Zhang, Ji-Chuan; Zhang, Min; Du, Dong-Ying; Li, Jing; Su, Zhong-Min; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Pang, Si-Ping; Li, Sheng-Hua; Lan, Ya-Qian

    2015-12-01

    A stable N-rich aromatic ligand is employed to prepare energetic zeolite-like metal-organic frameworks. IFMC-1 shows excellent air stability, and the lowest sensitivity toward impact, friction, and electrostatic discharge and the highest predicted heat of detonation among the reported coordination polymers, and even commercial materials (such as trinitrotoluene (TNT)).

  18. MoO2-ordered mesoporous carbon hybrids as anode materials with highly improved rate capability and reversible capacity for lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailian; Li, Caixia; Tang, Rui; Yin, Longwei; Qi, Yongxin

    2013-08-28

    A novel hybrid of MoO2-ordered mesoporous carbon (MoO2-OMC) was prepared through a two-step solvothermal chemical reaction route. The electrochemical performances of the mesoporous MoO2-OMC hybrids were examined using galvanostatical charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The MoO2-OMC hybrid exhibits significantly improved electrochemical performance of high reversible capacity, high-rate capability, and excellent cycling performance as an anode electrode material for Li ion batteries. It is revealed that the MoO2-OMC hybrid could deliver the first discharge capacity of 1641.8 mA h g(-1) with an initial Coulombic efficiency of 63.6%, and a reversible capacity as high as 1049.1 mA h g(-1) even after 50 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g(-1), much higher than the theoretical capacity of MoO2 (838 mA h g(-1)) and OMC materials. The MoO2-OMC hybrid demonstrates an excellent high rate capability with capacity of ∼600 mA h g(-1) even at a charge current density of 1600 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles, which is approximately 11.1 times higher than that of the OMC (54 mA h g(-1)) materials. The improved rate capability and reversible capacity of the MoO2-OMC hybrid are attributed to a synergistic reaction between the MoO2 nanoparticles and mesoporous OMC matrices. It is noted that the electrochemical performance of the MoO2-OMC hybrid is evidently much better than the previous MoO2-based hybrids.

  19. High-Capacity Layered-Spinel Cathodes for Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Prasant Kumar; Levi, Elena; Grinblat, Judith; Levi, Mikhael; Markovsky, Boris; Munichandraiah, N; Sun, Yang Kook; Aurbach, Doron

    2016-09-08

    Li and Mn-rich layered oxides with the general structure x Li2 MnO3 ⋅(1-x) LiMO2 (M=Ni, Mn, Co) are promising cathode materials for Li-ion batteries because of their high specific capacity, which may be greater than 250 mA h g(-1) . However, these materials suffer from high first-cycle irreversible capacity, gradual capacity fading, limited rate capability and discharge voltage decay upon cycling, which prevent their commercialization. The decrease in average discharge voltage is a major issue, which is ascribed to a structural layered-to-spinel transformation upon cycling of these oxide cathodes in wide potential ranges with an upper limit higher than 4.5 V and a lower limit below 3 V versus Li. By using four elements systems (Li, Mn, Ni, O) with appropriate stoichiometry, it is possible to prepare high capacity composite cathode materials that contain LiMn1.5 Ni0.5 O4 and Lix Mny Niz O2 components. The Li and Mn-rich layered-spinel cathode materials studied herein exhibit a high specific capacity (≥200 mA h g(-1) ) with good capacity retention upon cycling in a wide potential domain (2.4-4.9 V). The effect of constituent phases on their electrochemical performance, such as specific capacity, cycling stability, average discharge voltage, and rate capability, are explored here. This family of materials can provide high specific capacity, high rate capability, and promising cycle life. Using Co-free cathode materials is also an obvious advantage of these systems.

  20. An Alternative Approach for High Speed Railway Carrying Capacity Calculation Based on Multiagent Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a multiobjective mixed integer programming problem that calculates the carrying capacity of high speed railway based on mathematical programming method. The model is complex and difficult to solve, and it is difficult to comprehensively consider the various influencing factors on the train operation. The multiagent theory is employed to calculate high speed railway carrying capacity. In accordance with real operations of high speed railway, a three-layer agent model is developed to simulate the operating process of high speed railway. In the proposed model, railway network agent, line agent, station agent, and train agent are designed, respectively. To validate the proposed model, a case study is performed for Beijing–Shanghai high speed railway by using NetLogo software. The results are consistent with the actual data, which implies that the proposed multiagent method is feasible to calculate the carrying capacity of high speed railway.

  1. Preparation of activated carbon with high surface area for high-capacity methane storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingsi Liua; Wenshuo Wanga; Na Wanga; Peter Chak Tong Aub

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) was fabricated from corncob, which is cheap and abundant. Experimental parameters such as particle size of corncob, KOH/char weight ratio, and activation temperature and time were optimized to generate AC, which shows high methane sorption capacity. AC has high specific surface area (3227 m2/g), with pore volume and pore size distribution equal to 1.829 cm3/g and ca. 1.7-2.2 nm, respectively. Under the condition of 2◦C and less than 7.8 MPa, methane sorption in the presence of water (Rw=1.4) was as high as 43.7 wt%methane per unit mass of dry AC. The result is significantly higher than those of coconut-derived AC (32 wt%) and ordered mesoporous carbon (41.2 wt%, Rw=4.07) under the same condition. The physical properties and amorphous chaotic structure of AC were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms, XRD, SEM and HRTEM. Hence, the corncob-derived AC can be considered as a competitive methane-storage material for vehicles, which are run by natural gas.

  2. High capacity image steganography method based on framelet and compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Moyan; He, Zhibiao

    2015-12-01

    To improve the capacity and imperceptibility of image steganography, a novel high capacity and imperceptibility image steganography method based on a combination of framelet and compressive sensing (CS) is put forward. Firstly, SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) transform to measurement values obtained by compressive sensing technique to the secret data. Then the singular values in turn embed into the low frequency coarse subbands of framelet transform to the blocks of the cover image which is divided into non-overlapping blocks. Finally, use inverse framelet transforms and combine to obtain the stego image. The experimental results show that the proposed steganography method has a good performance in hiding capacity, security and imperceptibility.

  3. Attainable high capacity in Li-excess Li-Ni-Ru-O rock-salt cathode for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingbo; Huang, Weifeng; Tao, Shi; Xie, Hui; Wu, Chuanqiang; Yu, Zhen; Su, Xiaozhi; Qi, Jiaxin; Rehman, Zia ur; Song, Li; Zhang, Guobin; Chu, Wangsheng; Wei, Shiqiang

    2017-08-01

    Peroxide structure O2n- has proven to appear after electrochemical process in many lithium-excess precious metal oxides, representing extra reversible capacity. We hereby report construction of a Li-excess rock-salt oxide Li1+xNi1/2-3x/2Ru1/2+x/2O2 electrode, with cost effective and eco-friendly 3d transition metal Ni partially substituting precious 4d transition metal Ru. It can be seen that O2n- is formed in pristine Li1.23Ni0.155Ru0.615O2, and stably exists in subsequent cycles, enabling discharge capacities to 295.3 and 198 mAh g-1 at the 1st/50th cycle, respectively. Combing ex-situ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical characterization, we demonstrate that the excellent electrochemical performance comes from both percolation network with disordered structure and cation/anion redox couples occurring in charge-discharge process. Li-excess and substitution of common element have been demonstrated to be a breakthrough for designing novel high performance commercial cathodes in rechargeable lithium ion battery field.

  4. A Novel Sandwich-type Dinuclear Complex for High-capacity Hydrogen Storage%A Novel Sandwich-type Dinuclear Complex for High-capacity Hydrogen Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海燕; 陈元振; 李赛; 曹秀贞; 柳永宁

    2012-01-01

    From density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we predicted that the sandwich-type dinuclear organometallic compounds Cpffi2 and Cp2Sc2 can adsorb up to eight hydrogen molecules respectively, corresponding to a high gravimetric storage capacity of 6.7% and 6.8% (w), respectively. These sandwich-type organometallocenes proposed in this work are favorable for reversible adsorption and desorption of hydrogen at ambient conditions.

  5. Mono-layer BC2 a high capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardikar, Rahul; Samanta, Atanu; Han, Sang Soo; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Singh, Abhishek

    2015-04-01

    Mono-layer of graphene with high surface area compared to the bulk graphite phase, shows less Li uptake. The Li activity or kinetics can be modified via defects and/or substitutional doping. Boron and Nitrogen are the best known dopants for carbonaceous anode materials. In particular, boron doped graphene shows higher capacity and better Li adsorption compared to Nitrogen doped graphene. Here, using first principles density functional theory calculations, we study the spectrum of boron carbide (BCx) mono-layer phases in order to estimate the maximum gravimetric capacity that can be achieved by substitutional doping in graphene. Our results show that uniformly boron doped BC2 phase shows a high capacity of? 1400 mAh/g, much higher than previously reported capacity of BC3. Supported by Korea Institute of Science and Technology.

  6. Hypothyroidism with scholastic excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Salini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 9-year-old boy had presented with not gaining adequate height with complaints of constipation from 5 years, lethargy and loss of appetite from past 6 months. He was diagnosed to have hypothyroidism with high thyroid antibody levels. Though he was stunted his neurocognition and scholastic performance was excellent as evidenced by his school rank cards. His physical symptoms had improved after thyroxin supplement

  7. SnO2@TiO2 double-shell nanotubes for a lithium ion battery anode with excellent high rate cyclability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeun, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Kyu-Young; Kim, Dai-Hong; Kim, Won-Sik; Kim, Hong-Chan; Lee, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Honggu; Yu, Woong-Ryeol; Kang, Kisuk; Hong, Seong-Hyeon

    2013-09-21

    SnO2@TiO2 double-shell nanotubes have been facilely synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using electrospun PAN nanofibers as templates. The double-shell nanotubes exhibited excellent high rate cyclability for lithium ion batteries. The retention of hollow structures during cycling was demonstrated.

  8. PREPARATION OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE VULCANIZED SILICONE RUBBER OF EXCELLENT MECHANICAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES USING HYDROPHOBIC NANO SILICA SOL AS REINFORCEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Wang; Qin Zhang; Yu-hong Huang; Qiang Fu; Xian-jian Duan; Yue-ling Wang

    2008-01-01

    Hydrophobic nano silica sol (HNSS) was incorporated into polyvinylmethylsiloxane to prepare reinforced high-temperature vulcanized (HTV) silicone rubber. HTV silicone rubber filled with 40 phr HNSS showed excellent mechanical and optical properties: the tensile strength reached 11.7 MPa and the optical transmittance was higher than 90%. Possible reasons for reinforcement and transparency were discussed on the basis of the bound rubber percentage, total crosslink density, and SEM analysis. Our work suggests that HNSS is effective for reinforcement of HTV silicone rubber to endow excellent mechanical and optical properties.

  9. High-Efficiency, High-Capacity, Low-NOx Aluminum Melting Using Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agostini, M.D.

    2000-06-02

    This report describes the development and application of a novel oxygen enhanced combustion system with an integrated vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) oxygen supply providing efficient, low NOx melting in secondary aluminum furnaces. The mainstay of the combustion system is a novel air-oxy-natural gas burner that achieves high productivity and energy efficiency with low NOx emissions through advanced mixing concepts and the use of separate high- and low-purity oxidizer streams. The technology was installed on a reverberatory, secondary aluminum melting plant at the Wabash Aluminum Alloy's Syracuse, N.Y. plant, where it is currently in operation. Field testing gave evidence that the new burner technology meets the stringent NOx emissions target of 0.323 lb NO2/ton aluminum, thus complying with regulations promulgated by Southern California's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). Test results also indicated that the burner technology exceeded fuel efficiency and melting capacity goals. Economic modeling showed that the novel air-oxy-fuel (ADF) combustion technology provides a substantial increase in furnace profitability relative to air-fuel operation. Model results also suggest favorable economics for the air-oxy-fuel technology relative to a full oxy-fuel conversion of the furnace.

  10. Current Trends of High capacity Optical Interconnection Data Link in High Performance Optical Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical technologies are ubiquitous in telecommunications networks and systems, providing multiple wavelength channels of transport at 2.5 Gbit/sec to 40 Gbit/sec data rates over single fiber optic cables. Market pressures continue to drive the number of wavelength channels per fiber and the data rate per channel. This trend will continue for many years to come as electronic commerce grows and enterprises demand higher and reliable bandwidth over long distances. Electronic commerce, in turn, is driving the growth curves for single processor and multiprocessor performance in data base transaction and Web based servers. Ironically, the insatiable taste for enterprise network bandwidth, which has driven up the volume and pushed down the price of optical components for telecommunications, is simultaneously stressing computer system bandwidth increasing the need for new interconnection schemes and providing for the first time commercial opportunities for optical components in computer systems. The evolution of integrated circuit technology is causing system designs to move towards communication based architectures. We have presented the current tends of high performance system capacity of optical interconnection data transmission link in high performance optical communication and computing systems over wide range of the affecting parameters.

  11. Generation Capacity Investments and High Levels of Renewables. The Impact of a German Capacity Market on Northwest Europe. Discussion paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, O.; De Joode, J.; Koutstaal, P.R.; Van Hout, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Presently, Northwest European centralised electricity markets are designed as 'energy-only' markets. In an energy-only market, the price received for electricity produced is set by the marginal generation unit. Potentially, the designs of these markets could leave the owners of these units with 'missing money': i.e. money that is required to recover investment cost. Further, increasing penetration of renewables could exacerbate this problem. Of all the different options available to tackle the 'missing money' problem, capacity mechanisms have attracted most of the attention in recent policy debates in Europe. This paper contributes to ongoing policy discussions by providing a quantitative analysis of the phenomena of 'missing money' and capacity mechanisms in Northwest Europe. Our analysis shows that in the case of energy-only markets with a much higher penetration of intermittent electricity sources such as wind and solar PV, the 'missing money' problem may be aggravated, because operating hours for peak and mid-merit order capacity will be considerably reduced. Furthermore, unilateral introduction of capacity mechanisms in integrated electricity markets can have considerable impacts on cross-border electricity flows and investment decisions. Stand-alone introduction of a capacity market in Germany will likely result in higher investments in Germany at the expense of lower investments outside Germany and an increase in net exports from Germany. A possible advantage of a unilateral capacity mechanism in Germany may be a reduction in super-peak prices in the larger market area. Thus, neighbouring countries may have the possibility to free ride on the increase in flexible capacity in Germany. However, this advantage is conditional and depends on sufficient availability of interconnection capacity necessary to be able to use this reserve capacity. Otherwise, security of supply might be more at risk if the German

  12. Excel 2010 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The bestselling Excel book on the market, updated for Excel 2010 As the world's leading spreadsheet application, Excel has a huge user base. The release of Office 2010 brings major changes to Excel, so Excel For Dummies comes to the rescue once more! In the friendly and non-threatening For Dummies style, this popular guide shows beginners how to get up and running with Excel and helps more experienced users get comfortable with new features.Excel is the number one spreadsheet application worldwide, and Excel For Dummies is the number one guide to using i

  13. Effects of high fluoride intake on child mental work capacity: preliminary investigation into the mechanisms involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Li, X.J.; Wei, S.Q. [Child & Adolescent Hygiene Teaching Research Station, Chengdu (China)

    2008-10-15

    A study was carried out on 157 children, age 12-13, from a coal-burning fluorosis endemic area together with an experiment looking into the effect of high fluoride intake in animals. The results showed that early, prolonged high fluoride intake causes a decrease in a child's mental work capacity and that prolonged high uptake of fluoride causes a child's levels of hair zinc to drop. A multifactoral correlative analysis demonstrated a direct correlation between hair zinc and mental work capacity. The decrease of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and the increase of norepinephrine in animal brains exposed to high levels of fluoride suggest a possible mechanism for mental work capacity deficits in children. However, further research is necessary.

  14. Optimal spectra of the phosphor-coated white LEDs with excellent color rendering property and high luminous efficacy of radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guoxing; Yan, Huafeng

    2011-01-31

    A model for spectra of the phosphor-coated white LED (p-W LED) with a blue chip, a red chip, and green and yellow phosphors is presented. The optimal spectra of p-W LEDs with correlated color temperatures (CCTs) of 2700-6500 K have been obtained with a nonlinear program for maximizing luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) under conditions of both color-rendering indices (CRIs) and special CRIs of R9 strong red above 98. The simulation results show that p-W LEDs with one InGaN blue (450 nm) chip, one AlGaInP red (634 nm) chip, and green (507 nm) and yellow (580 nm) silicate phosphors can realize white lights with CRIs of about 98 and special CRIs of R9 for strong red above 98. The average of the special CRIs R9 to R12 for the four saturated colors (red, yellow, green, and blue) is above 95. R13 for the skin of women's faces at about 100, as well as LERs above 296 lm/W at CCTs of 2700-6500 K. LERs of excellent CRI p-W LEDs with one InGaN blue chip, one AlGaInP red chip, and green and yellow silicate phosphors increased by 19-49% when compared with that of excellent CRI p-W LEDs with one InGaN blue chip and green and yellow silicate phosphors, as well as red nitride phosphor.

  15. Crack-resistant polyimide coating for high-capacity battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingshun; Wang, Shuo; Lee, Pui-Kit; He, Jieqing; Yu, Denis Y. W.

    2017-10-01

    Electrode cracking is a serious problem that hinders the application of many next-generation high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Even though nano-sizing the material can reduce fracturing of individual particles, capacity fading is still observed due to large volume change and loss of contact in the electrode during lithium insertion and extraction. In this study, we design a crack-resistant high-modulus polyimide coating with high compressive strength which can hold multiple particles together during charge and discharge to maintain contact. The effectiveness of the coating is demonstrated on tin dioxide, a high-capacity large-volume-change material that undergoes both alloy and conversion reactions. The polyimide coating improves capacity retention of SnO2 from 80% to 100% after 80 cycles at 250 mA g-1. Stable capacity of 585 mAh g-1 can be obtained even at 500 mA g-1 after 300 cycles. Scanning electron microscopy and in-situ dilatometry confirm that electrode cracking is suppressed and thickness change is reduced with the coating. In addition, the chemically-stable polyimide film can separate the surface from direct contact with electrolyte, improving coulombic efficiency to ∼100%. We expect the novel strategy of suppressing electrode degradation with a crack-resistant coating can also be used for other alloy and conversion-based anodes.

  16. High-capacity electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage: Role of nanoscale effects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jagjit Nanda; Surendra K Martha; Ramki Kalyanaraman

    2015-06-01

    This review summarizes the current state-of-the art electrode materials used for high-capacity lithium-ion-based batteries and their significant role towards revolutionizing the electrochemical energy storage landscape in the area of consumer electronics, transportation and grid storage application. We discuss the role of nanoscale effects on the electrochemical performance of high-capacity battery electrode materials. Decrease in the particle size of the primary electrode materials from micron to nanometre size improves the ionic and electronic diffusion rates significantly. Nanometre-thick solid electrolyte (such as lithium phosphorous oxynitride) and oxides (such as Al2O3, ZnO, TiO2 etc.) material coatings also improve the interfacial stability and rate capability of a number of battery chemistries. We elucidate these effects in terms of different high-capacity battery chemistries based on intercalation and conversion mechanism.

  17. Robo-line storage: Low latency, high capacity storage systems over geographically distributed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Randy H.; Anderson, Thomas E.; Ousterhout, John K.; Patterson, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Rapid advances in high performance computing are making possible more complete and accurate computer-based modeling of complex physical phenomena, such as weather front interactions, dynamics of chemical reactions, numerical aerodynamic analysis of airframes, and ocean-land-atmosphere interactions. Many of these 'grand challenge' applications are as demanding of the underlying storage system, in terms of their capacity and bandwidth requirements, as they are on the computational power of the processor. A global view of the Earth's ocean chlorophyll and land vegetation requires over 2 terabytes of raw satellite image data. In this paper, we describe our planned research program in high capacity, high bandwidth storage systems. The project has four overall goals. First, we will examine new methods for high capacity storage systems, made possible by low cost, small form factor magnetic and optical tape systems. Second, access to the storage system will be low latency and high bandwidth. To achieve this, we must interleave data transfer at all levels of the storage system, including devices, controllers, servers, and communications links. Latency will be reduced by extensive caching throughout the storage hierarchy. Third, we will provide effective management of a storage hierarchy, extending the techniques already developed for the Log Structured File System. Finally, we will construct a protototype high capacity file server, suitable for use on the National Research and Education Network (NREN). Such research must be a Cornerstone of any coherent program in high performance computing and communications.

  18. Reassembling and testing of a high-precision heat capacity drop calorimeter. Heat capacity of some polyphenyls at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Luis M.N.B.F., E-mail: lbsantos@fc.up.pt [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Rocha, Marisa A.A.; Rodrigues, Ana S.M.C. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Stejfa, Vojtech; Fulem, Michal [Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, CZ-166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Bastos, Margarida [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > We present the reassembling, improvement and testing of a high-precision C{sub p} drop calorimeter. > The apparatus was tested, using benzoic acid and hexafluorobenzene. > The high sensitivity of the apparatus is comparable to the one obtained in adiabatic calorimetry. > Heat capacities at T = 298.15 K of some polyphenyls were measured. > Subtle heat capacity differences among position isomers (ortho, meta, para) were detected. - Abstract: The description of the reassembling and testing of a twin heat conduction, high-precision, drop microcalorimeter for the measurement of heat capacities of small samples are presented. The apparatus, originally developed and used at the Thermochemistry Laboratory, Lund, Sweden, has now been reassembled and modernized, with changes being made as regarding temperature sensors, electronics and data acquisition system. The apparatus was thereafter thoroughly tested, using benzoic acid and hexafluorobenzene as test substances. The accuracy of the C{sub p,m}{sup 0} (298.15 K) data obtained with this apparatus is comparable to that achieved by high-precision adiabatic calorimetry. Here we also present the results of heat capacity measurements on of some polyphenyls (1,2,3-triphenylbenzene, 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene, p-terphenyl, m-terphenyl, o-terphenyl, p-quaterphenyl) at T = 298.15 K, measured with the renewed high precision heat capacity drop calorimeter system. The high resolution and accuracy of the obtained heat capacity data enabled differentiation among the ortho-, meta-, and para-phenyl isomers.

  19. A Blind High-Capacity Wavelet-Based Steganography Technique for Hiding Images into other Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMAD, S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The flourishing field of Steganography is providing effective techniques to hide data into different types of digital media. In this paper, a novel technique is proposed to hide large amounts of image data into true colored images. The proposed method employs wavelet transforms to decompose images in a way similar to the Human Visual System (HVS for more secure and effective data hiding. The designed model can blindly extract the embedded message without the need to refer to the original cover image. Experimental results showed that the proposed method outperformed all of the existing techniques not only imperceptibility but also in terms of capacity. In fact, the proposed technique showed an outstanding performance on hiding a secret image whose size equals 100% of the cover image while maintaining excellent visual quality of the resultant stego-images.

  20. Shear Capacity and Failure Behavior of Steel-Reinforced High Ductile Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingke Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The shear behavior of six high ductile fiber reinforced concrete (HDC beams is studied to investigate the influence of shear-span ratio and HDC mechanical property on the improvement of the shear failure mode and shear capacity of short beams. Four steel-reinforced high ductile concrete beams (SHDC beams with different shear span ratios are tested under concentrated load at midspan. To study the effect of stirrups and steel on the shear capacity of short beams, two additional specimens without steel but one including stirrups are investigated. The main aspects of SHDC beams are discussed in detail, such as failure mode, deformability, and shear capacity. Test results show that the SHDC short beams keep high residual bearing capacity and great integrity when suffering from large deformation. It is revealed that HDC increased the shear ductility and improved the shear failure mode of short beams. A comparison with the shear equations of Chinese YB9082-2006 shows that the Chinese Code equation provides conservative estimation for HDC beams. This study proposes modifications to the equation for predicting the shear capacity of HDC beams.

  1. Pseudocapacitive Na-Ion Storage Boosts High Rate and Areal Capacity of Self-Branched 2D Layered Metal Chalcogenide Nanoarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Dongliang; Liang, Pei; Chen, Zhen; Bai, Linyi; Shen, He; Liu, Xiaoxu; Xia, Xinhui; Zhao, Yanli; Savilov, Serguei V; Lin, Jianyi; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-11-22

    The abundant reserve and low cost of sodium have provoked tremendous evolution of Na-ion batteries (SIBs) in the past few years, but their performances are still limited by either the specific capacity or rate capability. Attempts to pursue high rate ability with maintained high capacity in a single electrode remains even more challenging. Here, an elaborate self-branched 2D SnS2 (B-SnS2) nanoarray electrode is designed by a facile hot bath method for Na storage. This interesting electrode exhibits areal reversible capacity of ca. 3.7 mAh cm(-2) (900 mAh g(-1)) and rate capability of 1.6 mAh cm(-2) (400 mAh g(-1)) at 40 mA cm(-2) (10 A g(-1)). Improved extrinsic pseudocapacitive contribution is demonstrated as the origin of fast kinetics of an alloying-based SnS2 electrode. Sodiation dynamics analysis based on first-principles calculations, ex-situ HRTEM, in situ impedance, and in situ Raman technologies verify the S-edge effect on the fast Na(+) migration and reversible and sensitive structure evolution during high-rate charge/discharge. The excellent alloying-based pseudocapacitance and unsaturated edge effect enabled by self-branched surface nanoengineering could be a promising strategy for promoting development of SIBs with both high capacity and high rate response.

  2. Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles on Graphene Oxides for High Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kyoo Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetite, Fe3O4, is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity (924 mA h g−1, high density, low cost and low toxicity. However, its application as high capacity anodes is still hampered by poor cycling performance. To stabilize the cycling performance of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, composites comprising Fe3O4 nanoparticles and graphene sheets (GS were fabricated. The Fe3O4/GS composite disks of mm dimensions were prepared by electrostatic self-assembly between negatively charged graphene oxide (GO sheets and positively charged Fe3O4-APTMS [Fe3O4 grafted with (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS] in an acidic solution (pH = 2 followed by in situ chemical reduction. Thus prepared Fe3O4/GS composite showed an excellent rate capability as well as much enhanced cycling stability compared with Fe3O4 electrode. The superior electrochemical responses of Fe3O4/GS composite disks assure the advantages of: (1 electrostatic self-assembly between high storage-capacity materials with GO; and (2 incorporation of GS in the Fe3O4/GS composite for high capacity lithium-ion battery application.

  3. Do talento ao alto rendimento: indicadores de acesso à excelência no handebol From talent to a high level of performance: key requirements to access the excellence in handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Massuça

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O talento constitui uma das condições fundamentais para acender à excelência no desporto de competição e a sua identificação representa o primeiro passo de um longo processo de especialização que permite selecionar os sujeitos certos. Para conhecer as variáveis que os treinadores julgam mais influentes no sucesso do atleta de handebol (do sexo masculino, foi aplicado um questionário a 71 treinadores de handebol ("Questionário aos Técnicos de Andebol - QTA"; MASSUÇA, 2007. Neste instrumento, solicitava-se aos participantes que avaliassem o grau de importância de cada fator e indicador de rendimento no sucesso em geral (Handebolista, A e, que o fizessem igualmente para cada uma das posições de jogo que caracterizam a modalidade desportiva (Ponta, P; Lateral, L; Central, C; Pivot, Pi; Guarda-redes, GR. Os resultados permitem constatar que não existe um perfil de atleta de handebol, mas vários. Pode assim concluir-se que no jogo de handebol o sucesso pode ser experimentado por atletas com diferentes características. Em complemento, julgamos que o inventário apresentado (das qualidades necessárias ao atleta de handebol de alto rendimento poderá servir de referência para a construção de um modelo de seleção de talentos.Talent is a key requirement to access the excellence in a competitive sport and its identification is the first step of a long process of specialization that allows the correct selection of subjects. To understand what the most influent variables to achieve success are, a questionnaire was administered to 71 handball coaches ("Questionnaire to Handball Coaches - QTA"; MASSUÇA, 2007. The coaches were asked to rate the importance of each factor and performance indicator considering the success of the general male handball player (A and to do exactly the same for each specific playing position (wing, P; backward left/right, L; backward centre, C; pivot, Pi; goalkeeper, GR. Results showed that there is not a

  4. A new fluorescent probe for gasotransmitter H₂S: high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, and a significant fluorescence off-on response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Guo, Wei

    2014-04-25

    A fluorescent off-on probe for H2S was exploited by coupling the azide-based strategy with the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) sensing mechanism, which exhibits a considerably high fluorescence enhancement (1150-fold), an extremely low detection limit (0.78 nM), and a relatively fast response time (3-10 min) as well as excellent selectivity.

  5. Porous, single crystalline titanium nitride nanoplates grown on carbon fibers: excellent counter electrodes for low-cost, high performance, fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Dai, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Hu, Yingjie; Yu, Tao; Liu, Jianguo; Zou, Zhigang

    2014-11-28

    An excellent, platinum free fiber counter electrode (CE) was successfully fabricated, consisting of porous, single crystalline titanium nitride (TiN) nanoplates grown on carbon fibers (CF). The fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells (FDSSCs) based on the TiN-CF CE show a high conversion efficiency of 7.20%, comparable or even superior to that of the Pt wire (6.23%).

  6. High-Capacity Photorefractive Neural Network Implementing a Kohonen Topological Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauel, Yann; Pauliat, Gilles; Villing, André; Roosen, Gérald

    2001-10-01

    We designed and built a high-capacity neural network based on volume holographic interconnections in a photorefractive crystal. We used this system to implement a Kohonen topological map. We describe and justify our optical setup and present some experimental results of self-organization in the learning database.

  7. Achieving high capacity and rate capability in layered lithium transition metal oxide cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Juhyeon; Susanto, Dieky; Noh, Jae-Kyo; Ali, Ghulam; Cho, Byung Won; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Kim, Jong Hak; Oh, Si Hyoung

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we target to find a new composition for a layered mixed metal oxide, which has a high structural stability and a good electrochemical performance. Our strategy is to alter the transition metal composition focusing on the relative amounts of redox active Ni and Co to the inactive Mn, based on highly-stabilized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and X-ray diffraction analyses show that the degree of cation disorder decreases on increasing the ratio of Ni and Co to Mn, by the presence of Ni3+, suggesting that slightly higher Ni and Co contents lead to improved structural stability. Electrochemical studies demonstrate that LiNi0.4Co0.4Mn0.2O2 cathodes exhibit considerable improvements in both the reversible capacity and the rate capabilities at a voltage range of 2.5-4.6 V. In situ XRD measurements reveal that LiNi0.4Co0.4Mn0.2O2 maintains a single-phase and undergoes lesser structural variations compared to controlled compositions during a delithiation process up to 4.6 V, while achieving a high reversible capacity over 200 mAh g-1. As a result, LiNi0.4Co0.4Mn0.2O2 experiences fewer structural degradations during electrochemical cycling, which explains the excellent long-term cycling performance.

  8. 1D Ni-Co oxide and sulfide nanoarray/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructures for asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy density and excellent cycling stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pin; Tian, Jian; Sang, Yuanhua; Tuan, Chia-Chi; Cui, Guanwei; Shi, Xifeng; Wong, C P; Tang, Bo; Liu, Hong

    2016-09-15

    The fabrication of supercapacitor electrodes with high energy density and excellent cycling stability is still a great challenge. A carbon aerogel, possessing a hierarchical porous structure, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity, is an ideal backbone to support transition metal oxides and bring hope to prepare electrodes with high energy density and excellent cycling stability. Therefore, NiCo2S4 nanotube array/carbon aerogel and NiCo2O4 nanoneedle array/carbon aerogel hybrid supercapacitor electrode materials were synthesized by assembling Ni-Co precursor needle arrays on the surface of the channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan in this study. The 1D nanostructures grow on the channel surface of the carbon aerogel vertically and tightly, contributing to the enhanced electrochemical performance with ultrahigh energy density. The energy density of NiCo2S4 nanotube array/carbon aerogel and NiCo2O4 nanoneedle array/carbon aerogel hybrid asymmetric supercapacitors can reach up to 55.3 Wh kg(-1) and 47.5 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 400 W kg(-1), respectively. These asymmetric devices also displayed excellent cycling stability with a capacitance retention of about 96.6% and 92% over 5000 cycles.

  9. The Capacity of Finite-State Channels in the High-Noise Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Pfister, Henry D

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the derivative of the entropy rate of a hidden Markov process with respect to the observation probabilities. The main result is a compact formula for the derivative that can be evaluated easily using Monte Carlo methods. It is applied to the problem of computing the capacity of a finite-state channel (FSC) and, in the high-noise regime, the formula has a simple closed-form expression that enables series expansion of the capacity of a FSC. This expansion is evaluated for a binary-symmetric channel under a (0,1) run-length limited constraint and an intersymbol-interference channel with Gaussian noise.

  10. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-08-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices.

  11. Concentration-Gradient Multichannel Flow-Stream Membrane Capacitive Deionization Cell for High Desalination Capacity of Carbon Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choonsoo; Lee, Juhan; Srimuk, Pattarachai; Aslan, Mesut; Presser, Volker

    2017-07-07

    We present a novel multichannel membrane flow-stream capacitive deionization (MC-MCDI) concept with two flow streams to control the environment around the electrodes and a middle channel for water desalination. The introduction of side channels to our new cell design allows operation in a highly saline environment, while the feed water stream in the middle channel (conventional CDI channel) is separated from the electrodes with anion- and cation-exchange membranes. At a high salinity gradient between side (1000 mm) and middle (5 mm) channels, MC-MCDI exhibited an unprecedented salt-adsorption capacity (SAC) of 56 mg g(-1) in the middle channel with charge efficiency close to unity and low energy consumption. This excellent performance corresponds to a fourfold increase in desalination performance compared to the state-of-the-art in a conventional CDI cell. The enhancement originates from the enhanced specific capacitance in high-molar saline media in agreement with the Gouy-Chapman-Stern theory and from a double-ion desorption/adsorption process of MC-MCDI through voltage operation from -1.2 to +1.2 V. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  13. Computational Design of Metal-Organic Frameworks with High Methane Deliverable Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yi; Martin, Richard; Simon, Cory; Haranczyk, Maciej; Smit, Berend; Deem, Michael; Deem Team; Haranczyk Team; Smit Team

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a rapidly emerging class of nanoporous materials with largely tunable chemistry and diverse applications in gas storage, gas purification, catalysis, etc. Intensive efforts are being made to develop new MOFs with desirable properties both experimentally and computationally in the past decades. To guide experimental synthesis with limited throughput, we develop a computational methodology to explore MOFs with high methane deliverable capacity. This de novo design procedure applies known chemical reactions, considers synthesizability and geometric requirements of organic linkers, and evolves a population of MOFs with desirable property efficiently. We identify about 500 MOFs with higher deliverable capacity than MOF-5 in 10 networks. We also investigate the relationship between deliverable capacity and internal surface area of MOFs. This methodology can be extended to MOFs with multiple types of linkers and multiple SBUs. DE-FG02- 12ER16362.

  14. In Silico Discovery of High Deliverable Capacity Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yi; Martin, Richard; Simon, Cory; Haranczyk, Maciej; Smit, Berend; Deem, Michael; Michael W. Deem Team; Maciej Haranczyk Team; Berend Smit Team

    2015-03-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are actively being explored as potential adsorbed natural gas storage materials for small vehicles. Experimental exploration of potential materials is limited by the throughput of synthetic chemistry. We here describe a computational methodology to complement and guide these experimental efforts. The method uses known chemical transformations in silico to identify MOFs with high methane deliverable capacity. The procedure explicitly considers synthesizability with geometric requirements on organic linkers. We efficiently search the composition and conformation space of organic linkers for nine MOF networks, finding 48 materials with higher predicted deliverable capacity (at 65 bar storage, 5.8 bar depletion, and 298 K) than MOF-5 in four of the nine networks. The best material has a predicted deliverable capacity 8% higher than that of MOF-5. US Department of Energy.

  15. How high is visual short-term memory capacity for object layout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanocki, Thomas; Sellers, Eric; Mittelstadt, Jeff; Sulman, Noah

    2010-05-01

    Previous research measuring visual short-term memory (VSTM) suggests that the capacity for representing the layout of objects is fairly high. In four experiments, we further explored the capacity of VSTM for layout of objects, using the change detection method. In Experiment 1, participants retained most of the elements in displays of 4 to 8 elements. In Experiments 2 and 3, with up to 20 elements, participants retained many of them, reaching a capacity of 13.4 stimulus elements. In Experiment 4, participants retained much of a complex naturalistic scene. In most cases, increasing display size caused only modest reductions in performance, consistent with the idea of configural, variable-resolution grouping. The results indicate that participants can retain a substantial amount of scene layout information (objects and locations) in short-term memory. We propose that this is a case of remote visual understanding, where observers' ability to integrate information from a scene is paramount.

  16. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Frasca, Albert J.; Wieserman, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) high capacity power project are presented: (1) neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

  17. High-Capacity and Photoregenerable Composite Material for Efficient Adsorption and Degradation of Phenanthrene in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Cai, Zhengqing; Zhao, Xiao; Wang, Ting; Li, Fan; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-10-18

    We report a novel composite material, referred to as activated charcoal supported titanate nanotubes (TNTs@AC), for highly efficient adsorption and photodegradation of a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), phenanthrene. TNTs@AC was prepared through a one-step hydrothermal method, and is composed of an activated charcoal core and a shell of carbon-coated titanate nanotubes. TNTs@AC offered a maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity of 12.1 mg/g for phenanthrene (a model PAH), which is ∼11 times higher than the parent activated charcoal. Phenanthrene was rapidly concentrated onto TNTs@AC, and subsequently completely photodegraded under UV light within 2 h. The photoregenerated TNTs@AC can then be reused for another adsorption-photodegradation cycle without significant capacity or activity loss. TNTs@AC performed well over a wide range of pH, ionic strength, and dissolved organic matter. Mechanistically, the enhanced adsorption capacity is attributed to the formation of carbon-coated ink-bottle pores of the titanate nanotubes, which are conducive to capillary condensation; in addition, the modified microcarbon facilitates transfer of excited electrons, thereby inhibiting recombination of the electron-hole pairs, resulting in high photocatalytic activity. The combined high adsorption capacity, photocatalytic activity, and regenerability/reusability merit TNTs@AC a very attractive material for concentrating and degrading a host of micropollutants in the environment.

  18. Curtailment in a Highly Renewable Power System and Its Effect on Capacity Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kies

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity factor of a power plant is the ratio of generation over its potential generation. It is an important measure to describe wind and solar resources. However, the fluctuating nature of renewable power generation makes it difficult to integrate all generation at times. Whenever generation exceeds the load, curtailment or storage of energy is required. With increasing renewable shares in the power system, the level of curtailment will further increase. In this work, the influence of the curtailment on the capacity factors for a highly renewable German power system is studied. An effective capacity factor is introduced, and the implications for the distribution of renewable power plants are discussed. Three years of highly-resolved weather data were used to model wind and solar power generation. Together with historical load data and a transmission model, a possible future German power system was simulated. It is shown that effective capacity factors for unlimited transmission are strongly reduced by up to 60% (wind and 70% (photovoltaics and therefore of limited value in a highly renewable power system. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that wind power benefits more strongly from a reinforced transmission grid than photovoltaics (PV does.

  19. High areal capacity hybrid magnesium-lithium-ion battery with 99.9% Coulombic efficiency for large-scale energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyun Deog; Liang, Yanliang; Li, Yifei; Yao, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Hybrid magnesium-lithium-ion batteries (MLIBs) featuring dendrite-free deposition of Mg anode and Li-intercalation cathode are safe alternatives to Li-ion batteries for large-scale energy storage. Here we report for the first time the excellent stability of a high areal capacity MLIB cell and dendrite-free deposition behavior of Mg under high current density (2 mA cm(-2)). The hybrid cell showed no capacity loss for 100 cycles with Coulombic efficiency as high as 99.9%, whereas the control cell with a Li-metal anode only retained 30% of its original capacity with Coulombic efficiency well below 90%. The use of TiS2 as a cathode enabled the highest specific capacity and one of the best rate performances among reported MLIBs. Postmortem analysis of the cycled cells revealed dendrite-free Mg deposition on a Mg anode surface, while mossy Li dendrites were observed covering the Li surface and penetrated into separators in the Li cell. The energy density of a MLIB could be further improved by developing electrolytes with higher salt concentration and wider electrochemical window, leading to new opportunities for its application in large-scale energy storage.

  20. Energy Efficiency and Capacity Tradeoff in Cloud Radio Access Network of High-Speed Railways

    OpenAIRE

    Shichao Li; Gang Zhu; Siyu Lin; Qian Gao; Lei Xiong; Weiliang Xie; Xiaoyu Qiao

    2017-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand of high-data-rate services of high-speed railway (HSR) passengers, cloud radio access network (C-RAN) is proposed. This paper investigates the tradeoff between energy efficiency (EE) performance and capacity in C-RAN of HSR. Considering that the train location can be predicted, we propose a predictable path loss based time domain power allocation method (PPTPA) to improve EE performance of HSR communication system. First, we consider that the communication system...

  1. High capacity and high rate capability of nanostructured CuFeO 2 anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Wang, Jia-Zhao; Zhu, Xue-Bin; Gao, Xuan-Wen; Liu, Hua-Kun

    Non-toxic, cheap, nanostructured ternary transition metal oxide CuFeO 2 was synthesised using a simple sol-gel method at different temperatures. The effects of the processing temperature on the particle size and electrochemical performance of the nanostructured CuFeO 2 were investigated. The electrochemical results show that the sample synthesised at 650 °C shows the best cycling performance, retaining a specific capacity of 475 mAh g -1 beyond 100 cycles, with a capacity fading of less than 0.33% per cycle. The electrode also exhibits good rate capability in the range of 0.5 C-4 C. At the high rate of 4 C, the reversible capacity of CuFeO 2 is around 170 mAh g -1. It is believed that the ternary transition metal oxide CuFeO 2 is quite acceptable compared with other high performance nanostructured anode materials.

  2. Construction of Hierarchical α-MnO2 Nanowires@Ultrathin δ-MnO2 Nanosheets Core-Shell Nanostructure with Excellent Cycling Stability for High-Power Asymmetric Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhipeng; Shao, Guangjie; Fan, Yuqian; Wang, Guiling; Song, Jianjun; Shen, Dejiu

    2016-04-13

    Poor electrical conductivity and mechanical instability are two major obstacles to realizing high performance of MnO2 as pseudocapacitor material. The construction of unique hierarchical core-shell nanostructures, therefore, plays an important role in the efficient enhancement of the rate capacity and the stability of this material. We herein report the fabrication of a hierarchical α-MnO2 nanowires@ultrathin δ-MnO2 nanosheets core-shell nanostructure by adopting a facile and practical solution-phase technique. The novel hierarchical nanostructures are composed of ultrathin δ-MnO2 nanosheets with a few atomic layers growing well on the surface of the ultralong α-MnO2 nanowires. The first specific capacitance of hierarchical core-shell nanostructure reached 153.8 F g(-1) at the discharge current density of as high as 20 A g(-1), and the cycling stability is retained at 98.1% after 10,000 charge-discharge cycles, higher than those in the literature. The excellent rate capacity and stability of the hierarchical core-shell nanostructures can be attributed to the structural features of the two MnO2 crystals, in which a 1D α-MnO2 nanowire core provides a stable structural backbone and the ultrathin 2D δ-MnO2 nanosheet shell creates more reactive active sites. The synergistic effects of different dimensions also contribute to the superior rate capability.

  3. Bay-annulated indigo (BAI) as an excellent electron accepting building block for high performance organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yi; He, Bo; Pun, Andrew

    2016-04-19

    A novel electron acceptor based on bay-annulated indigo (BAI) was synthesized and used for the preparation of a series of high performance donor-acceptor small molecules and polymers. The resulting materials possess low-lying LUMO energy level and small HOMO-LUMO gaps, while their films exhibited high crystallinity upon thermal treatment, commensurate with high field effect mobilities and ambipolar transfer characteristics.

  4. Bringing Excellence to Automotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Večeřa, Pavel; Paulová, Iveta

    2012-12-01

    Market situation and development in recent years shows, that organization's ability to meet customer requirements is not enough. Successful organizations are able to exceed the expectations of all stakeholders. They are building their excellence systematically. Our contribution basically how the excellence in automotive is created using EFQM Excellence Model in Total Quality Management.

  5. On-demand high-capacity ride-sharing via dynamic trip-vehicle assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Mora, Javier; Samaranayake, Samitha; Wallar, Alex; Frazzoli, Emilio; Rus, Daniela

    2017-01-17

    Ride-sharing services are transforming urban mobility by providing timely and convenient transportation to anybody, anywhere, and anytime. These services present enormous potential for positive societal impacts with respect to pollution, energy consumption, congestion, etc. Current mathematical models, however, do not fully address the potential of ride-sharing. Recently, a large-scale study highlighted some of the benefits of car pooling but was limited to static routes with two riders per vehicle (optimally) or three (with heuristics). We present a more general mathematical model for real-time high-capacity ride-sharing that (i) scales to large numbers of passengers and trips and (ii) dynamically generates optimal routes with respect to online demand and vehicle locations. The algorithm starts from a greedy assignment and improves it through a constrained optimization, quickly returning solutions of good quality and converging to the optimal assignment over time. We quantify experimentally the tradeoff between fleet size, capacity, waiting time, travel delay, and operational costs for low- to medium-capacity vehicles, such as taxis and van shuttles. The algorithm is validated with ∼3 million rides extracted from the New York City taxicab public dataset. Our experimental study considers ride-sharing with rider capacity of up to 10 simultaneous passengers per vehicle. The algorithm applies to fleets of autonomous vehicles and also incorporates rebalancing of idling vehicles to areas of high demand. This framework is general and can be used for many real-time multivehicle, multitask assignment problems.

  6. A high-capacity steganography scheme for JPEG2000 baseline system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Haili; Wu, Renbiao

    2009-08-01

    Hiding capacity is very important for efficient covert communications. For JPEG2000 compressed images, it is necessary to enlarge the hiding capacity because the available redundancy is very limited. In addition, the bitstream truncation makes it difficult to hide information. In this paper, a high-capacity steganography scheme is proposed for the JPEG2000 baseline system, which uses bit-plane encoding procedure twice to solve the problem due to bitstream truncation. Moreover, embedding points and their intensity are determined in a well defined quantitative manner via redundancy evaluation to increase hiding capacity. The redundancy is measured by bit, which is different from conventional methods which adjust the embedding intensity by multiplying a visual masking factor. High volumetric data is embedded into bit-planes as low as possible to keep message integrality, but at the cost of an extra bit-plane encoding procedure and slightly changed compression ratio. The proposed method can be easily integrated into the JPEG2000 image coder, and the produced stego-bitstream can be decoded normally. Simulation shows that the proposed method is feasible, effective, and secure.

  7. On-demand high-capacity ride-sharing via dynamic trip-vehicle assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Mora, Javier; Samaranayake, Samitha; Wallar, Alex; Frazzoli, Emilio; Rus, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Ride-sharing services are transforming urban mobility by providing timely and convenient transportation to anybody, anywhere, and anytime. These services present enormous potential for positive societal impacts with respect to pollution, energy consumption, congestion, etc. Current mathematical models, however, do not fully address the potential of ride-sharing. Recently, a large-scale study highlighted some of the benefits of car pooling but was limited to static routes with two riders per vehicle (optimally) or three (with heuristics). We present a more general mathematical model for real-time high-capacity ride-sharing that (i) scales to large numbers of passengers and trips and (ii) dynamically generates optimal routes with respect to online demand and vehicle locations. The algorithm starts from a greedy assignment and improves it through a constrained optimization, quickly returning solutions of good quality and converging to the optimal assignment over time. We quantify experimentally the tradeoff between fleet size, capacity, waiting time, travel delay, and operational costs for low- to medium-capacity vehicles, such as taxis and van shuttles. The algorithm is validated with ∼3 million rides extracted from the New York City taxicab public dataset. Our experimental study considers ride-sharing with rider capacity of up to 10 simultaneous passengers per vehicle. The algorithm applies to fleets of autonomous vehicles and also incorporates rebalancing of idling vehicles to areas of high demand. This framework is general and can be used for many real-time multivehicle, multitask assignment problems. PMID:28049820

  8. Evaluating the Value of High Spatial Resolution in National Capacity Expansion Models using ReEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Venkat; Cole, Wesley

    2016-11-14

    Power sector capacity expansion models (CEMs) have a broad range of spatial resolutions. This paper uses the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, a long-term national scale electric sector CEM, to evaluate the value of high spatial resolution for CEMs. ReEDS models the United States with 134 load balancing areas (BAs) and captures the variability in existing generation parameters, future technology costs, performance, and resource availability using very high spatial resolution data, especially for wind and solar modeled at 356 resource regions. In this paper we perform planning studies at three different spatial resolutions--native resolution (134 BAs), state-level, and NERC region level--and evaluate how results change under different levels of spatial aggregation in terms of renewable capacity deployment and location, associated transmission builds, and system costs. The results are used to ascertain the value of high geographically resolved models in terms of their impact on relative competitiveness among renewable energy resources.

  9. Master VISUALLY Excel 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The complete visual reference on Excel basics. Aimed at visual learners who are seeking an all-in-one reference that provides in-depth coveage of Excel from a visual viewpoint, this resource delves into all the newest features of Excel 2010. You'll explore Excel with helpful step-by-step instructions that show you, rather than tell you, how to navigate Excel, work with PivotTables and PivotCharts, use macros to streamline work, and collaborate with other users in one document.: This two-color guide features screen shots with specific, numbered instructions so you can learn the actions you need

  10. Excel 2013 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A friendly, visual approach to learning the basics of Excel 2013 As the world's leading spreadsheet program, Excel is a spreadsheet and data analysis tool that is part of the Microsoft Office suite. The new Excel 2013 includes new features and functionalities that require users of older versions to re-learn the application. However, whether you're switching from an earlier version or learning Excel for the first time, this easy-to-follow visual guide gets you going with Excel 2013 quickly and easily. Numbered steps as well as full-color screen shots, concise information, and helpfu

  11. Excel 2013 formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Walkenbach, John

    2013-01-01

    Maximize the power of Excel 2013 formulas with this must-have Excel reference John Walkenbach, known as ""Mr. Spreadsheet,"" is a master at deciphering complex technical topics and Excel formulas are no exception. This fully updated book delivers more than 800 pages of Excel 2013 tips, tricks, and techniques for creating formulas that calculate, developing custom worksheet functions with VBA, debugging formulas, and much more. Demonstrates how to use all the latest features in Excel 2013 Shows how to create financial formulas and tap into the power of array formulas

  12. Overview of space power electronic's technology under the CSTI High Capacity Power Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    The Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) is a NASA Program targeted at the development of specific technologies in the areas of transportation, operations and science. Each of these three areas consists of major elements and one of the operation's elements is the High Capacity Power element. The goal of this element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA initiatives. The High Capacity Power element is broken down into several subelements that includes energy conversion in the areas of the free piston Stirling power converter and thermoelectrics, thermal management, power management, system diagnostics, and environmental compatibility and system's lifetime. A recent overview of the CSTI High capacity Power element and a description of each of the program's subelements is given by Winter (1989). The goals of the Power Management subelement are twofold. The first is to develop, test, and demonstrate high temperature, radiation-resistant power and control components and circuits that will be needed in the Power Conditioning, Control and Transmission (PCCT) subsystem of a space nuclear power system. The results obtained under this goal will also be applicable to the instrumentation and control subsystem of a space nuclear reactor. These components and circuits must perform reliably for lifetimes of 7-10 years. The second goal is to develop analytical models for use in computer simulations of candidate PCCT subsystems. Circuits which will be required for a specific PCCT subsystem will be designed and built to demonstrate their performance and, also, to validate the analytical models and simulations. The tasks under the Power Management subelement will now be described in terms of objectives, approach and present status of work.

  13. Overview of space power electronic's technology under the CSTI High Capacity Power Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    1994-01-01

    The Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) is a NASA Program targeted at the development of specific technologies in the areas of transportation, operations and science. Each of these three areas consists of major elements and one of the operation's elements is the High Capacity Power element. The goal of this element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA initiatives. The High Capacity Power element is broken down into several subelements that includes energy conversion in the areas of the free piston Stirling power converter and thermoelectrics, thermal management, power management, system diagnostics, and environmental compatibility and system's lifetime. A recent overview of the CSTI High capacity Power element and a description of each of the program's subelements is given by Winter (1989). The goals of the Power Management subelement are twofold. The first is to develop, test, and demonstrate high temperature, radiation-resistant power and control components and circuits that will be needed in the Power Conditioning, Control and Transmission (PCCT) subsystem of a space nuclear power system. The results obtained under this goal will also be applicable to the instrumentation and control subsystem of a space nuclear reactor. These components and circuits must perform reliably for lifetimes of 7-10 years. The second goal is to develop analytical models for use in computer simulations of candidate PCCT subsystems. Circuits which will be required for a specific PCCT subsystem will be designed and built to demonstrate their performance and, also, to validate the analytical models and simulations. The tasks under the Power Management subelement will now be described in terms of objectives, approach and present status of work.

  14. Efficient removal and highly selective adsorption of Hg2+ by polydopamine nanospheres with total recycle capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiulan; Jia, Xin; Zhang, Guoxiang; Hu, Jiamei; Sheng, Wenbo; Ma, Zhiyuan; Lu, Jianjiang; Liu, Zhiyong

    2014-09-01

    This study reported a new method for efficient removal of Hg2+ from contaminated water using highly selective adsorptive polydopamine (PDA) nanospheres, which were uniform and had a small diameter (150-200 nm). The adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics were investigated. Also, the effects of ionic strength, co-existing ions on removing ability of PDA nanospheres for Hg2+ were studied. Adsorption of Hg2+ was very fast and efficient as adsorption equilibrium was completed within 4 h and the maximum adsorption capacities were 1861.72 mg/g, 2037.22 mg/g, and 2076.81 mg/g at 298 K, 313 K, and 328 K respectively, increasing with increasing of temperature. The PDA nanospheres exhibited highly selective adsorption of Hg2+ and had a total desorption capacity of 100% in hydrochloric acid solution, pH 1. The results showed that the structure of PDA nanospheres remained almost unchanged after recycling five times. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to determine the elements of PDA nanospheres before and after Hg2+ adsorption. Considering their efficient and highly Hg2+ selective adsorption, total recycle capacity, and high stability, PDA nanospheres will be feasible in a number of practical applications.

  15. Carbon−Silicon Core−Shell Nanowires as High Capacity Electrode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2009-09-09

    We introduce a novel design of carbon-silicon core-shell nanowires for high power and long life lithium battery electrodes. Amorphous silicon was coated onto carbon nanofibers to form a core-shell structure and the resulted core-shell nanowires showed great performance as anode material. Since carbon has a much smaller capacity compared to silicon, the carbon core experiences less structural stress or damage during lithium cycling and can function as a mechanical support and an efficient electron conducting pathway. These nanowires have a high charge storage capacity of ∼2000 mAh/g and good cycling life. They also have a high Coulmbic efficiency of 90% for the first cycle and 98-99.6% for the following cycles. A full cell composed of LiCoO2 cathode and carbon-silicon core-shell nanowire anode is also demonstrated. Significantly, using these core-shell nanowires we have obtained high mass loading and an area capacity of ∼4 mAh/cm2, which is comparable to commercial battery values. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  16. Mn-Ce oxide as a high-capacity adsorbent for fluoride removal from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shubo; Liu, Han; Zhou, Wei; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

    2011-02-28

    A novel Mn-Ce oxide adsorbent with high sorption capacity for fluoride was prepared via co-precipitation method in this study, and the granular adsorbent was successfully prepared by calcining the mixture of the Mn-Ce powder and pseudo-boehmite. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image showed that the Mn-Ce adsorbent consisted of about 4.5 nm crystals, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated the formation of solid solution by Mn species entering CeO(2) lattices. The surface hydroxyl group density on the Mn-Ce adsorbent was determined to be as high as 15.3 mmol g(-1), mainly responsible for its high sorption capacity for fluoride. Sorption isotherms showed that the sorption capacities of fluoride on the powdered and granular adsorbent were 79.5 and 45.5 mg g(-1) respectively at the equilibrium fluoride concentration of 1 mg L(-1), much higher than all reported adsorbents. Additionally, the adsorption was fast within the initial 1 h. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that the hydroxyl groups on the adsorbent surface were involved in the sorption of fluoride. Both anion exchange and electrostatic interaction were involved in the sorption of fluoride on the Mn-Ce oxide adsorbent. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimation of Parameters Obtained by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on Systems Containing High Capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Rajčić Vujasinović

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical systems with high capacities demand devices for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS with ultra-low frequencies (in order of mHz, that are almost impossible to accomplish with analogue techniques, but this becomes possible by using a computer technique and accompanying digital equipment. Recently, an original software and hardware for electrochemical measurements, intended for electrochemical systems exhibiting high capacities, such as supercapacitors, has been developed. One of the included methods is EIS. In this paper, the method of calculation of circuit parameters from an EIS curve is described. The results of testing on a physical model of an electrochemical system, constructed of known elements (including a 1.6 F capacitor in a defined arrangement, proved the validity of the system and the method.

  18. High-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hong; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Pieprzyk, Josef; Li, Jing; Luo, Mingxing; Xiao, Jinghua; Xiao, Fuyuan

    2016-08-01

    We propose an approach that achieves high-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding. In particular, we encode a key with the Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers and then use k-Chebyshev maps to achieve consecutive and flexible key expansion and apply the pre-shared classical information between Alice and Bob and fountain codes for privacy amplification to solve the security of the exchange of classical information via the classical channel. Consequently, our high-capacity protocol does not have the limitations imposed by orbital angular momentum and down-conversion bandwidths, and it meets the requirements for longer distances and lower error rates simultaneously.

  19. A micro-structured Si-based electrodes for high capacity electrical double layer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikscikas, Valdas; Oguchi, Hiroyuki; Yanazawa, Hiroshi; Hara, Motoaki; Kuwano, Hiroki

    2014-11-01

    We challenged to make basis for Si electrodes of electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) used as a power source of micro-sensor nodes. Mcroelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processes were successfully introduced to fabricate micro-structured Si-based electrodes to obtain high surface area which leads to high capacity of EDLCs. Study of fundamental properties revealed that the microstructured electrodes benefit from good wettability to electrolytes, but suffer from electric resistance. We found that this problem can be solved by metal-coating of the electrode surface. Finally we build an EDLC consisting of Au-coated micro-structured Si electrodes. This EDLC showed capacity of 14.3 mF/cm2, which is about 530 times larger than that of an EDLC consisting of flat Au electrodes.

  20. High-Capacity Hydrogen-Based Green-Energy Storage Solutions For The Grid Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, F.; Screnci, A.

    One of the current main challenges in green-power storage and smart grids is the lack of effective solutions for accommodating the unbalance between renewable energy sources, that offer intermittent electricity supply, and a variable electricity demand. Energy management systems have to be foreseen for the near future, while they still represent a major challenge. Integrating intermittent renewable energy sources, by safe and cost-effective energy storage systems based on solid state hydrogen is today achievable thanks to recently some technology breakthroughs. Optimized solid storage method made of magnesium-based hydrides guarantees a very rapid absorption and desorption kinetics. Coupled with electrolyzer technology, high-capacity storage of green-hydrogen is therefore practicable. Besides these aspects, magnesium has been emerging as environmentally friend energy storage method to sustain integration, monitoring and control of large quantity of GWh from high capacity renewable generation in the EU.

  1. Hierarchical network architectures of carbon fiber paper supported cobalt oxide nanonet for high-capacity pseudocapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Cheng, Shuang; Ding, Yong; Zhu, Xingbao; Wang, Zhong Lin; Liu, Meilin

    2012-01-11

    We present a high-capacity pseudocapacitor based on a hierarchical network architecture consisting of Co(3)O(4) nanowire network (nanonet) coated on a carbon fiber paper. With this tailored architecture, the electrode shows ideal capacitive behavior (rectangular shape of cyclic voltammograms) and large specific capacitance (1124 F/g) at high charge/discharge rate (25.34 A/g), still retaining ~94% of the capacitance at a much lower rate of 0.25 A/g. The much-improved capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability may be attributed to the unique hierarchical network structures, which improves electron/ion transport, enhances the kinetics of redox reactions, and facilitates facile stress relaxation during cycling.

  2. High-capacity three-party quantum secret sharing with superdense coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Bin; Li Chuan-Qi; Xu Fei; Chen Yu-Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for high-capacity three-party quantum secret sharing with quantum superdense coding, following some ideas in the work by Liu et al (2002 Phys. Rev. A 65 022304) and the quantum secret sharing scheme by Deng et al (2008 Phys. Left. A 372 1957). Instead of using two sets of nonorthogonal states, the boss Alice needs only to prepare a sequence of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs in d-dimension. The two agents Bob and Charlie encode their information with dense coding unitary operations, and security is checked by inserting decoy photons. The scheme has a high capacity and intrinsic efficiency as each pair can carry 21bd bits of information, and almost all the pairs can be used for carrying useful information.

  3. Optical intensity modulation direct detection versus heterodyne detection: A high-SNR capacity comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2016-09-15

    An optical wireless communications system which employs either intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IM-DD) or heterodyne detection (HD) is considered. IM-DD has lower complexity and cost than HD, but on the other hand, has lower capacity. It is therefore interesting to investigate the capacity gap between the two systems. The main focus of this paper is to investigate this gap at high SNR. Bounds on this gap are established for two cases: between IM-DD and HD, and between IM-DD and an HD-PAM which is an HD system employing pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM). While the gap between IM-DD and HD increases as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) increases, the gap between IM-DD and an HD-PAM is upper bounded by a constant at high SNR. © 2015 IEEE.

  4. Materials Research Advances towards High-Capacity Battery/Fuel Cell Devices (Invited paper)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Dong He; Lu-Han Ye; Ke-Chun Wen; Ya-Chun Liang; Wei-Qiang Lv; Gao-Long Zhu; Kelvin H. L. Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The world has entered an era featured with fast transportations, instant communications, and prompt technological revolutions, the further advancement of which all relies fundamentally, yet, on the development of cost-effective energy resources allowing for durable and high-rate energy supply. Current battery and fuel cell systems are challenged by a few issues characterized either by insufficient energy capacity or by operation instability and, thus, are not ideal for such highly-demanded applications as electrical vehicles and portable electronic devices. In this mini-review, we present, from materials perspectives, a few selected important breakthroughs in energy resources employed in these applications. Prospectives are then given to look towards future research activities for seeking viable materials solutions for addressing the capacity, durability, and cost shortcomings associated with current battery/fuel cell devices.

  5. High-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hong; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Pieprzyk, Josef; Li, Jing; Luo, Mingxing; Xiao, Jinghua; Xiao, Fuyuan

    2016-11-01

    We propose an approach that achieves high-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding. In particular, we encode a key with the Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers and then use k-Chebyshev maps to achieve consecutive and flexible key expansion and apply the pre-shared classical information between Alice and Bob and fountain codes for privacy amplification to solve the security of the exchange of classical information via the classical channel. Consequently, our high-capacity protocol does not have the limitations imposed by orbital angular momentum and down-conversion bandwidths, and it meets the requirements for longer distances and lower error rates simultaneously.

  6. Load Carrying Capacity of Keyed Joints Reinforced with High Strength Wire Rope Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    Vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements are usually made as keyed joints reinforced with overlapping U-bars. The overlapping U-bars form a cylindrical core in which the locking bar is placed and the connection is subsequently grouted with mortar. A more construction...... friendly shear connection can be obtained by replacing the U-bars with high strength looped wire ropes. The wire ropes have the advantage of being flexible (they have virtually no bending stiffness) which makes installation of wall elements much easier. The looped wire ropes are usually pre-installed in so...... the shear capacity of wire loop connections. Tests have shown that the shear capacity of such joints – due to the relatively high tensile strength of the wire ropes - is more prone to be governed by fracture of the joint mortar in combination with yielding of the locking bar. To model this type of failure...

  7. Estimation of parameters obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on systems containing high capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stević, Zoran; Vujasinović, Mirjana Rajčić; Radunović, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical systems with high capacities demand devices for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with ultra-low frequencies (in order of mHz), that are almost impossible to accomplish with analogue techniques, but this becomes possible by using a computer technique and accompanying digital equipment. Recently, an original software and hardware for electrochemical measurements, intended for electrochemical systems exhibiting high capacities, such as supercapacitors, has been developed. One of the included methods is EIS. In this paper, the method of calculation of circuit parameters from an EIS curve is described. The results of testing on a physical model of an electrochemical system, constructed of known elements (including a 1.6 F capacitor) in a defined arrangement, proved the validity of the system and the method.

  8. Graphene-wrapped CoS nanoparticles for high-capacity lithium-ion storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan; Xu, Yi; Wang, Yong

    2013-02-01

    Graphene-wrapped CoS nanoparticles are synthesized by a solvothermal approach. The product is significantly different from porous CoS microspheres prepared in the absence of graphene under similar preparation conditions. The CoS microspheres and CoS/graphene composite are fabricated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The CoS/graphene composite is found to be better suitable as an anode in terms of higher capacity and better cycling performances. The nanocomposite exhibits an unprecedented high reversible capacity of 1056 mA h/g among all cobalt sulfide-based anode materials. Good cycling performances are also observed at both small and high current rates.

  9. Estimation of Parameters Obtained by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on Systems Containing High Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stević, Zoran; Vujasinović, Mirjana Rajčić; Radunović, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical systems with high capacities demand devices for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with ultra-low frequencies (in order of mHz), that are almost impossible to accomplish with analogue techniques, but this becomes possible by using a computer technique and accompanying digital equipment. Recently, an original software and hardware for electrochemical measurements, intended for electrochemical systems exhibiting high capacities, such as supercapacitors, has been developed. One of the included methods is EIS. In this paper, the method of calculation of circuit parameters from an EIS curve is described. The results of testing on a physical model of an electrochemical system, constructed of known elements (including a 1.6 F capacitor) in a defined arrangement, proved the validity of the system and the method. PMID:22400000

  10. An asymmetric Zn//Ag doped polyaniline microparticle suspension flow battery with high discharge capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sen; Zhao, Yongfu; Li, Degeng; Xia, Yang; Si, Shihui

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the effect of oxygen on the potential of reduced polyaniline (PANI) was investigated. In order to enhance the air oxidation of reduced PANI, several composites of PANI doped with co-catalysts were prepared, and a reasonable flow Zn//PANI suspension cell system was designed to investigate the discharge capacity of obtained PANI composite microparticle suspension cathodes. Compared with PANI doped with Cu2+, La+, Mn2+ and zinc protoporphyrin, Ag doped PANI composite at 0.90 weight percent doping of Ag gave the highest value of discharge capacity for the half-cell potential from the initial value to -0.20 V (vs. SCE). A comparison study on the electrochemical properties of both PANI and Ag doped PANI microparticle suspension was done by using cyclic voltammetry, AC Impedance. Due to partial utilization of Zn//air fuel cell, the discharge capacity for Ag doped PANI reached 470 mA h g-1 at the current density of 20 mA cm-2. At 15 mA cm-2, the discharge capacity even reached up to 1650 mA h g-1 after 220 h constant current discharge at the final discharge voltage of 0.65 V. This work demonstrates an effective and feasible approach toward obtaining high energy and power densities by a Zn//Ag-doped PANI suspension flow battery system combined with Zn//air fuel cell.

  11. Achievable capacity design for irregular and clustered high performance mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available and locations of terminal users [10]. Moreover, typical rural based wireless networks can be described by (i) long single hop links, (ii) limited and unreliable energy sources, and (iii) clustered distribution of Internet users [11]. The main problem... constitutes the need to increase capacity of community owned existing wireless broadband networks so that multimedia services can be delivered to remote and rural areas without losing connectivity [2]. Fig. 1: High Performance Node (HPN) TM [10] Fig. 2...

  12. Mouse lung contains endothelial progenitors with high capacity to form blood and lymphatic vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barleon Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postnatal endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs have been successfully isolated from whole bone marrow, blood and the walls of conduit vessels. They can, therefore, be classified into circulating and resident progenitor cells. The differentiation capacity of resident lung endothelial progenitor cells from mouse has not been evaluated. Results In an attempt to isolate differentiated mature endothelial cells from mouse lung we found that the lung contains EPCs with a high vasculogenic capacity and capability of de novo vasculogenesis for blood and lymph vessels. Mouse lung microvascular endothelial cells (MLMVECs were isolated by selection of CD31+ cells. Whereas the majority of the CD31+ cells did not divide, some scattered cells started to proliferate giving rise to large colonies (> 3000 cells/colony. These highly dividing cells possess the capacity to integrate into various types of vessels including blood and lymph vessels unveiling the existence of local microvascular endothelial progenitor cells (LMEPCs in adult mouse lung. EPCs could be amplified > passage 30 and still expressed panendothelial markers as well as the progenitor cell antigens, but not antigens for immune cells and hematopoietic stem cells. A high percentage of these cells are also positive for Lyve1, Prox1, podoplanin and VEGFR-3 indicating that a considerabe fraction of the cells are committed to develop lymphatic endothelium. Clonogenic highly proliferating cells from limiting dilution assays were also bipotent. Combined in vitro and in vivo spheroid and matrigel assays revealed that these EPCs exhibit vasculogenic capacity by forming functional blood and lymph vessels. Conclusion The lung contains large numbers of EPCs that display commitment for both types of vessels, suggesting that lung blood and lymphatic endothelial cells are derived from a single progenitor cell.

  13. Topology Management Algorithms for Large Scale Aerial High Capacity Directional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Introduction of classes of topology management algo- rithms and example implementations of each • Performance evaluation of the algorithms in 2 example relevant...Topology Management Algorithms for Large-Scale Aerial High Capacity Directional Networks Joy Wang, Thomas Shake, Patricia Deutsch, Andrea Coyle, Bow...airborne backbone network is large- scale topology management of directional links in a dynamic environment. In this paper, we present several

  14. Methods for determining the CO2 sorption capacity of coal: Experimental and theoretical high pressure isotherms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich

    2016-04-01

    One way to reduce CO2 emissions discharged into the atmosphere is by trapping it and storing it in suitable repositories, including coal-bearing strata. The history of coal mining in the Czech Republic is very rich but most of the mines have been closed down in recent years. However, the unmined coal seams are interesting for the purposes of CO2 storage, especially due the opportunities they offer for recovering coal-bed methane. Mine structures of this kind can be found in large parts of the Upper Silesian Basin, where the total storage capacity has been estimated at about 380 Mt CO2. This is an interesting storage potential. In order to identify a suitable high-capacity locality for CO2 storage within a coal seam, it is necessary to study not only the geological conditions within the seam, but also the textural properties of the coal, which control the mechanism and the extent of the storage. The major storage mechanism is by sorption processes that take place in the coal porous system (adsorption in micropores and on the surface of meso/macropores, and absorption in the macromolecular structure). The CO2 sorption capacity is generally indirectly determined in a laboratory by measuring the amount of carbon dioxide captured in a coal sample at a pressure and temperature corresponding to the in situ conditions, using high pressure sorption techniques. The low pressure sorption technique can be used, by setting the partial volumes of CO2 according to its binding and storage mode. The sorption capacity is determined by extrapolation to the saturation pressure as the sum of the individual partially sorbed volumes. The aim of the study was to determine the partial volumes of CO2 bound by different mechanisms in the individual parts of the porous system of the coal, and to compare the sum with the results obtained by the high pressure isotherm. The study was carried out with 3 samples from a borehole survey in the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin. A high pressure

  15. Nanocrystalline β-Ti alloy with high hardness, low Young's modulus and excellent in vitro biocompatibility for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kelvin Y; Wang, Yanbo; Zhao, Yonghao; Chang, Li; Wang, Guocheng; Chen, Zibin; Cao, Yang; Liao, Xiaozhou; Lavernia, Enrique J; Valiev, Ruslan Z; Sarrafpour, Babak; Zoellner, Hans; Ringer, Simon P

    2013-08-01

    High strength, low Young's modulus and good biocompatibility are desirable but difficult to simultaneously achieve in metallic implant materials for load bearing applications, and these impose significant challenges in material design. Here we report that a nano-grained β-Ti alloy prepared by high-pressure torsion exhibits remarkable mechanical and biological properties. The hardness and modulus of the nano-grained Ti alloy were respectively 23% higher and 34% lower than those of its coarse-grained counterpart. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were enhanced, demonstrating good in vitro biocompatibility of the nano-grained Ti alloy, consistent with demonstrated increased nano-roughness on the nano-grained Ti alloy. Results suggest that the nano-grained β-Ti alloy may have significant application as an implant material in dental and orthopedic applications.

  16. Charge Modulation in Graphitic Carbon Nitride as a Switchable Approach to High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Kou, Liangzhi; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2015-11-01

    Electrical charging of graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C4 N3 and g-C3 N4 ) is proposed as a strategy for high-capacity and electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we found that the adsorption energy of H2 molecules on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets is dramatically enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At full hydrogen coverage, the negatively charged graphitic carbon nitride achieves storage capacities up to 6-7 wt %. In contrast to other hydrogen storage approaches, the storage/release occurs spontaneously once extra electrons are introduced or removed, and these processes can be simply controlled by switching on/off the charging voltage. Therefore, this approach promises both facile reversibility and tunable kinetics without the need of specific catalysts. Importantly, g-C4 N3 has good electrical conductivity and high electron mobility, which can be a very good candidate for electron injection/release. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage materials.

  17. Flexible textile electrode with high areal capacity from hierarchical V2O5 nanosheet arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kun; Liu, Xue; Cheng, Qilin; Saha, Petr; Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong

    2017-07-01

    The search for an appropriate flexible cathode is pivotal to expediting the development of flexible and foldable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we demonstrate a simple and scalable synthesis of hierarchical V2O5 nanosheet arrays on polydopamine (PDA)-decorated carbon cloth with strong combination between them, which then directly applied as flexible cathode for LIBs. We found this flexible cathode with a loading mass of 2.1 mg cm-2 can deliver a high specific capacity of 120 mAh g-1 even at 15C (1C = 300 mA g-1) and maintain a long-term cycling stability, i.e. simply 0.30% capacity loss per cycle at 2C for 100 cycles without morphology change. More importantly, the corresponding areal capacity can reach as high as 560 μAh cm-2 at 210 μA cm-2, favorably comparing with the-state-of-art flexible cathode reported to date. Additionally, a flexible LIBs full cell has been assembled, exhibiting high mechanical strength and superior electrochemical performances.

  18. The creation of a pedagogy of promise: Examples of educational excellence in high-stakes science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollough, Cherie A.

    The current reform movement in education has two forces that appear contradictory in nature. The first is an emphasis on rigor and accountability that is assessed through high-stakes testing. The second is the recommendation to have student centered approaches to teaching and learning, especially those that emphasize inquiry methodology and constructivist pedagogy. Literature reports that current reform efforts involving accountability through high-stakes tests are detrimental to student learning and are contradictory to student-centered teaching approaches. However, by focusing attention on those teachers who "teach against the grain" and raise the achievement levels of students from diverse backgrounds, instructional strategies and personal characteristics of exemplary teachers can be identified. This mixed-methods research study investigated four exemplary urban high school science teachers in high-stakes (TAKS) tested science classrooms. Classroom observations, teacher and student interviews, pre-/postcontent tests and the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) (Johnson & McClure, 2004) provided the main data sources. The How People Learn (National Research Council, 2000) theoretical framework provided evidence of elements of inquiry-based, student-centered teaching. Descriptive case analysis (Yin, 1994) and quantitative analysis of pre/post tests and the CLES revealed the following results. First, all participating teachers included elements of learner-centeredness, knowledge-centeredness, assessment-centeredness and community-centeredness in their teaching as recommended by the National Research Council, (2000), thus creating student-centered classroom environments. Second, by establishing a climate of caring where students felt supported and motivated to learn, teachers managed tensions resulting from the incorporation of student-centered elements and the accountability-based instructional mandates outlined by their school district and state

  19. Binders and Hosts for High-Capacity Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufficy, Martin Kyle

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are universal electrochemical energy storage devices that have revolutionized our mobile society. Nonetheless, societal and technological advances drive consumer demand for LIBs with enhanced electrochemical performance, such as higher charge capacity and longer life, compared to conventional LIBs. One method to enhance LIB performance is to replace graphite, the industry standard anode since commercialization of LIBs in 1991, with high-charge capacity materials. Implementing high-capacity anode materials such as tin, silicon, and manganese vanadates, to LIBs presents challenges; Li-insertion is destructive to anode framework, and increasing capacity increases structural strains that pulverize anode materials and results in a short-cycle life. This thesis reports on various methods to extended the cycle life of high-capacity materials. Most of the work is conducted on nano-sized anode materials to reduce Li and electron transport pathway length (facilitating charge-transfer) and reduce strains from volume expansions (preserving anode structure). The first method involves encapsulating tin particles into a graphene-containing carbon nanofiber (CNF) matrix. The composite-CNF matrix houses tin particles to assume strains from tin-volume expansions and produces favorable surface-electrolyte chemistries for stable charge-discharge cycling. Before tin addition, graphene-containing CNFs are produced and assessed as anode materials for LIBs. Graphene addition to CNFs improves electronic and mechanical properties of CNFs. Furthermore, the 2-D nature of graphene provides Li-binding sites to enhance composite-CNF both first-cycle and high-rate capacities > 150% when compared to CNFs in the absence of graphene. With addition of Sn, we vary loadings and thermal production temperature to elucidate structure-composition relationships of tin and graphene-containing CNF electrodes that lead to increased capacity retention. Of note, electrodes containing

  20. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Williams, Joseph; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    , supply chain, customer-related, human capital, financial, marketplace, societal, and environmental performance. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence integrates ethical, efficient and effective (E3) enterprise governance with 3E (equity, ecology, economy) Triple Top Line strategy throughout enterprise...... culture and activities to produce Triple Bottom Line 3P (people, planet, profit) performance that are simultaneously pragmatic, innovative and supportive of R3 (Edgeman, 2013). Sustainable Enterprise Excellence (Edgeman & Eskildsen, 2013) or SEE is analogous to Business & Performance Excellence. The role...

  1. Excel 2010 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Walkenbach, John

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive reference to the newest version of the world's most popular spreadsheet application: Excel 2010 John Walkenbach's name is synonymous with excellence in computer books that decipher complex technical topics. Known as ""Mr. Spreadsheet,"" Walkenbach shows you how to maximize the power of all the new features of Excel 2010. An authoritative reference, this perennial bestseller proves itself indispensable no matter your level of skill, from Excel beginners and intermediate users to power users and potential power users everywhere. Fully updated for the new release, this

  2. A three-dimensional porous MoP@C hybrid as a high-capacity, long-cycle life anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Sun, Pingping; Qin, Jinwen; Wang, Jianqiang; Xiao, Ying; Cao, Minhua

    2016-05-01

    Metal phosphides are great promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with a high gravimetric capacity. However, significant challenges such as low capacity, fast capacity fading and poor cycle stability must be addressed for their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate a versatile strategy for the synthesis of a novel three-dimensional porous molybdenum phosphide@carbon hybrid (3D porous MoP@C hybrid) by a template sol-gel method followed by an annealing treatment. The resultant hybrid exhibits a 3D interconnected ordered porous structure with a relatively high surface area. Benefiting from its advantages of microstructure and composition, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid displays excellent lithium storage performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability and long-cycle life. It presents stable cycling performance with a high reversible capacity up to 1028 mA h g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 after 100 cycles. By ex situ XRD, HRTEM, SAED and XPS analyses, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid was found to follow the Li-intercalation reaction mechanism (MoP + xLi+ + e- LixMoP), which was further confirmed by ab initio calculations based on density functional theory.Metal phosphides are great promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with a high gravimetric capacity. However, significant challenges such as low capacity, fast capacity fading and poor cycle stability must be addressed for their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate a versatile strategy for the synthesis of a novel three-dimensional porous molybdenum phosphide@carbon hybrid (3D porous MoP@C hybrid) by a template sol-gel method followed by an annealing treatment. The resultant hybrid exhibits a 3D interconnected ordered porous structure with a relatively high surface area. Benefiting from its advantages of microstructure and composition, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid displays excellent lithium storage performance as an

  3. Final Report: DE- FC36-05GO15063, Fundamental Studies of Advanced High-Capacity, Reversible Metal Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Craig [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); McGrady, Sean [Univ. of New Brunswick, Fredericton NB (Canada); Severa, Godwin [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Eliseo, Jennifer [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Chong, Marina [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2013-05-31

    The project was component of the US DOE, Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE). The Sandia National Laboratory led center was established to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE/FreedomCAR 2010 and 2015 system targets for hydrogen storage materials. Our approach entailed a wide variety of activities ranging from synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of new candidate hydrogen storage materials; screening of catalysts for high capacity materials requiring kinetics enhancement; development of low temperature methods for nano-confinement of hydrides and determining its effects on the kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrides; and development of novel processes for the direct re-hydrogenation of materials. These efforts have resulted in several advancements the development of hydrogen storage materials. We have greatly extended the fundamental knowledge about the highly promising hydrogen storage carrier, alane (AlH3), by carrying out the first crystal structure determinations and the first determination of the heats of dehydrogenation of β–AlH3 and γ-AlD3. A low-temperature homogenous organometallic approach to incorporation of Al and Mg based hydrides into carbon aerogels has been developed that that allows high loadings without degradation of the nano-porous scaffold. Nano-confinement was found to significantly improve the dehydrogenation kinetics but not effect the enthalpy of dehydrogenation. We conceived, characterized, and synthesized a novel class of potential hydrogen storage materials, bimetallic borohydrides. These novel compounds were found to have many favorable properties including release of significant amounts of hydrogen at moderate temperatures (75-190 º C). However, in situ IR studies in tandem with thermal gravimetric analysis have shown that about 0.5 equivalents of diborane are released during the

  4. Final Report: DE- FC36-05GO15063, Fundamental Studies of Advanced High-Capacity, Reversible Metal Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Craig [University of Hawaii; McGrady, Sean [University of New Brunswick; Severa, Godwin [University of Hawaii; Eliseo, Jennifer [University of Hawaii; Chong, Marina [University of Hawaii

    2015-02-08

    The project was component of the US DOE, Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE). The Sandia National Laboratory led center was established to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE/FreedomCAR 2010 and 2015 system targets for hydrogen storage materials. Our approach entailed a wide variety of activities ranging from synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of new candidate hydrogen storage materials; screening of catalysts for high capacity materials requiring kinetics enhancement; development of low temperature methods for nano-confinement of hydrides and determining its effects on the kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrides; and development of novel processes for the direct re-hydrogenation of materials. These efforts have resulted in several advancements the development of hydrogen storage materials. We have greatly extended the fundamental knowledge about the highly promising hydrogen storage carrier, alane (AlH₃), by carrying out the first crystal structure determinations and the first determination of the heats of dehydrogenation of β–AlH₃ and γ-AlD₃. A low-temperature homogenous organometallic approach to incorporation of Al and Mg based hydrides into carbon aerogels has been developed that that allows high loadings without degradation of the nano-porous scaffold. Nano-confinement was found to significantly improve the dehydrogenation kinetics but not effect the enthalpy of dehydrogenation. We conceived, characterized, and synthesized a novel class of potential hydrogen storage materials, bimetallic borohydrides. These novel compounds were found to have many favorable properties including release of significant amounts of hydrogen at moderate temperatures (75-190ºC). However, in situ IR studies in tandem with thermal gravimetric analysis have shown that about 0.5 equivalents of diborane are released during the dehydrogenation making re

  5. High capacity embedding with indexed data recovery using adjunctive numerical relations in multimedia signal covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James C.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2013-05-01

    We introduce a technique for covertly embedding data throughout an audio file using redundant number system decomposition across non-standard digital bit-lines. This bit-line implementation integrates an index recoverable embedded algorithm with an extended bit level representation that achieves a high capacity data channel within an audio multimedia file. It will be shown this new steganography method has minimal aural distortive affects while preserving both first and second order cover statistics, making it less susceptible to most steganalysis attacks. Our research approach involves reviewing the common numerical methods used in common binary-based algorithms. We then describe basic concepts and challenges when attempting to implement complex embedding algorithms that are based on redundant number systems. Finally, we introduce a novel class of numerical based multiple bit-line decomposition systems, which we define as Adjunctive Numerical Representations. The system is primarily described using basic PCM techniques in uncompressed audio files however extended applications for alternate multimedia is addressed. This new embedding system will not only provide the statistical stability required for effective steganography but will also give us an improvement in the embedding capacity in this class of multimedia carrier files. This novelty of our approach is demonstrated by an ability to embed high capacity covert data while simultaneously providing a means for rapid, indexed data recovery.

  6. Energy Efficiency and Capacity Tradeoff in Cloud Radio Access Network of High-Speed Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the increasing demand of high-data-rate services of high-speed railway (HSR passengers, cloud radio access network (C-RAN is proposed. This paper investigates the tradeoff between energy efficiency (EE performance and capacity in C-RAN of HSR. Considering that the train location can be predicted, we propose a predictable path loss based time domain power allocation method (PPTPA to improve EE performance of HSR communication system. First, we consider that the communication system of HSR only bears the passenger information services (PISs. The energy-efficient power allocation problem with delay constraint is studied. The formulated problem is nonconvex. To deal with it, an equivalent convex problem is reformulated. Based on PPTPA, we propose an iterative algorithm to improve the EE performance. Second, we consider that the PISs and the train control services (TCSs are all bore. A capacity optimization problem with joint EE and services transmission delay constraints is formulated. Based on PPTPA, we propose a hybrid power allocation scheme to improve the capacity of the system. Finally, we analyze the effect of small-scale fading on EE performance. The effectiveness of the proposed power allocation algorithm is validated by HSR channel measurement trace based emulation results and extensive simulation results.

  7. Review on anionic redox for high-capacity lithium- and sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenglong; Wang, Qidi; Lu, Yaxiang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Baohua; Chen, Liquan

    2017-05-01

    Rechargeable batteries, especially lithium-ion batteries, are now widely used as power sources for portable electronics and electric vehicles, but material innovations are still needed to satisfy the increasing demand for larger energy density. Recently, lithium- and sodium-rich electrode materials, including the A2MO3-family layered compounds (A  =  Li, Na; M  =  Mn4+, Ru4+, etc), have been extensively studied as potential high-capacity electrode materials for a cumulative cationic and anionic redox activity. Negatively charged oxide ions can potentially donate electrons to compensate for the absence of oxidable transition metals as a redox center to further increase the reversible capacity. Understanding and controlling the state-of-the-art anionic redox processes is pivotal for the design of advanced energy materials, highlighted in rechargeable batteries. Hence, experimental and theoretical approaches have been developed to consecutively study the diverting processes, states, and structures involved. In this review, we attempt to present a literature overview and provide insight into the reaction mechanism with respect to the anionic redox processes, proposing some opinions as target oriented. It is hoped that, through this discussion, the search for anionic redox electrode materials with high-capacity rechargeable batteries can be advanced, and practical applications realized as soon as possible.

  8. High capacity fiber optic sensor networks using hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qizhen; Li, Xiaolei; Zhang, Manliang; Liu, Qi; Liu, Hai; Liu, Deming

    2013-12-01

    Fiber optic sensor network is the development trend of fiber senor technologies and industries. In this paper, I will discuss recent research progress on high capacity fiber sensor networks with hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications in the fields of security monitoring, environment monitoring, Smart eHome, etc. Firstly, I will present the architecture of hybrid multiplexing sensor passive optical network (HSPON), and the key technologies for integrated access and intelligent management of massive fiber sensor units. Two typical hybrid WDM/TDM fiber sensor networks for perimeter intrusion monitor and cultural relics security are introduced. Secondly, we propose the concept of "Microstructure-Optical X Domin Refecltor (M-OXDR)" for fiber sensor network expansion. By fabricating smart micro-structures with the ability of multidimensional encoded and low insertion loss along the fiber, the fiber sensor network of simple structure and huge capacity more than one thousand could be achieved. Assisted by the WDM/TDM and WDM/FDM decoding methods respectively, we built the verification systems for long-haul and real-time temperature sensing. Finally, I will show the high capacity and flexible fiber sensor network with IPv6 protocol based hybrid fiber/wireless access. By developing the fiber optic sensor with embedded IPv6 protocol conversion module and IPv6 router, huge amounts of fiber optic sensor nodes can be uniquely addressed. Meanwhile, various sensing information could be integrated and accessed to the Next Generation Internet.

  9. Ammonium hydroxide modulated synthesis of high-quality fluorescent carbon dots for white LEDs with excellent color rendering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengda; Zhu, Zhifeng; Chang, Yajing; Wang, Hui; Yuan, Nan; Li, Guopeng; Yu, Dabin; Jiang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    A novel type of aqueous fluorescent carbon dot (CD) was synthesized using citric acid as the only carbon source via an ammonium hydroxide modulated method, providing a blue color gamut. The amino group is considered to be the key factor in the high fluorescence of CDs and a model is established to investigate the mechanism of fluorescence. In addition, white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) are fabricated by utilizing the prepared CDs and rare earth luminescent materials (SrSi2O2N2:Eu and Sr2Si5N8:Eu) as color conversion layers and UV-LED chips as the excitation light source. The WLEDs produce bright white light with attractive color rendering properties including a color rendering index of up to 95.1, a CIE coordinate of (0.33, 0.37), and a T c of 5447 K under a 100 mA driven current, indicating that the CDs are promising in the field of optoelectronic devices.

  10. A high capacity multiple watermarking scheme based on Fourier descriptor and Sudoku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zheng, Huimin

    2015-12-01

    Digital watermark is a type of technology to hide some significant information which is mainly used to protect digital data. A high capacity multiple watermarking method is proposed, which adapts the Fourier descriptor to pre-process the watermarks, while a Sudoku puzzle is used as a reference matrix in embedding process and a key in extraction process. It can dramatically reduce the required capacity by applying Fourier descriptor. Meanwhile, the security of watermarks can be guaranteed due to the Sudoku puzzle. Unlike previous algorithms applying Sudoku puzzle in spatial domain, the proposed algorithm works in transformed domain by applying LWT2.In addition, the proposed algorithm can detect the temper location accurately. The experimental results demonstrated that the goals mentioned above have been achieved.

  11. A high capacity text steganography scheme based on LZW compression and color coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Malik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, capacity and security issues of text steganography have been considered by employing LZW compression technique and color coding based approach. The proposed technique uses the forward mail platform to hide the secret data. This algorithm first compresses secret data and then hides the compressed secret data into the email addresses and also in the cover message of the email. The secret data bits are embedded in the message (or cover text by making it colored using a color coding table. Experimental results show that the proposed method not only produces a high embedding capacity but also reduces computational complexity. Moreover, the security of the proposed method is significantly improved by employing stego keys. The superiority of the proposed method has been experimentally verified by comparing with recently developed existing techniques.

  12. A new method for high-capacity information hiding in video robust against temporal desynchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitekin, Vitaly; Fedoseev, Victor A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new method for high-capacity information hiding in digital video and algorithms of embedding and extraction of hidden information based on this method. These algorithms do not require temporal synchronization to provide robustness against both malicious and non-malicious frame dropping (temporal desynchronization). At the same time, due to randomized distribution of hidden information bits across the video frames, the proposed method allows to increase the hiding capacity proportionally to the number of frames used for information embedding. The proposed method is also robust against "watermark estimation" attack aimed at estimation of hidden information without knowing the embedding key or non-watermarked video. Presented experimental results demonstrate declared features of this method.

  13. CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) hybrid magnetic nanoparticles exhibit fast and selective adsorption of arsenic with high adsorption capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Chun; Yin, Xue-Bo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis and application of mesoporous CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) hybrid magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for the simultaneous removal of inorganic arsenic (iAs). The hybrid adsorbent had a core-shell and mesoporous structure with an average diameter of 260 nm. The nanoscale size and mesoporous character impart a fast adsorption rate and high adsorption capacity for iAs. In total, 0.1 mg L−1 As(V) and As(III) could be adsorbed within 2 min, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 114.8 mg g−1 for As(V) and 143.6 mg g−1 for As(III), higher than most previously reported adsorbents. The anti-interference capacity for iAs adsorption was improved by the electrostatic repulsion and size exclusion effects of the MIL-100(Fe) shell, which also decreased the zero-charge point of the hybrid absorbent for a broad pH adsorption range. The adsorption mechanisms of iAs on the MNPs are proposed. An Fe-O-As structure was formed on CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) through hydroxyl substitution with the deprotonated iAs species. Monolayer adsorption of As(V) was observed, while hydrogen bonding led to the multi-layer adsorption of neutral As(III) for its high adsorption capacity. The high efficiency and the excellent pH- and interference-tolerance capacities of CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) allowed effective iAs removal from natural water samples, as validated with batch magnetic separation mode and a portable filtration strategy. PMID:28102334

  14. CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) hybrid magnetic nanoparticles exhibit fast and selective adsorption of arsenic with high adsorption capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Chun; Yin, Xue-Bo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis and application of mesoporous CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) hybrid magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for the simultaneous removal of inorganic arsenic (iAs). The hybrid adsorbent had a core-shell and mesoporous structure with an average diameter of 260 nm. The nanoscale size and mesoporous character impart a fast adsorption rate and high adsorption capacity for iAs. In total, 0.1 mg L‑1 As(V) and As(III) could be adsorbed within 2 min, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 114.8 mg g‑1 for As(V) and 143.6 mg g‑1 for As(III), higher than most previously reported adsorbents. The anti-interference capacity for iAs adsorption was improved by the electrostatic repulsion and size exclusion effects of the MIL-100(Fe) shell, which also decreased the zero-charge point of the hybrid absorbent for a broad pH adsorption range. The adsorption mechanisms of iAs on the MNPs are proposed. An Fe-O-As structure was formed on CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) through hydroxyl substitution with the deprotonated iAs species. Monolayer adsorption of As(V) was observed, while hydrogen bonding led to the multi-layer adsorption of neutral As(III) for its high adsorption capacity. The high efficiency and the excellent pH- and interference-tolerance capacities of CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) allowed effective iAs removal from natural water samples, as validated with batch magnetic separation mode and a portable filtration strategy.

  15. Facile synthesis of sandwiched Zn2GeO4-graphene oxide nanocomposite as a stable and high-capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Feng; Hu, Xianluo; Qie, Long; Jiang, Yan; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Qiao, Yun; Huang, Yunhui

    2014-01-21

    Traditional metal anode materials in lithium-ion batteries are plagued by instability upon discharge-charge cycling. We report that a unique sandwiched Zn2GeO4-graphene oxide nanocomposite has been synthesized on a large scale through a simple ion-exchange reaction, whereby Zn2GeO4 nanorods with lengths of 600 nm and widths of 40 nm are homogeneously sandwiched into the graphene oxide matrix. Compared with bare Zn2GeO4 nanorods, a dramatic improvement in the electrochemical performance of the resulting nanocomposite has been achieved. In the voltage window of 0.001-3 V, the electrode of the Zn2GeO4-graphene oxide nanocomposite delivers a specific capacity as high as 1150 mA h g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) after 100 discharge-charge cycles. Even at a high current density of 3.2 A g(-1), a capacity of 522 mA h g(-1) can be retained. The unusual electrochemical performance including highly reversible capacity and excellent rate capability arise from synergetic chemical coupling effects between Zn2GeO4 and graphene oxide.

  16. On the Duty of Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Jean Labarriere

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The Greek term apntí. art of moderation, strategy of happiness, is a fundamental attitude not addressed by the mere "moral" connotation of the terms merit and virtue. It defines, instead, a leve! of excellency reconciliating the interior and the exterior. theory and praxis, knowledge and action. Far from any hard stoicism, virtue is a force in movement; it translates if necessary the human capacity of "changing circumstances. "As a true road of sense displayed "with and for others" (Ricoeur, virtue assumes a poietic dimension expressed by a certain power of creation, where not only the individual but also the political are at stake.

  17. Endurance capacity and neuromuscular fatigue following high- vs moderate-intensity endurance training: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, T J; Collett, J; Howells, K; Morris, M G

    2017-02-16

    High-intensity exercise induces significant central and peripheral fatigue; however, the effect of endurance training on these mechanisms of fatigue is poorly understood. We compared the effect of cycling endurance training of disparate intensities on high-intensity exercise endurance capacity and the associated limiting central and peripheral fatigue mechanisms. Twenty adults were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of either high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 6-8×5 minutes at halfway between lactate threshold and maximal oxygen uptake [50%Δ]) or volume-matched moderate-intensity continuous training (CONT, ~60-80 minutes at 90% lactate threshold). Two time to exhaustion (TTE) trials at 50%Δ were completed pre- and post-training to assess endurance capacity; the two post-training trials were completed at the pretraining 50%Δ (same absolute intensity) and the "new" post-training 50%Δ (same relative intensity). Pre- and post-exercise responses to femoral nerve and motor cortex stimulation were examined to determine peripheral and central fatigue, respectively. HIIT resulted in greater increases in TTE at the same absolute and relative intensities as pre-training (148% and 43%, respectively) compared with CONT (38% and -4%, respectively) (P≤.019). Compared with pre-training, HIIT increased the level of potentiated quadriceps twitch reduction (-34% vs -43%, respectively, P=.023) and attenuated the level of voluntary activation reduction (-7% vs -3%, respectively, P=.047) following the TTE trial at the same relative intensity. There were no other training effects on neuromuscular fatigue development. This suggests that central fatigue resistance contributes to enhanced high-intensity exercise endurance capacity after HIIT by allowing greater performance to be extruded from the muscle. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Bearing Capacity of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE Reinforced Sand Using Plate Load Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Aly K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here is a study to examine the improvement in bearing capacity of coastal sand of Trivandrum, Kerala, India using high density polyethylene (HDPE /woven fabric as reinforcement in discrete layers. The bearing capacity was evaluated using plate load test. The effect of reinforcement configurations like sheet reinforcement (sanded with adhesive, with adhesive and sheet alone and strip reinforcement (single and grid pattern are investigated. The test parameters chosen for the present study are, depth of topmost layer of reinforcement layer below footing, compacted density and number of layers of reinforcement etc. From the tests, it has been observed that sheet reinforcement is more effective than sheet sanded with adhesive and strip reinforcements. It is found that the synthetic adhesive gives no binding action at the interface of the reinforcement and soil. But it is to be noted that the sheet with adhesive dried has a marked influence on the bearing capacity especially at lower densities. The strip reinforcements in single pattern is considered to be a favorable choice for minimum reinforcement. The strip reinforcement in single or grid pattern gives sufficient improvement in strength.

  19. Optimization of regenerator in high capacity Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, J. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 7-24-1, Narashinodai, Funabashi-shi, Chiba 274-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: junnosuke_imura@yahoo.co.jp; Iwata, N.; Yamamoto, H. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 7-24-1, Narashinodai, Funabashi-shi, Chiba 274-8501 (Japan); Ohashi, Y.; Nomachi, H.; Okumura, N. [Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd., 2-1, Asahi-machi, Kariya, Aichi 448-8650 (Japan); Nagaya, S.; Tamada, T.; Hirano, N. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 1, Toshin-cho, Higashi-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi 261-8680 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this work is to obtain a cooling capacity of 200 W at 80 K under power consumption of 4 kW for a superconducting magnetic energy storage system. It was found that there existed large temperature distribution in a circumference of the regenerator. The temperature difference became larger as increasing the piston displacement. The maximum difference of temperature was 150 K. Such the inhomogeneous distribution of the regenerator temperature was caused from turbulent flow of helium gas. Then several hard copper meshes were inserted to prevent the distortion of the mesh. As the result, the difference of temperature decreased to 37 K and the high performance was obtained; the lowest temperature of 37 K and the cooling capacity of 158 W at 80 K. Conclusively %Carnot was improved up to 14%. Furthermore, when power consumption was increased to 3.8 kW and the piston displacement was 16 mm peak to peak, the higher performance was obtained; the cooling capacity of 180 W at 80 K.

  20. Optimization of regenerator in high capacity Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, J.; Iwata, N.; Yamamoto, H.; Ohashi, Y.; Nomachi, H.; Okumura, N.; Nagaya, S.; Tamada, T.; Hirano, N.

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to obtain a cooling capacity of 200 W at 80 K under power consumption of 4 kW for a superconducting magnetic energy storage system. It was found that there existed large temperature distribution in a circumference of the regenerator. The temperature difference became larger as increasing the piston displacement. The maximum difference of temperature was 150 K. Such the inhomogeneous distribution of the regenerator temperature was caused from turbulent flow of helium gas. Then several hard copper meshes were inserted to prevent the distortion of the mesh. As the result, the difference of temperature decreased to 37 K and the high performance was obtained; the lowest temperature of 37 K and the cooling capacity of 158 W at 80 K. Conclusively %Carnot was improved up to 14%. Furthermore, when power consumption was increased to 3.8 kW and the piston displacement was 16 mm peak to peak, the higher performance was obtained; the cooling capacity of 180 W at 80 K.

  1. Li2C2, a High-Capacity Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Na; Gao, Yurui; Li, Yurong; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Song, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liquan

    2016-01-11

    As a typical alkaline earth metal carbide, lithium carbide (Li2C2) has the highest theoretical specific capacity (1400 mA h g(-1)) among all the reported lithium-containing cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. Herein, the feasibility of using Li2C2 as a cathode material was studied. The results show that at least half of the lithium can be extracted from Li2C2 and the reversible specific capacity reaches 700 mA h g(-1). The C≡C bond tends to rotate to form C4 (C≡C⋅⋅⋅C≡C) chains during lithium extraction, as indicated with the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulation. The low electronic and ionic conductivity are believed to be responsible for the potential gap between charge and discharge, as is supported with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Arrhenius fitting results. These findings illustrate the feasibility to use the alkali and alkaline earth metal carbides as high-capacity electrode materials for secondary batteries.

  2. ERP markers of target selection discriminate children with high vs. low working memory capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andria eShimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Selective attention enables enhancing a subset out of multiple competing items to maximize the capacity of our limited visual working memory (VWM system. Multiple behavioral and electrophysiological studies have revealed the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting adults’ selective attention of visual percepts for encoding in VWM. However, research on children is more limited. What are the neural mechanisms involved in children’s selection of incoming percepts in service of VWM? Do these differ from the ones subserving adults’ selection? Ten-year-olds and adults used a spatial arrow cue to select a colored item for later recognition from an array of four colored items. The temporal dynamics of selection were investigated through EEG signals locked to the onset of the memory array. Both children and adults elicited significantly more negative activity over posterior scalp locations contralateral to the item to-be-selected for encoding (N2pc. However, this activity was elicited later and for longer in children compared to adults. Furthermore, although children as a group did not elicit a significant N2pc during the time-window in which N2pc was elicited in adults, the magnitude of N2pc during the adult time-window related to their behavioral performance during the later recognition phase of the task. This in turn highlights how children’s neural activity subserving attention during encoding relates to better subsequent VWM performance. Significant differences were observed when children were divided into groups of high vs. low VWM capacity as a function of cueing benefit. Children with large cue benefits in VWM capacity elicited an adult-like contralateral negativity following attentional selection of the to-be-encoded item, whereas children with low VWM capacity did not. These results corroborate the close coupling between selective attention and VWM from childhood and elucidate further the attentional mechanisms constraining VWM

  3. ERP markers of target selection discriminate children with high vs. low working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimi, Andria; Nobre, Anna Christina; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-01-01

    Selective attention enables enhancing a subset out of multiple competing items to maximize the capacity of our limited visual working memory (VWM) system. Multiple behavioral and electrophysiological studies have revealed the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting adults' selective attention of visual percepts for encoding in VWM. However, research on children is more limited. What are the neural mechanisms involved in children's selection of incoming percepts in service of VWM? Do these differ from the ones subserving adults' selection? Ten-year-olds and adults used a spatial arrow cue to select a colored item for later recognition from an array of four colored items. The temporal dynamics of selection were investigated through EEG signals locked to the onset of the memory array. Both children and adults elicited significantly more negative activity over posterior scalp locations contralateral to the item to-be-selected for encoding (N2pc). However, this activity was elicited later and for longer in children compared to adults. Furthermore, although children as a group did not elicit a significant N2pc during the time-window in which N2pc was elicited in adults, the magnitude of N2pc during the "adult time-window" related to their behavioral performance during the later recognition phase of the task. This in turn highlights how children's neural activity subserving attention during encoding relates to better subsequent VWM performance. Significant differences were observed when children were divided into groups of high vs. low VWM capacity as a function of cueing benefit. Children with large cue benefits in VWM capacity elicited an adult-like contralateral negativity following attentional selection of the to-be-encoded item, whereas children with low VWM capacity did not. These results corroborate the close coupling between selective attention and VWM from childhood and elucidate further the attentional mechanisms constraining VWM performance in children.

  4. ERP markers of target selection discriminate children with high vs. low working memory capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimi, Andria; Nobre, Anna Christina; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-01-01

    Selective attention enables enhancing a subset out of multiple competing items to maximize the capacity of our limited visual working memory (VWM) system. Multiple behavioral and electrophysiological studies have revealed the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting adults’ selective attention of visual percepts for encoding in VWM. However, research on children is more limited. What are the neural mechanisms involved in children’s selection of incoming percepts in service of VWM? Do these differ from the ones subserving adults’ selection? Ten-year-olds and adults used a spatial arrow cue to select a colored item for later recognition from an array of four colored items. The temporal dynamics of selection were investigated through EEG signals locked to the onset of the memory array. Both children and adults elicited significantly more negative activity over posterior scalp locations contralateral to the item to-be-selected for encoding (N2pc). However, this activity was elicited later and for longer in children compared to adults. Furthermore, although children as a group did not elicit a significant N2pc during the time-window in which N2pc was elicited in adults, the magnitude of N2pc during the “adult time-window” related to their behavioral performance during the later recognition phase of the task. This in turn highlights how children’s neural activity subserving attention during encoding relates to better subsequent VWM performance. Significant differences were observed when children were divided into groups of high vs. low VWM capacity as a function of cueing benefit. Children with large cue benefits in VWM capacity elicited an adult-like contralateral negativity following attentional selection of the to-be-encoded item, whereas children with low VWM capacity did not. These results corroborate the close coupling between selective attention and VWM from childhood and elucidate further the attentional mechanisms constraining VWM performance in

  5. iImplementation of AMBA AHB protocol for high capacity memory management using VHDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha vishwarkama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Microprocessor performance has improved rapidly these years. In contrast memory latencies and bandwidths have improved little. The result is that the memory access time is the bottleneck which limits the system performance. In case of larger system design which requires more number of I/O ports and more memory capacity the system designer may interface external I/O ports and memory with the system. In this paper we are using advanced microcontroller bus architecture with its advanced high performance bus. AMBA AHB provides parallel communications with multi master bus management, high clock frequency, high performance systems for data transfer operation from the memory interfaced with the master or slave peripheral devices. AMBA AHB supports on chip communications standard for designing high-performance embedded microcontrollers.

  6. Iron titanium phosphates as high-specific-capacity electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essehli, R., E-mail: essehli.rachid@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Mineral Solid and Analytical Chemistry (LMSAC), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohamed I, PO. Box 717, 60000 Oujda (Morocco); ESECO SYSTEMS 270 rue Thomas Edison, Atelier Relais No 6, 34400 Lunel (France); El Bali, B. [Laboratory of Mineral Solid and Analytical Chemistry (LMSAC), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohamed I, PO. Box 717, 60000 Oujda (Morocco); Faik, A. [CIC energigune, Parque Tecnológico de Álava, Albert Einstein 48, 01510 Miñano, Álava (Spain); Naji, M. [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans cedex 2 (France); Benmokhtar, S. [LCPGM, Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique Générale des Matériaux, Département de Chimie, Université Hassan II-Mohammedia, Faculté des Sciences Ben M’Sik, Casablanca (Morocco); Zhong, Y.R.; Su, L.W.; Zhou, Z. [Institute of New Energy Material Chemistry, Synergetic Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Kim, J.; Kang, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Dusek, M. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2014-02-05

    Highlights: • Iron Titanium Phosphates as High-Specific-Capacity. • Electrode Materials for Lithium ion Batteries. • During the following cycles, good reversible capacity retention and better cyclabilit. • Ex-situ XRD analysis during the first discharge shows an amorphization of this anode material. -- Abstract: Two iron titanium phosphates, Fe{sub 0.5}TiOPO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, were prepared, and their crystal structures and electrochemical performances were compared. The electrochemical measurements of Fe{sub 0.5}TiOPO{sub 4} as an anode of a lithium ion cell showed that upon the first discharge down to 0.5 V, the cell delivered a capacity of 560 mA h/g, corresponding to the insertion of 5 Li’s per formula unit Fe{sub 0.5}TiOPO{sub 4}. Ex-situ XRD reveals a gradual evolution of the structure during cycling of the material, with lower crystallinity after the first discharge cycle. By correlating the electrochemical performances with the structural studies, new insights are achieved into the electrochemical behaviour of the Fe{sub 0.5}TiOPO{sub 4} anode material, suggesting a combination of intercalation and conversion reactions. The Nasicon-type Fe{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} consists of a three-dimensional network made of corners and edges sharing [TiO{sub 6}] and [FeO{sub 6}] octahedra and [PO{sub 4}] tetrahedra leading to the formation of trimmers [FeTi{sub 2}O{sub 12}]. The first discharge of lithium ion cells based on Fe{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} materials showed electrochemical activity of Ti{sup 4+}/Ti{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 0} couples in the 2.5–1 V region. Below this voltage, the discharge profiles are typical of phosphate systems where Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is a product of the electrochemical reaction with lithium; moreover, the electrolyte solvent is reduced. An initial capacities as high as 1100 mA h g{sup −1} can be obtained at deep discharge. However, there is an irreversible capacity

  7. Core--strategy leading to high reversible hydrogen storage capacity for NaBH4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Meganne L; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-François

    2012-09-25

    Owing to its high storage capacity (10.8 mass %), sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) is a promising hydrogen storage material. However, the temperature for hydrogen release is high (>500 °C), and reversibility of the release is unachievable under reasonable conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of a novel strategy leading to high and stable hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling for NaBH(4) under mild pressure conditions (4 MPa). By an antisolvent precipitation method, the size of NaBH(4) particles was restricted to a few nanometers (hydrogen at 400 °C. Further encapsulation of these nanoparticles upon reaction of nickel chloride at their surface allowed the synthesis of a core--shell nanostructure, NaBH(4)@Ni, and this provided a route for (a) the effective nanoconfinement of the melted NaBH(4) core and its dehydrogenation products, and (b) reversibility and fast kinetics owing to short diffusion lengths, the unstable nature of nickel borohydride, and possible modification of reaction paths. Hence at 350 °C, a reversible and steady hydrogen capacity of 5 mass % was achieved for NaBH(4)@Ni; 80% of the hydrogen could be desorbed or absorbed in less than 60 min, and full capacity was reached within 5 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such performances have been achieved with NaBH(4). This demonstrates the potential of the strategy in leading to major advancements in the design of effective hydrogen storage materials from pristine borohydrides.

  8. High capacity implantable data recorders: system design and experience in canines and Denning black bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laske, Timothy G; Harlow, Henry J; Werder, Jon C; Marshall, Mark T; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2005-11-01

    Implantable medical devices have increasingly large capacities for storing patient data as a diagnostic aid and to allow patient monitoring. Although these devices can store a significant amount of data, an increased ability for data storage was required for chronic monitoring in recent physiological studies. Novel high capacity implantable data recorders were designed for use in advanced physiological studies of canines and free-ranging black bears. These hermitically sealed titanium encased recorders were chronically implanted and programmed to record intrabody broadband electrical activity to monitor electrocardiograms and electromyograms, and single-axis acceleration to document relative activities. Changes in cardiac T-wave morphology were characterized in the canines over a 6 month period, providing new physiological data for the design of algorithms and filtering schemes that could be employed to avoid inappropriate implantable defibrillator shocks. Unique characteristics of bear hibernation physiology were successfully identified in the black bears, including: heart rate, respiratory rate, gross body movement, and shiver An unanticipated high rejection rate of these devices occurred in the bears, with five of six being externalized during the overwintering period, including two devices implanted in the peritoneal cavity. High capacity implantable data recorders were designed and utilized for the collection of long-term physiological data in both laboratory and extreme field environments. The devices described were programmable to accommodate the diverse research protocols. Additionally, we have described substantial differences in the response of two species to a common device. Variations in the foreign body response of different mammals must be identified and taken into consideration when choosing tissue-contacting materials in the application of biomedical technology to physiologic research.

  9. Exploring a new SPION-based MRI contrast agent with excellent water-dispersibility, high specificity to cancer cells and strong MR imaging efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuehua; Gong, An; Chen, Bin; Zheng, Jianjun; Chen, Tianxiang; Shen, Zheyu; Wu, Aiguo

    2015-02-01

    Advances in contrast agents have greatly enhanced the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for early diagnosis of cancer. However, the commercial superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION)-based contrast agents synthesized by co-precipitation method are not monodisperse with irregular morphologies and ununiform sizes. Other reported SPION-based contrast agents synthesized by solvothermal method or thermal decomposition method are limited by the bad water-dispersibility and low specificity to cancer cells. Herein, we propose a new strategy for exploring SPION-based MRI contrast agents with excellent water-dispersibility and high specificity to cancer cells. The SPION was synthesized by a polyol method and then entrapped into albumin nanospheres (AN). After that, a ligand folic acid (FA) was conjugated onto the surface of the AN to construct a SPION-AN-FA composite. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) results indicate that the SPION-AN-FA has a spherical shape, a uniform size and an excellent water-dispersibility (polydispersity index (PDI) contrast agent.

  10. Reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotubes sponge: A new high capacity and long life anode material for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong; Xu, Xingtao; Lu, Ting; Hu, Bingwen; Chua, Daniel H. C.; Pan, Likun

    2016-06-01

    Reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) sponge (GCNTS) is fabricated via a simple freeze drying of graphene oxide/CNTs mixed solution and subsequent thermal treatment in nitrogen atmosphere, and used as anodes for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) for the first time. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of GCNTS are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, galvanostatic charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that GCNTS with 20 wt % CNTs has a highest charge capacity of 436 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g-1 and even at a high current density of 10 A g-1, a capacity of 195 mA h g-1 is maintained after 7440 cycles. The high capacity, excellent rate performance and long life cycling enable the GCNTS to be a promising candidate for practical SIBs.

  11. Fluorous Metal-Organic Frameworks with Enhanced Stability and High H2/CO2 Storage Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Shuai; Chang, Ze; Li, Yi-Fan; Jiang, Zhong-Yi; Xuan, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Hui; Li, Jian-Rong; Chen, Qiang; Hu, Tong-Liang; Bu, Xian-He

    2013-01-01

    A new class of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized by ligand-functionalization strategy. Systematic studies of their adsorption properties were performed at low and high pressure. Importantly, when fluorine was introduced into the framework via the functionalization, both the framework stabilities and adsorption capacities towards H2/CO2 were enhanced significantly. This consequence can be well interpreted by theoretical studies of these MOFs structures. In addition, one of these MOFs TKL-107 was used to fabricate mixed matrix membranes, which exhibit great potential for the application of CO2 separation. PMID:24264725

  12. Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Raymond W.

    2012-07-30

    This project, Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine was established at the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT). The associated CRADA was established with Campbell Applied Physics (CAP) located in El Dorado Hills, California. This project extends an earlier project involving both CAP and KIPT conducted under a separate CRADA. The initial project developed the basic Plasma Chemical Reactor (PCR) for generation of ozone gas. This project built upon the technology developed in the first project, greatly enhancing the output of the PCR while also improving reliability and system control.

  13. Preparation of Isolated Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes with High Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艾飞; 刘吉平; 吕广庶; 刘华

    2006-01-01

    Isolated single-walled carbon nanotubes with high proportion of opening tips were synthesized by using alcohol as carbon source. The mechanism of cutting action of oxygen was proposed to explain its growth. Compared with carbon nanotubes synthesized with benzene as carbon source, their specific surface area was heightened by approximately 2.2 times (from 200.5 to 648 m2/g) and the hydrogen storage capacity was increased by approximately 6.5 times (from 0.95 to 7.17%, ω)which had exceeded DOE energy standard of vehicular hydrogen storage.

  14. High-temperature heat capacity of orthovanadates Ce1- x Bi x VO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, L. T.; Chumilina, L. G.; Belousova, N. V.; Denisov, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    Orthovanadates Ce1- x Bi x VO4 (1 ≥ x ≥ 0) have been produced by solid-phase synthesis from initial oxides CeO2, Bi2O3, and V2O5 upon step-by-step burning. The high-temperature heat capacity of Ce1- x Bi x VO4 has been measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The experimental data on C p = f(T) were used to calculate the thermodynamic properties (the enthalpy changes, the entropy changes, and the Gibbs energy).

  15. Programmatic status of NASA's CSTI high capacity power Stirling space power converter program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Development Program. This work is being conducted under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. The status of test activities with the Space Power Research Engine (SPRE) is discussed. Design deficiencies are gradually being corrected and the power converter is now outputting 11.5 kWe at a temperature ratio of 2 (design output is 12.5 kWe). Detail designs were completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC). The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, gas bearings, superalloy joining technologies and high efficiency alternators. An update of progress in these technologies is provided.

  16. Evaluating the Value of High Spatial Resolution in National Capacity Expansion Models using ReEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Venkat; Cole, Wesley

    2016-07-18

    This poster is based on the paper of the same name, presented at the IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, July18, 2016. Power sector capacity expansion models (CEMs) have a broad range of spatial resolutions. This paper uses the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, a long-term national scale electric sector CEM, to evaluate the value of high spatial resolution for CEMs. ReEDS models the United States with 134 load balancing areas (BAs) and captures the variability in existing generation parameters, future technology costs, performance, and resource availability using very high spatial resolution data, especially for wind and solar modeled at 356 resource regions. In this paper we perform planning studies at three different spatial resolutions - native resolution (134 BAs), state-level, and NERC region level - and evaluate how results change under different levels of spatial aggregation in terms of renewable capacity deployment and location, associated transmission builds, and system costs. The results are used to ascertain the value of high geographically resolved models in terms of their impact on relative competitiveness among renewable energy resources.

  17. An Aqueous Redox-Flow Battery with High Capacity and Power: The TEMPTMA/MV System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoschka, Tobias; Martin, Norbert; Hager, Martin D; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2016-11-07

    Redox-flow batteries (RFB) can easily store large amounts of electric energy and thereby mitigate the fluctuating output of renewable power plants. They are widely discussed as energy-storage solutions for wind and solar farms to improve the stability of the electrical grid. Most common RFB concepts are based on strongly acidic metal-salt solutions or poorly performing organics. Herein we present a battery which employs the highly soluble N,N,N-2,2,6,6-heptamethylpiperidinyl oxy-4-ammonium chloride (TEMPTMA) and the viologen derivative N,N'-dimethyl-4,4-bipyridinium dichloride (MV) in a simple and safe aqueous solution as redox-active materials. The resulting battery using these electrolyte solutions has capacities of 54 Ah L(-1) , giving a total energy density of 38 Wh L(-1) at a cell voltage of 1.4 V. With peak current densities of up to 200 mA cm(-2) the TEMPTMA/MV system is a suitable candidate for compact high-capacity and high-power applications.

  18. Beginning Microsoft Excel 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Abbott

    2010-01-01

    Beginning Microsoft Excel 2010 is a practical, step-by-step guide to getting started with the world's most widely used spreadsheet application. The book offers a hands-on approach to learning how to create and edit spreadsheets, use various calculation formulas, employ charts/graphs, and get work done efficiently. Microsoft is rolling out several new features with Excel 2010 - perhaps the most notable is the ability to use Excel 2010 online and this collaborate on a project in real time. Beginning Microsoft Office 2010 keeps you up-to-date with all of these new features and more. What you'll l

  19. Excel for Cost Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Glenn C.

    2007-01-01

    Excel is a powerful tool with a plethora of largely unused capabilities that can make the life of an engineer cognizant of them a great deal easier. This paper offers tips, tricks and techniques for better worksheets. Including the use of data validation, conditional formatting, subtotals, text formulas, custom functions and much more. It is assumed that the reader will have a cursory understanding of Excel so the basics will not be covered, if you get hung up try Excel's built in help menus, or a good book.

  20. TQM AND BUSINESS EXCELLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA IONICĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our paper discuss the „hot” topic of Business Excellence (BE aiming to highlight and clarify the connections with Total Quality Management (TQM. Thus, we describe the quality movement from inspection to statistical quality control and the „Japanese Age” of quality followed then by Total Quality Control (TQC and TQM developments that drived to the models of BE. After that, we present some perspectives of defining the excellence at national and international level and an overview of BE models with focus on the referential ones. Finally, we attempt to sketch the coordinates of the "journey" through TQM towards excellence in Romania.

  1. Excel dashboards and reports

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Learn to use Excel dashboards and reports to better conceptualize data Updated for all the?latest features and capabilities of Excel 2013, this go-to resource provides you with in-depth coverage of the individual functions and tools that can be used to create?compelling Excel reports. Veteran author Michael Alexander walks you through the most effective ways to present and report data. Featuring a comprehensive review of a wide array of technical and analytical concepts, this essential guide helps you go from reporting data with simple tables full of dull numbers to presenting

  2. Excel 2003 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Every time you turn around, you run into Excel. It's on yourPC at work. It's on your PC at home. You get Excel files fromyour boss. Wouldn't you like to understand this powerfulMicrosoft Office spreadsheet program, once and for all? Now, youcan crunch financial data, add sparkle to presentations, convertstatic lists of numbers into impressive charts, and discover whatall the shouting's about regarding databases, formulas, andcells. You may even decide that getting organized with a goodspreadsheet is downright useful and fun! Flip open Excel 2003 For Dummies, and you'llquickly start getting th

  3. Excel2003 Formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Walkenbach, John

    2011-01-01

    Everything you need to know about* Mastering operators, error values, naming techniques, and absolute versus relative references* Debugging formulas and using the auditing tools* Importing and exporting XML files and mapping the data to specific cells* Using Excel 2003's rights management feature* Working magic with array formulas* Developing custom formulas to produce the results you needHere's the formula for Excel excellenceFormulas are the lifeblood of spreadsheets, and no one can bring a spreadsheet to life like John Walkenbach. In this detailed reference guide, he delves deeply into unde

  4. Nitrogen Doped Macroporous Carbon as Electrode Materials for High Capacity of Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen doped carbon materials as electrodes of supercapacitors have attracted abundant attention. Herein, we demonstrated a method to synthesize N-doped macroporous carbon materials (NMC with continuous channels and large size pores carbonized from polyaniline using multiporous silica beads as sacrificial templates to act as electrode materials in supercapacitors. By the nice carbonized process, i.e., pre-carbonization at 400 °C and then pyrolysis at 700/800/900/1000 °C, NMC replicas with high BET specific surface areas exhibit excellent stability and recyclability as well as superb capacitance behavior (~413 F ⋅ g−1 in alkaline electrolyte. This research may provide a method to synthesize macroporous materials with continuous channels and hierarchical pores to enhance the infiltration and mass transfer not only used as electrode, but also as catalyst somewhere micro- or mesopores do not work well.

  5. Mg-based nanocomposites with high capacity and fast kinetics for hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiangdong; Wu, Chengzhang; Du, Aijun; Lu, Gao Qing; Cheng, Huiming; Smith, Sean C; Zou, Jin; He, Yinghe

    2006-06-22

    Magnesium and its alloys have shown a great potential in effective hydrogen storage due to their advantages of high volumetric/gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity and low cost. However, the use of these materials in fuel cells for automotive applications at the present time is limited by high hydrogenation temperature and sluggish sorption kinetics. This paper presents the recent results of design and development of magnesium-based nanocomposites demonstrating the catalytic effects of carbon nanotubes and transition metals on hydrogen adsorption in these materials. The results are promising for the application of magnesium materials for hydrogen storage, with significantly reduced absorption temperatures and enhanced ab/desorption kinetics. High level Density Functional Theory calculations support the analysis of the hydrogenation mechanisms by revealing the detailed atomic and molecular interactions that underpin the catalytic roles of incorporated carbon and titanium, providing clear guidance for further design and development of such materials with better hydrogen storage properties.

  6. High-capacity thermo-responsive magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction of curcuminoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qingping; Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Qingwen; Guo, Junfang; Huang, Weihua; Shi, Shuyun; Chen, Xiaoqin

    2014-08-08

    Thermo-responsive magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (TMMIPs) for selective recognition of curcuminoids with high capacity and selectivity have firstly been developed. The resulting TMMIPs were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, TGA, VSM and UV, which indicated that TMMIPs showed thermo-responsiveness [lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at 33.71°C] and rapid magnetic separation (5s). The polymerization, adsorption and release conditions were optimized in detail to obtain the highest binding capacity, selectivity and release ratio. We found that the adopted thermo-responsive monomer [N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm)] could be considered not only as inert polymer backbone for thermo-responsiveness but also as functional co-monomers combination with basic monomer (4-VP) for more specific binding sites when ethanol was added in binding solution. The maximum adsorption capacity with highest selectivity of curcumin was 440.3μg/g (1.93 times that on MMIPs with no thermosensitivity) at 45°C (above LCST) in 20% (v/v) ethanol solution on shrunk TMMIPs, and the maximum release proportion was about 98% at 20°C (below LCST) in methanol-acetic acid (9/1, v/v) solution on swelled TMMIPs. The adsorption process between curcumin and TMMIPs followed Langumuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The prepared TMMIPs also showed high reproducibility (RSD<6% for batch-to-batch evaluation) and stability (only 7% decrease after five cycles). Subsequently, the TMMIPs were successfully applied for selective extraction of curcuminoids from complex natural product, Curcuma longa.

  7. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Williams, Joseph; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    Sustainable Enterprise Excellence balances complementary and competing interests of key stakeholder segments, including society and the natural environment and increases the likelihood of superior and sustainable competitive positioning and hence long-term enterprise success that is defined......, supply chain, customer-related, human capital, financial, marketplace, societal, and environmental performance. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence integrates ethical, efficient and effective (E3) enterprise governance with 3E (equity, ecology, economy) Triple Top Line strategy throughout enterprise...... culture and activities to produce Triple Bottom Line 3P (people, planet, profit) performance that are simultaneously pragmatic, innovative and supportive of R3 (Edgeman, 2013). Sustainable Enterprise Excellence (Edgeman & Eskildsen, 2013) or SEE is analogous to Business & Performance Excellence. The role...

  8. EDITORIAL AGREEMENT TOWARDS EXCELLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián A. Herrera M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Colombia Médica was recently classified by COLCIENCIAS in A1 category as a fair recognition by its long undertaking of scientific publication during four decades, achieving articles to be consulted and informed in twenty two international data bases, including Institute for Scientific Information (ISI-Thomson, and having an impact factor (SCIMAGO. All of this is by being devoted to an outstanding quality: excellence.In the beginning Colombia Médica was printed out on paper with one thousand copies quarterly for national distribution and extended exchange requested by libraries from prestigious universities over the world. Web publication of the journal was a decisive step to increase its diffusion at a long scale. International data bases information of reading people show that a very important part of consultation (60% is done over the five continent´s countries surpassing the mean of one thousand consults per day.A journal importance may be measured by its level of contribution to new knowledge, academic debate of highly controversial topics having as central axle scientific contribution frontiers and state of the art, which is reflected by the degree of article quotation in highest level publications. Investigators from twenty countries of three continents have communicated their research contributions in Colombia Médica; this demonstrates and proves the journal visibility both for regular readers and for the international scientific community.La Universidad del Valle is a superior education institution distinguished by national government due to its excellence patterns and classified by SCIMAGO as the Colombian public university of high standing scientific visibility. Institutional support to research, in all dimensions, has made possible to Colombia Médica the development of internal regulations that obey to university structure, maintaining at the same time an editorial independence which preserves its high standards.Colombia M

  9. Co-modification of nitrogen-doped graphene and carbon on Li3V2(PO4)3 particles with excellent long-term and high-rate performance for lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Manman; Yang, Mingzhi; Liu, Weiliang; Li, Mei; Su, Liwei; Wu, Xianbin; Wang, Yuanhao

    2016-09-01

    In this work, N-doped graphene and carbon co-modified Li3V2(PO4)3 composites (LVP/NGC) are successfully fabricated through a xerogel method for the first time. The obtained architecture combines two types of electronic contact with Li3V2(PO4)3 particles: the point-to-face contact of N-doped graphene and the face-to-face contact of N-doped carbon coating layers. Profiting from the favorable complex structure, graphene and carbon coating layers offer an extraordinary network for electron transfer and hence an excellent long-term and high-rate performance. Even tested at the rate of 40 C, the reversible capacity still maintains 86.9 mAh g-1 after 800 cycles without any fading. This work provides a promising route to improve the long-term and high-rate performance of cathodes for LIBs and enlightens us on exploring preferable strategies to develop advanced electrode materials for other energy storage devices.

  10. An insect herbivore microbiome with high plant biomass-degrading capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garret Suen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini, which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome's predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  11. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V.; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T.; Porcari, John P.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key points Steady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained students Mild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state training HIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval training Enjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program PMID:26664271

  12. Incorporating magnesium and calcium cations in porous organic frameworks for high-capacity hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Sun, Yingxin; Sun, Huai

    2011-01-01

    We propose incorporating a bi-functional group consisting of magnesium or calcium cations and a 1,2,4,5-benzenetetroxide anion (C6H2O4(4-)) in porous materials to enhance the hydrogen storage capacity. The C6H2O4M2 bifunctional group is highly stable and polarized, and each group provides 18 (M = Mg) or 22 (M = Ca) binding sites for hydrogen molecules with an average binding energy of ca. 10 kJ mol(-1) per hydrogen molecule based on RIMP2/ TZVPP calculations. Two porous materials (PAF-Mg or PAF-Ca) constructed with the bi-functional groups show remarkable improvement in hydrogen uptakes at normal ambient conditions. At 233 K and 10 MPa, the predicted gravimetric uptakes are 6.8 and 6.4 wt% for PAF-Mg and PAF-Ca respectively. This work reveals that fabricating materials with large numbers of binding sites and relatively low binding energies is a promising approach to achieve high capacity for on-board storage of hydrogen.

  13. An Insect Herbivore Microbiome with High Plant Biomass-Degrading Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suen, Garret; Barry, Kerrie; Goodwin, Lynne; Scott, Jarrod; Aylward, Frank; Adams, Sandra; Pinto-Tomas, Adrian; Foster, Clifton; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy; Slater, Steven; Donohue, Timothy; Currie, Cameron; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2010-09-23

    Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome?s predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  14. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T; Porcari, John P

    2015-12-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. There were significant (p training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5%) & mean (+4, +7 and +6%) power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p training in sedentary young adults. Key pointsSteady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained studentsMild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state trainingHIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval trainingEnjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program.

  15. E- and W-band high-capacity hybrid fiber-wireless link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Pang, Xiaodan; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the work conducted in our group in the area of E- and W-band optical high-capacity fiber-wireless links. We present performance evaluations of E- and W-band mm-wave signal generation using photonic frequency upconversion employing both VCSELs and ECLs, along with transm......In this paper we summarize the work conducted in our group in the area of E- and W-band optical high-capacity fiber-wireless links. We present performance evaluations of E- and W-band mm-wave signal generation using photonic frequency upconversion employing both VCSELs and ECLs, along...... with transmission over different type of optical fibers and for a number of values for the wireless link distance. Hybrid wireless-optical links can be composed of mature and resilient technology available off-the-shelf, and provide functionalities that can add value to optical access networks, specifically...... in mobile backhaul/fronthaul applications, dense distributed antenna systems and fiber-over-radio scenarios....

  16. An Insect Herbivore Microbiome with High Plant Biomass-Degrading Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Garret; Scott, Jarrod J.; Aylward, Frank O.; Adams, Sandra M.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A.; Foster, Clifton E.; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy T.; Slater, Steven C.; Donohue, Timothy J.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2010-01-01

    Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome's predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy. PMID:20885794

  17. High-Capacity Quantum Secure Direct Communication Based on Quantum Hyperdense Coding with Hyperentanglement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tie-Jun; LI Tao; DU Fang-Fang; DENG Fu-Guo

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantum hyperdense coding protocol with hyperentanglement in polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom of photons first and then give the details for a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC)protocol based on this quantum hyperdense coding protocol. This QSDC protocol has the advantage of having a higher capacity than the quantum communication protocols with a qubit system. Compared with the QSDC protocol based on superdense coding with d-dimensional systems, this QSDC protocol is more feasible as the preparation of a high-dimension quantum system is more difficult than that of a two-level quantum system at present.%@@ We present a quantum hyperdense coding protocol with hyperentanglement in polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom of photons first and then give the details for a quantum secure direct communication(QSDC)protocol based on this quantum hyperdense coding protocol.This QSDC protocol has the advantage of having a higher capacity than the quantum communication protocols with a qubit system.Compared with the QSDC protocol based on superdense coding with d-dimensional systems, this QSDC protocol is more feasible as the preparation of a high-dimension quantum system is more difficult than that of a two-level quantum system at present.

  18. Expression of angiogenic regulators and skeletal muscle capillarity in selectively bred high aerobic capacity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Gerald N; Meek, Thomas H; Garland, Theodore; Olfert, I Mark

    2011-11-01

    Selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running in untrained mice has resulted in a 'mini muscle' (MM) phenotype, which has increased skeletal muscle capillarity compared with muscles from non-selected control lines. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) are essential mediators of skeletal muscle angiogenesis; thus, we hypothesized that untrained MM mice with elevated muscle capillarity would have higher basal VEGF expression and lower basal TSP-1 expression, and potentially an exaggerated VEGF response to acute exercise. We examined skeletal muscle morphology and skeletal muscle protein expression of VEGF and TSP-1 in male mice from two (untrained) mouse lines selectively bred for high exercise capacity (MM and Non-MM), as well as one non-selected control mouse line (normal aerobic capacity). In the MM mice, gastrocnemius (GA) and plantaris (PLT) muscle capillarity (i.e. capillary-to-fibre ratio and capillary density) were greater compared with control mice (P capillarity in PLT was greater than in control mice (P capillarity among groups. In the GA, MM mice had 58% greater basal VEGF (P capillarity is associated with altered balance between positive and negative angiogenic regulators (i.e. VEGF versus TSP-1, respectively). Based on the greater capillarity and significant VEGF response to exercise in MM mice, these data suggest that VEGF expression may, at least in part, be genetically determined.

  19. PV Hosting Capacity Analysis and Enhancement Using High Resolution Stochastic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio J. Palacios-Garcia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of CO2 emissions is a main target in the future smart grid. This goal is boosting the installation of renewable energy resources (RES, as well as a major consumer engagement that seeks for a more efficient utilization of these resources toward the figure of ‘prosumers’. Nevertheless, these resources present an intermittent nature, which requires the presence of an energy storage system and an energy management system (EMS to ensure an uninterrupted power supply. Moreover, network-related issues might arise due to the increasing power of renewable resources installed in the grid, the storage systems also being capable of contributing to the network stability. However, to assess these future scenarios and test the control strategies, a simulation system is needed. The aim of this paper is to analyze the interaction between residential consumers with high penetration of PV generation and distributed storage and the grid by means of a high temporal resolution simulation scenario based on a stochastic residential load model and PV production records. Results of the model are presented for different PV power rates and storage capacities, as well as a two-level charging strategy as a mechanism for increasing the hosting capacity (HC of the network.

  20. Three-dimensional skeleton networks of graphene wrapped polyaniline nanofibers: an excellent structure for high-performance flexible solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nantao; Zhang, Liling; Yang, Chao; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao; Liao, Hanbin; Feng, Zhenxing; Fisher, Adrian; Zhang, Yafei; Xu, Zhichuan J.

    2016-01-01

    Thin, robust, lightweight, and flexible supercapacitors (SCs) have aroused growing attentions nowadays due to the rapid development of flexible electronics. Graphene-polyaniline (PANI) hybrids are attractive candidates for high performance SCs. In order to utilize them in real devices, it is necessary to improve the capacitance and the structure stability of PANI. Here we report a hierarchical three-dimensional structure, in which all of PANI nanofibers (NFs) are tightly wrapped inside reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheet skeletons, for high-performance flexible SCs. The as-fabricated film electrodes with this unique structure showed a highest gravimetric specific capacitance of 921 F/g and volumetric capacitance of 391 F/cm3. The assembled solid-state SCs gave a high specific capacitance of 211 F/g (1 A/g), a high area capacitance of 0.9 F/cm2, and a competitive volumetric capacitance of 25.6 F/cm3. The SCs also exhibited outstanding rate capability (~75% retention at 20 A/g) as well as excellent cycling stability (100% retention at 10 A/g for 2000 cycles). Additionally, no structural failure and loss of performance were observed under the bending state. This structure design paves a new avenue for engineering rGO/PANI or other similar hybrids for high performance flexible energy storage devices.

  1. Excellence of numerical differentiation method in calculating the coefficients of high temperature series expansion of the free energy and convergence problem of the expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, S., E-mail: chixiayzsq@yahoo.com [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Solana, J. R. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2014-12-28

    In this paper, it is shown that the numerical differentiation method in performing the coupling parameter series expansion [S. Zhou, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 144518 (2006); AIP Adv. 1, 040703 (2011)] excels at calculating the coefficients a{sub i} of hard sphere high temperature series expansion (HS-HTSE) of the free energy. Both canonical ensemble and isothermal-isobaric ensemble Monte Carlo simulations for fluid interacting through a hard sphere attractive Yukawa (HSAY) potential with extremely short ranges and at very low temperatures are performed, and the resulting two sets of data of thermodynamic properties are in excellent agreement with each other, and well qualified to be used for assessing convergence of the HS-HTSE for the HSAY fluid. Results of valuation are that (i) by referring to the results of a hard sphere square well fluid [S. Zhou, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 124111 (2013)], it is found that existence of partial sum limit of the high temperature series expansion series and consistency between the limit value and the true solution depend on both the potential shapes and temperatures considered. (ii) For the extremely short range HSAY potential, the HS-HTSE coefficients a{sub i} falls rapidly with the order i, and the HS-HTSE converges from fourth order; however, it does not converge exactly to the true solution at reduced temperatures lower than 0.5, wherein difference between the partial sum limit of the HS-HTSE series and the simulation result tends to become more evident. Something worth mentioning is that before the convergence order is reached, the preceding truncation is always improved by the succeeding one, and the fourth- and higher-order truncations give the most dependable and qualitatively always correct thermodynamic results for the HSAY fluid even at low reduced temperatures to 0.25.

  2. Highly porous organic polymers bearing tertiary amine group and their exceptionally high CO{sub 2} uptake capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Ruth; Bhaumik, Asim, E-mail: msab@iacs.res.in

    2015-02-15

    We report a very simple and unique strategy for synthesis of a tertiary amine functionalized high surface area porous organic polymer (POP) PDVTA-1 through the co-polymerization of monomers divinylbenzene (DVB) and triallylamine (TAA) under solvothermal reaction conditions. Two different PDVTA-1 samples have been synthesized by varying the molar ratio of the monomers. The porous polymeric materials have been thoroughly characterized by solid state {sup 13}C CP MAS-NMR, FT-IR and UV–vis spectroscopy, N{sub 2} sorption, HR TEM and FE SEM to understand its chemical environment, nanostructure, bonding, morphology and related surface properties. PDVTA-1 with higher amine content (DVB/TAA=4.0) showed exceptionally high CO{sub 2} uptake capacity of 85.8 wt% (19.5 mmol g{sup −1}) at 273 K and 43.69 wt% (9.93 mmol g{sup −1}) at 298 K under 3 bar pressure, whereas relatively low amine loaded material (DVB/TAA=7.0) shows uptake capacity of 59.2 wt% (13.45 mmol g{sup −1}) at 273 K and 34.36 wt% (7.81 mmol g{sup −1}) at 298 K. Highly porous nanostructure together with very high surface area and basicity at the surface due to the presence of abundant basic tertiary amine N-sites in the framework of PDVTA-1 could be responsible for very high CO{sub 2} adsorption. - Graphical abstract: Exceptionally high CO2 uptake (85.8 wt % at 273 K) has been observed over a high surface area porous organic polymer PDVTA-1 synthesized through copolymerization of divinylbenzene and triallyl amine. - Highlights: • Designing the synthesis of a new N-rich cross-linked porous organic polymer PDVTA-1. • PDVTA-1 showed mesoporosity with very high surface area of 903 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. • High surface area and presence of basic sites facilitates the CO{sub 2} uptake. • PDVTA-1 showed exceptionally high CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 85.8 wt% at 273 K, 3 bar pressure.

  3. High-Capacity Hybrid Optical Fiber-Wireless Communications Links in Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan

    techniques with both coherent and incoherent optical sources are studied and demonstrated. Employments of advanced modulation formats including phase-shift keying (PSK), M-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) for high speed photonic-wireless transmission......Integration between fiber-optic and wireless communications systems in the "last mile" access networks is currently considered as a promising solution for both service providers and users, in terms of minimizing deployment cost, shortening upgrading period and increasing mobility and flexibility...... techniques. In conclusion, the results presented in the thesis show the feasibility of employing mm-wave signals, advanced modulation formats and spatial multiplexing technologies in next generation high capacity hybrid optical fiber-wireless access systems....

  4. Spherical polystyrene-supported chitosan thin film of fast kinetics and high capacity for copper removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei, E-mail: jiangwei@nju.edu.cn; Chen, Xubin; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Quanxing; Teng, Long; Chen, Yufan; Liu, Lu

    2014-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sub-micron-sized polystyrene supported chitosan thin-film was synthesized. • Absorbents exhibited fast kinetics and high capacity for Cu(II) removal from water. • Absorbents could be employed for repeated use for Cu(II) removal after regeneration. - Abstract: In order to accelerate the kinetics and improve the utilization of the surface active groups of chitosan (CS) for heavy metal ion removal, sub-micron-sized polystyrene supported chitosan thin-film was synthesized by the electrostatic assembly method. Glutaraldehyde was used as cross-linking agent. Chitosan thin-film was well coated onto the surface of the polystyrene (PS) beads characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Their adsorption toward Cu(II) ions was investigated as a function of solution pH, degree of cross-linking, equilibrium Cu(II) ions concentration and contact time. The maximum adsorptive capacity of PS–CS was 99.8 mg/g in the adsorption isotherm study. More attractively, the adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 10 min, which showed superior properties among similar adsorbents. Continuous adsorption–desorption cyclic results demonstrated that Cu(II)-loaded PS–CS can be effectively regenerated by a hydrochloric acid solution (HCl), and the regenerated composite beads could be employed for repeated use without significant capacity loss, indicating the good stability of the adsorbents. The XPS analysis confirmed that the adsorption process was due to surface complexes with atoms of chitosan. Generally, PS beads could be employed as a promising host to fabricate efficient composites that originated from chitosan or other bio-sorbents for environmental remediation.

  5. ZnFe2O4-C/LiFePO4-CNT: A Novel High-Power Lithium-Ion Battery with Excellent Cycling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzi, Alberto; Bresser, Dominic; von Zamory, Jan; Müller, Franziska; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and environmentally friendly battery chemistry is proposed for high power applications. A carbon-coated ZnFe2O4 nanoparticle-based anode and a LiFePO4-multiwalled carbon nanotube-based cathode, both aqueous processed with Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, are combined, for the first time, in a Li-ion full cell with exceptional electrochemical performance. Such novel battery shows remarkable rate capabilities, delivering 50% of its nominal capacity at currents corresponding to ≈20C (with respect to the limiting cathode). Furthermore, the pre-lithiation of the negative electrode offers the possibility of tuning the cell potential and, therefore, achieving remarkable gravimetric energy and power density values of 202 Wh kg−1 and 3.72 W kg−1, respectively, in addition to grant a lithium reservoir. The high reversibility of the system enables sustaining more than 10 000 cycles at elevated C-rates (≈10C with respect to the LiFePO4 cathode), while retaining up to 85% of its initial capacity. PMID:26190956

  6. ZnFe2O4-C/LiFePO4-CNT: A Novel High-Power Lithium-Ion Battery with Excellent Cycling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzi, Alberto; Bresser, Dominic; von Zamory, Jan; Müller, Franziska; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-07-15

    An innovative and environmentally friendly battery chemistry is proposed for high power applications. A carbon-coated ZnFe2O4 nanoparticle-based anode and a LiFePO4-multiwalled carbon nanotube-based cathode, both aqueous processed with Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, are combined, for the first time, in a Li-ion full cell with exceptional electrochemical performance. Such novel battery shows remarkable rate capabilities, delivering 50% of its nominal capacity at currents corresponding to ≈20C (with respect to the limiting cathode). Furthermore, the pre-lithiation of the negative electrode offers the possibility of tuning the cell potential and, therefore, achieving remarkable gravimetric energy and power density values of 202 Wh kg(-1) and 3.72 W kg(-1), respectively, in addition to grant a lithium reservoir. The high reversibility of the system enables sustaining more than 10 000 cycles at elevated C-rates (≈10C with respect to the LiFePO4 cathode), while retaining up to 85% of its initial capacity.

  7. GO@CuSilicate nano-needle arrays hierarchical structure: a new route to prepare high optical transparent, excellent self-cleaning and anticorrosion superhydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ping; Chen, Jingyi; Yang, Jintao; Chen, Feng; Zhong, Mingqiang

    2017-02-01

    Transparent superhydrophobic coatings, which are highly desired for the protection of material surfaces, have been limited to particular kinds of materials, e.g. silicon dioxide. In this work, a hybrid compound of graphene oxide and copper silicate with hierarchical structure was developed and was used to fabricate coatings. Due to the high transparency of graphene oxide and the nanoscopic roughness created by nanoneedles of CuSilicate, with very low compound loading (0.052 mg/cm2), the as-prepared coating was found not only showing superhydrophobic properties with a water contact angle (CA) of ˜152° and a near zero sliding angle (SA) of 0.5 but also showing high optical transparent (light transmittance is as high as 94.5 % at 500 nm). Furthermore, this surface also showed efficient anticorrosion properties and excellent self-cleaning ability. This study not only fabricated a new surface with transparency and surperhydrophobicity based on graphene materials, but also hopefully offers a method for the fabrication of multifunctional coatings.

  8. Synthesis of an excellent electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction with supercritical fluid: Graphene cellular monolith with ultrafine and highly dispersive multimetallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yazhou; Cheng, Xiaonong; Yen, Clive H.; Wai, Chien M.; Wang, Chongmin; Yang, Juan; Lin, Yuehe

    2017-04-01

    Graphene cellular monolith (GCM) can be used as an excellent support for nanoparticles in widespread applications. However, it's still a great challenge to deposit the desirable nanoparticles in GCM that have small size, controllable structure, composition, and high dispersion using the current methods. Here we demonstrate a green, efficient and large-scale method to address this challenge using supercritical fluid (SCF). By this superior method, graphene hydrogel can be transferred into GCM while being deposited with ultrafine and highly dispersive nanoparticles. Specifically, the bimetallic PtFe/GCM and the trimetallic PtFeCo/GCM catalysts are successfully synthesized, and their electrocatalytic performances toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are also studied. The resultant PtFe/GCM shows the significant enhancement in ORR activity, including a factor of 8.47 enhancement in mass activity (0.72 A mgPt-1), and a factor of 7.67 enhancement in specific activity (0.92 mA cm-2), comparing with those of the commercial Pt/C catalyst (0.085 A mgPt-1, 0.12 mA cm-2). Importantly, by introducing the Co, the trimetallic PtFeCo/GCM exhibits the further improved ORR activities (1.28 A mgPt-1, 1.80 mA cm-2). The high ORR activity is probably attributed to the alloying structure, ultrafine size, highly dispersive, well-defined, and a better interface with 3D porous graphene support.

  9. Synthesis of an excellent electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction with supercritical fluid: Graphene cellular monolith with ultrafine and highly dispersive multimetallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yazhou; Cheng, Xiaonong; Yen, Clive H.; Wai, Chien M.; Wang, Chongmin; Yang, Juan; Lin, Yuehe

    2017-04-01

    Graphene cellular monolith (GCM) can be used as an excellent support for nanoparticles in widespread applications. However, it's still a great challenge to deposit the desirable nanoparticles in GCM that have small size, controllable structure, composition, and high dispersion using the current methods. Here we demonstrate a green, efficient and large-scale method to address this challenge using supercritical fluid (SCF). By this superior method, graphene hydrogel can be transferred into GCM while being deposited with ultrafine and highly dispersive nanoparticles. Specifically, the bimetallic PtFe/GCM and the trimetallic PtFeCo/GCM catalysts are successfully synthesized, and their electrocatalytic performances toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are also studied. The resultant PtFe/GCM shows the significant enhancement in ORR activity, including a factor of 8.47 enhancement in mass activity (0.72 A mgPt-1), and a factor of 7.67 enhancement in specific activity (0.92 mA cm-2), comparing with those of the commercial Pt/C catalyst (0.085 A mgPt-1, 0.12 mA cm-2). Importantly, by introducing the Co, the trimetallic PtFeCo/GCM exhibits the further improved ORR activities (1.28 A mgPt-1, 1.80 mA cm-2). The high ORR activity is probably attributed to the alloying structure, ultrafine size, highly dispersive, well-defined, and a better interface with 3D porous graphene support.

  10. New high-capacity, calcium-based sorbents, calcium silicate sorbents. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, M.E.

    1996-02-28

    A search is being carried out for new calcium-based SO{sub 2} sorbents for induct injection. More specifically, a search is being carried out for induct injection calcium silicate sorbents that are highly cost effective. The current year objectives include the study of sorbents made by hydrating ordinary or Type I portland cement or portland cement clinker (a cement intermediate) under carefully selected conditions. Results of this study show that an excellent portland cement sorbent can be prepared by milling cement at 120{degrees}C at 600 rpm for 15 minutes with MgO-stabilized ZrO{sub 2} beads. They also show that clinker, which is cheaper than cement can be used interchangeably with cement as a starting material. Further, it is clear that while a high surface area may be a desirable property of a good sorbent, it is not a requisite property. Among the hydration reaction variables, milling time is highly important, reaction temperature is important and stirring rate and silicate-to-H{sub 2}O ratio are moderately important. The components of hydrated cement sorbent are various combinations of C-S-H, calcium silicate hydrate:Ca(OH){sub 2};AFm. a phase in hydrated cement.

  11. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly. Steady-state (n = 19 exercised (cycle ergometer 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT. Tabata (n = 21 completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15 completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05 increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18% and PPO (+17, +24 and +14% for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5% & mean (+4, +7 and +6% power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05 than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05 across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults.

  12. Fast and simple high-capacity quantum cryptography with error detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hong; Luo, Ming-Xing; Pieprzyk, Josef; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Lei; Li, Shudong; Orgun, Mehmet A.

    2017-04-01

    Quantum cryptography is commonly used to generate fresh secure keys with quantum signal transmission for instant use between two parties. However, research shows that the relatively low key generation rate hinders its practical use where a symmetric cryptography component consumes the shared key. That is, the security of the symmetric cryptography demands frequent rate of key updates, which leads to a higher consumption of the internal one-time-pad communication bandwidth, since it requires the length of the key to be as long as that of the secret. In order to alleviate these issues, we develop a matrix algorithm for fast and simple high-capacity quantum cryptography. Our scheme can achieve secure private communication with fresh keys generated from Fibonacci- and Lucas- valued orbital angular momentum (OAM) states for the seed to construct recursive Fibonacci and Lucas matrices. Moreover, the proposed matrix algorithm for quantum cryptography can ultimately be simplified to matrix multiplication, which is implemented and optimized in modern computers. Most importantly, considerably information capacity can be improved effectively and efficiently by the recursive property of Fibonacci and Lucas matrices, thereby avoiding the restriction of physical conditions, such as the communication bandwidth.

  13. High capacity for extracellular acid-base regulation in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Gam, Le Thi Hong; Tuong, Dang Diem; Thinh, Phan Vinh; Huong Thanh, Do Thi; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of accessory air-breathing structures is typically associated with reduction of the gills, although branchial ion transport remains pivotal for acid-base and ion regulation. Therefore, air-breathing fishes are believed to have a low capacity for extracellular pH regulation during a respiratory acidosis. In the present study, we investigated acid-base regulation during hypercapnia in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in normoxic and hypoxic water at 28-30°C. Contrary to previous studies, we show that this air-breathing fish has a pronounced ability to regulate extracellular pH (pHe) during hypercapnia, with complete metabolic compensation of pHe within 72 h of exposure to hypoxic hypercapnia with CO2 levels above 34 mmHg. The high capacity for pHe regulation relies on a pronounced ability to increase levels of HCO3(-) in the plasma. Our study illustrates the diversity in the physiology of air-breathing fishes, such that generalizations across phylogenies may be difficult.

  14. Invited Article: Polarization diversity and modulation for high-speed optical communications: architectures and capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Shieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Polarization is one of the fundamental properties of optical waves. To cope with the exponential growth of the Internet traffic, optical communications has advanced by leaps and bounds within the last decade. For the first time, the polarization domain has been extensively explored for high-speed optical communications. In this paper, we discuss the general principle of polarization modulation in both Jones and Stokes spaces. We show that there is no linear optical device capable of transforming an arbitrary input polarization into one that is orthogonal to itself. This excludes the receiver self-polarization diversity architecture by splitting the signal into two branches, and then transferring one of the branches into orthogonal polarization. We next propose a novel Stokes vector (SV detection architecture using four single-ended photodiodes (PD that can recover a full set of SV. We then derive a closed-form expression for the information capacity of different SV detection architectures and compare the capacity of our proposed architectures with that of intensity-modulated directly-detected (IM/DD method. We next study the 3-PD SV detection architecture where a subset of SV is detected, and devise a novel modulation algorithm that can achieve 2-dimensional modulation with the 3-PD detection. By using cost-effective SV receivers, polarization modulation and multiplexing offers a powerful solution for short-reach optical networks where the wavelength domain is quickly exhausted.

  15. Hierarchically structured lithium titanate for ultrafast charging in long-life high capacity batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odziomek, Mateusz; Chaput, Frédéric; Rutkowska, Anna; Świerczek, Konrad; Olszewska, Danuta; Sitarz, Maciej; Lerouge, Frédéric; Parola, Stephane

    2017-05-01

    High-performance Li-ion batteries require materials with well-designed and controlled structures on nanometre and micrometre scales. Electrochemical properties can be enhanced by reducing crystallite size and by manipulating structure and morphology. Here we show a method for preparing hierarchically structured Li4Ti5O12 yielding nano- and microstructure well-suited for use in lithium-ion batteries. Scalable glycothermal synthesis yields well-crystallized primary 4-8 nm nanoparticles, assembled into porous secondary particles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals presence of Ti+4 only; combined with chemical analysis showing lithium deficiency, this suggests oxygen non-stoichiometry. Electron microscopy confirms hierarchical morphology of the obtained material. Extended cycling tests in half cells demonstrates capacity of 170 mAh g-1 and no sign of capacity fading after 1,000 cycles at 50C rate (charging completed in 72 s). The particular combination of nanostructure, microstructure and non-stoichiometry for the prepared lithium titanate is believed to underlie the observed electrochemical performance of material.

  16. Invited Article: Polarization diversity and modulation for high-speed optical communications: architectures and capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, William; Khodakarami, Hamid; Che, Di

    2016-07-01

    Polarization is one of the fundamental properties of optical waves. To cope with the exponential growth of the Internet traffic, optical communications has advanced by leaps and bounds within the last decade. For the first time, the polarization domain has been extensively explored for high-speed optical communications. In this paper, we discuss the general principle of polarization modulation in both Jones and Stokes spaces. We show that there is no linear optical device capable of transforming an arbitrary input polarization into one that is orthogonal to itself. This excludes the receiver self-polarization diversity architecture by splitting the signal into two branches, and then transferring one of the branches into orthogonal polarization. We next propose a novel Stokes vector (SV) detection architecture using four single-ended photodiodes (PD) that can recover a full set of SV. We then derive a closed-form expression for the information capacity of different SV detection architectures and compare the capacity of our proposed architectures with that of intensity-modulated directly-detected (IM/DD) method. We next study the 3-PD SV detection architecture where a subset of SV is detected, and devise a novel modulation algorithm that can achieve 2-dimensional modulation with the 3-PD detection. By using cost-effective SV receivers, polarization modulation and multiplexing offers a powerful solution for short-reach optical networks where the wavelength domain is quickly exhausted.

  17. Phosphorus recycling in photorespiration maintains high photosynthetic capacity in woody species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, David S; Crous, Kristine Y; Lambers, Hans; Cooke, Julia

    2015-06-01

    Leaf photosynthetic CO2 responses can provide insight into how major nutrients, such as phosphorus (P), constrain leaf CO2 assimilation rates (Anet). However, triose-phosphate limitations are rarely employed in the classic photosynthesis model and it is uncertain as to what extent these limitations occur in field situations. In contrast to predictions from biochemical theory of photosynthesis, we found consistent evidence in the field of lower Anet in high [CO2] and low [O2 ] than at ambient [O2 ]. For 10 species of trees and shrubs across a range of soil P availability in Australia, none of them showed a positive response of Anet at saturating [CO2] (i.e. Amax) to 2 kPa O2. Three species showed >20% reductions in Amax in low [O2], a phenomenon potentially explained by orthophosphate (Pi) savings during photorespiration. These species, with largest photosynthetic capacity and Pi  > 2 mmol P m(-2), rely the most on additional Pi made available from photorespiration rather than species growing in P-impoverished soils. The results suggest that rarely used adjustments to a biochemical photosynthesis model are useful for predicting Amax and give insight into the biochemical limitations of photosynthesis rates at a range of leaf P concentrations. Phosphate limitations to photosynthetic capacity are likely more common in the field than previously considered.

  18. Achieveing Organizational Excellence Through

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Abzari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractToday, In order to create motivation and desirable behavior in employees, to obtain organizational goals,to increase human resources productivity and finally to achieve organizational excellence, top managers oforganizations apply new and effective strategies. One of these strategies to achieve organizational excellenceis creating desirable corporate culture. This research has been conducted to identify the path to reachorganizational excellence by creating corporate culture according to the standards and criteria oforganizational excellence. The result of the so-called research is this paper in which researchers foundtwenty models and components of corporate culture and based on the Industry, organizational goals andEFQM model developed a model called "The Eskimo model of Culture-Excellence". The method of theresearch is survey and field study and the questionnaires were distributed among 116 managers andemployees. To assess the reliability of questionnaires, Cronbach alpha was measured to be 95% in the idealsituation and 0/97 in the current situation. Systematic sampling was done and in the pre-test stage 45questionnaires were distributed. A comparison between the current and the ideal corporate culture based onthe views of managers and employees was done and finally it has been concluded that corporate culture isthe main factor to facilitate corporate excellence and success in order to achieve organizational effectiveness.The contribution of this paper is that it proposes a localized –applicable model of corporate excellencethrough reinforcing corporate culture.

  19. Ambient-temperature high damping capacity in TiPd-based martensitic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Dezhen [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Zhou, Yumei, E-mail: zhouyumei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Ding, Xiangdong [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Otsuka, Kazuhiro [Ferroic Physics Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047, Ibaraki (Japan); Lookman, Turab [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sun, Jun [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Ren, Xiaobing [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Ferroic Physics Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-04-24

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have attracted considerable attention for their high damping capacities. Here we investigate the damping behavior of Ti{sub 50}(Pd{sub 50−x}D{sub x}) SMAs (D=Fe, Co, Mn, V) by dynamic mechanical analysis. We find that these alloys show remarkably similar damping behavior. There exists a sharp damping peak associated with the B2–B19 martensitic transformation and a high damping plateau (Q{sup −1}~0.02–0.05) over a wide ambient-temperature range (220–420 K) due to the hysteretic twin boundary motion. After doping hydrogen into the above alloys, a new relaxation-type damping peak appears in the martensite phase over 270–360 K. Such a peak is considered to originate from the interaction of hydrogen atoms with twin boundaries and the corresponding damping capacity (Q{sup −1}~0.05–0.09) is enhanced by roughly twice that of the damping plateau for each alloy. Moreover, the relaxation peaks are at higher temperatures for the TiPd-based alloys (270–370 K) than for the TiNi-based alloys (190–260 K). We discuss the influence of hydrogen diffusion, mobility of twin boundaries and hydrogen–twin boundary interaction on the temperature range of the relaxation peak. Our results suggest that a martensite, with appropriate values for twinning shear and hydrogen doping level, provides a route towards developing high damping SMAs for applications in desired temperature ranges.

  20. Lamprey parasitism of sharks and teleosts: high capacity urea excretion in an extant vertebrate relic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Michael P; Turnbull, Steven; Bird, Jonathan; Wang, Yuxiang S; Claude, Jaime F; Youson, John H

    2004-08-01

    We observed 10 sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) parasitizing basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus), the world's second largest fish, in the Bay of Fundy. Due to the high concentrations of urea in the blood and tissues of ureosmotic elasmobranchs, we hypothesized that sea lampreys would have mechanisms to eliminate co-ingested urea while feeding on basking sharks. Post-removal urea excretion rates (J(Urea)) in two lampreys, removed from separate sharks by divers, were initially 450 ( approximately 9000 micromol N kg-1 h-1) and 75 times ( approximately 1500 micromol N kg-1 h-1) greater than basal (non-feeding) rates ( approximately 20 micromol N kg-1 h-1). In contrast, J(Urea) increased by 15-fold after parasitic lampreys were removed from non-ureosmotic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Since activities of the ornithine urea cycle (OUC) enzymes, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (CPSase III) and ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT) were relatively low in liver and below detection in intestine and muscle, it is unlikely that the excreted urea arose from de novo urea synthesis. Measurements of arginase activity suggested that hydrolysis of dietary arginine made a minor contribution to J(Urea.). Post-feeding ammonia excretion rates (J(Amm)) were 15- to 25-fold greater than basal rates in lampreys removed from both basking sharks and rainbow trout, suggesting that parasitic lampreys have a high capacity to deaminate amino acids. We conclude that the sea lamprey's ability to penetrate the dermal denticle armor of sharks, to rapidly excrete large volumes of urea and a high capacity to deaminate amino acids, represent adaptations that have contributed to the evolutionary success of these phylogenetically ancient vertebrates.

  1. Nanocrystalline β-Ti alloy with high hardness, low Young's modulus and excellent in vitro biocompatibility for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Kelvin Y. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wang, Yanbo, E-mail: yanbo.wang@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Zhao, Yonghao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Chang, Li; Wang, Guocheng; Chen, Zibin; Cao, Yang [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Liao, Xiaozhou, E-mail: xiaozhou.liao@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lavernia, Enrique J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Valiev, Ruslan Z. [Institute of Physics of Advanced Materials, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, K. Marksa 12, Ufa 450000 (Russian Federation); Sarrafpour, Babak; Zoellner, Hans [The Cellular and Molecular Pathology Research Unit, Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Sydney, Westmead Centre for Oral Health, Westmead Hospital, NSW 2145 (Australia); Ringer, Simon P. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2013-08-01

    High strength, low Young's modulus and good biocompatibility are desirable but difficult to simultaneously achieve in metallic implant materials for load bearing applications, and these impose significant challenges in material design. Here we report that a nano-grained β-Ti alloy prepared by high-pressure torsion exhibits remarkable mechanical and biological properties. The hardness and modulus of the nano-grained Ti alloy were respectively 23% higher and 34% lower than those of its coarse-grained counterpart. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were enhanced, demonstrating good in vitro biocompatibility of the nano-grained Ti alloy, consistent with demonstrated increased nano-roughness on the nano-grained Ti alloy. Results suggest that the nano-grained β-Ti alloy may have significant application as an implant material in dental and orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • A bulk nanocrystalline β-Ti alloy was produced by high-pressure torsion processing. • Excellent mechanical properties for biomedical implants were obtained. • Enhanced in vitro biocompatibility was also demonstrated.

  2. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Nguyen, Tuan A H

    2015-01-01

    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7), the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5), EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content) and local soil (weathered shale and schist), respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed), oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2), ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg)(CO3)2 and siderite (FeCO3), as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S, ZnS, (Zn,Cd)S)) may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal.

  3. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Structured Abstract Purpose: Sustainable Enterprise Excellence (SEE) is defined and developed through integration and expansion of business excellence modeling and sustainability thought. The intent is to enable simple yet reliable enterprise assessment of triple bottom line (TBL) performance...... and produce actionable enterprise foresight that can enable next best practices and sources of sustainable competitive advantage through innovation. Methodology: Key elements of SEE are identified from various business excellence and sustainability reporting sources, including the Global Reporting Initiative......, the UN Global Compact 10 Principles, and criteria of the European Quality Award and America’s Baldrige National Quality Award. From these a model and key criteria are distilled, maturity scales developed, and a simple means of assessment presented. Findings: A compact model and supporting maturity...

  4. Elements of Engineering Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.; Schutzenhofer

    2012-01-01

    The inspiration for this Contract Report (CR) originated in discussions with the director of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Engineering who asked that we investigate the question: "How do you achieve excellence in aerospace engineering?" Engineering a space system is a complex activity. Avoiding its inherent potential pitfalls and achieving a successful product is a challenge. This CR presents one approach to answering the question of how to achieve Engineering Excellence. We first investigated the root causes of NASA major failures as a basis for developing a proposed answer to the question of Excellence. The following discussions integrate a triad of Technical Understanding and Execution, Partnership with the Project, and Individual and Organizational Culture. The thesis is that you must focus on the whole process and its underlying culture, not just on the technical aspects. In addition to the engineering process, emphasis is given to the need and characteristics of a Learning Organization as a mechanism for changing the culture.

  5. Managing data using Excel

    CERN Document Server

    Gardener, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Microsoft Excel is a powerful tool that can transform the way you use data. This book explains in comprehensive and user-friendly detail how to manage, make sense of, explore and share data, giving scientists at all levels the skills they need to maximize the usefulness of their data. Readers will learn how to use Excel to: * Build a dataset - how to handle variables and notes, rearrangements and edits to data. * Check datasets - dealing with typographic errors, data validation and numerical errors. * Make sense of data - including datasets for regression and correlation; summarizing data

  6. Excel 2010 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Crunch numbers, create spreadsheets, and get up to speed on Excel 2010! This friendly book gets you started with the basics of Excel 2010, such as creating a spreadsheet from scratch, selecting commands from the Ribbon, customizing the Quick Access toolbar, creating simple formulas, moving and copying data with drag and drop, using the AutoCorrect and AutoFill features, and more. Navigate effectively - see how the Ribbon interface and the Backstage View give you access to all the tools you need for every task Be a mover and a shaker - move and copy data with cut, copy, and paste or drag and dr

  7. Searching for excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Robert E.

    Visits to six school districts which were identified by the National Science Teachers Association's Search for Excellence program were made during 1983 by teams of 17 researchers. The reports were analyzed in search for common characteristics that can explain the requirements necessary for excellent science programs. The results indicate that creative ideas, administrative and community involvement, local ownership and pride, and well-developed in-service programs and implementation strategies are vital. Exceptional teachers with boundless energies also seem to exist where exemplary science programs are found.

  8. Synthesization of high-capacity auto-associative memories using complex-valued neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Jiao; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Long, Hai-Xia; Yang, Xu-Hua

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel design procedure is proposed for synthesizing high-capacity auto-associative memories based on complex-valued neural networks with real-imaginary-type activation functions and constant delays. Stability criteria dependent on external inputs of neural networks are derived. The designed networks can retrieve the stored patterns by external inputs rather than initial conditions. The derivation can memorize the desired patterns with lower-dimensional neural networks than real-valued neural networks, and eliminate spurious equilibria of complex-valued neural networks. One numerical example is provided to show the effectiveness and superiority of the presented results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61503338, 61573316, 61374152, and 11302195) and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LQ15F030005).

  9. Lithium decoration of three dimensional boron-doped graphene frameworks for high-capacity hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yunhui; Meng, Zhaoshun; Liu, Yuzhen; You, Dongsen; Wu, Kai; Lv, Jinchao; Wang, Xuezheng; Deng, Kaiming; Lu, Ruifeng, E-mail: dewei@ujs.edu.cn, E-mail: rflu@njust.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Rao, Dewei, E-mail: dewei@ujs.edu.cn, E-mail: rflu@njust.edu.cn [Institute for Advanced Materials, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-02-09

    Based on density functional theory and the first principles molecular dynamics simulations, a three-dimensional B-doped graphene-interconnected framework has been constructed that shows good thermal stability even after metal loading. The average binding energy of adsorbed Li atoms on the proposed material (2.64 eV) is considerably larger than the cohesive energy per atom of bulk Li metal (1.60 eV). This value is ideal for atomically dispersed Li doping in experiments. From grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, high hydrogen storage capacities of 5.9 wt% and 52.6 g/L in the Li-decorated material are attained at 298 K and 100 bars.

  10. The catalytic reactions in the Cu-Li-Mg-H high capacity hydrogen storage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, M H; El-Azab, A

    2014-11-14

    A family of hydrides, including the high capacity MgH2 and LiH, is reported. The disadvantages these hydrides normally display (high absorption/desorption temperatures and poor kinetics) are mitigated by Cu-hydride catalysis. This paper reports on the synthesis of novel CuLi0.08Mg1.42H4 and CuLi0.08Mg1.92H5 hydrides, which are structurally and thermodynamically characterized for the first time. The CuLi0.08Mg1.42H4 hydride structure in nanotubes is able to hold molecular H2, increasing the gravimetric and volumetric capacity of this compound. The catalytic effect these compounds show on hydride formation and decomposition of CuMg2 and Cu2Mg/MgH2, Li and LiH, Mg and MgH2 is analyzed. The Gibbs energy, decomposition temperature, and gravimetric capacity of the reactions occurring within the Cu-Li-Mg-H system are presented for the first time. First principles and phonon calculations are compared with experiments, including neutron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the most advantageous sample contains CuLi0.08Mg1.92 and (Li) ∼ Li2Mg3; it desorbs/absorbs hydrogen according to the reaction, 2CuLi0.08Mg1.42H4 + 2Li + 4MgH2 ↔ 2CuLi0.08Mg1.92 + Li2Mg3 + 8H2 at 114 °C (5.0 wt%) - 1 atm, falling within the proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications window. Finally the reaction 2CuLi0.08Mg1.42H4 + MgH2 ↔ 2CuLi0.08Mg1.92 + 5H2 at 15 °C (4.4 wt%) - 1 atm is found to be the main reaction of the samples containing CuLi0.08Mg1.92 that were analyzed in this study.

  11. Enlisting Excel--Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parramore, Keith

    2009-01-01

    In Volume 26, Number 2, we reported on a group case study run for level 3 mathematics students at the University of Brighton. At the core of the study was a quadratic assignment problem, and we reported on attempts by students to use Excel to solve the problem, and on the attendant difficulties. We provided an elegant solution. In this article, we…

  12. High-Density Three-Dimension Graphene Macroscopic Objects for High-Capacity Removal of Heavy Metal Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Gao, Song; Wu, Liqiong; Qiu, Shengqiang; Guo, Yufen; Geng, Xiumei; Chen, Mingliang; Liao, Shutian; Zhu, Chao; Gong, Youpin; Long, Mingsheng; Xu, Jianbao; Wei, Xiangfei; Sun, Mengtao; Liu, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) fabrication of high-density three-dimension graphene macroscopic objects (3D-GMOs) with a relatively low porosity has not yet been realized, although they are desirable for applications in which high mechanical and electrical properties are required. Here, we explore a method to rapidly prepare the high-density 3D-GMOs using nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl2·6H2O) as a catalyst precursor by CVD process at atmospheric pressure. Further, the free-standing 3D-GMOs are employed as electrolytic electrodes to remove various heavy metal ions. The robust 3D structure, high conductivity (~12 S/cm) and large specific surface area (~560 m2/g) enable ultra-high electrical adsorption capacities (Cd2+ ~ 434 mg/g, Pb2+ ~ 882 mg/g, Ni2+ ~ 1,683 mg/g, Cu2+ ~ 3,820 mg/g) from aqueous solutions and fast desorption. The current work has significance in the studies of both the fabrication of high-density 3D-GMOs and the removal of heavy metal ions. PMID:23821107

  13. SnO2@a-Si core-shell nanowires on free-standing CNT paper as a thin and flexible Li-ion battery anode with high areal capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnavi, Amin; Sadati Faramarzi, Mojtaba; Abdollahi, Ali; Ramzani, Reza; Ghasemi, Shahnaz; Sanaee, Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    Here, we report 3D hierarchical SnO2 nanowire (NW) core-amorphous silicon shell on free-standing carbon nanotube paper (SnO2@a-Si/CNT paper) as an effective anode for flexible lithium-ion battery (LIB) application. This binder-free electrode exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of 3020 mAh g-1 with a large reversible charge capacity of 1250 mAh g-1 at a current density of 250 mA g-1. Compared to other SnO2 NW or its core-shell nanostructured anodes, the fabricated SnO2@a-Si/CNT structure demonstrates an outstanding performance with high mass loading (˜5.9 mg cm-2), high areal capacity (˜5.2 mAh cm-2), and large volumetric capacity (˜1750 mAh cm-3) after 25 cycles. Due to the incorporation of CNT paper as the current collector, the weight and thickness of the total electrode is effectively reduced with respect to the conventional LIB anodes. The fabricated electrode has a total thickness of only 30 μm and considering the total weight of the electrode (active mass + current collector), an initial discharge/charge capacity of 2460/1018 mAh g-1 is obtained. Hence, this thin, lightweight and highly flexible structure is proposed as an excellent candidate for high-performance LIB anode materials, especially in flexible electronics.

  14. Microbial response and elimination capacity in biofilters subjected to high toluene loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, JiHyeon; Kinney, Kerry A

    2005-09-01

    Elimination capacity (EC) is frequently used as a performance and design criterion for vapor-phase biofilters without further verification of the microbial quantity and activity. This study was conducted to investigate how biofilters respond to high pollutant loadings and ultimately how this affects the EC of the biofilter. Two identical laboratory-scale biofilters were maintained at an initial toluene loading rate of 46 g m-3 h-1 for a period of 24 days. After the initial biofilm development stage, the loading rates were increased to 91 g m-3 h-1 and 137 g m-3 h-1, respectively. Following a short period of pseudo-steady state, toluene removal efficiencies rapidly declined in both biofilters, with a concurrent decline in both critical and maximum ECs. The decline was mainly due to deterioration in the biodegradation activity of the biofilm and a decline in the toluene-degrading bacterial population within the biofilm phase. The findings imply that high toluene loadings accelerated the deterioration in overall performance due to a rapid accumulation of inactive biomass. As a result, care must be used when relying on EC values for biofilter design and operational purposes, since the values do not appropriately reflect the temporal changes in biodegradation activity and active biomass quantities that can occur in biofilters subjected to high inlet loadings.

  15. Qustionnaire to evaluate the capacity of self-care in patients with high blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Achury Saldaña, Diana Marcela; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Sepúlveda, Gloria Judith; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Rodríguez Colmenares, Sandra Mónica; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: this paper describes the initial construction and validation of an instument used to evaluate the capacity of self-care in patients with hypertension. The instrument is based on Dorothea Orem's Theory of Self-Care and is comprised of 17 items grouped into three dimensions: fundamental capacities; power components; and capacity of self-care management. Methods: the instument was administered to 159 people with hypertension. Construct validity was established using factorial analy...

  16. Hard carbon nanoparticles as high-capacity, high-stability anodic materials for Na-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Lifen; Cao, Yuliang; Henderson, Wesley A.; Sushko, Maria L.; Shao, Yuyan; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Wei; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Hard carbon nanoparticles (HCNP) were synthesized by the pyrolysis of a polyaniline precursor. The measured Na+ cation diffusion coefficient (10-13-10-15cm2s-1) in the HCNP obtained at 1150 °C is two orders of magnitude lower than that of Li+ in graphite (10-10-13-15cm2s-1), indicating that reducing the carbon particle size is very important for improving electrochemical performance. These measurements also enable a clear visualization of the stepwise reaction phases and rate changes which occur throughout the insertion/extraction processes in HCNP, The electrochemical measurements also show that the nano-sized HCNP obtained at 1150 °C exhibited higher practical capacity at voltages lower than 1.2 V (vs. Na/Na⁺), as well as a prolonged cycling stability, which is attributed to an optimum spacing of 0.366 nm between the graphitic layers and the nano particular size resulting in a low-barrier Na+ cation insertion. These results suggest that HCNP is a very promising high-capacity/stability anode for low cost sodium-ion batteries (SIBs).

  17. Synthesis, characterization and dye removal ability of high capacity polymeric adsorbent: Polyaminoimide homopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad, E-mail: nm_mahmoodi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, Farhood [Department of Resin and Additives, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorramfar, Shooka [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, Farrokhlegha [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arami, Mokhtar [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyaminoimide homopolymer (PAIHP) was synthesized and characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinetics data followed pseudo-second order kinetic model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isotherm data followed Langmuir isotherm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Q{sub 0} for DR31, DR23, DB22 and AB25 was 6667, 5555, 9090 and 5882 mg/g, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PAIHP was regenerated at pH 12. - Abstract: In this paper, polyaminoimide homopolymer (PAIHP) was synthesized and its dye removal ability was investigated. Physical characteristics of PAIHP were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Direct Red 31 (DR31), Direct Red 23 (DR23), Direct Black 22 (DB22) and Acid Blue 25 (AB25) were used as model compounds. The kinetic and isotherm of dye adsorption were studied. The effect of operational parameter such as adsorbent dosage, pH and salt on dye removal was evaluated. Adsorption kinetic of dyes followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The maximum dye adsorption capacity (Q{sub 0}) of PAIHP was 6667 mg/g, 5555 mg/g, 9090 mg/g and 5882 mg/g for DR31, DR23, DB22 and AB25, respectively. It was found that adsorption of DR31, DR23, DB22 and AB25 onto PAIHP followed with Langmuir isotherm. Dye desorption tests (adsorbent regeneration) showed that the maximum dye release of 90% for DR31, 86% for DR23, 87% for DB22 and 90% for AB25 were achieved in aqueous solution at pH 12. The results showed that the PAIHP as a polymeric adsorbent with high dye adsorption capacity might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored wastewater.

  18. Secured Data Encoding Technique in High Capacity Color Barcodes for M-Ticket Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Akila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aim is to increase the capacity of barcode (i.e. Number of data bits embedded inside barcode will be increased by encoding data through orientation modulation in elliptical dot array. BARCODES that encode digital data on physical media are commonly utilized in commercial applications for tracing/tracking of trade items, in security applications for linking personal documents with a user, or in other applications as an auxiliary channel to encode additional information on a physical medium. which are fundamentally analog, these methods can add security and functionality and features that are associated with digital techniques at the expense of consuming space on the media. For instance, in personal IDs, driving licenses and passports, high capacity can enable the encoding of a sample speech signal, a picture, or other identifying personal information which in turn may be used to establish authenticity of the user. Care must, however, be exercised in designing color barcodes to ensure that they are robust to variations in the color printing and scanning processes, which have a greater impact when considering color rather than black/white reproduction and capture.2D bar codes are being considered for new emerging applications such as M-ticketing, where they carry selected information of a ticket that is received via a mobile phone; reliable and secure personal identification, where they store personal biometric data on the identification document; and visual communications with side information, where they can be used as an auxiliary channel conveying additional data for improving visual communications.

  19. Computational prediction of high methane storage capacity in V-MOF-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeon, Seokwon; Kim, Young-Chul; Kim, Jihan

    2017-08-09

    The methane adsorption properties in M-MOF-74 (M = Mg, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) were investigated for potential adsorbed natural gas (ANG) vehicle applications. In particular, density functional theory (DFT) simulations were conducted to derive the force field parameters that were used in the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations to obtain the methane adsorption isotherm curves. Our results indicate that commonly used DFT exchange correlation functionals (e.g. vdW-DF, vdW-DF2, PBE+D2) overestimated the methane binding strength to the metal sites, leading to inaccurate description of the adsorption properties. As such, the global scaling factor within the exchange correlation functional, PBE+D2, was optimized to find a suitable functional that leads to good agreement with the available experimental methane adsorption data. From the newly derived force field parameters, our computational simulations predict a methane uptake of 279 cm(3) cm(-3) in V-MOF-74 at T = 298 K and P = 65 bar (condition relevant to ANG storage operation), which would be higher than the current record holder of HKUST-1 (270 cm(3) cm(-3)). Although the methane working capacity (65-5.8 bar uptake difference) is low due to strong binding of methane with the V-MOF-74, varying the process conditions (e.g. lower adsorption temperature, higher desorption temperature, lower desorption pressure) can lead to a significantly high methane working capacity, towards the goal of meeting the DOE requirements for ANG technology.

  20. Chemical thermodynamics of nuclear materials. 8. The high-temperature heat capacity of unalloyed plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oetting, F.L.; Adams, R.O. (Rockwell International Corp., Golden, CO (USA). Energy Systems Group)

    1983-06-01

    The heat capacity of pure plutonium metal has been determined from 330 to 700 K by adiabatic calorimetry. This includes measurements on the ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..-, ..gamma..-, and delta-phases. A large contribution to the heat capacity, especially in the delta-phase, is due to the electronic heat capacity. A negative anharmonic heat capacity is found for the ..cap alpha..-phase. The enthalpies and temperatures of the transitions between these phases were also determined. With the use of thermodynamic quantities on the delta'-, epsilon-, and (1)-phases available from the literature, the thermal functions for pure plutonium metal were calculated to 1000 K.

  1. Quality Management and Business Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An excellent organization involves much more than the implementation and the certification of one or more models of management systems. It means developing techniques and tools of busin excellence which lead the organization to outstanding performance on quality, costs and deadlines in order to meet the expectations of all their stakeholders. Such an approach is needed especially in the context of an economy marked by globalization, extremely complex and dynamic that causes spectacular changes in the business environment by integrating quality management principles on purpose to develop sustainable excellence. Not coincidentally, the new edition of the European excellence model EFQM integrates for the first time the principle "managing with agility“ with the principles: “developing organizational capability”, “harnessing creativity & innovation”, “adding value to the customer”, “sustaining outstanding results” for the organization and “creating a sustainable future”. Also, the new model for quality management system defined by the edition from 2015 of ISO 9000 standards , promotes the process-based approach, incorporating the cycle "Plan - Do − Check − Act" (PDCA and the risk-based thinking, focusing on organizational change and innovation, in order to ensure a sustainable performance in business. Noteworthy is the endeavor for the development of a high-level structure for all international standards for management systems, aiming to harmonize these standards to facilitate the implementation of integrated management systems (quality − environment − security − social responsibility.

  2. M2(m-dobdc) (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) Metal-Organic Frameworks as Highly-Selective, High-Capacity Adsorbents for Olefin/Paraffin Separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Jonathan E; Kapelewski, Matthew T; Reed, Douglas A; Gonzalez, Miguel I; Long, Jeffrey R

    2017-10-05

    The metal-organic frameworks M2(m-dobdc) (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni; m-dobdc4- = 4,6-dioxido-1,3-benzenedicarboxylate) were evaluated as adsorbents for separating olefins from paraffins. Using single-component and multicomponent equilibrium gas adsorption measurements, we show that the coordinatively-unsaturated M2+ sites in these materials lead to superior performance for the physisorptive separation of ethylene from ethane and propylene from propane relative to any known adsorbent, including para-functionalized structural isomers of the type M2(p-dobdc) (p-dobdc4- = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate). Notably, the M2(m-dobdc) frameworks all exhibit an increased affinity for olefins over paraffins relative to their corresponding structural isomers, with the Fe, Co, and Ni variants showing more than double the selectivity. Among these frameworks, Fe2(m-dobdc) displays the highest ethylene/ethane (> 25) and propylene/propane (> 55) selectivity under relevant conditions, together with olefin capacities exceeding 7 mmol/g. Differential enthalpy calculations in conjunction with structural characterization of ethylene binding in Co2(m-dobdc) and Co2(p-dobdc) via in-situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveal that the vast improvement in selectivity arises from enhanced metal-olefin interactions induced by increased charge density at the metal site. Moderate olefin binding enthalpies, below 55 kJ/mol and 70 kJ/mol for ethylene and propylene, respectively, indicate that these adsorbents maintain sufficient reversibility under mild regeneration conditions. Additionally, transient adsorption experiments show fast kinetics, with more than 90% of ethylene adsorption occurring within 30 s after dosing. Breakthrough measurements further indicate that Co2(m-dobdc) can produce high purity olefins without a temperature swing, an important test of process applicability. The excellent olefin/paraffin selectivity, high olefin capacity, rapid adsorption kinetics, and low raw materials

  3. Facile synthesis of nickel-foam-based nano-architectural composites as binder-free anodes for high capacity Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Shudi; Zhao, Chongjun; Ju, Peiwen; Zhou, Tengfei; Gao, Hong; Zheng, Yang; Wang, Hongqiang; Chen, Guorong; Qian, Xiuzhen; Guo, Zaiping

    2016-02-01

    A series of nickel foam (NF)-based composites of MxOy/RGO/Ni(OH)2 [MxOy = Co3O4, MnO2, and Ni(OH)2] with diverse multilayer nano-architectures were designed and grown in situ on NF through a one-pot hydrothermal process. Based on the redox reaction between the active NF substrate and graphene oxide (GO), along with electrostatic forces between the Mn+ ions and GO in the solution, strong interactions take place at the interfaces of MxOy/RGO, RGO/Ni(OH)2, and Ni(OH)2/Ni, and thus, there is good contact for electron transfer. These MxOy/RGO/Ni(OH)2 samples were directly used as conductive-agent- and binder-free anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), and the Ni(OH)2/RGO/Ni(OH)2/NF composite electrode showed a high specific capacity, good rate capability, and excellent cycling stability, especially, it had a high reversible capacity of about 1330 mAh g-1 even after 200 cycles at 100 mA g-1. This general strategy presents a promising route for the design and synthesis of various multilayer nano-architectural transition metal oxides (hydroxide)/RGO composites on NF as energy storage materials.

  4. Porous Eu2O3-In2O3 nanotube-based ethanol gas sensor with high sensitivity and excellent selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Hongwei; Feng, Yi; Wang, Zhijun; Liu, Li; Guo, Xuexin; Wang, Xuesong

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we employed electrospinning and calcination method to fabricate porous Eu2O3-In2O3 nanotubes and observed the morphology and characteristic of products through X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The SEM and TEM images exhibit that the surface of nanotubes is distributed with numerous pores. Gas-sensing investigations revealed that the 3 wt% porous Eu2O3-In2O3 nanotube sensors possess high sensitivity and excellent selectivity to ethanol. Its response to 50 ppm ethanol was up to 44 at optimum temperature of 260 °C, which is 6.2 times larger than the pure nanotube. The response to ethanol is four times larger than that of acetone. The response and recovery time to 50 ppm ethanol was 3 and 21 s, respectively. Besides, the sensor could detect 0.2 ppm ethanol with response of 1.8. Those indicate that the sensing properties of In2O3 nanotube sensor are improved by doping Eu. In brief, the porous Eu2O3-In2O3 nanotube sensor has hopes for practice.

  5. Highly porous NiCo2O4 Nanoflakes and nanobelts as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with excellent rate capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Su, Dawei; Chen, Shuangqiang; Xie, Xiuqiang; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-09-10

    Highly porous NiCo2O4 nanoflakes and nanobelts were synthesized by using a hydrothermal technique, followed by calcination of the NiCo2O4 precursors. The as-synthesized materials were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller methods. The NiCo2O4 nanoflakes and nanobelts were applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Owing to the unique porous structural features, the NiCo2O4 nanoflakes and nanobelts exhibited high specific capacities of 1033 and 1056 mA h g(-1), respectively, and good cycling stability and rate capability. These exceptional electrochemical performances could be ascribed to the remarkable structural feature with a high surface area and void spaces within the surface of nanoflakes and nanobelts, which provide large contact areas between electrolyte and active materials for electrolyte diffusion and cushion the volume variation during the lithium-ion insertion/extraction process.

  6. High capacity and high density functional conductive polymer and SiO anode for high-energy lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Yuca, Neslihan; Zheng, Ziyan; Fu, Yanbao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Abdelbast, Guerfi; Zaghib, Karim; Liu, Gao

    2015-01-14

    High capacity and high density functional conductive polymer binder/SiO electrodes are fabricated and calendered to various porosities. The effect of calendering is investigated in the reduction of thickness and porosity, as well as the increase of density. SiO particle size remains unchanged after calendering. When compressed to an appropriate density, an improved cycling performance and increased energy density are shown compared to the uncalendered electrode and overcalendered electrode. The calendered electrode has a high-density of ∼1.2 g/cm(3). A high loading electrode with an areal capacity of ∼3.5 mAh/cm(2) at a C/10 rate is achieved using functional conductive polymer binder and simple and effective calendering method.

  7. Ventilation Limits Aerobic Capacity after Functional Electrical Stimulation Row Training in High Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shuang; Alzhab, Saeed; Picard, Glen; Taylor, J Andrew

    2016-06-01

    In the able-bodied, exercise training results in increased ventilatory capacity to meet increased aerobic demands of trained skeletal muscle. However, after spinal cord injury (SCI), peak ventilation can be limited by pulmonary muscle denervation. In fact, peak ventilation may restrict aerobic capacity in direct relation to injury level. Hybrid functional electrical stimulation (FES) exercise training results in increased aerobic capacity and dissociation between aerobic capacity and injury level in those with injuries at T3 and below. However, injuries above T3 have the greatest pulmonary denervation, and ventilatory capacity may restrict the increase in aerobic capacity with hybrid FES training. We assessed relationships among injury level, peak ventilation, and peak aerobic capacity and calculated oxygen uptake efficiency slope during hybrid FES exercise in 12 individuals (1 female) with SCI at level T2 to C4 (injury duration = 0.33-33 yr, age = 20-60 yr), before and after 6 months of FES-row training (FES-RT). Training increased peak aerobic capacity by 12% (P = 0.02) with only a modest increase in peak ventilation (7 of 12 subjects, P = 0.09). Both before and after training, injury level was directly related to peak ventilation (R = 0.48 and 0.43) and peak aerobic capacity (R = 0.70 and 0.55). Before training, the relationship of peak aerobic capacity to peak ventilation was strong (R = 0.62), however, after training, this relationship became almost completely linearized (R = 0.84). In addition, oxygen uptake efficiency slope increased by 11% (P injuries (above T3) appears to restrict aerobic capacity.

  8. Soluble Fiber with High Water-Binding Capacity, Swelling Capacity, and Fermentability Reduces Food Intake by Promoting Satiety Rather Than Satiation in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Zhao, Xichen; Xu, Chuanhui; Zhou, Yuanfei; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the food intake in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch (PWMS) plus guar gum (PG), and PWMS starch plus xanthan gum (PX) for three weeks, with the measured values of SF, WBC, and SC in the four diets following the order of PG > KF > PX > control. Food intake, body weight, meal pattern, behavioral satiety sequence, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecal content were evaluated. KF and PG groups reduced the food intake, mainly due to the decreased feeding behavior and increased satiety, as indicated by decreased meal numbers and increased inter-meal intervals. Additionally, KF and PG groups increased concentrations of acetate acid, propionate acid, and SCFAs in the cecal contents. Our results indicate that SF with high WBC, SC, and fermentability reduces food intake—probably by promoting a feeling of satiety in rats to decrease their feeding behavior. PMID:27706095

  9. Soluble Fiber with High Water-Binding Capacity, Swelling Capacity, and Fermentability Reduces Food Intake by Promoting Satiety Rather Than Satiation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Zhao, Xichen; Xu, Chuanhui; Zhou, Yuanfei; Peng, Jian

    2016-10-02

    To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the food intake in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch (PWMS) plus guar gum (PG), and PWMS starch plus xanthan gum (PX) for three weeks, with the measured values of SF, WBC, and SC in the four diets following the order of PG > KF > PX > control. Food intake, body weight, meal pattern, behavioral satiety sequence, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecal content were evaluated. KF and PG groups reduced the food intake, mainly due to the decreased feeding behavior and increased satiety, as indicated by decreased meal numbers and increased inter-meal intervals. Additionally, KF and PG groups increased concentrations of acetate acid, propionate acid, and SCFAs in the cecal contents. Our results indicate that SF with high WBC, SC, and fermentability reduces food intake-probably by promoting a feeling of satiety in rats to decrease their feeding behavior.

  10. From Research to Practice: Which Research Strategy Contributes More to Clinical Excellence? Comparing High-Volume versus High-Quality Biomedical Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Tchetchik

    Full Text Available The question when and to what extent academic research can benefit society is of great interest to policy-makers and the academic community. Physicians in university hospitals represent a highly relevant test-group for studying the link between research and practice because they engage in biomedical academic research while also providing medical care of measurable quality. Physicians' research contribution to medical practice can be driven by either high-volume or high-quality research productivity, as often pursuing one productivity strategy excludes the other. To empirically examine the differential contribution to medical practice of the two strategies, we collected secondary data on departments across three specializations (Cardiology, Oncology and Orthopedics in 50 U.S.-based university hospitals served by 4,330 physicians. Data on volume and quality of biomedical research at each department was correlated with publicly available ratings of departments' quality of care, demonstrating that high-quality research has significantly greater contribution to quality of care than high-volume research.

  11. Study on a high capacity two-stage free piston Stirling cryocooler working around 30 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaotao; Zhu, Jian; Chen, Shuai; Dai, Wei; Li, Ke; Pang, Xiaomin; Yu, Guoyao; Luo, Ercang

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a two-stage high-capacity free-piston Stirling cryocooler driven by a linear compressor to meet the requirement of the high temperature superconductor (HTS) motor applications. The cryocooler system comprises a single piston linear compressor, a two-stage free piston Stirling cryocooler and a passive oscillator. A single stepped displacer configuration was adopted. A numerical model based on the thermoacoustic theory was used to optimize the system operating and structure parameters. Distributions of pressure wave, phase differences between the pressure wave and the volume flow rate and different energy flows are presented for a better understanding of the system. Some characterizing experimental results are presented. Thus far, the cryocooler has reached a lowest cold-head temperature of 27.6 K and achieved a cooling power of 78 W at 40 K with an input electric power of 3.2 kW, which indicates a relative Carnot efficiency of 14.8%. When the cold-head temperature increased to 77 K, the cooling power reached 284 W with a relative Carnot efficiency of 25.9%. The influences of different parameters such as mean pressure, input electric power and cold-head temperature are also investigated.

  12. MEO based secured, robust, high capacity and perceptual quality image watermarking in DWT-SVD domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjal, Baisa L; Mali, Suresh N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present multiobjective evolutionary optimizer (MEO) based highly secured and strongly robust image watermarking technique using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and singular value decomposition (SVD). Many researchers have failed to achieve optimization of perceptual quality and robustness with high capacity watermark embedding. Here, we achieved optimized peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and normalized correlation (NC) using MEO. Strong security is implemented through eight different security levels including watermark scrambling by Fibonacci-Lucas transformation (FLT). Haar wavelet is selected for DWT decomposition to compare practical performance of wavelets from different wavelet families. The technique is non-blind and tested with cover images of size 512x512 and grey scale watermark of size 256x256. The achieved perceptual quality in terms of PSNR is 79.8611dBs for Lena, 87.8446 dBs for peppers and 93.2853 dBs for lake images by varying scale factor K1 from 1 to 5. All candidate images used for testing namely Lena, peppers and lake images show exact recovery of watermark giving NC equals to 1. The robustness is tested against variety of attacks on watermarked image. The experimental demonstration proved that proposed method gives NC more than 0.96 for majority of attacks under consideration. The performance evaluation of this technique is found superior to all existing hybrid image watermarking techniques under consideration.

  13. Fiber-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2016-09-06

    A fiber-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The fiber-based adsorbent includes polymer fibers with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight over known fibers to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. The polymer fibers include a circular morphology in some embodiments, having a mean diameter of less than 15 microns, optionally less than about 1 micron. In other embodiments, the polymer fibers include a non-circular morphology, optionally defining multiple gear-shaped, winged-shaped or lobe-shaped projections along the length of the polymer fibers. A method for forming the fiber-based adsorbents includes irradiating high surface area polymer fibers, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting the grafted fibers with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. High surface area fiber-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  14. High levels of SOX5 decrease proliferative capacity of human B cells, but permit plasmablast differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzokhid Rakhmanov

    Full Text Available Currently very little is known about the differential expression and function of the transcription factor SOX5 during B cell maturation. We identified two new splice variants of SOX5 in human B cells, encoding the known L-SOX5B isoform and a new shorter isoform L-SOX5F. The SOX5 transcripts are highly expressed during late stages of B-cell differentiation, including atypical memory B cells, activated CD21low B cells and germinal center B cells of tonsils. In tonsillar sections SOX5 expression was predominantly polarized to centrocytes within the light zone. After in vitro stimulation, SOX5 expression was down-regulated during proliferation while high expression levels were permissible for plasmablast differentiation. Overexpression of L-SOX5F in human primary B lymphocytes resulted in reduced proliferation, less survival of CD138neg B cells, but comparable numbers of CD138+CD38hi plasmablasts compared to control cells. Thus, our findings describe for the first time a functional role of SOX5 during late B cell development reducing the proliferative capacity and thus potentially affecting the differentiation of B cells during the germinal center response.

  15. Fiber-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christopher J; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2014-05-13

    A fiber-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The fiber-based adsorbent includes polymer fibers with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight over known fibers to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. The polymer fibers include a circular morphology in some embodiments, having a mean diameter of less than 15 microns, optionally less than about 1 micron. In other embodiments, the polymer fibers include a non-circular morphology, optionally defining multiple gear-shaped, winged-shaped or lobe-shaped projections along the length of the polymer fibers. A method for forming the fiber-based adsorbents includes irradiating high surface area polymer fibers, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting the grafted fibers with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. High surface area fiber-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  16. State Violence and Oppositional Protest in High-Capacity Authoritarian Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hank Johnston

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This examination of the mobilization-repression nexus in high-capacity authoritarian regimes draws on examples from China, Russia, Iran, and several Middle Eastern states to develop a framework for analyzing state violence and how political oppositions are organized. The study examines middle and low levels of state violence, the provincial and municipal organization of party and regime, and the police, private militias, and thugs as low-level enforcers, and focuses on: (1 the complexity of the state’s apparatus of repression and control and how different levels exercise different forms of violence against activists; (2 the creativity of the opposition’s actions to voice its demands and avoid repression and surveillance; and (3 the recursive relationship between the two, a dark dance between state and opposition with high stakes for both. Hierarchical analysis at national, provincial, and local levels, and lateral analysis across these levels, where elite interests frequently diverge, show that intersections and gaps on both axes can create lapses in social control and openings the opposition. These free spaces of speech and innovative action give rise to novel ways to keep oppositional sentiments in the public forum. The article offers several propositions for analyzing repression and state violence at various levels, and, similarly, the various ways that these free spaces occur.

  17. Analysis of achievable capacity in irregularly-placed high performance mesh nodes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available challenge. This paper derives the achievable capacity limit of such HPNs’ placements. The analytical results show that the network capacity increases with the irregularity of HPNs placements, the number of antennas as well as the multiplicity of radios per...

  18. Capacity Payments in Restructured Markets under Low and High Penetration Levels of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Jenkin, Philipp Beiter, and Robert Margolis

    2016-02-01

    Growing levels of variable renewable energy resources arguably create new challenges for capacity market designs, because variable renewable energy suppresses wholesale energy prices while providing relatively little capacity. This effect becomes more pronounced the higher the variable renewable energy penetration in a market. The purpose of this report is threefold. First, we provide a brief outline of the purpose and design of various capacity markets using administratively determined capacity demand curves. Second, we discuss some of the main challenges raised in existing literature and a set of interviews that we conducted with market participants, regulators, and observers. Third, we consider some of the challenges to capacity markets that arise with higher variable renewable energy penetration.

  19. Microsoft excel spreadsheets for calculation of P-V-T relations and thermodynamic properties from equations of state of MgO, diamond and nine metals as pressure markers in high-pressure and high-temperature experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Tatiana S.; Dorogokupets, Peter I.; Dymshits, Anna M.; Danilov, Boris S.; Litasov, Konstantin D.

    2016-09-01

    We present Microsoft Excel spreadsheets for calculation of thermodynamic functions and P-V-T properties of MgO, diamond and 9 metals, Al, Cu, Ag, Au, Pt, Nb, Ta, Mo, and W, depending on temperature and volume or temperature and pressure. The spreadsheets include the most common pressure markers used in in situ experiments with diamond anvil cell and multianvil techniques. The calculations are based on the equation of state formalism via the Helmholtz free energy. The program was developed using Visual Basic for Applications in Microsoft Excel and is a time-efficient tool to evaluate volume, pressure and other thermodynamic functions using T-P and T-V data only as input parameters. This application is aimed to solve practical issues of high pressure experiments in geosciences and mineral physics.

  20. Ultradispersed Nanoarchitecture of LiV3O8 Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Rooney, David; Ding, Guqiao; Sun, Kening

    2016-01-28

    Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become the major barriers to lithium-ion battery applications in advanced communication equipment and electric vehicles. In this paper, we report a versatile interfacial reaction strategy, which is based on the idea of space confinement, for the synthesis of ultradispersed LiV3O8 nanoparticles (~10 nm) on graphene (denoted as LVO NPs-GNs) with an unprecedented degree of control on the separation and manipulation of the nucleation, growth, anchoring, and crystallization of nanoparticles in a water-in-oil emulsion system over free growth in solution. The prepared LVO NPs-GNs composites displayed high performance as an cathode material for lithium-ion battery, including high reversible lithium storage capacity (237 mA h g(-1) after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (about 98%), excellent cycling stability and high rate capability (as high as 176 mA h g(-1) at 0.9 A g(-1), 128 mA h g(-1) at 1.5 A g(-1), 91 mA h g(-1) at 3 A g(-1) and 59 mA h g(-1) at 6 A g(-1), respectively). Very significantly, the preparation method employed can be easily adapted and may opens the door to complex hybrid materials design and engineering with graphene for advanced energy storage.

  1. Ultradispersed Nanoarchitecture of LiV3O8 Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Rooney, David; Ding, Guqiao; Sun, Kening

    2016-01-01

    Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become the major barriers to lithium-ion battery applications in advanced communication equipment and electric vehicles. In this paper, we report a versatile interfacial reaction strategy, which is based on the idea of space confinement, for the synthesis of ultradispersed LiV3O8 nanoparticles (~10 nm) on graphene (denoted as LVO NPs-GNs) with an unprecedented degree of control on the separation and manipulation of the nucleation, growth, anchoring, and crystallization of nanoparticles in a water-in-oil emulsion system over free growth in solution. The prepared LVO NPs-GNs composites displayed high performance as an cathode material for lithium-ion battery, including high reversible lithium storage capacity (237 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (about 98%), excellent cycling stability and high rate capability (as high as 176 mA h g-1 at 0.9 A g-1, 128 mA h g-1 at 1.5 A g-1, 91 mA h g-1 at 3 A g-1 and 59 mA h g-1 at 6 A g-1, respectively). Very significantly, the preparation method employed can be easily adapted and may opens the door to complex hybrid materials design and engineering with graphene for advanced energy storage.

  2. THE ROLE OF AEROBIC CAPACITY IN HIGH-INTENSITY INTERMITTENT EFFORTS IN ICE-HOCKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stanula

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to determine a relationship between aerobic capacity ( ·VO2max and fatigue from high-intensity skating in elite male hockey players. The subjects were twenty-four male members of the senior national ice hockey team of Poland who played the position of forward or defence. Each subject completed an on-ice Repeated-Skate Sprint test (RSS consisting of 6 timed 89-m sprints, with 30 s of rest between subsequent efforts, and an incremental test on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory, the aim of which was to establish their maximal oxygen uptake ( ·VO2max. The analysis of variance showed that each next repetition in the 6x89 m test was significantly longer than the previous one (F5,138=53.33, p<0.001. An analysis of the fatigue index (FI calculated from the times recorded for subsequent repetitions showed that the value of the FI increased with subsequent repetitions, reaching its maximum between repetitions 5 and 6 (3.10±1.16%. The total FI was 13.77±1.74%. The coefficient of correlation between ·VO2max and the total FI for 6 sprints on the distance of 89 m (r =–0.584 was significant (p=0.003. The variance in the index of players’ fatigue in the 6x89 m test accounted for 34% of the variance in ·VO2max. The 6x89 m test proposed in this study offers a high test-retest correlation coefficient (r=0.78. Even though the test is criticized for being too exhaustive and thereby for producing highly variable results it still seems that it was well selected for repeated sprint ability testing in hockey players.

  3. A pharmacologically validated, high-capacity, functional thallium flux assay for the human Ether-à-go-go related gene potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalhofer, William A; Swensen, Andrew M; Thomas, Brande S; Felix, John P; Haedo, Rodolfo J; Solly, Kelli; Kiss, Laszlo; Kaczorowski, Gregory J; Garcia, Maria L

    2010-12-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel, human Ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG), represents the molecular component of IKr, one of the potassium currents involved in cardiac action potential repolarization. Inhibition of IKr increases the duration of the ventricular action potential, reflected as a prolongation of the QT interval in the electrocardiogram, and increases the risk for potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Because hERG is an appropriate surrogate for IKr, hERG assays that can identify potential safety liabilities of compounds during lead identification and optimization have been implemented. Although the gold standard for hERG evaluation is electrophysiology, this technique, even with the medium capacity, automated instruments that are currently available, does not meet the throughput demands for supporting typical medicinal chemistry efforts in the pharmaceutical environment. Assays that could provide reliable molecular pharmacology data, while operating in high capacity mode, are therefore desirable. In the present study, we describe a high-capacity, 384- and 1,536-well plate, functional thallium flux assay for the hERG channel that fulfills these criteria. This assay was optimized and validated using different structural classes of hERG inhibitors. An excellent correlation was found between the potency of these agents in the thallium flux assay and in electrophysiological recordings of channel activity using the QPatch automated patch platform. Extension of this study to include 991 medicinal chemistry compounds from different internal drug development programs indicated that the thallium flux assay was a good predictor of in vitro hERG activity. These data suggest that the hERG thallium flux assay can play an important role in supporting drug development efforts.

  4. High capacity and high rate capability of nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres for capacitive deionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Yan, Tingting; Wang, Hui; Chen, Guorong; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Liyi; Zhang, Dengsong, E-mail: dszhang@shu.edu.cn

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres were prepared. • The obtained materials have a good capacitive deionization performance. • The electrodes show high salt adsorption rate and good regeneration performance. - Abstract: In this work, nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres (N-PHCS) were well prepared by using polystyrene (PS) spheres as hard templates and dopamine hydrochloride as carbon and nitrogen sources. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images demonstrate that the N-PHCS have a uniform, spherical and hollow structure. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis shows that the N-PHCS have a high specific area of 512 m{sup 2}/g. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result reveals that the nitrogen doping amount is 2.92%. The hollow and porous structure and effective nitrogen doping can contribute to large accessible surface area, efficient ion transport and good conductivity. In the electrochemical tests, we can conclude that the N-PHCS have a high specific capacitance value, a good stability and low inner resistance. The N-PHCS electrodes present a high salt adsorption capacity of 12.95 mg/g at a cell voltage of 1.4 V with a flow rate of 40 mL/min in a 500 mg/L NaCl aqueous solution. Moreover, the N-PHCS electrodes show high salt adsorption rate and good regeneration performance in the CDI process. With high surface specific area and effective nitrogen doping, the N-PHCS is promising to the CDI and other electrochemical applications.

  5. CNT Sheet Air Electrode for the Development of Ultra-High Cell Capacity in Lithium-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Akihiro; Ito, Kimihiko; Kubo, Yoshimi

    2017-04-01

    Lithium-air batteries (LABs) are expected to provide a cell with a much higher capacity than ever attained before, but their prototype cells present a limited areal cell capacity of no more than 10 mAh cm-2, mainly due to the limitation of their air electrodes. Here, we demonstrate the use of flexible carbon nanotube (CNT) sheets as a promising air electrode for developing ultra-high capacity in LAB cells, achieving areal cell capacities of up to 30 mAh cm-2, which is approximately 15 times higher than the capacity of cells with lithium-ion battery (LiB) technology (~2 mAh cm-2). During discharge, the CNT sheet electrode experienced enormous swelling to a thickness of a few millimeters because of the discharge product deposition of lithium peroxide (Li2O2), but the sheet was fully recovered after being fully charged. This behavior results from the CNT sheet characteristics of the flexible and fibrous conductive network and suggests that the CNT sheet is an effective air electrode material for developing a commercially available LAB cell with an ultra-high cell capacity.

  6. Synthesis of high capacity cation exchangers from a low-grade Chinese natural zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yifei, E-mail: yifeiwang0206@yahoo.com.cn [College of Biology and Chemical Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, Zhejiang 314001 (China); Department of Chemistry, XiXi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Lin Feng [Department of Chemistry, XiXi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2009-07-30

    The Chinese natural zeolite, in which clinoptilolite coexists with quartz was treated hydrothermally with NaOH solutions, either with or without fusion with NaOH powder as pretreatment. Zeolite Na-P, Na-Y and analcime were identified as the reacted products, depending on the reaction conditions such as NaOH concentration, reaction time and hydrothermal temperature. The products were identified by X-ray diffraction, and characterized by Fourier transform IR and ICP. With hydrothermal treatment after fusion of natural zeolite with NaOH, high purity of zeolite Na-Y and Na-P can be selectively formed, their cation exchange capacity (CEC) are 275 and 355 meq/100 g respectively, which are greatly higher than that of the natural zeolite (97 meq/100 g). Furthermore, the ammonium removal by the synthetic zeolite Na-P in aqueous solution was also studied. The equilibrium isotherms have been got and the influence of other cations present in water upon the ammonia uptake suggested an order of preference Ca{sup 2+} > K{sup +} > Mg{sup 2+}.

  7. Synthesis of high capacity cation exchangers from a low-grade Chinese natural zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Lin, Feng

    2009-07-30

    The Chinese natural zeolite, in which clinoptilolite coexists with quartz was treated hydrothermally with NaOH solutions, either with or without fusion with NaOH powder as pretreatment. Zeolite Na-P, Na-Y and analcime were identified as the reacted products, depending on the reaction conditions such as NaOH concentration, reaction time and hydrothermal temperature. The products were identified by X-ray diffraction, and characterized by Fourier transform IR and ICP. With hydrothermal treatment after fusion of natural zeolite with NaOH, high purity of zeolite Na-Y and Na-P can be selectively formed, their cation exchange capacity (CEC) are 275 and 355 meq/100g respectively, which are greatly higher than that of the natural zeolite (97 meq/100g). Furthermore, the ammonium removal by the synthetic zeolite Na-P in aqueous solution was also studied. The equilibrium isotherms have been got and the influence of other cations present in water upon the ammonia uptake suggested an order of preference Ca(2+)>K(+)>Mg(2+).

  8. A High-Capacity Image Data Hiding Scheme Using Adaptive LSB Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Many existing steganographic methods hide more secret data into edged areas than smooth areas in the host image, which does not differentiate textures from edges and causes serious degradation in actual edge areas. To avoid abrupt changes in image edge areas, as well as to achieve better quality of the stego-image, a novel image data hiding technique by adaptive Least Significant Bits (LSBs substitution is proposed in this paper. The scheme exploits the brightness, edges, and texture masking of the host image to estimate the number k of LSBs for data hiding. Pixels in the noise non-sensitive regions are embedded by a k-bit LSB substitution with a lager value of k than that of the pixels in noise sensitive regions. Moreover, an optimal pixel adjustment process is used to enhance stego-image visual quality obtained by simple LSB substitution method. To ensure that the adaptive number k of LSBs remains unchanged after pixel modification, the LSBs number is computed by the high-order bits rather than all the bits of the image pixel value. The theoretical analyses and experiment results show that the proposed method achieves higher embedding capacity and better stegoimage quality compared with some existing LSB methods.

  9. Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in vegetables and fruits using a high capacity absorbent polymer for water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, H; Akutsu, K; Okihashi, M; Kakimoto, S; Hori, S

    1999-08-01

    A single extraction and a single clean-up procedure was developed for multi-residue analysis of pesticides in non-fatty vegetables and fruits. The method involves the use of a high capacity absorbent polymer for water as a drying agent in extraction from wet food samples and of a graphitized carbon column for clean-up. A homogeneously chopped food sample (20 g) and polymer (3 g) were mixed to absorb water from the sample and then 10 min later the mixture was vigorously extracted with ethyl acetate (100 ml). The extract (50 ml), separated by filtration, was loaded on a graphitized carbon column without concentration. Additional ethyl acetate (50 ml) was also eluted and both eluates were concentrated to 5 ml for analysis. The procedure for sample preparation was completed within 2 h. In a recovery test, 107 pesticides were spiked and average recoveries were more than 80% from asparagus, orange, potato and strawberry. Most pesticides were recovered in the range 70-120% with usually less than a 10% RSD for six experiments. The results indicated that a single extraction with ethyl acetate in the presence of polymer can be applied to the monitoring of pesticide residues in foods.

  10. Zirconium oxide aerogel for effective enrichment of phosphopeptides with high binding capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyuan; Xu, Jin; Sun, Liangliang; Ma, Junfeng; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-04-01

    In this study, zirconium oxide (ZrO(2)) aerogel was synthesized via a green sol-gel approach, with zirconium oxychloride, instead of the commonly used alkoxide with high toxicity, as the precursor. With such material, phosphopeptides from the digests of 4 pmol of β-casein with the coexistence of 100 times (mol ratio) BSA could be selectively captured, and identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Due to the large surface area (416.0 m(2) g(-1)) and the mesoporous structure (the average pore size of 10.2 nm) of ZrO(2) aerogel, a 20-fold higher loading capacity for phosphopeptide, YKVPQLEIVPN[pS]AEER (MW 1952.12), was obtained compared to that of commercial ZrO(2) microspheres (341.5 vs. 17.87 mg g(-1)). The metal oxide aerogel was further applied in the enrichment of phosphopeptides from 100 ng nonfat milk, and 17 phosphopeptides were positively identified, with a 1.5-fold improvement in phosphopeptide detection compared with previously reported results. These results demonstrate that ZrO(2) aerogel can be a powerful enrichment material for phosphoproteome study.

  11. Estimated Aerobic Capacity Changes in Adolescents with Obesity Following High Intensity Interval Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E. Starkoff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vigorous aerobic exercise may improve aerobic capacity (VO2max and cardiometabolic profiles in adolescents with obesity, independent of changes to weight. Our aim was to assess changes in estimated VO2max in obese adolescents following a 6-week exercise program of varying intensities. Adolescents with obesity were recruited from an American mid-west children’s hospital and randomized into moderate exercise (MOD or high intensity interval exercise (HIIE groups for a 6-week exercise intervention, consisting of cycle ergometry for 40 minutes, 3 days per week. Heart rate was measured every two minutes during each exercise session.  Estimated VO2max measured via Åstrand cycle test, body composition, and physical activity (PA enjoyment evaluated via questionnaire were assessed pre/post-intervention. Twenty-seven adolescents (age 14.7±1.5; 17 female, 10 male completed the intervention. Estimated VO2max increased only in the HIIE group (20.0±5.7 to 22.7±6.5 ml/kg/min, p=0.015. The HIIE group also demonstrated increased PA enjoyment, which was correlated with average heart rate achieved during the intervention (r=0.55; p=0.043. Six weeks of HIIE elicited improvements to estimated VO2max in adolescents with obesity. Furthermore, those exercising at higher heart rates demonstrated greater PA enjoyment, implicating enjoyment as an important determinant of VO2max, specifically following higher intensity activities.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Al-Cr-Pillared Montmorillonite with High Thermal Stability and Adsorption Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ming-li; LIU Shi-zhen; YU Yong-fu

    2004-01-01

    Al-Cr-pillared montmorillonite was synthesized by using bentonite and Al-Cr pillaring solutionsas starting materials. The basal spacing and specific surface areas of the materials were significantly increased rela-tive to those of untreated clays. When the Al/Cr molar ratio ( R ) was 0.10, the d (001) value and specific surfacearea of pillared montmorillonite were 1.9194 nm and 165.7 m2 g- 1 , respectively. Thermal stability of the mate-rials was determined using calcined tests and X- ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The materials formed at differentR(0.05;0.10;0.15;0.25) exhibit a high thermal stability at 300℃ , especially at initial R = 0.10, the basalinterlayer spacing of materials is stabilized at 1.7313 nm after calcined at 500℃ for 2 h. Adsorption behavior ofthe materials was studied by adsorption experiments. The results show that the Al- Cr-pillared montmorillonites ex-hibit much stronger adsorption capacity on Cr6+ in aqueous solution than untreated clays do.

  13. Synthesis of CeO2-based core/shell nanoparticles with high oxygen storage capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunoglu, Aytekin; Kose, Dursun Ali; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2017-07-01

    Ceria plays a key role in various applications including sensing and catalysis owing to its high oxygen storage capacity (OSC). The aim of this work is to prepare novel MO x /CeO2 (M: Zr, Ti, Cu) metal oxide systems with core/shell structures using a facile two-step chemical precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and N2 adsorption methods. The OSC property of the samples was evaluated using TGA analysis conducted at 600 °C under reductive (5% H2/Ar) and oxidative (synthetic air) environments. The OSCs of the samples were found to be 130, 253, and 2098 µmol-O2/g for ZrO2/CeO2, TiO2/CeO2, and CuO/CeO2, respectively. Effects of heat treatment on the physical and redox properties of the samples were also evaluated. In this regard, the samples were exposed to 500 °C for 5 h under ambient environment. It was observed that the heat treatment induced the formation of mixed metal oxide alloys and the BET surface area of the samples diminished significantly. The OSC of the samples, however, did not experience any significant chance, which was attributed to the compensation of the loss in the surface area by the alloy formation after the heat treatment.

  14. The acceleration intermediate phase (NiS and Ni3S2) evolution by nanocrystallization in Li/NiS2 thermal batteries with high specific capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chuanyu; Zhou, Lingping; Fu, Licai; Zhu, Jiajun; Li, Deyi; Yang, Wulin

    2017-06-01

    The intermediate phase of NiS2 is thought to be a bottleneck currently to improve the overall performance of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries because of its low conductivity and close formation enthalpy between NiS2 and the intermediate phase (NiS, Ni3S2, etc). For improving the discharge performances of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries, the nano NiS2 with an average size of 85 ± 5 nm is designated as a cathode material. The electrochemical measurements show that the specific capacity of nano NiS2 cathode is higher than micro NiS2. The nano NiS2 cathode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances with high specific capacities of 794 and 654 mAh g-1 at current density of 0.1 and 0.5 A cm-2 under a cut-off voltage of 0.5 V, respectively. These results show that the rapid intermediate phase evolution from the nanocrystallization can obviously enhance use efficiency of NiS2 and improve discharge performances of thermal batteries.

  15. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Shaffer, F.; Palm, N.; Salmon, E.; Raghavan, S.; Kempster, L.

    1998-01-01

    This technology assessment of long-term high capacity data storage systems identifies an emerging crisis of severe proportions related to preserving important historical data in science, healthcare, manufacturing, finance and other fields. For the last 50 years, the information revolution, which has engulfed all major institutions of modem society, centered itself on data-their collection, storage, retrieval, transmission, analysis and presentation. The transformation of long term historical data records into information concepts, according to Drucker, is the next stage in this revolution towards building the new information based scientific and business foundations. For this to occur, data survivability, reliability and evolvability of long term storage media and systems pose formidable technological challenges. Unlike the Y2K problem, where the clock is ticking and a crisis is set to go off at a specific time, large capacity data storage repositories face a crisis similar to the social security system in that the seriousness of the problem emerges after a decade or two. The essence of the storage crisis is as follows: since it could take a decade to migrate a peta-byte of data to a new media for preservation, and the life expectancy of the storage media itself is only a decade, then it may not be possible to complete the transfer before an irrecoverable data loss occurs. Over the last two decades, a number of anecdotal crises have occurred where vital scientific and business data were lost or would have been lost if not for major expenditures of resources and funds to save this data, much like what is happening today to solve the Y2K problem. A pr-ime example was the joint NASA/NSF/NOAA effort to rescue eight years worth of TOVS/AVHRR data from an obsolete system, which otherwise would have not resulted in the valuable 20-year long satellite record of global warming. Current storage systems solutions to long-term data survivability rest on scalable architectures

  16. Differential expression of HDACs and KATs in high and low regeneration capacity neurons during spinal cord regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Laramore, Cindy; Shifman, Michael I

    2016-06-01

    After spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals, injured axons fail to regenerate. By contrast, lampreys recover from complete spinal transection and axons regenerate selectively in their correct paths. Yet the large, identified reticulospinal neurons in the lamprey brain vary greatly in their regenerative abilities - some have high regeneration capacity (probability of regeneration >50%) and others have low regeneration capacity (regenerating and non-regenerating neurons located in the same brain region and projecting to the same axon tracts suggests that differences in their regenerating abilities depend upon factors intrinsic to the neurons. Previous work has suggested that axon regeneration, especially in PNS, could depend on epigenetic mechanisms of histone modifications, such as the acetylation of histone tails. Our data indicated that expression of the enzymes responsible for regulating the acetylation of histone (KATs and HDACs) - KAT2A, KAT5 and P300 and HDAC3 did not change after SCI in either high regeneration capacity or low regeneration capacity neurons. In the present report, we show a novel and unexpected relationship between neuron regeneration abilities and expression of HDAC1. While HDAC1 expression was downregulated in both high and low regeneration capacity neurons 2 and 4weeks after SCI, it was upregulated at 7weeks at almost all RS neurons. However, at 10weeks post-transection only high regeneration capacity neurons displayed elevated HDAC1 mRNA expression and HDAC1 expression was again downregulated in low regeneration capacity neurons. Moreover, we show that HDAC1 is preferentially expressed in regenerated neurons, but not in non-regenerating neurons. Together, these results suggest that SCI causes significant changes in HDAC1 expression and that HDAC1 expression in regenerating neurons may modulates a survival or regeneration programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Technical Excellence: A Requirement for Good Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, William W.

    2008-01-01

    Technical excellence is a requirement for good engineering. Technical excellence has many different ways of expressing itself within engineering. NASA has initiatives that address the enhancement of the Agency's technical excellence and thrust to maintain the associated high level of performance by the Agency on current programs/projects and as it moves into the Constellation Program and the return to the Moon with plans to visit Mars. This paper addresses some of the key initiatives associated with NASA's technical excellence thrust. Examples are provided to illustrate some results being achieved and plans to enhance these initiatives.

  18. Morphology control of ordered mesoporous carbons for high capacity lithium sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Joerg David

    2011-06-07

    The focus of this thesis concerns the morphology control of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) materials. Ordered mesoporous carbons with diverse morphologies, that are thin films, fibers - embedded in anodic alumina membranes and free-standing - or spherical nanoparticles, have been successfully prepared by soft-templating procedures. The mechanisms of structure formation and processing were investigated with in-situ SAXS measurements and their application in high capacity lithium-sulfur batteries was successfully tested in cooperation with Guang He and Linda Nazar from the University of Waterloo in Canada. The Li-S batteries receive increasing attention due to their high theoretical energy density which is 3 to 5 times higher than from lithium-ion batteries. For this type of battery the specific pore volume is crucial for the content of the active component (sulfur) in the cathode and therefore correlates with the capacity and gravimetric energy density of the battery. At first, mesoporous thin films with 2D-hexagonal structure were obtained through organic-organic self-assembly of a preformed oligomeric resol precursor and the triblock copolymer template Pluronic P123. The formation of a condensed-wall material through thermopolymerization of the precursor oligomers resulted in mesostructured phenolic resin films. Subsequent decomposition of the surfactant and partial carbonization were achieved through thermal treatment in inert atmosphere. The films were crack-free with tunable homogenous thicknesses, and showed either 2D-hexagonal or lamellar mesostructure. An additional, yet unknown 3D-mesostructure was also found. In the second part, cubic and circular hexagonal mesoporous carbon phases in the confined environment of tubular anodic alumina membrane (AAM) pores were obtained by self-assembly of the mentioned resol precursor and the triblock copolymer templates Pluronic F127 or P123, respectively. Casting and solvent-evaporation were also followed by

  19. High C3 photosynthetic capacity and high intrinsic water use efficiency underlies the high productivity of the bioenergy grass Arundo donax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Richard J; Driever, Steven M; Kromdijk, Johannes; McGrath, Justin; Leakey, Andrew D B; Siebke, Katharina; Demetriades-Shah, Tanvir; Bonnage, Steve; Peloe, Tony; Lawson, Tracy; Long, Stephen P

    2016-02-10

    Arundo donax has attracted interest as a potential bioenergy crop due to a high apparent productivity. It uses C3 photosynthesis yet appears competitive with C4 grass biomass feedstock's and grows in warm conditions where C4 species might be expected to be that productive. Despite this there has been no systematic study of leaf photosynthetic properties. This study determines photosynthetic and photorespiratory parameters for leaves in a natural stand of A. donax growing in southern Portugal. We hypothesise that A. donax has a high photosynthetic potential in high and low light, stomatal limitation to be small and intrinsic water use efficiency unusually low. High photosynthetic rates in A. donax resulted from a high capacity for both maximum Rubisco (Vc,max 117 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)) and ribulose-1:5-bisphosphate limited carboxylation rate (Jmax 213 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)) under light-saturated conditions. Maximum quantum yield for light-limited CO2 assimilation was also high relative to other C3 species. Photorespiratory losses were similar to other C3 species under the conditions of measurement (25%), while stomatal limitation was high (0.25) resulting in a high intrinsic water use efficiency. Overall the photosynthetic capacity of A. donax is high compared to other C3 species, and comparable to C4 bioenergy grasses.

  20. Excel 2007 Charts

    CERN Document Server

    Walkenbach, John

    2008-01-01

    Excel, the top number-crunching tool, now offers a vastly improved charting function to help you give those numbers dimension and relativity. John Walkenbach, a.k.a. Mr. Spreadsheet, clearly explains all these charting features and shows you how to choose the right chart for your needs. You'll learn to modify data within the chart, deal with missing data, format your chart, use trend lines, construct "impossible" charts, create charts from pivot tables, dress them up with graphics, and more. Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.

  1. Apfel's excellent match

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Apfel's excellent match: This series of photos shows a water drop containing a surfactant (Triton-100) as it experiences a complete cycle of superoscillation on U.S. Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2; October 1995). The time in seconds appears under the photos. The figures above the photos are the oscillation shapes predicted by a numerical model. The time shown with the predictions is nondimensional. Robert Apfel (Yale University) used the Drop Physics Module on USML-2 to explore the effect of surfactants on liquid drops. Apfel's research of surfactants may contribute to improvements in a variety of industrial processes, including oil recovery and environmental cleanup.

  2. A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2012-09-30

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

  3. Ammonia metabolism capacity of HepG2 cells with high expression of human glutamine synthetase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan-Hong Tang; Xiao-Qian Wang; Xiu-Jin Li; Yan-Ling Chen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Currently, one of the tough problems for the application of bioartiifcial liver (BAL) is the shortage of suitable hepatocytes. There are reports on different types of BAL assistance developed with porcine hepatocytes and HepG2 C3A cells, but their defects are obvious. In recent years, some studies focus more on liver cells with features of human origin and improved detoxiifcation. In this study, a hepatocyte line with high expression of human glutamine synthetase (hGS) was raised and its capacity for ammonia metabolism was investigated. METHODS:hGS cDNA and alpha-fetoprotein transcription regulatory element (AFP-TRE) were cloned with the designed primers. The eukaryotic expression vectors, pLNChGS and pLNAFhGS, were constructed and transfected into PA317 cells. Recombinant retroviruses (Retro-hGS and Retro-AFhGS) were produced and then infected into HepG2 cells. G418-resistant cell clones, HepG2/pLNChGS and HepG2/pLNAFhGS, were selected and ampliifed. Then hGS mRNA was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR;hGS enzymatic activity and ammonia metabolism analysis in different concentration of NH4+were detected with a quantitative biochemistry kit. The cell proliferation was also detected by MTT chromatometry. RESULTS:The expression of hGS mRNA in HepG2/pLNChGS cells (8.306±0.336) and HepG2/pLNAFhGS cells (21.358±1.716) was much stronger than in control cells (P CONCLUSION:The constructed hepatocytes (HepG2 cells) with speciifc high-expression of hGS have a powerful ability to degrade ammonia in vitro, and provide necessary experimental data for the selection of biomaterials in BAL.

  4. Ternary Pt9RhFex Nanoscale Alloys as Highly Efficient Catalysts with Enhanced Activity and Excellent CO-Poisoning Tolerance for Ethanol Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Yin, Shibin; Wen, Ying; Tian, Zhiqun; Wang, Ningzhang; Key, Julian; Wang, Shuangbao; Shen, Pei Kang

    2017-03-22

    To address the problems of high cost and poor stability of anode catalysts in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs), ternary nanoparticles Pt9RhFex (x = 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9) supported on carbon powders (XC-72R) have been synthesized via a facile method involving reduction by sodium borohydride followed by thermal annealing in N2 at ambient pressure. The catalysts are physically characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and their catalytic performance for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) is evaluated by cyclic and linear scan voltammetry, CO-stripping voltammograms, and chronopotentiometry. All the Pt9RhFex/C catalysts of different atomic ratios produce high EOR catalytic activity. The catalyst of atomic ratio composition 9:1:3 (Pt/Rh/Fe) has the highest activity and excellent CO-poisoning tolerance. Moreover, the enhanced EOR catalytic activity on Pt9RhFe3/C when compared to Pt9Rh/C, Pt3Fe/C, and Pt/C clearly demonstrates the presence of Fe improves catalytic performance. Notably, the onset potential for CO oxidation on Pt9RhFe3/C (0.271 V) is ∼55, 75, and 191 mV more negative than on Pt9Rh/C (0.326 V), Pt3Fe/C (0.346 V), and Pt/C (0.462 V), respectively, which implies the presence of Fe atoms dramatically improves CO-poisoning tolerance. Meanwhile, compared to the commercial PtRu/C catalyst, the peak potential on Pt9RhFe3/C for CO oxidation was just slightly changed after several thousand cycles, which shows high stability against the potential cycling. The possible mechanism by which Fe and Rh atoms facilitate the observed enhanced performance is also considered herein, and we conclude Pt9RhFe3/C offers a promising anode catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  5. High Capacity Reversible Watermarking for Audio by Histogram Shifting and Predicted Error Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Being reversible, the watermarking information embedded in audio signals can be extracted while the original audio data can achieve lossless recovery. Currently, the few reversible audio watermarking algorithms are confronted with following problems: relatively low SNR (signal-to-noise of embedded audio; a large amount of auxiliary embedded location information; and the absence of accurate capacity control capability. In this paper, we present a novel reversible audio watermarking scheme based on improved prediction error expansion and histogram shifting. First, we use differential evolution algorithm to optimize prediction coefficients and then apply prediction error expansion to output stego data. Second, in order to reduce location map bits length, we introduced histogram shifting scheme. Meanwhile, the prediction error modification threshold according to a given embedding capacity can be computed by our proposed scheme. Experiments show that this algorithm improves the SNR of embedded audio signals and embedding capacity, drastically reduces location map bits length, and enhances capacity control capability.

  6. High temperature heat capacity of PuPO{sub 4} monazite-analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benes, Ondrej, E-mail: ondrej.benes@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Popa, Karin [' Al.I. Cuza' University, Department of Chemistry, 11-Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi (Romania); Reuscher, Vivien [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Zappia, Alessandro; Staicu, Dragos; Konings, Rudy J.M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > The heat capacity of PuPO{sub 4} has been measured up to 1400 K. > Good agreement between the DSC and the drop technique has been found. > It was demonstrated that drop calorimetry is precise enough to measure relatively small samples. - Abstract: The enthalpy increments of PuPO{sub 4} have been measured using drop calorimetry in the temperature range from 530 K to 1386 K. The heat capacity was derived from the obtained data and compared with heat capacity data obtained directly from differential scanning calorimeter measured in this study from 400 K to 1400 K. The recommended heat capacity of PuPO{sub 4} was determined based on both techniques as: C{sub p}{sup 0}(JK{sup -1}mol{sup -1})=126.600+32.999x10{sup -3}(T/K)-1.9503x10{sup 6}(T/K){sup -2}.

  7. High capacity reversible watermarking for audio by histogram shifting and predicted error expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Xie, Zhaoxin; Chen, Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Being reversible, the watermarking information embedded in audio signals can be extracted while the original audio data can achieve lossless recovery. Currently, the few reversible audio watermarking algorithms are confronted with following problems: relatively low SNR (signal-to-noise) of embedded audio; a large amount of auxiliary embedded location information; and the absence of accurate capacity control capability. In this paper, we present a novel reversible audio watermarking scheme based on improved prediction error expansion and histogram shifting. First, we use differential evolution algorithm to optimize prediction coefficients and then apply prediction error expansion to output stego data. Second, in order to reduce location map bits length, we introduced histogram shifting scheme. Meanwhile, the prediction error modification threshold according to a given embedding capacity can be computed by our proposed scheme. Experiments show that this algorithm improves the SNR of embedded audio signals and embedding capacity, drastically reduces location map bits length, and enhances capacity control capability.

  8. Effect of high-quality technical capacity characteristics to the impact of industrial production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysenko Y.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of the qualitative assessment of the technical capacity of the economic industrial organizations, in which the development of methods for assessment and management of heterogeneous quality of resources requires establishing their resultant value at any ratio of the structural elements (resources and the definition (increase or decrease the effectiveness of their quantitative characteristics. The extent of the qualitative assessment of the adequacy of technical capacity of industry organizations has a direct impact on the efficiency of its formation. The article made specific calculations to identify the functional relationship between the productivity of industrial production and the main characteristics of the technical capacity of industry organizations Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk regions. It was concluded that the negative correlation between the quantitative security technology and efficiency of industrial production - the last influence energy power technical capacity. The equations of regression, depending on the factor variable, made their forecast.

  9. Morphology control of ordered mesoporous carbons for high capacity lithium sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Joerg David

    2011-06-07

    The focus of this thesis concerns the morphology control of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) materials. Ordered mesoporous carbons with diverse morphologies, that are thin films, fibers - embedded in anodic alumina membranes and free-standing - or spherical nanoparticles, have been successfully prepared by soft-templating procedures. The mechanisms of structure formation and processing were investigated with in-situ SAXS measurements and their application in high capacity lithium-sulfur batteries was successfully tested in cooperation with Guang He and Linda Nazar from the University of Waterloo in Canada. The Li-S batteries receive increasing attention due to their high theoretical energy density which is 3 to 5 times higher than from lithium-ion batteries. For this type of battery the specific pore volume is crucial for the content of the active component (sulfur) in the cathode and therefore correlates with the capacity and gravimetric energy density of the battery. At first, mesoporous thin films with 2D-hexagonal structure were obtained through organic-organic self-assembly of a preformed oligomeric resol precursor and the triblock copolymer template Pluronic P123. The formation of a condensed-wall material through thermopolymerization of the precursor oligomers resulted in mesostructured phenolic resin films. Subsequent decomposition of the surfactant and partial carbonization were achieved through thermal treatment in inert atmosphere. The films were crack-free with tunable homogenous thicknesses, and showed either 2D-hexagonal or lamellar mesostructure. An additional, yet unknown 3D-mesostructure was also found. In the second part, cubic and circular hexagonal mesoporous carbon phases in the confined environment of tubular anodic alumina membrane (AAM) pores were obtained by self-assembly of the mentioned resol precursor and the triblock copolymer templates Pluronic F127 or P123, respectively. Casting and solvent-evaporation were also followed by

  10. Microwave photonics technologies supporting high capacity and flexible wireless communications systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Tatarczak, Anna; Rommel, Simon;

    2015-01-01

    Emerging 5G wireless systems require technologies for increased capacity, guarantee robustness, low latency and flexibility. We review a number of approaches to provide the above based on microwave photonics and hybrid optical fiber-wireless communication techniques.......Emerging 5G wireless systems require technologies for increased capacity, guarantee robustness, low latency and flexibility. We review a number of approaches to provide the above based on microwave photonics and hybrid optical fiber-wireless communication techniques....

  11. Nanoporous CuS with excellent photocatalytic property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wence; Zhu, Shengli; Liang, Yanqin; Li, Zhaoyang; Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin; Inoue, Akihisa

    2015-12-01

    We present the rational synthesis of nanoporous CuS for the first time by chemical dealloying method. The morphologies of the CuS catalysts are controlled by the composition of the original amorphous alloys. Nanoporous Cu2S is firstly formed during the chemical dealloying process, and then the Cu2S transforms into CuS. The nanoporous CuS exhibits excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of the methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO) and rhodamine B (RhB). The excellent photocatalytic activity of the nanoporous CuS is mainly attributed to the large specific surface area, high adsorbing capacity of dyes and low recombination of the photo generated electrons and holes. In the photo degradation process, both chemical and photo generated hydroxyl radicals are generated. The hydroxyl radicals are favor in the oxidation of the dye molecules. The present modified dealloying method may be extended for the preparation of other porous metal sulfide nanostructures.

  12. Standards of Excellence in Budget Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Denny G.; Harmer, W. Gary

    This guide describes the Meritorious Budget Awards Program recognizing excellence in school system budgeting awarded by the Association of School Business Officials. The award is designed to help school business administrators achieve a high standard of excellence in budget presentations. Chapters provide the expectations and relevant criteria…

  13. Ion intercalation into two-dimensional transition-metal carbides: global screening for new high-capacity battery materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, Christopher; Islam, M Saiful

    2014-11-19

    Two-dimensional transition metal carbides (termed MXenes) are a new family of compounds generating considerable interest due to their unique properties and potential applications. Intercalation of ions into MXenes has recently been demonstrated with good electrochemical performance, making them viable electrode materials for rechargeable batteries. Here we have performed global screening of the capacity and voltage for a variety of intercalation ions (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Mg(2+)) into a large number of M2C-based compounds (M = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta) with F-, H-, O-, and OH-functionalized surfaces using density functional theory methods. In terms of gravimetric capacity a greater amount of Li(+) or Mg(2+) can be intercalated into an MXene than Na(+) or K(+), which is related to the size of the intercalating ion. Variation of the surface functional group and transition metal species can significantly affect the voltage and capacity of an MXene, with oxygen termination leading to the highest capacity. The most promising group of M2C materials in terms of anode voltage and gravimetric capacity (>400 mAh/g) are compounds containing light transition metals (e.g., Sc, Ti, V, and Cr) with nonfunctionalized or O-terminated surfaces. The results presented here provide valuable insights into exploring a rich variety of high-capacity MXenes for potential battery applications.

  14. Improving reversible capacities of high surface lithium insertion materials – the case of amorphous TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna eGanapathy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemisorbed water and solvent molecules and their reactivity with components from the electrolyte in high-surface nanostructured electrodes remains a contributing factor towards capacity diminishment on cycling in lithium ion batteries due to the limit in maximum annealing temperature. Here we report a marked improvement in the capacity retention of amorphous TiO2 by the choice of preparation solvent, control of annealing temperature and the presence of surface functional groups. Careful heating of the amorphous TiO2 sample prepared in acetone under vacuum lead to complete removal of all molecular solvent and an improved capacity retention of 220 mAh/g over 50 cycles at a C/10 rate. Amorphous TiO2 when prepared in ethanol and heated under vacuum showed an even better capacity retention of 240 mAh/g. From FTIR Spectroscopy and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy measurements, the improved capacity is attributed to the complete removal of ethanol and the presence of very small fractions of residual functional groups coordinated to oxygen-deficient surface titanium sites. These displace the more reactive chemisorbed hydroxyl groups, limiting reaction with components from the electrolyte and possibly enhancing the integrity of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI. The present research provides a facile strategy to improve the capacity retention of nanostructured electrode materials.

  15. Dual-Size Silicon Nanocrystal-Embedded SiO(x) Nanocomposite as a High-Capacity Lithium Storage Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunjun; Yoo, Hyundong; Lee, Jaewoo; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hansu

    2015-07-28

    SiOx-based materials attracted a great deal of attention as high-capacity Li(+) storage materials for lithium-ion batteries due to their high reversible capacity and good cycle performance. However, these materials still suffer from low initial Coulombic efficiency as well as high production cost, which are associated with the complicated synthesis process. Here, we propose a dual-size Si nanocrystal-embedded SiOx nanocomposite as a high-capacity Li(+) storage material prepared via cost-effective sol-gel reaction of triethoxysilane with commercially available Si nanoparticles. In the proposed nanocomposite, dual-size Si nanocrystals are incorporated into the amorphous SiOx matrix, providing a high capacity (1914 mAh g(-1)) with a notably improved initial efficiency (73.6%) and stable cycle performance over 100 cycles. The highly robust electrochemical and mechanical properties of the dual-size Si nanocrystal-embedded SiOx nanocomposite presented here are mainly attributed to its peculiar nanoarchitecture. This study represents one of the most promising routes for advancing SiOx-based Li(+) storage materials for practical use.

  16. Excel 2010 Workbook for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Reinforce your understanding of Excel with these Workbook exercises. Boost your knowledge of important Excel tasks by putting your skills to work in real-world situations. The For Dummies Workbook format provides more than 100 exercises that help you create actual results with Excel so you can gain proficiency. Perfect for students, people learning Excel on their own, and financial professionals who must plan and execute complex projects in Excel, Excel 2010 Workbook For Dummies helps you discover all the ways this program can work for you.: Excel is the world's most popular number-crunching p

  17. Underpinning Excellence in Higher Education--An Investigation into the Leadership, Governance and Management Behaviours of High-Performing Academic Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Seng Kiat; McDonald, Claire

    2017-01-01

    The changes in government funding alongside external pressures of increased international and national competition have meant that higher education institutions need to excel in a turbulent environment. The leadership, governance and management (LGM) of academic departments are key concerns. This study investigates the correlation between…

  18. Hepatoma SK Hep-1 cells exhibit characteristics of oncogenic mesenchymal stem cells with highly metastatic capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Ryeol Eun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SK Hep-1 cells (SK cells derived from a patient with liver adenocarcinoma have been considered a human hepatoma cell line with mesenchymal origin characteristics, however, SK cells do not express liver genes and exhibit liver function, thus, we hypothesized whether mesenchymal cells might contribute to human liver primary cancers. Here, we characterized SK cells and its tumourigenicity. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that classical mesenchymal stem cell (MSC markers were presented on SK cells, but endothelial marker CD31, hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45 were negative. SK cells are capable of differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts as adipose-derived MSC (Ad-MSC and bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC do. Importantly, a single SK cell exhibited a substantial tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity in immunodefficient mice. Metastasis not only occurred in circulating organs such as lung, liver, and kidneys, but also in muscle, outer abdomen, and skin. SK cells presented greater in vitro invasive capacity than those of Ad-MSC and BM-MSC. The xenograft cells from subcutaneous and metastatic tumors exhibited a similar tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity, and showed the same relatively homogenous population with MSC characteristics when compared to parental SK cells. SK cells could unlimitedly expand in vitro without losing MSC characteristics, its tumuorigenicity and metastatic capacity, indicating that SK cells are oncogenic MSC with enhanced self-renewal capacity. We believe that this is the first report that human MSC appear to be transformed into cancer stem cells (CSC, and that their derivatives also function as CSCs. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that SK cells represent a transformation mechanism of normal MSC into an enhanced self-renewal CSC with metastasis capacity, SK cells and their xenografts represent a same relative homogeneity of CSC with substantial metastatic capacity. Thus, it represents a

  19. Nutrient Limitations Constrain the Feedback Capacity of Landscapes in the High Arctic: Nonlinearities and Synergism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, S. J.; Sullivan, P. F.; Welker, J. M.; Rogers, M. C.; Holland, K.; Schimel, J.; Persson, K.

    2006-12-01

    of N alone causes a nonlinear response. The rapidity by which these dramatic changes occurred indicates that increases in atmospheric N deposition or the stimulation of organic matter decomposition and the mineralization of N due to warmer air and soil temperatures has the capacity to completely alter surface dynamics and feedback processes in the High Arctic.

  20. Spongelike Nanosized Mn 3 O 4 as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Jie

    2011-07-12

    Mn3O4 has been investigated as a high-capacity anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Spongelike nanosized Mn 3O4 was synthesized by a simple precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Its electrochemical performance, as an anode material, was evaluated by galvanostatic discharge-charge tests. The results indicate that this novel type of nanosized Mn3O4 exhibits a high initial reversible capacity (869 mA h/g) and significantly enhanced first Coulomb efficiency with a stabilized reversible capacity of around 800 mA h/g after over 40 charge/discharge cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. Investigation of Metal Oxide/Carbon Nano Material as Anode for High Capacity Lithium-ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James Jianjun; Hong, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing high specific energy and high specific capacity lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology for future NASA missions. Current state-of-art LIBs have issues in terms of safety and thermal stability, and are reaching limits in specific energy capability based on the electrochemical materials selected. For example, the graphite anode has a limited capability to store Li since the theoretical capacity of graphite is 372 mAh/g. To achieve higher specific capacity and energy density, and to improve safety for current LIBs, alternative advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are pursued under the NASA Advanced Space Power System Project. In this study, the nanostructed metal oxide, such as Fe2O3 on carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite as an LIB anode has been investigated.

  2. Flake-by-flake ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} as a high capacity anode material for lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xiong [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ru, Qiang, E-mail: rq7702@yeah.net [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou 510006 (China); Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, Beibei; Hu, Shejun; An, Bonan [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-02-05

    Highlights: • The ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} with porous structure was prepared by co-precipitation method. • Flake-by-flake used in ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied for the first time. • The as-prepared ZCO shows excellent electrochemical performances. • The preparation method has mild experiment conditions and high production rate. -- Abstract: A novel flake-by-flake ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} (ZCO) with porous nanostructure is prepared by a typical and facile co-precipitation method using oxalic acid as complex agent. XRD, SEM, and TEM analyses show the as-prepared ZCO nanoparticles have a high purity and a good crystallinity, and the ZCO nanoflakes with a thickness of 30–80 nm are composed of uniform ZCO nanocrystals with a diameter of 20–40 nm. The novel structure with enough free space is beneficial to improving the electrochemical performance. The as-prepared ZCO used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries exhibits a high specific capacity of 1275 mA h/g at a current rate of 100 mA/g after 50 cycles, as well as a high power capability at elevated current rates, i.e., 1130 and 730 mA h/g at current rates of 500 and 3000 mA/g, respectively. It has a great prospect for the application of anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Locus coeruleus galanin expression is enhanced after exercise in rats selectively bred for high capacity for aerobic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick S; Groves, Jessica L; Pettett, Brett J; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Dishman, Rod K; Holmes, Philip V

    2010-12-01

    The neuropeptide galanin extensively coexists with norepinephrine in locus coeruleus (LC) neurons. Previous research in this laboratory has demonstrated that unlimited access to activity wheels in the home cage increases mRNA for galanin (GAL) in the LC, and that GAL mediates some of the beneficial effects of exercise on brain function. To assess whether capacity for aerobic exercise modulates this upregulation in galanin mRNA, three heterogeneous rat models were tested: rats selectively bred for (1) high intrinsic (untrained) aerobic capacity (High Capacity Runners, HCR) and (2) low intrinsic aerobic capacity (Low Capacity Runners, LCR) and (3) unselected Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with and without free access to running wheels for 3 weeks. Following this exercise protocol, mRNA for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and GAL was measured in the LC. The wheel running distances between the three models were significantly different, and age contributed as a significant covariate. Both selection and wheel access condition significantly affected GAL mRNA expression, but not TH mRNA expression. GAL was elevated in exercising HCR and SD rats compared to sedentary rats while LCR rats did not differ between conditions. Overall running distance significantly correlated with GAL mRNA expression, but not with TH mRNA expression. No strain differences in GAL or TH gene expression were observed in sedentary rats. Thus, intrinsic aerobic running capacity influences GAL gene expression in the LC only insofar as actual running behavior is concerned; aerobic capacity does not influence GAL expression in addition to changes associated with running.

  4. Sulfone-carbonate ternary electrolyte with further increased capacity retention and burn resistance for high voltage lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Leigang; Lee, Seung-Yul; Zhao, Zuofeng; Angell, C. Austen

    2015-11-01

    Safety and high energy density are the two focus issues for current lithium ion batteries. For safety, it has been demonstrated that sulfone electrolytes are much less flammable than the prevailing all-carbonate type, and they are also promising for high voltage batteries due to the high oxidization resistance. However, the high melting points and viscosities greatly restricted their application. Based on our previous work on use of fluidity-enhancing cosolvents to make binary sulfone-carbonate electrolytes, we report here a three-component system that is more conductive and should be even less flammable while additionally having better low temperature stability. The conductivity-viscosity relations have been determined for this electrolyte and are comparable to those of the "standard" carbonate electrolyte. The additional component also produces much improved capacity retention for the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode. As with carbonate electrolytes, increase of temperature to 55 °C leads to rapid capacity decrease during cycling, but the capacity loss is due to the salt, not the solvent. The high discharge capacity observed at 25 °C when LiBF4 replaces LiPF6, is fully retained at 55 °C.

  5. Novel asymptotic results on the high-order statistics of the channel capacity over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2012-06-01

    The exact analysis of the higher-order statistics of the channel capacity (i.e., higher-order ergodic capacity) often leads to complicated expressions involving advanced special functions. In this paper, we provide a generic framework for the computation of the higher-order statistics of the channel capacity over generalized fading channels. As such, this novel framework for the higher-order statistics results in simple, closed-form expressions which are shown to be asymptotically tight bounds in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime of a variety of fading environment. In addition, it reveals the existence of differences (i.e., constant capacity gaps in log-domain) among different fading environments. By asymptotically tight bound we mean that the high SNR limit of the difference between the actual higher-order statistics of the channel capacity and its asymptotic bound (i.e., lower bound) tends to zero. The mathematical formalism is illustrated with some selected numerical examples that validate the correctness of our newly derived results. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Highly improved chromium (III uptake capacity in modified sugarcane bagasse using different chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina Gonçalves Dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on improving chromium (III uptake capacity of sugarcane bagasse through its chemical modification with citric acid and/or sodium hydroxide. The chemical modifications were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, with an evident peak observed at 1730 cm-1, attributed to carbonyl groups. Equilibrium was reached after 24 h, and the kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. The highest chromium (III maximum adsorption capacity (MAC value was found when using sugarcane bagasse modified with sodium hydroxide and citric acid (58.00 mg g-1 giving a MAC value about three times greater (20.34 mg g-1 than for raw sugarcane bagasse.

  7. Investigation of laser diode face-pumped high average power heat capacity laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenjin Zhang; Shouhuan Zhou; Xiaojun Tang; Guojiang Bi; Huachang LV

    2006-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) pump intensity distribution in medium of the laser diode (LD) pumped highaverage power heat capacity laser is simulated by the ray tracing method, and the divergence characteristicsof fast axis and slow axis of LD are simultaneously considered. The transient 3D temperature and stressdistributions are also simulated by the finite element method (FEM) with considering the uneven heatsource distribution in medium. A LD face-pumped Nd:GGG heat capacity laser is designed. The averageoutput power is 1.49 kW with an optical-optical efficiency of 24.1%.

  8. Improving reversible capacities of high-surface lithium insertion materials – the case of amorphous TiO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganapathy, S.; Basak, S.; Lefering, A.; Rogers, E.; Zandbergen, H.W.; Wagemaker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Chemisorbed water and solvent molecules and their reactivity with components from the electrolyte in high-surface nano-structured electrodes remains a contributing factor toward capacity diminishment on cycling in lithium ion batteries due to the limit in maximum annealing temperature. Here, we repo

  9. A High-Capacity Adenoviral Hybrid Vector System Utilizing the Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase SB100X for Enhanced Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Philip; Zhang, Wenli; Solanki, Manish; Ehrke-Schulz, Eric; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2016-07-19

    For efficient delivery of required genetic elements we utilized high-capacity adenoviral vectors in the past allowing high transgene capacities of up to 36 kb. Previously we explored the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase (HSB5) for somatic integration from the high-capacity adenoviral vectors genome. To further improve this hybrid vector system we hypothesized that the previously described hyperactive SB transposase SB100X will result in significantly improved efficacies after transduction of target cells. Plasmid based delivery of the SB100X system revealed significantly increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5. After optimizing experimental setups for high-capacity adenoviral vectors-based delivery of the SB100X system we observed up to eightfold and 100-fold increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5 and the inactive transposase mSB, respectively. Furthermore, transposon copy numbers per cell were doubled with SB100X compared with HSB5 when using the identical multiplicity of infection. We believe that this improved hybrid vector system represents a valuable tool for achieving stabilized transgene expression in cycling cells and for treatment of numerous genetic disorders. Especially for in vivo approaches this improved adenoviral hybrid vector system will be advantageous because it may potentially allow reduction of the applied viral dose.

  10. Depleted skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA, hyperlactatemia, and decreased oxidative capacity in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B;

    2005-01-01

    hyperlactatemia is associated with depletion of skeletal muscle (sm)-mtDNA and decreased oxidative capacity in HIV-infected patients on NRTI based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and whether HIV infection itself is associated with sm-mtDNA depletion. Sm-mtDNA was determined in 42 HIV...... in part could be mediated through an enhanced pro-inflammatory response....

  11. High-School Students' Need for Cognition, Self-Control Capacity, and School Achievement: Testing a Mediation Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrams, Alex; Dickhauser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    In the present article, we examine the hypothesis that high-school students' motivation to engage in cognitive endeavors (i.e., their need for cognition; NFC) is positively related to their dispositional self-control capacity. Furthermore, we test the prediction that the relation between NFC and school achievement is mediated by self-control…

  12. The Quest for Educational Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Tobin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of the book “The Global Fourth Way: The Quest for Educational Excellence.” By Andy Hargreaves and Dennis Shirley. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 2012. ISBN: 978-1412987868 Individual chapters in The Global Fourth Way center on examples of high performance in Finland, Singapore, Alberta (Canada, Ontario (Canada, England, and California (US. Each captures the essence of educational models, practices, and issues in the region at large, before focusing on specific cases that support key values in their proposal.

  13. High-temperature heat capacity of oxides of the CuO-V2O5 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, L. T.; Belousova, N. V.; Denisov, V. M.; Galiakhmetova, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    CuV2O6 and Cu2V2O7 compounds have been produced from initial components CuO and V2O5 by solid-phase synthesis. The high-temperature heat capacity of the oxide compounds has been measured using differential scanning calorimetry. The thermodynamic properties (the enthalpy change, the entropy change, and the reduced Gibbs energy) have been calculated using experimental dependences C P = f( T). It is found that there is a correlation between the specific heat capacity and the composition of oxides of the CuO-V2O5 system.

  14. The effect of food and ice cream on the adsorption capacity of paracetamol to high surface activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle Riis; Christophersen, Anne Bolette

    2003-01-01

    The effect of added food mixture (as if food was present in the stomach of an intoxicated patient) or 4 different types of ice cream (added as a flavouring and lubricating agent) on the adsorption of paracetamol (acetaminophen) to 2 formulations of activated charcoal was determined in vitro......, and paracetamol were mixed with either food mixture or ice cream followed by one hr incubation. The maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated charcoal was calculated using Langmuirs adsorption isotherm. Paracetamol concentration was analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography. In the presence...... of food, the paracetamol adsorption capacity of the 2 activated charcoals was reduced by max. 19% (Pcream was mixed with the charcoal...

  15. Model of excellent kindergarten learning for excellent pupils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Elma; Mooij, Ton; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Dijkstra, E. M., Mooij, T., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 9 November). Model of excellent kindergarten learning for excellent pupils. Poster presentation at the International ICO Fall School, Girona, Spain.

  16. Determinants of Excellent Kindergarten Learning of Excellent Pupils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Elma; Mooij, Ton; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Dijkstra, E. M., Mooij, T., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 27 August). Determinants of Excellent Kindergarten Learning of Excellent Pupils. In J. Kornmann (Chair), Cognitive Abilities and Instructional Designs. Symposium conducted at the EARLI 2013 conference, Munich, Germany.

  17. Model of Excellent Kindergarten Learning for Excellent Pupils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Elma; Mooij, Ton; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Dijkstra, E. M., Mooij, T., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 11 October). Model of excellent kindergarten learning for excellent pupils. Poster presentation at the Teacher Expertise Symposium, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  18. Multiband Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation for High Capacity Optical Data Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Zuo, Tianjian; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee;

    2014-01-01

    Short range optical data links are experiencing bandwidth limitations making it very challenging to cope with the growing data transmission capacity demands. Parallel optics appears as a valid short-term solution. It is, however, not a viable solution in the long-term because of its complex optic...

  19. High-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training improve physical capacity in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Morten; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Zacho, Morten

    2006-01-01

    and 65 years of age (mean age 42.8) participated in a 9-h weekly training program over 6 weeks. The intervention involved physical exercise, relaxation, massage, and body-awareness training. Physical capacity (one-repetition maximum tests (1RM), VO2max) and body composition (weight, skin-fold) were...

  20. High-capacity nanostructured germanium-containing materials and lithium alloys thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason A.; Fultz, Brent T.; Ahn, Channing; Yazami, Rachid

    2010-08-24

    Electrodes comprising an alkali metal, for example, lithium, alloyed with nanostructured materials of formula Si.sub.zGe.sub.(z-1), where 0capacities, cycle lives, and/or cycling rates compared with similar electrodes made from graphite. These electrodes are useful as anodes for secondary electrochemical cells, for example, batteries and electrochemical supercapacitors.

  1. High-capacity lithium-ion battery conversion cathodes based on iron fluoride nanowires and insights into the conversion mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linsen; Meng, Fei; Jin, Song

    2012-11-14

    The increasing demands from large-scale energy applications call for the development of lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrode materials with high energy density. Earth abundant conversion cathode material iron trifluoride (FeF(3)) has a high theoretical capacity (712 mAh g(-1)) and the potential to double the energy density of the current cathode material based on lithium cobalt oxide. Such promise has not been fulfilled due to the nonoptimal material properties and poor kinetics of the electrochemical conversion reactions. Here, we report for the first time a high-capacity LIB cathode that is based on networks of FeF(3) nanowires (NWs) made via an inexpensive and scalable synthesis. The FeF(3) NW cathode yielded a discharge capacity as high as 543 mAh g(-1) at the first cycle and retained a capacity of 223 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles at room temperature under the current of 50 mA g(-1). Moreover, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of continuous networks of Fe in the lithiated FeF(3) NWs after discharging, which is likely an important factor for the observed improved electrochemical performance. The loss of active material (FeF(3)) caused by the increasingly ineffective reconversion process during charging was found to be a major factor responsible for the capacity loss upon cycling. With the advantages of low cost, large quantity, and ease of processing, these FeF(3) NWs are not only promising battery cathode materials but also provide a convenient platform for fundamental studies and further improving conversion cathodes in general.

  2. Exploring highly-efficient routing strategy on scale-free networks with limited and diverse node capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; He, Xuan; Zhang, Shuai

    2015-06-01

    Since the delivery capacity of each node is neither uniform nor strictly proportional to the degree in many real networked systems such as the Internet, we consider the node capacity is composed of a small uniform fraction and a large degree dependent proportion. By comparing the optimal routing strategy [B. Danila, Y. Yu, J. A. Marsh and K. E. Bassler, Phys. Rev. E 74 (2006) 046106; B. Danila, Y. Yu, J. A. Marsh and K. E. Bassler, Chaos 17 (2007) 026102] with the shortest path routing (SPR), the results show that the OR appears to be not efficient enough to enhance network traffic capacity. Then the efficient betweenness defined as the average betweenness for per delivery capacity is employed, and a so-called highly-efficient routing (HER) strategy is proposed. By iteratively minimizing the maximum efficient betweenness of any node in the network, the highest traffic capacity is achieved at the cost of a little average path lengthening. This work is very useful for network service providers to optimize the weight of each link incrementally to improve whole network transport ability.

  3. Study of genetic effects of high energy radiations with different ionizing capacities on extracellular phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, S E; Kalinin, V L; Kopylova, Y U; Krivisky, A S; Rybchin, V N; Shelegedin, V N

    1975-07-01

    The inactivating and mutagenic action of high-energy radiations with different ionizing capacities (gamma-rays, protons, alpha-particles and accelerated ions of 12C and 20Ne) was studied by using coliphages lambda11 and SD as subjects. In particular the role of irradiation conditions (broth suspension, pure buffer, dry samples) and of the host functions recA, exrA and polA was investigated. The dose-response curve of induced mutagenesis was studied by measuring the yield of vir mutants in lambda11 and plaque mutants in SD. The following results were obtained. (1) The inactivation kinetics of phages under the action of gamma-rays and protons was first order to a survival of 10(-7). Heavy ions also showed exponential inactivation kinetics to a survival of 10(-4). At higher doses of 20Ne ion bombardment some deviation from one-hit kinetics was observed. For dry samples of phages the dimensions of targets for all types of radiation were approximately proportional to the molecular weights of phage DNA's. For densely ionizing radiation (heavy ions) the inactivating action was 3-5 times weaker than for gamma-rays and protons. (2) Mutagenesis was observed for all types of radiation, but heavy ions were 1-5-2 times less efficient than gamma-rays. For both phages studied the dose-response curve of mutagenesis was non-linear. The dependence on the dose was near to parabolic for lambda11. For SD a plateau or maximum of mutagenesis was observed for the relative number of mutants at a survival of about 10(-4). (3) Host-cell functions recA and exrA were practically indifferent for survival of gamma-irradiated phage lambda11, but indispensable for mutagenesis. Mutation recAI3 abolished induced vir mutations totally and exrA- reduced them significantly. The absence of the function polA had a considerable influence on phage survival, but no effect on vir mutation yield (if compared at the same survival level). (4) In conditions of indirect action of gamma-rays no vir mutations were

  4. In Situ Activation of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Anchored on Graphite Foam for a High-Capacity Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Junyi; Liu, Jilei; Lai, Linfei; Zhao, Xin; Zhen, Yongda; Lin, Jianyi; Zhu, Yanwu; Ji, Hengxing; Zhang, Li Li; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2015-08-25

    We report the fabrication of a three-dimensional free-standing nitrogen-doped porous graphene/graphite foam by in situ activation of nitrogen-doped graphene on highly conductive graphite foam (GF). After in situ activation, intimate "sheet contact" was observed between the graphene sheets and the GF. The sheet contact produced by in situ activation is found to be superior to the "point contact" obtained by the traditional drop-casting method and facilitates electron transfer. Due to the intimate contact as well as the use of an ultralight GF current collector, the composite electrode delivers a gravimetric capacity of 642 mAh g(-1) and a volumetric capacity of 602 mAh cm(-3) with respect to the whole electrode mass and volume (including the active materials and the GF current collector). When normalized based on the mass of the active material, the composite electrode delivers a high specific capacity of up to 1687 mAh g(-1), which is superior to that of most graphene-based electrodes. Also, after ∼90 s charging, the anode delivers a capacity of about 100 mAh g(-1) (with respect to the total mass of the electrode), indicating its potential use in high-rate lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Ultra-high adsorption capacity of zeolitic imidazole framework-67 (ZIF-67) for removal of malachite green from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Chang, Hsuan-Ang

    2015-11-01

    Zeolitic imidazole frameworks (ZIFs), a new class of adsorbents, are proposed to adsorb Malachite Green (MG) in water. Particularly, ZIF-67 was selected owing to its stability in water and straightforward synthesis. The as-synthesized ZIF-67 was characterized and used to adsorb MG from water. Factors affecting the adsorption capacity were investigated including mixing time, temperature, the presence of salts and pH. The kinetics, adsorption isotherm and thermodynamics of the MG adsorption to ZIF-67 were also studied. The adsorption capacity of ZIF-67 for MG could be as high as 2430mgg(-1) at 20°C, which could be improved at the higher temperatures. Such an ultra-high adsorption capacity of ZIF-67 was almost 10-times of those of conventional adsorbents, including activated carbons and biopolymers. A mechanism for the high adsorption capacity was proposed and possibly attributed to the π-π stacking interaction between MG and ZIF-67. ZIF-67 also could be conveniently regenerated by washing with ethanol and the regeneration efficiency could remain 95% up to 4 cycles of the regeneration. ZIF-67 was also able to remove MG from the aquaculture wastewater, in which MG can be typically found. These features enable ZIF-67 to be one of the most effective and promising adsorbent to remove MG from water.

  6. Efficient removal and highly selective adsorption of Hg{sup 2+} by polydopamine nanospheres with total recycle capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiulan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Chemical Engineering of Xinjiang bingtuan, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China); Jia, Xin, E-mail: jiaxin@shzu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Chemical Engineering of Xinjiang bingtuan, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China); Zhang, Guoxiang [Gansu Dayu Water-saving Group Co., Ltd, Jiuquan 735000 (China); Hu, Jiamei; Sheng, Wenbo; Ma, Zhiyuan; Lu, Jianjiang; Liu, Zhiyong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Chemical Engineering of Xinjiang bingtuan, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • The PDA nanospheres with uniform diameter of 150–200 nm were used to remove Hg{sup 2+} efficiently and selectively. • The desorption capacity of PDA nanospheres was 100% in pH 1. • The structure and removal capacity of PDA nanospheres remained almost unchanged after recycling five times. - Abstract: This study reported a new method for efficient removal of Hg{sup 2+} from contaminated water using highly selective adsorptive polydopamine (PDA) nanospheres, which were uniform and had a small diameter (150–200 nm). The adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics were investigated. Also, the effects of ionic strength, co-existing ions on removing ability of PDA nanospheres for Hg{sup 2+} were studied. Adsorption of Hg{sup 2+} was very fast and efficient as adsorption equilibrium was completed within 4 h and the maximum adsorption capacities were 1861.72 mg/g, 2037.22 mg/g, and 2076.81 mg/g at 298 K, 313 K, and 328 K respectively, increasing with increasing of temperature. The PDA nanospheres exhibited highly selective adsorption of Hg{sup 2+} and had a total desorption capacity of 100% in hydrochloric acid solution, pH 1. The results showed that the structure of PDA nanospheres remained almost unchanged after recycling five times. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to determine the elements of PDA nanospheres before and after Hg{sup 2+} adsorption. Considering their efficient and highly Hg{sup 2+} selective adsorption, total recycle capacity, and high stability, PDA nanospheres will be feasible in a number of practical applications.

  7. High-Capacity Micrometer-Sized Li 2 S Particles as Cathode Materials for Advanced Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2012-09-19

    Li 2S is a high-capacity cathode material for lithium metal-free rechargeable batteries. It has a theoretical capacity of 1166 mAh/g, which is nearly 1 order of magnitude higher than traditional metal oxides/phosphates cathodes. However, Li 2S is usually considered to be electrochemically inactive due to its high electronic resistivity and low lithium-ion diffusivity. In this paper, we discover that a large potential barrier (∼1 V) exists at the beginning of charging for Li 2S. By applying a higher voltage cutoff, this barrier can be overcome and Li 2S becomes active. Moreover, this barrier does not appear again in the following cycling. Subsequent cycling shows that the material behaves similar to common sulfur cathodes with high energy efficiency. The initial discharge capacity is greater than 800 mAh/g for even 10 μm Li 2S particles. Moreover, after 10 cycles, the capacity is stabilized around 500-550 mAh/g with a capacity decay rate of only ∼0.25% per cycle. The origin of the initial barrier is found to be the phase nucleation of polysulfides, but the amplitude of barrier is mainly due to two factors: (a) charge transfer directly between Li 2S and electrolyte without polysulfide and (b) lithium-ion diffusion in Li 2S. These results demonstrate a simple and scalable approach to utilizing Li 2S as the cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high specific energy. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. SLC2A9 is a high-capacity urate transporter in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Caulfield

    2008-10-01

    0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9 to 1.05, p > 0.33 by meta-analysis of an SLC2A9 variant in six case-control studies including 11,897 participants. In a separate meta-analysis of four population studies including 11,629 participants we found no association of SLC2A9 with systolic (effect size -0.12 mm Hg, 95% CI -0.68 to 0.43, p = 0.664 or diastolic blood pressure (effect size -0.03 mm Hg, 95% CI -0.39 to 0.31, p = 0.82. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that SLC2A9 splice variants act as high-capacity urate transporters and is one of the first functional characterisations of findings from genome-wide association scans. We did not find an association of the SLC2A9 gene with blood pressure in this study. Our findings suggest potential pathogenic mechanisms that could offer a new drug target for gout.

  9. Experimental Equipment for Damping Capacity Analyze of High or Low Internal Friction Metallic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gârnet, I. A.; Stanciu, S.; Hopulele, I.; Zaharia, M. G.; Cimpoesu, N.; Chicet, D. L.; Crăciun, R. C.

    2017-06-01

    An experimental equipment, type torsion pendulum was made in laboratory in order to analyze the damping capacity of metallic materials. The scheme of the equipment is presented, 2D and 3D visions at real scale. The equipment functioning (mechanical and electrical part) and principles are presented. In this article we present some preliminary experimental results obtained on different materials (aluminium, steel etc.) using two different methods for registration the outputs (one based on optoelectronic device with Arduino acquisition board and second on video analyze (cinematic review: video to jpeg) of the damped motion of the lead pendulum). Steel materials were with shoot penning surface modification with and without heat treatment in order to establish the heat treatment influence on the damping capacity property.

  10. High-capacity adsorption of aniline using surface modification of lignocellulose-biomass jute fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-Wen; Hu, Qi; Pan, Hongyu; Jiang, Jiping; Wang, Peng

    2015-10-01

    Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) modified jute fiber (MJF) were prepared with microwave treatment to generate a biosorbent for aniline removal. The characterization of the biosorbent was investigated by SEM, BET and FT-IR analysis to discuss the adsorption mechanism. The studies of various factors influencing the adsorption behavior indicated that the optimum dosage for aniline adsorption was 3g/L, the maximum adsorption capacity was observed at pH 7.0 and the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The aniline adsorption follows the pseudo second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model. Moreover, the biosorbent could be regenerated through the desorption of aniline by using 0.5M HCl solution, and the adsorption capacity after regeneration is even higher than that of virgin MJF. All these results prove MJF is a promising adsorbent for aniline removal in wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Poly(Ethylene Glycol-Based Backbones with High Peptide Loading Capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife O'Connor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-peptide conjugates are a promising class of compounds, where polymers can be used to overcome some of the limitations associated with peptides intended for therapeutic and/or diagnostic applications. Linear polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol can be conjugated through terminal moieties and have therefore limited loading capacities. In this research, functionalised linear poly(ethylene glycols are utilised for peptide conjugation, to increase their potential loading capacities. These poly(ethylene glycol derivatives are conjugated to peptide sequences containing representative side-chain functionalised amino acids, using different conjugation chemistries, including copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, amide coupling and thiol-ene reactions. Conjugation of a sequence containing the RGD motif to poly(allyl glycidyl ether by the thiol-ene reaction, provided a conjugate which could be used in platelet adhesion studies.

  12. Iron decorated - functionalized MOF for high-capacity hydrogen storage: First-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Moon-Hyun; Ihm, Jisoon

    2011-03-01

    We perform electronic structure calculations for the Fe-decorated, OH-functionalized isoreticular metal organic framework 16 (IRMOF16) to investigate the hydrogen storage capacity. Because of the relatively strong Kubas interaction between Fe and H2 , hydrogen molecule can be adsorbed on the proposed MOF even at room temperature. The reversibly usable storage capacity under ambient conditions reaches 6.0 wt%. Fe has a much lower oxidation tendency than other metals (e.g., Ti, Ca, or Li) used for decorating backbone structures and therefore far more convenient in practical implementation. We also find that the spin flip, which comes from the competition between exchange field splitting and ligand field splitting, plays a significant role in the interaction between Fe and H2 .

  13. High-capacity quantum secure direct communication using hyper-entanglement of photonic qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiarui; Pan, Ziwen; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Sihai; Wang, Chuan

    2016-11-01

    Hyper-entanglement is a system constituted by photons entangled in multiple degrees of freedom (DOF), being considered as a promising way of increasing channel capacity and guaranteeing powerful eavesdropping safeguard. In this work, we propose a coding scheme based on a 3-particle hyper-entanglement of polarization and orbital angular momentum (OAM) system and its application as a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol. The OAM values are specially encoded by Fibonacci sequence and the polarization carries information by defined unitary operations. The internal relations of the secret message enhances security due to principle of quantum mechanics and Fibonacci sequence. We also discuss the coding capacity and security property along with some simulation results to show its superiority and extensibility.

  14. Concepts for a low emittance-high capacity storage ring for the diamond light source

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, Riccardo; Evans, Gwyndaf; Sawhney, Kawal; Zegenhagen, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    The Diamond Light Source is investigating several paths for a possible machine upgrade to Diamond II. The exercise is driven by a joint assessment of the science capabilities opened by a very low emittance ring and the machine design that will underpin them. The consultation is made on a beamline-by-beamline basis and has highlighted a significant preference for lattices that combine both a low emittance and large capacity for IDs.

  15. Metal-organic frameworks with high capacity and selectivity for harmful gases

    OpenAIRE

    Britt, David; Tranchemontagne, David; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2008-01-01

    Benchmarks have been established for the performance of six metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and isoreticular MOFs (IRMOFs, which have the same underlying topology as MOF-5), MOF-5, IRMOF-3, MOF-74, MOF-177, MOF-199, and IRMOF-62, as selective adsorbents for eight harmful gases: sulfur dioxide, ammonia, chlorine, tetrahydrothiophene, benzene, dichloromethane, ethylene oxide, and carbon monoxide. Kinetic breakthrough measurements are used to determine the calculated dynamic adsorption capacity ...

  16. Evaluating the Value of High Spatial Resolution in National Capacity Expansion Models using ReEDS: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Venkat; Cole, Wesley

    2016-07-01

    Power sector capacity expansion models (CEMs) have a broad range of spatial resolutions. This paper uses the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, a long-term national scale electric sector CEM, to evaluate the value of high spatial resolution for CEMs. ReEDS models the United States with 134 load balancing areas (BAs) and captures the variability in existing generation parameters, future technology costs, performance, and resource availability using very high spatial resolution data, especially for wind and solar modeled at 356 resource regions. In this paper we perform planning studies at three different spatial resolutions--native resolution (134 BAs), state-level, and NERC region level--and evaluate how results change under different levels of spatial aggregation in terms of renewable capacity deployment and location, associated transmission builds, and system costs. The results are used to ascertain the value of high geographically resolved models in terms of their impact on relative competitiveness among renewable energy resources.

  17. Calculation of diagonal section and cross-section bending capacity for strengthening RC structure using high-performance ferrocement laminate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shouping SHANG; Fangyuan ZHOU; Wei LIU

    2009-01-01

    Because there is a great demand of reinforce-ment and retrofitting of aged structures nationwide, as well as the rapid development of innovative building materials,the adoption of strengthening RC structures using new inorganic materials has become possible. High-performance ferrocement laminate (HPFL) is an effective method of strengthening concrete structure. High-performance ferrocement laminate is a new type of inorganic material with the advantages such as high strength, small contraction, good bonding properties, etc.This paper introduces the formula of cross-section bending capacity for strengthening concrete beams with HPEL. A comparative analysis of experimental data, as well as the calculation of diagonal section bearing capacity of concrete members, is given.

  18. Oxygen- and Nitrogen-Enriched 3D Porous Carbon for Supercapacitors of High Volumetric Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Liu, Kang; Gao, Xiang; Yao, Bin; Huo, Kaifu; Cheng, Yongliang; Cheng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Dongchang; Wang, Bo; Sun, Wanmei; Ding, Dong; Liu, Meilin; Huang, Liang

    2015-11-11

    Efficient utilization and broader commercialization of alternative energies (e.g., solar, wind, and geothermal) hinges on the performance and cost of energy storage and conversion systems. For now and in the foreseeable future, the combination of rechargeable batteries and electrochemical capacitors remains the most promising option for many energy storage applications. Porous carbonaceous materials have been widely used as an electrode for batteries and supercapacitors. To date, however, the highest specific capacitance of an electrochemical double layer capacitor is only ∼200 F/g, although a wide variety of synthetic approaches have been explored in creating optimized porous structures. Here, we report our findings in the synthesis of porous carbon through a simple, one-step process: direct carbonization of kelp in an NH3 atmosphere at 700 °C. The resulting oxygen- and nitrogen-enriched carbon has a three-dimensional structure with specific surface area greater than 1000 m(2)/g. When evaluated as an electrode for electrochemical double layer capacitors, the porous carbon structure demonstrated excellent volumetric capacitance (>360 F/cm(3)) with excellent cycling stability. This simple approach to low-cost carbonaceous materials with unique architecture and functionality could be a promising alternative to fabrication of porous carbon structures for many practical applications, including batteries and fuel cells.

  19. High Capacity Downlink Transmission with MIMO Interference Subspace Rejection in Multicellular CDMA Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Hansen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available We proposed recently a new technique for multiuser detection in CDMA networks, denoted by interference subspace rejection (ISR, and evaluated its performance on the uplink. This paper extends its application to the downlink (DL. On the DL, the information about the interference is sparse, for example, spreading factor (SF and modulation of interferers may not be known, which makes the task much more challenging. We present three new ISR variants which require no prior knowledge of interfering users. The new solutions are applicable to MIMO systems and can accommodate any modulation, coding, SF, and connection type. We propose a new code allocation scheme denoted by DACCA which significantly reduces the complexity of our solution at the receiving mobile. We present estimates of user capacities and data rates attainable under practically reasonable conditions regarding interferences identified and suppressed in a multicellular interference-limited system. We show that the system capacity increases linearly with the number of antennas despite the existence of interference. Our new DL multiuser receiver consistently provides an Erlang capacity gain of at least 3 db over the single-user detector.

  20. AFM as an analysis tool for high-capacity sulfur cathodes for Li-S batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesgen, Renate; Sörgel, Seniz; Costa, Rémi; Carlé, Linus; Galm, Ines; Cañas, Natalia; Pascucci, Brigitta; Friedrich, K Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In this work, material-sensitive atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were used to analyse the cathodes of lithium-sulfur batteries. A comparison of their nanoscale electrical, electrochemical, and morphological properties was performed with samples prepared by either suspension-spraying or doctor-blade coating with different binders. Morphological studies of the cathodes before and after the electrochemical tests were performed by using AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cathodes that contained polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and were prepared by spray-coating exhibited a superior stability of the morphology and the electric network associated with the capacity and cycling stability of these batteries. A reduction of the conductive area determined by conductive AFM was found to correlate to the battery capacity loss for all cathodes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements of Li2S exposed to ambient air showed that insulating Li2S hydrolyses to insulating LiOH. This validates the significance of electrical ex-situ AFM analysis after cycling. Conductive tapping mode AFM indicated the existence of large carbon-coated sulfur particles. Based on the analytical findings, the first results of an optimized cathode showed a much improved discharge capacity of 800 mA·g(sulfur)(-1) after 43 cycles.

  1. Modeling high adsorption capacity and kinetics of organic macromolecules on super-powdered activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yoshihiko; Ando, Naoya; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Kurotobi, Ryuji; Matsushita, Taku; Ohno, Koichi

    2011-02-01

    The capacity to adsorb natural organic matter (NOM) and polystyrene sulfonates (PSSs) on small particle-size activated carbon (super-powdered activated carbon, SPAC) is higher than that on larger particle-size activated carbon (powdered-activated carbon, PAC). Increased adsorption capacity is likely attributable to the larger external surface area because the NOM and PSS molecules do not completely penetrate the adsorbent particle; they preferentially adsorb near the outer surface of the particle. In this study, we propose a new isotherm equation, the Shell Adsorption Model (SAM), to explain the higher adsorption capacity on smaller adsorbent particles and to describe quantitatively adsorption isotherms of activated carbons of different particle sizes: PAC and SPAC. The SAM was verified with the experimental data of PSS adsorption kinetics as well as equilibrium. SAM successfully characterized PSS adsorption isotherm data for SPACs and PAC simultaneously with the same model parameters. When SAM was incorporated into an adsorption kinetic model, kinetic decay curves for PSSs adsorbing onto activated carbons of different particle sizes could be simultaneously described with a single kinetics parameter value. On the other hand, when SAM was not incorporated into such an adsorption kinetic model and instead isotherms were described by the Freundlich model, the kinetic decay curves were not well described. The success of the SAM further supports the adsorption mechanism of PSSs preferentially adsorbing near the outer surface of activated carbon particles.

  2. High Lithium Capacity MxV 2O 5Ay· nH 2O for Rechargeable Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torardi, C. C.; Miao, C. R.; Lewittes, M. E.; Li, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The aqueous synthesis and electrochemical properties of nanocrystalline MxV2O5Ay·nH2O are described. It is easily and quickly prepared by precipitation from acidified vanadate solutions. MxV2O5Ay·nH2O has been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, electron microscopy, TGA, chemical analyses, and electrochemical studies. The atomic structure is related to that of xerogel-derived V2O5·nH2O. In MxV2O5Ay·nH2O, M is a cation from the starting vanadate salt and A is an anion from the mineral acid. This material exhibits high, reversible Li capacity and may be considered for use in a cathode in primary and secondary batteries. The lithium capacity of an electrode composed of MxV2O5Ay·nH2O/EPDM/carbon (88/4/8) is ∼380(mA h)/g (C/80 rate) and the energy density is ∼1000(W h)/kg (120-μm-thick cathode, 4-1.5 V, versus Li metal anode). Critical parameters identified in the synthesis of MxV2O5Ay·nH2O, with respect to achieving high Li-ion insertion capacity, are acid/vanadium ratio, starting vanadate salt, and temperature. Inclusion of carbon black in the synthesis yields a composite that maintains the high Li capacity, lowers the electrochemical-cell polarization, and preserves the lithium capacity at higher discharge rates. Li-ion coin cells, using pre-lithiated graphite anodes, exhibit electrochemical performance comparable to that of Li-metal coin cells.

  3. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: Effects on Muscle Contractile Characteristics and Exercise Capacity, a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez Wens

    Full Text Available Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS. The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown.Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11 and 2 exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12 or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11, both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks.Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21 ± 7%, HCTR: +23 ± 5%. Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29 ± 6%, whereas type II (+23 ± 7% and IIa (+23 ± 6%, CSA increased in HITR. Muscle strength improved in HITR and HCTR (between +13 ± 7% and +45 ± 20% and body fat percentage tended to decrease (HITR: -3.9 ± 2.0% and HCTR: -2.5 ± 1.2%. Furthermore, endurance capacity (Wmax +21 ± 4%, time to exhaustion +24 ± 5%, VO2max +17 ± 5% and lean tissue mass (+1.4 ± 0.5% only increased in HITR. Finally self-reported physical activity levels increased 73 ± 19% and 86 ± 27% in HCTR and HITR, respectively.High intensity cardiovascular exercise combined with resistance training was safe, well tolerated and improved muscle contractile characteristics and endurance capacity in MS.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01845896.

  4. The Effect of Predeparture Training Loads on Posttour Physical Capacities in High-Performance Junior Tennis Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alistair P; Duffield, Rob; Kellett, Aaron; Gescheit, Dani; Reid, Machar

    2015-11-01

    Difficulties in preserving physical capacities while on tennis tours necessitate targeted training prescription. This study analyzed training and match loads performed before and on tour for their relationship with posttour physical-capacity changes. A secondary aim was to determine whether the presence of a strength and conditioning (S&C) coach affected the type and volume of on-tour training load. The training and match loads of 30 high-performance junior tennis players were recorded over 8 wk: 4 wk before and 4 wk during an international tour. Fitness tests were conducted pretour and posttour, including double and single-leg (dominant and nondominant) countermovement jump, speed (5, 10, and 20 m), modified 5-0-5 agility, 10 × 20-m repeated-sprint ability, and multistage fitness tests. Tour training and match loads were categorized according to whether S&C support was present or absent. Total and tennis training loads were significantly greater on tour than pretour (P ≤ .05, d > 0.8). Increases in on-tour, on-court training loads were moderately correlated with decrements in speed and aerobic power (r = .31-.52). Finally, S&C presence on tour significantly increased total, on-court, and off-court training load completed (P ≤ .05, d > 0.8). Training loads should be carefully prescribed to ensure that sufficient total and tennis loads are completed pretour. Specifically, speed and aerobic capacities may regress with increased training on tour. Finally, a practical observation was that on-tour S&C support resulted in increased S&C training load (around match loads), potentially countering the observed regression of physical capacities. Such a finding has the capacity to alter current physical-preparation structures in high-performance tennis environments with finite resources.

  5. Comparative polygenic analysis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and tolerance to high ethanol levels of cell proliferation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Thiago M; Foulquié-Moreno, María R; Hubmann, Georg; Duitama, Jorge; Swinnen, Steve; Goovaerts, Annelies; Yang, Yudi; Dumortier, Françoise; Thevelein, Johan M

    2013-06-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to accumulate ≥17% ethanol (v/v) by fermentation in the absence of cell proliferation. The genetic basis of this unique capacity is unknown. Up to now, all research has focused on tolerance of yeast cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. Comparison of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation in 68 yeast strains showed a poor correlation, but higher ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation clearly increased the likelihood of superior maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify the polygenic basis of these two complex traits using segregants from a cross of a haploid derivative of the sake strain CBS1585 and the lab strain BY. From a total of 301 segregants, 22 superior segregants accumulating ≥17% ethanol in small-scale fermentations and 32 superior segregants growing in the presence of 18% ethanol, were separately pooled and sequenced. Plotting SNP variant frequency against chromosomal position revealed eleven and eight Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for the two traits, respectively, and showed that the genetic basis of the two traits is partially different. Fine-mapping and Reciprocal Hemizygosity Analysis identified ADE1, URA3, and KIN3, encoding a protein kinase involved in DNA damage repair, as specific causative genes for maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. These genes, as well as the previously identified MKT1 gene, were not linked in this genetic background to tolerance of cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. The superior KIN3 allele contained two SNPs, which are absent in all yeast strains sequenced up to now. This work provides the first insight in the genetic basis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity in yeast and reveals for the first time the importance of DNA damage repair in yeast ethanol tolerance.

  6. Comparative polygenic analysis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and tolerance to high ethanol levels of cell proliferation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago M Pais

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to accumulate ≥17% ethanol (v/v by fermentation in the absence of cell proliferation. The genetic basis of this unique capacity is unknown. Up to now, all research has focused on tolerance of yeast cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. Comparison of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation in 68 yeast strains showed a poor correlation, but higher ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation clearly increased the likelihood of superior maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify the polygenic basis of these two complex traits using segregants from a cross of a haploid derivative of the sake strain CBS1585 and the lab strain BY. From a total of 301 segregants, 22 superior segregants accumulating ≥17% ethanol in small-scale fermentations and 32 superior segregants growing in the presence of 18% ethanol, were separately pooled and sequenced. Plotting SNP variant frequency against chromosomal position revealed eleven and eight Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs for the two traits, respectively, and showed that the genetic basis of the two traits is partially different. Fine-mapping and Reciprocal Hemizygosity Analysis identified ADE1, URA3, and KIN3, encoding a protein kinase involved in DNA damage repair, as specific causative genes for maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. These genes, as well as the previously identified MKT1 gene, were not linked in this genetic background to tolerance of cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. The superior KIN3 allele contained two SNPs, which are absent in all yeast strains sequenced up to now. This work provides the first insight in the genetic basis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity in yeast and reveals for the first time the importance of DNA damage repair in yeast ethanol tolerance.

  7. High-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training improve physical capacity in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Morten; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Zacho, Morten

    2006-01-01

    and 65 years of age (mean age 42.8) participated in a 9-h weekly training program over 6 weeks. The intervention involved physical exercise, relaxation, massage, and body-awareness training. Physical capacity (one-repetition maximum tests (1RM), VO2max) and body composition (weight, skin-fold) were.......62+/-13.42 kg, post: 73.25+/-13.44 kg, P=0.016). There was a significant decrease in skin-fold measurements by 3% (P=0.031). The exercise intervention was well tolerated, provided that daily screening criteria were adhered to. The effects of resistance and cardiovascular training observed in this short...

  8. Powder-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2016-05-03

    A powder-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The powder-based adsorbent includes polymer powder with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. A method for forming the powder-based adsorbent includes irradiating polymer powder, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. Powder-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  9. High-Capacity Angularly Multiplexed Holographic Memory Operating at the Single-Photon Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrapkiewicz, Radosław; Dąbrowski, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2017-02-10

    We experimentally demonstrate an angularly multiplexed holographic memory capable of intrinsic generation, storage, and retrieval of multiple photons, based on an off-resonant Raman interaction in warm rubidium-87 vapors. The memory capacity of up to 60 independent atomic spin-wave modes is evidenced by analyzing angular distributions of coincidences between Stokes and time-delayed anti-Stokes light, observed down to the level of single spin-wave excitation during the several-microsecond memory lifetime. We also propose how to practically enhance rates of single- and multiple-photon generation by combining our multimode emissive memory with existing fast optical switches.

  10. Ab initio design of Ca-decorated organic frameworks for high capacity molecular hydrogen storage with enhanced binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y. Y.; Lee, Kyuho; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Zhang, S. B.

    2009-07-01

    Ab initio calculations show that Ca can decorate organic linkers of metal-organic framework, MOF-5, with a binding energy of 1.25 eV. The Ca-decorated MOF-5 can store molecular hydrogen (H2) in both high gravimetric (4.6 wt %) and high volumetric (36 g/l) capacities. Even higher capacities (5.7 wt % and 45 g/l) can be obtained in a rationally designed covalent organic framework system, COF-α, with decorated Ca. Both density functional theory and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation calculations show that the H2 binding in these systems is significantly stronger than the van der Waals interactions, which is required for H2 storage at near ambient conditions.

  11. Recent advances in high-capacity free-space optical and radio-frequency communications using orbital angular momentum multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Alan E.; Ren, Yongxiong; Xie, Guodong; Yan, Yan; Li, Long; Zhao, Zhe; Wang, Jian; Tur, Moshe; Molisch, Andreas F.; Ashrafi, Solyman

    2017-02-01

    There is a continuing growth in the demand for data bandwidth, and the multiplexing of multiple independent data streams has the potential to provide the needed data capacity. One technique uses the spatial domain of an electromagnetic (EM) wave, and space division multiplexing (SDM) has become increasingly important for increased transmission capacity and spectral efficiency of a communication system. A subset of SDM is mode division multiplexing (MDM), in which multiple orthogonal beams each on a different mode can be multiplexed. A potential modal basis set to achieve MDM is to use orbital angular momentum (OAM) of EM waves. In such a system, multiple OAM beams each carrying an independent data stream are multiplexed at the transmitter, propagate through a common medium and are demultiplexed at the receiver. As a result, the total capacity and spectral efficiency of the communication system can be multiplied by a factor equal to the number of transmitted OAM modes. Over the past few years, progress has been made in understanding the advantages and limitations of using multiplexed OAM beams for communication systems. In this review paper, we highlight recent advances in the use of OAM multiplexing for high-capacity free-space optical and millimetre-wave communications. We discuss different technical challenges (e.g. atmospheric turbulence and crosstalk) as well as potential techniques to mitigate such degrading effects. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  12. Protein imprinted ionic liquid polymer on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes with high binding capacity for lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shifang; Deng, Qiliang; Fang, Guozhen; Wu, Jianhua; Li, Wangwang; Wang, Shuo

    2014-06-01

    In this research, ionic liquid as functional monomer to prepare molecularly imprinted polymers for protein recognition was for the first time demonstrated, in which, 1-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium chloride was selected as functional monomer, acrylamide as co-functional monomer and lysozyme (Lyz) as template protein to synthesize imprinted polymers on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes in aqueous medium. The results indicated that ionic liquid was helpful to improve binding capacity of imprinted polymers, which had a maximum binding capacity of 763.36 mg/g in the optimum adsorption conditions. The prepared imprinted polymers had a fast adsorption rate and a much higher adsorption capacity than the corresponding non-imprinted polymers, with the difference in adsorption capacity up to 258.31 mg/g. The obtained polymer was evaluated by Lyz, bovine serum albumin (BSA), bovine hemoglobin (BHb), equine myoglobin (MB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c). The selectivity factor (β) for Lyz/BSA, Lyz/Mb, Lyz/BHb, and Lyz/Cyt c were 7.17, 2.12, 1.76 and 1.57, respectively, indicating the imprinted polymers had a good selectivity. Easy preparation of the imprinted polymers as well as high ability and selectivity to adsorb template proteins makes this polymer attractive and broadly applicable in biomacromolecular separation, biotechnology and sensors.

  13. Amine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane as affinity membrane with high adsorption capacity for bilirubin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Zhifeng; Luo, Mengying; Wang, Yuedan; Liu, Qiongzhen; Chen, Yuanli; Li, Mufang; Wang, Dong

    2017-02-01

    In this study, poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibrous membrane was activated by sodium hydroxide and cyanuric chloride, and then the activated membranes were functionalized by 1,3-propanediamine, hexamethylenediamine and diethylenetriamine to be affinity membranes for bilirubin removal, respectively. The chemical structures and morphologies of membranes were investigated by SEM, FTIR and XPS. And the adsorption ability of different amine-functionalized nanofibrous membranes for bilirubin was characterized. Furthermore, the effects of temperature, initial concentration of bilirubin, NaCl concentration and BSA concentration on the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane were studied. Results indicated that the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane could reach 85mg/g membrane when the initial bilirubin concentration was 200mg/L while the adsorption capacity could be increased to 110mg/g membrane if the initial bilirubin concentration was more than 400mg/L. The dynamic adsorption of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane showed that the ligands of amine groups on the membrane surface could be used as far as possible by recirculating the plasma with certain flow rates. Therefore, the diethylenetriamine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane possessed high adsorption capacity for bilirubin and it can be candidate as affinity membrane for bilirubin removal.

  14. Leaf-level photosynthetic capacity in lowland Amazonian and high-elevation Andean tropical moist forests of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Nur H A; Ishida, F Yoko; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Guerrieri, Rossella; O'Sullivan, Odhran S; Bloomfield, Keith J; Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Lloyd, Jon; Malhi, Yadvinder; Phillips, Oliver L; Meir, Patrick; Salinas, Norma; Cosio, Eric G; Domingues, Tomas F; Quesada, Carlos A; Sinca, Felipe; Escudero Vega, Alberto; Zuloaga Ccorimanya, Paola P; Del Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon; Quispe Huaypar, Katherine; Cuba Torres, Israel; Butrón Loayza, Rosalbina; Pelaez Tapia, Yulina; Huaman Ovalle, Judit; Long, Benedict M; Evans, John R; Atkin, Owen K

    2016-07-08

    We examined whether variations in photosynthetic capacity are linked to variations in the environment and/or associated leaf traits for tropical moist forests (TMFs) in the Andes/western Amazon regions of Peru. We compared photosynthetic capacity (maximal rate of carboxylation of Rubisco (Vcmax ), and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax )), leaf mass, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) per unit leaf area (Ma , Na and Pa , respectively), and chlorophyll from 210 species at 18 field sites along a 3300-m elevation gradient. Western blots were used to quantify the abundance of the CO2 -fixing enzyme Rubisco. Area- and N-based rates of photosynthetic capacity at 25°C were higher in upland than lowland TMFs, underpinned by greater investment of N in photosynthesis in high-elevation trees. Soil [P] and leaf Pa were key explanatory factors for models of area-based Vcmax and Jmax but did not account for variations in photosynthetic N-use efficiency. At any given Na and Pa , the fraction of N allocated to photosynthesis was higher in upland than lowland species. For a small subset of lowland TMF trees examined, a substantial fraction of Rubisco was inactive. These results highlight the importance of soil- and leaf-P in defining the photosynthetic capacity of TMFs, with variations in N allocation and Rubisco activation state further influencing photosynthetic rates and N-use efficiency of these critically important forests.

  15. Recent advances in high-capacity free-space optical and radio-frequency communications using orbital angular momentum multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Alan E; Ren, Yongxiong; Xie, Guodong; Yan, Yan; Li, Long; Zhao, Zhe; Wang, Jian; Tur, Moshe; Molisch, Andreas F; Ashrafi, Solyman

    2017-02-28

    There is a continuing growth in the demand for data bandwidth, and the multiplexing of multiple independent data streams has the potential to provide the needed data capacity. One technique uses the spatial domain of an electromagnetic (EM) wave, and space division multiplexing (SDM) has become increasingly important for increased transmission capacity and spectral efficiency of a communication system. A subset of SDM is mode division multiplexing (MDM), in which multiple orthogonal beams each on a different mode can be multiplexed. A potential modal basis set to achieve MDM is to use orbital angular momentum (OAM) of EM waves. In such a system, multiple OAM beams each carrying an independent data stream are multiplexed at the transmitter, propagate through a common medium and are demultiplexed at the receiver. As a result, the total capacity and spectral efficiency of the communication system can be multiplied by a factor equal to the number of transmitted OAM modes. Over the past few years, progress has been made in understanding the advantages and limitations of using multiplexed OAM beams for communication systems. In this review paper, we highlight recent advances in the use of OAM multiplexing for high-capacity free-space optical and millimetre-wave communications. We discuss different technical challenges (e.g. atmospheric turbulence and crosstalk) as well as potential techniques to mitigate such degrading effects.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Lithographically encoded polymer microtaggant using high-capacity and error-correctable QR code for anti-counterfeiting of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangkwon; Bae, Hyung Jong; Kim, Junhoi; Shin, Sunghwan; Choi, Sung-Eun; Lee, Sung Hoon; Kwon, Sunghoon; Park, Wook

    2012-11-20

    A QR-coded microtaggant for the anti-counterfeiting of drugs is proposed that can provide high capacity and error-correction capability. It is fabricated lithographically in a microfluidic channel with special consideration of the island patterns in the QR Code. The microtaggant is incorporated in the drug capsule ("on-dose authentication") and can be read by a simple smartphone QR Code reader application when removed from the capsule and washed free of drug.

  17. Effect of energy drink dose on exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and heart rate variability after high-intensity exercise

    OpenAIRE

    An, Sang Min; Park, Jong Suk; Kim, Sang Ho

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and heart rate variability after high-intensity exercise on caffeine concentration of energy drink. [Methods] The volunteers for this study were 15 male university student. 15 subjects were taken basic physical examinations such as height, weight and BMI before the experiment. Primary tests were examined of VO2max per weight of each subjects by graded exercise test using Bruce proto...

  18. An adsorbent with a high adsorption capacity obtained from the cellulose sludge of industrial residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Géssica; Cavasotto, Jéssica; Machado, Francisco R S; Colpani, Gustavo L; Magro, Jacir Dal; Dalcanton, Francieli; Mello, Josiane M M; Fiori, Márcio A

    2017-02-01

    One of the major problems in effluent treatment plants of the cellulose and paper industry is the large amount of residual sludge generated. Therefore, this industry is trying to develop new methods to treat such residues and to use them as new products, such as adsorbents. In this regard, the objective of this work was to develop an adsorbent using the raw activated sludge generated by the cellulose and paper industry. The activated cellulose sludge, after being dried, was chemically activated with 42.5% (v/v) phosphoric acid at 85 °C for 1 h and was charred at 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C for 2 h. The efficiency of the obtained adsorbent materials was evaluated using kinetic tests with methylene blue solutions. Using the adsorption kinetics, it was verified that the three adsorbents showed the capacity to adsorb dye, and the adsorbent obtained at a temperature of 600 °C showed the highest adsorption capacity of 107.1 mg g(-1). The kinetic model that best fit the experimental data was pseudo-second order. The Langmuir-Freudlich isotherm adequately described the experimental data. As a result, the cellulose sludge generated by the cellulose and paper industries could be used as an adsorbent.

  19. Spherical polystyrene-supported chitosan thin film of fast kinetics and high capacity for copper removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Chen, Xubin; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Quanxing; Teng, Long; Chen, Yufan; Liu, Lu

    2014-07-15

    In order to accelerate the kinetics and improve the utilization of the surface active groups of chitosan (CS) for heavy metal ion removal, sub-micron-sized polystyrene supported chitosan thin-film was synthesized by the electrostatic assembly method. Glutaraldehyde was used as cross-linking agent. Chitosan thin-film was well coated onto the surface of the polystyrene (PS) beads characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Their adsorption toward Cu(II) ions was investigated as a function of solution pH, degree of cross-linking, equilibrium Cu(II) ions concentration and contact time. The maximum adsorptive capacity of PS-CS was 99.8 mg/g in the adsorption isotherm study. More attractively, the adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 10 min, which showed superior properties among similar adsorbents. Continuous adsorption-desorption cyclic results demonstrated that Cu(II)-loaded PS-CS can be effectively regenerated by a hydrochloric acid solution (HCl), and the regenerated composite beads could be employed for repeated use without significant capacity loss, indicating the good stability of the adsorbents. The XPS analysis confirmed that the adsorption process was due to surface complexes with atoms of chitosan. Generally, PS beads could be employed as a promising host to fabricate efficient composites that originated from chitosan or other bio-sorbents for environmental remediation.

  20. Mn 3 O 4 −Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hailiang

    2010-10-13

    We developed two-step solution-phase reactions to form hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery applications. Selective growth of Mn3O 4 nanoparticles on RGO sheets, in contrast to free particle growth in solution, allowed for the electrically insulating Mn3O4 nanoparticles to be wired up to a current collector through the underlying conducting graphene network. The Mn3O4 nanoparticles formed on RGO show a high specific capacity up to ∼900 mAh/g, near their theoretical capacity, with good rate capability and cycling stability, owing to the intimate interactions between the graphene substrates and the Mn 3O4 nanoparticles grown atop. The Mn3O 4/RGO hybrid could be a promising candidate material for a high-capacity, low-cost, and environmentally friendly anode for lithium ion batteries. Our growth-on-graphene approach should offer a new technique for the design and synthesis of battery electrodes based on highly insulating materials. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  1. Large capacity, multi-fuel, and high temperature working fluid heaters to optimize CSP plant cost, complexity and annual generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterseim, J. H.; Viscuso, L.; Hellwig, U.; McIntyre, P.

    2016-05-01

    This paper analyses the potential to optimize high temperature fluid back-up systems for concentrating solar power (CSP) plants by investigating the cost impact of component capacity and the impact of using multiple fuels on annual generation. Until now back-up heaters have been limited to 20MWth capacity but larger units have been realised in other industries. Installing larger units yields economy-of-scale benefits through improved manufacturing, optimised transport, and minimized on-site installation work. Halving the number of back-up boilers can yield cost reduction of 23% while minimizing plant complexity and on-site construction risk. However, to achieve these benefits it is important to adapt the back-up heaters to the plant's requirements (load change, capacity, minimum load, etc.) and design for manufacture, transport and assembly. Despite the fact that biomass availability is decreasing with increasing direct normal irradiance (DNI), some biomass is available in areas suitable for CSP plants. The use of these biomass resources is beneficial to maximise annual renewable energy generation, substitute natural gas, and use locally/seasonally available biomass resources that may not be used otherwise. Even small biomass quantities of only 50,000 t/a can increase the capacity factor of a 50MWe parabolic trough plant with 7h thermal energy storage from 40 to 49%. This is a valuable increase and such a concept is suitable for new plants and retrofit applications. However, similar to the capacity optimisation of back-up heaters, various design criteria have to be considered to ensure a successful project.

  2. Political Simulations Using Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    Simulations have received considerable attention as a tool to promote problem-solving skills, intense involvement, and high-order thinking among students. Whether semester-long exercises or a single-class session, simulations are often used in areas of conflict studies, diplomatic studies, trade disputes, electoral processes, and policy and legal…

  3. Assessing Levels of Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnovsky, Susan D.; Bassaly, Camilla M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need for training in manufacturing and high-tech industries to keep up with the rapid changes taking place in operating technologies. Topics include the six standards of training evaluation; employee satisfaction; learning how to learn; quality improvement; front-end analysis; justifications for implementing retraining; and trainee…

  4. Development and characterization of a high capacity lithium/thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Gerald H.; Goebel, Franz

    A 30 V lithium/thionyl chloride battery with 320 Ah capacity capable of operating at currents of 14 to 75 A has been developed and tested over a temperature range from 15 to 71 °C. The 81 lb battery consists of nine series connected cylindrical cells in a three-by-three arrangement within an aluminum case. The cells are of a parallel disc electrode design with a total active surface area of 10 200 cm 2. Cells and batteries have each been tested for safety, performance and to a space environment. The battery has clearly performed in excess of the specification requirements. The cell design is very adaptable to many battery design requirements.

  5. Development and characterization of a high capacity lithium/thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, G.H. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States); Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A 30 V lithium/thionyl chloride battery with 320 Ah capacity capable of operating at currents of 14 to 75 A has been developed and tested over a temperature range from 15 to 71 C. The 81 lb battery consists of nine series connected cylindrical cells in a three-by-three arrangement within an aluminum case. The cells are of a parallel disc electrode design with a total active surface area of 10 200 cm{sup 2}. Cells and batteries have each been tested for safety, performance and to a space environment. The battery has clearly performed in excess of the specification requirements. The cell design is very adaptable to many battery design requirements. (orig.)

  6. High-Capacity Multi-Core Fibers for Space-Division Multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong

    trench-assisted MCFs (TAMCFs). The traditional approach for TA-MCFs design has relied on numerical simulations, which make deriving relationships between XT and fiber structural parameters difficult and non-intuitive. As it is important to be able to understand the effects of various fiber structural...... of the present SMF-based systems. Among the proposed SDM schemes, the one based on uncoupled multi-core fibers (MCFs) having multiple cores in a mutual cladding has proven effective in substantially increasing the transmission capacity per fiber with least system complexity as demonstrated in several state...... the same refractive index profiles. Based on the model, the XT values in TA-MCFs as well as XT properties, including wavelength-dependent XT, XT reduction amount versus trench width, trench depth and XT dependence on core pitch are easily analyzed. It has also been shown that the XT in MCFs depends...

  7. High-capacity hydrogen and nitric oxide adsorption and storage in a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Wheatley, Paul S; Zhao, Xuebo; Fletcher, Ashleigh J; Fox, Sarah; Rossi, Adriano G; Megson, Ian L; Bordiga, S; Regli, L; Thomas, K Mark; Morris, Russell E

    2007-02-07

    Gas adsorption experiments have been carried out on a copper benzene tricarboxylate metal-organic framework material, HKUST-1. Hydrogen adsorption at 1 and 10 bar (both 77 K) gives an adsorption capacity of 11.16 mmol H2 per g of HKUST-1 (22.7 mg g(-)1, 2.27 wt %) at 1 bar and 18 mmol per g (36.28 mg g(-)1, 3.6 wt %) at 10 bar. Adsorption of D2 at 1 bar (77 K) is between 1.09 (at 1 bar) and 1.20(at recovered on exposure of the resulting complex to water is enough to be biologically active, completely inhibiting platelet aggregation in platelet rich plasma.

  8. Gelatin-loaded p(HEMA-GMA) cryogel for high-capacity immobilization of horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Rabel; Perçin, Işık; Memon, Najma; Iqbal Bhanger, Muhammad; Denizli, Adil

    2016-11-01

    Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-glycidyl methacrylate) [p(HEMA-GMA)] cryogel discs were prepared under sub-zero temperatures. Gelatin was attached covalently on the p(HEMA-GMA) cryogel discs and reversible immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was performed. The p(HEMA-GMA) cryogel discs were characterized by swelling tests, scanning electron microscopy, and surface area measurements. HRP immobilization capacity of p(HEMA-GMA)/gelatin cryogel discs was 24.8 mg/g. Removal of phenol from aqueous solutions was performed using HRP immobilized p(HEMA-GMA)/gelatin cryogel. It was observed that within 2 h of contact time, the percentage of phenol removal reaches up to 91% in the presence of H2O2.

  9. Multiband Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation for High Capacity Optical Data Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Zuo, Tianjian; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2014-01-01

    packaging. Therefore, increasing effort is now put into the possibility of exploiting higher order modulation formats with increased spectral efficiency and reduced optical transceiver complexity. As these type of links are based on intensity modulation and direct detection, modulation formats relying...... on optical coherent detection can not be straight forwardly employed. As an alternative and more viable solution, this paper proposes the use of carrierless amplitude phase (CAP) in a novel multiband approach (MultiCAP) that achieves record spectral efficiency, increases tolerance towards dispersion......Short range optical data links are experiencing bandwidth limitations making it very challenging to cope with the growing data transmission capacity demands. Parallel optics appears as a valid short-term solution. It is, however, not a viable solution in the long-term because of its complex optical...

  10. High capacity hydrogen storage alloy negative electrodes for use in nickel–metal hydride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Hiroshi, E-mail: inoue-h@chem.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Kotani, Norihiro; Chiku, Masanobu; Higuchi, Eiji

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Rare earth-free TiV{sub 2.1−x}Cr{sub x}Ni{sub 0.3} (x = 0.4–1.0) alloys were prepared by arc-melting. • All alloys were composed of two phases, bcc phase and TiNi-based phase. • The higher Cr content, the lower discharge capacity, the higher cycle durability. • The lower charge-transfer resistance led to the higher HRD. • The TiV{sub 1.6}Cr{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.3} alloy electrode had the highest HRD. - Abstract: Rare earth-free V-based TiV{sub 2.1−x}Cr{sub x}Ni{sub 0.3} (x = 0.4–1.0) alloys were prepared by arc-melting. All alloys were composed of two phases, the primary phase in which the V and Cr constituents were mainly distributed and the secondary phase in which the Ti and Ni constituents were mainly distributed. When the Cr content was increased, the maximum discharge capacity was decreased, but charge–discharge cycle durability was improved. The lower the charge-transfer resistance and the higher the specific discharge current at which the positive shift of potential at degree of discharge of 50% stagnates, the higher the HRD. In the present study, the TiV{sub 1.6}Cr{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.3} alloy electrode had the highest HRD.

  11. Poly(2-oxazoline) based micelles with high capacity for 3rd generation taxoids: preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhijian; Schulz, Anita; Wan, Xiaomeng; Seitz, Joshua; Bludau, Herdis; Alakhova, Daria Y; Darr, David B; Perou, Charles M; Jordan, Rainer; Ojima, Iwao; Kabanov, Alexander V; Luxenhofer, Robert

    2015-06-28

    The clinically and commercially successful taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel suffer from two major drawbacks, namely their very low aqueous solubility and the risk of developing resistance. Here, we present a method that overcomes both drawbacks in a very simple manner. We formulated 3rd generation taxoids, able to avoid common drug resistance mechanisms with doubly amphiphilic poly(2-oxazoline)s (POx), a safe and highly efficient polymer for the formulation of extremely hydrophobic drugs. We found excellent solubilization of different 3rd generation taxoids irrespective of the drug's chemical structures with essentially quantitative drug loading and final drug to polymer ratios around unity. The small, highly loaded micelles with a hydrodynamic diameter of less than 100nm are excellently suited for parenteral administration. Moreover, a selected formulation with the taxoid SB-T-1214 is about one to two orders of magnitude more active in vitro than paclitaxel in the multidrug resistant breast cancer cell line LCC6-MDR. In contrast, in wild-type LCC6, no difference was observed. Using a q4d×4 dosing regimen, we also found that POx/SB-T-1214 significantly inhibits the growth of LCC6-MDR orthotropic tumors, outperforming commercial paclitaxel drug Taxol and Cremophor EL formulated SB-T-1214. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. New method evaluating currents keeping the voltage constant for fast and highly resolved measurement of Arrhenius relation and capacity fade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewerenz, Meinert; Käbitz, Stefan; Knips, Marcus; Münnix, Jens; Schmalstieg, Johannes; Warnecke, Alexander; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2017-06-01

    The evaluation of floating currents is a powerful method to characterize capacity fade induced by calendaric aging and enables a highly resolved representation of the Arrhenius relation. The test arrangement is simple and could constitute a cheap alternative to state-of-the-art calendaric aging tests including check-up tests. Therefore the currents to maintain a constant voltage are evaluated. This method is validated by analyzing nine cylindrical 8 Ah LiFePO4|Graphite battery cells during calendaric aging at 25 °C, 40 °C and 60 °C at 3.6 V (100% SOC). The 3.6 V are kept by applying constant voltage while the floating currents are logged. The floating currents correlate with the rate of capacity loss measured during capacity tests. The floating currents reveal to be rather constant at 25 °C, linearly increasing at 40 °C and decreasing from a higher level at 60 °C. Additional tests with three test cells, with the temperature rising from 40 to 60 °C in steps of 5 K, exhibit non-constant currents starting from 50 °C on with high variations amongst the tested cells. Once stored above 50 °C, the cells exhibit increased floating currents compared to the measurement at the same temperature before exceeding 50 °C.

  13. Three-dimensional hierarchical porous flower-like nickel-cobalt oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite for high-capacity supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Peipei; Hu, Zhonghua, E-mail: huzh@tongji.edu.cn; Liu, Yafei; Yao, Mingming; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • 3D hierarchical porous flower-like Ni-Co oxide/MWCNTs was synthesized. • The electrode shows a large specific surface area and desirable mesoporosity. • High specific capacitances and outstanding stability were obtained. • The content of MWCNTs affects the electrochemical properties of the electrode. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous flower-like nickel-cobalt oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Ni-Co oxide/MWCNTs) nanocomposites were fabricated by a facile and template-free hydrothermal method as electrodes for high-capacity supercapacitors. The samples were characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrochemical performance was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge, and cycle life. It was found that Ni-Co oxide/MWCNTs nanocomposites displayed a high specific capacitance (1703 F g{sup −1} at a discharge current density of 1 A g{sup −1}) and, additionally, an excellent cycling performance, retaining 97% of the maximum capacitance after 2000 cycles at 10 A g{sup −1}. Even at a high current density (20 A g{sup −1}), the specific capacitance was still up to 1309 F g{sup −1}. This outstanding capacitive performance may be attributed to the ideal composition of the material and to its unique 3D hierarchical porous flower-like architecture.

  14. Writing Excel Macros with VBA

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the maximum control and flexibility from Microsoft® Excel often requires careful custom programming using the VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) language. Writing Excel Macros with VBA, 2nd Edition offers a solid introduction to writing VBA macros and programs, and will show you how to get more power at the programming level: focusing on programming languages, the Visual Basic Editor, handling code, and the Excel object model.

  15. Design and numerical simulation of a high power capacity relativistic backward wave oscillator with an electron collection cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoze; Ye, Hu; Zhang, Yuchuan; Song, Wei; Su, Jiancang; Zhang, Ligang; Tan, Weibing; Hu, Xianggang; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Shen, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Min [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China)

    2016-05-15

    A high power capacity relativistic backward wave oscillator with an electron collection cavity (ECC) placed at the downstream of the slow wave structure (SWS) is presented. The breakdown threshold is increased, and the density of seed electron is suppressed by preventing the secondary electron, plasma, and powder generated from the bombardment of spent electron beam on the surface of the collector drifting to the extractor and beam-wave interaction region. The maximum longitudinal electric field in the device is reduced through extension of the span between electron beam and slow wave structure and weakening the Cerenkov radiation. The conversion efficiency reaches up to 52% owing to enhanced transit time radiation taking place at the entrance of the ECC. The maximum longitudinal electric field is 1.1 MV/cm on the surface of SWSs when the output power is 7.3 GW and the power capacity improves significantly.

  16. Superior electrochemical performance of sulfur/graphene nanocomposite material for high-capacity lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Li, Kefei; Su, Dawei; Ahn, Hyojun; Wang, Guoxiu

    2012-06-01

    Sulfur/graphene nanocomposite material has been prepared by incorporating sulfur into the graphene frameworks through a melting process. Field-emission scanning electron microscope analysis shows a homogeneous distribution of sulfur in the graphene nanosheet matrix. The sulfur/graphene nanocomposite exhibits a super-high lithium-storage capacity of 1580 mA h g(-1) and a satisfactory cycling performance in lithium-sulfur cells. The enhancement of the reversible capacity and cycle life could be attributed to the flexible graphene nanosheet matrix, which acts as a conducting medium and a physical buffer to cushion the volume change of sulfur during the lithiation and delithiation process. Graphene-based nanocomposites can significantly improve the electrochemical performance of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  17. High vanillin tolerance of an evolved Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain owing to its enhanced vanillin reduction and antioxidative capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu; Li, Hongxing; Wang, Xinning; Zhang, Xiaoran; Hou, Jin; Wang, Linfeng; Gao, Nan; Bao, Xiaoming

    2014-11-01

    The phenolic compounds present in hydrolysates pose significant challenges for the sustainable lignocellulosic materials refining industry. Three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with high tolerance to lignocellulose hydrolysate were obtained through ethyl methanesulfonate mutation and adaptive evolution. Among them, strain EMV-8 exhibits specific tolerance to vanillin, a phenolic compound common in lignocellulose hydrolysate. The EMV-8 maintains a specific growth rate of 0.104 h(-1) in 2 g L(-1) vanillin, whereas the reference strain cannot grow. Physiological studies revealed that the vanillin reduction rate of EMV-8 is 1.92-fold higher than its parent strain, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of EMV-8 is 15 % higher than its parent strain. Transcriptional analysis results confirmed an up-regulated oxidoreductase activity and antioxidant activity in this strain. Our results suggest that enhancing the antioxidant capacity and oxidoreductase activity could be a strategy to engineer S. cerevisiae for improved vanillin tolerance.

  18. Facile synthesis of Co3O4 spheres and their unexpected high specific discharge capacity for Lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengdong; Qu, Shaohua; Cheng, Yonghong; Zheng, Chenghui; Chen, Siyu; Wu, Hongjing

    2017-09-01

    We report a facile, one-pot hydrothermal synthesis of Co3O4 solid spheres and multi-shelled Co3O4 hollow spheres with a controlled number of movable internal Co3O4 shells. Moreover, the magnetic properties of the multi-shelled Co3O4 hollow spheres were first investigated by the SQUID magnetometer. Interestingly, the Co3O4 solid spheres calcined at 430 °C deliver an unexpected high specific discharge capacity of 1976 and 1129 mAh g-1 for the 17th and 100th cycle at 100 mA g-1, respectively. In addition, the Co3O4 solid spheres calcined at 430 °C also show good capacity retention (i.e., 1129 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles). The significant performance improvement offers the potential to open up an avenue for next-generation LIBs.

  19. High capacity MnOx:ZrO2 sorbent for elementary mercury capture: preparation, characterization and comparison to other sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, J.; Snape, C. E.

    2017-02-01

    Manganese oxide-zirconia type (MnOx:ZrO2) sorbents were prepared using the sol-gel technique by co precipitation ZrO(NO3)2.xH2O and Mn(NO3)2 xH2O. The heat treatment below 500°C resulted a high surface area solid structure which consists of amorphous Mn2O3 (Bixbyite) and amorphous ZrO2 phases. This material was found a high capacity oxidative sorbent for mercury removal from gas streams.

  20. Graphene-Wrapped Sulfur Particles as a Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailiang; Yang, Yuan; Liang, Yongye; Robinson, Joshua Tucker; Li, Yanguang; Jackson, Ariel; Cui, Yi; Dai, Hongjie

    2011-07-01

    We report the synthesis of a graphene-sulfur composite material by wrapping polyethyleneglycol (PEG) coated submicron sulfur particles with mildly oxidized graphene oxide sheets decorated by carbon black nanoparticles. The PEG and graphene coating layers are important to accommodating volume expansion of the coated sulfur particles during discharge, trapping soluble polysulfide intermediates and rendering the sulfur particles electrically conducting. The resulting graphene-sulfur composite showed high and stable specific capacities up to ~600mAh/g over more than 100 cycles, representing a promising cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries with high energy density.

  1. Subsidiary means of mobilization type use for special working capacity rising of high qualified athletes during competition terms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysenko O.M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Possibility of special capacity increase for high qualified athletes is shown in the competition conditions by the pre-start complex of subsidiary means influences. The high qualified athlete took part in experiment (at run on 110 m hurdles. It is set that under influence of the pre-start complex is activating of ergotropyc mechanisms of adjusting, increase the intensity of power and metabolic processes is marked, emotional stress is diminishing. The developed pre - start complex of subsidiary means influences is caused by the effect of the protractedly saved mobilization, that is promote the increase of speed running.

  2. Development of a new biofertilizer with a high capacity for N2 fixation, phosphate and potassium solubilization and auxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaungvutiviroj, Chaveevan; Ruangphisarn, Pimtida; Hansanimitkul, Pikul; Shinkawa, Hidenori; Sasaki, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Biofertilizers that possess a high capacity for N(2) fixation (Azotobacter tropicalis), and consist of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Burkhoderia unamae), and potassium solubilizing bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) and produce auxin (KJB9/2 strain), have a high potential for growth and yield enhancement of corn and vegetables (Chinese kale). For vegetables, the addition of biofertilizer alone enhanced growth 4 times. Moreover, an enhancement of growth by 7 times was observed due to the addition of rock phosphate and K-feldspar, natural mineral fertilizers, in combination with the biofertilizer.

  3. Excel VBA 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Urtis, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Master VBA automation quickly and easily to get more out of Excel Excel VBA 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is the quick-start guide to getting more out of Excel, using Visual Basic for Applications. This unique book/video package has been updated with fifteen new advanced video lessons, providing a total of eleven hours of video training and 45 total lessons to teach you the basics and beyond. This self-paced tutorial explains Excel VBA from the ground up, demonstrating with each advancing lesson how you can increase your productivity. Clear, concise, step-by-step instructions are combined wit

  4. Teaching physics using Microsoft Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Zaheer; Ahsanuddin, Muhammad; Khan, Danish Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Excel is both ubiquitous and easily understandable. Most people from every walk of life know how to use MS office and Excel spreadsheets. Students are also familiar with spreadsheets. Most students know how to use spreadsheets for data analysis. Besides basic use of Excel, some important aspects of spreadsheets are highlighted in this article. MS Excel can be used to visualize effects of various parameters in a physical system. It can be used as a simulating tool; simulation of wind data has been done through spreadsheets in this study. Examples of Lissajous figures and a damped harmonic oscillator are presented in this article.

  5. Excel data analysis for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    Harness the power of Excel to discover what your numbers are hiding Excel Data Analysis For Dummies, 2nd Edition is the ultimate guide to getting the most out of your data. Veteran Dummies author Stephen L. Nelson guides you through the basic and not-so-basic features of Excel to help you discover the gems hidden in your rough data. From input, to analysis, to visualization, the book walks you through the steps that lead to superior data analysis. Excel is the number-one spreadsheet application, with ever-expanding capabilities. If you're only using it to balance the books, you're missing out

  6. His Excellency Mr Farukh Amil

    CERN Multimedia

    hugho, Chemli

    2017-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Farukh Amil Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  7. Learn Excel 2011 for Mac

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft Excel 2011 for Mac OS X is a powerful application, but many of its most impressive features can be difficult to find. Learn Excel 2011 for Mac by Guy Hart-Davis is a practical, hands-on approach to learning all of the details of Excel 2011 in order to get work done efficiently on Mac OS X. From using formulas and functions to creating databases, from analyzing data to automating tasks, you'll learn everything you need to know to put this powerful application to use for a variety of tasks. What you'll learn * The secrets of the Excel for Mac interface! * How to create effective workbo

  8. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Okine Abdul; Masaaki, Hanada; Yimamu, Aibibula; Meiji, Okamoto

    2012-04-01

    The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, 'potential water retention capacity' (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer's grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship.

  9. Effect of yttrium on microstructure and mold filling capacity of a near-α high temperature titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ertuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The addition of rare earth yttrium (Y can improve the performances of high temperature titanium alloys, such as the tensile ductility, thermal stability and creep property, etc. However, few studies on the effect of Y on the castability of titanium alloys have been carried out, which is significant to fabrication of thin-walled complex titanium castings by investment casting. In this study, the microstructure and mold filling capacity of a Ti-1100 alloy with different Y additions (0, 0.1wt.%, 0.3wt.%, 0.5wt.% and 1.0wt.% were investigated systematically through investment casting experiments, and the casting experiments were carried out in a centrifugal titanium casting machine. The microstructures of the alloy were observed via the optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The mold filling capacity was tested by using of a grid pattern and was evaluated by the number of segments completely filled by the cast alloy. The results indicate that the grain size is decreased and the mold filling capacity is improved significantly with increasing the addition of Y from 0 to 1.0wt.%. The average primary β grain size of Ti-1100 alloy is reduced from 250 μm to 50 μm and the mold filling capacity is increased from 61.5% to 100%. Considering the potential harmful effect on tensile properties of titanium alloys due to high concentrations of Y, it is suggested that Y addition should be about 0.3wt.%.

  10. Reversible conversion-alloying of Sb2O3 as a high-capacity, high-rate, and durable anode for sodium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meijuan; Jiang, Yinzhu; Sun, Wenping; Wang, Hongtao; Jin, Chuanhong; Yan, Mi

    2014-11-12

    Sodium ion batteries are attracting ever-increasing attention for the applications in large/grid scale energy storage systems. However, the research on novel Na-storage electrode materials is still in its infancy, and the cycling stability, specific capacity, and rate capability of the reported electrode materials cannot satisfy the demands of practical applications. Herein, a high performance Sb(2)O(3) anode electrochemically reacted via the reversible conversion-alloying mechanism is demonstrated for the first time. The Sb(2)O(3) anode exhibits a high capacity of 550 mAh g(-1) at 0.05 A g(-1) and 265 mAh g(-1) at 5 A g(-1). A reversible capacity of 414 mAh g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) is achieved after 200 stable cycles. The synergistic effect involving conversion and alloying reactions promotes stabilizing the structure of the active material and accelerating the kinetics of the reaction. The mechanism may offer a well-balanced approach for sodium storage to create high capacity and cycle-stable anode materials.

  11. Samuel P. Massie Chair of Excellence Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, James H

    2014-12-15

    Abstract In 1994 the Department of Energy established the DOE Chair of Excellence Professorship in Environmental Disciplines Program. In 2004, the Massie Chair of Excellence Professor at Howard University transitioned from Dr. Edward Martin to Dr. James H. Johnson, Jr. At the time of his appointment Dr. Johnson served as professor of civil engineering and Dean of the College of Engineering, Architecture and Computer Sciences. Program activities under Dr. Johnson were in the following areas: • Increase the institution’s capacity to conduct scientific research and technical investigations at the cutting-edge. • Promote interactions, collaborations and partnerships between the private sector, Federal agencies, majority research institutes and other HBCUs. • Assist other HBCUs in reaching parity in engineering and related fields. • Mentor young investigators and be a role model for students.

  12. Samuel P. Massie Chair of Excellence Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, James H. [Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Abstract In 1994 the Department of Energy established the DOE Chair of Excellence Professorship in Environmental Disciplines Program. In 2004, the Massie Chair of Excellence Professor at Howard University transitioned from Dr. Edward Martin to Dr. James H. Johnson, Jr. At the time of his appointment Dr. Johnson served as professor of civil engineering and Dean of the College of Engineering, Architecture and Computer Sciences. Program activities under Dr. Johnson were in the following areas: • Increase the institution’s capacity to conduct scientific research and technical investigations at the cutting-edge. • Promote interactions, collaborations and partnerships between the private sector, Federal agencies, majority research institutes and other HBCUs. • Assist other HBCUs in reaching parity in engineering and related fields. • Mentor young investigators and be a role model for students.

  13. An intravenous clarithromycin lipid emulsion with a high drug loading, H-bonding and a hydrogen-bonded ion pair complex exhibiting excellent antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyu Gong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop an intravenous clarithromycin lipid emulsion (CLE with good stability and excellent antibacterial activity. The CLE was prepared by the thin-film dispersed homogenization method. The interaction between clarithromycin (CLA and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEMS was confirmed by DSC, FT-IR and 1H NMR analysis. The interfacial drug loading, thermal sterilization, freeze–thaw stability, and in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity were investigated systematically. DSC, FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra showed that CHEMS (CLA: CHEMS, M ratio 1:2 could interact with CLA through H-bonding and a hydrogen-bonded ion pair. The CHEMS was found necessary to maintain the stability of CLE. Ultracentrifugation showed that almost 88% CLA could be loaded into the interfacial layer. The optimized CLE formulation could withstand autoclaving at 121 °C for 10 min and remain stable after three freeze–thaw cycles. The in vitro susceptibility test revealed that the CLA–CHEMS ion-pair and CLE have similar activity to the parent drug against many different bacterial strains. The in vivo antibacterial activity showed that the ED50 of intravenous CLE was markedly lower than that of CLA solution administrated orally. CLE exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity and might be a candidate for a new nanocarrier for CLA with potential advantages over the current commercial formulation.

  14. High-power lithium-ion capacitor using LiMnBO3 -nanobead anode and polyaniline-nanofiber cathode with excellent cycle life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Kaliyappan; Amaresh, Samuthirapandian; Lee, Sol-Nip; An, Jae-Yeon; Lee, Yun-Sung

    2014-08-01

    LiMnBO3 nanobeads (LMB-NB) with uniform size and distribution were synthesized using a urea-assisted microwave/solvothermal method. The potential application of LMB-NBs as an anode for a lithium-ion hybrid capacitor (Li-AHC) was tested with a polyaniline-nanofiber (PANI-NF) cathode in a nonaqueous LiPF6 (1 M)-ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge-discharge (C/DC) studies revealed that the PANI-NF/LMB-NB cell showed an exceptional capacitance behavior between 0-3 V along with a prolonged cycle life. A discharge capacitance of about 125 F g(-1) , and energy and power densities of about 42 Wh kg(-1) and 1500 W kg(-1) , respectively, could be obtained at a current density of 1 A g(-1) ; those Li-AHC values are higher relative to cells containing various lithium intercalation materials in nonaqueous electrolytes. In addition, the PANI-NF/LMB-NB cell also had an outstanding rate performance with a capacitance of 54 F g(-1) and a power density of 3250 W kg(-1) at a current density of 2.25 A g(-1) and maintained 94% of its initial value after 30000 cycles. This improved capacitive performance with an excellent electrochemical stability could be the result of the morphological features and inherent conductive nature of the electroactive species.

  15. Harnessing a high cargo-capacity transposon for genetic applications in vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Balciunas

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Viruses and transposons are efficient tools for permanently delivering foreign DNA into vertebrate genomes but exhibit diminished activity when cargo exceeds 8 kilobases (kb. This size restriction limits their molecular genetic and biotechnological utility, such as numerous therapeutically relevant genes that exceed 8 kb in size. Furthermore, a greater payload capacity vector would accommodate more sophisticated cis cargo designs to modulate the expression and mutagenic risk of these molecular therapeutics. We show that the Tol2 transposon can efficiently integrate DNA sequences larger than 10 kb into human cells. We characterize minimal sequences necessary for transposition (miniTol2 in vivo in zebrafish and in vitro in human cells. Both the 8.5-kb Tol2 transposon and 5.8-kb miniTol2 engineered elements readily function to revert the deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase in an animal model of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1. Together, Tol2 provides a novel nonviral vector for the delivery of large genetic payloads for gene therapy and other transgenic applications.

  16. High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Xie, Guodong; Lavery, Martin P J; Huang, Hao; Ahmed, Nisar; Bao, Changjing; Ren, Yongxiong; Cao, Yinwen; Li, Long; Zhao, Zhe; Molisch, Andreas F; Tur, Moshe; Padgett, Miles J; Willner, Alan E

    2014-09-16

    One property of electromagnetic waves that has been recently explored is the ability to multiplex multiple beams, such that each beam has a unique helical phase front. The amount of phase front 'twisting' indicates the orbital angular momentum state number, and beams with different orbital angular momentum are orthogonal. Such orbital angular momentum based multiplexing can potentially increase the system capacity and spectral efficiency of millimetre-wave wireless communication links with a single aperture pair by transmitting multiple coaxial data streams. Here we demonstrate a 32-Gbit s(-1) millimetre-wave link over 2.5 metres with a spectral efficiency of ~16 bit s(-1) Hz(-1) using four independent orbital-angular momentum beams on each of two polarizations. All eight orbital angular momentum channels are recovered with bit-error rates below 3.8 × 10(-3). In addition, we demonstrate a millimetre-wave orbital angular momentum mode demultiplexer to demultiplex four orbital angular momentum channels with crosstalk less than -12.5 dB and show an 8-Gbit s(-1) link containing two orbital angular momentum beams on each of two polarizations.

  17. Orbital Angular Momentum-based Space Division Multiplexing for High-capacity Underwater Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Wang, Zhe; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Arbabi, Amir; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Faraon, Andrei; Willner, Alan E.

    2016-09-01

    To increase system capacity of underwater optical communications, we employ the spatial domain to simultaneously transmit multiple orthogonal spatial beams, each carrying an independent data channel. In this paper, we show up to a 40-Gbit/s link by multiplexing and transmitting four green orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams through a single aperture. Moreover, we investigate the degrading effects of scattering/turbidity, water current, and thermal gradient-induced turbulence, and we find that thermal gradients cause the most distortions and turbidity causes the most loss. We show systems results using two different data generation techniques, one at 1064 nm for 10-Gbit/s/beam and one at 520 nm for 1-Gbit/s/beam; we use both techniques since present data-modulation technologies are faster for infrared (IR) than for green. For the 40-Gbit/s link, data is modulated in the IR, and OAM imprinting is performed in the green using a specially-designed metasurface phase mask. For the 4-Gbit/s link, a green laser diode is directly modulated. Finally, we show that inter-channel crosstalk induced by thermal gradients can be mitigated using multi-channel equalisation processing.

  18. Orbital Angular Momentum-based Space Division Multiplexing for High-capacity Underwater Optical Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Yongxiong; Wang, Zhe; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Arbabi, Amir; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Faraon, Andrei; Willner, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    To increase system capacity of underwater optical communications, we employ the spatial domain to simultaneously transmit multiple orthogonal spatial beams, each carrying an independent data channel. In this paper, we multiplex and transmit four green orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams through a single aperture. Moreover, we investigate the degrading effects of scattering/turbidity, water current, and thermal gradient-induced turbulence, and we find that thermal gradients cause the most distortions and turbidity causes the most loss. We show systems results using two different data generation techniques, one at 1064 nm for 10-Gbit/s/beam and one at 520 nm for 1-Gbit/s/beam, we use both techniques since present data-modulation technologies are faster for infrared (IR) than for green. For the higher-rate link, data is modulated in the IR, and OAM imprinting is performed in the green using a specially-designed metasurface phase mask. For the lower rates, a green laser diode is directly modulated. Finally, we s...

  19. Orbital Angular Momentum-based Space Division Multiplexing for High-capacity Underwater Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Wang, Zhe; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Arbabi, Amir; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Faraon, Andrei; Willner, Alan E.

    2016-01-01

    To increase system capacity of underwater optical communications, we employ the spatial domain to simultaneously transmit multiple orthogonal spatial beams, each carrying an independent data channel. In this paper, we show up to a 40-Gbit/s link by multiplexing and transmitting four green orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams through a single aperture. Moreover, we investigate the degrading effects of scattering/turbidity, water current, and thermal gradient-induced turbulence, and we find that thermal gradients cause the most distortions and turbidity causes the most loss. We show systems results using two different data generation techniques, one at 1064 nm for 10-Gbit/s/beam and one at 520 nm for 1-Gbit/s/beam; we use both techniques since present data-modulation technologies are faster for infrared (IR) than for green. For the 40-Gbit/s link, data is modulated in the IR, and OAM imprinting is performed in the green using a specially-designed metasurface phase mask. For the 4-Gbit/s link, a green laser diode is directly modulated. Finally, we show that inter-channel crosstalk induced by thermal gradients can be mitigated using multi-channel equalisation processing. PMID:27615808

  20. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing Pei Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC. The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C, time (5 min, water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g, particle size (1 mm and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×, the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g and less time (5 min were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h. Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon.