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Sample records for high cadmium exposure

  1. Highly sensitive detection of urinary cadmium to assess personal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argun, Avni A.; Banks, Ashley M.; Merlen, Gwendolynne; Tempelman, Linda A. [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States); Becker, Michael F.; Schuelke, Thomas [Fraunhofer USA – CCL, 1449 Engineering Research Ct., East Lansing 48824, MI (United States); Dweik, Badawi M., E-mail: bdweik@ginerinc.com [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States)

    2013-04-22

    Highlights: ► An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting cadmium at parts-per-billion levels in urine. ► A novel fabrication method for Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode (UME) arrays. ► Unique combination of BDD UME arrays and a differential pulse voltammetry algorithm. ► High sensitivity, high reproducibility, and very low noise levels. ► Opportunity for portable operation to assess on-site personal exposure. -- Abstract: A series of Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode arrays were fabricated and investigated for their performance as electrochemical sensors to detect trace level metals such as cadmium. The steady-state diffusion behavior of these sensors was validated using cyclic voltammetry followed by electrochemical detection of cadmium in water and in human urine to demonstrate high sensitivity (>200 μA ppb{sup −1} cm{sup −2}) and low background current (<4 nA). When an array of ultramicroelectrodes was positioned with optimal spacing, these BDD sensors showed a sigmoidal diffusion behavior. They also demonstrated high accuracy with linear dose dependence for quantification of cadmium in a certified reference river water sample from the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as well as in a human urine sample spiked with 0.25–1 ppb cadmium.

  2. Modeling Cadmium Exposures in Low- and High-Exposure Areas in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Satarug, Soisungwan; Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Ruangyuttikarn, Werawan; Nishijo, Muneko; Ruiz, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous U.S. population modeling studies have reported that urinary cadmium (Cd) excretion patterns differ with age, sex, and dietary exposure; associations between Cd exposures and health outcomes also have differed by age and sex. Therefore, it is important to test models used to estimate Cd exposures across an expanded Cd-exposure range. Objectives: We estimated relative Cd exposures from both diet and smoking in low- and high-exposure scenarios to provide data for improving r...

  3. The Epigenetic Effects of Prenatal Cadmium Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilahur, Nadia; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to the highly toxic and common pollutant cadmium has been associated with adverse effects on child health and development. However, the underlying biological mechanisms of cadmium toxicity remain partially unsolved. Epigenetic disruption due to early cadmium exposure has gained attention as a plausible mode of action, since epigenetic signatures respond to environmental stimuli and the fetus undergoes drastic epigenomic rearrangements during embryogenesis. In the current review, we provide a critical examination of the literature addressing prenatal cadmium exposure and epigenetic effects in human, animal, and in vitro studies. We conducted a PubMed search and obtained eight recent studies addressing this topic, focusing almost exclusively on DNA methylation. These studies provide evidence that cadmium alters epigenetic signatures in the DNA of the placenta and of the newborns, and some studies indicated marked sexual differences for cadmium-related DNA methylation changes. Associations between early cadmium exposure and DNA methylation might reflect interference with de novo DNA methyltransferases. More studies, especially those including environmentally relevant doses, are needed to confirm the toxicoepigenomic effects of prenatal cadmium exposure and how that relates to the observed health effects of cadmium in childhood and later life.

  4. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  5. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

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    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  6. Cadmium Exposure and Pancreatic Cancer in South Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Luckett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana. We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney cortex. Increasing urinary cadmium concentrations were significantly associated with an increasing risk of pancreatic cancer (2nd quartile OR = 3.34, 3rd = 5.58, 4th = 7.70; test for trend P≤0.0001. Potential sources of cadmium exposure, as documented in the scientific literature, found to be statistically significantly associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer included working as a plumber, pipefitter or welder (OR = 5.88 and high consumption levels of red meat (4th quartile OR = 6.18 and grains (4th quartile OR = 3.38. Current cigarette smoking, at least 80 pack years of smoking, occupational exposure to cadmium and paints, working in a shipyard, and high consumption of grains were found to be statistically significantly associated with increased concentrations of urinary cadmium. This study provides epidemiologic evidence that cadmium is a potential human pancreatic carcinogen.

  7. Cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Jane A; Shafer, Martin M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Hampton, John M; Newcomb, Polly A

    2006-06-21

    Cadmium, a highly persistent heavy metal, has been categorized as a probable human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Primary exposure sources include food and tobacco smoke. We carried out a population-based case-control study of 246 women, aged 20-69 years, with breast cancer and 254 age-matched control subjects. We measured cadmium levels in urine samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and conducted interviews by telephone to obtain information on known breast cancer risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer by creatinine-adjusted cadmium levels were calculated by multivariable analysis. Statistical tests were two-sided. Women in the highest quartile of creatinine-adjusted cadmium level (> or = 0.58 microg/g) had twice the breast cancer risk of those in the lowest quartile (cadmium level (P(trend) = .01). Based on this study, the absolute risk difference is 45 (95% CI = 0 to 77) per 100,000 given an overall breast cancer rate of 124 per 100,000. Whether increased cadmium is a causal factor for breast cancer or reflects the effects of treatment or disease remains to be determined.

  8. Progress in cadmium-related health effects in persons with high environmental exposure in northwestern Thailand: A five-year follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Punta, Boonyarat; Funkhiew, Thippawan [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2012-01-15

    Food-borne cadmium was the principal source of exposure for persons living in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. This report presents progress in cadmium-related health effects among persons with high cadmium exposure. The study included 436 persons who had urinary cadmium levels {>=}5 {mu}g/g creatinine and were screened for urinary cadmium, renal function, hypertension, diabetes and urinary stones in 2005 (baseline) and 2010 (5-year follow-up). Study renal biomarkers included urinary excretion of {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta}{sub 2}-MG), total protein and calcium, serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium statistically significantly reduced from 9.5{+-}1.6 {mu}g/g creatinine in 2005 to 8.8{+-}1.6 {mu}g/g creatinine in 2010. Compared to baseline, the follow-up examination revealed significant increases in urinary {beta}{sub 2}-MG (tubular effect), urinary total protein and serum creatinine, and a decrease in GFR (glomerular effects). Progressive renal dysfunctions were similarly observed in persons both with and without reduction in cadmium intake. Significant increases in prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and urinary stones were also detected at follow-up. These three disorders were found to markedly impair renal functions in the study persons. Our study indicates that in persons with prolonged excessive cadmium exposure, toxic health effects may progress even after exposure reduction. Renal damage from cadmium can be due to its direct nephrotoxic effect and also through the related disorders causing nephropathy.

  9. Occupation, cadmium exposure, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghany, N A; Schumacher, M C; Slattery, M L; West, D W; Lee, J S

    1990-03-01

    A population-based case-control study was used to investigate associations between prostate cancer and cadmium exposure, longest industry held, and longest occupation held. The study included 358 men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer and 679 control men identified from the Utah population. Occupational exposures to cadmium were ascertained from self-reported data, through several a priori suspect industries and occupations, through an occupation-exposure linkage system, and through dietary food frequency questionnaires. Overall, cadmium exposure appeared to result in a small increased relative risk for prostate cancer, most apparent for aggressive tumors (OR = 1.7, CI = 1.0-3.1 for any occupational exposure, high dietary intake, or smoking cigarettes). Cases were more likely to have worked in the following industries: mining, paper and wood, medicine and science, and entertainment and recreation. Among men younger than 67, cases were also more likely to have worked in the food and tobacco industries (OR = 3.6, CI = 1.0-12.8). Cases were less likely to have worked in industries involved with glass, clay and stone, or rubber, plastics, and synthetics. Men employed as janitors and in other building service occupations showed increased relative risk for aggressive tumors (OR = 7.0, CI = 2.5-19.6). Agricultural occupations did not appear to be related to prostate cancer, although an increased relative risk for aggressive tumors was detected among younger men (OR = 2.6, CI = 0.6-12.1).

  10. Cadmium and children : Exposure and health effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hond, E. Den; Zuurbier, M.; Naginiene, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Stilianakis, N.; Ronchetti, R.; Koppe, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Excretion from the body is limited. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis

  11. Cadmium and children : Exposure and health effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hond, E. Den; Zuurbier, M.; Naginiene, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Stilianakis, N.; Ronchetti, R.; Koppe, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Excretion from the body is limited. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis whi

  12. Cadmium and children: exposure and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Zuurbier, Moniek; Naginiene, Rima; van den Hazel, Peter; Stilianakis, Nikolaos; Ronchetti, Roberto; Koppe, Janna G

    2006-10-01

    Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Excretion from the body is limited. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis which are observed at adult age. Cadmium exposure through inhalation is also associated with lung cancer in adulthood. Although transfer to the neonate through the placenta and through breast milk is limited, teratogenic and developmental effects were observed in experimental animals. The database on human studies involving children is limited, yet effects on motoric and perceptual behaviour in children have been associated with elevated in utero cadmium exposure. In school age children urinary cadmium levels were associated with immune suppressive effects. More studies are needed to confirm these results. Experimental data in vitro and in animals refer to effects of cadmium on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis at different levels. This may lead to disorders of the endocrine and/or immune system. Cadmium exposure at early age should be limited as much as possible to prevent direct effects on children and to prevent accumulation of cadmium which may have serious health effects only becoming manifest at older age.

  13. Effects of natural exposure to high levels of zinc and cadmium in the immature pony as a function of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, D.F.; Gunson, D.E.; Shoop, C.R.; Ramberg, C.F. Jr.

    1986-08-01

    To study the effects of environmental exposure to zinc and cadmium in immature foals, five pregnant ponies were raised within 2.9 km of the New Jersey Zinc Smelter in Palmerton, Pennsylvania. The mares and their foals were kept outdoors on timothy hay and orchard grass. The foals were examined daily for signs of illness and blood samples were taken monthly for estimation of serum zinc, copper, and ceruloplasmin levels. The foals were sacrificed at 2.5, 4.5, 8.5, 13.5, and 18.5 months of age. Necropsy revealed generalized osteochondrosis in joints of the limbs and cervical vertebrae, lymphoid hyperplasia, and eosinophilia. Two of the foals had developed mild lameness. The concentrations of zinc, cadmium, copper, lead, magnesium, and calcium were determined in liver, kidney cortex, and pancreas. The concentration of cadmium and zinc were the only elements that were greatly elevated in all three tissues as compared to control animals. The concentration of cadmium was directly correlated with age in the three tissues (e.g., 23.9 to 212.7 micrograms/g wet wt in kidney cortex), whereas zinc was significantly increased (range 132 to 954 micrograms/g wet wt in liver) but there was no correlation with age. It was concluded that the development of osteochondrosis is associated with increased exposure to zinc and possibly cadmium. The classical signs of cadmium toxicosis, such as renal damage and osteomalacia, were not observed.

  14. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

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    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M., E-mail: chamani.marasinghe.wadige@canberra.edu.au; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) μg/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed

  15. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  16. Effect of Occupational Cadmium Exposure on Parathyroid Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Khadiga S; Beshir, Safia; Shahy, Eman M; Shaheen, Weam

    2016-06-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is used in many industries. High-level exposure is associated with severe kidney and bone damage. This study investigates the possible effect of occupational cadmium exposure on parathyroid gland and some minerals in workers. Environmental air monitoring of cadmium was done. Serum and urine cadmium levels, kidney function, some minerals, and plasma parathormone were estimated in the studied groups. The exposed workers had significantly higher Cd concentration in serum and urine than controls. The mean levels of plasma parathyroid hormone, serum phosphorus and magnesium were significantly lower among the exposed group. However, the mean levels of serum creatinine and calcium were significantly higher in the same group when compared to referents. There was a significant positive correlation between Cd concentration in the serum and urine for the exposed group. The biological Cd exposure indices correlated positively with serum calcium and negatively with plasma PTH level. The prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints, bone ache, joint pain and muscle spasm were more prevalent among the exposed workers compared with the controls with odds ratio 4.316, 3.053 and 3.103 respectively. Occupational cadmium exposure has an adverse effect on PTH level and serum human minerals.

  17. Response of Pleurotus ostreatus to cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favero, N.; Bressa, G.; Costa, P. (Univ. of Padua (Italy))

    1990-08-01

    The possibility of utilizing agroindustrial wastes in the production of edible, high-quality products (e.g., mushrooms) implies the risk of bringing toxic substances, such as heavy metals, into the human food chain. Thus, growth in the presence of cadmium and cadmium accumulation limits have been studied in the industrially cultivated fungus P. ostreatus. Fruit body production is substantially unaffected in the presence of 25, 139, and 285 mg Cd/kg of dried substrate. Cadmium concentration in fruit bodies is related to cadmium substrate level, the metal being present at higher levels in caps (22-56 mg/kg dry wt) than in stems (13-36 mg/kg dry wt). Concentration factor (CF), very low in the controls (about 2), further decreases in treated specimens. The presence of a cadmium control mechanism in this fungi species is suggested. Fruit body cadmium levels could, however, represent a risk for P. ostreatus consumers, according to FAO/WHO limits related to weekly cadmium intake.

  18. Impact of soil cadmium on land snails: a two-stage exposure approach under semi-field conditions using bioaccumulative and conchological end-points of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Dragos V; Filimon, Marioara Nicoleta; Bordean, Despina-Maria; Harmanescu, Monica; Draghici, George Andrei; Dragan, Simona; Gergen, Iosif I

    2015-01-01

    Land snails are highly tolerant to cadmium exposure and are able to accumulate soil cadmium independently of food ingestion. However, little information exists on the kinetics of cadmium retention in terrestrial gastropods exposed to an increase in the soil cadmium content, over time. There is also little knowledge about how exposure to cadmium-polluted soils influences shell growth and architecture. In this context, we examined cadmium accumulation in the hepatopancreas and shell of juvenile Cantareus aspersus exposed to elevating high levels of cadmium in soil. Also, the toxicity of cadmium to snails was assessed using a range of conchological endpoints, including shell height, width, volume, allometry and integrity. Test snails, aged three months, were reared under semi-field conditions, fed an uncontaminated diet and exposed first, for a period of 30 days, to a series of soil cadmium concentrations, and then, for a second period of 30 days, to soils with higher cadmium content. Cadmium showed a dose-dependent accumulation in both the hepatopancreas and shell. The kinetics of cadmium retention in the hepatopancreas of snails previously exposed to cadmium-spiked soils was significantly influenced by a new exposure event. The shell was not a relevant bioaccumulator for soil cadmium. Under the present experimental conditions, only high cadmium exposure significantly affected either the shell growth or snail survival. There was no consistent effect on shell allometry, but the shell integrity, especially in rapidly growing parts, appeared to be affected by high cadmium exposure. Our results attest to the value of hepatopancreas for describing cadmium retention in land snails and to the difficulty of using conchological parameters in field surveys for estimating the environmental hazard of soil cadmium.

  19. Impact of soil cadmium on land snails: a two-stage exposure approach under semi-field conditions using bioaccumulative and conchological end-points of exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos V Nica

    Full Text Available Land snails are highly tolerant to cadmium exposure and are able to accumulate soil cadmium independently of food ingestion. However, little information exists on the kinetics of cadmium retention in terrestrial gastropods exposed to an increase in the soil cadmium content, over time. There is also little knowledge about how exposure to cadmium-polluted soils influences shell growth and architecture. In this context, we examined cadmium accumulation in the hepatopancreas and shell of juvenile Cantareus aspersus exposed to elevating high levels of cadmium in soil. Also, the toxicity of cadmium to snails was assessed using a range of conchological endpoints, including shell height, width, volume, allometry and integrity. Test snails, aged three months, were reared under semi-field conditions, fed an uncontaminated diet and exposed first, for a period of 30 days, to a series of soil cadmium concentrations, and then, for a second period of 30 days, to soils with higher cadmium content. Cadmium showed a dose-dependent accumulation in both the hepatopancreas and shell. The kinetics of cadmium retention in the hepatopancreas of snails previously exposed to cadmium-spiked soils was significantly influenced by a new exposure event. The shell was not a relevant bioaccumulator for soil cadmium. Under the present experimental conditions, only high cadmium exposure significantly affected either the shell growth or snail survival. There was no consistent effect on shell allometry, but the shell integrity, especially in rapidly growing parts, appeared to be affected by high cadmium exposure. Our results attest to the value of hepatopancreas for describing cadmium retention in land snails and to the difficulty of using conchological parameters in field surveys for estimating the environmental hazard of soil cadmium.

  20. Exposure to environmental levels of waterborne cadmium impacts corticosteroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and compromises secondary stressor performance in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Navdeep [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); McGeer, James C. [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: matt.vijayan@ucalgary.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Low level chronic waterborne cadmium exposure did not evoke a plasma cortisol response in rainbow trout. •Chronic cadmium exposure increases liver and gill metabolic capacities. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts head kidney steroidogenic capacity. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in target tissues. •Chronic cadmium exposure compromises physiological performances to a secondary stressor in trout. -- Abstract: The physiological responses to waterborne cadmium exposure have been well documented; however, few studies have examined animal performances at low exposure concentrations of this metal. We tested the hypothesis that longer-term exposure to low levels of cadmium will compromise the steroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and reduce the cortisol response to a secondary stressor in fish. To test this, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.75 or 2.0 μg/L waterborne cadmium in a flow-through system and were sampled at 1, 7 and 28 d of exposure. There were only very slight disturbances in basal plasma cortisol, lactate or glucose levels in response to cadmium exposure over the 28 d period. Chronic cadmium exposure significantly affected key genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme. At 28 d, the high cadmium exposure group showed a significant drop in the glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in the liver and brain, respectively. There were also perturbations in the metabolic capacities in the liver and gill of cadmium-exposed trout. Subjecting these fish to a secondary handling disturbance led to a significant attenuation of the stressor-induced plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels in the cadmium groups. Collectively, although trout appears to adjust to subchronic exposure

  1. Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbaeck, B.; Jonsson, Arne [Kalmar Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Natural Science

    1998-03-01

    The total amount of Cd used in Sweden since 1940 is approximately 5000 tonnes, including alloys, fertilizers and impurities in zinc. The stock of Cd in goods in the Swedish anthroposphere is dominated by NiCd-batteries. However, when one considers the degree of exposure to corrosion, Cd stabilizers are dominant. Emissions of Cd from industrial plants and other point sources have been historically important. However, these point source emissions must be seen in relation to the increasingly significant fugitive `consumption emissions`, from the use and/or end-use of various goods. In this study, methods of reconstructing the flows of cadmium (Cd) and estimating the emissions over time are discussed. This is done through studies of the development of production, technology, trade and the longevity of metals in Swedish society. This last part in the chain will form the `consumption emissions` calculated from emission factors giving the proportion of the cadmium content in goods that eventually will reach the environment. The main accumulation of metals in the anthroposphere occurs in urban areas where the influx of metals is greatest. Urban areas probably represent `hot spots` as far as this type of environmental impact is concerned. Extreme Cd concentrations in surface sediments in central Stockholm indicate an ongoing release of Cd from the anthroposphere. The sources are so far unknown, i.e. this Cd flow to the biosphere cannot be explained in terms of deposition or emissions from point sources. Approximately 40 tonnes of Cd in goods are exposed to corrosion in varying degrees. This stock is dominated by Cd in stabilizers and pigments, and as impurities in Zn 15 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  2. Quantitative immunochemical evaluation of fish metallothionein upon exposure to cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yudkovski, Yana; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Yankelevich, Irena

    2008-01-01

    mormyrus by introducing to the assay recombinant MT and beta-actin standards. Commercial antibodies for cod MT and mammalian actin were implemented. In addition, a sensitive anti L. mormyrus MT antibody was produced, adequate only for solid phase immunochemical assays. Cadmium was applied to the fish...... clean natural sites, indicating applicability of MT as biomarker of exposure to a multi-factorial pollution, in comparison to its low revealed sensitivity to controlled cadmium exposure....

  3. Pulmonary effects of occupational exposure to cadmium fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetana, R.; Pilnacek, M.; Schuller, W.; Pospischil, E.; Meisinger, V.; Hochmeister, M.; Kopsa, H.; Sommer, G.

    1988-11-01

    Smelters (n=9) with occupational exposure to cadmium fumes underwent clinical routine screening, lung function test, blood gas analysis and chest-X-ray, furthermore the concentration of cadmium in blood and 24 h-urine samples was determined. The results were compared with data from controls (n=9) without specific occupational burden. Smelters showed decreased vital capacity, decreased partial pressure of oxygen and increased concentration of cadmium in blood and 24 h-urine samples compared to controls. Chronical exposure to cadmium fumes is suspected to be a causal factor for the altered data of smelters. Therefore routine-check-up in workers health control must include diagnostic means, which provide early detection of pulmonary effects.

  4. Blood Translation Elongation Factor-1δ Is a Novel Marker for Cadmium Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Translation elongation factor-1d (TEF-1δ) has been identified as a novel cadmium-responsive proto-oncogene. However, it is still unclear whether TEF-1δ could be a potential biomarker of cadmium exposure. Rats were treated with CdCl2 at different concentrations (high dose 1.225, mid-dose 0.612 and low dose 0.306 mg/kg body weight, respectively) for 14 weeks, and the cadmium levels, weight coefficients, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen ...

  5. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehinto, Alvine C., E-mail: alvinam@sccwrp.org [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Prucha, Melinda S. [Department of Human Genetics, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Colli-Dula, Reyna C.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Lavelle, Candice M.; Barber, David S. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Vulpe, Christopher D. [Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  6. Cadmium in blood and urine related to present and past exposure. A study of workers in an alkaline battery factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, E; Lind, B; Piscator, M

    1983-11-01

    Blood and urinary cadmium concentrations together with cadmium in air concentrations from the breathing zone of 18 male workers in an alkaline battery factory were determined at regular intervals for 11 consecutive weeks. Nine of the workers examined were smokers and nine non-smokers. Smokers and non-smokers did not differ in age or years of employment. Cadmium in air concentrations varied, but no definite trend was observed. The concentrations of cadmium in the blood and urine were found to be stable. Exposure to airborne cadmium was identical for smokers and non-smokers but average cadmium concentrations in the blood and urine of smokers were approximately twice as high as those in non-smokers. For the whole group, urinary cadmium was significantly correlated with years of employment, but no correlation was found between blood cadmium concentrations and exposure. For non-smokers, the correlation between cadmium in blood and years of employment was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). This finding indicated that blood concentrations of cadmium reflect body burden in non-smokers at current low exposure levels.

  7. Dynamic of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of rats after exposure to cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticules of various sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apykhtina O.L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of Wistar rats after prolonged intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticles of 4-6 nm and 9-11 nm in size in a dose of 0.08 mg /kg/day calculated as cadmium. Toxic effects were evaluated after 30 injections (1.5 months, 60 injections (3 months, and 1.5 months after the exposure has been ceased. The results of the study showed that the most intensive accumulation of cadmium was observed in the kidneys and liver of experimental animals, which is due to the peculiarities of the toxicokinetics and the route of administration of cadmium compounds. In the kidneys, spleen and thymus of animals exposed to cadmium sulphide nanoparticles, a greater concentration of cadmium than in the organs of animals exposed to cadmium chloride was found. Cadmium accumulated more intensively in the spleen after exposure to larger nanoparticles, than in the kidneys and thymus. In the liver, heart, aorta and brain significant accumulation was observed after cadmium chloride exposure.

  8. Cadmium sensitivity, uptake, subcellular distribution and thiol induction in a marine diatom: Recovery from cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Mengjiao [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Section of Marine Ecology and Biotechnology, Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Section of Marine Ecology and Biotechnology, Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2011-01-25

    Studies in the recovery from metal stress and the tolerance development to metal exposure of aquatic organisms are important for the understanding of epidemic pollution. In this study, the responses of a marine diatom, Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii, following recovery from environmental cadmium (Cd) stress were investigated. The diatoms were exposed to different concentrations of Cd for 7 days, and were then allowed different periods of time to recover. The Cd sensitivity increased after recovery from Cd stress, followed by a gradual restoration. The extent of restoration depended on both the recovery time and the environmental Cd stress during the exposure period. A complete restoration of Cd tolerance proved to be impossible for cells pre-exposed to High-Cd. The Cd cellular burden and subcellular Cd concentration decreased to the control level within the first day of recovery, indicating that the elevated sensitivity may have been due to the accumulation of functional damage caused by Cd exposure instead of a result of physical Cd accumulation. The rapid change in phytochelatins (PC) to both the increase in and the withdrawal of environmental Cd stress made it a good quantitative bioindicator of environmental Cd contamination. However, the relationships between Cd distribution in the metal sensitive fraction (MSF-Cd) or intracellular Cd to thiol ratio (intra-Cd/PC-SH) and the relative change in the median inhibition [Cd{sup 2+}] ([Cd{sup 2+}]-based-IC{sub 50}, i.e., Cd sensitivity) differed for the various exposure and recovery periods tested. Our study suggests that more attention should be given to the recovery of aquatic organisms from episodic metal exposure.

  9. Cadmium sensitivity, uptake, subcellular distribution and thiol induction in a marine diatom: Recovery from cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-Jiao; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-01-25

    Studies in the recovery from metal stress and the tolerance development to metal exposure of aquatic organisms are important for the understanding of epidemic pollution. In this study, the responses of a marine diatom, Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii, following recovery from environmental cadmium (Cd) stress were investigated. The diatoms were exposed to different concentrations of Cd for 7 days, and were then allowed different periods of time to recover. The Cd sensitivity increased after recovery from Cd stress, followed by a gradual restoration. The extent of restoration depended on both the recovery time and the environmental Cd stress during the exposure period. A complete restoration of Cd tolerance proved to be impossible for cells pre-exposed to High-Cd. The Cd cellular burden and subcellular Cd concentration decreased to the control level within the first day of recovery, indicating that the elevated sensitivity may have been due to the accumulation of functional damage caused by Cd exposure instead of a result of physical Cd accumulation. The rapid change in phytochelatins (PC) to both the increase in and the withdrawal of environmental Cd stress made it a good quantitative bioindicator of environmental Cd contamination. However, the relationships between Cd distribution in the metal sensitive fraction (MSF-Cd) or intracellular Cd to thiol ratio (intra-Cd/PC-SH) and the relative change in the median inhibition [Cd(2+)] ([Cd(2+)]-based-IC(50), i.e., Cd sensitivity) differed for the various exposure and recovery periods tested. Our study suggests that more attention should be given to the recovery of aquatic organisms from episodic metal exposure.

  10. Cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in school children in southwestern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Campus Universitario de Cartuja, c/Cuesta del Observatorio 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Granada (Spain); Lacasaña, Marina, E-mail: marina.lacasana.easp@juntadeandalucia.es [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Campus Universitario de Cartuja, c/Cuesta del Observatorio 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Granada (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Gil, Fernando [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Lorca, Andres [Department of Clinical, Experimental and Social Psychology, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Alguacil, Juan [Research Center on Health and Environment (CYSMA), University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Rohlman, Diane S. [Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health and Science University (United States); Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Iowa (United States); González-Alzaga, Beatriz [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Campus Universitario de Cartuja, c/Cuesta del Observatorio 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Granada (Spain); Molina-Villalba, Isabel [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Mendoza, Ramón [Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente [Center for Public Health Research (CSISP-FISABIO), Valencia (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    This study assessed the association between cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in children from a region with high industrial and mining activities in southwestern Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 261 children aged 6–9 years between January and March 2012. Cadmium exposure was measured in urine and hair of children, and neuropsychological development was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and with three computerized tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS): Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT). Multivariate linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the association between neuropsychological development and cadmium exposure measured in urine and hair samples. Geometric means of urine and hair cadmium levels were 0.75 μg/g creatinine and 0.01 μg/g, respectively. We observed that doubling of levels of cadmium in urine was associated with a reduction of two points (95% CI: −3.8 to −0.4) in the Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) in boys. By domains, association was statistically significant for Verbal Comprehension (β=−2.0; p=0.04) and close to the significance level for Perceptual Reasoning (β=−1.8; p=0.06). Among girls, only Verbal Comprehension showed suggestive associations with cadmium exposure (β=−1.7; p=0.06). Cadmium exposure is associated with cognitive delays in boys in our region. Our results provide additional evidence of the neurotoxic effect of low-level postnatal cadmium exposure among children, and support the hypothesis of differences between sexes in the neurotoxic effect of metals on children. - Highlights: • This study associates Cd exposure and neuropsychological development in children. • Cd exposure was associated with cognitive delay in boys, but not in girls. • Intellectual quotient of boys decreased two points for a

  11. Epigenetics, obesity and early-life cadmium or lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sarah S; Skaar, David A; Jirtle, Randy L; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease, which likely comprises multiple subtypes. Emerging data have linked chemical exposures to obesity. As organismal response to environmental exposures includes altered gene expression, identifying the regulatory epigenetic changes involved would be key to understanding the path from exposure to phenotype and provide new tools for exposure detection and risk assessment. In this report, we summarize published data linking early-life exposure to the heavy metals, cadmium and lead, to obesity. We also discuss potential mechanisms, as well as the need for complete coverage in epigenetic screening to fully identify alterations. The keys to understanding how metal exposure contributes to obesity are improved assessment of exposure and comprehensive establishment of epigenetic profiles that may serve as markers for exposures.

  12. Chronic Cadmium Exposure Stimulates SDF-1 Expression in an ERα Dependent Manner

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is an omnipotent environmental contaminant associated with the development of breast cancer. Studies suggest that cadmium functions as an endocrine disruptor, mimicking the actions of estrogen in breast cancer cells and activating the receptor to promote cell growth. Although acute cadmium exposure is known to promote estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression associated with growth, the consequence of chronic cadmium exposure is unclear. Since heavy metals are known to bioaccumulate,...

  13. Assessment and management of risks arising from exposure to cadmium in fertilisers--II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupit, M; Larsson, O; de Meeûs, C; Eduljee, G H; Hutton, M

    2002-05-27

    A preliminary, illustrative human health risk assessment of exposure to cadmium in phosphate fertilisers was performed using typical UK data and a protocol previously developed for application by individual Member States in the European Union. The risk assessment indicated that the for the most pessimistic population exposures characterised by both extreme (97th percentile) cereal and potato consumption and high susceptibility to cadmium uptake, the estimated dose was under the WHO Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) for fertiliser cadmium concentrations ranging from 15 to 100 mg Cd/kg P2O5 applied over 100 years. However, the low margin of safety for high risk groups and the uncertainties inherent in the overall risk assessment suggested that a prudent risk management strategy would involve maintenance of low levels of cadmium in fertilisers and/or conditions that permitted low accumulation of cadmium in soils. On this basis, two main risk reduction measures were developed and assessed: (a) imposition of limits on cadmium concentration in fertilisers; and (b) imposition of charges on levels of cadmium in phosphate fertilisers. An assessment of the economic impact of these risk reduction measures indicated that, at all price elasticities, the most significant impact in terms of changes in demand and changes in consumer expenditure on phosphate fertilisers will be seen with cadmium charges where no thresholds are defined. The impact on the consumer (i.e. farmer) will be an increase in spending of approximately US $4000 per year, which is considered significant, accompanied by a decrease in demand above 20%. If a threshold is set at 60 mg Cd/kg P2O5, the impact is significantly reduced, but stays relatively high compared to the other options. The analysis also indicates that the use of low-cadmium rock is the low cost option. At a likely rock price increase of approximately 5% and assuming a likely price elasticity of -0.2, the yearly costs to farmers will be

  14. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  15. Dietary exposure to cadmium and health effects: impact of environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscator, M

    1985-11-01

    Cadmium exposure, metabolism, and effects are described especially in relation to dietary intakes. Data on dietary intakes in several countries have been complied from studies using the duplicate diet method or fecal analysis. These two methods seem to give more accurate data than estimates based on cadmium concentrations in food classes and food consumption (composite method). The present data on absorption and retention of ingested cadmium indicate that normally less than 5% is ingested, but absorption may increase in women who have iron deficiency. Earlier estimates of the critical concentration in renal cortex being about 200 mg/kg wet weight still seem to be valid. New information is available on present renal levels and their distribution in the general population. The present margin of safety with regard to risk for renal effects is small. To predict future health risks from increases in dietary cadmium due to environmental changes such as acid deposition, it is necessary that the models used are based on correct assumptions. Of interest are the distributions of dietary intake, gastrointestinal absorption, and renal cadmium concentrations. These distributions are normal or lognormal, and since standard deviations are used when estimating risks, it is of paramount importance that the standard deviations are estimated as accurately as possible. At present it is not possible to quantify the effects attributed to acid rain only; account must be also be taken of cadmium added to, e.g., soil by use of sewage sludge and other fertilizers. In addition to risks to human health, cadmium also poses a threat to horses, which generally have renal cadmium concentrations several times higher than adult humans. It is recommended that horses should be monitored in areas when acid deposition is high. Such monitoring might provide valuable information about impact of acid rain.

  16. Exposure determinants of cadmium in European mothers and their children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Grandér, Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    The metal cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant with documented adverse effects on the kidneys and bones from long-term environmental exposure, but with insufficiently elucidated public health consequences such as risk of cardiovascular disease, hormone-related cancer in adults...... and developmental effects in children. This study is the first pan-European human biomonitoring project that succeeded in performing harmonized measurements of Cd in urine in a comparable way in mother-child couples from 16 European countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the overall Cd exposure...... higher geometric mean (gm) urinary cadmium (UCd; 0.24µg/g crea; n=360) than non-smoking mothers (gm 0.18µg/g crea; n=1272; p

  17. Chronic cadmium exposure stimulates SDF-1 expression in an ERα dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Esmeralda; Aquino, Natalie B; Louie, Maggie C

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is an omnipotent environmental contaminant associated with the development of breast cancer. Studies suggest that cadmium functions as an endocrine disruptor, mimicking the actions of estrogen in breast cancer cells and activating the receptor to promote cell growth. Although acute cadmium exposure is known to promote estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression associated with growth, the consequence of chronic cadmium exposure is unclear. Since heavy metals are known to bioaccumulate, it is necessary to understand the effects of prolonged cadmium exposure. This study aims to investigate the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on breast cancer progression. A MCF7 breast cancer cell line chronically exposed to 10(-7) M CdCl2 serves as our model system. Data suggest that prolonged cadmium exposures result in the development of more aggressive cancer phenotypes - increased cell growth, migration and invasion. The results from this study show for the first time that chronic cadmium exposure stimulates the expression of SDF-1 by altering the molecular interactions between ERα, c-jun and c-fos. This study provides a mechanistic link between chronic cadmium exposure and ERα and demonstrates that prolonged, low-level cadmium exposure contributes to breast cancer progression.

  18. Chronic cadmium exposure stimulates SDF-1 expression in an ERα dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Ponce

    Full Text Available Cadmium is an omnipotent environmental contaminant associated with the development of breast cancer. Studies suggest that cadmium functions as an endocrine disruptor, mimicking the actions of estrogen in breast cancer cells and activating the receptor to promote cell growth. Although acute cadmium exposure is known to promote estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression associated with growth, the consequence of chronic cadmium exposure is unclear. Since heavy metals are known to bioaccumulate, it is necessary to understand the effects of prolonged cadmium exposure. This study aims to investigate the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on breast cancer progression. A MCF7 breast cancer cell line chronically exposed to 10(-7 M CdCl2 serves as our model system. Data suggest that prolonged cadmium exposures result in the development of more aggressive cancer phenotypes - increased cell growth, migration and invasion. The results from this study show for the first time that chronic cadmium exposure stimulates the expression of SDF-1 by altering the molecular interactions between ERα, c-jun and c-fos. This study provides a mechanistic link between chronic cadmium exposure and ERα and demonstrates that prolonged, low-level cadmium exposure contributes to breast cancer progression.

  19. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Jeekeeree, Wanpen [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Funkhiew, Thippawan [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Phopueng, Ittipol [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2015-01-15

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children.

  20. [Long-term effect of environmental cadmium exposure on human body's mineral metabolic balance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, H T; Huang, R; Liang, X X; Li, Z X; Wang, J; Tan, J B; Wu, S X; Wang, P; Chen, Z H; Huang, Q; Lyu, Y J; Jiang, Q; Yang, X F; Wu, Y N

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effect of long-term exposure to environmental cadmium on eight mineral element's metabolic balance of human body. To choose a high cadmium area polluted by smelting and mining north of Guangdong province and a cadmium-free area with a similar economic level, and living and eating habit of residents as a contrast from April 2011 to August 2012. Stratified random sampling and clustered sampling method were adopted to choose the non-occupationally cadmium-exposed respondents who have lived in local area for more than 15 years, older than 40 years, having local rice and vegetable as the main dietary source, with simple and relatively stable diet, and without diabetes, kidney disease, thyroid disease, liver disease or other history of chronic disease. This study included 298 respondents, of whom 155 were in cadmium exposure group and 143 in control group. Questionnaires was used to acquire their health status and their morning urine samples were collected. Electrolytically coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to test the concentrations of sodium(Na), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iodine (I). The Mann-Whitney U test method was used to compare the differences of concentrations of urinary cadmium, Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, I, and the ratio of Na to K (Na/K), Ca to P (Ca/P) between exposed group and control group.χ(2) test was used to compare the abnormal rate of urinary cadmium between exposed group and control group. Pearson correlation and multiple regression method were used to investigate the relationship between urinary cadmium levels, gender, age, smoking, passive smoking, and minerals. The urinary cadmium level P50 (P25-P75) in exposed group was 5.45 (2.62-10.68) μg/g·cr, which was higher than that of the control group, which was 1.69 (1.22-2.36) μg/g·cr (Z=-10.49,Phuman body.

  1. mRNA expression of a cadmium-responsive gene is a sensitive biomarker of cadmium exposure in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamori, Taizo, E-mail: taizo@ynu.ac.j [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fujimori, Akira [Heavy-Ion Radiobiology Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kinoshita, Keiji [Nagoya University Avian Bioscience Research Centre, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Satoshi [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    The gene expression of environmental organisms is useful as a biomarker of environmental pollution. One of its advantages is high sensitivity. We identified the cDNA of a novel cadmium-responsive gene in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida. The deduced protein, designated 'metallothionein-like motif containing protein' (MTC), was cysteine-rich and contained a metallothionein-like motif with similarity to metallothionein, but had a much longer sequence than metallothionein and contained repeated sequences of amino acids. Expression of MTC mRNA was sensitively induced by cadmium exposure at 0.3 mg/kg of dry food, a concentration at which toxic effects are not observed, but expression was not affected by gamma-ray exposure (an inducer of oxidative stress). These findings suggest that MTC is involved in cadmium-binding processes rather than in oxidative-stress responses. In conclusion, we suggest that gene expression of MTC may be a candidate biomarker for detecting low levels of cadmium contamination in soil. - The mRNA expression of a gene potentially encoding a metallothionein-like motif containing protein is sensitively induced by cadmium exposure in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida.

  2. Effects of chronic alternating cadmium exposure on the episodic secretion of prolactin in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Medicina Complutense; Marquez, N.; Alvarez-Demanuel, E.; Lafuente, A. [Vigo Univ., Orense (Spain). Lab. de Toxicologia

    1998-07-01

    Cadmium increases or decreases prolactin secretion depending on the dose and duration of the exposure to the metal. However, whether there are cadmium effects on the episodic prolactin secretion is less well known. This study was undertaken to address whether chronic alternating exposure to two different doses of cadmium affects the episodic pattern of prolactin and to what extent the effects of cadmium are age-dependent. Male rats were treated s.c. with cadmium chloride (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg) from day 30 to 60, or from day 60 to 90 of age, with alteration of the doses every 4 days, starting with the smaller dose. Controls received vehicle every 4 days. The last dose of cadmium was given 48 h prior to the pulsatility study. Prolactin secretion in the 4 experimental groups studied was episodic and changed significantly after cadmium exposure. Cadmium administration from day 30 to 60 of life significantly decreased the mean half-life of prolactin. On the other hand, when administered from day 60 to 90 cadmium significantly decreased the mean as well as serum prolactin levels and the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses, their duration, the relative amplitude or the mean half-life of the hormone. The frequency of prolactin peaks was not changed by cadmium administration. The results indicate that low intermittent doses of cadmium chronically administered change the episodic secretion pattern of prolactin in rats. The effects of cadmium on prolactin secretion were age dependent. (orig.)

  3. Toxicity of quantum dots and cadmium salt to Caenorhabditis elegans after multigenerational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Elizabeth Q; Cho, Minjung; Zhu, Huiguang; Puppala, Hema L; Escalera, Gabriela; Zhong, Weiwei; Colvin, Vicki L

    2013-01-15

    To fully understand the biological and environmental impacts of nanomaterials requires studies that address both sublethal end points and multigenerational effects. Here, we use a nematode to examine these issues as they relate to exposure to two different types of quantum dots, core (CdSe) and core-shell (CdSe/ZnS), and to compare the effect to those observed after cadmium salt exposures. The strong fluorescence of the core-shell QDs allowed for the direct visualization of the materials in the digestive track within a few hours of exposure. Multiple end points, including both developmental and locomotive, were examined at QD exposures of low (10 mg/L Cd), medium (50 mg/L Cd), and high concentrations (100 mg/L Cd). While the core-shell QDs showed no effect on fitness (lifespan, fertility, growth, and three parameters of motility behavior), the core QDs caused acute effects similar to those found for cadmium salts, suggesting that biological effects may be attributed to cadmium leaching from the more soluble QDs. Over multiple generations, we commonly found that for lower life-cycle exposures to core QDs the parents response was generally a poor predictor of the effects on progeny. At the highest concentrations, however, biological effects found for the first generation were commonly similar in magnitude to those found in future generations.

  4. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  5. Cadmium exposure and the risk of breast cancer in Chaoshan population of southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lin; Huang, Yiteng; Zhang, Jingwen; Peng, Yuhui; Lin, Xueqiong; Wu, Kusheng; Huo, Xia

    2015-12-01

    controls. Cadmium seems to be a risk factor of breast cancer, and high cadmium exposure was observed in advanced stages of this disease, which indicates that it may promote the development of breast cancer.

  6. Metabolic profiling detects early effects of environmental and lifestyle exposure to cadmium in a human population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis James K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'exposome' represents the accumulation of all environmental exposures across a lifetime. Top-down strategies are required to assess something this comprehensive, and could transform our understanding of how environmental factors affect human health. Metabolic profiling (metabonomics/metabolomics defines an individual's metabolic phenotype, which is influenced by genotype, diet, lifestyle, health and xenobiotic exposure, and could also reveal intermediate biomarkers for disease risk that reflect adaptive response to exposure. We investigated changes in metabolism in volunteers living near a point source of environmental pollution: a closed zinc smelter with associated elevated levels of environmental cadmium. Methods High-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy (metabonomics was used to acquire urinary metabolic profiles from 178 human volunteers. The spectral data were subjected to multivariate and univariate analysis to identify metabolites that were correlated with lifestyle or biological factors. Urinary levels of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine were also measured, using mass spectrometry, as a marker of systemic oxidative stress. Results Six urinary metabolites, either associated with mitochondrial metabolism (citrate, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, 4-deoxy-erythronic acid or one-carbon metabolism (dimethylglycine, creatinine, creatine, were associated with cadmium exposure. In particular, citrate levels retained a significant correlation to urinary cadmium and smoking status after controlling for age and sex. Oxidative stress (as determined by urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine levels was elevated in individuals with high cadmium exposure, supporting the hypothesis that heavy metal accumulation was causing mitochondrial dysfunction. Conclusions This study shows evidence that an NMR-based metabolic profiling study in an uncontrolled human population is capable of identifying intermediate biomarkers of response to toxicants at true environmental

  7. Prenatal cadmium exposure alters postnatal immune cell development and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Miranda L.; Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is generally found in low concentrations in the environment due to its widespread and continual use, however, its concentration in some foods and cigarette smoke is high. Although evidence demonstrates that adult exposure to Cd causes changes in the immune system, there are limited reports of immunomodulatory effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. This study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd on the immune system of the offspring. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at two time points following birth (2 and 7 weeks of age). Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Prenatal Cd exposure did not affect thymocyte populations at 2 and 7 weeks of age. In the spleen, the only significant effect on phenotype was a decrease in the number of macrophages in male offspring at both time points. Analysis of cytokine production by stimulated splenocytes demonstrated that prenatal Cd exposure decreased IL-2 and IL-4 production by cells from female offspring at 2 weeks of age. At 7 weeks of age, splenocyte IL-2 production was decreased in Cd-exposed males while IFN-γ production was decreased from both male and female Cd-exposed offspring. The ability of the Cd-exposed offspring to respond to immunization with a S. pneumoniae vaccine expressing T-dependent and T-independent streptococcal antigens showed marked increases in the levels of both T-dependent and T-independent serum antibody levels compared to control animals. CD4{sup +}FoxP3{sup +}CD25{sup +} (nTreg) cell percentages were increased in the spleen and thymus in all Cd-exposed offspring except in the female spleen where a decrease was seen. CD8{sup +}CD223{sup +} T cells were markedly decreased in the spleens in all offspring at 7 weeks of age. These findings suggest that even very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can

  8. Dietary and Environmental Exposure to Cadmium and the Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We estimated potential environmental exposure to Cd at the participants’ geocoded residences in 2000 using a geographic information system ( GIS ) and...Total = 6,970 Keywords: cadmium, biomarkers, diet, exposure science, GIS Abbreviations: AADT = annual average daily traffic Cd = cadmium CTS...California Teachers Study FFQ = food frequency questionnaire GIS = geographic information system GM = geometric mean LOD = limit of detection R2

  9. Behaviour of biological indicators of cadmium in relation to occupational exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezzi, I.; Toffoletto, F.; Sesana, G.; Fagioli, M.G.; Micheli, A.; Di Silvestro, P.; Zocchetti, C.; Alessio, L.

    1985-01-01

    Cadmium in blood (CdB), cadmium in urine (CdU) and beta 2-microglobulins (beta 2MU) were determined in 83 male workers exposed to cadmium fumes. The behaviour of the biological indicators of cadmium was assessed in relation to degree of current exposure, length of exposure and cumulative exposure (computed as concentration of cadmium at the workplace multiplied by duration of exposure). CdB values were significantly higher in the subgroups of subjects with higher current cadmium exposure and in the subgroups of subjects with greater cumulative exposure, but the test levels were not influenced by duration of exposure. CdU levels were significantly higher in the subgroup of subjects with greater cumulative exposure, but were less influenced by current exposure or duration of exposure. Considering the entire population, a rather close correlation was observed between CdB and CdU. When the population was divided according to level of current exposure, a close relationship was observed between the two indicators in all subgroups; nevertheless, for identical CdU values, the CdB values were higher in the subjects with heavier current exposure. The data confirm that CdU is prevalently influenced by the body burden of metal, but they also suggest that the CdB levels are not influenced solely by the intensity of current exposure but also depend to a considerable degree on the body burden.

  10. Cadmium, lead, and mercury exposure assessment among croatian consumers of free-living game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Maja; Prevendar Crnić, Andreja; Bilandžić, Nina; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven

    2014-09-29

    Free-living game can be an important source of dietary cadmium and lead; the question is whether exposure to these two elements is such that it might cause adverse health effects in the consumers. The aim of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to cadmium, lead, and mercury from free-living big game (fallow deer, roe deer, red deer, wild boar, and brown bear), and to mercury from small game (pheasant and hare), hunted in Croatia from 1990 to 2012. The exposure assessment was based on available literature data and our own measurements of metal levels in the tissues of the game, by taking into account different consumption frequencies (four times a year, once a month and once a week). Exposure was expressed as percentage of (provisional) tolerable weekly intake [(P)TWI] values set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Consumption of game meat (0.002-0.5 % PTWI) and liver (0.005-6 % PTWI) assumed for the general population (four times a year) does not pose a health risk to consumers from the general population, nor does monthly (0.02-6 % PTWI) and weekly (0.1-24 % PTWI) consumption of game meat. However, because of the high percentage of free-living game liver and kidney samples exceeding the legislative limits for cadmium (2-99 %) and lead (1-82 %), people should keep the consumption of certain game species' offal as low as possible. Children and pregnant and lactating women should avoid eating game offal altogether. Free-living game liver could be an important source of cadmium if consumed on a monthly basis (3-74 % TWI), and if consumed weekly (11-297 % TWI), it could even give rise to toxicological concern.

  11. Rhizobacterial glutathione levels as affected by starvation and cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, M

    1998-11-01

    The rhizosphere is a continuously fluctuating environment in which severe stresses are put on its inhabitants, and glutathione, a reducing tripeptide, and related compounds probably have important roles in cellular protection. In the present study the metabolism of glutathione was examined in rhizobacteria subjected to stress. The plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens 5.014 and its mutant 5-2/4 were exposed to starvation, either by resuspension or exhaustion, and to cadmium. Glutathione levels, cell protein, and viable count were determined and compared in different conditions. Both starvation and cadmium exposure decreased the amount of glutathione in the cell. No changes of the glutathione concentration in the medium were observed with or without the presence of rhizobacteria, indicating that there was no transport over the cell membrane. The glutathione levels within the rhizobacteria may give valuable information on how different stresses affect the bacteria. In this study, the involvement of glutathione in the increased stress resistance earlier observed in nutrient-starved P. fluorescens was not supported. The concentration of bacterial glutathione is suggested as a possible marker for rhizosphere competence, which, however, needs to be further evaluated with several strains of rhizobacteria.

  12. Plasticity in offspring contaminant tolerance traits: developmental cadmium exposure trumps parental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plautz, Stephanie C; Salice, Christopher J

    2013-07-01

    Parental effects are non-genotypic influences on offspring phenotype that occur via parental phenotypes or environments, while developmental plasticity is phenotypic variation that arises during development in response to environmental cues. We evaluated the relative contribution of these two sources of phenotypic variation on offspring toxicant tolerance in Physa pomilia snails exposed to cadmium. We exposed adult snails to 0, 2, or 20 μg/L cadmium for 7 days, then exposed egg masses collected from these adults to 0 or 2 μg/L cadmium in a factorial design (adult cadmium exposure × egg mass cadmium exposure). Starting at 2 days old, we recorded time to death for hatchlings exposed to 150 μg/L cadmium for 72 h at 8 h intervals. Juveniles hatched from cadmium-exposed egg masses displayed higher cadmium tolerance than juveniles from unexposed egg masses. Among juveniles from egg masses not exposed to cadmium, offspring of parents exposed to 20 μg/L cadmium had higher cadmium tolerance than offspring of parents exposed to 0 or 2 μg/L cadmium. Our results show that both parental effects and developmental plasticity can impact offspring toxicant tolerance and point to the potential importance of both processes in understanding how offspring respond to chemical contaminants. When both parents and offspring are exposed to a toxicant, our results showed that the effects of parental exposure on offspring toxicant tolerance may be eclipsed by the effects of offspring exposure during development.

  13. Dietary cadmium exposure and the risk of hormone-related cancers

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The toxic metal cadmium has been widely dispersed into the environment mainly through anthropogenic activities. Even in industrially non-polluted areas, farmland and consequently foods are, to a varying degree, contaminated. Food is the main source of exposure besides tobacco smoking. Cadmium accumulates in the body, particularly in the kidney where it may cause renal tubular damage. Recently, cadmium was discovered to possess endocrine disrupting properties, mainly mimicking the in vivo- eff...

  14. High blood cadmium levels are not associated with consumption of traditional food among the Inuit of Nunavik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, M. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota (Colombia); Turcotte, F.; Lapointe, C. [Universite Laval, Quebec City (Canada)] [and others

    1997-09-01

    High levels of cadmium in the liver and kidneys of caribous and sea mammals of the Canadian Arctic have led to recommendations to remove such offal from the traditional diet. Blood cadmium levels have been found to be very high in samples of Inuit volunteers, hence the hypothesis that the Inuit might be exposed to cadmium through their diet. This survey of a population-based random sample of Nunavik residents (n = 518) confirms that blood cadmium of Inuit is indeed very high by comparison to published reports. Blood cadmium levels are closely associated with the current smoking status and are independent of dietary patterns among nonsmokers. Plasma omega-3 fatty acids concentrations have been used to assess the reliability of the dietary information collected by questionnaires and to test for any association of blood cadmium with the consumption of sea mammals. Blood cadmium levels are not related to the reported consumption of sea mammals. Blood cadmium levels are very high among smokers and are associated with levels of exposure to tobacco. Among nonsmoking Inuit, blood cadmium levels are comparable with those reported in nonsmokers elsewhere in the world. In reference to international standards, blood cadmium concentrations are high enough among the Inuit to warrant energetic public health interventions. 28 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Cadmium but not lead exposure affects Xenopus laevis fertilization and embryo cleavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaby, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Lemière, Sébastien [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Hanotel, Julie; Lescuyer, Arlette [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Demuynck, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Bodart, Jean-François [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • First embryonic steps were studied. • Fertilization success was impacted by cadmium exposures. • Oocytes were most affected instead of spermatozoa by cadmium exposures. • First embryonic cleavages were slown down or stopped by cadmium exposures. • Lead exposures did not affected fertilization and segmentation. - Abstract: Among the toxicological and ecotoxicological studies, few have investigated the effects on germ cells, gametes or embryos, while an impact at these stages will result in serious damage at a population level. Thus, it appeared essential to characterize consequences of environmental contaminant exposures at these stages. Therefore, we proposed to assess the effects of exposure to cadmium and lead ions, alone or in a binary mixture, on early stages of Xenopus laevis life cycle. Fertilization and cell division during segmentation were the studied endpoints. Cadmium ion exposures decreased in the fertilization rates in a concentration-dependent manner, targeting mainly the oocytes. Exposure to this metal ions induced also delays or blockages in the embryonic development. For lead ion exposure, no such effect was observed. For the exposure to the mixture of the two metal ions, concerning the fertilization success, we observed results similar to those obtained with the highest cadmium ion concentration.

  16. Comparative genomic analyses identify common molecular pathways modulated upon exposure to low doses of arsenic and cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fry Rebecca C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to the toxic metals arsenic and cadmium is associated with detrimental health effects including cancers of various organs. While arsenic and cadmium are well known to cause adverse health effects at high doses, the molecular impact resulting from exposure to environmentally relevant doses of these metals remains largely unexplored. Results In this study, we examined the effects of in vitro exposure to either arsenic or cadmium in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells using genomics and systems level pathway mapping approaches. A total of 167 genes with differential expression were identified following exposure to either metal with surprisingly no overlap between the two. Real-time PCR was used to confirm target gene expression changes. The gene sets were overlaid onto protein-protein interaction maps to identify metal-induced transcriptional networks. Interestingly, both metal-induced networks were significantly enriched for proteins involved in common biological processes such as tumorigenesis, inflammation, and cell signaling. These findings were further supported by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusions This study is the first to compare the transcriptional responses induced by low dose exposure to cadmium and arsenic in human lymphoblastoid cells. These results highlight that even at low levels of exposure both metals can dramatically influence the expression of important cellular pathways.

  17. Filtration rate, assimilation and assimilation efficiency in Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) fed with Tetraselmis suecica under cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Escorcia, Guadalupe; Vanegas-Perez, Cecilia; Wong-Chang, Irma

    2010-01-01

    Crassostrea virginica is an epibentic filter-feeding bivalve of economical importance in coastal lagoons of the Gulf of Mexico, locations with increasing inputs of heavy metals such as cadmium that have become environmental stressors. In this study, feeding and assimilation of the species were evaluated as physiological indicators of cadmium exposure. For this purpose, the filtration rate (FR), food assimilation (A) and assimilation efficiency (AE) of oysters from the Mandinga Lagoon, Veracruz, Mexico, were examined under sublethal and environmentally realistic cadmium concentrations (95 and 170 micro gCd L(-1)). Semi-static, 12-day bioassays were conducted with organisms placed into individual chambers and fed daily with Tetraselmis suecica. FR was calculated by measuring the depletion in algal density. Caloric contents of food and feces produced were also obtained. Condition Index (CI) and morphometric parameters were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the assay. Total cadmium concentrations were quantified in water and tissue, and the metal bioconcentration factor (BCF) was calculated. Cadmium exposure significantly reduced FR in oysters (mean value: 0.64 L h(-1) and 0.44 L h(-1)) from control values (1.17 L h(-1)). Extreme values among results demonstrate the existence of a high FR (over 4 L h(-1)) mainly in control oysters, and this was associated with a better physiological condition; a low FR (under 2.5 L h(-1)) indicated metabolic stress as a consequence of Cd exposure. A and AE were significantly modified due to cadmium external levels, and time of exposure. FR and A were linearly related, and both decreased as metal BCF increased. Cadmium bioaccumulation was linearly related with external metal levels. The physiological deterioration of native C. virginica from Mandinga Lagoon was reflected in the alteration of FR, A and AE due to cadmium exposure in concentrations considered sublethal, lowering the feeding and assimilation capability of the

  18. The impact of succimer chelation on blood cadmium in children with background exposures: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Chen, Aimin; Bottai, Matteo; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Rogan, Walter J

    2013-08-01

    Succimer lowers blood lead concentrations in children, and the structure of succimer chelates of lead and cadmium are similar. Using blood samples from a randomized trial of succimer for lead poisoning, however, we found that succimer did not lower blood cadmium in children with background exposure.

  19. A Chain Modeling Approach To Estimate the Impact of Soil Cadmium Pollution on Human Dietary Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium in soil poses a risk for human health, due to its accumulation in food and feed crops. The extent of accumulation depends strongly on soil type and the degree of pollution. The objective of the present study was to develop a predictive model to estimate human dietary cadmium exposure from so

  20. Biochemical Effects of Cadmium Exposure and the Potential Pharmacologic Significance of Cadmium Mediated Hydrolase Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-18

    increase Cd absorption from the intestines (Larson and Piscator 1971; Itokawa, Abe et al. 197 4; Pond and Walker 1975). Pyridoxine, vitamin B 6 , is...considerations on uptake and retention of cadmium in human kidney cortex. Cadmium in the Environment. L. Friberg, M. Piscator and G. F. Nordberg. Cleveland...Columbia, Missouri, University of Missouri. Larson, S.-E. and M. Piscator (1971). "Effect of cadmium on skeletal tissue in normal and calcium

  1. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Barriga, F.; Santos, M.A.; Mejia, J.J.; Batres, L.; Yanez, L.; Carrizales, L.; Vera, E.; del Razo, L.M.; Cebrian, M.E. (Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico))

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosi City, Mexico) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues.

  2. Additional Burden of Diseases Associated with Cadmium Exposure: A Case Study of Cadmium Contaminated Rice Fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisarat Songprasert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium (Cd contaminated rice fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand has been one of the major environmental problems in Thailand for the last 10 years. We used disability adjusted life years (DALYs to estimate the burden of disease attributable to Cd in terms of additional DALYs of Mae Sot residents. Cd exposure data included Cd and β2–microglobulin (β2-MG in urine (as an internal exposure dose and estimated cadmium daily intake (as an external exposure dose. Compared to the general Thai population, Mae Sot residents gained 10%–86% DALYs from nephrosis/nephritis, heart diseases, osteoporosis and cancer depending on their Cd exposure type and exposure level. The results for urinary Cd and dietary Cd intake varied according to the studies used for risk estimation. The ceiling effect was observed in results using dietary Cd intake because of the high Cd content in rice grown in the Mae Sot area. The results from β2-MG were more robust with additional DALYs ranging from 36%–86% for heart failure, cerebral infraction, and nephrosis/nephritis. Additional DALYs is a useful approach for assessing the magnitude of environmental Cd exposure. The Mae Sot population lost more healthy life compared to populations living in a non- or less Cd polluted area. This method should be applicable to various types of environmental contamination problems if exposure assessment information is available.

  3. Toxicological impact of cadmium-based quantum dots towards aquatic biota: Effect of natural sunlight exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B F; Andreani, T; Gavina, A; Vieira, M N; Pereira, C M; Rocha-Santos, T; Pereira, R

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium-based quantum dots (QDs) are increasingly applied in existent and emerging technologies, especially in biological applications due to their exceptional photophysical and functionalization properties. However, they are very toxic compounds due to the high reactive and toxic cadmium core. The present study aimed to determine the toxicity of three different QDs (CdS 380, CdS 480 and CdSeS/ZnS) before and after the exposure of suspensions to sunlight, in order to assess the effect of environmentally relevant irradiation levels in their toxicity, which will act after their release to the environment. Therefore, a battery of ecotoxicological tests was performed with organisms that cover different functional and trophic levels, such as Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna. The results showed that core-shell type QDs showed lower toxic effects to V. fischeri in comparison to core type QDs before sunlight exposure. However, after sunlight exposure, there was a decrease of CdS 380 and CdS 480 QD toxicity to bacterium. Also, after sunlight exposure, an effective decrease of CdSeS/ZnS and CdS 480 toxicity for D. magna and R. subcapitata, and an evident increase in CdS 380 QD toxicity, at least for D. magna, were observed. The results of this study suggest that sunlight exposure has an effect in the aggregation and precipitation reactions of larger QDs, causing the degradation of functional groups and formation of larger bulks which may be less prone to photo-oxidation due to their diminished surface area. The same aggregation behaviour after sunlight exposure was observed for bare QDs. These results further emphasize that the shell of QDs seems to make them less harmful to aquatic biota, both under standard environmental conditions and after the exposure to a relevant abiotic factor like sunlight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduction of Cadmium Uptake of Rice Plants Using Soil Amendments in High Cadmium Contaminated Soil: A Pot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Siswanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of agricultural residues on reducing cadmium uptake in rice plants. The rice plants growing on no cadmium/free cadmium soils (N, Cd soils (Cds, and Cd soils each amended with 1% w/w of coir pith (CP, coir pith modified with sodium hydroxide (CPm and corncob (CC under high cadmium contaminated soil with an average 145 mg Cd kg-1 soil were investigated. The results showed that the cumulative transpiration of rice grown in various treatments under high cadmium contaminated soil followed the order: Cds > CPm ≥ CP ≥ CC. These transpirations directly influenced cadmium accumulation in shoots and husks of rice plants. The CC and CP seemed to work to reduce the cadmium uptake by rice plants indicated by accumulated cadmium in the husk that were 2.47 and 7.38 mg Cd kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Overall, transpiration tended to drive cadmium accumulation in plants for rice grown in high cadmium contaminated soil. The more that plants uptake cadmium, the lower cadmium that remains in the soil.

  5. Cadmium but not lead exposure affects Xenopus laevis fertilization and embryo cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Sylvain; Lemière, Sébastien; Hanotel, Julie; Lescuyer, Arlette; Demuynck, Sylvain; Bodart, Jean-François; Leprêtre, Alain; Marin, Matthieu

    2016-08-01

    Among the toxicological and ecotoxicological studies, few have investigated the effects on germ cells, gametes or embryos, while an impact at these stages will result in serious damage at a population level. Thus, it appeared essential to characterize consequences of environmental contaminant exposures at these stages. Therefore, we proposed to assess the effects of exposure to cadmium and lead ions, alone or in a binary mixture, on early stages of Xenopus laevis life cycle. Fertilization and cell division during segmentation were the studied endpoints. Cadmium ion exposures decreased in the fertilization rates in a concentration-dependent manner, targeting mainly the oocytes. Exposure to this metal ions induced also delays or blockages in the embryonic development. For lead ion exposure, no such effect was observed. For the exposure to the mixture of the two metal ions, concerning the fertilization success, we observed results similar to those obtained with the highest cadmium ion concentration.

  6. Environmental Exposure to Cadmium: Health Risk Assessment and its Associations with Hypertension and Impaired Kidney Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyun; Liao, Qilin; Chillrud, Steven N.; Yang, Qiang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Yan, Beizhan

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal. This study was aimed to estimate the potential health risks in a Cd-polluted district in China, and examine the relationship between urinary cadmium(UCd) and hypertension and impaired kidney function at low exposure levels (UCd: GM 1.3 μg/g creatinine). Blood pressure measurement, questionnaires, and collection of urinary samples were conducted from 217 residents. Environmental samples, food, and cigarette samples were collected and detected to estimate the risks posed by Cd and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact pathways to these risks. A logistic regression model was used in examining associations between exposure and hypertension and impaired kidney function. Results show that this population is at high risk. For non-smokers, incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and hazard quotient (HQ) are 1.74E-04 and 2.96, and for smokers, they are 1.07E-03 and 52.5, respectively. Among all exposure pathways, smoking and foods cause the major increases in ILCR and HQ. UCd is significantly associated with hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 1.468 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.104, 1.953; P = 0.008) and impaired kidney function (OR = 1.902, 95% CI: 1.054, 3.432; P = 0.033). The results demonstrate that Cd can potentially lead to adverse health effects.

  7. Exposure determinants of cadmium in European mothers and their children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Marika, E-mail: marika.berglund@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, Kristin; Grandér, Margaretha [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Casteleyn, Ludwine [University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda [Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Berlin (Germany); Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Intitute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid (Spain); Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M.; Schindler, Birgit K. [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance—Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA) (Germany); Schoeters, Greet; Smolders, Roel [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health, Mol (Belgium); Exley, Karen; Sepai, Ovnair [Public Health England, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Blumen, Luies [Environmental Health Sciences International, Hulst (Netherlands); Horvat, Milena [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Mørck, Thit A. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen (UCPH), Copenhagen (Denmark); Joas, Anke [BiPRO GmbH, Munich (Germany); and others

    2015-08-15

    The metal cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant with documented adverse effects on the kidneys and bones from long-term environmental exposure, but with insufficiently elucidated public health consequences such as risk of cardiovascular disease, hormone-related cancer in adults and developmental effects in children. This study is the first pan-European human biomonitoring project that succeeded in performing harmonized measurements of Cd in urine in a comparable way in mother–child couples from 16 European countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the overall Cd exposure and significant determinants of Cd exposure. A study population of 1632 women (24–52 years of age), and 1689 children (5–12 years of age), from 32 rural and urban areas, was examined within a core period of 6 months in 2011–2012. Women were stratified as smokers and non-smokers. As expected, smoking mothers had higher geometric mean (gm) urinary cadmium (UCd; 0.24 µg/g crea; n=360) than non-smoking mothers (gm 0.18 µg/g crea; n=1272; p<0.0001), and children had lower UCd (gm 0.065 µg/g crea; n=1689) than their mothers at the country level. Non-smoking women exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home had 14% (95% CI 1–28%) higher UCd than those who were not exposed to ETS at home (p=0.04). No influence of ETS at home or other places on UCd levels was detected in children. Smoking women with primary education as the highest educational level of the household had 48% (95% CI 18–86%) higher UCd than those with tertiary education (p=0.0008). The same observation was seen in non-smoking women and in children; however they were not statistically significant. In children, living in a rural area was associated with 7% (95% CI 1–13%) higher UCd (p=0.03) compared to living in an urban area. Children, 9–12 years had 7% (95% CI 1–13%) higher UCd (p=0.04) than children 5–8 years. About 1% of the mothers, and 0.06% of the children, exceeded the tolerable

  8. Chronic cadmium exposure in vitro induces cancer cell characteristics in human lung cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Person, Rachel J.; Tokar, Erik J.; Xu, Yuanyuan; Orihuela, Ruben; Ngalame, Ntube N. Olive; Waalkes, Michael P., E-mail: waalkes@niehs.nih.gov

    2013-12-01

    Cadmium is a known human lung carcinogen. Here, we attempt to develop an in vitro model of cadmium-induced human lung carcinogenesis by chronically exposing the peripheral lung epithelia cell line, HPL-1D, to a low level of cadmium. Cells were chronically exposed to 5 μM cadmium, a noncytotoxic level, and monitored for acquired cancer characteristics. By 20 weeks of continuous cadmium exposure, these chronic cadmium treated lung (CCT-LC) cells showed marked increases in secreted MMP-2 activity (3.5-fold), invasion (3.4-fold), and colony formation in soft agar (2-fold). CCT-LC cells were hyperproliferative, grew well in serum-free media, and overexpressed cyclin D1. The CCT-LC cells also showed decreased expression of the tumor suppressor genes p16 and SLC38A3 at the protein levels. Also consistent with an acquired cancer cell phenotype, CCT-LC cells showed increased expression of the oncoproteins K-RAS and N-RAS as well as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition marker protein Vimentin. Metallothionein (MT) expression is increased by cadmium, and is typically overexpressed in human lung cancers. The major MT isoforms, MT-1A and MT-2A were elevated in CCT-LC cells. Oxidant adaptive response genes HO-1 and HIF-1A were also activated in CCT-LC cells. Expression of the metal transport genes ZNT-1, ZNT-5, and ZIP-8 increased in CCT-LC cells culminating in reduced cadmium accumulation, suggesting adaptation to the metal. Overall, these data suggest that exposure of human lung epithelial cells to cadmium causes acquisition of cancer cell characteristics. Furthermore, transformation occurs despite the cell's ability to adapt to chronic cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Chronic cadmium exposure induces cancer cell characteristics in human lung cells. • This provides an in vitro model of cadmium-induced human lung cell transformation. • This occurred with general and lung specific changes typical for cancer cells. • These findings add insight to the

  9. Chronic Exposure to Cadmium Disrupts the Adrenal Gland Activity of the Newt Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaminia Gay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We intended to verify the safety of the freshwater values established for cadmium by the European Community and the Italian Ministry of Health in drinking water (5 μg/L and sewage waters (20 μg/L. Therefore, we chronically exposed the newt Triturus carnifex to 5 μg/L and 20 μg/L doses of cadmium, respectively, during 3 and 9 months and verified the effects on the adrenal gland. We evaluated the serum concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, corticosterone, aldosterone, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. During the 3-month exposure, both doses of cadmium decreased ACTH and corticosterone serum levels and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels. During the 9-month exposure, the 5 μg/L dose decreased ACTH and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels; the 20 μg/L dose decreased norepinephrine and epinephrine serum levels, without affecting the other hormones. It was concluded that (1 chronic exposure to the safety values established for cadmium disrupted the adrenal gland activity and (2 the effects of cadmium were related both to the length of exposure and the dose administered. Moreover, our results suggest probable risks to human health, due to the use of water contaminated by cadmium.

  10. Chronic Exposure to Cadmium Disrupts the Adrenal Gland Activity of the Newt Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Flaminia; Laforgia, Vincenza; Caputo, Ivana; Esposito, Carla; Lepretti, Marilena

    2013-01-01

    We intended to verify the safety of the freshwater values established for cadmium by the European Community and the Italian Ministry of Health in drinking water (5 μg/L) and sewage waters (20 μg/L). Therefore, we chronically exposed the newt Triturus carnifex to 5 μg/L and 20 μg/L doses of cadmium, respectively, during 3 and 9 months and verified the effects on the adrenal gland. We evaluated the serum concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone, aldosterone, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. During the 3-month exposure, both doses of cadmium decreased ACTH and corticosterone serum levels and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels. During the 9-month exposure, the 5 μg/L dose decreased ACTH and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels; the 20 μg/L dose decreased norepinephrine and epinephrine serum levels, without affecting the other hormones. It was concluded that (1) chronic exposure to the safety values established for cadmium disrupted the adrenal gland activity and (2) the effects of cadmium were related both to the length of exposure and the dose administered. Moreover, our results suggest probable risks to human health, due to the use of water contaminated by cadmium. PMID:23971036

  11. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeppler, M. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie); Piscator, M. (Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Hygiene) (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings contain the 18 papers presented at the workshop. They are dealing with the following themes: Toxicity, carcinogenesis and metabolism of cadmium, epidemiology; environmental occurrence; quantitative analysis and quality assessment. (MG) With 57 figs., 79 tabs.

  12. Toxicological impact of cadmium-based quantum dots towards aquatic biota: Effect of natural sunlight exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, B.F. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Andreani, T. [Centro de Investigação em Química da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CITAB − Centre for Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, Vila Real (Portugal); Gavina, A., E-mail: anacsgavina@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Vieira, M.N. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Pereira, C.M. [Centro de Investigação em Química da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Rocha-Santos, T. [Department of Chemistry and Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); and others

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Under sunlight exposure, all QDs form particle aggregates in the different media. • CdSeS/ZnS QDs showed lower toxic effects to V. fischeri before sunlight exposure. • Sunlight exposure decreased the toxicity of CdS 480 in all organisms. • Sunlight exposure increased the toxicity of CdS 380 QDs for D. magna. • Shell of QDs seemed to make them less harmful to aquatic organisms. - Abstract: Cadmium-based quantum dots (QDs) are increasingly applied in existent and emerging technologies, especially in biological applications due to their exceptional photophysical and functionalization properties. However, they are very toxic compounds due to the high reactive and toxic cadmium core. The present study aimed to determine the toxicity of three different QDs (CdS 380, CdS 480 and CdSeS/ZnS) before and after the exposure of suspensions to sunlight, in order to assess the effect of environmentally relevant irradiation levels in their toxicity, which will act after their release to the environment. Therefore, a battery of ecotoxicological tests was performed with organisms that cover different functional and trophic levels, such as Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna. The results showed that core-shell type QDs showed lower toxic effects to V. fischeri in comparison to core type QDs before sunlight exposure. However, after sunlight exposure, there was a decrease of CdS 380 and CdS 480 QD toxicity to bacterium. Also, after sunlight exposure, an effective decrease of CdSeS/ZnS and CdS 480 toxicity for D. magna and R. subcapitata, and an evident increase in CdS 380 QD toxicity, at least for D. magna, were observed. The results of this study suggest that sunlight exposure has an effect in the aggregation and precipitation reactions of larger QDs, causing the degradation of functional groups and formation of larger bulks which may be less prone to photo-oxidation due to their diminished surface area. The same

  13. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas [Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lidfeldt, Jonas [Department of Community Health, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden); Samsioe, Göran [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Halldin, Krister [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Åkesson, Agneta, E-mail: agneta.akesson@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  14. Using expression profiling to understand the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelmina Lubovac-Pilav

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a metalloestrogen known to activate the estrogen receptor and promote breast cancer cell growth. Previous studies have implicated cadmium in the development of more malignant tumors; however the molecular mechanisms behind this cadmium-induced malignancy remain elusive. Using clonal cell lines derived from exposing breast cancer cells to cadmium for over 6 months (MCF-7-Cd4, -Cd6, -Cd7, -Cd8 and -Cd12, this study aims to identify gene expression signatures associated with chronic cadmium exposure. Our results demonstrate that prolonged cadmium exposure does not merely result in the deregulation of genes but actually leads to a distinctive expression profile. The genes deregulated in cadmium-exposed cells are involved in multiple biological processes (i.e. cell growth, apoptosis, etc. and molecular functions (i.e. cadmium/metal ion binding, transcription factor activity, etc.. Hierarchical clustering demonstrates that the five clonal cadmium cell lines share a common gene expression signature of breast cancer associated genes, clearly differentiating control cells from cadmium exposed cells. The results presented in this study offer insights into the cellular and molecular impacts of cadmium on breast cancer and emphasize the importance of studying chronic cadmium exposure as one possible mechanism of promoting breast cancer progression.

  15. Using expression profiling to understand the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubovac-Pilav, Zelmina; Borràs, Daniel M; Ponce, Esmeralda; Louie, Maggie C

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is a metalloestrogen known to activate the estrogen receptor and promote breast cancer cell growth. Previous studies have implicated cadmium in the development of more malignant tumors; however the molecular mechanisms behind this cadmium-induced malignancy remain elusive. Using clonal cell lines derived from exposing breast cancer cells to cadmium for over 6 months (MCF-7-Cd4, -Cd6, -Cd7, -Cd8 and -Cd12), this study aims to identify gene expression signatures associated with chronic cadmium exposure. Our results demonstrate that prolonged cadmium exposure does not merely result in the deregulation of genes but actually leads to a distinctive expression profile. The genes deregulated in cadmium-exposed cells are involved in multiple biological processes (i.e. cell growth, apoptosis, etc.) and molecular functions (i.e. cadmium/metal ion binding, transcription factor activity, etc.). Hierarchical clustering demonstrates that the five clonal cadmium cell lines share a common gene expression signature of breast cancer associated genes, clearly differentiating control cells from cadmium exposed cells. The results presented in this study offer insights into the cellular and molecular impacts of cadmium on breast cancer and emphasize the importance of studying chronic cadmium exposure as one possible mechanism of promoting breast cancer progression.

  16. Physiological responses of the hybrid larch (Larix × eurolepis Henry) to cadmium exposure and distribution of cadmium in plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Amandine; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne; Faugeron, Céline; Gloaguen, Vincent; Saladin, Gaëlle

    2016-05-01

    Phytoextraction of Cd is a growing biotechnology although we currently know few Cd hyperaccumulators, i.e., plant species able to accumulate at least 0.1 mg Cd g(-1) dry weight in aerial organs. Owing their deep root system and high biomass, trees are more and more preferred to herbaceous species for phytoextraction. Assuming that conifers could be relevant models under cold climates, we investigated cadmium tolerance of the hybrid larch Larix × eurolepis Henry (Larix decidua × Larix kaempferi) and the efficiency of this species to store this metal. In vitro grown larches were chosen in order to reduce time of exposure and to more rapidly evaluate their potential efficiency to accumulate Cd. One-month-old plantlets were exposed for 2 and 4 weeks to 250 and 500 μM Cd. Results showed that they tolerated a 4-week exposure to 250 μM Cd, whereas the content of photosynthetic pigment strongly dropped in plantlets growing in the presence of 500 μM Cd. In the presence of 250 μM Cd, shoot growth slightly decreased but photosynthetic pigment and total soluble carbohydrate contents were not modified and no lipid peroxidation was detected. In addition, these plantlets accumulated proline, particularly in shoots (two to three times more than control). In roots, Cd concentration in the intracellular fraction was always higher than in the cell wall fraction contrary to shoots where Cd concentration in the cell wall fraction increased with time and Cd concentration in the medium. In shoots, Cd concentration was lower than in roots with a ratio of 0.2 after 4 weeks of exposure but stayed around 0.2 mg g(-1) dry weight, thus a value higher than the threshold requested for Cd hyperaccumulators. Hybrid larch would thus be a relevant candidate for field test of Cd phytoextraction.

  17. Cadmium exposure in association with history of stroke and heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Junenette L., E-mail: jpeters@hsph.harvard.edu [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center, P.O. Box 15697, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Perlstein, Todd S. [Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Perry, Melissa J.; McNeely, Eileen [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center, P.O. Box 15697, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Weuve, Jennifer [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center, P.O. Box 15697, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Rush Institute for Healthy Aging, Rush University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Background: It is unclear whether environmental cadmium exposure is associated with cardiovascular disease, although recent data suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of measured cadmium exposure with stroke and heart failure (HF) in the general population. Methods: We analyzed data from 12,049 participants, aged 30 years and older, in the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for whom information was available on body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and socio-demographic characteristics. Results: At their interviews, 492 persons reported a history of stroke, and 471 a history of HF. After adjusting for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors, a 50% increase in blood cadmium corresponded to a 35% increased odds of prevalent stroke [OR: 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-1.65] and a 50% increase in urinary cadmium corresponded to a 9% increase in prevalent stroke [OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00-1.19]. This association was higher among women [OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.11-1.72] than men [OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 0.93-1.79] (p-value for interaction=0.05). A 50% increase in blood cadmium corresponded to a 48% increased odds of prevalent HF [OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.17-1.87] and a 50% increase in urinary cadmium corresponded to a 12% increase in prevalent HF [OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03-1.20], with no difference in sex-specific associations. Conclusions: Environmental exposure to cadmium was associated with significantly increased stroke and heart failure prevalence. Cadmium exposure may increase these important manifestations of cardiovascular disease.

  18. Lead and cadmium exposure in children living around a coal-mining area in Yataan, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulcin Yapici; Gunay Can; Ali Riza Kiziler (and others) [Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey). Department of Public Health

    2006-09-15

    The study was designed to determine asymptomatic lead poisoning prevalence and cadmium exposure of preschool children living in a coal-mining area in Yataan, Mugla, Turkey. The research was conducted between May and June 2002. The study included 236 healthy children (53.4% female and 46.6% male) between the ages of 6 months and 6 years. Assessments of the levels of blood lead and cadmium were performed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Themean blood lead level of the males was higher than the females.There was a negative correlation between blood lead level and age in both sex groups. The blood lead level was found to be > 10 {mu}g/dL in 95.7% and > 20 {mu}g/dL in 87.6% of all children. The mean blood cadmium level of all children was 1.31{+-}0.72 mg/dL. The blood cadmium level was found to be > 0.5 {mu}g/dL, which is considered to be toxic, in 85% of all children. The difference in blood cadmium levels between sexes was not significant. A negative correlation was found between blood cadmium level and age of all children. Although it is not possible to understand from this study what proportion of the biological lead and cadmium burden results from mining waste and what proportion comes from other sources, these results indicate that asymptomatic lead poisoning and cadmium exposure are significant problems in children living in the Yataan area. Environmental lead measurements must be performed, the results must be compared with the normal limits, and precautions must be taken if necessary in the Yataan area. Public health research efforts should focus on reducing the excessive levels of lead and cadmium in the environment.

  19. Dietary cadmium exposure and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julin, Bettina; Wolk, Alicja; Bergkvist, Leif; Bottai, Matteo; Akesson, Agneta

    2012-03-15

    The ubiquitous food contaminant cadmium has features of an estrogen mimetic that may promote the development of estrogen-dependent malignancies, such as breast cancer. However, no prospective studies of cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk have been reported. We examined the association between dietary cadmium exposure (at baseline, 1987) and the risk of overall and estrogen receptor (ER)-defined (ER(+) or ER(-)) breast cancer within a population-based prospective cohort of 55,987 postmenopausal women. During an average of 12.2 years of follow-up, 2,112 incident cases of invasive breast cancer were ascertained (1,626 ER(+) and 290 ER(-)). After adjusting for confounders, including consumption of whole grains and vegetables (which account for 40% of the dietary exposure, but also contain putative anticarcinogenic phytochemicals), dietary cadmium intake was positively associated with overall breast cancer tumors, comparing the highest tertile with the lowest [rate ratio (RR), 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.36; P(trend) = 0.02]. Among lean and normal weight women, statistically significant associations were observed for all tumors (RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.50) and for ER(+) tumors (RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.03-1.52) and similar, but not statistically significant associations were found for ER(-) tumors (RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.76-1.93). The risk of breast cancer increased with increasing cadmium exposure similarly within each tertile of whole grain/vegetable consumption and decreased with increasing consumption of whole grain/vegetables within each tertile of cadmium exposure (P(interaction) = 0.73). Overall, these results suggest a role for dietary cadmium in postmenopausal breast cancer development.

  20. Dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and nickel among students from the south-east region of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Marzec

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of cadmium, lead and nickel was determined among students from three universities in Lublin to assess the levels of exposure to these contaminants compared to PTWI and TDI values. The study was performed in 2006–2010 and involved 850 daily food rations of students from the south–east region of Poland. The technique of 24-hour dietary recall and diet duplicates was used. Cadmium, lead and nickel complexes with ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate were formed and extracted to the organic phase with 4-methylpentan-2-one – MIBK in which their content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest intake of the elements studied was observed in 2008. The data show that in none of the cases, the level of intake reached 70 % of PTWI/TDI values and thus the risk of developing diseases related to high exposure to these toxic metals absorbed from foodstuffs was low. The parameters of methods were checked during determinations by adding standard solutions to the samples before mineralization and by using two reference materials: Total diet ARC/CL HDP and Bovine muscle RM NIST 8414. The dietary exposure to lead and cadmium has significantly decreased in recent years whereas the exposures to nickel remain on stable levels.

  1. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in soft tissues of the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852) after exposure to zinc and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranhao, P.; Marques, J.C.; Madeira, V.M.C.

    1999-08-01

    Zinc and cadmium concentrations in crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) soft tissues (as edible portion) were measured after exposure to zinc and cadmium at 0, 25, 50, or 100 {micro}g/L for 96 h at 10 or 20 C, and compared to environmental standards for human consumption. Results demonstrated that no significant change occurred in the concentrations of zinc in soft tissues of crayfish under the given conditions. Net accumulation of cadmium was observed at all experimental exposures, and exceeded the maximum allowed for human consumption only for those crayfish exposed to 100 {micro}g/L at 20 C.

  2. Catalase Activity in Brown Mussels (Perna perna) under Acute Cadmium, Lead, and Copper Exposure and Depuration Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boudjema, Kamel; Kourdali, Sidali; Bounakous, Nabila; Meknachi, Abdellah; Badis, Abdelmalek

    2014-01-01

      Brown mussels (Perna perna) were exposed to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) concentrations under acute exposure and exposure-depuration tests for the estimation of biochemical biomarker catalase...

  3. Environmental cadmium and lead exposure and anti-Müllerian hormone in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P S; Bonde, J P; Bungum, L

    2016-01-01

    -AMH. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The associations between serum-AMH and whole blood cadmium or lead were investigated by general linear models in a population-based sample of 117 pregnant women. RESULTS: The mean concentrations of blood cadmium and lead were 0.71μg/L and 17.4μg/L, respectively. The mean serum......BACKGROUND: Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) has been suggested as a marker for ovarian function. Cadmium and lead have been suggested to reduce female fecundity. In this study we aimed to investigate whether environmental exposure to cadmium and lead was associated with alterations in serum......-AMH was 17.3pmol/L. No association between lead and AMH was detected. In the cadmium analysis the adjusted mean AMH level (95% CI) in the highest exposure tertile was 12.4 (6.4;23.8) compared to 5.6 (2.7;11.4) in the lowest exposure tertile (p=0.06). CONCLUSION: The study provides suggestive evidence...

  4. Acute and chronic cadmium exposure promotes E-cadherin degradation in MCF7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Esmeralda; Louie, Maggie C; Sevigny, Mary B

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium is an environmental carcinogen that usually enters the body at minute concentrations through diet or cigarette smoke and bioaccumulates in soft tissues. In past studies, cadmium has been shown to contribute to the development of more aggressive cancer phenotypes including increased cell migration and invasion. This study aims to determine if cadmium exposure-both acute and chronic-contributes to breast cancer progression by interfering with the normal functional relationship between E-cadherin and β-catenin. An MCF7 breast cancer cell line (MCF7-Cd) chronically exposed to 10(-7)  M CdCl2 was previously developed and used as a model system to study chronic exposures, whereas parental MCF7 cells exposed to 10(-6)  M CdCl2 for short periods of time were used to study acute exposures. Cadmium exposure of MCF7 cells led to the degradation of the E-cadherin protein via the ubiquitination pathway. This resulted in fewer E-cadherin/β-catenin complexes and the relocation of active β-catenin to the nucleus, where it interacted with transcription factor TCF-4 to modulate gene expression. Interestingly, only cells chronically exposed to cadmium showed a significant decrease in the localization of β-catenin to the plasma membrane and an increased distance between cells. Our data suggest that cadmium exposure promotes breast cancer progression by (1) down-regulating E-cadherin, thus decreasing the number of E-cadherin/β-catenin adhesion complexes, and (2) enhancing the nuclear translocation of β-catenin to increase expression of cancer-promoting proteins (i.e., c-Jun and cyclin D1).

  5. Application of Benchmark Dose (BMD) in Estimating Biological Exposure Limit (BEL) to Cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To estimate the biological exposure limit (BEL) using benchmark dose (BMD) based on two sets of data from occupational epidemiology. Methods Cadmium-exposed workers were selected from a cadmium smelting factory and a zinc product factory. Doctors, nurses or shop assistants living in the same area served as a control group. Urinary cadmium (UCd) was used as an exposure biomarker and urinary β2-microgloburin (B2M), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and albumin (ALB) as effect biomarkers. All urine parameters were adjusted by urinary creatinine. Software of BMDS (Version 1.3.2, EPA.U.S.A) was used to calculate BMD. Results The cut-off point (abnormal values) was determined based on the upper limit of 95% of effect biomarkers in control group. There was a significant dose response relationship between the effect biomarkers (urinary B2M, NAG, and ALB) and exposure biomarker (UCd). BEL value was 5 μg/g creatinine for UB2M as an effect biomarker, consistent with the recommendation of WHO. BEL could be estimated by using the method of BMD. BEL value was 3 μg/g creatinine for UNAG as an effect biomarker. The more sensitive the used biomarker is, the more occupational population will be protected. Conclusion BMD can be used in estimating the biological exposure limit (BEL). UNAG is a sensitive biomarker for estimating BEL after cadmium exposure.

  6. Thiol peptides induction in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum (Banks ex Koenig) in response to cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Legorreta, Teresa [Departamento de Recursos del Mar, CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad Merida, Apdo. Postal 73-Cordemex, Merida, Yucatan 97310 (Mexico); Mendoza-Cozatl, David; Moreno-Sanchez, Rafael [Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Mexico D.F. 14080 (Mexico); Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo [Departamento de Recursos del Mar, CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad Merida, Apdo. Postal 73-Cordemex, Merida, Yucatan 97310 (Mexico)], E-mail: gold@mda.cinvestav.mx

    2008-01-20

    Trace metal accumulation and thiol compounds synthesis as induced by cadmium exposure was studied in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Shoots were exposed for 24, 48, 96 and 144 h to several CdCl{sub 2} concentrations (0, 30, 50 and 70 {mu}M). Levels of cadmium, cysteine, glutathione (GSH), {gamma}-glutamylcysteine ({gamma}-EC), and phytochelatin-like peptides were determined in green blades, live sheaths and root/rhizomes tissues. Metal accumulation was dependent on Cd concentration and type of tissue, with green blades showing the highest content followed by live sheaths and root/rhizomes. All tissues experienced an increase in thiol-containing compounds as a response to cadmium exposure. Live sheaths showed the highest levels of cysteine, GSH and {gamma}-EC. This is the first report of induction of thiol peptides, presumably phytochelatins, by a trace metal in a sea grass species.

  7. Immunological, hematological and biochemical changes induced by short term exposure to cadmium in catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Said El-Boshy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the hematological, biochemical and immunological changes in catfish (Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus experimental exposed to cadmium. Methods: C. gariepinus were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd (0, 2, 5, and 10 mg/L for 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected for assessing some hematological, biochemical and immunological studies at the end of experiment. Results: The results showed marked normocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia and lymphopenia in 5, 10 mg/L in cadmium exposed fish. Also the blood level activities of ALT and AST significantly increased, as well as glucose, creatinine, urea, potassium and uric acid. Meanwhile total protein, albumin and sodium were significantly decreased at 5, 10 mg/L of cadmium exposed fish. The immunological parameters in cadmium exposed experimental dose groups decreased serum bactericidal activity, lysozyme, neutrophils adhesion test as well as decreased resistance to Aeromonas hydrophilla with increasing exposure dose seemed to correspond with suppressive of non-specific immune functions. Conclusions: The treatment of C. gariepinus with cadmium under the same conditions had immunosuppressive and decrease diseases resistance in a dose-dependent effect

  8. Immunological, hematological and biochemical changes induced by short term exposure to cadmium in catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed El-Said El-Boshy; Hossam Ali Gadalla; Fatma Mostafa Abd El-Hamied

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hematological, biochemical and immunological changes in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) (C. gariepinus) experimental exposed to cadmium. Methods: C. gariepinus were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) (0, 2, 5, and 10 mg/L) for 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected for assessing some hematological, biochemical and immunological studies at the end of experiment. Results:neutrophilia and lymphopenia in 5, 10 mg/L in cadmium exposed fish. Also the blood level activities of ALT and AST significantly increased, as well as glucose, creatinine, urea, potassium and uric acid. Meanwhile total protein, albumin and sodium were significantly decreased at 5, 10 mg/L of cadmium exposed fish. The immunological parameters in cadmium exposed experimental dose groups decreased serum bactericidal activity, lysozyme, neutrophils adhesion test as well as decreased resistance to Aeromonas hydrophilla with increasing exposure dose seemed to correspond with suppressive of non-specific immune functions. Conclusions: The treatment of C. gariepinus with cadmium under the same conditions had immunosuppressive and decrease diseases resistance in a dose-dependent effect.

  9. Cadmium exposure and the risk of breast cancer in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Chisato; Nagao, Yasuko; Nakamura, Kozue; Wada, Keiko; Tamai, Yuya; Tsuji, Michiko; Yamamoto, Satoru; Kashiki, Yoshitomo

    2013-02-01

    Non-occupational exposure to cadmium has been suspected to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The present study examined the association between urinary cadmium level and the risk of breast cancer in a case-control study among Japanese women. Cases were 153 women newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed with breast cancer at a general hospital in Gifu, Japan. A total of 431 controls individually matched to cases by age, menopausal status, and the period of urine sampling were selected from those who attended a breast cancer mass screening at this hospital. Urinary cadmium levels were measured using spot urine samples. Spot urine samples were collected from cases after surgery but before any cancer therapy. For controls, spot urine samples were obtained at the date of the screening visit. Information on known or suggested breast cancer risk factors was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer according to the tertile of the creatinine-adjusted cadmium level were calculated using conditional logistic regression models. Women in the highest tertile of the creatinine-adjusted cadmium level (>2.620 μg/g) had significantly elevated OR of breast cancer relative to those in the lowest tertile (cadmium level was also statistically significant [OR = 1.67, (95 % CI 1.39, 2.01) for every 1.0 μg/g increase in urinary cadmium level, P-trend cadmium was associated with a risk of breast cancer in Japanese women.

  10. Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard [Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, Sundong, E-mail: sdlee@sangji.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, Kangwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 {mu}g/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 {mu}g/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

  11. Patterns of gene expression in carp liver after exposure to a mixture of waterborne and dietary cadmium using a custom-made microarray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynders, Hans [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: hans.reynders@ua.ac.be; Ven, Karlijn van der [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Moens, Lotte N. [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Remortel, Piet van [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Intelligent Systems Laboratory, University of Antwerp, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); De Coen, Wim M. [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2006-11-16

    Gene expression changes in carp liver tissue were studied after acute (3 and 24 h) and subchronic (7 and 28 days) exposure to a mixture of waterborne (9, 105 and 480 {mu}g/l) and dietary (9.5, 122 and 144 {mu}g/g) cadmium, using a custom-made microarray. Suppression subtractive hybridization-PCR (SSH-PCR) was applied to isolate a set of 643 liver genes, involved in multiple biological pathways, such as energy metabolism (e.g. glucokinase), immune response (e.g. complement C3) and stress and detoxification (e.g. cytochrome P450 2F2, glutathione-S-transferase pi). These genes were subsequently spotted on glass-slides for the construction of a custom-made microarray. Resulting microarray hybridizations indicated a highly dynamic response to cadmium exposure. At low exposure concentrations (9 {mu}g/l through water and 9.5 {mu}g/g dry weight through food) mostly energy-related genes (e.g. glucokinase, elastase) were influenced, while a general stress response was obvious through induction of several stress-related genes, including hemopexin and cytochrome P450 2F2, at high cadmium concentrations. In addition, fish exposed to the highest cadmium concentrations showed liver damage after 7 days of exposure, as measured by elevated alanine transaminase activity in plasma and increased liver water content (wet-to-dry weight ratio). Moreover, decreased hematocrit and growth were found at the end of the experiment. Altogether this study clearly demonstrated the importance of varying exposure conditions for the characterization of the molecular impact of cadmium and showed that microarray results can provide important information, required to unravel the molecular events and responses related to cadmium exposure.

  12. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Esquinas, Esther, E-mail: esthergge@gmail.com [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Environmental Epidemiology and Cancer Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  13. Adaptive responses and latent costs of multigeneration cadmium exposure in parasite resistant and susceptible strains of a freshwater snail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salice, Christopher J.; Anderson, Todd; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2010-11-01

    Population response to anthropogenic activities will be influenced by prior adaptation to environmental conditions. We tested how parasite-resistant and -susceptible strains of a freshwater snail responded to cadmium and elevated temperature challenges after having been exposed to low-level cadmium continuously for multiple generations. Snails exposed to cadmium for three generations were removed for the fourth generation, and challenged in the fifth generation with (1) chronic cadmium exposure over the entire life cycle, (2) acute cadmium exposure of adults, and (3) elevated temperature challenge of adults. The parasite susceptible NMRI strain is more cadmium tolerant than the parasite resistant BS90 strain and remained more tolerant than BS90 throughout this study. Additionally, NMRI exhibited greater adaptive capacity for cadmium than BS90 and became more tolerant of both chronic and acute cadmium challenges, while BS90 became more tolerant of acute cadmium challenge only. Fitness costs, reflected in population growth rate, were not apparent in fifth generation snails maintained in cadmium-free conditions. However, costs were latent and expressed as decreased tolerance to a secondarily imposed temperature stress. Adaptation to prior selection pressures can influence subsequent adaptation to anthropogenic stresses and may have associated costs that reduce fitness in novel environments.

  14. Human exposure to mercury, lead and cadmium through consumption of canned mackerel, tuna, pilchard and sardine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyere, H; Voegborlo, R B; Agorku, S E

    2015-07-15

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations were determined in canned fish on the Ghanaian market. Total mercury was determined using an automatic mercury analyzer while cadmium and lead levels were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The metal contents in the samples, expressed in μg g(-1) (wet weight), varied from canned fish from the Ghanaian market have concentrations well below the permissible FAO/WHO for these toxic metals. Thus considering the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of Hg, Pb and Cd the levels obtained in this study are unlikely to constitute a significant exposure to the public through consumption of moderate amounts.

  15. Histopathological alterations of white seabass, Lates calcarifer, in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thophon, S.; Kruatrachue, M.; Upatham, E.S.; Pokethitiyook, P.; Sahaphong, S.; Jaritkhuan, S

    2003-03-01

    White seabass responded differently to cadmium at chronic and subchronic levels. - Histopathological alterations to white seabass, Lates calcarifer aged 3 months in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The 96-h LC{sub 50} values of cadmium to L. calcarifer was found to be 20.12{+-}0.61 mg/l and the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was 7.79 mg/l. Fish were exposed to 10 and 0.8 mg/l of Cd (as CdCl{sub 2}H{sub 2}O) for 96 h and 90 days, respectively. The study showed that gill lamellae and kidney tubules were the primary target organs for the acute toxic effect of cadmium while in the subchronic exposure, the toxic effect to gills was less than that of kidney and liver. Gill alterations included edema of the epithelial cells with the breakdown of pillar cell system, aneurisms with some ruptures, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of epithelial and chloride cells. The liver showed blood congestion in sinusoids and hydropic swelling of hepatocytes, vacuolation and dark granule accumulation. Lipid droplets and glycogen content were observed in hepatocytes at the second and third month of subchronic exposure. The kidney showed hydropic swelling of tubular cell vacuolation and numerous dark granule accumulation in many tubules. Tubular degeneration and necrosis were seen in some areas.

  16. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data ...... or crushed linseed nor the intake of cocoa and chocolate....

  17. Variance and covariance heterogeneity analysis for detection of metabolites associated with cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Beatriz Valcarcel; Ebbels, Timothy M D; Iorio, Maria De

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we propose a novel statistical framework for detecting progressive changes in molecular traits as response to a pathogenic stimulus. In particular, we propose to employ Bayesian hierarchical models to analyse changes in mean level, variance and correlation of metabolic traits in relation to covariates. To illustrate our approach we investigate changes in urinary metabolic traits in response to cadmium exposure, a toxic environmental pollutant. With the application of the proposed approach, previously unreported variations in the metabolism of urinary metabolites in relation to urinary cadmium were identified. Our analysis highlights the potential effect of urinary cadmium on the variance and correlation of a number of metabolites involved in the metabolism of choline as well as changes in urinary alanine. The results illustrate the potential of the proposed approach to investigate the gradual effect of pathogenic stimulus in molecular traits.

  18. Cadmium-zinc accumulation and photosystem II responses of Noccaea caerulescens to Cd and Zn exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayçu, Gülriz; Gevrek-Kürüm, Nurbir; Moustaka, Julietta; Csatári, István; Rognes, Sven Erik; Moustakas, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A population of the metallophyte Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens originating from a Zn-enriched area at Røros Copper Mine (Norway) was studied. N. caerulescens tolerance to accumulate Cd and Zn was evaluated in hydroponic experiments by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging analysis. In the field-collected N. caerulescens mother plants, Zn shoot concentrations were above Zn hyperaccumulation threshold while, in hydroponic experiments under 40-μM Cd exposure, shoot Cd concentrations were clearly above Cd hyperaccumulation threshold. Cadmium ions and, to a less extent, Zn were mainly retained in the roots. Exposure to Cd enhanced Zn translocation to the shoot, while decreased significant total Ca(2+) uptake, suggesting that Cd uptake occurs through Ca(2+) transporters. Nevertheless, it increased Ca(2+) translocation to the leaf, possibly for photoprotection of photosystem II (PSII). Exposure to 800 μM Zn or 40 μM Cd resulted in increased Fe(3+) uptake suggesting that in N. caerulescens, Cd uptake does not take place through the pathway of Fe(3+) uptake and that conditions that lead to Cd and Zn accumulation in plants may also favor Fe accumulation. Despite the significant high toxicity levels of Zn and Cd in leaves, under Zn and Cd exposure, respectively, the allocation of absorbed light energy at PSII did not differ compared to controls. The results showed that N. caerulescens keep Cd and Zn concentrations in the mesophyll cells in non-toxic forms for PSII and that the increased Ca and Fe accumulation in leaves alleviates the toxicity effects. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging revealed that PSII of N. caerulescens resisted better the phytotoxic effects of 20 times higher Zn than Cd exposure concentration. Overall, it is concluded that the use of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging constitutes a promising basis for investigating heavy metal tolerance of plants.

  19. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  20. Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils by young Douglas fir trees: effects of cadmium exposure on cell wall composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astier, Cédric; Gloaguen, Vincent; Faugeron, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Douglas fir trees grown on an artificially Cd-contaminated soil, can tolerate this trace element (up to 68 mg/kg in soil) during several months. Most of the absorbed Cd is retained in roots (25 mg/kg DM), but transfer to aerial part is also effective. Showing the highest content, up to 6 mg/kg DM, among all the aboveground parts, barks seem to be a preferred storage compartment. However, the transfer factor is quite low, about 0.3. Another objective of this study was to compare the cell wall components of trees exposed to increasing Cd amounts in soil. A decrease in lignin and an increase in pectin contents were observed in response to increasing soil cadmium concentration. A concurrent reduction in methyl-esterification of pectin suggests than the structure of this major binding site could therefore be modified as a reaction to cadmium contamination. Future prospects will focus on the modulation of pectin composition in response to Cd exposure.

  1. Cadmium substituted high permeability lithium ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Bellad; S C Watawe; A M Shaikh; B K Chougule

    2000-04-01

    Polycrystalline Li0.5–/2 Cd Fe2.5–/2O4 ferrites where = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 were prepared by a double sintering ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The lattice parameter is found to increase monotonically with the cadmium content. It is explained in terms of the sizes of component ions. The grain size of the samples increases up to = 0.3 and then it decreases for higher values of . A similar trend is observed in the variation of Ms with Cd2+ content. The initial permeability () is however found to increase continuously with . The increase in is attributed to decrease of anisotropy constant K1 and higher grain size of the samples.

  2. Gestational exposure to cadmium alters crucial offspring rat brain enzyme activities: the role of cadmium-free lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapi, Charis; Stolakis, Vasileios; Zarros, Apostolos; Zissis, Konstantinos M; Botis, John; Al-Humadi, Hussam; Tsakiris, Stylianos

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to shed more light on the effects of gestational (in utero) exposure to cadmium (Cd) on crucial brain enzyme activities of Wistar rat offspring, as well as to assess the potential protective/restorative role that a Cd-free lactation might have on these effects. In contrast to earlier findings of ours regarding the pattern of effects that adult-onset exposure to Cd has on brain AChE, Na(+),K(+)- and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities, as well as in contrast to similar experimental approaches implementing the sacrificing mode of anaesthesia, in utero exposure to Cd-chloride results in increased AChE and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities in the newborn rat brain homogenates that were ameliorated through a Cd-free lactation (as assessed in the brain of 21-day-old offspring). Mg(2+)-ATPase activity was not found to be significantly modified under the examined experimental conditions. These findings could provide the basis for a further evaluation of the herein discussed neurotoxic effects of in utero exposure to Cd, in a brain region-specific manner.

  3. Amount and metal composition of midgut gland metallothionein in shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) after exposure to cadmium in the food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard; Bach, Louise Thornhøj; Bjerregaard, Poul, E-mail: poul@biology.sdu.dk

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Crabs were fed with Cd in concentrations of 1.1–5.1 μg g⁻¹ food. • Metallothionein concentrations only increased at 5.1 μg g⁻¹. • Cd contents of metallothionein increased linearly with exposure. • A marked influence by the variable Cu contents on metal composition was recorded. • Digestive gland metallothionein is a poor biomarker for Cd exposure. - Abstract: Accumulation of cadmium in aquatic invertebrates may compromise human food safety and anthropogenic additions of cadmium to coastal areas cause concern. Induction of crustacean metallothionein has been suggested as a useful biomarker for contamination of the aquatic environment with cadmium. We investigated how exposure to low concentrations of cadmium in the food affects the subcellular binding of cadmium with the shore crab Carcinus maenas as model organism. Approximately 80% of the assimilated cadmium was bound in the soluble fraction of the midgut gland and of this, 82% was found in the metallothionein fraction. Metallothionein synthesis was only induced at the highest exposure level. However, the number of cadmium atoms bound per molecule of metallothionein increased linearly with exposure, from approximately 0.18 in the control group to 1.4 in a group administered food containing 5.1 μg Cd g⁻¹. We noted a marked interaction between the presence of copper and zinc in the midgut gland and the binding of cadmium. The usefulness of crustacean midgut gland metallothionein as a biomarker for cadmium exposure at modest levels was questioned since exposures at levels producing significant increases in the tissue contents of the metal did not result in elevated concentrations of metallothionein in the midgut gland.

  4. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barriga, F; Santos, M A; Mejía, J J; Batres, L; Yáñez, L; Carrizales, L; Vera, E; del Razo, L M; Cebrián, M E

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosí City, México) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues.

  5. Cadmium sensitivity, uptake, subcellular distribution and thiol induction in a marine diatom: exposure to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-Jiao; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-01-25

    The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the changes in the Cd tolerance of a marine diatom after exposure under different Cd concentrations for various durations and (2) to explore the potential subcellular and biochemical mechanisms underlying these changes. The 72-h toxicity, short-term Cd uptake, subcellular Cd distribution, as well as the synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) were measured in a marine diatom Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii after exposure to a range of free Cd ion concentrations ([Cd(2+)], 0.01-84nM) for 1-15 days. Surprisingly, the diatoms did not acquire higher resistance to Cd after exposure; instead their sensitivity to Cd increased with a higher exposed [Cd(2+)] and a longer exposure period. The underlying mechanisms could be traced to the responses of Cd cellular accumulation and the intrinsic detoxification ability of the preconditioned diatoms. Generally, exposure to a higher [Cd(2+)] and for a longer period increased the Cd uptake rate, cellular accumulation, as well as the Cd concentration in metal-sensitive fraction (MSF) in these diatoms. In contrast, although PCs were induced by the environmental Cd stress (with PC(2) being the most affected), the increased intracellular Cd to PC-SH ratio implied that the PCs' detoxification ability had reduced after Cd exposure. All these responses resulted in an elevated Cd sensitivity as exposed [Cd(2+)] and duration increased. This study shows that the physiological/biochemical and kinetic responses of phytoplankton upon metal exposure deserve further investigation.

  6. Transcriptome Profiling Analysis of Wolf Spider Pardosa pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae after Cadmium Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Chun Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pardosa pseudoannulata is one of the most common wandering spiders in agricultural fields and a potentially good bioindicator for heavy metal contamination. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which spiders respond to heavy metals at the molecular level. In the present study, high-throughput transcriptome sequencing was employed to characterize the de novo transcriptome of the spiders and to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs after cadmium exposure. We obtained 60,489 assembled unigenes, 18,773 of which were annotated in the public databases. A total of 2939 and 2491 DEGs were detected between the libraries of two Cd-treated groups and the control. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that metabolism processes and digestive system function were predominately enriched in response to Cd stress. At the cellular and molecular levels, significantly enriched pathways in lysosomes and phagosomes as well as replication, recombination and repair demonstrated that oxidative damage resulted from Cd exposure. Based on the selected DEGs, certain critical genes involved in defence and detoxification were analysed. These results may elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying spiders’ responses to heavy metal stress.

  7. Bone resorption and environmental exposure to cadmium in children: a cross - sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sughis Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to cadmium has been associated with osteoporosis and fracture risk in women and elderly, but studies in children are lacking. In the present study we investigate the association between markers of bone demineralization [urinary calcium (Ca and deoxypyridinoline (DPD excretion] and urinary cadmium (Cd excretion (as an index of lifetime body burden. Methods 155 schoolchildren from 2 elementary schools in Lahore, Pakistan were included. Urinary Cd was measured as an index of lifetime exposure. We assessed the multivariate-adjusted association of exposure with markers of bone resorption, urinary DPD as well as with Ca excretion. Results Urinary Cd averaged 0.50 nmol/mmol creatinine and was not influenced by age, height, weight and socio-economic status (SES. Independent of gender, age, height, weight and SES a doubling of urinary Cd was associated with a 1.72 times (p Conclusions Even in young children, low-level environmental exposure to cadmium is associated with evidence of bone resorption, suggesting a direct osteotoxic effect with increased calciuria. These findings might have clinical relevance at older age.

  8. Cadmium sensitivity, uptake, subcellular distribution and thiol induction in a marine diatom: Exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Mengjiao [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Section of Marine Ecology and Biotechnology, Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Section of Marine Ecology and Biotechnology, Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2011-01-25

    The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the changes in the Cd tolerance of a marine diatom after exposure under different Cd concentrations for various durations and (2) to explore the potential subcellular and biochemical mechanisms underlying these changes. The 72-h toxicity, short-term Cd uptake, subcellular Cd distribution, as well as the synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) were measured in a marine diatom Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii after exposure to a range of free Cd ion concentrations ([Cd{sup 2+}], 0.01-84 nM) for 1-15 days. Surprisingly, the diatoms did not acquire higher resistance to Cd after exposure; instead their sensitivity to Cd increased with a higher exposed [Cd{sup 2+}] and a longer exposure period. The underlying mechanisms could be traced to the responses of Cd cellular accumulation and the intrinsic detoxification ability of the preconditioned diatoms. Generally, exposure to a higher [Cd{sup 2+}] and for a longer period increased the Cd uptake rate, cellular accumulation, as well as the Cd concentration in metal-sensitive fraction (MSF) in these diatoms. In contrast, although PCs were induced by the environmental Cd stress (with PC{sub 2} being the most affected), the increased intracellular Cd to PC-SH ratio implied that the PCs' detoxification ability had reduced after Cd exposure. All these responses resulted in an elevated Cd sensitivity as exposed [Cd{sup 2+}] and duration increased. This study shows that the physiological/biochemical and kinetic responses of phytoplankton upon metal exposure deserve further investigation.

  9. Cadmium Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    accessories) and be non- reflective Cadmium Replacements – Zinc Nickel Passivated Zinc Nickel Non-hex chrome passivate of high interest, but...for Change Cadmium passivated with hexavalent chromium has been in use for many decades Cadmium is toxic , and is classified as a priority...including cadmium! Cadmium Replacements (With MIL-DTL-38999 Designations) Zn/Ni (Class Z) Per ASTM B 841, type D (black) Electroless Nickel plus

  10. Biologic indicators of exposure to cadmium and lead palmerton, Pennsylvania. Part 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarasua, S.M.; McGeehin, M.A.; Stallings, F.L.; Terracciano, G.L.; Amler, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    In Part 2 of this study, no difference was reported in the results of medical tests of the blood, liver, kidney, and immune systems of participants living in the two study areas. No relationships was found between exposure to cadmium and lead and the immune, liver, and blood system tests. No community wide medical action is needed in Palmerton based on the results of this study. No further site-specific health studies are recommended.

  11. Effect of acute exposure to cadmium on the expression of heat-shock and hormone-nuclear receptor genes in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planello, R.; Martinez-Guitarte, J.L. [Grupo de Biologia y Toxicologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Morcillo, G., E-mail: gmorcillo@ccia.uned.es [Grupo de Biologia y Toxicologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-03-01

    Cadmium is a widespread and highly toxic pollutant of particular ecotoxicological relevance for aquatic ecosystems where it accumulates. To identify biomarkers for ecotoxicity monitoring, the effect of cadmium on the expression of different genes related to the stress response as well as to the ecdysone hormone-signalling pathway was studied in the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae), a standard test organism in aquatic toxicology testing. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the effects of acute and short-term cadmium exposures (10 mM CdCl{sub 2}, 12 h and 24 h) on the expression of hsp70, hsc70, hsp90 and hsp40 genes, as well as on that of the ecdysone hormonal-receptor genes (EcR and usp). A significant 3-fold increase in the level of hsp70 gene transcripts was induced by the treatment, whereas neither the other stress genes tested (hsp90 and hsp40) nor the constitutive form of hsp70, hsc70, was affected in the larvae exposed to cadmium. These results show that hsp70 is differentially activated to other environmentally regulated heat-shock genes, and constitutes a biomarker of exposure to this toxic metal. In addition, we also found that cadmium is able to alter the expression of the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), whose mRNA level is significantly increased whereas usp levels remained unaltered. This finding, evidenced for the first time in invertebrates, supports the view that cadmium has the ability to mimic the effect of the hormone by the activation of the ecdysone nuclear receptor, which may partly explain the endocrine disruption capability that has been previously suggested for this toxic metal. Our research adds to the growing evidence implicating heavy metals, and cadmium in particular, as potential endocrine disruptive agents and may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment of endocrine-disrupting compounds in invertebrates.

  12. Cadmium exposure pathways in a population living near a battery plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstroem, Lennart [Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, County Council of Kalmar, Oskarshamn (Sweden) and Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden)]. E-mail: lennarth@ltkalmar.se; Persson, Bodil [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden); Brudin, Lars [Department of Clinical Physiology, County Council of Kalmar, Kalmar (Sweden); Grawe, Kierstin Petersson [Toxicology Division, RD Department, National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden); Oborn, Ingrid [Department of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Jaerup, Lars [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to assess the relative impact of different pathways of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure and to evaluate the contribution from locally produced vegetables and root crops to the total dietary intake of Cd. Methods: Cadmium in urine was determined for 492 individuals living near a closed down battery factory in Sweden. For each individual we created an environmental exposure-index based on Cd emissions to ambient air and number of years living at various distances from the plant. This information as well as dietary data were collected via questionnaires. Samples of soil, carrots and/or potatoes were collected from 37 gardens and analysed for Cd concentration. Results: Eating homegrown vegetables/potatoes, environmental Cd-exposure-index, female gender, age above 30 years and smoking more than one pack of cigarettes daily for at least 10 years were found to be significantly associated with increased urine concentrations of Cd (UCd > 1.0 nmol/mmol creatinine). We found a statistically significant relation between Cd in urine and environmental Cd-exposure-index in persons eating homegrown vegetables/potatoes regularly. Cd concentrations in homegrown carrots, potatoes and in garden soil were highest in the area closest to the factory. Daily consumption of potatoes and vegetables cultivated in the vicinity of the closed battery factory was estimated to increase Cd intake by 18-38%. Conclusion: The present study shows that consumption of locally grown vegetables and root crops was an important exposure pathway, in subjects living near a nickel-cadmium battery plant, whereas direct exposure via ambient air was less important.

  13. Dietary cadmium exposure and kidney stone incidence: a population-based prospective cohort study of men & women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura D K; Elinder, Carl-Gustaf; Tiselius, Hans-Göran; Wolk, Alicja; Akesson, Agneta

    2013-09-01

    Cadmium exposure is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion. Hypercalciuria is recognised as a major risk factor for kidney stone formation. Increased prevalence of kidney stones among those occupationally exposed to cadmium has previously been suggested. Food is the main source of cadmium exposure in the general population with tobacco representing an important additional source among smokers. We aimed to assess the association between dietary cadmium exposure and kidney stone incidence in two large population-based, prospective cohorts of men (Cohort of Swedish Men; COSM) and women (The Swedish Mammography Cohort; SMC). Those with a history of kidney stones were excluded. At baseline 1997, men (45-79yrs) and women (48 to 83yrs), completed a self-administered questionnaire on diet and lifestyle. During 12years of follow-up, we ascertained 707 cases of kidney stones in men and 290 in women through linkage of the cohorts to the national inpatient and outpatient registers. Individual dietary cadmium exposure was estimated using dietary data and concentrations of cadmium in food. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards regression models with adjustment for other risk factors. Estimated dietary cadmium exposure was not associated with increased kidney stone incidence among men HR 0.97 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77-1.23) or women HR 0.99 (95% CI: 0.89-1.43), comparing the highest tertile with the lowest. In conclusion, our results do not support a strong association between dietary cadmium and kidney stone risk at the exposure levels seen in the general population.

  14. Cadmium exposure and atherosclerotic carotid plaques –Results from the Malmö diet and Cancer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerberg, Björn, E-mail: bjorn.fagerberg@wlab.gu.se [Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Barregard, Lars, E-mail: lars.barregard@amm.gu.se [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, SE 413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sallsten, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.sallsten@amm.gu.se [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, SE 413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Forsgard, Niklas, E-mail: niklas.forsgard@vgregion.se [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Östling, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.ostling@med.lu.se [Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Skane University Hospital, Malmö, 205 02 Malmö (Sweden); Persson, Margaretha, E-mail: margaretha.persson@med.lu.se [Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Skane University Hospital, Malmö, 205 02 Malmö (Sweden); Borné, Yan, E-mail: yan.borne@med.lu.se [Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Skane University Hospital, Malmö, 205 02 Malmö (Sweden); and others

    2015-01-15

    Background: Epidemiological studies indicate that cadmium exposure through diet and smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There are few data on the relationship between cadmium and plaques, the hallmark of underlying atherosclerotic disease. Objectives: To examine the association between exposure to cadmium and the prevalence and size of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. Methods: A population sample of 4639 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined in 1991–1994. Carotid plaque was determined by B-mode ultrasound. Cadmium in blood was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Comparing quartile 4 with quartile 1 of blood cadmium, the odds ratio (OR) for prevalence of any plaque was 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.6–2.2) after adjustment for sex and, age; 1.4 (1.1–1.8) after additional adjustment for smoking status; 1.4 (1.1–1.7) after the addition of education level and life style factors; 1.3 (1.03–1.8) after additional adjustment for risk factors and predictors of cardiovascular disease. No effect modification by sex was found in the cadmium-related prevalence of plaques. Similarly, ORs for the prevalence of small and large plaques were after full adjustment 1.4 (1.0–2.1) and 1.4 (0.9–2.0), respectively. The subgroup of never smokers showed no association between cadmium and atherosclerotic plaques. Conclusions: These results extend previous studies on cadmium exposure and clinical cardiovascular events by adding data on the association between cadmium and underlying atherosclerosis in humans. The role of smoking remains unclear. It may both cause residual confounding and be a source of pro-atherogenic cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium level is associated with atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. • The results extend previous knowledge of cadmium exposure and clinical events. • The role of smoking remains unclear.

  15. Urinary metallothionein as a biological indicator of occupational cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohyama, C.; Shaikh, Z.A.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay and neutron activation data indicate that the urinary metallothionein concentration is related to the liver Cd concentration in occupational Cd exposure. It is also related to the kidney Cd content - but only before the onset of renal dysfunction. Further epidemiological studies are needed to establish a dose-response relationship, which may be useful in minimizing the hazard of Cd-induced renal dysfunction.

  16. Monitoring the effects of exposure to lead and cadmium in working and living environment through standard biochemical blood parameters and liver endonucleases activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ružica S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals as pollutants in the working and living environment are a serious health and environmental problem because they are toxic, non-biodegradable, accumulate in living systems and have a long half-life in soil. Sources of lead contamination are combustion products in the chemical industry and metallurgy, industrial waste water, landfills, traffic etc. Lead enters into the body via the food chain and drinking water. In the body lead is deposited in the liver, kidneys, brain and mineral tissues. Excretion of lead causes damage to the epithelial cells of certain organs. High level exposure to cadmium is usually the result of environmental pollution by human activities. Exposure to cadmium can lead to acute and chronic tissue damage of various organs, including liver and kidneys in humans and in animals. In this paper we analyzed the effects of lead and cadmium exposure, in working and living environment, on the model system of experimental animals, particularly the activity of certain liver enzymes, acid and alkaline DNase, and standard biochemical blood parameters. The study showed that lead and cadmium significantly affect the protein content, red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit, and the activity of liver enzymes. This harmful effect of this toxic metal can be reduced by the supplements.

  17. Chronic Cadmium Exposure Lead to Inhibition of Serum and Hepatic Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Samuel; Andrade-García, Alejandra; Herrera Camacho, Irma; León-Chavez, Bertha Alicia; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia; Flores, Gonzalo; Brambila, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the serum and liver from rats administered with cadmium (Cd) in drinking water was studied. After metal administration, Cd showed a time-dependent accumulation in the liver, meanwhile metallothionein had a maximum increase at 1 month, remaining in this level until the end of the study. On the other hand, serum and liver ALP activity was decreased after 3 months exposure. To determine if Cd produced an inhibition on enzyme, apo-ALP prepared from both nonexposed and exposed rats was reactivated with Zn, showing 60% more activity as compared with the enzyme isolated from nonexposed rats. In vitro assays showed that Cd-ALP was partially reactivated with Zn; however, in the presence of cadmium, Zn-ALP was completely inhibited. Kinetic studies indicate a noncompetitive inhibition by Cd; these results suggest that Cd can substitute Zn, and/or Cd can interact with nucleophilic ligands essential for the enzymatic activity.

  18. About changes of lung function by occupational exposure to cadmium fumes. Zur Frage von Lungenfunktionsaenderungen bei beruflicher Belastung durch Cadmiumdaempfe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetana, R.; Schuller, W.; Meisinger, V. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Klinik fuer Arbeitsmedizin); Klopsa, H. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). 1. Medizinische Klinik); Sommer, G. (Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien Floridsdorf, Vienna (Austria))

    1989-10-01

    In a one year follow-up-study the same group of smelters (n=8) with occupational exposure to cadmium fumes underwent clinical routine screening including lung function test and blood gas analysis under resting conditions and work load. Furthermore, the concentration of cadmium in blood and 24h-urine samples was determined. The results were compared with data from the same group of controls (n=8) without occupational exposure to cadmium fumes. The data of smelters showed a decreased (p<0,01) partial pressure of oxygen and an increased (p<0,01) alveolar-arterial tension of oxygen compared to controls. Furthermore, cadmium concentrations in blood and 24h-urine samples of smelters were higher than those of controls. Lung function parameters of smelters were within the normal range for both groups, a significant difference between smelters and controls was not computed. Acute or chronical pulmonary changes were not detected in smelters. (orig.).

  19. Assessing human exposure risk to cadmium through inhalation and seafood consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Yun-Ru; Chen, Wei-Yu [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liao, Chung-Min, E-mail: cmliao@ccms.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trophically available fraction in seafood and bioaccessibility is linked. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human health risk to Cd can via inhalation and seafood consumption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Female had the higher Cd accumulation in urine and blood than male. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cigarette smoking is a major determinant of human Cd intake. - Abstract: The role of cadmium (Cd) bioaccessibility in risk assessment is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess human health risk to Cd through inhalation and seafood consumption by incorporating bioaccessibility. The relationships between trophically available Cd and bioaccessibility were constructed based on available experimental data. We estimated Cd concentrations in human urine and blood via daily intake from seafood consumption and inhalation based on a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. A Hill-based dose-response model was used to assess human renal dysfunction and peripheral arterial disease risks for long-term Cd exposure. Here we showed that fish had higher bioaccessibility ({approx}83.7%) than that of shellfish ({approx}73.2%) for human ingestion. Our results indicated that glomerular and tubular damage among different genders and smokers ranged from 18.03 to 18.18%. Our analysis showed that nonsmokers had 50% probability of peripheral arterial disease level exceeding from 3.28 to 8.80%. Smoking populations had 2-3 folds higher morbidity risk of peripheral arterial disease than those of nonsmokers. Our study concluded that the adverse effects of Cd exposure are exacerbated when high seafood consumption coincides with cigarette smoking. Our work provides a framework that could more accurately address risk dose dependency of Cd hazard.

  20. Growth Inhibition Occurs Independently of Cell Mortality in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Exposed to High Cadmium Concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christine Delpérée; Stanley Lutts

    2008-01-01

    In order to analyze the adaptation potential of tomato shoots to a sudden increase in Cd concentration, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. Ailsa Craig) were exposed under controlled environmental conditions to a high dose of this heavy metal (250 μM CdCl2>) in nutrient solution for 7 and 14 d. Both root and shoot growth was completely inhibited but all plants remained alive until the end of the treatment. Cell viability remained unaffected but the activity of the mitochondrial alternative pathway was stimulated by Cd stress at the expense of the cytochrome pathway. Cadmium concentration was higher in roots than in shoots and a decrease In the rate of net Cd translocation was noticed during the second week of stress. Cadmium decreased both leaf conductance (g1>) and chlorophyll concentration. However, the effect on net CO2 assimilation remained limited and soluble sugars accumulated in leaves. Photochemical efficiency of PSll (FvlFm) was not affected despite a decrease in the number of reaction centers and an inhibition of electron transfer to acceptors of PSII. It is concluded that tomato shoot may sustain short term exposure to high doses of cadmium despite growth inhibition. This property implies several physiological strategies linked to both avoidance and tolerance mechanisms.

  1. Outdoor and indoor cadmium distributions near an abandoned smelting works and their relations to human exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurgeon, David J., E-mail: dasp@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Lawlor, Alan [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Hooper, Helen L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Wadsworth, Richard [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Svendsen, Claus [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Thomas, Laura D.K. [MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Public health, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Ellis, James K.; Bundy, Jacob G.; Keun, Hector C. [Biomolecular Medicine, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jarup, Lars [MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Public health, Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The relationship of measured or modelled Cd concentrations in soil, house dust and available to plants with human urinary Cd concentrations were assessed in a population living around a Cd/Pb/Zn smelter in the UK. Modelled air concentrations explained 35% of soil Cd variation indicating the smelter contributed to soil Cd loads. Multi-variate analysis confirmed a significant role of biological and life-style factors in determining urinary Cd levels. Significant correlations of urinary Cd with soil, house dust and modelled plant available Cd concentrations were not, however, found. Potential reasons for the absence of clear relationships include limited environmental contact in urban populations; the role of undefined factors in determining exposure; and the limited spatial scope of the survey which did not sample from the full pollution gradient. Further, the absence of any significant relationship indicates that environmental measures provide limited advantage over atmospheric model outputs for first stage human exposure assessment. - Highlights: > Environmental measurements indicate smelter pollution of a surrounding urban area. > Life-style and biology influenced U-Cd more than measured environmental levels. > Limited contact with outdoor environments may limit Cd uptake in urban populations. > Better life-style data could improve the attribution of human Cd exposure routes. > Measured Cd levels provide limited added exposure insight over dispersion models. - Measured and modelled environmental cadmium concentrations provide limited additional explanation of human urinary cadmium concentrations.

  2. What Do We Know of Childhood Exposures to Metals (Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury) in Emerging Market Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey M. Horton; Mortensen, Mary E.; Yulia Iossifova; Wald, Marlena M.; Paula Burgess

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countr...

  3. Effect of chronic exposure to cadmium on serum lipid, lipoprotein and oxidative stress indices in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarghandian Saeed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is an environmental toxic metal implicated in lipid abnormalities. The present study was designed to elucidate the possible association between chronic exposure to Cd concentration and alterations in plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and oxidative stress indices in rats. Sixteen male rats were assigned to 2 groups of 8 rats each (test and control. The Cd-exposed group obtained drinking water containing cadmium chloride (CdCl2 in the concentration of 2.0 mg Cd/L in drinking water for 3 months. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were obtained to determine the changes of serum triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, reduced glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA and also serum Cd contents. The results of the present study indicated that Cd administration significantly increased the serum levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, MDA and Cd with reduction in the HDL-C and GSH levels. In conclusion, evidence is presented that chronic exposure to low Cd concentration can adversely affect the lipid and lipoprotein profile via lipid peroxidation.

  4. Tolerance to cadmium and cadmium-binding ligands in Great Salt Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasekara, S.; Drown, D.B.; Sharma, R.P.

    1986-02-01

    Information on the accumulation of cadmium in cytosolic proteins of Great Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was obtained from animals collected directly from the lake and also from animal hatched and maintained in three sublethal concentrations of cadmium (0.5, 2.0, 5.0 ppm) in saltwater aquaria. Brine shrimp growth under these conditions was monitored by measuring body lengths during a 7-day exposure period. Heat-stable, cadmium-binding ligands were isolated and identified by Sephadex G-75 chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cadmium was found to be equally distributed between high and low molecular weight proteins in animals collected from the lake and the 0.5 ppm cadmium group. There was also a slight growth stimulation noted in the 0.5-pm group. Higher cadmium incorporation was noted in low molecular weight fractions with increasing cadmium concentration in the exposure media. Low molecular weight fractions were also found to have high uv absorption characteristics at 250 nm and low absorption at 280 nm. Molecular weight of the cadmium-binding ligands was found to be 11,000 as estimated by the gel filtration method. De novo synthesis of this protein was increased as a function of cadmium concentration in the media. However, slow accumulation of cadmium in other protein fractions was also noticed in higher cadmium exposure groups, suggesting the existence of possible tolerance mechanisms in brine shrimp exposed to suspected acute cadmium concentrations.

  5. Cadmium Alternatives for High-Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    191 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) 301 -342-8101 iii Table of Contents Note that original JTP section numbers are preceded by...specified. The focus of this JTP is on high-strength structural alloy steels used for various applications. Alloy AISI 4130 was used for adhesion and...NaCl) solution under constant amplitude loading to determine fatigue life using hourglass specimens prepared from high strength AISI 4340 steel. The

  6. Cadmium distribution in sediment and the lugworm Arenicola marina in a low concentration exposure experiment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Everaarts, J.M.; Devi, K.S.

    /L), which is about 10 times the background concentration of the western Wadden Sea. Two aquaria were used as controls. The experiment lasted 36 days, with intermittent Cd dosing from days 0 to 5 and from days 15 to 25. The animals were not fed during... Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1996) 57:771-778 © 1996 Springer-Verlag New York Inc. Cadmium Distribution in Sediment and the Lugworm Arenicola marina in a Low Concentration Exposure Experiment J. M. Everaarts,1 K. SaralaDevi2 1Netherlands Institute...

  7. Effect of co-exposure to lead and cadmium on antioxidant status in rat ovarian granulose cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nampoothiri, Laxmipriya P. [Indian Institute of Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Bangalore (India); Agarwal, Avnika; Gupta, Sarita [M.S. University of Baroda, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Vadodara, Gujarat (India)

    2007-03-15

    The effects of combined exposure to lead and cadmium on granulose cells were studied. Adult female rats were treated i.p. with either lead acetate (LA) or cadmium acetate (CA) both, alone, or in combination at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg body weight on a daily basis for 15 days. Both metals were accumulated in the ovary after metal exposure. Metal exposure caused a decrease in reduced glutathione content along with elevated lipid peroxidation in all groups. Granulose cells of both cadmium as well as combination group demonstrated a maximum increase in lipid peroxides and catalase activity, along with decreased glutathione status and superoxide dismutase activities. Combined treated animals exhibited an intermediate effect in antioxidant status. However, ''in vitro'' exposure showed no significant change in antioxidant enzymes in all metal exposed cells. Data from the present study indicates that lead and cadmium in isolation and in combination cause oxidative stress. Lead and cadmium in combination do not show additive or synergistic effect indicating the competition between them due to similarity in electronic affinities. Present study highlights the effects of toxic metals that disturb membrane integrity of cells via ROS and thereby classifying mechanism for altered receptor binding, steroidogenesis, and hormone production. (orig.)

  8. Low-level cadmium exposure in Toyama City and its surroundings in Toyama prefecture, Japan, with references to possible contribution of shellfish intake to increase urinary cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, T. [Hokuriku Health Service Association, Toyama 930-0177 (Japan); Ezaki, T. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Moriguchi, J. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Fukui, Y. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Okamoto, S. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Ukai, H. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Sakurai, H. [Occupational Health Research and Development Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0014 (Japan); Aoshima, K. [Hagino Hospital, Fuchu-machi, Toyama 939-2723 (Japan); Ikeda, M. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan)]. E-mail: ikeda@kyotokojohokenkai.or.jp

    2006-06-01

    Objectives: This study was initiated to examine if exposure to cadmium (Cd) was high also outside of the previously identified Itai-itai disease endemic region in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama prefecture in Japan. Methods: Morning spot urine samples were collected in June-August 2004 from 651 adult women (including 535 never-smokers) in various regions in Toyama prefecture, and subjected to urinalyses for cadmium (Cd), {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin ({alpha}{sub 1}-MG), {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta}{sub 2}-MG), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), specific gravity (SG or sg) and creatinine (CR or cr). Three months later, the second urine samples were collected from those with elevated Cd in urine (e.g., {>=} 4 {mu}g/g cr), together with answers to questionnaires on shellfish consumption. Results: The geometric mean (GM) Cd, {alpha}{sub 1}-MG, {beta}{sub 2}-MG and NAG (after correction for CR) for the total participants were 2.0 {mu}g/g cr, 2.4 mg/g cr, 104 {mu}g/g cr and 2.8 units/g cr, respectively; further analysis with never-smoking cases only did not induce significant changes in these parameters. Analyses of the second urine samples from the high Cd subjects showed that there was substantial decrease (to about a half) in Cd in the 3-month period, and that the decrease was accompanied by reduction in {alpha}{sub 1}-MG and NAG ({beta}{sub 2}-MG did not show elevation even in the first samples). The urinalysis results in combination with the results of the questionnaire survey suggest that the high urinary Cd was temporary and might be induced by intake of shellfish that is edible whole. Conclusions: The overall findings appear to suggest that Cd exposure in Toyama populations (outside of the Itai-itai disease endemic region) was at the levels commonly observed on the coast of the Sea of Japan, and that the Cd level in urine might be modified by the intake of some types of seafood. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relation of urinary Cd

  9. Cadmium accumulation characteristics and removal potentials of high cadmium accumulating rice line grown in cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Li, Tingxuan; Yu, Haiying; Zhang, Xizhou

    2016-08-01

    Phytoextraction is a promising technique to remove cadmium (Cd) from contaminated soils. In this research, the two different Cd accumulation rice lines of Lu527-8 (the high Cd accumulating rice line) and Lu527-4 (the normal rice line) were grown in soils with different Cd treatments (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) to evaluate Cd accumulation characteristics and Cd removal potentials. When the concentration of Cd in soil increased, Lu527-8 showed less symptoms of phytotoxicity when compared to Lu527-4. Furthermore, Lu527-8 demonstrated greater shoot Cd accumulation (321.17-964.95 mg plant(-1)) than Lu527-4 (50.37-201.66 μg plant(-1)) at the jointing and filling stages. The soil available Cd content of Lu527-8 significantly decreased by 26.92-38.97 and 27.77-63.44 % at the jointing and filling stages, respectively. Meanwhile, the total Cd content in soil also reduced by 11.64-46.75 and 21.41-54.11 % at jointing and filling stages, respectively. When the Cd concentration in soil was 20 mg kg(-1), the Cd extraction rate in shoots of Lu527-8 reached 2.12 and 2.85 % which increased 10.60 and 6.48 times compared with that of Lu527-4 at the jointing and filling stages, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Lu527-8 shows great abilities of Cd accumulation and Cd removal potential from contaminated soils with different Cd treatments and it is a promising species for phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soils.

  10. 镉暴露对人体骨骼影响的研究进展%Research progress on effect of cadmium exposure on human skeleton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雨昕; 李筱薇; 赖建强

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Cadmium is a heavy metal pollutant, it is non-biodegradable in the environment and its half-life within human body is as long as 10~30 years. The skeleton is considered to be the main target organ for cadmium toxicity, and researches had confirmed the correlation between cadmium toxicity and bone mineral density decrease as well as osteoporosis. This paper summarized the research on the effect of cadmium toxicity on human skeleton in different countries. The effect of cadmium exposure on skeleton varied with different target populations, and was especially strong on the elder persons. So the target population should be grouped more reasonable in these kinds of studies. People who not only live in the polluted area but also have high urinary cadmium level should be classified as the high cadmium exposure group. Also, higher calcium intake was the protective factor of bone mineral density. The risk for cadmium exposure on osteoporosis and fractures may be enlarged due to the ignorance of the combined effect on intake of calcium and cadmium exposure. The calcium intake of target population should also be considered in grouping, only in this way we can discuss the real risk of osteoporosis and fractures caused by cadmium exposure.%镉是一种环境重金属污染物,在环境中不能进行生物降解,在人体内半衰期长达10-30年。骨骼是镉的重要靶器官,已有研究证实镉是诱发骨密度降低和骨质疏松症发生的危险因素之一。本文综述了镉暴露对人体骨骼影响的国内外相关文献。结果表明,镉暴露对人体骨骼的影响因目标人群的不同而存在差异,且主要受影响人群为中老年人,因此研究时应对目标人群进行合理分组,将镉污染区内尿镉浓度较高的人群划分为高暴露组较为合适。此外,高钙摄入量是人体骨密度的保护因素,但是目前罕有研究将目标人群的钙摄入量的状况和镉暴露状况相

  11. Pulmonary and gastrointestinal exposure to cadmium oxide dust in a battery factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamsson, E.; Piscator, M.; Nogawa, K.

    1979-02-01

    The elimination of cadmium in feces was studied in a group of 15 male workers exposed to cadmium oxide dust in a nickel-cadmium battery factory. The elimination of cadmium in feces was on the average 619 and 268 microgram/day in seven smokers and eight nonsmokers, respectively. The cadmium concentrations in blood were significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers, both before and after one month of vacation. Among the smokers there was a significant decrease in the cadmium concentrations during the vacation period, but not among the nonsmokers. It was estimated that cadmium naturally occurring in food and cigarettes, cadmium excreted from the gastrointestinal tract, and cadmium transported from the lungs by mucocillary clearance to the gastrointestinal tract only could explain up to 100 microgram of the cadmium in the feces.

  12. Cadmium exposure inhibits MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the prostate and testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacorte, Livia M.; Rinaldi, Jaqueline C.; Justulin, Luis A.; Delella, Flávia K. [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Institute of Biosciences, Department of Morphology, Extracellular Matrix Laboratory, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Moroz, Andrei [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Bioprocess and Biotechnology, Cell Culture Laboratory, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Felisbino, Sérgio L., E-mail: felisbin@ibb.unesp.br [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Institute of Biosciences, Department of Morphology, Extracellular Matrix Laboratory, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-20

    exposure. - Highlights: • Wistar rats were given tap water or 15 ppm CdCl{sub 2} diluted in drinking water. • Ventral prostate, dorsal prostate, and testicles were tested for MMPs activity. • CdCl{sub 2} was also directly dissolved at the incubation buffer in another experiment. • Cadmium inhibited the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 in both experiments. • Cadmium contamination may deregulate the natural balance in the ECM turnover.

  13. Influence of co-contaminant exposure on the absorption of arsenic, cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollson, Cameron J; Smith, Euan; Herde, Paul; Juhasz, Albert L

    2017-02-01

    Incidental ingestion of contaminated soil and dust is a major pathway for human exposure to many inorganic contaminants. To date, exposure research has focused on arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), however, these studies have typically assessed metal(loid) bioavailability individually, even when multiple elements are present in the same matrix. As a consequence, it is unclear whether interactions between these elements occur within the gastro-intestinal tract, which may impact absorption and accumulation. In this study, the influence of contaminant co-exposure was assessed using a mouse bioassay and soluble forms of As, Cd and Pb supplied in mouse chow as individual, binary and tertiary elemental combinations. Arsenic urinary excretion and Pb-liver accumulation were unaffected by As-Pb co-exposure (1-10 mg As kg(-1) and 3-30 mg Pb kg(-1)) while Cd-kidney accumulation was unaffected by the presence of As and/or Pb. However, Cd co-exposure decreased As urinary excretion and increased Pb-liver accumulation. It was hypothesized that Cd influenced arsenate absorption as a consequence of the impairment of phosphate transporters. Although the reason for increasing Pb-liver accumulation following Cd co-exposure is unclear, enhanced Pb accumulation may occur as a result of transport protein overexpression or changes in divalent metal compartmentalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dunaliella salina as marine microalga highly tolerant to but a poor remover of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folgar, S. [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain); Torres, E., E-mail: torres@udc.es [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain); Perez-Rama, M.; Cid, A.; Herrero, C.; Abalde, J. [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Cadmium tolerance and removal in the marine microalga Dunaliella salina were studied in cultures exposed to different metal concentrations (5-120 mg Cd l{sup -1}) for 96 h. This microalga can be included in the group of microalgal species most tolerant to cadmium due to the high value of EC50 that it possesses (48.9 mg Cd l{sup -1} at 96 h of culture). The greater percentage of cadmium removed was obtained in cultures exposed to 5 mg Cd l{sup -1} at 96 h, but removing only 11.3% of the added cadmium. In all cultures, the quantity of cadmium removed intracellularly was much lower than the bioadsorbed quantity and it was proportional to the sulfhydryl group levels. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were suitable for describing the short-term biosorption of cadmium by living cells of D. salina.

  15. Identification of high levels of phytochelatins, glutathione and cadmium in the phloem sap of Brassica napus. A role for thiol-peptides in the long-distance transport of cadmium and the effect of cadmium on iron translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Butko, Emerald; Springer, Franziska; Torpey, Justin W; Komives, Elizabeth A; Kehr, Julia; Schroeder, Julian I

    2008-04-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are glutathione-derived peptides that function in heavy metal detoxification in plants and certain fungi. Recent research in Arabidopsis has shown that PCs undergo long-distance transport between roots and shoots. However, it remains unknown which tissues or vascular systems, xylem or phloem, mediate PC translocation and whether PC transport contributes to physiologically relevant long-distance transport of cadmium (Cd) between shoots and roots. To address these questions, xylem and phloem sap were obtained from Brassica napus to quantitatively analyze which thiol species are present in response to Cd exposure. High levels of PCs were identified in the phloem sap within 24 h of Cd exposure using combined mass spectrometry and fluorescence HPLC analyses. Unexpectedly, the concentration of Cd was more than four-fold higher in phloem sap compared to xylem sap. Cadmium exposure dramatically decreased iron levels in xylem and phloem sap whereas other essential heavy metals such as zinc and manganese remained unchanged. Data suggest that Cd inhibits vascular loading of iron but not nicotianamine. The high ratios [PCs]/[Cd] and [glutathione]/[Cd] in the phloem sap suggest that PCs and glutathione (GSH) can function as long-distance carriers of Cd. In contrast, only traces of PCs were detected in xylem sap. Our results suggest that, in addition to directional xylem Cd transport, the phloem is a major vascular system for long-distance source to sink transport of Cd as PC-Cd and glutathione-Cd complexes.

  16. Pulmonary and gastrointestinal exposure to cadmium oxide dust in a battery factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsson, E; Piscator, M; Nogawa, K

    1979-02-01

    The elimination of cadmium in feces was studied in a group of 15 male workers exposed to cadmium oxide dust in a nickel-cadmium battery factory. The elimination of cadmium in feces was on the average 619 and 268 microgram/day in seven smokers and eight nonsmokers, respectively. The corresponding ranges were 97-2577 and 31-1102 microgram/day. The cadmium concentrations in blood were significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers, both before and after one month of vacation. Among the smokers there was a significant decrease in the cadmium concentrations during the vacation period, but not among the nonsmokers. It was estimated that cadmium naturally occurring in food and cigarettes, cadmium excreted from the gastrointestinal tract, and cadmium transported from the lungs by mucocillary clearance to the gastrointestinal tract only could explain up to 100 microgram of the cadmium in the feces. Since even among some nonsmokers much higher values for fecal cadmium were recorded, this was interpreted as being the result of ingestion of cadmium from contaminated hands and other body surfaces. Among the smokers, direct oral contact with contaminated cigarettes or pipes is an additional factor; the smokers also inhale cadmium in the tobacco smoke from contaminated cigarettes. Part of that cadmium is transferred to the gastrointestinal tract by mucociliary clearance and also adds to the fecal cadmium.

  17. Arsenic-cadmium interaction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barriga, F; Llamas, E; Mejía, J J; Carrizales, L; Santoyo, M E; Vega-Vega, L; Yáñez, L

    1990-11-01

    Simultaneous exposure to cadmium and arsenic is highly probable in the urban area of San Luis Potosi, Mexico due to common localization of copper and zinc smelters. Therefore, in this work, rats were intraperitoneally exposed either to cadmium or arsenic alone, or simultaneously to both metals. The effects of these treatments on three different toxicological parameters were studied. Cadmium modified the LD50 of arsenic and conversely arsenic modified the LD50 for cadmium. At the histopathological level, arsenic appeared to protect against the cadmium effects, especially on testes. This protective effect seemed to be related to the glutathione levels found in this tissue: rats exposed to both arsenic and cadmium, presented glutathione values intermediate to those observed after exposure to either metal alone; arsenic had the highest value and cadmium the lowest. In liver, rats exposed to arsenic, cadmium or arsenic and cadmium, presented glutathione values below those in the saline group, with the lowest value corresponding to the arsenic and cadmium treatment. The results appear to support the proposed interaction between arsenic and cadmium and coexposure to both metals seems to alter certain effects produced by either metal alone.

  18. Cellular model for studying accommodation to environmental stressors: a protective response to subtoxic exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, B.; Lesowitz, G.S.; Bernstein, I.A.; Dinman, B.D.

    1978-01-01

    A model is described for testing the effect of exposure to subtoxic challenge upon cellular integrity. The model incorporates Physarum polycephalum as a biological assay system, the ability of the cell to traverse the cell cycle as an indicator of cell integrity, and the use of repeated challenge by cadmium ion as a mechanism for amplifying the response to subthreshold exposure. A sensitivity profile of Physarum, developed by periodic exposure to 5 x 10/sup -4/ M Cd/sup 2 +/ for 30 min throughout the cell cycle, contains two peaks of sensitivity resulting in mitotic delay, one in early S and the other in late G/sub 2/. Physarum accommodates to a subtoxic challenge of Cd/sup 2 +/ by developing a protective response: Exposure to 10/sup -4/ M Cd/sup 2 +/ for 30 min in early G/sub 2/ (0.45 cycle), which does not delay mitosis, protects Physarum against a mitotic delay of 105 min resulting from exposure to 4 x 10/sup -4/ M Cd/sup 2 +/ for 30 min in late G/sub 2/ (0.75 cycle). Protection persists for at least two cell cycles.

  19. Low-salinity stress in the American lobster, Homarus americanus, after chronic sublethal exposure to cadmium: Biochemical effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, E.

    1980-01-01

    Lobsters (Homarus americanus) were exposed to cadmium (6 ..mu..g 1sup(-1), 30 days) in flowing seawater, then held for 7 days in aerated 'clean' seawater at either ambient (27 per mill) or low (17 per mill) salinity. Cadmium exposure alone (ambient salinity) induced a general elevation of enzyme activity (heart, antennal gland, and muscle MDH; heart LDH and GPI), despite the probability of some clearance of cadmium from body tissues during the 'clean' seawater holding period. Low-salinity alone (non-exposed lobsters) caused a decrease of enzyme activity (AAT, LDH, GPI, PK) in most tissues examined, except for tail muscle IDH, the activity of which was increased, and MDH, which was significantly elevated above ambient controls in all tissues except heart. Most low-salinity effects were observed in tail muscle, and most cadmium effects, in heart; low-salinity effects outnumbered cadmium stress by nine to four. In heart and tail muscle of cadmium-exposed lobsters held at low salinity, each of the two stresses apparently operated to nullify the other's effects. The most prominent single biochemical response to these sublethal stresses was the elevation of MDH activity. The ratio MDH:LDH gave the clearest indication of overall relative stress.

  20. Assessment of exposure to soils contaminated with lead, cadmium, and arsenic near a zinc smelter, Cassiopée Study, France, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Cécile; Sauthier, Nicolas; Schwoebel, Valérie

    2015-06-01

    After 150 years of industrial activity, significant pollution of surface soils in private gardens and locally produced vegetables with lead, cadmium, and arsenic has recently been observed in Viviez (Southern France). A public health intervention was conducted in 2008 to identify individual health risks of Viviez inhabitants and to analyze their environmental exposure to these pollutants. Children and pregnant women in Viviez were screened for lead poisoning. Urinary cadmium testing was proposed to all inhabitants. Those with urinary cadmium levels over 1 μg/g creatinine were then tested for kidney damage. Urinary cadmium and arsenic levels were compared between participants with non-occupational exposure from Viviez and Montbazens, a nearby town not exposed to these two pollutants, in order to identify environmental factors contributing to impregnation. No case of lead poisoning was detected in Viviez, but 23 % of adults had urinary cadmium over 1 μg/g creatinine, 14 % of whom having markers of kidney damage. Viviez adults had higher levels of urinary cadmium, and to a lesser extent, higher levels of urinary arsenic than those from Montbazens. Consumption of local produce (vegetables and animals) and length of residence in Viviez were associated with higher urinary cadmium levels, independently of known confounding factors, suggesting persisting environmental exposure to contaminated soil. To conclude, health risks related to cadmium exposure were identified in the Viviez population living on contaminated soils. Lead and arsenic exposure did not pose health concerns. Interventions were proposed to reduce exposure and limit health consequences.

  1. Subchronic Exposure of Mice to Cadmium Perturbs Their Hepatic Energy Metabolism and Gut Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songbin; Jin, Yuanxiang; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Liu, Zhenzhen; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-10-19

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant known to cause liver damage; however, the mechanisms of its hepatotoxicity remain poorly understood. In this study, the effects of subchronic exposure in mice to low doses of Cd on energy metabolism and the gut microbiome were evaluated. The exposure of mice to 10 mg/L Cd supplied in drinking water for 10 weeks increased hepatic triacylglycerol (TG), serum free fatty acid (FFA), and TG levels. The mRNA levels of several key genes involved in both de novo FFA synthesis and transport pathways and in TG synthesis in the liver also increased significantly in the Cd-treated mice, indicating that alterations of these genes may be a possible mechanism to explain subchronic Cd exposure induced hepatic toxicity at a molecular level. As for the gut microbiome, at the phylum level, the amounts of Firmicutes and γ-proteobacteria decreased significantly in the feces after 4 weeks of Cd exposure, and the quantity of Firmicutes decreased significantly in the cecum contents after 10 weeks of Cd exposure. In addition, 16S rRNA gene sequencing further revealed that Cd exposure significantly perturbed the gut microflora structure and richness at family and genus levels. The alteration of gut microbiome composition might result in an increase in serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and induce hepatic inflammation, which may indirectly cause perturbations of energy homeostasis after Cd exposure. Taken together, the present study indicated that subchronic Cd exposure caused the dysregulation of energy metabolism and changed the gut microbiome composition in mice.

  2. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barregard, Lars, E-mail: lars.barregard@amm.gu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Fabricius-Lagging, Elisabeth [Department of Nephrology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Boras Hospital (Sweden); Lundh, Thomas [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital and Lund University (Sweden); Moelne, Johan [Department of Clinical Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Wallin, Maria [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Olausson, Michael [Department of Transplantation and Liver Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Modigh, Cecilia; Sallsten, Gerd [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Most current knowledge on kidney concentrations of nephrotoxic metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb) comes from autopsy studies. Assessment of metal concentrations in kidney biopsies from living subjects can be combined with information about exposure sources like smoking, diet, and occupation supplied by the biopsied subjects themselves. Objectives: To determine kidney concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in living kidney donors, and assess associations with common exposure sources and background factors. Methods: Metal concentrations were determined in 109 living kidney donors aged 24-70 years (median 51), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Cd and Pb) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Hg). Smoking habits, occupation, dental amalgam, fish consumption, and iron stores were evaluated. Results: The median kidney concentrations were 12.9 {mu}g/g (wet weight) for cadmium, 0.21 {mu}g/g for mercury, and 0.08 {mu}g/g for lead. Kidney Cd increased by 3.9 {mu}g/g for a 10 year increase in age, and by 3.7 {mu}g/g for an extra 10 pack-years of smoking. Levels in non-smokers were similar to those found in the 1970s. Low iron stores (low serum ferritin) in women increased kidney Cd by 4.5 {mu}g/g. Kidney Hg increased by 6% for every additional amalgam surface, but was not associated with fish consumption. Lead was unaffected by the background factors surveyed. Conclusions: In Sweden, kidney Cd levels have decreased due to less smoking, while the impact of diet seems unchanged. Dental amalgam is the main determinant of kidney Hg. Kidney Pb levels are very low due to decreased exposure.

  3. Urinary cadmium levels and tobacco smoke exposure in women age 20-69 years in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J A; Shafer, M M; Trentham-Dietz, A; Hampton, J M; Newcomb, P A

    2007-10-01

    Cadmium is a toxic, bioaccumulated heavy metal with a half-life of one to four decades in humans (CDC, 2005). Primary exposure sources include food and tobacco smoke. In our population-based study, a risk-factor interview was conducted as part of a breast cancer study for 251 randomly selected women living in Wisconsin (USA), aged 20-69 yr, and spot-urine specimens were also obtained. Urine collection kits were carefully designed to minimize trace element contamination during specimen collection and handling in each participant's home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and creatinine levels and specific gravity were also determined. Statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status (never, former, and current respectively) were observed. A difference in mean cadmium levels for nonsmokers who reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure during childhood or the recent past (approximately 2 yr prior to the interview) for exposure at home, at work, or in social settings compared to those who reported no exposure was not found.

  4. Enzyme responses and lipid peroxidation in gills and hepatopancreas of clam Mactra vereformis, following cadmium exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaoyu; YANG Hongsheng; LIU Guangbin; WANG Qing

    2011-01-01

    To assess the toxicity of heavy metal pollution to marine intertidal shellfish,enzymatic responses and lipid peroxidation were investigated in the clam Mactra vereformis exposed to cadmium under laboratory conditions.Three antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase,SOD; catalase,CAT;glutathione peroxidase,GPx),two immune defense enzymes (acid phosphatase,ACP; alkaline phosphatase,ALP),and one lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde,MDA) were measured in the gills and the hepatopancreas of the clam exposed to 0,25,75,and 125 μg/L cadmium for 0,1,3,5,and 7 d.The results show that the concentrations of antioxidant enzymes in the organs soared to a peak value on the first day and then decreased afterwards in most cases.CAT and GPx activities in the hepatopancreas were higher than in the gills,but the SOD activity was lower in the bepatopancreas.ACP activity was unchanged until Day 3 in the hepatopancreas and until Day 5 in gills,when it began to increase.ALP activity showed no significant relationship with Cd treatment.MDA concentrations increased in the two tissues after Cd exposure,peaked on Day 3 in gills,and on Day 5 in hepatopancreas.These observations show that changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and ACP reflect the time course of oxidative stress in the clam caused by Cd,and could be used as potential biomarkers for ecotoxicological bioassays of heavy metals.

  5. Cadmium accumulation and biochemical responses in Sparus aurata following sub-lethal Cd exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isani, G; Andreani, G; Cocchioni, F; Fedeli, D; Carpené, E; Falcioni, G

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal with limited biological function, is widely distributed in the aquatic environment as a result of natural and anthropogenic activities. The effect of 4 and 11 days exposure of gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata to sub-lethal concentrations of Cd was evaluated as levels of Cd content and Cd-metallothionein (MT) presence in different organs. The possible genotoxic effect was also evaluated in erythrocytes by using the "comet assay", a promising tool for estimating DNA damage at the single-cell level. The results obtained show that in the controls, Cd content was significantly higher in gills compared to in liver, but the treatment of fish with 0.1mg/l Cd induced a stronger accumulation of metal in liver depending on the length of the exposure period. Cd traces were found in plasma, muscle and kidney. Cd forms complexes in the cytosol with MT only in the liver but Cd-MT content significantly increased after 11 days of exposure to the metal, while after 4 days of treatment the protein level was similar to the control. The "comet assay" performed on S. aurata eryhtrocytes isolated from fish treated for 4 and 11 days with 0.1mg/l Cd, showed that there was no DNA damage at both exposure periods.

  6. Exposure of rainbow trout milt to mercury and cadmium alters sperm motility parameters and reproductive success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Grzegorz J., E-mail: dietrich@pan.olsztyn.pl [Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland); Dietrich, Mariola; Kowalski, R.K. [Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland); Dobosz, Stefan [Department of Salmonid Research, Inland Fisheries Institute, Rutki 83-330 Zukowo (Poland); Karol, Halina; Demianowicz, Wieslaw; Glogowski, Jan [Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland)

    2010-05-10

    In the current work, seminal plasma was used for the first time as an incubation medium for monitoring short-time exposure effects of sublethal concentrations of mercury and cadmium ions on rainbow trout sperm. Sperm motility parameters (CASA) and hatching rates were used as gamete quality markers. Additionally live/dead sperm viability test and comet assay of DNA fragmentation were performed. We demonstrated that computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA) may serve as a predictor of reproductive success, when milt contaminated with heavy metals is used. Results presented in this study demonstrate that mercury ions altered sperm motility characteristics at 1-10 mg Hg{sup 2+}/l and 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/l and hatching rates at 10 mg Hg{sup 2+}/l and 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/l after 4 h of exposure. Although mercury ions affected sperm motility parameters immediately after dilution with milt as well as at 4 h of exposure, no differences in sperm motility parameters were found between intact and mercury-treated milt after 24 h of exposure. Our results suggest that rainbow trout seminal plasma has a protective role against the toxic effects of mercury ions of rainbow trout sperm motility.

  7. Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Stephani [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Arora, Monica [Department of Psychiatry, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Fernandez, Cristina [Department of Pediatrics, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph [Metallomics Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: aimin.chen@uc.edu [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. Objectives: To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. Methods: We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5–8, 9–12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb geometric mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07–5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Conclusions: Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. -- Highlights: • Blood Pb levels are associated with ADHD diagnosis in children. • No association was found between blood Cd or Hg levels and ADHD. • Children living close to hazardous waste site need to reduce metal exposure.

  8. Assessing of plasma protein denaturation induced by exposure to cadmium, electromagnetic fields and their combined actions on rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nahed S; Abdelkawi, Salwa A

    2014-06-01

    In our environment, we have numerous chances to be exposed to not only electromagnetic fields (EMFs) but also many chemicals containing mutagens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate whether rat's exposure to cadmium and/or EMFs could cause oxidative damage to molecular structure of proteins and whether and to what extent the effects of co-exposure differ from those observed under the treatment with each exposure alone. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was termed as control, group 2 was treated with cadmium (3.0 mg/Kg), group 3 was exposed to EMF (10 mT/h/day) and group 4 was treated with cadmium and exposed to EMF. Protein carbonyls (PCO) in the plasma as a marker of oxidative protein damage and total oxidant status (TOS), as well as electrical conductivity and SDS electrophoresis to estimate changes in molecular structure of protein, were determined. The exposure to Cd and/or EMF led to oxidative protein damage (increased PCO and TOS) accomplished by increased stress of electrical charges on the surface of the protein molecule (increased electrical conductivity) and changes in the molecular structure of protein. The effects were more pronounced after treatment with both Cd and EMF than at the treatment with each exposure alone. The serious damage to proteins at the co-exposure to Cd and EMF seems to be due to the interference of the EMF with the toxic activity of cadmium. This work concluded that combined exposure to Cd and EMFs might increase the risk of plasma damage via enhancing free radical generation and protein oxidation.

  9. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  10. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Dorman, Rebecca A; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A; Kunz, James L; Hardesty, Doug K

    2014-10-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th-82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  11. Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: Age and gender aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, Ngo Duc [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hough, Rupert Lloyd, E-mail: rupert.hough@hutton.ac.uk [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Thuy, Le Thi [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Science, Institute of Agricultural Environment (IAE), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nyberg, Ylva [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Mai, Le Bach [National Institute of Nutrition, 48b Tang Bat Ho, Hoan Kiem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vinh, Nguyen Cong [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Khai, Nguyen Manh [Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Ha Noi University of Science (HUS-VNU), 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Oeborn, Ingrid [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-02-01

    This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n = 132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n = 130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published 'safe' doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18-60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p < 0.001). Rice was the main staple food with individuals consuming 461 {+-} 162 g/d, followed by water spinach (103 {+-} 51 kg/d). Concentrations of Cd in the studied foodstuffs were elevated in the metal recycling village. Values of HQ exceeded unity for 87% of adult participants of the metal recycling community (39% had a HQ > 3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ > 1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4 mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First individual-level risk assessment of cadmium in recycling villages of Vietnam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dietary analysis undertaken for a recycling community and an agricultural community. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant differences were found between the diets of the two populations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 87% of people in the recycling community had elevated health risk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WHO standard (0.4 mg Cd/kg rice) may

  12. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S., E-mail: rozekl@umich.edu

    2014-05-01

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity.

  13. Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stephani; Arora, Monica; Fernandez, Cristina; Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph; Chen, Aimin

    2013-10-01

    There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5-8, 9-12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb geometric mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07-5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Effects of sublethal cadmium exposure on antipredator behavioural and antitoxic responses in the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Sornom

    Full Text Available Amphipods are recognised as an important component of freshwater ecosystems and are frequently used as an ecotoxicological test species. Despite this double interest, there is still a lack of information concerning toxic impacts on ecologically relevant behaviours. The present study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd, a non-essential heavy metal, on both antipredator behaviours and antitoxic responses in the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus under laboratory conditions. Amphipod behaviour (i.e. refuge use, aggregation with conspecifics, exploration and mobility was recorded following a 4-min test-exposure to 500 µg Cd/L with or without a 24-h Cd pre-exposure and in the presence or absence of a high perceived risk of predation (i.e. water scented by fish predators and injured conspecifics. Following behavioural tests, malondialdehyde (MDA levels, a biomarker for toxic effect, and energy reserves (i.e. lipid and glycogen contents were assessed. Cd exposures induced (1 cell damage reflected by high MDA levels, (2 erratic behaviour quantified by decreasing refuge use and exploration, and increasing mobility, and (3 a depletion in energy reserves. No significant differences were observed between 4-min test-exposed and 24-h pre-exposed individuals. Gammarids exposed to Cd had a disturbed perception of the alarm stimuli, reflected by increased time spent outside of refuges and higher mobility compared to gammarids exposed to unpolluted water. Our results suggest that Cd exposure rapidly disrupts the normal behavioural responses of gammarids to alarm substances and alters predator-avoidance strategies, which could have potential impacts on aquatic communities.

  15. Dietary Cadmium Intake and Risk of Breast, Endometrial and Ovarian Cancer in Danish Postmenopausal Women: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cadmium is a human lung carcinogen and possesses estrogen-like activity. This combination of carcinogenic and estrogenic activity makes cadmium a contaminant of high concern for hormone-related cancers. Diet and smoking are the main sources of cadmium exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary cadmium intake and risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer in Danish postmenopausal woman. Methods We estimated dietary cadmium intake in the Diet,...

  16. European sea bass gill pathology after exposure to cadmium and terbuthylazine: expert versus fractal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, M; Giari, L; Depasquale, J A; Dezfuli, B S

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare expert versus fractal analysis as new methods to evaluate branchial lamellar pathology in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) experimentally exposed to cadmium and to terbuthylazine. In particular, guided expert quantitative and fractal analysis were performed on selected images from semithin sections to test possible differences according to exposure class (unexposed, cadmium exposed, or terbuthylazine exposed) and the discrimination power of the two methods. With respect to guided expert quantitative analysis, the following elementary pathological features were assessed according to pre-determined cover classes: 'epithelial lifting', 'epithelial shrinkage', 'epithelial swelling', 'pillar cells coarctation', 'pillar cells detachment', 'channels fusion', 'chloride cells swelling' and 'chloride cells invasion'. Considering fractal analysis, DB (box dimension), DM (mass dimension), Dx (mean fractal dimension) as fractal dimensions and lacunarity from DM and Dx scan types were calculated both from the outlined and skeletonized (one pixel wide lines) images. Despite significant differences among experimental classes, only expert analysis provided good discrimination with correct classification of 91.7 % of the original cases, and of 87.5 % of the cross-validated cases, with a sensitivity of 95.45 % and 91.3 %, respectively, and a specificity of 75 % in both cases. Guided expert quantitative analysis appears to be a reliable method to objectively characterize fish gill pathology and may represent a powerful tool in environmental biomonitoring to ensure proper standardization and reproducibility. Though fractal analysis did not equal the discrimination power of the expert method, it certainly warrants further study to evaluate local variations in complexity or possible multiple scaling rules.

  17. Exposure of Prague's homeless population to lead and cadmium, compared to Prague's general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncírová, Dana; Batáriová, Andrea; Cerná, Milena; Procházka, Bohumír; Dlouhý, Pavel; Andel, Michal

    2008-10-01

    Homelessness is a growing problem in the Czech Republic where homeless people represent a specific minority group beset by many problems linked to their divergent lifestyle. It was therefore expected that the homeless population would be at greater risk of exposure to environmental pollutants than the general population. The aim of our study was to compare blood lead (B-Pb) and blood cadmium (B-Cd) levels in the homeless population (HP) with those obtained from the Human Biomonitoring Project (CZ-HBM), which used blood donors considered representative of the general population (GP). We present data obtained between 2004 and 2006 for B-Pb and B-Cd in 257 Prague homeless adults and compare them to B-Pb and B-Cd levels in 104 Prague adult blood donors from the CZ-HBM project in 2005. The mean (geometric) B-Pb levels in men were 36.5 (HP) and 35.4microg/l (GP), which is not significantly different. However, statistically significant differences were observed between men and women in the GP (Phomeless nonsmokers (geometric means 1.06 and 1.18microg/l in men and women, respectively) were more than 2.5 times higher than in the nonsmoking GP (0.36 and 0.38microg/l for men and women, respectively). B-Cd levels were significantly (Phomeless population under study might be exposed to lead and cadmium more extensively than the general population of Prague and that homeless women represent a particularly vulnerable population group.

  18. Extraction procedure may not be feasible for cadmium analysis of tissues, such as horse kidney cortex, having a very high cadmium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G. (The Karenlinska Inst., Stockholm, Sweden); Lind, B.; Piscator, M.; Sundstedt, K.; Akerberg, S.

    1981-12-01

    In the light of the discrepancy between data on cadmium in horse kidney in the U.S. and what has been reported in Europe the present authors have tested the analytical procedure used by Penumarthy et al. (1980). Cadmium in reference pig kidney and horse kidney cortex was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry after wet digestion, dissolving of the residue in water, complexing with APDC and extraction into MIBK. The ratio between the measured amount (minus blank) and the calculated amount of cadmium in the samples was 86% for blank with addition of 0.5 ..mu..g cadmium and 91% for low-level pig kidney cortex with or without the addition of 0.5 ..mu..g cadmium. The ratio was unacceptably low for horse kidney cortex having a concentration of greater than or equal to 117 ..mu..g/g dry wt. Concentrations of this magnitude are also found in human kidney and in human and horse liver. Data of Penumarthy et al. (1980) are also unusual in that the average cadmium concentration was 3.4 ..mu..g/g wet wt in horse liver and 2.5 ..mu..g/g in horse kidney. As a rule, cadmium concentration in kidney exceeds that in liver by a factor of 2-15. The capacity of the extraction procedure appears to be insufficient at high and intermediate cadmium levels. 1 table (JMT)

  19. Analysis of proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids during pulmonary edema resulting from nitrogen dioxide and cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurley, L.R.; London, J.E.; Dethloff, L.A.; Lehnert, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    We have developed a new HPLC method by which quantitative measurements can be made on the biochemical constituents of the extracellular fluid lining of the lung as sampled by bronchoalveolar lavage. Nine of the fractions are proteins, two are phospholipids, and two fractions remained unidentified. Rats were subjected to the intrapulmonary deposition of cadmium, a treatment model known to induce pulmonary edema and cause a translocation of blood compartment proteins into the lung's alveolar space compartment. Resulting pulmonary edema was hallmarked by /approximately/25-fold increases in three major blood compartment-derived HPLC protein fractions, two of which have been identified as albumin and immunoglobulin(s). Analysis of lavage fluid from rats exposed to 100 ppM NO/sub 2/ for 15 min, an exposure regimen which also produces pulmonary edema, indicated that the three blood compartment proteins in the lavage fluids were elevated 35- to 72-fold over controls 24 h after exposure. These results demonstrate that HPLC can be used to provide a highly sensitive method for detection and quantitation of pulmonary edema that can occur in acute lung injuries resulting from environmental insults.

  20. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippler, Maria [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Lindh, Christian [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Moore, Sophie E. [MRC Keneba, MRC Laboratories (Gambia); Kabir, Iqbal [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Broberg, Karin, E-mail: karin.broberg_palmgren@med.lu.se [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh)

    2012-01-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11-17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 {mu}g/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 {mu}g/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  1. Dysregulation of long noncoding RNAs in mouse testes and spermatozoa after exposure to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fengxin; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhang, Yunhui; Zhang, Yunwen; Hao, Qingyun; Zhang, Xiaoning

    2017-02-26

    There is increasing evidence that cadmium (Cd) exposure can cause male subfertility and even complete infertility in mammals. Long noncoding (lnc) RNAs are critical for spermatogenesis, and their dysregulation might lead to male infertility. However, whether they are involved in Cd-induced subfertility is unknown. Here we found that intraperitoneal exposure to Cd in mice led to male subfertility indicated by reductions in testicular sperm production and motility, and by abnormal morphology. Testicular and sperm RNAs were used to investigate lncRNA expression profiles by strand-specific RNA sequencing at the transcriptome level to help determine any RNA-related mechanisms in Cd-induced subfertility. The Cd-treated testes and spermatozoa exhibited aberrant expression profiles for lncRNAs and mRNAs. Of the lncRNAs, there were 139 with upregulated expression and 174 with downregulated expression in testes; in contrast, 685 were upregulated and 375 were downregulated in spermatozoa. For mRNA expression, 214 were upregulated and 226 were downregulated in testes; 272 were upregulated and 111 were downregulated in spermatozoa. Gene ontology and pathway analyses showed that the functions of differentially expressed lncRNA targets and mRNAs were closely linked with many processes involved in spermatogenesis. Additionally, many newly identified lncRNAs showed inducible expression, suggesting that they might be good candidate markers for Cd-induced male reproductive toxicity. This study provides a preliminary database for further exploring lncRNA-related mechnisms in male infertility induced by Cd.

  2. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie; Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Samsioe, Göran; Halldin, Krister; Åkesson, Agneta

    2014-10-01

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk.

  3. Critical Windows of Prenatal Exposure to Cadmium and Size at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal cadmium (Cd exposure has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, but the findings of previous studies are inconsistent. We measured Cd concentrations in urine samples at or near 13, 24, and 35 gestational weeks from 282 women in Wuhan, China. We used generalized estimating equation models to assess the associations between maternal creatinine adjusted urinary Cd concentrations at each trimester and birth size. A significant inverse association was observed between higher maternal Cd levels measured during the 1st trimester and birth size in girls. For each log unit increase in Cd (µg/g creatinine levels from the 1st trimester, there was a decrease in birth weight by 116.99 g (95% confidence interval (CI: −208.87, −25.11 g. The Cd levels from the 1st and 2nd trimesters were also borderline significantly associated with ponderal index in girls. Joint estimation of trimester-specific effects suggested that associations with Cd levels for ponderal index (pint = 0.02 were significantly different across trimesters, and differences for effects across trimesters for birth weight were marginally significant (pint = 0.08 in girls. No significant associations were observed between Cd levels from any trimester and birth size in boys. Maternal Cd exposure during earlier periods of pregnancy may have a larger impact on delayed fetal growth.

  4. Influence of acclimation and exposure temperature on the acute toxicity of cadmium to the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, V.; Forbes, V.E.; Depledge, M.H. (Odense Univ. (Denmark). Ecotoxicology Group)

    1994-09-01

    Forty-eight-hour acute toxicity tests were performed to determine the influence of acclimation temperature (5, 15, and 20 C) and exposure temperature (5, 15, and 20 C) on the toxicity of cadmium to the freshwater gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Mortality varied with cadmium concentration and treatment conditions, but did not conform to conventional sigmoid concentration-response relationships. Because the shapes of the concentration-response curves were treatment dependent, a nontraditional approach for data analysis was employed. Regardless of acclimation temperature, mortality increased with increasing exposure temperature, and at all exposure temperatures snails acclimated at 15 C were most susceptible to cadmium toxicity. Estimated LC50 values were within 1 to 4 mg Cd/L. Although the shapes of the concentration-response curves were different for each treatment, the slopes were generally quite steep, indicating a uniform response for the whole population. At a given Cd concentration, acclimation temperature and exposure temperature accounted for 57 and 40%, respectively, of the variation in mortality, and LC50s changed by a factor of four. The results indicate that changes in environmental variables can alter both the degree of response and the response distribution of a population, and that past as well as prevailing environmental conditions can influence organismic responses to toxicants.

  5. Effects of chronic cadmium exposure and cadmium exposure combined with γ-ray irradiation on the peripheral lymphocytes and their genotoxicity on hprt gene:experiment with rats%慢性镉染毒及联合辐射对大鼠的基因毒性作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    暴一众; 陈红红; 胡昱兴; 邹美君; 徐爱红; 邵春林

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性镉染毒及联合辐射对大鼠的基因毒性.方法 雄性SD大鼠分设空白对照组、0.1 mg CdCl2·kg-1·d-1低剂量镉染毒组、0.5 mg CdCl2·kg-1·d-1高剂量镉染毒组、单纯照射组、低剂量镉染毒+照射组和高剂量镉染毒+照射组.腹腔注射镉染毒连续8周,1次/d,然后给予2 Gy γ照射.于照射后第10天或受照即日后继续染镉4周,心脏取血,采用多核细胞法检测外周血淋巴细胞微核率和hprt基因突变率,同时检测外周血白细胞数量变化和血镉含量.结果 大鼠低剂量镉染毒8周和12周组未观察到外周血细胞损伤,而辐射诱导的微核率(F=26.74,P<0.01和F=14.13,P<0.05)和hprt基因突变率(F=6.60,P<0.05)显著降低;高剂量镉染毒8周和12周组与空白对照组比较,外周血白细胞数显著增高(F=8.74,P<0.01和F=13.11,P=0.000),淋巴细胞微核率(F=26.74,P<0.05和F=14.13,P=0.000)和hprt基因突变率(F=6.60,P<0.05和F=12.83,P<0.05)明显增加,而高剂量镉染毒+照射组的基因毒性又显著高于单纯高剂量镉染毒组或单纯照射组,表现出联合毒性效应.结论 慢性、低剂量镉染毒诱导外周血淋巴细胞对辐射产生适应性效应,血镉浓度增加到613~678 μg/L时能刺激白细胞显著增加并与辐射联合作用加重对淋巴细胞的基因毒性.%objective To investigate the effects of chronic cadmium exposure and cadmium exposure combined with γ-ray irradiation on the peripheral lymphocytes and their genotoxicity on hprt gene.Methods Ninety-six SD rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups:①normal control group,②lowdose cadmium exposure group undergoing intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 mg CdCl2·kg-1·d-1 for 8 weeks,③high-dose cadmium exposure group undergoing intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 mg CdCl2·kg-1·d-1 for 8 weeks,④pure irradiation group exposed to whole-body γ-ray irradiation at the dose of 2 Gy for one time,⑤low-dose cadmium exposure

  6. Cadmium exposure from smoking cigarettes: variations with time and country where purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinder, C G; Kjellström, T; Lind, B; Linnman, L; Piscator, M; Sundstedt, K

    1983-10-01

    Cadmium has been determined in 26 brands of cigarettes purchased in eight different countries throughout the world and in 16 different samples of cigarettes produced in Sweden between 1918 and 1968. In addition the amount of cadmium released from smoking one cigarette to the particulate phase collected from a smoking simulation machine, corresponding to the amount actually inhaled by a smoker, has been determined. The cadmium concentration in different brands of cigarettes ranged from 0.19 to 3.0 micrograms Cd/g dry wt, with a general tendency toward lower values in cigarettes from developing countries. No systematic change in the cadmium concentration of cigarettes with time could be revealed. The amount of cadmium inhaled from smoking one cigarette containing about 1.7 microgram Cd was estimated to be 0.14 to 0.19 microgram, corresponding to about 10% of the total cadmium content in the cigarette.

  7. Modeling effects of cadmium on population growth of Palaemonetes pugio: Results of a full life cycle exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manyin, Teresa [University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, PO Box 38, 1 Williams Street, Solomons, MD 20688 (United States)], E-mail: manyin@cbl.umces.edu; Rowe, Christopher L. [University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, PO Box 38, 1 Williams Street, Solomons, MD 20688 (United States)

    2008-06-23

    In an 8-month laboratory experiment, Palaemonetes pugio (grass shrimp) were exposed to aqueous cadmium (free cadmium ion concentrations of 1.51 or 2.51 {mu}g Cd{sup 2+}/L) for an entire life cycle, from larva to reproductive adult and through to production of second-generation larva. Individual-level effects on survival, life stage duration, and reproduction were measured, and population growth was projected using two models: a stage-based matrix model and a z-transformed life cycle graph analysis. Adult survival was significantly reduced at 2.51 {mu}g Cd{sup 2+}/L, but cadmium exposure had no effects on survival or stage duration of embryos, larvae, or juveniles. Survival of second-generation larvae was unaffected by maternal exposure. Brood size was reduced by 27% at 1.51 {mu}g Cd{sup 2+}/L and by 36% at 2.51 {mu}g Cd{sup 2+}/L. The percent of females in the population that was gravid was approximately 50% lower at 2.51 {mu}g Cd{sup 2+}/L, compared to controls. Both population models projected a dose-dependent decrease in population growth rate ({lambda}), up to a 12% reduction at 2.51 {mu}g Cd{sup 2+}/L, which can be attributed mainly to contributions from reproductive effects. Elasticity analysis revealed that population growth rate was most sensitive to changes in survival of juveniles and adults. However, lethal effects of cadmium made only a small contribution to the effect on population growth rate. Even though both models project positive growth ({lambda} > 1) of grass shrimp populations exposed to low concentrations of cadmium, the ability of populations to withstand predation pressure would be compromised.

  8. Effect of low-level lifetime exposure to cadmium on calciotropic hormones in aged female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzoska, Malgorzata M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, Janina [Medical University of Bialystok, Department of Toxicology, Bialystok (Poland)

    2005-11-01

    The effect of low-level lifetime exposure to cadmium (Cd) on calciotropic hormones and the possible association between the Cd-induced disorders in bone metabolism and these hormones were investigated on a female rat model of human environmental exposure in areas unpolluted by this metal. For this purpose, the concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH){sub 2}D), calcitonin (CT) and parathormone (PTH) were measured in the serum of control and Cd-exposed (1 mg Cd/l in drinking water for 24 months) female rats. Calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P{sub i}) serum concentrations, renal tubular reabsorption of Ca (TRCa) and phosphate (TRP) and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were estimated as well. Moreover, 1,25(OH){sub 2}D, metallothionein (MT) and Cd were determined in the kidney. The exposure to Cd led to a decrease in the serum concentrations of 25OHD and 1,25(OH){sub 2}D (by 50 and 31%, respectively) and the concentration of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D in the kidney mitochondrial fraction (by 55%). The serum concentrations of CT and PTH increased (5.2-fold and by 29%, respectively) and those of Ca and P{sub i} were unchanged, whereas the TRCa, TRP and GFR decreased due to the exposure to Cd. The results give evidence that the low lifetime exposure to Cd disturbs the metabolism of calciotropic hormones and damages the reabsorptive and filtrative function of the kidney in aged female rats. Numerous correlations noted between calciotropic hormones and the indices of kidney function, and indices of bone turnover and bone mineral status (bone mineral content and density) of these females indicate a relationship between these hormones and the kidney functional status and bone metabolism. The results of the present study together with our previous findings on the bone status in the experimental model allow for the conclusion that the low lifetime exposure to Cd by affecting the metabolism and proper function of calciotropic hormones may

  9. Increased risk of cancer mortality associated with cadmium exposures in older Americans with low zinc intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Caffrey, James L; Lin, Jou-Wei; Bayliss, David; Faramawi, Mohammed F; Bateson, Thomas F; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) exposure has been associated with increased cancer risk, and zinc (Zn) appears to reduce that risk. However, little is known about the combined influence of Cd and Zn on cancer risk. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between Cd exposure, Zn intake, and cancer mortality risks. The analyses used 5204 subjects aged 50 yr or older from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994) and the mortality follow-up through December 31, 2006. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test associations. In total, 569 cancer deaths were recorded during an average follow-up of 12.4 yr, including 155 from lung, 61 from prostate, and 26 from breast cancer. A positive association between Cd and cancer mortality risk was identified for both genders. Despite limited cause-specific deaths, the increased risk associated with Cd was significant for lung cancer in men. All-cause cancer mortality risk was significantly elevated among women with Zn intakes below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) compared with women who met the RDA. The effect of low dietary Zn was not observed in men. Similar trends for prostate and breast cancer deaths were not significant. There was a significant inverse association between cancer deaths and the Zn-to-Cd ratio for both genders. Cd exposure is an important independent risk factor of cancer mortality in older Americans and the risk appears exaggerated in those with inadequate dietary Zn. Additional studies are required to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which Zn participates in the carcinogenic influence of Cd.

  10. Cadmium and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is an established human and animal carcinogen. Most evidence is available for elevated risk for lung cancer after occupational exposure; however, associations between cadmium exposure and tumors at other locations including kidney, breast, and prostate may be relevant as well. Furthermore, enhanced cancer risk may not be restricted to comparatively high occupational exposure, but may also occur via environmental exposure, for example in areas in close proximity to zinc smelters. The underlying mechanisms are still a matter of manifold research activities. While direct interactions with DNA appear to be of minor importance, elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been detected in diverse experimental systems, presumably due to an inactivation of detoxifying enzymes. Also, the interference with proteins involved in the cellular response to DNA damage, the deregulation of cell growth as well as resistance to apoptosis appears to be involved in cadmium-induced carcinogenicity. Within this context, cadmium has been shown to disturb nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, and mismatch repair. Particularly sensitive targets appear to be proteins with zinc-binding structures, present in DNA repair proteins such as XPA, PARP-1 as well as in the tumor suppressor protein p53. Whether or not these interactions are due to displacement of zinc or due to reactions with thiol groups involved in zinc complexation or in other critical positions under realistic exposure conditions remains to be elucidated. Further potential mechanisms relate to the interference with cellular redox regulation, either by enhanced generation of ROS or by reaction with thiol groups involved in the regulation of signaling pathways. Particularly the combination of these multiple mechanisms may give rise to a high degree of genomic instability evident in cadmium-adapted cells, relevant not only for tumor initiation, but also for later steps in tumor development.

  11. Cadmium inhibits the induction of high-affinity nitrate uptake in maize (Zea mays L.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzardo, Cecilia; Tomasi, Nicola; Monte, Rossella; Varanini, Zeno; Nocito, Fabio F; Cesco, Stefano; Pinton, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) detoxification involves glutathione and phytochelatins biosynthesis: the higher need of nitrogen should require increased nitrate (NO(3)(-)) uptake and metabolism. We investigated inducible high-affinity NO(3)(-) uptake across the plasma membrane (PM) in maize seedlings roots upon short exposure (10 min to 24 h) to low Cd concentrations (0, 1 or 10 μM): the activity and gene transcript abundance of high-affinity NO(3)(-) transporters, NO(3)(-) reductases and PM H(+)-ATPases were analyzed. Exposure to 1 mM NO(3)(-) led to a peak in high-affinity (0.2 mM) NO(3)(-) uptake rate (induction), which was markedly lowered in Cd-treated roots. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity was also strongly limited, while internal NO(3)(-) accumulation and NO(3)(-) reductase activity in extracts of Cd treated roots were only slightly lowered. Kinetics of high- and low-affinity NO(3)(-) uptake showed that Cd rapidly (10 min) blocked the inducible high-affinity transport system; the constitutive high-affinity transport system appeared not vulnerable to Cd and the low-affinity transport system appeared to be less affected and only after a prolonged exposure (12 h). Cd-treatment also modified transcript levels of genes encoding high-affinity NO(3)(-) transporters (ZmNTR2.1, ZmNRT2.2), PM H(+)-ATPases (ZmMHA3, ZmMHA4) and NO(3)(-) reductases (ZmNR1, ZmNADH:NR). Despite an expectable increase in NO(3)(-) demand, a negative effect of Cd on NO(3)(-) nutrition is reported. Cd effect results in alterations at the physiological and transcriptional levels of NO(3)(-) uptake from the external solution and it is particularly severe on the inducible high-affinity anion transport system. Furthermore, Cd would limit the capacity of the plant to respond to changes in NO(3) (-) availability.

  12. Renal function of cadmium poisoning patients at the period of diagnosis and a few years after cadmium exposure%镉中毒患者诊断时和停止镉接触几年后肾功能指标分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈念光; 陈建玲; 赖关朝; 何康玟

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To compare the renal function index of cadmium poisoning patients at the period of diagnosis and 3-5 years after cadmium exposure,and analyze the long term effect of occupational cadmium poisoning on renal function.[Methods] A total of 43 poisoning patients from several nickel-cadmium battery factories in Guangdong Province who quitted cadmium operation were followed up for 3-5 years.The 2 tests results of urine cadmium,β2-MG,RBP were compared.[Results] Urinary cadmium declined after stopping cadmium exposure,but the level was still high; urine β2-MG and urine RBP also decreased.with significant difference (P <0.05).After active treatment,chronic mild cadmium poisoning patients' urine cadmium,urinary β2-MG,RBP decreased significantly (P <0.01),but still maintain a high level.[Conclusion] Cadmium can cause persistent chronic renal damage to workers,the level of cadmium and the persistent damage to the kidneys in patients remains high even without cadmium exposure 3-5 years.%目的 对镉中毒患者诊断时和停止镉作业3~5a后的肾功能指标进行对比,分析职业性镉中毒对患者肾功能损害的长期影响.方法 对广东省多家镍镉电池厂43名停止镉作业的中毒患者跟踪调查3~5a,对比分析患者前后两次尿镉、尿β2-微球蛋白(β2-MG)、尿黄醇结合蛋白(RBP)的变化.结果 停止镉作业后镉中毒患者尿镉有所下降,但仍较高;尿β2-MG和RBP呈下降趋势,差异有统计意义(P<0.05).慢性轻度镉中毒患者经过积极的驱镉治疗后,尿镉、尿β2-MG、尿RBP下降更明显(P<0.01),但仍维持较高水平.结论 镉能引起职业工人的持久性的慢性肾损害,即使停止镉作业3~5a,中毒患者体内镉水平仍较高,对肾脏的损害持续存在.

  13. Effects of Exposure to Lead and Cadmium on the Oxidative Damage of Livers in Laying Hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; Dawei; Pu; Junhua; Tang; Xiujun; Lu; Junxian; Liu; Yinyin; Jia; Xiaoxu; Ge; Qinglian; Gao; Yushi

    2014-01-01

    [Objective] To detect the effects of exposure to lead and cadmium on the oxidative damage of livers in laying hens. [Methods] One hundred and twenty 40-week-old Hyline brown hens were randomly divided into four groups. 100 mg / L Pb and / or 50 mg / L Cd was added into the drinking water for eight weeks. [Results] Compared with control group,AST and ALT activities in Pb group enhanced; but there were no significant differences. AST and ALT activities in Cd group and( Pb + Cd) group significantly or extremely significantly increased( P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01). SOD activity,GSH- Px activity and GSH content in( Pb + Cd) group,Cd group and Pb group were significantly or extremely significantly lower than those in control group( P <0. 05 or P <0. 01). Among them,( Pb + Cd) group showed the greatest reduction( P <0. 01). MDA contents in the three groups were significantly higher than that of control group; and( Pb +Cd) group was significantly higher than Pb group and Cd group. Cu,Fe and Zn contents in three groups were higher than those in control group in different degrees( P <0. 05 or P <0. 01). Se contents in Cd group and( Pb + Cd) group were significantly lower than that in control group( P <0. 01). Residue contents in livers in Pb group and Cd group were significantly greater than that in control group; while residue content in( Pb + Cd) group was significantly higher than those in Pb group and Cd group. Ultrastructure showed that there were symptoms of mitochondrial swelling and fractured cristae in liver cells of laying hens after the exposure to Cd and Pb. In( Pb + Cd) group,these symptoms were even greater. [Conclusion] Oxidative damage and disturbance of trace element metabolism were one of the mechanisms for hepatotocity in laying hens induced by Pb and Cd,and synergistic effect lied in the coadministration.

  14. Cadmium-induced autophagy in rat kidney: an early biomarker of subtoxic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chargui, Abderrahman; Zekri, Sami; Jacquillet, Gregory; Rubera, Isabelle; Ilie, Marius; Belaid, Amine; Duranton, Christophe; Tauc, Michel; Hofman, Paul; Poujeol, Philippe; El May, Michèle V; Mograbi, Baharia

    2011-05-01

    Environmental exposures to cadmium (Cd) are a major cause of human toxicity. The kidney is the most sensitive organ; however, the natures of injuries and of adaptive responses have not been adequately investigated, particularly in response to environmental relevant Cd concentrations. In this study, rats received a daily ip injection of low CdCl₂ dose (0.3 mg Cd/kg body mass) and killed at 1, 3, and 5 days of intoxication. Functional, ultrastructural, and biochemical observations were used to evaluate Cd effects. We show that Cd at such subtoxic doses does not affect the tubular functions nor does it induce apoptosis. Meanwhile, Cd accumulates within lysosomes of proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) cells where it triggers cell proliferation and autophagy. By developing an immunohistochemical assay, a punctate staining of light chain 3-II is prominent in Cd-intoxicated kidneys, as compared with control. We provide the evidence of a direct upregulation of autophagy by Cd using a PCT cell line. Compared with the other heavy metals, Cd is the most powerful inducer of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in PCT cells, in relation to the hypersensitivity of PCT cells. Altogether, these findings suggest that kidney cortex adapts to subtoxic Cd dose by activating autophagy, a housekeeping process that ensures the degradation of damaged proteins. Given that Cd is persistent within cytosol, it might damage proteins continuously and impair at long-term autophagy efficiency. We therefore propose the autophagy pathway as a new sensitive biomarker for renal injury even after exposure to subtoxic Cd doses.

  15. Cadmium and zinc relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinder, C G; Piscator, M

    1978-08-01

    Cadmium and zinc concentrations in kidney and liver have been measured under different exposure situations in different species including man. The results show that zinc increases almost equimolarly with cadmium in kidney after long-term low-level exposure to cadmium, e.g., in man, horse, pig, and lamb. In contrast, the increase of zinc follows that of cadmium to only a limited extent, e.g., in guinea pig, rabbit, rat, mouse, and chicks. In liver, the cadmium--zinc relationship seems to be reversed in such a way that zinc increases with cadmium more markedly in laboratory animals than in higher mammals. These differences between cadmium and zinc relationships in humans and large farm animals and those in commonly used laboratory animals must be considered carefully before experimental data on cadmium and zinc relationships in laboratory animals can be extrapolated to humans.

  16. What Do We Know of Childhood Exposures to Metals (Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Emerging Market Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Horton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets.

  17. What do we know of childhood exposures to metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) in emerging market countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Lindsey M; Mortensen, Mary E; Iossifova, Yulia; Wald, Marlena M; Burgess, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets.

  18. Histopathological Alterations of Hybrid Walking Catfish (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus in Acute and Subacute Cadmium Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuntiya Pantung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological alterations occur in the gills, livers and kidneys of 3-month old hybrid walking catsfich (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinos after acute and subacute cadmium exposure in water, and after intraperitoneal injection.The 96-h LC50 for cadmium in recirculation open systems was 13.6 mg/l, and the 96-h LD50 1.6 mg/kg of fish. Light microscopic studies were carried out in gills, livers and kidneys. Gill alterations included an increased number of chloride cells, breakdown of the pillar cells and edema of the epithelial cells. In the liver there was blood conjestion in sinusoids and swelling of hepatocytes. The kidneys showed vacuolation and necrosis of proximal tubular cells.

  19. CADMIUM – ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some information about current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem. Agricultural uses of phosphate fertilizers, sewage sludge and industrial uses of Cd are the major source of widespread of this metal at trace levels into the general environment and human foodstuffs. It is well known that high cadmium (Cd exposure causes renal damage, anemia, enteropathy, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, whereas the dose-response relationship at low levels exposure is less established. During the last decade an increasing number of studies have found an adverse health effects due to low environmental exposure to Cd. Many authors try to determine the relationship between Cd intake and Cd toxicity indicators, especially dealing renal tubular damage. The level of b2-microglobulin in urine is regarded as the most sensitive biomarker of renal disfunction due to low environmental Cd concentrations.

  20. High cadmium concentrations in areas with endemic fluorosis: A serious hidden toxin?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.; Xiao, T.F.; Wang, S.J.; Lei, J.L.; Zhang, M.Z.; Gong, Y.Y.; Li, H.J.; Ning, Z.P.; He, L.B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China). Institute of Geochemistry

    2009-07-15

    Environmental contamination with cadmium (Cd) and fluorine (F) and the associated health impacts on humans have raised significant concerns in the literature, but the additional health risks created by Cd have not been investigated in areas with endemic fluorine intoxication (fluorosis). Here, we report for the first time that naturally occurring Cd in areas where endemic fluorosis is related to coal combustion is a serious hidden toxin. The high Cd levels in rocks and soils of these areas may increase health risks to epidemiological level, irrespective of fluorine levels. We implemented a pilot study in a fluorosis-affected rural area within China's Three Gorges region, and revealed enrichment of Cd in local bedrock (4.48-187 mg kg{sup -1}), coal (11.5-53.4 mg kg{sup -1}), and arable soils (1.01-59.7 mg kg{sup -1}). Cadmium was also observed to concentrate in local food crops (0.58-14.9 mg kg{sup -1}) and in the urine of local residents (1.7-13.4 {mu} g L{sup -1}). A routine epidemiological investigation revealed that the two major Cd exposure pathways were through crop consumption and inhalation of emissions from coal combustion. Therefore, the naturally occurring Cd in areas with endemic fluorosis related to coal combustion represents a previously unrecognized toxin that must be addressed as part of efforts to control the endemic problem. The biogeochemical processes of Cd and the associated environmental effects will require additional in-depth study.

  1. Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithe; Lebel, Jean-Marc [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France); Serpentini, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.serpentini@unicaen.fr [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France)

    2012-03-15

    Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 {mu}g L{sup -1} of CdCl{sub 2} for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 {mu}g L{sup -1} as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 {mu}g L{sup -1}, which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

  2. Impact of cadmium exposure during pregnancy on hepatic glucocorticoid receptor methylation and expression in rat fetus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Castillo

    Full Text Available Adverse fetal environment due to maternal undernutrition or exposure to environmental chemicals alters glucocorticoid (GC metabolism increasing the risk of metabolic disorders in adulthood. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal exposure to cadmium (Cd, 50 ppm during pregnancy in the methylation of fetal hepatic glucocorticoid receptor promoter (GR and the correlation with its expression and that of the DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1a and 3a. We also studied the expression of liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK and acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX, two enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids respectively. The methylation of the rat GR gene exon 1(10 (GR1(10 in nucleotides -2536 to -2361 was analyzed by pyrosequencing. Quantitative real time PCR was used to assess hepatic GR, PEPCK and AOX mRNA, and their protein levels using Western blotting analysis. Differential methylation was noted across groups at all CpG sites in the GR exon 1(10 in a sex-dependent manner. In males, CpG were more methylated than the controls (185 ± 21%, p<0.001 but only CpG sites 1,6,7 and 9 showed a significantly different extent of methylation. In addition, a lower expression of GR (mRNA and protein was found. On the contrary, in females, CpG were less methylated than the controls (62 ± 11%, p<0.05 and overexpressed, affecting PEPCK and AOX expression, which did not change in males. The GR methylation profile correlates with DNMT3a expression which may explain epigenetic sex-dependent changes on GR1(10 promoter induced by Cd treatment. In conclusion, Cd exposure during pregnancy affects fetal liver DNMT3a resulting in sex-dependent changes in methylation and expression of GR1(10. Although these effects do not seem to be directly involved in the low birth weight and height, they may have relevant implications for long-term health.

  3. Impact of cadmium exposure during pregnancy on hepatic glucocorticoid receptor methylation and expression in rat fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Paula; Ibáñez, Freddy; Guajardo, Angélica; Llanos, Miguel N; Ronco, Ana M

    2012-01-01

    Adverse fetal environment due to maternal undernutrition or exposure to environmental chemicals alters glucocorticoid (GC) metabolism increasing the risk of metabolic disorders in adulthood. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal exposure to cadmium (Cd, 50 ppm) during pregnancy in the methylation of fetal hepatic glucocorticoid receptor promoter (GR) and the correlation with its expression and that of the DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1a and 3a). We also studied the expression of liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX), two enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids respectively. The methylation of the rat GR gene exon 1(10) (GR1(10)) in nucleotides -2536 to -2361 was analyzed by pyrosequencing. Quantitative real time PCR was used to assess hepatic GR, PEPCK and AOX mRNA, and their protein levels using Western blotting analysis. Differential methylation was noted across groups at all CpG sites in the GR exon 1(10) in a sex-dependent manner. In males, CpG were more methylated than the controls (185 ± 21%, p<0.001) but only CpG sites 1,6,7 and 9 showed a significantly different extent of methylation. In addition, a lower expression of GR (mRNA and protein) was found. On the contrary, in females, CpG were less methylated than the controls (62 ± 11%, p<0.05) and overexpressed, affecting PEPCK and AOX expression, which did not change in males. The GR methylation profile correlates with DNMT3a expression which may explain epigenetic sex-dependent changes on GR1(10) promoter induced by Cd treatment. In conclusion, Cd exposure during pregnancy affects fetal liver DNMT3a resulting in sex-dependent changes in methylation and expression of GR1(10). Although these effects do not seem to be directly involved in the low birth weight and height, they may have relevant implications for long-term health.

  4. Highly Sensitive Cadmium Concentration Sensor Using Long Period Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lalasangi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have proposed a simple and effective Long Period Grating chemical sensor for detecting the traces of Cadmium (Cd++ in drinking water at ppm level. Long Period gratings (LPG were fabricated by point-by-point technique with CO2 laser. We have characterized the LPG concentration sensor sensitivity for different solutions of Cd concentrations varying from 0.01 ppm to 0.04 ppm by injecting white Light source and observed transmitted spectra using Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA. Proper reagents have been used in the solutions for detection of the Cd species. The overall shift in wavelength is 10 nm when surrounding medium gradually changed from water to 0.04 ppm of cadmium concentrations. A comparative study has been done using sophisticated spectroscopic atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP instruments. The spectral sensitivity enhancement was done by modifying grating surface with gold nanoparticles.

  5. Exposure to heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury) and its effect on the outcome of in-vitro fertilization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Coskun, Serdar; Mashhour, Abdullah; Shinwari, Neptune; El-Doush, Inaam; Billedo, Grisellhi; Jaroudi, Kamal; Al-Shahrani, Abdulaziz; Al-Kabra, Maya; El Din Mohamed, Gamal

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the effect of lead, cadmium and mercury exposure on pregnancy and fertilization rate outcome among 619 Saudi women (age 19-50 years) who sought in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment between 2002 and 2003. The concentrations of lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in both blood and follicular fluids. At levels well below the current US occupational exposure limit guidelines (40microg/dL) and even less than the current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention level of concern for preventing lead poisoning in children (10microg/dL), blood lead level was negatively associated with fertilization outcome in both adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression models. We found that among various demographic, socioeconomic and environmental factors, fish consumption was positively associated with blood lead levels. These results support the hypothesis that a raised blood lead level affects infertility and intervention to reduce the lead exposure might be needed for women of reproductive age. The present results also revealed unexpected finding - the positive relationship between follicular cadmium levels and fertilization outcome, which points to the necessity for further investigation. Though adverse effect of mercury on pregnancy outcome or fertilization rate was not evident in this study, mercury5.8microg/L (EPA safety limit) was found in the blood and follicular fluid of 18.7% and 8.3% of the women, respectively. Concerns about its possible adverse effects on the physiology of reproduction or fetal development cannot be ruled out. It should be noted that skin-lightening creams and dental amalgam were important contributors to mercury exposure. Such finding is alarming and priority for further studies are, urgently, needed.

  6. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in children with asthma-relation between lead and cadmium, and cotinine concentrations in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Stefan; Gerhardsson, Lars; Lundh, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Exposure to heavy metals from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was investigated in 23 children with asthma (8.4+/-3.7 yr). ETS exposure was assessed by an inquiry data-based exposure index, the urinary concentration of cotinine (U-cotinine; a major nicotine metabolite) and the house dust (fine and coarse fractions) concentrations of nicotine at home. The corresponding concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium and lead in dust and urine (U-Cd; U-Pb) were determined in the same samples. There were strong associations between the ETS exposure index and U-cotinine (r(s)=0.62; Plead and cadmium concentrations in both fine (r(s)=0.86; Plead concentrations in fine dust (r(s)=0.52; P=0.06), no other significant associations were found between house dust metals and nicotine concentrations. U-Cd correlated well with U-cotinine (r(s)=0.50; P=0.02). Further, U-Pb were associated with U-cotinine, however not statistically significant (r(s)=0.41; P=0.06). A probable explanation is a direct inhalation of side-stream smoke containing heavy metals and/ or an increased pulmonary uptake, due to a small airways disease in children with asthma.

  7. Assessment of exposure to soils contaminated with lead, cadmium, and arsenic near a zinc smelter, Cassiopée Study, France, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Cécile; Sauthier, Nicolas; Schwoebel, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    After 150 years of industrial activity, significant pollution of surface soils in private gardens and locally produced vegetables with lead, cadmium, and arsenic has recently been observed in Viviez (Southern France). A public health intervention was conducted in 2008 to identify individual health risks of Viviez inhabitants and to analyze their environmental exposure to these pollutants. Children and pregnant women in Viviez were screened for lead poisoning. Urinary cadmium testing was propo...

  8. Analysis of metallotionein expression and antioxidant enzyme activities in Meretrix meretrix larvae under sublethal cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qing [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Graduate University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Xiaomei [Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang Xiaoyu [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Engineering Research Center of Seawater Utilization Technology, Ministry of Education, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Yang Hongsheng, E-mail: hshyang@ms.qdio.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Liu Baozhong, E-mail: bzliu@ms.qdio.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2010-11-15

    To investigate the possible role of metallothioneins (MTs) and antioxidant enzymes in cadmium (Cd) tolerance in Meretrix meretrix larvae, a new MT (designated MmMT) gene was identified and cloned from M. meretrix. The full-length cDNA of MmMT consisted of an open reading frame (ORF) of 231 bp encoding a protein of 76 amino acids, with 21 cysteine residues and a conserved structural pattern Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-Tyr-Gly-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-Lys at the C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of MmMT showed about 57-84% identity with previously published MT sequences of mussels and oysters. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression level of MmMT mRNA at different M. meretrix larval stages under Cd exposure (25 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Results showed that Cd could induce the expression of MmMT mRNA in the larvae, and the expression level increased 5.04-fold and 3.99-fold in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers, respectively. Immunolocalization of MmMT in the stressed larvae revealed that MmMT was synthesized in almost all of the soft parts at the trochophore and postlarva stages, whereas it was only synthesized in the velum and epidermis at the D-shaped larva and pediveliger stages. The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), also were measured in larvae at different developmental stages. Increased enzymatic activities were detected mainly in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers under Cd stress, suggesting that these enzymes respond synchronously with MT. Our results indicate that MmMT and antioxidant enzymes played important roles in counteracting Cd stress in M. meretrix larvae.

  9. Effects of lead and cadmium co-exposure on hemoglobin in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Zhou, Hao; Li, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhu, Guoying; Jin, Taiyi

    2015-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) show adverse effects on hemoglobin. But most studies are focussed on one single agent. In this study, we observed the main and interactive effects of Cd and Pb on the hemoglobin level in a Chinese population. A total of 308 persons (202 women and 106 men), living in controlled and polluted areas, were included in this study. Blood and urine were collected to determine the levels of hemoglobin (Hb), Cd, Pb, and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG). The Cd and Pb level of subjects living in the polluted area were significantly higher compared to those living in the control area (p<0.05). The level of hemoglobin was declined with the increasing BPb (p<0.05) and BCd in women. The Hb of women and men with the highest level of BCd and BPb were decreased by 8.3g/L and 10.7 g/L compared to those with the lowest level of BCd and BPb, respectively. The Hb level of those women and men with the highest level of UNAG decreased by 4.2g/L and 17.2g/L compared with those with low level of UNAG, respectively. Hb was negatively associated with BPb, BCd, and UNAG. This study evidenced that Cd and Pb can influence Hb level. In addition, our study shows that Cd and Pb may have interactive effects on Hb and Hb level was correlated with tubular dysfunction caused by Cd and Pb exposure.

  10. Reduced cadmium accumulation and toxicity in Daphnia magna under carbon nanotube exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-12-01

    With increasing application and commercial production, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) will inevitably be released into aquatic environments and affect the transport and toxicity of toxic metals in ecosystems. The present study examined how CNTs affected the biokinetics and toxicity of a toxic metal, cadmium (Cd), in the freshwater zooplankton Daphnia magna. The authors quantified the dissolved uptake and the 50% lethal concentration (LC50, 48 h and 72 h) of Cd in daphnids in the presence of functionalized multiwalled nanotubes (F-CNTs) with different lengths (10-30 µm vs 0.5-2 µm) and concentrations (4 mg/L and 8 mg/L). Compared with the control treatment without CNTs, both CNTs slowed down the accumulation rate of Cd in D. magna over 8 h of exposure and further reduced the accumulation thereafter. Mechanisms for the reduced Cd uptake were mainly related to the influences of CNTs on the physiological activity of daphnids. The LC50 of D. magna in the presence of Cd and shorter CNTs was almost the same as that of the control group without CNTs. However, the LC50 of the groups with normal CNTs was significantly higher than that of the control group (i.e., F-CNTs decreased Cd toxicity significantly). Meanwhile, CNTs also decreased the tolerance of D. magna to Cd. The present study suggests that different physical properties of CNTs, such as length, need to be considered in the environmental risk assessment of CNTs.

  11. High efficiency thin film cadmium telluride solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T. L.; Chu, Shirley S.; Britt, J.; Chen, G.; Ferekides, C.; Schultz, N.; Wang, C.; Wu, C. Q.

    1992-12-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS), grown from an aqueous solution, and zinc oxide (ZnO), cadmium zinc sulfide (Cd1-xZnxS), and zinc selenide (ZnSe), deposited by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), have been used as the window for thin film cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells. Thin film solar cells were prepared by the successive deposition of the window and p-CdTe (by MOCVD and close-spaced sublimation, CSS) on SnO2:F/glass substrates. CdS/CdTe(CSS) solar cells show considerably better characteristics than CdS/CdTe(MOCVD) solar cells because of the better microstructure of CSS CdTe films. Total area conversion efficiency of 14.6%, verified by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has been achieved for solar cells of about 1 cm2 area. Solar cell prepared by using ZnO, ZnSe, or Cd1-xZnxS as window have significantly lower photovoltage than CdS/CdTe solar cells.

  12. Influence of a high level of dietary cadmium on cadmium content in milk, excretion, and cow performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.J.; Lampp, B.; Powell, G.W.; Salotti, C.A.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1967-01-01

    Three Holstein cows were each given 3.0 g of cadmium daily (two equal doses) for two weeks by gelatin capsules. There was a sharp drop in concentrate consumption for the first few days of cadmium administration but, by the second week, consumption returned to normal. Milk production declined sharply for several days and then increased appreciably, but to a level still substantially lower than that of controls during the last five days cadmium was given. When cadmium treatments ceased, milk production increased by 50%. Fat content of milk was elevated considerably during the week when production was most reduced. Cows given cadmium lost considerable weight. There were no other clinical manifestations of toxicity. As determined by the chromic oxide indicator method and twice-daily grab samples, fecal excretion of cadmium for the second week averaged 82% of that given. The cadmium level in the urine was below the limits of detectability of the method (0.5 ppm of urine). The cadmium content of the milk was less than 0.1 ppm of the milk, which was the lower reliability limit of the procedure used. On this basis less than 0.22% of the amount administered appeared in the milk. In vitro studies demonstrated that cadmium combines with the casein and whey protein fractions of the milk readily, with the amount combined being linear when levels from 1.0 to 25.0 ppm are added to milk. Smaller amounts were present in the lactose and mineral fractions.

  13. Exposure to Nickel, Chromium, or Cadmium Causes Distinct Changes in the Gene Expression Patterns of a Rat Liver Derived Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    and pigments and is responsible for 500,000 industrial exposures in the United States [4,5]. Exposure to cadmium can occur as a result of mining...antioxidative/electrophilic response on the liver. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 244: 57-65. 19. Ryter SW, Choi AM (2009) Heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide

  14. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail: bill.maher@canberra.edu.au; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  15. 29 CFR 1910.1027 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... battery Plate making, plate preparation 50 All other processes 15 Zinc/Cadmium refining* Cadmium refining... as an airborne concentration of cadmium of 2.5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (2.5 µg/m3... air cadmium level to which an employee is exposed means the exposure to airborne cadmium that...

  16. Long-term cadmium exposure induces anemia in rats through hypoinduction of erythropoietin in the kidneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, Hyogo [Department of Public Health, Fukushima Medical College, Fukushima (Japan); Sato, Masao [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fukushima Medical College, Fukushima (Japan); Konno, Nobuhiro [Department of Public Health, Fukushima Medical College, Fukushima (Japan); Fukushima, Masaaki [Department of Public Health, Fukushima Medical College, Fukushima (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a highly toxic heavy metal, is distributed widely in the general environment of today. The characteristic clinical manifestations of chronic Cd intoxication include renal proximal tubular dysfunction, general osteomalacia with severe pains, and anemia. We have recently reported that the serum level of erythropoietin (EPO) remained low despite the severe anemia in patients with Itai-itai disease, the most severe form of chronic Cd intoxication. In order to prove that the anemia observed in chronic Cd intoxication arises from low production of EPO in the kidneys following the renal injury, we administered Cd to rats for a long period and performed the analysis of EPO mRNA inducibility in the kidneys. The rats administered Cd for 6 and 9 months showed anemia with low levels of plasma EPO as well as biochemical and histological renal tubular damage, and also hypoinduction of EPO mRNA in the kidneys. The results indicate that chronic Cd intoxication causes anemia by disturbing the EPO-production capacity of renal cells. (orig.). With 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Ethanol consumption modifies the body turnover of cadmium: a study in a rat model of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Galażyn-Sidorczuk, Malgorzata; Dzwilewska, Ilona

    2013-08-01

    Ethanol (Et) abusers may also be exposed to excessive amounts of cadmium (Cd). Thus, the study was aimed at estimating the influence of Et on the body turnover of Cd in a rat model reflecting excessive alcohol consumption in humans chronically exposed to moderate and relatively high levels of this metal. For this purpose, Cd apparent absorption, retention in the body and concentration in the blood, stomach, duodenum, liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart, testis and femur as well as its fecal and urinary excretion in the rats exposed to 5 and 50mg Cd l(-1) (in drinking water; for 16 weeks from the fifth week of the animal's life) and/or Et (5 g kg(-1) b.w. per 24 h, by oral gavage; for 12 weeks from the ninth week of life) were estimated. Moreover, the duodenal, liver and kidney pool of the nonmetallothionein (Mt)-bound Cd was evaluated. The administration of Et during the exposure to 5 or 50mg Cd l(-1) increased Cd accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract and its urinary excretion, and decreased Cd concentration in the blood, femur and numerous soft tissues (including liver and kidney) as well as the total pool of this metal in internal organs. Et modified or not the pool of the non-Mt-bound Cd, depending on the level of treatment with this metal. The results show that excessive Et consumption during Cd exposure may decrease the body burden of this metal, at least partly, by its lower absorption and increased urinary excretion. Based on this study, it can be concluded that Cd concentration in the blood and tissues of alcohol abusers chronically exposed to moderate and relatively high levels of this metal may be lower, whereas its urinary excretion is higher than in their nondrinking counterparts. However, since Et is toxic itself, the decreased body burden of Cd owing to alcohol consumption does not allow for the conclusion that the risk of health damage may be lower at co-exposure to these xenobiotics. In a further study, it will be investigated how the Et

  18. High Exposure Facility Technical Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Gregory L.; Stithem, Arthur R.; Murphy, Mark K.; Smith, Alex K.

    2008-02-12

    The High Exposure Facility is a collimated high-level gamma irradiator that is located in the basement of the 318 building. It was custom developed by PNNL back in 1982 to meet the needs for high range radiological instrument calibrations and dosimeter irradiations. At the time no commercially available product existed that could create exposure rates up to 20,000 R/h. This document is intended to pass on the design criteria that was employed to create this unique facility, while maintaining compliance with ANSI N543-1974, "General Safety Standard for Installations Using Non-Medical X-Ray and Sealed Gamma-Ray Sources, Energies up to 10 MeV."

  19. Recovery of cadmium by high-temperature vaccum evaporation from Ni-Cd batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建新; 李金惠; 聂永丰; 于波

    2003-01-01

    High-temperature vaccum evaporation is a recycling technology that includes a selective material recovering process. The fundamental research on a process of disassembling and recovering selected materials from Ni-Cd batteries was conducted using self-designed experimental apparatus. An effective recycling technology based on the evaporation phenomenon of batteries and the elements of cadmium under the laboratory condition was studied. The results show that: (1)Ni/Cd can be effectively recovered by vacuum distillation at appropriate temperature, pressure and time, and high purity cadmium (>99%) can be obtained through the process; (2)the effective distillatory temperature should be at the range of 573-1173K; (3)the higher the evaporation temperature, the lower the purity of cadmium in condensate metal

  20. Cadmium exposure affects mitochondrial bioenergetics and gene expression of key mitochondrial proteins in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica Gmelin (Bivalvia: Ostreidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolova, Inna M. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)]. E-mail: insokolo@uncc.edu; Sokolov, Eugene P. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Ponnappa, Kavita M. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Cadmium is a ubiquitous and extremely toxic metal, which strongly affects mitochondrial function of aquatic organisms in vitro; however, nothing is known about the in vivo effects of sublethal concentrations of this metal on mitochondrial bioenergetics. We have studied the effects of exposure to 0 (control) or 25 {mu}g L{sup -1} (Cd-exposed) Cd{sup 2+} on mitochondrial function and gene expression of key mitochondrial proteins in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. Cadmium exposure in vivo resulted in considerable accumulation of cadmium in oyster mitochondria and in a significant decrease of ADP-stimulated respiration (state 3) by 30% indicating impaired capacity for ATP production. The decrease in state 3 respiration was similar to the level of inhibition expected from the direct effects of cadmium accumulated in oyster mitochondria. On the other hand, while no effect on proton leak was expected based on the mitochondrial accumulation of cadmium, Cd-exposed oysters in fact showed a significant decline of the proton leak rate (state 4 + respiration) by 40%. This suggested a downregulation of proton leak, which correlated with a decrease in mRNA expression of a mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP6 and two other potential uncouplers, mitochondrial substrate carriers MSC-1 and MSC-2. Expression of other key mitochondrial proteins including cytochrome c oxidase, adenine nucleotide transporter and voltage dependent anion channel was not affected by cadmium exposure. Adenylate energy charge (AEC) was significantly lower in Cd-exposed oysters; however, this was due to higher steady state ADP levels and not to the decrease in tissue ATP levels. Our data show that adjustment of the proton leak in cadmium-exposed oysters may be a compensatory mechanism, which allows them to maintain normal mitochondrial coupling and ATP levels despite the cadmium-induced inhibition of capacity for ATP production.

  1. Fasciola gigantica: cercarial shedding pattern from Lymnaea natalensis after long-term exposure to cadmium at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Maha F M

    2009-04-01

    Little is known about the response of Fasciola spp., inside its snail host to pollutant toxicity. The effect of long-term exposure of Lymnaea natalensis to 0.1 microg/l, 10 microg/l, or 100 microg/l cadmium (Cd) on the infection rates with F. gigantica, percentage of cercariae-shedding snails and cercariae shedding pattern was investigated. The snails were exposed to Cd for 7 days either pre-infection with single Fasciola miracidium or during the late pre-patent period of the infection. The possible interaction between metal exposure and acclimatization temperature was also studied in three ranges; 16-18 degrees C, 23-25 degrees C and 30-32 degrees C. Results clearly showed that host exposure to 100 microg/l Cd significantly affected the pattern of Fasciola development inside its snail host, and that the acclimatization temperature was a key factor affecting the role played by Cd. Pre-infection exposure to Cd caused a significant reduction in the infection rates where the effect was temperature-dependent. Post-infection exposure to Cd significantly increased the percentage of cercariae-shedding snails; the effect was temperature-independent. Interestingly, post-infection exposure significantly altered the differential cercarial output pattern, while no clear impact on the total was found. The alteration in the differential cercarial output was represented as a significantly higher proportion of floating metacercaria as compared to fixed ones and also higher proportion of dead cercariae which may directly reduce the transmission of Fasciola to the final host. The mechanisms of cadmium impact are briefly discussed.

  2. High performance nickel-cadmium cells for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Jean-Pierre

    A new concept of a cadmium electrode associated with a lighter nickel structure, a multi-cell module technology, allows the proposal of a very promisig alternative power source for electric vehicle (EV) batteries, the usable specific energy being 31% of the theoretical value. Every characteristic of this Ni-Cd module (i.e., specific energy and power, energy and power density, energy efficiency, life and reliability) gives the best performing EV battery, to date. Thus, with the efficient support of two major French car manufacturers and the French government, SAFT will launch, during Spring '95, the first pilot line of EV Ni-Cd module manufacturing.

  3. Association of Blood Pressure with Exposure to Lead and Cadmium: Analysis of Data from the 2008-2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Ahn, Jaeouk; Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Chan Boo; Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho

    2016-11-01

    We examined the association of blood pressure with blood levels of cadmium, lead, and their combination in a representative sample of adults from South Korea (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2013). This cross-sectional study enrolled subjects who were at least 19 years-old, completed a health examination survey, and had blood measurements of lead and cadmium. We estimated the adjusted mean differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure associated with doubling of blood lead and cadmium by regression of blood pressure against log2-transformed blood metals and their tertiles after covariate adjustment. Adjusted odds ratios for hypertension and prehypertension were calculated for log2-transformed blood levels of lead and cadmium and their tertiles. In the general population of Korea, blood lead level was associated with increased BP and risk of hypertension. Blood cadmium levels had a stronger association with elevated blood pressure and risk of hypertension than blood lead levels, and these associations remained significant after statistical adjustment for blood lead. The combination of blood lead and cadmium was more strongly associated with elevated blood pressure than exposure to each individual metal. In females, there was a stronger relationship between blood pressure and blood levels of these metals by analyzing interaction model. After adjustment for confounding factors, there were significant associations of blood pressure with the level of blood lead, cadmium, and their combination in adults from South Korea.

  4. DISTRIBUTION OF GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE RAT BRAIN UNDER CADMIUM EXPOSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Yu P; Prischepa, I V; Si, U; Nedzvetsky, V S; Kot, Y G; Persky, E E; Ushakova, G A

    2015-01-01

    The chronic effects of low doses of cadmium on the distribution of soluble and filament forms of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and their polypeptide fragments in different parts of the rat brain were investigated. Obtained results showed dose-dependent effect of cadmium on the soluble form of GFAP and more pronounced effect on the filament form and composition of the polypeptide fragments of the protein in the rat brain. Prolonged intoxication by cadmium ions in a dose of 1.0 μg/kg of body weight induced a significant decrease in soluble GFAP and an increase in the filament form in the rat brain, pointing to the development of reactive astrogliosis and the risk of neurodegeneration.

  5. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of the European population to cadmium from food is high compared with the tolerable weekly intake of 2.5 μg/kg bodyweight set by EFSA in 2009. Only few studies on the bioavailability of cadmium from different food sources has been performed but this information in very important...... for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... with whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and CdCl2 for 3 weeks was performed. Linseed or cocoa made up 10% of the feed (by weight) and was added as a replacement for carbohydrate source. The rats were dosed for 3 weeks and the cadmium content in the rats' kidneys was measured by ICPMS as a biomarker...

  6. Effects of exposure to cadmium in sperm cells of zebrafish, Danio rerio

    OpenAIRE

    Izani Bonel Acosta; Antonio Sergio Varela Junior; Estela Fernandes e Silva; Tainã Figueiredo Cardoso; Jôsie Schwartz Caldas; Rodrigo Desessards Jardim; Carine Dahl Corcini

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a natural element found in the earth’s crust; it is usually associated with other metals, but due to the impacts caused by human activity, its concentration has increased in the aquatic environment. This metal may damage aquatic animal reproduction, decreasing the rate of fertilization of organisms such as fish. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro toxicity of different concentrations of cadmium (0 (control), 0.5, 5, and 10 μg/L) using sperm cells of model organism zebra...

  7. Effects of cadmium exposure on the gill proteome of Cottus gobio: Modulatory effects of prior thermal acclimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorts, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer.dorts@unamur.be [Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Kestemont, Patrick [Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Thézenas, Marie-Laetitia; Raes, Martine [Research Unit in Cell Biology (URBC) (NARILIS), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Silvestre, Frédéric [Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Fish acclimated to elevated temperature were subsequently exposed to cadmium. • Interaction of both stressors on LDH activity and protein expression was complex. • Both stressors have opposite effects at branchial protein expression level. • Proteins belonging to the same functional class exhibited differing responses. • Prior acclimation to elevated temperature modulated the effects of cadmium exposure. - Abstract: Temperature and trace metals are common environmental stressors, and their importance is increasing due to global climate change and anthropogenic pollution. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acclimation to elevated temperature affects the response of the European bullhead (Cottus gobio) to subsequent cadmium (Cd) exposure by using enzymatic and proteomic approaches. Fish acclimated to 15 (standard temperature), 18 or 21 °C for 28 days were exposed to 1 mg Cd/L for 4 days at the respective acclimation temperature. First, exposure to Cd significantly decreased the activity of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in gills of fish acclimated to 15 or 18 °C. However, an acclimation to 21 °C suppressed the inhibitory effect of Cd. Second, using a proteomic analysis by 2D-DIGE, we observed that thermal acclimation was the first parameter affecting the protein expression profile in gills of C. gobio, while subsequent Cd exposure seemed to attenuate this temperature effect. Moreover, our results showed opposite effects of these two environmental stressors at protein expression level. From the 52 protein spots displaying significant interaction effects of temperature and Cd exposure, a total of 28 different proteins were identified using nano LC–MS/MS and the Peptide and Protein Prophet algorithms of Scaffold software. The identified differentially expressed proteins can be categorized into diverse functional classes, related to protein turnover, folding and chaperoning, metabolic process, ion transport, cell

  8. Early subcellular partitioning of cadmium in gill and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following low-to-near-lethal waterborne cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamunde, Collins [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3 (Canada)], E-mail: ckamunde@upei.ca

    2009-03-09

    Non-essential metals such as cadmium (Cd) accumulated in animal cells are envisaged to partition into potentially metal-sensitive compartments when detoxification capacity is exceeded. An understanding of intracellular metal partitioning is therefore important in delineation of the toxicologically relevant metal fraction for accurate tissue residue-based assessment of toxicity. In the present study, the early intracellular Cd accumulation was studied to test the prediction that it conforms to the spillover model of metal toxicity. Juvenile rainbow trout (10-15 g) were exposed for 96 h to three doses of cadmium (5, 25 and 50 {mu}g/l) and a control (nominal 0 {mu}g/l Cd) in hard water followed by measurement of the changes in intracellular Cd concentrations in the gill and liver, and carcass calcium (Ca) levels. There were dose-dependent increases in Cd concentration in both organs but the accumulation pattern over time was linear in the liver and biphasic in the gill. The Cd accumulation was associated with carcass Ca loss after 48 h. Comparatively, the gill accumulated 2-4x more Cd than the liver and generally the subcellular compartments reflected the organ-level patterns of accumulation. For the gill the rank of Cd accumulation in subcellular fractions was: heat-stable proteins (HSP) > heat-labile proteins (HLP) > nuclei > microsomes-lysosomes (ML) {>=} mitochondria > resistant fraction while for the liver it was HSP > HLP > ML > mitochondria > nuclei > resistant fraction. Contrary to the spillover hypothesis there was no exposure concentration or internal accumulation at which Cd was not found in potentially metal-sensitive compartments. The proportion of Cd bound to the metabolically active pool (MAP) increased while that bound to the metabolically detoxified pool (MDP) decreased in gills of Cd-exposed fish but remained unchanged in the liver. Because the Cd concentration increased in all subcellular compartments while their contribution to the total increased

  9. Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on tissue-specific cadmium accumulation, iron status and expression of iron-handling and stress-inducible genes in rainbow trout: Influence of elevated dietary iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, Raymond W.M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Andres, Jose A. [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada); Niyogi, Som, E-mail: som.niyogi@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Recent evidences suggest that dietary cadmium (Cd) uptake likely occurs via the dietary iron (Fe) uptake pathway in freshwater fish, at least in part. The present study investigated the interactive effects of dietary Cd and Fe in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were treated for four weeks with four different diets: normal Fe, high Fe, normal Fe plus Cd, and high Fe plus Cd. Physiological parameters, tissue-specific Fe and Cd level, plasma Fe status, and tissue-specific mRNA expression of transferrin, metallothioneins (MT-A and MT-B) and heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70a and HSP70b) were analyzed. Exposure to dietary Cd increased Cd burden in the following order: intestine > kidney > stomach > liver > gill > carcass. Interestingly, high dietary Fe reduced Cd accumulation in the stomach and intestine as well as in the wholebody of fish. Dietary Cd increased hepatic transferrin mRNA expression and total Fe binding capacity in the plasma, indicating the effect of Cd on Fe handling in fish. The mRNA expression of MTs and HSP70s was also increased in various tissues following dietary Cd exposure, however the response profile of different MT and HSP70 genes was not consistent among different tissues. In general, MT-A was more responsive to Cd exposure in the intestine and liver, whereas MT-B was more responsive in the kidney. Similarly, HSP70a expression was more sensitive to Cd exposure than HSP70b, particularly in the intestine. Interestingly, high Fe diet suppressed Cd-induced induction of transferrin, MT and HSP70 genes in various tissues. Overall, our study suggests that elevated dietary Fe can reduce Cd accumulation and ameliorate Cd-induced stress responses in freshwater fish.

  10. Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on tissue-specific cadmium accumulation, iron status and expression of iron-handling and stress-inducible genes in rainbow trout: influence of elevated dietary iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Raymond W M; Andrés, Jose A; Niyogi, Som

    2011-03-01

    Recent evidences suggest that dietary cadmium (Cd) uptake likely occurs via the dietary iron (Fe) uptake pathway in freshwater fish, at least in part. The present study investigated the interactive effects of dietary Cd and Fe in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were treated for four weeks with four different diets: normal Fe, high Fe, normal Fe plus Cd, and high Fe plus Cd. Physiological parameters, tissue-specific Fe and Cd level, plasma Fe status, and tissue-specific mRNA expression of transferrin, metallothioneins (MT-A and MT-B) and heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70a and HSP70b) were analyzed. Exposure to dietary Cd increased Cd burden in the following order: intestine>kidney>stomach>liver>gill>carcass. Interestingly, high dietary Fe reduced Cd accumulation in the stomach and intestine as well as in the wholebody of fish. Dietary Cd increased hepatic transferrin mRNA expression and total Fe binding capacity in the plasma, indicating the effect of Cd on Fe handling in fish. The mRNA expression of MTs and HSP70s was also increased in various tissues following dietary Cd exposure, however the response profile of different MT and HSP70 genes was not consistent among different tissues. In general, MT-A was more responsive to Cd exposure in the intestine and liver, whereas MT-B was more responsive in the kidney. Similarly, HSP70a expression was more sensitive to Cd exposure than HSP70b, particularly in the intestine. Interestingly, high Fe diet suppressed Cd-induced induction of transferrin, MT and HSP70 genes in various tissues. Overall, our study suggests that elevated dietary Fe can reduce Cd accumulation and ameliorate Cd-induced stress responses in freshwater fish.

  11. Effects of lead exposure on the concentration of cadmium, selenium and values of morphology in the blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozłowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Heavy metals, including cadmium and lead are both environmental and industrial toxins which cause metabolic disorders. Effects of these elements are long lasting and usually take a long time to show themselves. Also of importance is the active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, which is also a source of heavy metals. Heavy metals exhibit nephrotoxic activity, hepatotoxic and neurotoxic, and mutagenic and carcinogenic activity. This study aimed to determine the relationship between occupational exposure to lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd and the level of selenium (Se, and values of morphology of employees of zinc and lead smelter. Material and methods. 334 occupationally exposed males (tested group and 60 males not exposed (control group were involved in the study. The men were between 19 and 62 years of age. The study population lived and/or worked in the industrial region of Upper Silesia. Blood cadmium concentration (Cd-B, blood lead concentration (Pb-B and serum concentrations of Se (Se-S were studied. The level of elements was determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. Results. The average concentration of each metal in the exposed group was 2.42±2.20 µg/l (Cd-B, 33±9.6 µg/dl (Pb-B and 73.99±20.44 µg/l (Se-S. In the entire study population (exposed and control, a statistically significant negative linear relationship was found between Pb-B and Se-S (r=–0.16, p<0.05. There was no correlation between Cd-B and Se-S, whereas a statistically significant positive correlation was observed between Pb-B and Cd-B (r=0.48, p<0.05. Spearman Rank Correlation analysis showed that in the study population there was observed statistically significant (p<0.05 negative correlation between Se-S in smokers group. Conclusions. Higher concentrations of Cd and Pb were observed in the exposed group compared to the control group. Occupational exposure to cadmium and lead may be a factor lowering the blood Se in the tested group. The most

  12. Transcriptional response of stress-regulated genes to cadmium exposure in the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum from the gulf of Gabès area (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karray, Sahar; Marchand, Justine; Moreau, Brigitte; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Thiriet-Rupert, Stanislas; Geffard, Alain; Delahaut, Laurence; Denis, Françoise; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel; Chénais, Benoît

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates cadmium effects on key messenger RNA (mRNA) expression (MT, MnSOD, CuZnSOD, CAT, ABCB1, HSP70, and CO1) by qPCR in the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum after chronic exposure to two high but environmentally relevant concentrations of CdCl2 (50 μg/L and 5 mg/L) for 12 h to 18 days. Cd accumulation measured in cockles' tissues is significantly higher in both treatment conditions compared to controls and in a dose-dependent manner. Stress on stress tests performed at different times of the experiment clearly demonstrated that exposure to both concentrations of Cd significantly affects cockle survival time in air. Important changes in gene transcription were also highlighted. In particular, MT, HSP70, CAT, and CuZnSOD seem to be relevant biomarkers of Cd exposure because (1) their mRNA levels increase upon exposure and (2) they are highly correlated to Cd accumulation in tissues. Results may be useful for control strategies and for the use of cockles as sentinel organisms.

  13. Plausible Mechanisms of Cadmium Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium is a transition metal and an ubiquitous environmental and industrial pollutant. Laboratory animal studies and epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to cadmium is associated with various organ toxicities and carcinogenic effects. Several national and internation...

  14. Decoupling of cadmium biokinetics and metallothionein turnover in a marine polychaete after metal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Tania Y.-T. [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Rainbow, Philip S. [Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Amiard-Triquet, Claude; Amiard, Jean-Claude [Universite de Nantes, Faculte de Pharmacie, MMS EA2160, Service d' ecotoxicologie, F-44000 Nantes (France); Wang Wenxiong [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: wwang@ust.hk

    2008-08-11

    This study investigated the kinetics of Cd bioaccumulation, detoxification, subcellular distribution, and efflux in the nereid polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis after Cd pre-exposure. Cd pre-exposure increased the Cd body burden in the worms, but did not affect the overall Cd uptake and efflux rates and metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) concentrations. During short-term exposure to dissolved Cd, Cd in the cytosolic fraction increased after Cd pre-exposure, and this fraction also increased during the Cd efflux period, indicating that the insoluble fraction of Cd was presumably lost at a faster rate than the loss of cytosolic Cd. Even though the MTLP concentration remained comparable after Cd pre-exposure, both the MTLP synthesis rate and the degradation rate increased, thus leading to a high MTLP turnover in the Cd-exposed worms. However, Cd uptake and efflux into different protein size fractions did not follow the patterns of MTLP synthesis and degradation, strongly suggesting that Cd kinetics is decoupled from the MTLP kinetics in the worms. Our study adds to an increasing body of evidence on the complicated relationship between metal biokinetics and MTLP kinetics in different groups of marine invertebrates which have strong contrasts in their metal handling strategies.

  15. In Utero Exposure to Cadmium, Mammary Gland Development, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    fetal development, are re-employed at times of tissue remodeling or wound healing during adulthood. These signal transduction systems effect...Danielsen, E. Pentecost , and A. Stoica. 2002. Role of Cadmium in the Regulation of AR Gene Expression and Activity. Endocrinology. 143:263-275

  16. CADMIUM EXPOSURE VIA FOOD CROPS: A CASE STUDY OF INTENSIVE FARMING AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raagheni Munisamy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is ubiquitous in environment and may enter food chain through intense application of phosphate fertilizers to agricultural crops. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Kuala Terla and Blue Valley farming villages, Cameron Highlands to determine cadmium concentration in vegetables and soil and to determine the health risks among respondents. A total of 87 respondents were selected based on inclusive and exclusive criteria. A set of pre-tested questionnaires utilized to obtain socio-demographic information and to predict health risks faced by the respondents based on their vegetable ingestion rate. The Average Daily Dose (ADD and Target Hazard Quotient (THQ were determined in this study. Convenient sampling method was employed to obtain 15 paired soil and vegetable samples. Cadmium concentration in the samples was acid digested prior analysis using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS. The mean ± standard deviation concentrations of Cd in vegetable samples were 0.13±0.082 mg kg-1, within the acceptable range specified by Malaysia Food Regulation 1985 (1 mg kg-1. For sol samples, the mean ± standard deviation concentration of Cd was 2.78±2.83 mg kg-1. Eight out of 11 soil samples exceed the permissible limit of Cd outlined by The Dutch Standard (1 mg kg-1. The findings on THQ demonstrated that all respondents are within the acceptable non-carcinogenic health risk (THQ<1. The results also exhibit that there is no correlation between cadmium in soils and vegetables. There are unlikely potential adverse health impacts arising from Cd through vegetables consumption in this study. Respondents are advised to have a medical check-up in order to determine Cd body burden thus eliminating the risks of acquiring cadmium related diseases.

  17. Accumulation and tolerance to cadmium heavy metal ions and induction of 14-3-3 gene expression in response to cadmium exposure in Coprinus atramentarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chengjian; Hu, Liujie; Yang, Yongzhu; Liao, Dunxiu; Yang, Xingyong

    2017-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd), one of the most toxic heavy-metal pollutants, has a strong and irreversible tendency to accumulate. Bioremediation is a promising technology to remedy and control heavy metal pollutants because of its low cost and ability to recycle heavy metals. Coprinus atramentarius is recognized as being able to accumulate heavy metal ions. In this work, C. atramentarius is cultivated on a solid medium containing Cd(2+) ions to analyze its ability to tolerate different concentrations of the heavy metal ion. It is found that the growth of C. atramentarius is not significantly inhibited when the concentration of Cd(2+) is less than 0.6mgL(-1). The accumulation capacity of C. atramentarius at different Cd(2+) concentrations also was determined. The results show that 76% of the Cd(2+) present can be accumulated even when the concentration of the Cd(2+) is 1mgL(-1). The different proteins of C. atramentarius exposed to Cd(2+) were further analyzed using gel electrophoresis. A 14-3-3 protein was identified and shown to be significantly up-regulated. In a further study, a full-length 14-3-3 gene was cloned containing a 759bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide consisting of 252 amino acids and 3 introns. The gene expression work also showed that the 14-3-3 was significantly induced, and showed coordinated patterns of expression, with Cd(2+) exposure.

  18. Application of Cloud Point Extraction for Cadmium in Biological Samples of Occupationally Exposed Workers: Relation Between Cadmium Exposure and Renal Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortada, Wael I; Hassanien, Mohamed M; Donia, Ahmed F; Shokeir, Ahmed A

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) level in blood and urine of soldering iron workers (n=49) and 41 matched healthy controls has been assessed. Cloud point extraction was employed for preconcentration of Cd. The Cd ions formed hydrophobic complex with 9,10-phenanthraquinone monoethyl thiosemicarbazone that was extracted by surfactant-rich phases in the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114. The surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 1 M HNO3 in methanol prior to its analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the proposed method, such as solution pH, amount of complexing agent, surfactant concentration, temperature, and incubation time, were optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the detection limit and the enrichment factor were 0.04 μg L(-1) and 61, respectively. Relative standard deviation of 10 μg L(-1) Cd was less than 3.0%. The accuracy of the method was examined by analysis of certified reference materials. It was observed that soldering iron workers are liable to Cd overload as indicated by higher levels of Cd in blood and urine when compared with the controls. This exposure may lead to kidney damage indicated by elevation of urinary excretion of both N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and β2-microglobulin.

  19. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Erin W. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schaumberg, Debra A. [Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Center for Translational Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Park, Sung Kyun, E-mail: sungkyun@umich.edu [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age

  20. Association of arsenic, cadmium and manganese exposure with neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Lacasaña, Marina; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Alguacil, Juan; Gil, Fernando; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Rojas-García, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence published to date on the potential effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children exposed to arsenic, cadmium and manganese and to quantify the magnitude of the effect on neurodevelopment by pooling the results of the different studies. We conducted a systematic review of original articles from January 2000 until March 2012, that evaluate the effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders due to pre or post natal exposure to arsenic, cadmium and manganese in children up to 16 years of age. We also conducted a meta-analysis assessing the effects of exposure to arsenic and manganese on neurodevelopment. Forty-one articles that evaluated the effects of metallic elements on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders met the inclusion criteria: 18 examined arsenic, 6 cadmium and 17 manganese. Most studies evaluating exposure to arsenic (13 of 18) and manganese (14 of 17) reported a significant negative effect on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders. Only two studies that evaluated exposure to cadmium found an association with neurodevelopmental or behavioural disorders. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that a 50% increase of arsenic levels in urine would be associated with a 0.4 decrease in the intelligence quotient (IQ) of children aged 5-15 years. Moreover a 50% increase of manganese levels in hair would be associated with a decrease of 0.7 points in the IQ of children aged 6-13 years. There is evidence that relates arsenic and manganese exposure with neurodevelopmental problems in children, but there is little information on cadmium exposure. Few studies have evaluated behavioural disorders due to exposure to these compounds, and manganese is the only one for which there is more evidence of the existence of association with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ecological toxicity of reactive X-3B red dye and cadmium acting on wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ecological toxicity of reactive X-3B red dye and cadmium in both their single form and their combined form on wheat was studied using the experimental method of seed and root exposure. The single-factor exposure indicated that the inhibitory rate of wheat root elongation was significantly increased with the increase in the concentration of the dye in the cultural solution, although seed germination of wheat was not sensitive to the dye. The toxicity of cadmium was greatly higher than that of the dye, but low concentration cadmium (< 40 mg/L) could promote the germination of wheat seed. Interactive effects of the dye and cadmium on wheat were complicated. There was no significant correlation between the inhibitory rate of seed germination and the concentrations of the dye and cadmium. Low concentration cadmium could strengthen the toxicity of the dye acting on root elongation. On the contrary, high concentration cadmium could weaken the toxicity of the dye acting on root elongation.

  2. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn

    2014-02-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Methods: Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P < 0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β = 0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β = 0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β = 0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. Conclusions: The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. - Highlights: • DNA oxidative damage levels (8-OHdG) in neonates from Guiyu were assessed.

  3. Cadmium inhalation and male reproductive toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragan, H.A.; Mast, T.J. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic element that is cumulative and has a long biological half-life in mammals. The severe toxicity of cadmium in man has been known for more than 100 years. Despite the knowledge that cadmium is toxic, only 20 human cases of poisoning via ingestion were recorded prior to 1941, whereas in the ensuing five-year period more than 680 cases of cadmium poisonings from accidental oral ingestion of this metal were documented. Some of the recorded effects of exposure to cadmium in laboratory animals include renal tubular damage, placental and testicular necrosis, structural and functional liver damage, osteomalacia, testicular tumors, teratogenic malformations, anemia, hypertension, pulmonary edema, chronic pulmonary emphysema, and induced deficiencies of iron, copper, and zinc. Some of these effects have also been observed in human after accidental exposures to cadmium oxide fumes and are characteristic of the syndrome described in Japan as Itai Itai disease in which ingestion of cadmium is the inciting chemical.134 references.

  4. In Utero Exposure to Cadmium, Mammary Gland Development, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Our results highlight the fact that endocrine disruptors may stimulate more than one type of steroid receptor, and that this may be dependant...upon dose. Further studies on the combined effects of estrogenic and androgenic stimulation by endocrine disruptors are necessary and will...Because the half-life of cadmium in the mammalian body is >20 years its endocrine -disrupting effects are long-lasting. We hypothesized that in utero

  5. Cigarette smoking, cadmium exposure, and zinc intake on obstructive lung disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowling Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective This study examined whether zinc intake was associated with lower risk of smoking-induced obstructive lung disorder through interplay with cadmium, one of major toxicants in cigarette smoke. Methods Data were obtained from a sample of 6,726 subjects aged 40+ from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC were measured using spirometry. Gender-, ethnicity-, and age-specific equations were used to calculate the lower limit of normal (LLN to define obstructive lung disorder as: observed FEV1/FVC ratio and FEV1 below respective LLN. Zinc intake was assessed by questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was applied to investigate the associations of interest. Results The analyses showed that an increased prevalence of obstructive lung disorder was observed among individuals with low zinc intake regardless of smoking status. The adjusted odds of lung disorder are approximately 1.9 times greater for subjects in the lowest zinc-intake tertile than those in the highest tertile (odds ratio = 1.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.22-2.93. The effect of smoking on lung function decreased considerably after adjusting for urinary cadmium. Protective association between the zinc-to-cadmium ratio (log-transformed and respiratory risk suggests that zinc may play a role in smoking-associated lung disorder by modifying the influence of cadmium. Conclusions While zinc intake is associated with lower risk of obstructive lung disorder, the role of smoking cession and/or prevention are likely to be more important given their far greater effect on respiratory risk. Future research is warranted to explore the mechanisms by which zinc could modify smoking-associated lung disease.

  6. Screening of a new cadmium hyperaccumulator, Galinsoga parviflora, from winter farmland weeds using the artificially high soil cadmium concentration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lijin; Jin, Qian; Liu, Yingjie; Ning, Bo; Liao, Ming'an; Luo, Li

    2014-11-01

    A new method, the artificially high soil cadmium (Cd) concentration method, was used to screen for Cd hyperaccumulators among winter farmland weeds. Galinsoga parviflora was the most promising remedial plant among 5 Cd accumulators or hyperaccumulators. In Cd concentration gradient experiments, as soil Cd concentration increased, root and shoot biomass decreased, and their Cd contents increased. In additional concentration gradient experiments, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities increased with soil Cd concentrations up to 75 mg kg(-1) , while expression of their isoenzymes strengthened. Catalase (CAT) activity declined and CAT isoenzyme expression weakened at soil Cd concentrations less than 50 mg kg(-1) . The maxima of Cd contents in shoots and roots were 137.63 mg kg(-1) and 105.70 mg kg(-1) , respectively, at 100 mg kg(-1) Cd in soil. The root and shoot bioconcentration factors exceeded 1.0, as did the translocation factor. In a field experiment, total extraction of Cd by shoots was 1.35 mg m(-2) to 1.43 mg m(-2) at soil Cd levels of 2.04 mg kg(-1) to 2.89 mg kg(-1) . Therefore, the artificially high soil Cd concentration method was effective for screening Cd hyperaccumulators. Galinsoga parviflora is a Cd hyperaccumulator that could be used to efficiently remediate Cd-contaminated farmland soil.

  7. Reproduction and biochemical responses in Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) to zinc or cadmium exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novais, Sara C., E-mail: sara.novais@ua.pt [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gomes, Susana I.L. [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gravato, Carlos [CIIMAR-Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia e Ecologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Guilhermino, Lucia [CIIMAR-Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia e Ecologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); ICBAS-Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); De Coen, Wim [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology - E.B.T., Groenenborgerlaan 171 - U.7., B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Amorim, Monica J.B. [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-07-15

    To better understand chemical modes of action, emphasis has been given to stress responses at lower levels of biological organization. Cholinesterases and antioxidant defenses are among the most used biomarkers due to their crucial role in the neurocholinergic transmission and in cell homeostasis preventing DNA damage, enzymatic inactivation and lipid peroxidation. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc and cadmium on survival and reproduction of E. albidus and to assess metals oxidative stress potential and neurotoxic effects at concentrations that affected reproduction. Both metals affected the enchytraeids' survival and reproduction and induced significant changes in the antioxidant defenses as well as increased lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative damage. This study demonstrates that determining effects at different levels of biological organization can give better information on the physiological responses of enchytraeids in metal contamination events and further unravel the mechanistic processes dealing with metal stress. - Highlights: > Zinc and cadmium influence the survival and reproduction of Enchytraeus albidus. > Oxidative stress and membrane damage occur at reproduction effect concentrations. > Glutathione seems to be important in the antioxidant defense against metals. > Time intervals (2, 4, 8 days) allowed following the evolution of oxidative events. - Zinc and cadmium cause oxidative stress and membrane damage in Enchytraeus albidus at reproduction effect concentrations.

  8. De novo characterization of Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis transcriptome and analysis of its gene expression following cadmium exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-lin Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Japanese scallop has been cultured on a large-scale in China for many years. However, serious marine pollution in recent years has resulted in considerable loss to this industry. Moreover, due to the lack of genomic resources, limited research has been carried out on this species. To facilitate the understanding at molecular level immune and stress response mechanism, an extensive transcriptomic profiling and digital gene expression (DGE database of Japanese scallop upon cadmium exposure was carried out using the Illumina sequencing platform. RESULTS: RNA-seq produced about 112 million sequencing reads from the tissues of adult Japanese scallops. These reads were assembled into 194,839 non-redundant sequences with open reading frame (ORF, of which 14,240 putative amino acid sequences were assigned biological function annotation and were annotated with gene ontology and eukaryotic orthologous group terms. In addition, we identified 720 genes involved in response to stimulus and 302 genes involved in immune-response pathways. Furthermore, we investigated the transcriptomic changes in the gill and digestive gland of Japanese scallops following cadmium exposure using a tag-based DGE system. A total of 7,556 and 3,002 differentially expressed genes were detected, respectively, and functionally annotated with KEGG pathway annotations. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive transcripts sequence resource for the Japanese scallop and presents a survey of gene expression in response to heavy metal exposure in a non-model marine invertebrate via the Illumina sequencing platform. These results may contribute to the in-depth elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in bivalve responses to marine pollutants.

  9. Exposure to cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants and its association with bone mineral density and markers of bone metabolism on postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rignell-Hydbom, A., E-mail: anna.rignell-hydbom@med.lu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Skerfving, S.; Lundh, T.; Lindh, C.H. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Elmstahl, S. [Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Malmue University Hospital (Sweden); Bjellerup, P. [Center for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Vaesteras (Sweden); Juensson, B.A.G.; Struemberg, U. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Akesson, A. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    Environmental contaminants such as cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants have been proposed as risk factors of osteoporosis, and women may be at an increased risk. To assess associations between exposure to cadmium and two different POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl CB-153, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene p,p'-DDE), on one hand, and bone effects, on the other, in a population-based study among postmenopausal (60-70 years) Swedish women with biobanked blood samples. The study included 908 women and was designed to have a large contrast of bone mineral densities, measured with a single photon absorptiometry technique in the non-dominant forearm. Biochemical markers related to bone metabolism were analyzed in serum. Exposure assessment was based on cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes and serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. Cadmium was negatively associated with bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone, positively with the marker of bone resorption. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for smoking. The major DDT metabolite (p,p'-DDE) was positively associated with bone mineral density, an association which remained after adjustment for confounders, but the effect was weak. There was no evidence that the estrogenic congener (CB-153) was associated with any of the bone markers. In conclusion, no convincing associations were observed between cadmium and POPs, on one hand, and bone metabolism markers and BMD, on the other.

  10. Biomarker of chronic cadmium exposure in a population residing in the vicinity of a zinc producing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråtveit, Magne; Magerøy, Nils; Gundersen, Hilde; Vahter, Marie; Moen, Bente E

    2011-09-15

    Measurements of cadmium (Cd) in air, soil and moss have shown elevated concentrations in residential areas close to a zinc smelter in Norway. This study aimed to evaluate whether men and women residing in the area with elevated Cd concentrations in air and soil had increased levels of Cd and microproteins in urine. An invitation to participate was mailed to 200 persons residing close to the zinc smelter and to 200 controls from an area more than 4 km away from the smelter. They were asked to complete a questionnaire, and to deliver a urine sample for analysis of cadmium (CdU), mercury (HgU), lead (PbU) and α1-microglobulin (ProteinHC). Two hundred and six participants (response rate 52%), between 19 and 88 years of age, were included. Results were analysed by multiple-adjusted linear and logistic regression. CdU was not significantly different between individuals in the two residence areas. Only ten individuals had CdU concentrations exceeding European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) critical value of 1 μg/g creatinine, whereas 35 persons (22% of the women vs. 11% of the men) had CdU concentrations higher than 0.66 μg/g creatinine, which EU suggested to be sufficiently protective for the general population. Smoking was the predominant contributing factor to values of elevated CdU. There was a tendency of higher CdU, although not statistically significant, amongst people regularly consuming fruit, berries and vegetables grown in their own garden near the smelter area. Home address in the polluted area was not a significant determinant. There was a positive correlation between CdU and ProteinHC in urine, but no significant difference was found for ProteinHC between residents from polluted area and controls. In spite of demonstrated industrial emissions of cadmium, the results do not indicate elevated cadmium exposure or kidney damage in the polluted area compared to the control area.

  11. High cadmium-binding ability of a novel Colocasia esculenta metallothionein increases cadmium tolerance in Escherichia coli and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Ok; Patel, Darshan H; Lee, Dae-Seok; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Experimental evidence in vivo as to the functional roles and binding properties to cadmium (Cd) of type-2 plants metallothionein (MT) has been limited thus far. We investigated the biological role of metallothionein from Colocasia esculenta (CeMT2b) in Escherichia coli and tobacco, and developed a new model for the relationship between Cd tolerance and Cd-binding ability. Heterologous expression of CeMT2b in Escherichia coli greatly enhanced Cd tolerance and accumulated Cd content as compared to control cells. The molecular weight of CeMT2b increased with Cd, and CeMT2b bound up to 5.96±1 molar ratio (Cd/protein). Under Cd stress, transgenic tobacco plants displayed much better seedling growth and high Cd accumulation than the wild type. The presence of an extra CXC motif in CeMT2b contributed to the enhanced Cd-tolerance. The present study provides the first insight into the ability of type-2 plant MT to bind physiological Cd.

  12. Bioaccessibility and Human Exposure Assessment of Cadmium and Arsenic in Pakchoi Genotypes Grown in Co-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanyan; Zheng, Xiaoman; Shohag, Md Jahidul Islam; Gu, Minghua

    2017-08-29

    In many countries cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) commonly coexist in soils contaminated by mining activities, and can easily enter the human body via consumption of leafy vegetables, like the popularly consumed pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), causing major health concerns. In the present study, bioaccessibility and human exposure of Cd and As were assessed in twenty genotypes of pakchoi cultured at two different levels of co-contamination to identify low health risk genotypes. The bioaccessibilities of Cd and As represent a fraction of the total metals content could be bioaccessible for human, in the present study, significant differences in pakchoi Cd and As bioaccessibility were observed among all tested genotypes and co-contaminated levels. Cd and As bioaccessibility of pakchoi were in the ranges of 24.0-87.6% and 20.1-82.5%, respectively, for in the high level co-contaminated soils, which was significantly higher than for low level co-contaminated soils with 7.9-71.8% for Cd bioaccessibility and 16.1-59.0% for As bioaccessibility. The values of bioaccessible established daily intakes (BEDI) and the total bioaccessible target hazard quotients (TBTHQ) of Cd and As were also considerably higher in high level co-contaminated soils than in low level co-contaminated soils. Two genotypes (Meiguanqinggengcai and Zhenqing60F1) contained relatively low concentrations and bioaccessible Cd and As and, their BEDI and TBTHQ for Cd and As ranged below the tolerable limits set by the FAO/WHO (BEDI of Cd < 0.83 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1), BEDI of As < 3 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (TBTHQ for Cd and As < 1), this applied for both levels of co-contaminated soils for adults and children. Consequently, these findings suggest identification of safe genotypes in leafy vegetable with low health risk via genotypic screening and breeding methods could be a useful strategy to ensure the safety of food crops grown in those Cd and As co

  13. Chronic cadmium exposure: relation to male reproductive toxicity and subsequent fetal outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenick, H. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH); Hastings, L.; Goldsmith, M.; Niewenhuis, R.J.

    1982-03-01

    Acute injections of high doses of Cd induced marked testicular necrosis. However, the effects of low-dose, oral Cd exposure on a chronic basis are not well documented. The present investigation was designed to examine the effects of such exposure as reflected in parameters of spermatotoxicity and histology. Moreover, the impact on fetal outcome was measured by evaluating teratological and postnatal neurobehavior endpoints. Male Long-Evans hooded rats (100 d of age) were exposed to 0, 17.2, 34.4, or 68.8 ppm Cd for 70 d. During this period, the animals were maintained on a semipurified diet to control for the contribution of Zn and other trace elements. Near the end of exposure the males were mated to three female rats. One was sacrificed on d 21 of pregnancy for teratological assessment, including fetal weight, and determination of preimplantation and postimplantation loss. The other two dams were allowed to deliver, and their offspring were tested on tasks of exploratory behavior (d 21) and learning (d 90). Subsequently, the male parent was sacrified and a variety of measures recorded including weights of testes and caudae epididymides, sperm count and sperm morphology, and Cd content of liver and kidney. One of the testes was also evaluated histologically. No significant effects were observed on any of the parameters of reproductive toxicity or fetal outcome. These findings suggest that, at the doses employed in this study, Cd did not have signficant deleterious effects on the male reproductive system. Morever, the traditional view of Cd-related testicular insult, based on acute exposure, injection protocols, needs to be reevaluated in terms of environmental relevance.

  14. Prenatal cadmium exposure produces persistent changes to thymus and spleen cell phenotypic repertoire as well as the acquired immune response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Hanson, Miranda L.; Schafer, Rosana [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental contaminant. Adult exposure to Cd alters the immune system, however, there are limited studies on the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at 20 weeks of age. Prenatal Cd exposure caused an increase in the percent of CD4{sup −}CD8{sup −}CD44{sup +}CD25{sup −} (DN1) thymocytes in both sexes and a decrease in the percent of CD4{sup −}CD8{sup −}CD44{sup −}CD25{sup +} (DN3) thymocytes in females. Females had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells, CD8{sup +} T cells, and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of NK cells and granulocytes (Gr-1{sup +}). Males had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of CD8{sup +} T cells, NK cells, and granulocytes. The percentage of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were reduced in both sexes. The percent of splenic nTreg cells was decreased in all Cd-exposed offspring. Cd-exposed offspring were immunized with a streptococcal vaccine and the antibody response was determined. PC-specific serum antibody titers were decreased in Cd exposed female offspring but increased in the males. PspA-specific serum IgG titers were increased in both females and males compared to control animals. Females had a decrease in PspA-specific serum IgM antibody titers. Females and males had a decrease in the number of splenic anti-PspA antibody-secreting cells when standardized to the number of B cells. These findings demonstrate that very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term sex-specific alterations on the immune system of the offspring. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal exposure to cadmium alters the immune system of 20 week old offspring. ► The percentage of DN1 and DN3 thymocytes was changed

  15. The High Price of Noise Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Hearing Disorders The High Price of Noise Exposure Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... on both loudness and time—the longer the exposure, the more likely the damage. In addition, the ...

  16. Mortality study of nickel-cadmium battery workers by the method of regression models in life tables.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The mortality experienced by a cohort of 3025 nickel-cadmium battery workers during the period 1946-81 has been investigated. Occupational histories were described in terms of some 75 jobs: eight with "high", 14 with "moderate" or slight, and 53 with minimal exposure to cadmium oxide (hydroxide). The method of regression models in life tables (RMLT) was used to compare the estimated cadmium exposures (durations of exposed employment) of those dying from causes of interest with those of matchi...

  17. High pressure electrical resistivity study on nonlinear bis thiourea cadmium chloride (BTCC) single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariponnammal, S.; Radhika, S. [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural Institute, Deemed University, Gandhigram - 624 302, Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu (India); Selva Vennila, R. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025 (India); Arumugam, S. [Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Trichy (India)

    2005-09-01

    The Bis Thiourea Cadmium Chloride (BTCC) crystals have been crystallized by slow evaporation technique. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals have been determined by the Energy dispersive x-ray diffraction technique (EDXRD) and the structure has been confirmed. The high pressure electrical resistivity study have been carried out on this crystal and the results have been reported here. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Differential effect of waterborne cadmium exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qi-Liang; Gong, Yuan [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture of P.R.C., Fishery College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovative Centre of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070 (China); Luo, Zhi, E-mail: luozhi99@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture of P.R.C., Fishery College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovative Centre of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhu, Qing-Ling [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture of P.R.C., Fishery College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovative Centre of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis. •Lipid homeostasis in muscle after Cd exposure derived from the down-regulation of both lipogenesis and lipolysis. •Our study determines the mechanism of waterborne Cd exposure on lipid metabolism in fish on a molecular level. •Our study indicates the tissue-specific regulatory effect of lipid metabolism under waterborne Cd exposure. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of waterborne cadmium (Cd) exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to 0 (control), 0.49 and 0.95 mg Cd/l, respectively, for 6 weeks, the lipid deposition, Cd accumulation, the activities and expression level of several enzymes as well as the mRNA expression of transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism in liver and muscle were determined. Waterborne Cd exposure reduced growth performance, but increased Cd accumulation in liver and muscle. In liver, lipid content, the activities and the mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), fatty acid synthetase (FAS)) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity increased with increasing waterborne Cd concentrations. However, the mRNA expressions of LPL and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) α were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity as well as the mRNA expressions of CPT1 and PPARγ showed no significant differences among the treatments. In muscle, lipid contents showed no significant differences among the treatments. The mRNA expression of 6PGD, FAS, CPT1, LPL, PPARα and PPARγ were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Thus, our study indicated that Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis, and that lipid homeostasis in muscle was probably conducted by the down

  19. Lipid Peroxidation and Ultrastructural Modifications in Brain after Perinatal Exposure to Lead and/or Cadmium in Rat Pups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU-MEI ZHANG; XUE-ZHONG LIU; HAO LU; LI MEI; ZONG-PING LIU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess lipid peroxidation and ultrastructural modifications in rat brains following perinatal exposure to lead (Pb) and/or cadmium (Cd). Methods Female rats were divided into four groups: control group, Pb (300 mg/L) group, Cd group (10 mg/L) and Pb+Cd (300 mg/L, 10 mg/L) group. The compounds were delivered in the drinking water throughout pregnancy and lactation. Results The levels of compounds in blood and brain of the Pb+Cd group were similar to those of other groups, but the effects of Pb+Cd on pups' body and brain weights were higher than on other compounds. Electron microscopy revealed that Pb and Cd had effects on mitochondrial swelling, disruption and cristae loss, Nissl body dissolution, degenerated organelles and vacuoles, cytomembrane disappearance, and nuclear ehromoplasm concentration. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) was decreased, whereas the activity of maleic dialdehyde (MDA) was increased. Conclusion Perinatal exposure to low doses of Pb and Cd can produce alterations in lipid peroxidation and ultrastructural modifications in rat brains, and exposure to both metals can result in greater damages.

  20. Gene expression analysis in rat lungs after intratracheal exposure to nanoparticles doped with cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccini, Teresa; Fabbri, Marco; Roda, Elisa; Grazia Sacco, Maria; Manzo, Luigi; Gribaldo, Laura

    2011-07-01

    Silica nanoparticles (NPs) incorporating cadmium (Cd) have been developed for a range of potential application including drug delivery devices. Occupational Cd inhalation has been associated with emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis and lung tumours. Mechanistically, Cd can induce oxidative stress and mediate cell-signalling pathways that are involved in inflammation.This in vivo study aimed at investigating pulmonary molecular effects of NPs doped with Cd (NP-Cd, 1 mg/animal) compared to soluble CdCl2 (400 μg/animal), in Sprague Dawley rats treated intra-tracheally, 7 and 30 days after administration. NPs of silica containing Cd salt were prepared starting from commercial nano-size silica powder (HiSil™ T700 Degussa) with average pore size of 20 nm and surface area of 240 m2/g. Toxicogenomic analysis was performed by the DNA microarray technology (using Agilent Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4×44K) to evaluate changes in gene expression of the entire genome. These findings indicate that the whole genome analysis may represent a valuable approach to assess the whole spectrum of biological responses to cadmium containing nanomaterials.

  1. Protective effect of Aronia melanocarpa polyphenols against cadmium-induced disorders in bone metabolism: a study in a rat model of lifetime human exposure to this heavy metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Rogalska, Joanna; Galazyn-Sidorczuk, Malgorzata; Jurczuk, Maria; Roszczenko, Alicja; Tomczyk, Michal

    2015-03-05

    It was investigated, in a female rat model of low and moderate lifetime human exposure to cadmium (Cd), whether polyphenols from Aronia melanocarpa berries (chokeberry; AMP) may offer protection from this heavy metal-induced disorders in bone metabolism. For this purpose, numerous indices of bone formation (osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, osteoprotegerin) and resorption (carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of type I collagen, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand) in the serum and/or distal femur epiphysis (trabecular bone region), as well as bone mineral status (volumetric bone mineral density of the femur and content of mineral components, including calcium, in the bone tissue at the distal femur epiphysis) were evaluated in female Wistar rats that received a 0.1% aqueous extract of AMP, as the only drinking fluid (prepared from lyophilized extract by Adamed Consumer Healthcare), and/or Cd in diet (1 and 5mg/kg) for 3, 10, 17, and 24 months. Examination of the phytochemical profile of the aronia extract revealed high content of polyphenols (612.40 ± 3.33 mg/g), including anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. Among detected compounds anthocyanins were identified as dominating. The exposure to Cd, dose- and duration-dependently, enhanced resorption and inhibited formation of the bone tissue resulting in its decreased mineralization. The administration of AMP under the exposure to 1 and 5 mgCd/kg diet provided important protection from this heavy metal-induced disturbances in the bone turnover and changes in the bone mineral status, and the beneficial impact of polyphenols resulted from their independent action and interaction with Cd. These findings suggest that consumption of Aronia melanocarpa polyphenols may play a role in prevention against female skeleton damage due to chronic exposure to Cd and that chokeberry represents the good natural plant candidate for further investigations of its prophylactic use

  2. Chronic cadmium exposure during pregnancy in the mouse: influence of exposure levels on fetal and maternal uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, W.S.

    1988-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of orally administered cadmium-109 was studied in pregnant mice. Female outbred QS mice were given cadmium (Cd) supplemented drinking water for 1 mo before pregnancy and for the duration of pregnancy. The water contained either 0.0015 ppm Cd, 0.24 ppm Cd, or 40 ppm Cd. For the duration of pregnancy, 1.48 micrograms Cd/l (0.0015 ppm) in each solution was in the form of /sup 109/Cd (1 mCi/l). Control mice were given distilled/deionized water. On the day before term the mice were killed and a variety of adult and fetal tissues were examined in a gamma counter to determine their /sup 109/Cd concentrations. For each group the /sup 109/Cd concentration was highest in the maternal gastrointestinal tract, liver, and kidneys and lowest in the central nervous system (CNS) and blood. In general, the /sup 109/Cd concentrations in each organ were similar for each group of mice and were therefore independent of the overall oral Cd dose. A notable exception was the lower level in the duodenum in the 40 ppm group. In the fetal unit the chorioallantoic placenta contained the highest concentration of /sup 109/Cd. Concentrations in the fetuses were very low, comparable to those in the adult CNS. The /sup 109/Cd levels in the fetuses from group A were about fivefold greater than those of the fetuses from group C. There was no statistically significant evidence of specific localization in the fetal brain, kidney, or liver.

  3. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisco, F., E-mail: F.Lisco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films.

  4. Assessment of the Cadmium Exposure in the Blood, Diet, and Water of the Pumi People in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Feng, Yue-Mei; Wang, Song-Mei; Du, Yu-Qian; Yin, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Ya-Ling

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is considered as one of the most toxic and carcinogenic heavy metals. Accumulation of Cd in the human body can cause multiorgan dysfunction. Long-term irrational mining activities have led to serious Cd pollution in soil, water, and even agricultural products. Therefore, evaluating the Cd exposure levels of people living in mining areas is of great importance. In the current study, we chose the Pumi people who lived in Jinding and Tongdian towns of Lanping county in Yunnan province, China, to do the on-site nutritional epidemiology investigation and laboratory detection. We analyzed the content of the Cd in peripheral blood and mixed dietary, as well as water samples in the Pumi residents of the two towns. Results showed that the blood Cd levels of people in Jinding town, which is nearer the mining district, were statistically significantly higher than those in Tongdian town. The P 50 of blood Cd level of the two towns was 0.64 ng/mL. In addition, the P 50 of the mixed diet of the two towns was 8.32 μg/kg. There was a weak correlation between blood Cd levels and Cd exposure in the mixed diet, PTDI, and PTWI of the Pumi people. In addition, higher concentrations of Cd were observed in the water of Jinding town, indicating people in Jinding town risking more Cd exposure. These results indicated that diet and water are critical factors of Cd exposure for the residents and the nearer people living to mining district risking the more Cd exposure.

  5. Cadmium Exposure Is Associated with Monocyte Count and Monocyte to HDL Ratio, a Marker of Inflammation and Future Cardiovascular Disease in the Male Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kiook; Chung, Insung

    2017-09-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that humans can be exposed to the in environment and occupation, and its relationship with cardiovascular diseases has been reported. in various reports. Epidemiological studies have also been associated with various inflammatory markers of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we examined the relationship between monocyte count and monocyte to high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio (MHR) and blood cadmium, which are one of the inflammatory markers of cardiovascular diseases. Data from a total of 733 male fire officers who received a health checkup at a hospital for one year in 2016 were analyzed. Populations were classified into 4 groups according to the quartile of blood cadmium and general characteristics were described. The relationship between monocyte count, MHR and cadmium in blood was statistically analyzed by linear regression analysis. In the univariate analysis and multivariate analysis, monocyte count was significantly higher in the second, third and fourth quartile groups than in the first quartile of cadmium, and the linear trend was significant. In univariate and multivariate analysis, MHR was significantly higher in the third and fourth quartile groups than in the first quartile group, and the linear trend was also significant. This study showed the significant relationship between blood cadmium and monocyte count and MHR among male fire officers. This was also statistically significant in the model adjusted for possible confounders and other cardiovascular risk factors and showed a linear trend. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  6. Molecular characterization of two glutathione peroxidase genes in Mytilus galloprovincialis and their transcriptional responses to sub-chronic arsenate and cadmium exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione peroxidases (GPxs are key enzymes in the antioxidant defense system of living organisms, and protect organisms against oxidative stresses. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequences encoding cytosolic GPx (MgcGPx and phospholipid-hydroperoxide GPx (MgGPx4 were identified from Mytilus galloprovincialis. The mussels were exposed to 0, 1, 10, and 100 μg/L cadmium and arsenate for 30 days. The mRNA transcripts of these two genes and total GPx activity were examined in the gills and digestive gland after contaminants exposure. The mussels exposed to cadmium and arsenate responded mainly by down-regulating MgcGPx and MgGPx4 mRNA transcription in gills and up-regulating transcription in digestive gland. However, total GPx activities increased following cadmium exposure but decreased after arsenate stress in both tissues. These results suggest that MgcGPx and MgGPx4 perhaps play an important role in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and protecting M. galloprovincialis against cadmium and arsenate toxicity. It can also be inferred that these genes have the potential to be used as molecular biomarkers for assessing cellular stress and toxicity of contaminants in this mussel.

  7. Cadmium exposure during lactation causes learning and memory-impairment in F1 generation mice: amelioration by quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Sumita; Kar, Rajarshi; Galav, Vikas; Mehta, Ashish K; Bhattacharya, Swapan K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Banerjee, Basu D

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a known pollutant present in the environment at low levels and is reported to affect reproduction in many ways. The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of Cd in F1 generation mice on cognitive parameters, and to further investigate whether quercetin could modulate these effects. In this study, female lactating mice were exposed to cadmium for seven days just after delivery. The new born pups in their adulthood were tested for learning and memory parameters by passive avoidance task and Morris water maze (MWM) test. It was observed that pups exposed to Cd showed significant impairment of memory in step down latency test, which was reversed by quercetin (100 mg/kg). In MWM test for spatial memory, animals exposed to Cd exhibited increased escape latency, which was reversed by quercetin (50 mg/kg) significantly. Quercetin alone (50 and 100 mg/kg) also demonstrated improved spatial memory, and showed improved retention memory in the passive avoidance paradigm at dose 50 mg/kg. On testing oxidative stress parameters, we observed significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in brain tissue of Cd-treated mice. Moreover, co-treatment with quercetin (50 mg/kg) and Cd significantly reduced these MDA levels. The other doses (25 and 100 mg/kg) also showed reduction in MDA levels as compared to the group exposed to Cd alone, though the difference was not statistically significant. Hence, this study highlights the possibility of cognitive impairment in adulthood if there is Cd exposure during lactation and oxidative stress could possibly attribute to this effect.

  8. Cadmium bioaccumulates after acute exposure but has no effect on locomotion or shelter-seeking behaviour in the invasive green shore crab (Carcinus maenas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Tamzin A; Newton, Dustin; Flynn, Shannon L; Alessi, Daniel S; Goss, Greg G; Hamilton, Trevor J

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is a non-essential metal ubiquitous in the environment due to industrial processes. However, little is known regarding the ability of Cd(2+) to impact the behaviour of aquatic animals in receiving environments. Green shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) were exposed to waterborne Cd(2+) [control (no Cd(2+)), low (0.30 μmol/L), medium (3.3 μmol/L) and high (63 μmol/L)], for 24 h, then, crabs were placed in an open field and shelter test to determine potential changes in locomotion and preference for shelter. Tissues (gill, haemolymph, stomatogastric ganglion) were taken for bioaccumulation analysis of Cd(2+) and ion content. Behavioural testing was recorded with a motion-tracking software system and showed no impact of Cd(2+) on any variable in either of the tests used. All three tissues accumulated Cd(2+) in a concentration-dependent manner. Crabs exposed to low Cd(2+) showed a small but significant decrease in haemolymph Ca(2+), however, this effect was not present at higher Cd(2+) exposures. Overall, the results indicate that short-term Cd(2+) exposure, and the resulting Cd(2+) accumulation, had no effect on locomotor and anxiety-related behaviour of green shore crabs.

  9. Differential proteomic expression of human placenta and fetal development following e-waste lead and cadmium exposure in utero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Long; Ge, Jingjing; Huo, Xia; Zhang, Yuling [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Lau, Andy T.Y. [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Epigenetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Xu, Xijin, E-mail: xuxj@stu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China)

    2016-04-15

    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) has been associated with a series of physiological problems resulting in fetal growth restriction. We aimed to investigate the effects of Pb and Cd exposure on placental function and the potential mechanisms involved in fetal development. Placental specimens and questionnaires were collected from an e-waste area and a reference area in China. Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and molecular network relationship were performed to analyze differentially expressed proteins using a compositing sample pool. Compared with the reference group, the exposed group exhibited significantly higher levels of placental Pb and Cd (p < 0.01), shorter body length and higher gestational age (p < 0.01). After bivariate adjustment in a linear regression model, decreases of 205.05 g in weight and 0.44 cm in body length were associated with a 10 ng/g wt increase in placental Cd. Pb showed a negative trend but lacked statistical significance. Proteomic analysis showed 32 differentially-expressed proteins and were predominantly involved in protein translocation, cytoskeletal structure, and energy metabolism. Fumarate hydratase was down-regulated in the exposed placenta tissues and validated by ELISA. Alterations in placental proteome suggest that imbalances in placental mitochondria respiration might be a vital pathway targeting fetal growth restriction induced by exposure to Cd. - Highlights: • The placental Pb and Cd levels were higher in the e-waste polluted area. • Proteome in placenta tissues was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. • Cd exposure in the placenta was associated with the reduced fetal development. • 32 proteins covered in translocation, energy metabolism and cytoskeletal structure. • Dysregulated mitochondrial respiration may act in the Cd-reduced fetal development.

  10. Shotgun proteomic analysis unveils survival and detoxification strategies by Caulobacter crescentus during exposure to uranium, chromium, and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Mimi C; Ma, Jincai; Salemi, Michelle R; Phinney, Brett S; Bowman, Grant R; Jiao, Yongqin

    2014-04-01

    The ubiquitous bacterium Caulobacter crescentus holds promise to be used in bioremediation applications due to its ability to mineralize U(VI) under aerobic conditions. Here, cell free extracts of C. crescentus grown in the presence of uranyl nitrate [U(VI)], potassium chromate [Cr(VI)], or cadmium sulfate [Cd(II)] were used for label-free proteomic analysis. Proteins involved in two-component signaling and amino acid metabolism were up-regulated in response to all three metals, and proteins involved in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation and chemotaxis were down-regulated under these conditions. Clustering analysis of proteomic enrichment revealed that the three metals also induce distinct patterns of up- or down-regulated expression among different functional classes of proteins. Under U(VI) exposure, a phytase enzyme and an ABC transporter were up-regulated. Heat shock and outer membrane responses were found associated with Cr(VI), while efflux pumps and oxidative stress proteins were up-regulated with Cd(II). Experimental validations were performed on select proteins. We found that a phytase plays a role in U(VI) and Cr(VI) resistance and detoxification and that a Cd(II)-specific transporter confers Cd(II) resistance. Interestingly, analysis of promoter regions in genes associated with differentially expressed proteins suggests that U(VI) exposure affects cell cycle progression.

  11. Effects of cadmium exposure on digestive enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation in the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Xuan, Ruijing; Li, Yingjun; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wang, Qian; Wang, Lan

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the effects of cadmium (Cd) stress on the activities of disaccharidases (sucrase, lactase, and maltase), amylase, trypsin, pepsase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the alimentary system of freshwater crabs Sinopotamon henanense were studied. Results showed that the enzyme activities in the stomach, intestine, and hepatopancreas changed with Cd concentration. In terms of digestive enzymes, Cd exposure had an inhibitory effect on the activities of the disaccharidases, amylase, and pepsase (only in the stomach). Significant induction of trypsin activity by Cd at a lower concentration was observed, but as Cd concentration increased, trypsin activity decreased. Maltase activity showed a slight recovery after inhibition by Cd. The activities of SOD and CAT increased initially and decreased subsequently. Cd significantly inhibited the activity of GPx. MDA content increased with increasing concentration of Cd. These results showed that acute Cd exposure led to harmful effects on the alimentary system of crabs, which are likely linked to Cd induced oxidative stress.

  12. DNA methylation changes in whole blood is associated with exposure to the environmental contaminants, mercury, lead, cadmium and bisphenol A, in women undergoing ovarian stimulation for IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Courtney W; Bloom, Michael S; Robinson, Wendy P; Kim, Dongsul; Parsons, Patrick J; vom Saal, Frederick S; Taylor, Julia A; Steuerwald, Amy J; Fujimoto, Victor Y

    2012-05-01

    Changes in DNA methylation may play an important role in the deleterious reproductive effects reported in association with exposure to environmental pollutants. In this pilot study, we identify candidate methylation changes associated with exposure to pollutants in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Blood and urine were collected from women on the day of oocyte retrieval. Whole blood was analyzed for mercury and lead, and urine for cadmium using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Unconjugated bisphenol A (BPA) was analyzed in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography with Coularray detection. Participants were dichotomized as higher or lower exposure groups by median concentrations. Using the Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Cancer Panel I, DNA methylation in whole blood from 43 women was assessed at 1505 CpG sites for association with exposure levels of each pollutant. Candidate CpG sites were identified using a Diff Score >|13| (P10% which were confirmed using bisulfite pyrosequencing. Methylation of the GSTM1/5 promoter was increased for women with higher mercury exposure (P= 0.04); however, no correlation was observed (r= 0.17, P= 0.27). Reduced methylation was detected in the COL1A2 promoter in women with higher exposure to lead (P= 0.004), and an inverse correlation was observed (r = - 0.45, P= 0.03). Lower methylation of a promoter CpG site at the TSP50 gene was detected in women with higher BPA exposure (P= 0.005), and again an inverse correlation was identified (r = - 0.51, P= 0.001). Altered DNA methylation at various CpG sites was associated with exposure to mercury, lead or BPA, providing candidates to be investigated using a larger study sample, as the results may reflect an independently associated predictor (e.g. socioeconomic status, diet, genetic variants, altered blood cell composition). Further studies accommodating variations in these factors will be needed to confirm these associations and identify their

  13. Microbial activity and community diversity in a variable charge soil as affected by cadmium exposure levels and time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-li SHENTU; Zhen-li HE; Xiao-e YANG; Ting-qiang LI

    2008-01-01

    Effects of cadmium (Cd) on microbial biomass, activity and community diversity were assessed in a representative variable charge soil (Typic Aquult) using an incubation study. Cadmium was added as Cd(NO3)2> to reach a concentration range of 0~16 mg Cd/kg soil. Soil extractable Cd generally increased with Cd loading rate, but decreased with incubation time. Soil mi-crobial biomass was enhanced at low Cd levels (0.5~1 mg/kg), but was inhibited consistently with increasing Cd rate. The ratio of microbial biomass C/N varied with Cd treatment levels, decreasing at low Cd rate (<0.7 mg/kg available Cd), but increasing progressively with Cd loading. Soil respiration was restrained at low Cd loading (<1 mg/kg), and enhanced at higher Cd levels. Soil microbial metabolic quotient (MMQ) was generally greater at high Cd loading (1~16 mg/kg). However, the MMQ is also affected by other factors. Cd contamination reduces species diversity of soil microbial communities and their ability to metabolize different C substrates. Soils with higher levels of Cd contamination showed decreases in indicator phospholipids fatty acids (PLFAs) for Gram-negative bacteria and actinomycetes, while the indicator PLFAs for Gram-positive bacteria and fungi increased with increasing levels of Cd contamination.

  14. Association of arsenic, cadmium and manganese exposure with neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Granada (Spain); Lacasaña, Marina, E-mail: marina.lacasana.easp@juntadeandalucia.es [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Granada (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Centre Superior d' Investigació en Salut Pública, Conselleria de Sanitat, Valencia (Spain); Alguacil, Juan [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Department of Environmental Biology and Public Health, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Gil, Fernando [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); González-Alzaga, Beatriz [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Granada (Spain); Rojas-García, Antonio [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence published to date on the potential effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children exposed to arsenic, cadmium and manganese and to quantify the magnitude of the effect on neurodevelopment by pooling the results of the different studies. We conducted a systematic review of original articles from January 2000 until March 2012, that evaluate the effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders due to pre or post natal exposure to arsenic, cadmium and manganese in children up to 16 years of age. We also conducted a meta-analysis assessing the effects of exposure to arsenic and manganese on neurodevelopment. Forty-one articles that evaluated the effects of metallic elements on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders met the inclusion criteria: 18 examined arsenic, 6 cadmium and 17 manganese. Most studies evaluating exposure to arsenic (13 of 18) and manganese (14 of 17) reported a significant negative effect on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders. Only two studies that evaluated exposure to cadmium found an association with neurodevelopmental or behavioural disorders. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that a 50% increase of arsenic levels in urine would be associated with a 0.4 decrease in the intelligence quotient (IQ) of children aged 5–15 years. Moreover a 50% increase of manganese levels in hair would be associated with a decrease of 0.7 points in the IQ of children aged 6–13 years. There is evidence that relates arsenic and manganese exposure with neurodevelopmental problems in children, but there is little information on cadmium exposure. Few studies have evaluated behavioural disorders due to exposure to these compounds, and manganese is the only one for which there is more evidence of the existence of association with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. - Highlights: • We evaluated the association between As, Cd and Mn with neurodevelopment in

  15. Changes in bone mineral density 10 years after marked reduction of cadmium exposure in a Chinese population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiao [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai (China); Zhu, Guoying, E-mail: zhugy@shmu.edu.cn [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai (China); Jin, Taiyi [Department of Occupation Medicine, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Akesson, Agneta [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Bergdahl, Ingvar A. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Lei, Lijian [Department of Occupation Medicine, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Weng, Shifang [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai (China); Liang, Yihuai [Department of Occupation Medicine, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    The main focus of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of Cd on forearm bone mineral density after the cessation of the ingestion of Cd-polluted rice. A total of 458 persons (294 women, 164 men) from three Cd exposure areas (low, moderately, and heavy) participated in this study. Those living in the moderate and heavy exposure areas ceased ingesting Cd-polluted rice (0.51 and 3.7 mg/kg, respectively) in 1996 (10 years prior to present analysis). The participants completed a questionnaire and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the proximal radius and ulna. The changes and change percentage in forearm bone density and the prevalence of osteoporosis between 1998 and 2006 were used as markers of bone recovery. The Cd concentrations in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd) in 1998 were used as Cd exposure markers. The values of the BMD change and change percentage of groups in which UCd was above 5 {mu}g/g creatinine ({mu}g/g crea) and BCd was above 10 {mu}g/L were significantly higher than those of the low-exposure groups (in women, p<0.001; in men, p>0.05). The BMD change and change percentage correlated positively with the UCd and BCd (in women, p<0.01; in men, p>0.05). Analysis of the Z-score revealed that the prevalence of osteoporosis in 2006 was higher than that in 1998 and increased along with the level of UCd and BCd in both women and men, especially for those subjects with the higher BCd [BCd>5 {mu}g/L, OR=3.45 (0.95-13.6); BCd>10 {mu}g/L, OR=4.51(1.57-13.54)] and UCd [UCd>10 {mu}g/g crea, OR=4.74 (1.82-12.81)] in women. It is concluded that decreasing dietary cadmium exposure at the population level is not associated with bone recovery at the individual level, and the adverse bone effects of Cd exposure persisted after the main source of Cd exposure had been blocked, especially in women.

  16. A simple method to reduce the risk of cadmium exposure from consumption of Iceland scallops (Chlamys islandica) fished in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Lis; Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank F; Dietz, Rune; Asmund, Gert

    2014-08-01

    This paper studied the levels and organ distribution of the toxic heavy metal cadmium in scallops from unpolluted Greenlandic waters. The scallops had an average cadmium concentration of 2.93 ± 0.94 μg/g wet weight in the total soft tissues and no concentration dependent effect was found for gender or size (both p>0.05). The kidney was the primary organ for cadmium accumulation with a mean of 226.2 ± 111.7 μg/g wet weight, and despite the small weight of the kidney, it appeared as the principal contributor of cadmium with 92% of the total cadmium body burden. The cadmium concentrations in the total soft tissues far exceeded the EU-limit of 1 μg/g wet weight for cadmium in bivalves. Based on this, selective evisceration of the cadmium-rich kidney and digestive gland during processing can be regarded as a reliable measure to be taken in order to reduce the cadmium content of scallops used for human consumption.

  17. Changes of polyamine pattern in digestive glands of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis under exposure to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kournoutou, Georgia G; Pytharopoulou, Sofia; Leotsinidis, Michel; Kalpaxis, Dimitrios L

    2014-09-01

    Polyamines, in particular spermidine and spermine, have been identified as important antioxidants, highly induced by oxidative stress in a variety of organisms. However, little is known about changes in polyamine content of metal-stressed marine organisms. In the present study, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were experimentally exposed to 25 μg/L Cd(2+) or 100 μg/L Cd(2+) for up to 15 days. Cd(2+) was progressively accumulated in mussel tissues, leading to a characteristic oxidative-stress status. Free putrescine (PUT) production was noticeably induced in response to Cd(2+) at day 5 and then declined. In contrast, free spermidine (SPD) content was gradually reduced, whereas the concentration of free spermine (SPM) increased. In combination, these changes led to a 69% or 88% reduction in the ratio of (SPD+SPM)/PUT at day 5, dependent on the Cd(2+) concentration used, which subsequently followed an upward trend in values, albeit not reaching those of controls. Conjugated polyamines constantly increased, in particular conjugated spermidine and spermine, tagging along with metallothionein production. Acetylated polyamines showed a diverse profile of changes, but their content was generally kept at low levels throughout the exposure period. Collectively, our results suggest that certain polyamine compounds could play a significant role in the tolerance of mussels against Cd(2+)-mediated stress, and that the ratio (SPD+SPM)/PUT could be a good indicator of the metal-stress status.

  18. Alterations of organ histopathology and metallolhionein mRNA expression in silver barb, Puntius gonionotus during subchronic cadmium exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Common silver barb, Puntius gonionotus exposed to the nominal concentration of 0.06 mg/L Cd for 60 d, were assessed for histopathological alterations (gills, liver and kidney), metal accumulation, and metallothionein (MT) mRNA expression. Fish exhibited pathological symptoms such as hypertrophy and hyperplasia of primary and secondary gill lamellae, vacuolization in hepatocytes, and prominent tubular and glomerular damage in the kidney. In addition, kidney accumulated the highest content of cadmium, more than gills and liver. Expression of MT mRNA was increased in both liver and kidney of treated fish. Hepatic MT levels remained high after fish were removed to Cd-free water. In contrast, MT expression in kidney was peaked after 28 d of treatment and drastically dropped when fish were removed to Cd-free water. The high concentrations of Cd in hepatic tissues indicated an accumulation site or permanent damage on this tissue.

  19. Evidence of immunocompetence reduction induced by cadmium exposure in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polykretis, P; Delfino, G; Petrocelli, I; Cervo, R; Tanteri, G; Montori, G; Perito, B; Branca, J J V; Morucci, G; Gulisano, M

    2016-11-01

    In the last decades a dramatic loss of Apis mellifera hives has been reported in both Europe and USA. Research in this field is oriented towards identifying a synergy of contributing factors, i.e. pathogens, pesticides, habitat loss and pollution to the weakening of the hive. Cadmium (Cd) is a hazardous anthropogenic pollutant whose effects are proving to be increasingly lethal. Among the multiple damages related to Cd contamination, some studies report that it causes immunosuppression in various animal species. The aim of this paper is to determine whether contamination by Cd, may have a similar effect on the honey bees' immunocompetence. Our results, obtained by immune challenge experiments and confirmed by structural and ultrastructural observations show that such metal causes a reduction in immunocompetence in 3 days Cd exposed bees. As further evidence of honey bee response to Cd treatment, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (X-EDS) has revealed the presence of zinc (Zn) in peculiar electron-dense granules in fat body cells. Zn is a characteristic component of metallothioneins (MTs), which are usually synthesized as anti-oxidant and scavenger tools against Cd contamination. Our findings suggest that honey bee colonies may have a weakened immune system in Cd polluted areas, resulting in a decreased ability in dealing with pathogens.

  20. Effects of cadmium exposure on growth and metabolic profile of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xie

    Full Text Available Metabolic responses to cadmium (Cd may be associated with variations in Cd tolerance in plants. The objectives of this study were to examine changes in metabolic profiles in bermudagrass in response to Cd stress and to identify predominant metabolites associated with differential Cd tolerance using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two genotypes of bermudagrass with contrasting Cd tolerance were exposed to 0 and 1.5 mM CdSO4 for 14 days in hydroponics. Physiological responses to Cd were evaluated by determining turf quality, growth rate, chlorophyll content and normalized relative transpiration. All these parameters exhibited higher tolerance in WB242 than in WB144. Cd treated WB144 transported more Cd to the shoot than in WB242. The metabolite analysis of leaf polar extracts revealed 39 Cd responsive metabolites in both genotypes, mainly consisting of amino acids, organic acids, sugars, fatty acids and others. A difference in the metabolic profiles was observed between the two bermudagrass genotypes exposed to Cd stress. Seven amino acids (norvaline, glycine, proline, serine, threonine, glutamic acid and gulonic acid, four organic acids (glyceric acid, oxoglutaric acid, citric acid and malic acid, and three sugars (xylulose, galactose and talose accumulated more in WB242 than WB144. However, compared to the control, WB144 accumulated higher quantities of sugars than WB242 in the Cd regime. The differential accumulation of these metabolites could be associated with the differential Cd tolerance in bermudagrass.

  1. Effects of cadmium exposure on phytochelatin and the synthesis of abscisic acid in funalia trogii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuerekli, F.; Porgali, Z.B. [Inonu University, Arts and Science Faculty, Department of Biology, 44069 Malatya (Turkey); Uenyayar, A.; Mazmanci, M.A. [Mersin University, Engineering Faculty, Engineering Faculty, 33000 Mersin (Turkey)

    2004-08-01

    Heavy metal toxicity poses major environmental and health problems as heavy metals are more difficult to remediate than chemical contaminants, which can be degraded by microorganisms. Phytochelatins are formed in plants and some fungi upon exposure to a range of different heavy metals. Fungi show sensitivity to many environmental factors, including nutrient limitation, changes in carbon sources and heavy metal exposure. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Temporal changes in rat liver gene expression after acute cadmium and chromium exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Madejczyk

    Full Text Available U.S. Service Members and civilians are at risk of exposure to a variety of environmental health hazards throughout their normal duty activities and in industrial occupations. Metals are widely used in large quantities in a number of industrial processes and are a common environmental toxicant, which increases the possibility of being exposed at toxic levels. While metal toxicity has been widely studied, the exact mechanisms of toxicity remain unclear. In order to further elucidate these mechanisms and identify candidate biomarkers, rats were exposed via a single intraperitoneal injection to three concentrations of CdCl2 and Na(2Cr(2O(7, with livers harvested at 1, 3, or 7 days after exposure. Cd and Cr accumulated in the liver at 1 day post exposure. Cd levels remained elevated over the length of the experiment, while Cr levels declined. Metal exposures induced ROS, including hydroxyl radical (•OH, resulting in DNA strand breaks and lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, ROS and cellular damage appeared to increase with time post-exposure in both metals, despite declines in Cr levels. Differentially expressed genes were identified via microarray analysis. Both metals perturbed gene expression in pathways related to oxidative stress, metabolism, DNA damage, cell cycle, and inflammatory response. This work provides insight into the temporal effects and mechanistic pathways involved in acute metal intoxication, leading to the identification of candidate biomarkers.

  3. Temporal Changes in Rat Liver Gene Expression after Acute Cadmium and Chromium Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejczyk, Michael S.; Baer, Christine E.; Dennis, William E.; Minarchick, Valerie C.; Leonard, Stephen S.; Jackson, David A.; Stallings, Jonathan D.; Lewis, John A.

    2015-01-01

    U.S. Service Members and civilians are at risk of exposure to a variety of environmental health hazards throughout their normal duty activities and in industrial occupations. Metals are widely used in large quantities in a number of industrial processes and are a common environmental toxicant, which increases the possibility of being exposed at toxic levels. While metal toxicity has been widely studied, the exact mechanisms of toxicity remain unclear. In order to further elucidate these mechanisms and identify candidate biomarkers, rats were exposed via a single intraperitoneal injection to three concentrations of CdCl2 and Na2Cr2O7, with livers harvested at 1, 3, or 7 days after exposure. Cd and Cr accumulated in the liver at 1 day post exposure. Cd levels remained elevated over the length of the experiment, while Cr levels declined. Metal exposures induced ROS, including hydroxyl radical (•OH), resulting in DNA strand breaks and lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, ROS and cellular damage appeared to increase with time post-exposure in both metals, despite declines in Cr levels. Differentially expressed genes were identified via microarray analysis. Both metals perturbed gene expression in pathways related to oxidative stress, metabolism, DNA damage, cell cycle, and inflammatory response. This work provides insight into the temporal effects and mechanistic pathways involved in acute metal intoxication, leading to the identification of candidate biomarkers. PMID:25993096

  4. Effects of subchronic exposure to waterborne cadmium on H-P-I axis hormones and related genes in rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Jin, Li; Huang, Jing; Pu, De-Yong; Wang, De-Shou; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2017-07-22

    The H (hypothalamic)-P (pituitary)-I (interrenal) axis is critical in the stress response and other activities of fish. To further investigate cadmium (Cd) toxicity on the H-P-I axis and to identify its potential regulatory genes in fish, the adult female rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to subchronic (5weeks) levels of waterborne Cd in the present study. This kind of treatment caused dose-dependent decline in fish growth, with significance in the high dose group (100μg/L). Correspondingly, low dose (5-50μg/L) waterborne Cd disrupted the endocrine system of H-P-I axis just at the secretion level, while high dose Cd disrupted both the secretion and synthesis of cortisol and its downstream signals in rare minnows, revealed by the significantly upregulation and positive correlation of corticosteroidogenic genes including MC2R, StAR, CYP11A1, and CYP11B1 in the kidney (including the interrenal tissue) (PPP-I axis in fish. The expression of FKBP5 in the intestine was positively and significantly correlated with that of Hsp90AA (PP<0.05), which indicated that Hsp90AA and Hsp90AB were more likely to serve as cofactors of GR and FKBP5 in response to Cd exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of a high-resolution, 3-D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Y.; Matteson, J. L.; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3-D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06±0.39% at 511 keV thr...

  6. Bioaccumulation and retention kinetics of cadmium in the freshwater decapod Macrobrachium australiense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, Tom, E-mail: tom.cresswell@ansto.gov.au [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Simpson, Stuart L. [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Smith, Ross E.W. [Hydrobiology, Lang Parade, Auchenflower, QLD 4066 (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Mazumder, Debashish [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); Twining, John [Austral Radioecology, Oyster Bay, NSW, 2225 (Australia)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sources and mechanisms of Cd bioaccumulation were examined using radiotracers. • Macrobrachium australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase. • Assimilation efficiencies were comparable for sediment and algae. • A biokinetic model predicted ingestion accounted for majority of bioaccumulated Cd. - Abstract: The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using {sup 109}Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately {sup 109}Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns). M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10 ± 0.05 L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9 ± 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48–51%), but lower for carrion (28 ± 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2–2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted

  7. Exposure of cultured human proximal tubular cells to cadmium, mercury, zinc and bismuth: toxicity and metallothionein induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, V; Miles, A T; Jenner, W; Hawksworth, G M

    1998-08-14

    The kidney, in particular the proximal convoluted tubule, is a major target site for the toxic effects of various metals. However, little is known about the early effects of these metals after acute exposure in man. In the present study we have evaluated the toxicity of several inorganic metal compounds (CdCl2, HgCl2, ZnCl2, and Bi(NO3)3) and the induction of metallothionein by these compounds in cultured human proximal tubular (HPT) cells for up to 4 days. The results showed that bismuth was not toxic even at the highest dose (100 microM) used, while zinc, cadmium and mercury exhibited varying degrees of toxicity, zinc being the least toxic and mercury the most potent. A significant degree of interindividual variation between the different isolates used in these experiments was also observed. All metals used in the present study induced MT, as revealed by immunocytochemistry. All metals showed maximal induction between 1 and 3 days after treatment. Although a certain amount of constitutive MT was present in the cultures, the intensity of the staining varied with time in culture and between the different isolates studied. No correlation could be made between the intensity of the staining in control cultures (indicating total amount of constitutive MT) and the susceptibility of a given isolate to metal toxicity. Furthermore, no correlation could be made between metal-induced MT and the susceptibility of a given isolate to that particular metal.

  8. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok, E-mail: kimkisok@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  9. Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Palumbo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10-6 and 3.6 x 10-5 M, respectively) on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO) production and differential gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that both metals differentially impaired the fertilization processes of the treated female sea urchins, causing modifications in the reproductive state and also affecting NO production in the ovaries. A detailed analysis of the progeny showed a high percentage of abnormal embryos, associated to an increase in the endogenous NO levels and variations in the transcriptional expression of several genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification, multi drug efflux processes and NO production. Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water. Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals. PMID:26125595

  10. Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana Migliaccio

    Full Text Available Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10(-6 and 3.6 x 10(-5 M, respectively on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO production and differential gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that both metals differentially impaired the fertilization processes of the treated female sea urchins, causing modifications in the reproductive state and also affecting NO production in the ovaries. A detailed analysis of the progeny showed a high percentage of abnormal embryos, associated to an increase in the endogenous NO levels and variations in the transcriptional expression of several genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification, multi drug efflux processes and NO production. Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water. Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

  11. Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Palumbo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10(-6) and 3.6 x 10(-5) M, respectively) on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO) production and differential gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that both metals differentially impaired the fertilization processes of the treated female sea urchins, causing modifications in the reproductive state and also affecting NO production in the ovaries. A detailed analysis of the progeny showed a high percentage of abnormal embryos, associated to an increase in the endogenous NO levels and variations in the transcriptional expression of several genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification, multi drug efflux processes and NO production. Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water. Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

  12. Effects of elevated temperature and cadmium exposure on stress protein response in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanina, A.V. [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Taylor, C. [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Johnson C. Smith University, 100 Beatties Ford Rd., Charlotte, NC 28216 (United States); Sokolova, I.M. [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)], E-mail: isokolov@uncc.edu

    2009-02-19

    Stress proteins such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and metallothioneins (MTs) play a key role in cellular protection against environmental stress. Marine ectotherms such as eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica are commonly exposed to multiple stressors including temperature and pollution by metals such as cadmium (Cd) in estuaries and coastal zones; however, the combined effects of these stressors on their cellular protection mechanisms are poorly understood. We acclimated C. virginica from populations adapted to different thermal regimes (Washington, North Carolina and Texas) at a common temperature of 12 deg. C, and analyzed their expression of MTs and HSPs (cytosolic HSP69, HSC72-77, HSP90 and mitochondrial HSP60) in response to the combined acute temperature stress and long-term Cd exposure. Overall, HSP and MT induction patterns were similar in oysters from the three studied geographically distant populations. HSP69 and MTs were significantly up-regulated by Cd and temperature stress implying their important role in cellular stress protection. In contrast, HSC72-77, HSP60 and HSP90 were not consistently induced by either acute heat or Cd exposure. The induction temperature for MTs was higher than for HSP69 (>28 deg. C vs. 20 deg. C, respectively), and MTs were more strongly induced by Cd than by temperature stress (to up to 38-94-fold compared by 3.5-7.5-fold, respectively) consistent with their predominant role in metal detoxification. Notably, heat stress did not result in an additional increase in metallothionein expression in Cd-exposed oysters suggesting a capacity limitation during the combined exposure to Cd and temperature stress. Levels of HSP69 and in some cases, HSC72-77 and HSP90 were lower in Cd-exposed oysters as compared to their control counterparts during heat stress indicating that simultaneous exposure to these two stressors may have partially suppressed the cytoprotective upregulation of molecular chaperones. These limitations of stress

  13. Metallothionein and bioaccumulation of cadmium in juvenile bluegills exposed to aqueous and sediment-associated cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    The author evaluated metallothionein (MT), free (unbound) hepatic cadmium and whole body cadmium as indicators of cadmium exposure in juvenile bluegills Lepomis macrochirus in laboratory tests. Two types of cadmium exposure were tested; aqueous and sediment-associated. In the aqueous tests, fish were exposed to cadmium (0.0 to 32.3 [mu]g/L) in an intermittent-flow diluter. In the sediment-associated cadmium test, fish were exposed to resuspended river sidment containing 1.3 to 21.4 [mu]g Cd/g (dry weight) at a nominal total suspended solids concentration of 1,000 mg/L in revolving, circular glass exposure chambers. Total cadmium concentrations were measured in various bluegill liver fractions, whole bluegill, water, and resuspended sediment to assess the partitioning and bioaccumulation of cadmium after the tests. Mean concentrations of MT and free cadmium in bluegill livers and concentrations of cadmium in whole bluegills were positively correlated with aqueous cadmium concentration and were equally suitable as indicators of aqueous cadmium exposure. Sediment-associated cadmium was biologically available, but to a lesser extent than aqueous cadmium. Cadmium concentrations in whole bluegills exposed to resuspended river sediment were 1.5- to 3.5-fold the concentrations in bluegills in sediment-free controls. Free cadmium and MT concentrations in bluegill liver and whole-body cadmium concentrations in bluegills were positively correlated with the cadmium concentrations in filtered water, resuspended sediment, and bulk river sediment; however, whole-body cadmim concentrations were a more sensitive indicator of exposure to sediment-associated cadmium than either free cadmium or MT concentratons in liver.

  14. Responses of different Chinese flowering cabbage (brassica parachinensis l.) cultivars to cadmium and lead exposure: screening for Cd + Pb pollution-safe cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Qiu; Yang, Zhongyi; Xin, Junliang; Yuan, Jiangang; Wang, Jianbing; Xin, Guorong [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yutao [Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2011-11-15

    To reduce the potential risks of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) entering the human food chain in vegetables, two pot experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) were carried out to screen for Cd and Pb pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.). The three Cd treatments in Exp. 1 (0.114, 0.667, and 1.127 mg kg{sup -1}) showed that Chinese flowering cabbage could easily take up Cd from polluted soils, and there were wide variations in Cd accumulation among different cultivars. The Cd accumulation trait at cultivar level was rather stable under different soil Cd treatments. In Exp. 2, seven cultivars that had been shown in Exp. 1 to be typical high or low accumulators of Cd were selected and six Cd + Pb joint exposure treatments were applied to them. The results showed that there were similar trends of accumulation between Cd and Pb for the tested cultivars, but Pb accumulation by the species was much poorer than that of Cd. It was worth noting that an increase in soil Pb levels significantly (p < 0.01) depressed shoot Cd accumulation. Six cultivars were selected as Cd + Pb PSCs. This study showed that it is feasible to apply a PSC strategy in Chinese flowering cabbage cultivation, to cope with the Cd and Pb contamination commonly found in agricultural soils. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Estimation of cadmium exposure level for the residents in metal contaminative area%重金属污染区人群镉暴露水平的估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文丽; 韩京秀; 孙嘉龙; 姚丹成; 尚琪

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate situation of environmental cadmium pollution and exposure level of cadmium in general population.Methods Local self-seeded grain and vegetable sample were collected and detected for cadmium content.Dietary survey was carried out in the local resident at the same time.Results 833 samples and 124 samples were collected respectively from polluted area and control area.Three days diet survey were conducted in 546 residents.Cd contents of grains from polluted area are higher than that from control area.corn,rape,potato and kidney bean(dry) are the main food.Rape is the major source of dietary cadmium intake.Average daily Cd intake and cumulative Cd intake of residents in polluted area exceeded the limitation of the cadmium from food recommended by WHO,while control area is under the limit.Conclusion Self-seeded vegetable is the main media of cadmium intake for the local resident in cadmium contaminated area,cumulative Cd intake for male ≥ 55 years old and for female ≥ 65 years old had reached 2000mg,which is the threshold for health hazard recommended by WHO.%目的 了解环境镉污染状况和人群镉暴露水平.方法 采集当地自产粮食和蔬菜样品进行镉含量检测,同时开展人群膳食调查.结果 采集污染区样品833份,对照区样品124份,共完成546人的三日膳食调查.污染区农作物镉含量整体高于对照区.玉米、青菜、土豆和红芸豆是当地居民主要消费食物,青菜是膳食摄入镉的主要来源,污染区高年龄组居民日均摄镉量和累积镉摄入量均已超过WHO建议的允许最大限值,对照区居民未超过限值要求.结论 污染区居民镉暴露的主要介质是当地产蔬菜,男性55岁以上(女性65岁以上)人群累积镉暴露已达到WHO建议的健康危害阈值2000mg水平.

  16. Beta 2-microglobulin levels in serum and urine of cadmium exposed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscator, M; Björck, L; Nordberg, M

    1981-07-01

    Male rabbits were exposed to cadmium during 16 weeks by subcutaneous injections of either 0.25 mg or 0.5 md Cd as cadmium chloride per kg body weight 3 times per week. beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) and creatinine in serum, cadmium in blood, as well as total protein, creatinine, beta 2-m and cadmium in urine were determined before exposure and after 3 and 7 weeks of exposure. Measurements were also made at 19 weeks, 3 weeks after the last exposure. During exposure, there was a slight increase in the serum beta 2-m/creatinine ratio among rabbits with the highest exposure, while no effect of the cadmium burden could be observed once exposure had ceased. Urinary excretion of beta 2-m was related to urinary pH, which appeared to be the case also for excretion of total protein. In the high exposure group, a significant increase in urinary beta 2-m excretion, indicative of renal tubular dysfunction was seen after 7 weeks of exposure. This was, however, not related to serum beta 2-m levels. It was concluded that before renal damage has occurred even heavy cadmium exposure has very little influence on serum beta 2-m levels.

  17. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P<0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β=0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β=0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β=0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nucleo-mitochondrial interaction of yeast in response to cadmium sulfide quantum dot exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquali, Francesco; Agrimonti, Caterina [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Pagano, Luca [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Stockbridge school of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT (United States); Zappettini, Andrea; Villani, Marco [IMEM-CNR - Istituto dei Materiali per l' Elettronica ed il Magnetismo, Parma (Italy); Marmiroli, Marta [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); White, Jason C. [The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT (United States); Marmiroli, Nelson, E-mail: nelson.marmiroli@unipr.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); CINSA - Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per le Scienze Ambientali, University of Parma, Parma (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • CdS QDs induce oxidative stress in yeast. • CdS QDs disrupt mitochondrial membrane potentials and morphology. • CdS QDs do not affect mtDNA content. • CdS QDs modify the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial organization and function. • Deletion of some of these genes induces either tolerant or sensitive phenotypes to CdS QDs. - Abstract: Cell sensitivity to quantum dots (QDs) has been attributed to a cascade triggered by oxidative stress leading to apoptosis. The role and function of mitochondria in animal cells are well understood but little information is available on the complex genetic networks that regulate nucleo-mitochondrial interaction. The effect of CdS QD exposure in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was assessed under conditions of limited lethality (<10%), using cell physiological and morphological endpoints. Whole-genomic array analysis and the screening of a deletion mutant library were also carried out. The results showed that QDs: increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased the level of reduced vs oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG); reduced oxygen consumption and the abundance of respiratory cytochromes; disrupted mitochondrial membrane potentials and affected mitochondrial morphology. Exposure affected the capacity of cells to grow on galactose, which requires nucleo-mitochondrial involvement. However, QDs exposure did not materially induce respiratory deficient (RD) mutants but only RD phenocopies. All of these cellular changes were correlated with several key nuclear genes, including TOM5 and FKS1, involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial organization and function. The consequences of these cellular effects are discussed in terms of dysregulation of cell function in response to these “pathological mitochondria”.

  19. Temporal Changes in Rat Liver Gene Expression after Acute Cadmium and Chromium Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-19

    centri- fuged and cells placed in ice cold PBS at 1 x 105 cells/mL. The cells were combined with low melting point agarose, and then pipetted onto a...after a sin- gle exposure to CdCl2 or Na2Cr2O7. Both metals accumulated dose -dependently in the liver and generated ROS, including hydroxyl radical...studies have demonstrated the use of intraperitoneal injections of CdCl2 [26–34] and Na2CrO4 [35–38] in these dose ranges to induce tissue injury

  20. Cadmium and zinc concentrations in fetal and maternal rat tissues after parenteral administration of cadmium during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazelhoff Roelfzema, W.; Roelofsen, A.M.; Herber, R.F.M.; Copius Peereboom-Stegeman, J.H.J.

    1988-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were determined by solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in rat maternal and fetal tissues after exposure to cadmium. Cadmium was administered subcutaneously as CdCl/sub 2/ in saline daily during pregnancy. Two experiments were performed. In expt. I we investigated the tissue concentration at day 19 (gestational age) after addministration of several doses: 0, 1.1, 2.2, 4.4, and 8.8 ..mu..mol Cd/kg/day. In expt. II the course of the Cd and Zn concentrations during pregnancy was investigated by collecting samples at days 14, 16, 18 and 20, after daily injections of 4.4 ..mu..mol Cd/kg. Cadmium concentrations in blood, maternal liver, placenta and fetal liver increased with dose and duration of exposure. Cadmium was heavily accumulated in the liver and transferred to the fetus only in small amounts. The zinc concentration in the maternal liver was positively correlated with the cadmium concentration. In the placenta the zinc concentration was not affected. Zinc in fetal liver was decreased from day 18 onward. Despite relatively high cadmium levels and decreased zinc levels in the fetus, we observed no adverse effects on various reproduction parameters, such as birth weights and obvious malformations.

  1. Digital gene expression profiling (DGE) of cadmium-treated Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Delong; Mo, Fei; Han, Yan; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is highly toxic and can cause oxidative damage, metabolic disorders, and reduced lifespan and fertility in animals. In this study, we investigated the effects of cadmium in Drosophila melanogaster, performing transcriptome analysis by using tag-based digital gene expression (DGE) profiling. Among 1970 candidate genes, 1443 were up-regulated and 527 were down-regulated following cadmium exposure. Using Gene Ontology analysis, we found that cadmium stress affects three processes: transferase activity, stress response, and the cell cycle. Furthermore, we identified five differentially expressed genes (confirmed by real-time PCR) involved in all three processes: Ald, Cdc2, skpA, tefu, and Pvr. Pathway analysis revealed that these genes were involved in the cell cycle pathway and fat digestion and absorption pathway. This study reveals the gene expression response to cadmium stress in Drosophila, it provides insights into the mechanisms of this response, and it could contribute to our understanding of cadmium toxicity in humans.

  2. Differential generation of hydrogen peroxide upon exposure to zinc and cadmium in the hyperaccumulating plant specie (Sedum alfredii Hance)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yue-en; Zhang, Min; Tian, Sheng-ke; Lu, Ling-li; Yang, Xiao-e

    2008-01-01

    Sedum alfredii Hance has been identified as zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) co-hyperaccumulator. In this paper the relationships of Zn or Cd hyperaccumulation to the generation and the role of H2O2 in Sedum alfredii H. were examined. The results show that Zn and Cd contents in the shoots of Sedum alfredii H. treated with 1000 μmol/L Zn2+ and/or 200 μmol/L Cd2+ increased linearly within 15 d. Contents of total S, glutathione (GSH) and H2O2 in shoots also increased within 15 d, and then decreased. Total S and GSH contents in shoots were higher under Cd2+ treatment than under Zn2+ treatment. However, reverse trends of H2O2 content in shoots were obtained, in which much higher H2O2 content was observed in Zn2+-treated shoots than in Cd2+-treated shoots. Similarly, the microscopic imaging of H2O2 accumulation in leaves using H2O2 probe technique showed that much higher H2O2 accumulation was observed in the Zn2+-treated leaf than in the Cd2+-treated one. These results suggest that there are different responses in the generation of H2O2 upon exposure to Zn2+ and Cd2+ for the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii H. And this is the first report that the generation of H2O2 may play an important role in Zn hyperaccumulation in the leaves. Our results also imply that GSH may play an important role in the detoxification of dissociated Zn/Cd and the generation of H2O2. PMID:18357627

  3. Differential generation of hydrogen peroxide upon exposure to zinc and cadmium in the hyperaccumulating plant species (Sedum alfredii Hance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yue-en; Zhang, Min; Tian, Sheng-ke; Lu, Ling-li; Yang, Xiao-e

    2008-03-01

    Sedum alfredii Hance has been identified as zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) co-hyperaccumulator. In this paper the relationships of Zn or Cd hyperaccumulation to the generation and the role of H2O2 in Sedum alfredii H. were examined. The results show that Zn and Cd contents in the shoots of Sedum alfredii H. treated with 1000 micromol/L Zn2+ and/or 200 micromol/L Cd2+ increased linearly within 15 d. Contents of total S, glutathione (GSH) and H2O2 in shoots also increased within 15 d, and then decreased. Total S and GSH contents in shoots were higher under Cd2+ treatment than under Zn2+ treatment. However, reverse trends of H2O2 content in shoots were obtained, in which much higher H2O2 content was observed in Zn2+-treated shoots than in Cd2+-treated shoots. Similarly, the microscopic imaging of H2O2 accumulation in leaves using H2O2 probe technique showed that much higher H2O2 accumulation was observed in the Zn2+-treated leaf than in the Cd2+-treated one. These results suggest that there are different responses in the generation of H2O2 upon exposure to Zn2+ and Cd2+ for the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii H. And this is the first report that the generation of H2O2 may play an important role in Zn hyperaccumulation in the leaves. Our results also imply that GSH may play an important role in the detoxification of dissociated Zn/Cd and the generation of H2O2.

  4. Occurrence of high levels of cadmium, mercury and lead in medicinal plants of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa T Vasudevan

    2009-01-01

    Plants can contain heavy metals from their presence in the soil, water or air. High levels of toxic metals can occur when the plants are grown in polluted areas, such as near roadways or metal mining and smelting operations. In addition, high levels can be found when agricultural expedients are used, including Cadmium containing fertilizers, organic mercury or lead based pesticides, and contaminated irrigation water. Quality has to be built into the whole process beginning from the selection of starting material to the final product reaching the consumer. In the present study were carried out, to evaluate the quality and safety of crude drug. The result shows that Indian herbal drug industry needs to ensure procurement of standardized authentic raw material free from toxic contaminants. Such approaches remain important in global promotion of medicinal plants & herbal medicinal products from India.

  5. Monitoring of growth dynamics of plants under the influence of cadmium using a highly sensitive interferometry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchana Muthumali De Silva, Kokge Thilini; Rajagopalan, Uma Maheswari; Kadono, Hirofumi

    2016-12-01

    Using statistical interferometry technique (SIT), a highly sensitive interferometry technique developed in our laboratory, we reported about the existence of nanometric intrinsic fluctuations (NIF) in a variety of plants. SIT permits noncontact, noninvasive, and fast detection of plant growth fluctuations in subnanometer scale. We propose the application of NIF to investigate the effect of heavy metal, cadmium, on growth dynamics of Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum). NIFs of leaves were observed for 3 days under four different concentrations of CdCl2: 0, 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mM. Results showed significant reduction of NIFs within 4 h for all Cd concentrations, and there was a further decrease with the exposure time of Cd under 0.1 and 0.01 mM. In addition, under 0.001 mM, a significant recovery could be observed after a rapid reduction in the first 4 h. As a comparison, measured antioxidative enzymes increased with increasing Cd concentration. However, no significant increase could be seen within the initial 4 h under a smaller concentration of 0.001 mM as seen for NIFs. The results imply that NIF can be used as an indicator for heavy metal stress on plants as well as it can be more sensitive to detect the influence of smaller Cd amounts on plants at an early stage.

  6. High-Rate Vapor Deposition of Cadmium Telluride Films for Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nasim Akhter

    1992-01-01

    High rate vapor deposition is presently used for large scale low cost deposition of thin films for packaging and other applications. The feasibility of using this technology for low cost deposition of solar cells was explored. After an exhaustive literature survey, the cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cell was found to be most suitable candidate for high rate vapor deposition. The high rate vapor deposition was investigated by sublimation with a short distance between sublimation source and the substrate (Close-Spaced Sublimation, CSS). Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells were fabricated by depositing CdTe films at different rates on cadmium sulphide (CdS) films deposited by CSS or by evaporation. The CdTe films deposited at higher deposition rates were observed to have open circuit voltages (V_{ rm oc}) comparable to those deposited at lower rates. The effect of CdS film which acts as window layer for the cells were also investigated on the V_ {rm oc} of the solar cells. The results achieved proved the fact that CdS window layer is necessary to achieve higher V_{ rm oc} from solar cells. The substrate temperature during deposition of films by close space sublimation plays a vital role in the performance of solar cell. The increase in the substrate temperature during deposition of CdTe films increased the V_{rm oc} of solar cells. The solar cells with indium tin oxide (ITO) as top conductor, i.e. ITO/CdS/CdTe configuration were fabricated at rates up to 34 mum/minute and with tin oxide (TO) i.e. TO/CdTe configuration fabricated at rates up to 79 mum/minute have shown similar V_{rm oc} compared to those produced at lower rates. Higher CdTe film deposition rates are possible with larger capacity experimental setup. The method of contacting CdTe, used in this study, results in higher series resistance. An improved method of contacting CdTe needs to be developed.

  7. Effects of cadmium exposure on expression and activity of P-glycoprotein in eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanina, Anna V. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Sokolova, Inna M. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)], E-mail: isokolov@uncc.edu

    2008-06-02

    Heavy metal pollution is a worldwide problem, and cadmium (Cd) is one of the most noxious pollutants in aquatic environments. We studied P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and function in control and Cd exposed (50 {mu}g L{sup -1} Cd, 30-40 days) oysters Crassostrea virginica as a possible mechanism of cell protection against Cd. Our data show that P-gp is expressed on cell membrane and in mitochondria of oyster gills and hepatopancreas. Inhibitor studies with verapamil, cyclosporine A and JS-2190 suggest that in the gills, mitochondrial P-gp pumps substrates from cytosol into the mitochondria, while cell membrane P-gp pumps substrates from cytosol out of the cell. Cd exposure resulted in a 2-2.5-fold increase in P-gp protein expression in cell membranes and a 3.5-7-fold increase in transport activity measured as the inhibitor-sensitive rhodamine B extrusion rate. In contrast, p-gp mRNA levels were similar in control and Cd-exposed oysters. No difference in P-gp protein expression was observed between mitochondria of control and Cd-exposed oysters but the apparent transport activity was higher in mitochondria from Cd-exposed oysters. Overall, a stronger increase in substrate transport activity in Cd-exposed oysters compared to a relatively weaker change in P-gp protein levels suggests that P-gp activity is post-translationally regulated. Our data show that direct determination of P-gp transport activity may be the best measure of the xenobiotic-resistant phenotype, whereas p-gp mRNA levels are not a good marker due to the likely involvement of multiple post-transcriptional regulatory steps. Cd exposure resulted in a significantly elevated rate of oxygen consumption of isolated oyster gills by 46%. Specific inhibitors of ATPase function of P-gp (cyclosporine A and JS-2190) had no significant effect on tissue oxygen consumption indicating that P-gp contribution to energy budget is negligible and supporting indirect estimates based on the ATP stoichiometry of substrate

  8. Human exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury through fish and seafood product consumption in Italy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, A A; Baldini, M; Stacchini, P; Baldini, G; Morelli, S; Sagratella, E; Zaza, S; Ciardullo, S

    2012-01-01

    The presence of selected toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), was investigated in fish and seafood products, namely, blue mussel, carpet shell clam, European squid, veined squid, deep-water rose shrimp, red mullet, European seabass, gilthead seabream, Atlantic cod, European hake, Atlantic bluefin tuna and swordfish so as to assess their human exposure through diet. Metals were detected by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (Hg-AAS). Measurements of Cd, Pb and Hg were performed by means of analytical methods validated in compliance with UNI CEI EN ISO/IEC 17025 [2005. General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. Milano (Italy): UNI Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione]. The exposure assessment was undertaken matching the levels of Cd, Pb and total Hg with consumption data related to fish and seafood products selected for this purpose. In order to establish human health implications, the estimated weekly intakes (EWIs) for Cd, Pb and Hg were compared with the standard tolerable weekly intakes (TWI) for Cd and provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for Pb and Hg stipulated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The found metal concentrations were largely below the maximum levels (MLs) established at the European Union level with the exception of Cd. This metal exceeded the MLs in squid, red mullet, European hake and Atlantic cod. Squid and blue mussel showed the highest Pb concentrations which accounted for 60% and 10% of the MLs, respectively. Highest Hg levels were found in predatory fish. The concentrations of Hg in swordfish, Atlantic bluefin tuna and red mullet accounted for 50%, 30% and 30% of the MLs, respectively. The EWIs for Cd, Pb and Hg related to the consumption

  9. Chronic cadmium treatment promotes oxidative stress and endothelial damage in isolated rat aorta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila C P Almenara

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a highly toxic metal that is present in phosphate fertilizers, and the incidence of cadmium poisoning in the general population has increased, mainly due to cigarette smoking. Once absorbed, cadmium accumulates in the tissues, causing harmful effects including high blood pressure, endothelial damage and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is known to efficiently produce oxidized low-density lipoprotein and consequently atherosclerosis, mainly in the aorta. However, the mechanisms through which endothelial damage is induced by cadmium have not been elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this metal in the isolated aorta and the possible role of oxidative stress. Rats received 100 mg.L(-1 cadmium chloride (CdCl2 in the drinking water or distilled water alone for four weeks. The pressor effect of cadmium was followed throughout the exposure period by tail plethysmography. At the end of the fourth week, the blood cadmium content was established, and the vascular reactivity of the isolated aorta to phenylephrine, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside was analyzed in the context of endothelium denudation and incubation with L-NAME, apocynin, losartan, enalapril, superoxide dismutase (SOD or catalase. We observed an increased response to phenylephrine in cadmium-treated rats. This increase was abolished by catalase and SOD incubation. Apocynin treatment reduced the phenylephrine response in both treatment groups, but its effect was greater in cadmium-treated rats, and NOX2 expression was greater in the cadmium group. These results suggested that cadmium in blood concentrations similar to those found in occupationally exposed populations is able to stimulate NOX2 expression, contributing to oxidative stress and reducing NO bioavailability, despite enhanced eNOS expression. These findings suggest that cadmium exposure promotes endothelial damage that might contribute to inflammation, vascular injury and the

  10. High-performance cadmium sulphide-based planar perovskite solar cell and the cadmium sulphide/perovskite interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haitao; Sun, Weihai; Li, Yunlong; Yan, Weibo; Yu, Pingrong; Zhou, Huanping; Bian, Zuqiang; Huang, Chunhui

    2016-04-01

    Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell is one of the most competitive photovoltaic technologies, while charge transport materials play a crucial role. We successfully demonstrated an effective electron transport material, namely chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide (CdS) film under low temperature, in perovskite-based solar cells. Power conversion efficiency of 16.1% has been achieved, which is comparable to that of devices based on TiO2 film prepared via low-temperature processes. Electronic impedance spectra reveal that the CdS-based device presents a higher recombination resistance than TiO2-based devices, which reduces carrier recombination and increases the open circuit voltage. The interface between CdS and perovskite was characterized with improved characteristics when compared to TiO2, e.g., efficient carrier extraction and reduced surface defect-associated degradation in the devices, which help to alleviate anomalous hysteresis and long-term instability. Furthermore, the entire device was fabricated via solution process with a processing temperature below 100°C, suggesting a promising method of further development of perovskite solar cells and commercial manufacturing.

  11. Modulation of murine T and B cell reactivity after short-term cadmium exposure in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtenbach, U.; Oberbarnscheidt, J.; Gleichmann, E.

    1988-08-01

    This study assessed early effects of short-term Cd exposure on T and B cell responsiveness. Spleen cells from mice injected s.c. with a daily dosage of 1 mg, 0.33 mg, or 0.11 mg Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/) per kg body weight for 5 days were examined for their potential to generate alloreactive T cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and for mitogen reactivity to concanavalin A (Con A) in vitro. Spleen cells from the same mice were also assayed for the total number of IgM- and IgG-secreting B cells. Whereas alloreactivity was reduced, mitogen response to Con A was not different from controls or was even enhanced. The decrease in allogeneic MLR was dependent on the injected Cd dosage. No difference in susceptibility to Cd-induced effects was observed among the mouse strains tested, i.e. BALB/c, DBA/2, C57BL/6, and C3H/He. Co-cultivation of spleen cells, obtained from Cd-treated mice that exhibited deficient T cell reactivity, with splenic responder cells from untreated mice resulted in dose-dependent suppression of the normal MLR. These results indicate that the harmful effects of Cd on the immune system include the inhibition of antigen-specific T cell responses by the activation of an antigen non-specific suppressor system. In contrast to the suppressed allogeneic MLR, the same spleen cell populations showed augmented numbers of IgM- and IgG-antibody producing cells.

  12. Anti-oxidative feedback and biomarkers in the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica induced by exposure to copper, lead and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haiying; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Xiaomei

    2016-08-15

    To investigate the potential influences of anthropogenic pollutants, we evaluated the responses of the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica to three heavy metals: copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Z. japonica was exposed to various concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Cd (0, 0.5, 5, 50μM) over seven days. The effects were then analyzed using the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and lipid peroxidation measured using malondialdehyde (MDA) as proxy. Metal accumulation in the above-ground tissues and phenotypic changes were also investigated. Our results revealed that heavy metal concentration increased in seagrass exposed to high levels of metals. Z. japonica has great potential for metal accumulation and a suitable candidate for the decontamination of moderately Cu contaminated bodies of water and can also potentially enhanced efforts of environmental decontamination, either through phytoextraction abilities or by functioning as an indicator for monitoring programs that use SOD, CAT, GPX, POD and MDA as biomarkers.

  13. Oxidative stress parameters induced by exposure to either cadmium or 17β-estradiol on Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes. The role of signaling molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutsogiannaki, Sophia [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Zoology Department, School of Biology, Faculty of Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Franzellitti, Silvia [University of Bologna, Interdepartment Centre for Environmental Science Research, via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna (Italy); Fabbri, Elena [University of Bologna, Interdepartment Centre for Environmental Science Research, via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna (Italy); University of Bologna, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, via Selmi 3, 40100 Bologna (Italy); Kaloyianni, Martha, E-mail: kaloyian@bio.auth.gr [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Zoology Department, School of Biology, Faculty of Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Oxidative parameters in Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes were measured. •Comparison between cadmium and 17β-estradiol cytotoxicity is discussed. •NHE, PKC, PI3-K, NADPH oxidase, NO synthase, JNK involvement was observed. •Protective role of cAMP is suggested. •Signaling molecules studied could constitute novel biomarkers. -- Abstract: The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the possible effects of exposure to an estrogen, 17β-estradiol and to a metal, cadmium on oxidative parameters of Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes and to elucidate the signaling pathways that probably mediate the studied effects exerted by these two chemicals. In addition, it was of interest to investigate if the studied parameters could constitute biomarkers for aquatic pollution monitoring. Our results suggest that micromolar concentrations of either cadmium or 17β-estradiol affected the redox status of mussels by modulating oxidative parameters and antioxidant enzymes gene expression in mussel M. galloprovincialis hemocytes. In particular, our results showed that treatment of hemocytes with either 5 μM of cadmium chloride or with 25 nM of 17β-estradiol for 30 min caused significant increased ROS production; this led to oxidative damage exemplified by significant increased DNA damage, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation, as well as increased mRNA levels of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismoutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Furthermore, our results suggest that either cadmium or 17β-estradiol signal is mediated either through one of the already known pathways initiated by photatidyl-inositol 3-kinase (PI3 K) and reaching Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger (NHE) probably through protein kinase C (PKC) or a kinase-mediated signaling pathway that involves in most of the cases NHE, PKC, Ca{sup 2+}-dependent PKC isoforms, PI3-K, NADPH oxidase, nitric oxide (NO) synthase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and

  14. A Rapid and Cost-Effective Laser Based Synthesis of High Purity Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondall, M A; Qahtan, Talal F; Dastageer, M A; Yamani, Z H; Anjum, D H

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and cost effective method is developed to synthesize high purity cadmium Selenide (CdSe) quantum dots in acetone medium using second harmonic of Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser of 532 nm wavelength. The thermal agglomeration due the nanosecond pulse duration of the laser was successfully eliminated by using unfocussed laser beam and thereby providing a favorable conditions for the synthesis of quantum dots having the grain size of 3 nm. The morphological and optical characterizations like XRD, HRTEM, optical absorption of the synthesized CdSe quantum dots, reveal that the material possesses the similar characteristics of the one synthesized through cumbersome wet chemical methods. Relative to the CdSe bulk material, the synthesized CdSe quantum dots showed a blue shift in the measured band gap energy from near infrared spectral region to visible region, making this material very attractive for many solar energy harvesting applications like photo-catalysis and solar cells.

  15. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Rubæk, Gitte Holton; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    For biomass combustion to become a sustainable energy production system, it is crucial to minimise landfill of biomass ashes, to recycle the nutrients and to minimise the undesirable impact of hazardous substances in the ash. In order to test the plant availability of phosphorus (P) and cadmium (Cd......) in four biomass ashes, we conducted two pot experiments on a P-depleted soil and one mini-plot field experiment on a soil with adequate P status. Test plants were spring barley and Italian ryegrass. Ash applications were compared to triple superphosphate (TSP) and a control without P application. Both TSP...... ash. Contrarily, even modest increases in the TSP application markedly increased Cd uptake in plants. This might be explained by the low Cd solubility in the ash or by the reduced Cd availability due to the liming effect of ash. High concentrations of resin-extractable P (available P) in the ash...

  16. Comparative transcriptomics reveals genes involved in metabolic and immune pathways in the digestive gland of scallop Chlamys farreri following cadmium exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhai, Yuxiu; Yao, Lin; Jiang, Yanhua; Li, Fengling

    2017-05-01

    Chlamys farreri is an economically important mollusk that can accumulate excessive amounts of cadmium (Cd). Studying the molecular mechanism of Cd accumulation in bivalves is difficult because of the lack of genome background. Transcriptomic analysis based on high-throughput RNA sequencing has been shown to be an efficient and powerful method for the discovery of relevant genes in non-model and genome reference-free organisms. Here, we constructed two cDNA libraries (control and Cd exposure groups) from the digestive gland of C. farreri and compared the transcriptomic data between them. A total of 227 673 transcripts were assembled into 105 071 unigenes, most of which shared high similarity with sequences in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. For functional classification, 24 493 unigenes were assigned to Gene Ontology terms. Additionally, EuKaryotic Ortholog Groups and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses assigned 12 028 unigenes to 26 categories and 7 849 unigenes to five pathways, respectively. Comparative transcriptomics analysis identified 3 800 unigenes that were differentially expressed in the Cd-treated group compared with the control group. Among them, genes associated with heavy metal accumulation were screened, including metallothionein, divalent metal transporter, and metal tolerance protein. The functional genes and predicted pathways identified in our study will contribute to a better understanding of the metabolic and immune system in the digestive gland of C. farreri. In addition, the transcriptomic data will provide a comprehensive resource that may contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms that respond to marine pollutants in bivalves.

  17. Comparative transcriptomics reveals genes involved in metabolic and immune pathways in the digestive gland of scallop Chlamys farreri following cadmium exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhai, Yuxiu; Yao, Lin; Jiang, Yanhua; Li, Fengling

    2016-05-01

    Chlamys farreri is an economically important mollusk that can accumulate excessive amounts of cadmium (Cd). Studying the molecular mechanism of Cd accumulation in bivalves is difficult because of the lack of genome background. Transcriptomic analysis based on high-throughput RNA sequencing has been shown to be an efficient and powerful method for the discovery of relevant genes in non-model and genome reference-free organisms. Here, we constructed two cDNA libraries (control and Cd exposure groups) from the digestive gland of C. farreri and compared the transcriptomic data between them. A total of 227 673 transcripts were assembled into 105 071 unigenes, most of which shared high similarity with sequences in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. For functional classification, 24 493 unigenes were assigned to Gene Ontology terms. Additionally, EuKaryotic Ortholog Groups and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses assigned 12 028 unigenes to 26 categories and 7 849 unigenes to five pathways, respectively. Comparative transcriptomics analysis identified 3 800 unigenes that were differentially expressed in the Cd-treated group compared with the control group. Among them, genes associated with heavy metal accumulation were screened, including metallothionein, divalent metal transporter, and metal tolerance protein. The functional genes and predicted pathways identified in our study will contribute to a better understanding of the metabolic and immune system in the digestive gland of C. farreri. In addition, the transcriptomic data will provide a comprehensive resource that may contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms that respond to marine pollutants in bivalves.

  18. Study on the association between environmental cadmium exposure, cytochrome P450-mediated 20-HETE, heme-oxygenase-1 polymorphism and hypertension in Thai population residing in a malaria endemic areas with cadmium pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonprasert, Kanyarat; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; Satarug, Soisungwan; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2011-05-01

    The aims of the study were to investigate (i) the effects of environmental cadmium (Cd) on hypertension, biological markers of renal dysfunction and renal cytochrome P450-mediated arachidonate metabolism; and (ii) the association between genetic polymorphism of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hypertension and Cd-induced renal injury in the exposed Thai population. The study was conducted in adult subjects residing in Cd-contaminated malaria endemic areas of Mae Sot District, Thailand. All subjects were randomly selected and consistently distributed for sex, age and residential areas. Blood and urinary Cd levels were not significantly different between the case (hypertensive) and control (matched-pair normotensive) groups. While other renal dysfunction biomarkers were comparable between the two groups, urinary microalbumin, urinary 20-hydroxy-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and serum creatinine were siginificantly higher in the hypertensive group. Only N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG) showed positive correlation with Cd in hypertensive and normotensive group. With respect to heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) polymorphism, the frequencies of (GT)(n) alleles were similar in both case and control groups. The frequency of SL genotype was significantly higher in the control group, whereas the frequency of ML genotype was significantly higher in the case group. Although no significant difference between 20-HETE and NAG levels in various HO-1 genotypes was found, a trend of increase in 20-HETE and NAG levels was observed in subjects carrying longer (GT)(n) repeats. Results from the present study provide no clear evidence on the direct effects of environmental Cd on high blood pressure development in the non-occupational exposed Thai population. Furthermore, the indirect effect of Cd through HO-1 (genetic polymorphism and prevalence of long GT(n) repeats) and 20-HETE was inconclusive. Based on the data obtained in the present investigation further studies should be performed

  19. The role of lead and cadmium in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orish Ebere Orisakwe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are associated with long-term disability and huge social and economic costs. The possible influence of heavy metals exposure on public health remains a matter of concern. A recurring research question that persisted among researchers in neuropsychiatry has been "are psychiatric patients more likely to have a high body burden of lead or other heavy metals?" This is an update account on the role of lead and cadmium in psychiatry. This review, which has employed search words like "lead and cadmium in psychiatry" , "lead and cadmium in schizophrenia", "lead and cadmium in psychosis" in citation indices such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Scirus, and Scopus. A total of 415 articles were found; 60 fulfiled the inclusion criteria. Evidence-based information suggests that lead and cadmium may be involved in psychiatry. Should environmental lead and cadmium be implicated in the etiogenesis of psychiatry given the characteristic high environmental pollution in Sub Sahara Africa, it is worthwhile for toxicologists and scientists in Sub-Sahara Africa to investigate if lead and cadmium can become additional biomarkers in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders.

  20. The L1 Retrotranspositional Stimulation by Particulate and Soluble Cadmium Exposure is Independent of the Generation of DNA Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid M. Roy-Engel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to toxic metals is a concern of the highest priority, due to their vast array of biological effects, including carcinogenicity. The particulate (water insoluble form of several heavy metals presents a higher carcinogenic potential than its soluble counterparts. Our previous work demonstrates that the particulate forms of different heavy metals, such as nickel oxide, cadmium sulfide and mercury sulfide, stimulate human L1 mobile element activity leading to genomic instability. We present data demonstrating that the soluble form of CdCl2 also stimulates L1 retrotransposition in a dose-dependent manner comparable to the insoluble carcinogenic form of this compound. Reproducible results demonstrated a 2 to 3 fold dose-dependent increase in L1 retrotransposition compared to control cells. Heavy metals may cause DNA breaks through the generation of reactive oxygen species. However, evaluation of DNA damage by comet assay revealed no differences between the negative controls and the CdS-treated cells. In addition, active L1 elements express a protein with endonuclease activity that can generate toxicity through the creation of double strand breaks. To determine the contribution of the L1 endonuclease to the toxicity observed in our metal treatment assays, we compared the wildtype L1 vector with an L1 endonuclease-mutant vector. The presence of an active L1 endonuclease did not contribute significantly to the toxicity observed in any of the CdCl2 or CdS doses evaluated. No correlation between the creation of DNA breaks and L1 activity was observed. Alternatively, heavy metals inhibit enzymatic reactions by displacement of cofactors such as Zn and Mg from enzymes. Concomitant treatment with Mg(Ac2 and Zn(Ac2 ppb suppresses the stimulatory effect on L1 activity induced by the 3.8 ppb CdS treatment. Overall, these results are consistent with our previous observations, suggesting that the mechanism of L1 stimulation by heavy metals is most

  1. Comparative sensitivity of juvenile and adult Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca: Hydrobiidae) under chronic exposure to cadmium and tributyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Katharina; Geiß, Cornelia; Ostermann, Sina; Theis, Christina; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2016-07-28

    To investigate a potential extension of a partial life cycle test protocol to a full life cycle test design, a comparative sensitivity analysis with juvenile and adult Potamopyrgus antipodarum was performed. Neonates and adult snails were exposed to the metal cadmium (Cd) and the endocrine disruptor tributyltin (TBT) at nominal concentrations ranging from 1.56 to 50 μg Cd/L and from 25 to 1,000 ng TBT-Sn/L. The experiments were performed over 28 days at 16°C in a semi-static test design. Mortality was assessed for both life stages. Juvenile snails' specific growth rate and reproduction of adults were investigated as main endpoints. We determined effects on snails' survival, juvenile growth and embryo numbers in the brood pouch of adult snails under exposure to both chemicals. Juvenile control mortality was between 25% and 30% and significantly higher than in the control groups with adult snails. A higher sensitivity of juvenile snails compared to adults was observed for the endpoint mortality. Calculated LC50 in Cd exposed snails was 38.2 μg/L for adults and 15.0 μg/L for juvenile snails. Significant effects on mortality in TBT exposed adult snails occurred at the highest test concentration only with a LC50 of 535 ng Sn/L. Juvenile survival was significantly affected at 50.8 ng Sn/L and higher concentrations. Effect concentrations for the main endpoints reproduction and juvenile growth show comparable sensitivities. For Cd exposed groups, EC50 values were 11.3 μg/L for the endpoint reproduction in adult snails and 3.82 μg/L for juvenile growth with overlapping confidence intervals. TBT also significantly affected juvenile snails' growth (EC50: 178 ng Sn /L). EC50 for embryo numbers was 125 ng TBT-Sn/L. Results indicate the manageability of a FLC test starting with newly hatched snails. Precautions have to be taken to guarantee a sufficient number of surviving snails until adulthood so that reproduction can be assessed. For final decision for the

  2. Low-Level Cadmium Exposure Is Associated With Decreased Bone Mineral Density and Increased Risk of Incident Fractures in Elderly Men: The MrOS Sweden Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Maria; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Lundh, Thomas; Karlsson, Magnus K; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Mellström, Dan

    2016-04-01

    One risk factor for osteoporosis that has attracted increasing attention in recent years is exposure to cadmium. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between low-level cadmium exposure, from diet and smoking, and bone mineral density (BMD) and incident fractures in elderly men. The study population consisted of 936 men from the Swedish cohort of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, aged 70 to 81 years at inclusion (years 2002 to 2004), with reliable data on cadmium in urine (U-Cd) analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in baseline samples. The participants also answered a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and medical history. BMD was measured at baseline using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the total body, hip, and lumbar spine. During the follow-up period (until 2013), all new fractures were registered by date and type. Associations between BMD and U-Cd were assessed using multiple linear regression, and associations between incident fractures and baseline U-Cd were analyzed using Cox regression. In both cases, a number of potential confounders and other risk factors (eg, age, smoking, body mass index [BMI], and physical activity) were included in the models. We found significant negative associations between U-Cd and BMD, with lower BMD (4% to 8%) for all sites in the fourth quartile of U-Cd, using the first quartile as the reference. In addition, we found positive associations between U-Cd and incident fractures, especially nonvertebral osteoporosis fractures in the fourth quartile of U-Cd, with hazard ratios of 1.8 to 3.3 in the various models. U-Cd as a continuous variable was significantly associated with nonvertebral osteoporosis fractures (adjusted hazard ratio 1.3 to 1.4 per μg Cd/g creatinine), also in never-smokers, but not with the other fracture groups (all fractures, hip fractures, vertebral fractures, and other fractures). Our results indicate that even relatively low cadmium exposure

  3. Exposure of xenopus laevis tadpoles to cadmium reveals concentration-dependent bimodal effects on growth and monotonic effects on development and thyroid gland activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Xenopus laevis were exposed to 0-855 ??g cadmium (Cd)/l (measured concentrations) in FETAX medium from fertilization to 47 days postfertilization. Measurements included embryonic survival and, at 47 days, tadpole survival, snout-vent length, tail length, total length, hindlimb length, weight, Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage of development, initiation of metamorphic climax (??? NF 58), and thyroid follicle cell height. Embryonic and larval survival were unaffected by Cd. Relative to control tadpoles, reduced tail and total length were observed at 0.1- 8 and at 855 ??g Cd/l; and reduced snout-vent length, hindlimb length, and weight were observed at 0.1-1 and at 855 ??g Cd/l. Mean stage of development and rate of initiation of climax were unaffected by Cd at 0-84 ??g/l; however, none of the tadpoles exposed to 855 ??g Cd/l progressed beyond mid-premetamorphosis (NF 51). Thyroid glands with fully formed follicles were observed in all tadpoles ??? NF 49 examined. Follicle cell height was unaffected by Cd at 0-84 ??g/l but it was reduced at 855 ??g/l; in the latter, cell height was reduced even when compared with NF 49-51 tadpoles pooled from the 0 to 84 ??g Cd/l groups. In conclusion, (1) Cd affected tadpole growth in a bimodal pattern with the first and second inhibitory modes at concentrations below and above 84 ??g Cd/l, respectively; (2) exposure to high Cd concentrations (855 ??g/l) reduced thyroid activity and arrested tadpole development at mid-premetamorphosis; and (3) unlike its effect on growth, Cd inhibited tadpole development and thyroid function in a seemingly monotonic pattern.

  4. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  5. Pupillary light reaction during high altitude exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Schultheiss

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study aimed to quantify the pupillary light reaction during high altitude exposure using the state of the art Compact Integrated Pupillograph (CIP and to investigate a potential correlation of altered pupil reaction with severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS. This work is related to the Tübingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO study. METHODS: Parameters of pupil dynamics (initial diameter, amplitude, relative amplitude, latency, constriction velocity were quantified in 14 healthy volunteers at baseline (341 m and high altitude (4559 m over several days using the CIP. Scores of AMS, peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate were assessed for respective correlations with pupil dynamics. For statistical analysis JMP was used and data are shown in terms of intra-individual normalized values (value during exposure/value at baseline and the 95% confidence interval for each time point. RESULTS: During high altitude exposure the initial diameter size was significantly reduced (p<0.05. In contrast, the amplitude, the relative amplitude and the contraction velocity of the light reaction were significantly increased (p<0.05 on all days measured at high altitude. The latency did not show any significant differences at high altitude compared to baseline recordings. Changes in pupil parameters did not correlate with scores of AMS. CONCLUSIONS: Key parameters of the pupillary light reaction are significantly altered at high altitude. We hypothesize that high altitude hypoxia itself as well as known side effects of high altitude exposure such as fatigue or exhaustion after ascent may account for an altered pupillogram. Interestingly, none of these changes are related to AMS.

  6. Pupillary Light Reaction during High Altitude Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Andreas; Wilhelm, Barbara; Peters, Tobias; Fischer, M. Dominik; Zrenner, Eberhart; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Gekeler, Florian; Willmann, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to quantify the pupillary light reaction during high altitude exposure using the state of the art Compact Integrated Pupillograph (CIP) and to investigate a potential correlation of altered pupil reaction with severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS). This work is related to the Tübingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO) study. Methods Parameters of pupil dynamics (initial diameter, amplitude, relative amplitude, latency, constriction velocity) were quantified in 14 healthy volunteers at baseline (341 m) and high altitude (4559 m) over several days using the CIP. Scores of AMS, peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate were assessed for respective correlations with pupil dynamics. For statistical analysis JMP was used and data are shown in terms of intra-individual normalized values (value during exposure/value at baseline) and the 95% confidence interval for each time point. Results During high altitude exposure the initial diameter size was significantly reduced (p<0.05). In contrast, the amplitude, the relative amplitude and the contraction velocity of the light reaction were significantly increased (p<0.05) on all days measured at high altitude. The latency did not show any significant differences at high altitude compared to baseline recordings. Changes in pupil parameters did not correlate with scores of AMS. Conclusions Key parameters of the pupillary light reaction are significantly altered at high altitude. We hypothesize that high altitude hypoxia itself as well as known side effects of high altitude exposure such as fatigue or exhaustion after ascent may account for an altered pupillogram. Interestingly, none of these changes are related to AMS. PMID:24503770

  7. Cadmium hydroxide and oxide nanoporous walls with high performance photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yu-Cheng, E-mail: ychang0127@gmail.com

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Cd(OH){sub 2} nanowalls were directly grown on glass substrate by hydrothermal method. • The thicknesses of Cd(OH){sub 2} nanowalls can be effectively controlled by HMTA. • Cd(OH){sub 2} and CdO nanoporous walls exhibit very strong and broad emission properties. • Cd(OH){sub 2} and CdO nanoporous walls have exhibited very effective photocatalysts. • The two mixture nanoporous walls are beneficial for optoelectronic applications. - Abstract: Cadmium hydroxide nanowalls were directly grown on glass substrate by a hydrothermal method. The concentration of hexamethylenetetramine plays a crucial role for controlling the thicknesses of cadmium hydroxide nanowalls. A part of the cadmium hydroxide nanowalls can be converted to cadmium oxide nanoporous walls by annealing cadmium hydroxide in air at 350 °C for 1 h. Cadmium hydroxide and oxide nanoporous walls exhibited very strong and broad emission properties in the cathodoluminescence spectrum. Furthermore, cadmium hydroxide and oxide nanoporous walls can also provide a higher surface-to-volume ratio to result their higher photocatalytic performance in degradation of methylene blue.

  8. Epidemiological aspects of cadmium in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscator, M.

    1973-01-01

    Cadmium is highly toxic to man and it has an extremely long biological half-time. Under long-term low level exposure about one third of the total body burden is in the kidneys. In some European countries and USA mean renal cortical concentrations of cadmium 24-50 ppM wet weight at age 50 have been reported. In three areas in Japan the corresponding concentrations were 60 to 125 ppM wet weight. These normal concentrations have been thought to cause hypertension but so far epidemiological data are not available to support such a hypothesis. Renal tubular dysfunction may begin at a renal cortical concentration of about 200 ppM wet weight. In Japan extensive investigations have been carried out in several areas polluted by cadmium. Available data indicate that the prevalence of proteinuria is higher in the cadmium polluted areas and that the proteinuria is of the tubular type. Studies on dose-response relationships must include accurate and sensitive methods for the detection of low molecular weight proteinuria, which is an early sign in cadmium intoxication. 6 references, 1 table.

  9. Environmental exposures to lead, mercury, and cadmium among South Korean teenagers (KNHANES 2010-2013): Body burden and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook; Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho

    2017-07-01

    Limited information is available on the association of age and sex with blood concentrations of heavy metals in teenagers. In addition, factors such as a shared family environment may have an association. We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010-2013) to determine whether blood levels of heavy metals differ by risk factors such as age, sex, and shared family environment in a representative sample of teenagers. This study used data obtained in the KNHANES 2010-2013, which had a rolling sampling design that involved a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Our cross-sectional analysis was restricted to teenagers and their parents who completed the health examination survey, and for whom blood measurements of cadmium, lead, and mercury were available. The final analytical sample consisted of 1585 teenagers, and 376 fathers and 399 mothers who provided measurements of blood heavy metal concentrations. Male teenagers had greater blood levels of lead and mercury, but sex had no association with blood cadmium level. There were age-related increases in blood cadmium, but blood lead decreased with age, and age had little association with blood mercury. The concentrations of cadmium and mercury declined from 2010 to 2013. The blood concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury in teenagers were positively associated with the levels in their parents after adjustment for covariates. Our results show that blood heavy metal concentrations differ by risk factors such as age, sex, and shared family environment in teenagers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Biosorption of cadmium by Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 strain, a novel biosorbent isolated from hot-spring waters in high background radiation areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoudzadeh, Nasrin [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zakeri, Fardideh [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); National Radiation Protection Department - Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lotfabad, Tayebe bagheri [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharafi, Hakimeh [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masoomi, Fatemeh; Zahiri, Hoseein Shahbani; Ahmadian, Gholamreza [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari, E-mail: Akbari@nigeb.ac.ir [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation and characterization of a novel cadmium-biosorbent (Brevundimonas sp. ZF12) from high background radiation areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 caused 50% removal of cadmium at the concentration level of 250 ppm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solution pH values used for the reusability study have powerful desorptive features to recover Cd ions sorbed onto the biomass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first study carried out so far for the cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by a novel biosorbent Brevundimonas sp. ZF12. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In our opinion, the isolate can be an attractive alternative to remove the cadmium-containing wastewaters. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to screen cadmium biosorbing bacterial strains isolated from soils and hot-springs containing high concentrations of radium ({sup 226}Ra) in Ramsar using a batch system. Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 strain isolated from the water with high {sup 226}Ra content caused 50% removal of cadmium at a concentration level of 250 ppm. The biosorption equilibrium data are fitted well by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption follows pseudo second-order model. The effect of different physico-chemical parameters like biomass concentration, pH, cadmium concentration, temperature and contact time on cadmium sorption was also investigated using FTIR, SEM and XRD analytical techniques. A high desorption efficiency (above 90%) was obtained using a pH range of 2.0-4.0. Reusability of the biomass was examined under consecutive biosorption-desorption cycles repeated thrice. In conclusion, Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 is proposed as an excellent cadmium biosorbent that may have important applications in Cd removal from wastewaters.

  11. Dietary and waterborne exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, lead and zinc using a live diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mount, D.R.; Barth, A.K.; Garrison, T.D.; Barten, K.A.; Hockett, J.R. (ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Fort Collins, CO (United States))

    1994-12-01

    In two 60-d exposures, rainbow trout fry were fed brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) enriched with Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn both individually and as a mixture combined with As. Dietary concentrations fed to trout were selected based on metal concentrations measured in invertebrates collected from the Clark Fork River (CFR), Montana. In addition to dietary exposure, treatments also included simultaneous exposure to a mixture of waterborne metals at sublethal concentrations. Fish in all treatments showed increased tissue metal concentrations from water and/or dietary exposure. Despite these accumulations, trout showed no effects on survival or growth from dietary concentrations as high as 55 [mu]g Cd/g dry weight, 170 [mu]g Pb/g dry weight, or 1,500 [mu]g Zn/g dry weight. Dietary Cu concentrations up to 350 [mu]g Cu/g dry weight did not reduce survival or growth. Fish fed Cu concentrations higher than those typical of CFR invertebrates showed about 30% mortality with no effect on growth; waterborne Cu released from Artemia may have contributed to this mortality. Trout exposed to diets with a mixture of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and As close to that measured in CFR invertebrates showed lower weight than did control fish after 35 d, but this difference was no longer present after 60 d.

  12. Study of a high-resolution, 3D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Y; Levin, C S [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M, E-mail: cslevin@stanford.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2011-03-21

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm x 40 mm x 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06 {+-} 0.39% at 511 keV throughout most of the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44 {+-} 0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78 {+-} 0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes-as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system.

  13. Study of a high-resolution, 3D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y.; Matteson, J. L.; Skelton, R. T.; Deal, A. C.; Stephan, E. A.; Duttweiler, F.; Gasaway, T. M.; Levin, C. S.

    2011-03-01

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06 ± 0.39% at 511 keV throughout most of the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44 ± 0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78 ± 0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes—as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system.

  14. Study of a high-resolution, 3-D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3-D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06±0.39% at 511 keV throughout most the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44±0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78±0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes – as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system. PMID:21335649

  15. Cadmium - is it hazardous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zartner-Nyilas, G.; Valentin, H.; Schaller, K.H.; Schiele, R.

    1983-01-01

    The report summarizes the state of knowledge and experience on cadmium. Biological, toxicological and epidemiological data have been evaluated. Cd pollution of the environment is reviewed under the aspect of human health. Uptake in food, threshod values of Cd exposure of the population, types and extent of health hazards, possible carcinogenic effects and future fields of research are discussed.

  16. Cross-adaptation to cadmium stress in Plantago ovata by pre-exposure to low dose of gamma rays: Effects on metallothionein and metal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Nirmalya; Talapatra, Shonima; Talukder, Pratik; Sengupta, Mandar; Ray, Suman Kumar; Chakraborty, Anindita; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the effects of gamma pre-exposure on cadmium accumulation in Plantago ovata seedlings. Metallothionein (MT) localization was also studied following Cadmium (Cd) treatment in P. ovata. DNA damage was determined by alkaline comet assay. MT gene and protein expression were studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry, respectively, in root and shoot tissues. Metal accumulation (Cd, zinc [Zn], iron [Fe]) was evaluated by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Cd treatment decreased seed germination rate, biomass and free radical scavenging activity and increased DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. When P. ovata seeds were pre- exposed to 5 Gy gamma dose (prior to Cd treatment) seed germination rate, biomass and free radical scavenging activity increased significantly. MT genes (PoMT1, PoMT2 and PoMT3) and MT protein expression enhanced when 5 Gy gamma-irradiated seeds were grown in Cd containing medium and Cd accumulation also increased in a dose-dependent manner. Higher Cd accumulation in P. ovata seedlings may be attributed to the upregulation of PoMT genes in gamma pretreated seedlings. Localization of metallothionein in cytosol and nucleus indicated its positive role against Cd-mediated cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.

  17. Simulation study comparing high-purity germanium and cadmium zinc telluride detectors for breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D. L.; Peterson, T. E.

    2014-11-01

    We conducted simulations to compare the potential imaging performance for breast cancer detection with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) systems with 1% and 3.8% energy resolution at 140 keV, respectively. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) simulation package, we modelled both 5 mm-thick CZT and 10 mm-thick HPGe detectors with the same parallel-hole collimator for the imaging of a breast/torso phantom. Simulated energy spectra were generated, and planar images were created for various energy windows around the 140 keV photopeak. Relative sensitivity and scatter and the torso fractions were calculated along with tumour contrast and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Simulations showed that utilizing a ±1.25% energy window with an HPGe system better suppressed torso background and small-angle scattered photons than a comparable CZT system using a -5%/+10% energy window. Both systems provided statistically similar contrast and SNR, with HPGe providing higher relative sensitivity. Lowering the counts of HPGe images to match CZT count density still yielded equivalent contrast between HPGe and CZT. Thus, an HPGe system may provide equivalent breast imaging capability at lower injected radioactivity levels when acquiring for equal imaging time.

  18. Does oral exposure to cadmium and lead mediate susceptibility to colitis? The dark-and-bright sides of heavy metals in gut ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Jérôme; Daniel, Catherine; Vignal, Cécile; Body-Malapel, Mathilde; Garat, Anne; Plé, Coline; Foligné, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Although the heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are known environmental health concerns, their long-term impacts on gut ecology and susceptibility to gastrointestinal autoimmune diseases have not been extensively investigated. We sought to determine whether subchronic oral exposure to Cd or Pb is a risk factor for the development and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Mice were exposed to various doses of CdCl2 or PbCl2 in drinking water for 1, 4 or 6 weeks prior to infection with Salmonella, the induction of colitis with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). In human cell-based models, exposure to Cd and Pb is associated with reduced transepithelial electric resistance and changes in bacteria-induced cytokine responses. Although 1- and 6-week exposures did not have clear effects on the response to Salmonella infectious challenges, 1-week short-term treatments with CdCl2 tended to enhance intestinal inflammation in mice. Unexpectedly, subchronic exposure to Cd and (to a lesser extent) Pb significantly mitigated some of the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis and reduced the severity of TNBS colitis in a dose-dependent manner. The possible adaptive and immunosuppressive mechanisms by which heavy metals might reduce intestinal inflammation are explored and discussed.

  19. Is cadmium hazardous to health. Cadmium - ein Gesundheitsrisiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zartner-Nyilas, G.; Valentin, H.; Schaller, K.H.; Schiele, R.

    1983-01-01

    This study entitled ''Is cadmium hazardous to health'' summarizes the current state of knowledge on and experience with cadmium. The authors have made efforts to take into account the more recent literature relating to cadmium. The data evaluated were, especially, biological, toxicological, and epidemiological ones. A principal object was to try to assess the importance of the presence of cadmium in the environment to man. The interest was focused on the uptake of heavy metals with food, danger thresholds for the cadmium exposure of the population, nature and extent of eventual damage to health including possible carcinogenous effects, and suggestions for further points of main emphasis in research. 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Cadmium levels in Europe: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jilang; Plant, Jane A; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Oates, Christopher J; Ihlenfeld, Christian

    2010-02-01

    In this study we used the Forum of European Geological Surveys geochemical baseline data to examine the distribution of cadmium (Cd) in Europe, with a particular reference to the international soil and water guideline values. The highest cadmium levels were found to occur in topsoil and to follow closely the distribution of P(2)O(5), suggesting that the contamination was from the use of rock phosphate fertilizer in intensive arable agriculture. In terms of human health impacts, food (up to several hundred microg/day) was found as the only major route of exposure to Cd for the non-smoking general population. It appeared that low levels of chronic exposure to Cd resulted in completely different human health impacts than those high levels that had caused the 'itai-itai' disease. Some correlations were suggested between cadmium levels and the age-adjusted prostate or breast cancer rates distributed in the European countries under study.

  1. Sex differences in shotgun proteome analyses for chronic oral intake of cadmium in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiharu Yamanobe

    Full Text Available Environmental diseases related to cadmium exposure primarily develop owing to industrial wastewater pollution and/or contaminated food. In regions with high cadmium exposure in Japan, cadmium accumulation occurs primarily in the kidneys of individuals who are exposed to the metal. In contrast, in the itai-itai disease outbreak that occurred in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama Prefecture in Japan, cadmium primarily accumulated in the liver. On the other hand, high concentration of cadmium caused renal tubular disorder and osteomalacia (multiple bone fracture, probably resulting from the renal tubular dysfunction and additional pathology. In this study, we aimed to establish a mouse model of chronic cadmium intake. We administered cadmium-containing drinking water (32 mg/l to female and male mice ad libitum for 11 weeks. Metal analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed that cadmium accumulated in the kidneys (927 x 10 + 185 ng/g in females and 661 x 10 + 101 ng/g in males, liver (397 x 10 + 199 ng/g in females and 238 x 10 + 652 ng/g in males, and thyroid gland (293 + 93.7 ng/g in females and 129 + 72.7 ng/g in males of mice. Female mice showed higher cadmium accumulation in the kidney, liver, and thyroid gland than males did (p = 0.00345, p = 0.00213, and p = 0.0331, respectively. Shotgun proteome analyses after chronic oral administration of cadmium revealed that protein levels of glutathione S-transferase Mu2, Mu4, and Mu7 decreased in the liver, and those of A1 and A2 decreased in the kidneys in both female and male mice.

  2. Protective effect of zinc against cadmium toxicity on pregnant rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZINO

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... Cadmium is a potent teratogen in laboratory animals, causing exencephaly when administered at early ... widespread environmental exposure to arsenic (As) and ... prevents several of the effects observed when cadmium.

  3. The long-term effect of cadmium exposure through food on the postnatal development of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber, 1780).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białońska, Dobrosława; Zakrzewska, Marta; Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna; Konior, Magdalena

    2002-01-01

    Cadmium is well known for its toxicity to the animal body. However, its effect on pregnancy and the development of young animals is still not well understood. This study examined such effects, using bank voles captured from the wild to make the results closer to those which could be expected in the natural environment. One group of animals was fed 7 microg g(-1) cadmium in the food, a second 35 microg g(-1), and a third no cadmium, as a control. The concentrations of cadmium in the whole bodies of young bank voles were determined on the 3rd, 5th, or 10th day of life. The cadmium level in the bodies of animals exposed to 35 microg g(-1) of cadmium was significantly higher than in those from either the control group or the group receiving 7 microg g(-1) of cadmium, which did not differ from each other. The cadmium level did not change with animal age in any of the study groups. Concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Fe were also determined in the whole body of young animals, as cadmium is known to disturb the metabolism of these essential metals through antagonistic activity. Both Cu and Fe levels were negatively correlated with cadmium concentrations, while a positive correlation was found between zinc and cadmium in the young animal bodies. Also found was higher offspring mortality in the group receiving 35 microg g(-1) of cadmium in food. There was no difference in young animal body weight between the study groups.

  4. The determination of cadmium, lead and vanadium by high resolution ICP-MS in Antarctic snow samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, F. [Joh. Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Trincherini, P. [European Union Joint Research Centre, Ispra, VA (Italy). Inst. of Environment

    2000-02-01

    Double focusing ICP-MS was successfully used in this research for the direct determination of the cadmium, lead and vanadium content of a set of Antarctic samples collected during the 11. Italian Expedition to Antarctica. For cadmium and lead measurements the low resolution mode was chosen since it ensured the highest ion sensitivity and it allowed the highest detection limits to be attained; in the case of vanadium the high resolution mode was used to solve the isobaric interference. As far as vanadium and cadmium are concerned by GFAAS coupled with different preconcentration procedures. The vanadium, cadmium and lead content measured in a riverine water reference material (SRLS-3) was found in agreement with the certified values. [Italian] Si e' utilizzato uno spettrometro ICP-MS a doppia focalizzazione per la determinazione diretta di cadmio, piombo e vanadio in una serie di campioni di neve antartica superficiale raccolta durante l'undicesima spedizione italiana in Antartide. Per le determinazioni di cadmio e piombo si e' scelta la procedura a bassa risoluzione, che ha garantito la piu' elevata sensibilita' ed ha permesso di ottenere limiti di determinazione migliori; nel caso del vanadio si e' utilizzata la procedura ad alta risoluzione che ha permesso di risolvere problemi di interferenza isobarica. Per quanto riguarda cadmio e vanadio, i risultati delle determinazioni mediante ICP-MS sono risultati in buon accordo con quelli ottenuti mediante GFAAS accoppiata a diverse procedure di preconcentrazione. Il contenuto di cadmio, piombo e vanadio misurato con le procedure sviluppate in un campione certificato di acqua di fiume (SRLS-3) e' risultato in accordo con i valori certificati.

  5. Effects of Maternal Exposure to Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles During Pregnancy on Maternal and Offspring Kidney Injury Markers Using a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Jason L; Edwards, Joshua R; Prozialeck, Walter C; Xiong, Judy Q; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) are pervasive in many areas of modern life, with little known about their potential toxicities. One commercially important NP is cadmium oxide (CdO), which is used to synthesize other Cd-containing NP, such as quantum dots. Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known nephrotoxicant, but the nephrotoxic potential of CdO NP remains unknown, particularly when exposure occurs during pregnancy. Therefore, pregnant CD-1 mice were used to examine the effects of inhaled CdO NP (230 μg CdO NP/m(3)) on maternal and neonatal renal function by examining urinary creatinine and urinary biomarkers of kidney injury, including kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Inhalation of CdO NP by dams produced a fivefold increase in urinary Kim-1 with no marked effect on urinary creatinine levels. Kim-1 mRNA expression peaked by gestational day (GD) 10.5, and NGAL expression increased from GD 10.5 to 17.5. In addition, histological analyses revealed proximal tubular pathology at GD 10.5. Neonatal Kim-1 mRNA expression rose between postnatal days (PND) 7 and 14, with mammary glands/milk being the apparent source of Cd for offspring. These studies demonstrate that, similar to what is seen with other Cd forms, Cd associated with inhaled CdO NP results in renal injury to both directly exposed dam and offspring. As commercial uses for nanotechnology continue to expand throughout the world, risks for unintentional exposure in the workplace increase. Given the large number of women in the industrial workforce, care needs to be taken to protect these already vulnerable populations.

  6. Data on HepG2 cells changes following exposure to cadmium sulphide quantum dots (CdS QDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Paesano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data included in this paper are associated with the research article entitled "Markers for toxicity to HepG2 exposed to cadmium sulphide quantum dots; damage to mitochondria" (Paesano et al. [1]. The article concerns the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of CdS QDs in HepG2 cells and the mechanisms involved. In this dataset, changes in expression levels of candidate genes are reported, together with details concerning synthesis and properties of CdS QDs, additional information obtained through literature survey, measures of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the glutathione redox state.

  7. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Jiang, Wei; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Yinglian; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Meng, Xianghong; Xu, Ying

    2014-03-01

    Bioaccumulation via growing cells is a potential technique for heavy metal removal from food materials. The cadmium bioaccumulation characteristics by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Z. rouxii displayed powerful cadmium removal ability at low cadmium concentrations, which mainly depended on the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. The percentage of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts obviously decreased with the increase of initial biomass and cadmium concentrations. Low pH and elevated concentrations of zinc and copper significantly decreased the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts but improved the cadmium tolerance and the cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of Z. rouxii. Cadmium removal of Z. rouxii was improved by zinc and copper conditionally. Z. rouxii that possessed more powerful cadmium tolerance and removal ability at low pH and high concentration of competing ions can be developed into a potential cadmium removal agent using in complex food environment in future.

  8. In vitro effects of simultaneous exposure to platinum and cadmium on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and DNA damage and potential protective effects of selenium and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariba, Blanka; Živković, Tanja; Gajski, Goran; Gerić, Marko; Gluščić, Valentina; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Peraica, Maja; Pizent, Alica

    2017-04-01

    Circulating platinum (Pt) is detectable in the blood of Pt-treated cancer patients for over a decade after the treatment. Prolonged exposure to Pt, in combination with adverse compounds from nutrition and lifestyle, such as cadmium (Cd), could increase the risk from second cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of simultaneous exposure to Cd- and Pt-compounds on oxidative and DNA damage and the possible protective effects of zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se). The aqueous solutions of PtCl4, CdCl2 × H2O, ZnCl2 and Na2SeO3 were added, alone or in combination, to whole blood and isolated erythrocytes to produce the final concentrations of 2000 μg/L of Pt, 8 μg/L of Cd, 100 μg/L of Se, and 1000 μg/L of Zn. The activity of copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione in whole blood was determined after 1 h exposure in in vitro conditions. The induction of DNA strand-breaks in human peripheral blood leukocytes was determined with the alkaline comet assay after 24 h exposure. Exposure to Pt and/or Cd decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and elevated DNA damage compared to control. A statistically significant change in the activity of both enzymes and in the induction of DNA strand-breaks was observed in the cells treated with Pt + Cd combination, while the addition of Se and/or Zn resulted in partial recovery of these effects. The results indicate that combined exposure to Pt and Cd could disrupt antioxidant protection of the organism and increase DNA damage, whereas Se and Zn could partially ameliorate these harmful effects.

  9. Whole-body aerosol exposure of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) induced hepatic changes in CD-1 male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanhong; Hu, Yabing; Liu, Shuyun; Zheng, Huiying; Wu, Xiaojuan; Huang, Zhengyu; Li, Hao; Peng, Baoqi; Long, Jinlie; Pan, Bishu; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2016-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are two prevalent contaminants in e-waste recycling facilities. However, the potential adversely health effect of co-exposure to these two types of pollutants in an occupational setting is unknown. In this study, we investigated co-exposure of these two pollutants on hepatic toxicity in CD-1 male mice through a whole-body aerosol inhalation route. Specifically, mice were exposed to solvent control (5% DMSO), Cd (8μg/m(3)), TBBPA (16μg/m(3)) and Cd/TBBPA mixture for 8h/day and 6days a week for 60 days. Hepatic changes include increased organ weight, focal necrosis, and elevated levels of liver enzymes in serum. These changes were most severe in mice exposed to TBBPA, followed by Cd/TBBPA mixture and Cd. These chemicals also led to suppressed antioxidant defensive mechanisms and increased oxidative stress. Further, these chemicals induced gene expression of apoptosis-related genes, activated genes encoding for phase I detoxification enzymes and inhibited genes encoding for phase II detoxification enzymes. These findings indicate that the hepatic damages induced by subchronic aerosol exposure of Cd and TBBPA may result from the oxidative damages caused by excessive ROS production when these chemicals were metabolized in the liver.

  10. Oral bioaccessibility and human exposure assessment of cadmium and lead in market vegetables in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ping; Li, Yingwen; Zou, Bi; Su, Feng; Zhang, Chaosheng; Mo, Hui; Li, Zhian

    2016-12-01

    A systematic investigation into cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations and their oral bioaccessibility in market vegetables in the Pearl River Delta region were carried out to assess their potential health risks to local residents. The average concentrations of Cd and Pb in six species of fresh vegetables varied within 0.09-37.7 and 2.3-43.4 μg kg(-1), respectively. Cadmium and Pb bioaccessibility were 35-66 % and 20-51 % in the raw vegetables, respectively, and found to be significantly higher than the cooked vegetables with 34-64 % for Cd and 11-48 % for Pb. The results indicated that Cd bioaccessibility was higher in the gastric phase and Pb bioaccessibility was higher in the small intestinal phase (except for fruit vegetables). Cooking slightly reduced the total concentrations and bioaccessibility of Cd and Pb in all vegetables. The bioaccessible estimated daily intakes of Cd and Pb from vegetables were far below the tolerable limits.

  11. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipic, Metka, E-mail: metka.filipic@nib.si [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-05-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  12. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoxi, E-mail: Xiaoxi.Li@agro.au.dk; Rubæk, Gitte H.; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-07-01

    For biomass combustion to become a sustainable energy production system, it is crucial to minimise landfill of biomass ashes, to recycle the nutrients and to minimise the undesirable impact of hazardous substances in the ash. In order to test the plant availability of phosphorus (P) and cadmium (Cd) in four biomass ashes, we conducted two pot experiments on a P-depleted soil and one mini-plot field experiment on a soil with adequate P status. Test plants were spring barley and Italian ryegrass. Ash applications were compared to triple superphosphate (TSP) and a control without P application. Both TSP and ash significantly increased crop yields and P uptake on the P-depleted soil. In contrast, on the adequate-P soil, the barley yield showed little response to soil amendment, even at 300–500 kg P ha{sup −1} application, although the barley took up more P at higher applications. The apparent P use efficiency of the additive was 20% in ryegrass - much higher than that of barley for which P use efficiencies varied on the two soils. Generally, crop Cd concentrations were little affected by the increasing and high applications of ash, except for relatively high Cd concentrations in barley after applying 25 Mg ha{sup −1} straw ash. Contrarily, even modest increases in the TSP application markedly increased Cd uptake in plants. This might be explained by the low Cd solubility in the ash or by the reduced Cd availability due to the liming effect of ash. High concentrations of resin-extractable P (available P) in the ash-amended soil after harvest indicate that the ash may also contribute to P availability for the following crops. In conclusion, the biomass ashes in this study had P availability similar to the TSP fertiliser and did not contaminate the crop with Cd during the first year. - Highlights: • Effects of four biomass ashes vs. a P fertiliser (TSP) on two crops were studied. • Ashes increased crop yields with P availability similar to TSP on P-depleted soil

  13. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K.; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Éva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda, E-mail: pal.magda@agrar.mta.hu

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Cd induces the salicylic acid metabolism in wheat. • Salicylic acid is synthesized via benzoic acid and/or ortho-hydroxy-cinnamic acid. • Cd tolerance can be explained by the highly induced glutathione metabolism. • Salicylic acid signalling is correlated with glutathione-related mechanisms. - Abstract: Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress.

  14. Screening of Trichoderma isolates for their potential of biosorption of nickel and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongmaithem, Nabakishor; Roy, Ayon; Bhattacharya, Prateek Madhab

    2016-01-01

    Fourteen Trichoderma isolates were evaluated for their tolerance to two heavy metals, nickel and cadmium. Three isolates, MT-4, UBT-18, and IBT-I, showed high levels of nickel tolerance, whereas MT-4, UBT-18, and IBT-II showed better tolerance of cadmium than the other isolates. Under nickel stress, biomass production increased up to a Ni concentration of 60ppm in all strains but then decreased as the concentrations of nickel were further increased. Among the nickel-tolerant isolates, UBT-18 produced significantly higher biomass upon exposure to nickel (up to 150ppm); however, the minimum concentration of nickel required to inhibit 50% of growth (MIC50) was highest in IBT-I. Among the cadmium-tolerant isolates, IBT-II showed both maximum biomass production and a maximum MIC50 value in cadmium stress. As the biomass of the Trichoderma isolates increased, a higher percentage of nickel removal was observed up to a concentration of 40ppm, followed by an increase in residual nickel and a decrease in biomass production at higher nickel concentrations in the medium. The increase in cadmium concentrations resulted in a decrease in biomass production and positively correlated with an increase in residual cadmium in the culture broth. Nickel and cadmium stress also influenced the sensitivity of the Trichoderma isolates to soil fungistasis. Isolates IBT-I and UBT-18 were most tolerant to fungistasis under nickel and cadmium stress, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Subcellular partitioning of cadmium in the freshwater bivalve, Pyganodon grandis, after separate short-term exposures to waterborne or diet-borne metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Sophie; Hare, Landis [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C., E-mail: peter.campbell@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The dynamics of cadmium uptake and subcellular partitioning were studied in laboratory experiments conducted on Pyganodon grandis, a freshwater unionid bivalve that shows promise as a biomonitor for metal pollution. Bivalves were collected from an uncontaminated lake, allowed to acclimate to laboratory conditions ({>=}25 days), and then either exposed to a low, environmentally relevant, concentration of dissolved Cd (5 nM; 6, 12 and 24 h), or fed Cd-contaminated algae ({approx}70 nmol Cd g{sup -1} dry weight; 4 x 4 h). In this latter case, the bivalves were allowed to depurate for up to 8 days after the end of the feeding phase. As anticipated, the gills were the main target organ during the aqueous Cd exposure whereas the intestine was the initial site of Cd accumulation during the dietary exposure; during the subsequent depuration period, the dietary Cd accumulated in both the digestive gland and in the gills. For the gills, the distribution of Cd among the subcellular fractions (i.e., granules > heat-denatured proteins (HDP) {approx} heat-stable proteins (HSP) > mitochondria {approx} lysosomes + microsomes) was insensitive to the exposure route; both waterborne and diet-borne Cd ended up largely bound to the granule fraction. The subcellular distribution of Cd in the digestive gland differed markedly from that in the gills (HDP > HSP {approx} granules {approx} mitochondria > lysosomes + microsomes), but as in the case of the gills, this distribution was relatively insensitive to the exposure route. For both the gills and the digestive gland, the subcellular distributions of Cd differed from those observed in native bivalves that are chronically exposed to Cd in the field - in the short-term experimental exposures of P. grandis, metal detoxification was less effective than in chronically exposed native bivalves.

  16. Whole-body aerosol exposure of cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) induced hepatic changes in CD-1 male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuanhong; Hu, Yabing; Liu, Shuyun; Zheng, Huiying; Wu, Xiaojuan; Huang, Zhengyu; Li, Hao; Peng, Baoqi; Long, Jinlie [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Pan, Bishu [Taizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Taizhou 318000 (China); Huang, Changjiang, E-mail: cjhuang5711@163.com [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Dong, Qiaoxiang, E-mail: dqxdong@163.com [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Hepatotoxicity of TBBPA and Cd aerosol co-exposure was evaluated in CD-1 male mice. • Hepatic changes include focal necrosis, increased organ weight, and elevated enzymes. • TBBPA group exhibited highest hepatic toxicity followed by co-exposure and Cd groups. • We did not observe any synergistic effect of hepatic toxicity between TBBPA and Cd. • TBBPA/Cd suppressed antioxidant defensive mechanisms and increased oxidative stress. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are two prevalent contaminants in e-waste recycling facilities. However, the potential adversely health effect of co-exposure to these two types of pollutants in an occupational setting is unknown. In this study, we investigated co-exposure of these two pollutants on hepatic toxicity in CD-1 male mice through a whole-body aerosol inhalation route. Specifically, mice were exposed to solvent control (5% DMSO), Cd (8 μg/m{sup 3}), TBBPA (16 μg/m{sup 3}) and Cd/TBBPA mixture for 8 h/day and 6 days a week for 60 days. Hepatic changes include increased organ weight, focal necrosis, and elevated levels of liver enzymes in serum. These changes were most severe in mice exposed to TBBPA, followed by Cd/TBBPA mixture and Cd. These chemicals also led to suppressed antioxidant defensive mechanisms and increased oxidative stress. Further, these chemicals induced gene expression of apoptosis-related genes, activated genes encoding for phase I detoxification enzymes and inhibited genes encoding for phase II detoxification enzymes. These findings indicate that the hepatic damages induced by subchronic aerosol exposure of Cd and TBBPA may result from the oxidative damages caused by excessive ROS production when these chemicals were metabolized in the liver.

  17. Insulin Expression in Rats Exposed to Cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of cadmium exposure on insulin expression in rats. Methods Eighteen adult SD assessed. The levels of cadmium and zinc in pancreas, blood and urine glucose, serum insulin and urine NAG (N-acyetyl-β-glucosaminidase) were determined. The gene expressions of metallothionein (MT) and insulin were also measured,and the oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were carried out. Results The contents of cadmium in pancreas in cadmium-treated rats were higher than that in the control group, which was associated with slight increase of zinc in pancreas.not change significantly after cadmium administration, and the UNAG had no change in Cd-treated group. The gene expression the change of the expression of insulin, MT-Ⅰ and MT-Ⅱ genes. Cadmium can influence the biosynthesis of insulin, but does not induce the release of insulin. The dysfunction of pancreas occurs earlier than that of kidney after administration of cadmium.

  18. Influence of long-term exposure to dietary cadmium on growth, maturation and reproduction of goldfish (subspecies: Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio B.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbik, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)]. E-mail: rzbienia@kinga.cyf-kr.edu.pl; Mikolajczyk, T. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Socha, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Chyb, J. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Epler, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)

    2006-05-01

    The influence of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary cadmium (Cd) on its accumulation in tissues, growth, ovarian development, luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and a response to hormonal stimulation of spawning were evaluated. The study was conducted on four groups of females for the period of 3 years, from the age of 10 weeks to second spawning. Four doses of Cd were applied in the feed: 0 (control group), 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd g{sup -1} of feed (wet weight). The highest dose of Cd (10 mg g{sup -1}) inhibited growth and caused several behavioural effects. In contrast, lower dose of Cd (1 mg g{sup -1}) stimulated fish growth. The doses of Cd from 0.1 to 1 mg Cd g{sup -1} did not influence ovarian development. The gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries showed no differences in ovarian development between the control group and the groups receiving these doses of Cd. However, in the group receiving the highest Cd dose, GSI decreased. This was associated with persistent, long-lasting elevation of plasma LH levels. Ovulation did not occur in this group. Injections of salmon GnRH-analogue (sGnRHa) alone or with domperidone (a dopamine receptor antagonist) in sexually mature fish caused an increase of LH levels in all groups, although in the group fed with the highest Cd dose the effect was weaker than in the other groups. After the first spawning season, a negative effect of lower Cd doses (0.1 and 1 mg Cd g{sup -1}) on ovarian recrudescence (rebuilding of ovaries) and on the response to the consecutive hormonal stimulation of spawning was observed (lower number of ovulating females). There was a significantly higher content of Cd in the livers of fish than in their muscles. The results of hormonal stimulation of spawning and histological analysis of ovaries suggest that in goldfish cadmium acts mainly at the level of ovary rather than on the pituitary gland. We suppose that in the natural environment cadmium present in the feed can play an

  19. Urinary cadmium concentration and risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium is a toxic and persistent heavy metal with estrogenic activities. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies of the association between urinary cadmium concentration, a biomarker of cadmium exposure, and breast cancer risk. Studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase (to March 15, 2015) and by reviewing the reference lists of pertinent articles. Study-specific risk estimates were combined by using a random-effects model. We identified 2 cohort studies (with 67 breast cancer deaths) and 5 case-control studies and 1 cross-sectional study (with 1,416 cases and 5,083 controls) on urinary cadmium concentration in relation to breast cancer risk. The studies were published during the past 10 years (2006-2015). There was no consistent association between urinary cadmium and breast cancer mortality in the cohort studies. In case-control and cross-sectional studies, the pooled odds ratios were 2.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.50, 3.34; I(2) = 63.4%) for the highest versus lowest category of cadmium concentration and 1.66 (95% confidence interval: 1.23, 2.25) for each 0.5-µg/g creatinine increase of cadmium concentration. This meta-analysis suggests that a high cadmium exposure may be a risk factor for breast cancer, but large prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  20. DNA Damage of Lung Cells from Immature Cadmium-Ingested Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-feng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium on DNA damage of lung cells in immature animals. Seventy-two immature mice were randomly divided into twelve cadmium-ingested groups including low dose (1/100 LD50, 1.87 mg/kg BW, middle dose (1/50 LD50, 3.74 mg/kg BW, high dose (1/25 LD50, 7.48 mg/kg BW and control group, and exposed to cadmium chloride for 10, 20 and 30 days, respectively. Mice were sacrificed after cadmium exposure for different time, and lung cells were collected to investigate DNA damage by comet assay. The results showed that comet tailing ratio, tail length, comet length, tail moment, Olive tail moment and damaged grade of lung cells from immature mice increased along with increasing of cadmium exposure dose and time. In low dose group treated for 30 days, there was significance (P<0.05 in comet length or high significance (P<0.01 in other parameters compared with control group or low dose group treated for 10 days. When mice were exposed to cadmium at high dose for 30 days, DNA of lung cells was damaged most seriously. Our results indicate that cadmium can induce DNA damage of lung cells from immature mice in dose- dependent and time-dependent manners, and DNA will be damaged when immature mice exposed to cadmium for long time even at low dose. Meanwhile, comet assay can be considered as a powerful and sensitive biomarker assay in risk assessment of immature animals exposed to cadmium.

  1. Use and impact of usual intake models on dietary exposure estimate and risk assessment of chemical substances: a practical example for cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Sirot, Véronique; Busani, Luca; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Hulin, Marion

    2015-01-01

    To estimate of food and nutrient intakes, 24-h recalls are frequently used in dietary assessment. However intake data collected for a short period are a limited estimator of long-term usual intake. An important limitation of such data is that the within-person variability tends to inflate the intake distribution leading to a biased estimation of extreme percentiles. Statistical models, named usual-intake models, that separate the within-person variability from the between-persons variability, have lately been implemented. The main objectives of this study were to highlight the potential impact that usual-intake models can have on exposure estimate and risk assessment and to point out which are the key aspects to be considered in order to run these models properly and be sure to interpret the output correctly. To achieve the goal we used the consumption data obtained by the French dietary survey INCA2 and the concentration data collected during the French TDS2, using Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software, release 8.0. For the three substances included in this study (cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites), the exposure of the upper percentiles was significantly reduced when using usual-intake models in comparison with the results obtained in the observed individual mean models, even if in terms of risk assessment the impact of using usual-intake models was limited. From the results it appears that the key aspects to consider when using usual-intake models are: (1) the normality of the log-transformed intake distribution, (2) the contribution per single food group to the total exposure, and (3) the independency of food consumption data on multiple days. In conclusion, usual-intake models may have an impact on exposure estimates although, referring to the results, it did not bring any changes in terms of risk assessment, but further investigations are needed.

  2. Biomonitoring of the adverse effects induced by the chronic exposure to lead and cadmium on kidney function: Usefulness of alpha-glutathione S-transferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcon, Guillaume [LCE EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, 189A, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Leleu, Bruno [Laboratoire Universitaire de Medecine du Travail et Environnement, Faculte de Medecine - Pole Recherche, 01, place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Marez, Thierry [LCE EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, 189A, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Zerimech, Farid [Laboratoire de Biochimie et de Biologie Moleculaire, Hopital Huriez, 01, Place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Haguenoer, Jean-Marie [Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Sante Publique et Environnement, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 03, Rue du Pr. Laguesse, BP 83, 59006 Lille Cedex (France); Furon, Daniel [Laboratoire Universitaire de Medecine du Travail et Environnement, Faculte de Medecine - Pole Recherche, 01, place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, Pirouz [LCE EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, 189A, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France)]. E-mail: Pirouz.Shirali@univ-littoral.fr

    2007-05-15

    A successful prevention of renal diseases induced by occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and/or cadmium (Cd) largely relies on the capability to detect nephrotoxic effects at a stage when they are still reversible or at least not yet compromising renal function. Hence, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the usefulness of a set of early biological markers of oxidative stress or nephrotoxicity for the biomonitoring of workers occupationally exposed to Pb and/or Cd in a non-ferrous metal smelter, and gender, age, socioeconomic status, smoking habits, and drug use-matched control individuals. In exposed subjects, mean levels of Pb in blood and urine were also 387.1 {+-} 99.1 {mu}g Pb/L (1.868 {+-} 0.478 {mu}mol Pb/L) and 217.7 {+-} 117.7 {mu}g Pb/g creatinine (1.051 {+-} 0.568 {mu}mol Pb/g creatinine), and mean levels of Cd in blood and urine were 3.26 {+-} 2.11 {mu}g Cd/L (0.029 {+-} 0.019 {mu}mol Cd/L) and 2.51 {+-} 1.89 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine (0.022 {+-} 0.017 {mu}mol Cd/g creatinine), suggesting thereby relatively low occupational exposure levels. Statistically significant variations in zinc protoporphyrin, malondialdehyde, retinol binding protein, alpha-glutathione S-transferase, and urinary protein levels were reported between the two groups, and were closely correlated with Pb and/or Cd exposure levels. Variations in {alpha}GST levels were closely associated with Pb exposure. Taken together, these results suggest the use of alpha-glutathione S-transferase excretion in urine as a hallmark of early changes in the proximal tubular integrity.

  3. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.

  4. Enhanced hydrogen evolution rates at high pH with a colloidal cadmium sulphide–platinum hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Julian; Vaneski, Aleksandar; Susha, Andrei S.; Rogach, Andrey L., E-mail: andrey.rogach@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Centre for Functional Photonics (CFP), City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Pesch, Georg R.; Yang Teoh, Wey [Clean Energy and Nanotechnology (CLEAN) Laboratory, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate enhanced hydrogen generation rates at high pH using colloidal cadmium sulphide nanorods decorated with Pt nanoparticles. We introduce a simplified procedure for the decoration and subsequent hydrogen generation, reducing both the number of working steps and the materials costs. Different Pt precursor concentrations were tested to reveal the optimal conditions for the efficient hydrogen evolution. A sharp increase in hydrogen evolution rates was measured at pH 13 and above, a condition at which the surface charge transfer was efficiently mediated by the formation of hydroxyl radicals and further consumption by the sacrificial triethanolamine hole scavenger.

  5. Enhanced hydrogen evolution rates at high pH with a colloidal cadmium sulphide–platinum hybrid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Schneider

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate enhanced hydrogen generation rates at high pH using colloidal cadmium sulphide nanorods decorated with Pt nanoparticles. We introduce a simplified procedure for the decoration and subsequent hydrogen generation, reducing both the number of working steps and the materials costs. Different Pt precursor concentrations were tested to reveal the optimal conditions for the efficient hydrogen evolution. A sharp increase in hydrogen evolution rates was measured at pH 13 and above, a condition at which the surface charge transfer was efficiently mediated by the formation of hydroxyl radicals and further consumption by the sacrificial triethanolamine hole scavenger.

  6. Identification, characterization and expression profiles of Chironomus riparius glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes in response to cadmium and silver nanoparticles exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Prakash M. Gopalakrishnan [School of Environmental Engineering and Graduate School of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of Seoul, 90 Jeonnong-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jinhee, E-mail: jinhchoi@uos.ac.kr [School of Environmental Engineering and Graduate School of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of Seoul, 90 Jeonnong-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    In this study, we report the identification and characterization of 13 cytosolic GST genes in Chironomus riparius from Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) database generated using pyrosequencing. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses were undertaken with Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae GSTs and 3 Delta, 4 Sigma, 1 each in Omega, Epsilon, Theta, Zeta and 2 unclassified classes of GSTs were identified and characterized. The relative mRNA expression levels of all of the C. riparius GSTs (CrGSTs) genes under different developmental stages were varied with low expression in the larval stage. The antioxidant role of CrGSTs was studied by exposing fourth instar larvae to a known oxidative stress inducer Paraquat and the relative mRNA expression to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for various time intervals were also studied. All the CrGSTs showed up- or down regulation to varying levels based upon the concentration, and duration of exposure. The highest mRNA expression was noticed in Delta3, Sigma4 and Epsilon1 GST class in all treatments. These results show the role of CrGST genes in defense against oxidative stress and its potential as a biomarker to Cd and AgNPs exposure.

  7. Dietary cadmium intake and risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer in Danish postmenopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten T Eriksen

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a human lung carcinogen and possesses estrogen-like activity. This combination of carcinogenic and estrogenic activity makes cadmium a contaminant of high concern for hormone-related cancers. Diet and smoking are the main sources of cadmium exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary cadmium intake and risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer in Danish postmenopausal woman.We estimated dietary cadmium intake in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort at enrolment 1993-97. The estimates were based on food frequency questionnaires and cadmium contents in all foods. Among 23,815 postmenopausal women we identified 1390 breast, 192 endometrial, and 146 ovarian cancer cases from enrolment through December 31, 2010 using the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox regression was used to analyse the association between dietary cadmium intake and cancer risk.Mean dietary cadmium intake was 14 µg/day. Cadmium was not associated with breast cancer, incidence rate ratio (IRR = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.87-1.13 per 10 µg higher dietary cadmium intake/day; endometrial cancer, IRR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.76-1.53; or ovarian cancer, IRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.78-1.70. We found a positive association between cadmium and endometrial cancer for the women with BMI<25 (IRR = 1.50, 95% CI: 0.94-2.39, whereas an inverse association was seen for the women with BMI≥25 (IRR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.42-1.12; p value for interaction = 0.02.Our study does not indicate that our estimated dietary cadmium intake is associated with hormone-related cancers in women.

  8. Spray deposition of highly transparent fluorine doped cadmium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deokate, R.J.; Pawar, S.M.; Moholkar, A.V.; Sawant, V.S.; Pawar, C.A.; Bhosale, C.H. [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India); Rajpure, K.Y. [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: kyr_phy@unishivaji.ac.in

    2008-01-30

    The cadmium oxide (CdO) and F:CdO films have been deposited by spray pyrolysis method using cadmium acetate and ammonium fluoride as precursors for Cd and F ions, respectively. The effect of temperature and F doping on the structural, morphological, optical and Hall effect properties of sprayed CdO thin films was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical absorption and electrical measurement techniques. TGA and DTA studies, indicates the formation of CdO by decomposition of cadmium acetate after 250 deg. C. XRD patterns reveal that samples are polycrystalline with cubic structure and exhibits (2 0 0) preferential orientation. Considerable broading of (2 0 0) peak, simultaneous shifting of corresponding Bragg's angle have been observed with respect to F doping level. SEM and AFM show the heterogeneous distribution of cubical grains all over the substrate, which are randomly distributed. F doping shifts the optical gap along with the increase in the transparency of CdO films. The Hall effect measurement indicates that the resistivity and mobility decrease up to 4% F doping.

  9. Evaluation of phosphate fertilizers for the stabilization of cadmium in highly contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawornchaisit, Usarat; Polprasert, Chongrak

    2009-06-15

    The efficiency of three phosphate fertilizers including triple superphosphate (TSP), diammonium phosphate (DAP), and phosphate rock (PR) as stabilizing agents of cadmium-contaminated soils has been assessed in this study. Two types of assessment criteria, (a) the reduction of leachable cadmium concentration; and (b) the changes in Cd association with specific operational soil fraction based on the sequential extraction data, are used in the evaluation of stabilization performance of each fertilizer. Results of the study showed that after the 60-day stabilization, the leachable concentrations of Cd in PR-, DAP- and TSP- treated soils reduced from 306 mg/kg (the control) to 140, 34, and 12 mg/kg with the stabilization efficiency as TSP>DAP>PR. Results from the assessment of Cd speciation via sequential extraction procedure revealed that the soluble-exchangeable fraction and the surface adsorption fraction of Cd in the soils treated with PO(4) fertilizers, especially with TSP, have been reduced considerably. In addition, it is found that the reduction was correspondingly related with the increase of more stable forms of cadmium: the metal bound to manganese oxides and the metal bound to crystalline iron oxides. Treatment efficiency increased as the phosphate dose (based on the molar ratio of PO(4)/Cd) increased. In addition, it was observed that stabilization was most effective when using the molar ratio of PO(4)/Cd at 2:1 and at least 21-day and 28-day stabilization time for TSP and DAP, respectively.

  10. Serum Folate, Vitamin B-12, Vitamin A, γ-Tocopherol, α-Tocopherol, and Carotenoids Do Not Modify Associations between Cadmium Exposure and Leukocyte Telomere Length in the General US Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Sarah Jo; Robien, Kim; Zota, Ami R

    2017-04-01

    Background: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a biomarker of the aging process and is associated with the risk of chronic disease. Higher exposure to cadmium may be associated with shorter LTL, and adequate nutrient concentrations may be associated with longer LTL; however, the potential interaction between metals and nutrients on LTL has yet to be examined.Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum concentrations of vitamins and carotenoids were associated with LTL, and whether they modified the association between blood cadmium and LTL in the US NHANES (1999-2002).Methods: We evaluated cross-sectional associations between LTL and serum concentrations of vitamin A, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, folate, and vitamin B-12 (1999-2002; n = 7458) and α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, and lycopene (2001-2002; n = 4018) in a nationally representative sample of US adults (≥20 y of age) with the use of multivariable linear regression. We further investigated whether vitamin and carotenoid concentrations modified associations between blood cadmium and LTL with models stratified by serum nutrient concentrations and the inclusion of an interaction term.Results: Blood cadmium was inversely associated with LTL (percentage of LTL difference per 1 μg/L = -3.74; 95% CI: -5.35, -2.10). Serum vitamin A was positively associated (percentage of LTL difference per 1 μg/L = 4.01; 95% CI: 0.26, 7.90) and γ-tocopherol was inversely associated (percentage of LTL difference per 1 μg/dL = -2.49; 95% CI: -4.21, -0.73) with LTL. Serum folate (P-trend = 0.06) and α-tocopherol (P-trend = 0.10) were marginally positively associated with LTL, whereas vitamin B-12 (P-trend = 0.78) was not associated with LTL. Serum carotenoids were generally positively associated with LTL. Serum vitamin and carotenoid concentrations did not modify blood cadmium and LTL associations (P-interaction > 0.10).Conclusions: Results from this cross

  11. Biogeochemical cycling of cadmium isotopes along a high-resolution section through the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Tim M.; John, Seth G.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a bioactive trace element in the oceans, with a nutrient-like distribution that closely matches dissolved phosphate. Seawater-dissolved stable Cd isotope ratios (δ114Cd) are a relatively new parameter, which show much promise for furthering our understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of Cd in the oceans. Here we present a high-resolution paired section of dissolved Cd concentrations and dissolved δ114Cd from 21 open-ocean stations along the US GEOTRACES GA03 transect through the North Atlantic Ocean. Dissolved Cd concentrations along the section are strongly influenced by water-mass distribution and the cycling of Cd. The highest dissolved Cd concentrations (400-540 pmol kg-1) are associated with Antarctic-sourced water masses, whilst biological uptake in the surface ocean results in a strong vertical gradient in dissolved Cd towards the surface, reaching as low as 0.03 pmol kg-1 in western surface waters. Dissolved δ114Cd is also characterized by a vertical gradient from ∼+0.2‰ in the deep ocean to +2‰ to +5‰ in the Cd-depleted surface ocean (relative to NIST SRM 3108). This variability in δ114Cd can be ascribed to mixing of Antarctic and North Atlantic water masses, together with fractionation due to in situ biological uptake of light Cd in the very surface ocean. Subtle deviations from this overall pattern of dissolved Cd concentration and dissolved δ114Cd are observed within low-oxygen waters off North Africa, where a dissolved Cd deficit relative to phosphate is associated with higher dissolved δ114Cd values. Together with elevated particulate Cd and Ba, this suggests that Cd sulfide precipitation is occurring within the water column of the North Atlantic, constituting a potentially important sink for isotopically light Cd. Additionally, the first measurements of dissolved δ114Cd within a hydrothermal plume at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge show that Cd is scavenged from the dissolved phase, leaving the remnant dissolved Cd

  12. New precise determination of the high temperature unusual temperature dependent thermopower of liquid divalent cadmium and zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordanengo, B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Liquides et des Interfaces, 1 Boulevard Arago, 57 078 Metz Cedex 03 (France). E-mail: boris at lpli.sciences.univ-metz.fr; Ben Moussa, A.; Makradi, A.; Chaaba, H.; Gasser, J.-G. [Laboratoire de Physique des Liquides et des Interfaces, 1 Boulevard Arago, 57 078 Metz Cedex 03 (France)

    2000-04-17

    We do not know any precise measurement of the absolute thermopower (ATP) of liquid cadmium and zinc at high temperatures. For liquid cadmium, there are, in the literature, apparent contradictory results. Bath and Kliem and North and Wagner observed that the ATP increases with temperature between 350 deg. C and 650 deg. C, but Bradley observed the opposite behaviour between 600 deg. C and 750 deg. C. In this work we measured accurately the absolute thermopower of liquid cadmium from the melting point up to 900 deg. C. We find a maximum around 520 deg. C, and then the thermopower decreases down to a surprising negative value. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such an unusual behaviour is reported. Nevertheless, it is qualitatively consistent with all the authors mentioned and the apparent contradictory results should only be due to the different temperature ranges of measurements. Using the ATP expression from the Faber-Ziman formalism, we can fit very well the experimental absolute thermopower versus temperature curve with only one adjustable parameter. For this, we have considered that the temperature dependence of the ATP is dominated by the resistivity, and we have introduced the experimental resistivity temperature dependence in the ATP expression. The very good fitting quality demonstrates that our hypothesis is consistent. In contrast, the liquid zinc ATP only increases with temperature. Nevertheless, near 1100 deg. C, the highest temperature achieved, it shows saturation that may be an indication of a decrease at higher temperature. The same type of fitting gives also quite good results. (author)

  13. New precise determination of the high temperature unusual temperature dependent thermopower of liquid divalent cadmium and zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordanengo, B.; Ben Moussa, A.; Makradi, A.; Chaaba, H.; Gasser, J.-G.

    2000-04-01

    We do not know any precise measurement of the absolute thermopower (ATP) of liquid cadmium and zinc at high temperatures. For liquid cadmium, there are, in the literature, apparent contradictory results. Bath and Kliem and North and Wagner observed that the ATP increases with temperature between 350 °C and 650 °C, but Bradley observed the opposite behaviour between 600 °C and 750 °C. In this work we measured accurately the absolute thermopower of liquid cadmium from the melting point up to 900 °C. We find a maximum around 520 °C, and then the thermopower decreases down to a surprising negative value. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such an unusual behaviour is reported. Nevertheless, it is qualitatively consistent with all the authors mentioned and the apparent contradictory results should only be due to the different temperature ranges of measurements. Using the ATP expression from the Faber-Ziman formalism, we can fit very well the experimental absolute thermopower versus temperature curve with only one adjustable parameter. For this, we have considered that the temperature dependence of the ATP is dominated by the resistivity, and we have introduced the experimental resistivity temperature dependence in the ATP expression. The very good fitting quality demonstrates that our hypothesis is consistent. In contrast, the liquid zinc ATP only increases with temperature. Nevertheless, near 1100 °C, the highest temperature achieved, it shows saturation that may be an indication of a decrease at higher temperature. The same type of fitting gives also quite good results.

  14. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model-normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  15. Short-term metallothionein inductions in the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule after cadmium or mercury exposure: Discrepancy between mRNA and protein responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul-Pont, Ika, E-mail: i.paulpont@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Gonzalez, Patrice, E-mail: p.gonzalez@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Baudrimont, Magalie, E-mail: m.baudrimont@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Nili, Hanane, E-mail: h.nili@etu.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Montaudouin, Xavier de, E-mail: x.de-montaudouin@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France)

    2010-05-05

    Metallothioneins (MT) are essential metal binding proteins involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification in living organisms. Numerous studies have focused on MT response to metal exposure and showed an important variability according to species, metal, concentration and time of exposure. In this study, the expression of one isoform of MT gene (Cemt1) and associated MT protein synthesis were determined after 1, 3, 9, 24, 72 and 168 h of cadmium (Cd) or mercury (Hg) exposures in gills of the cockle Cerastoderma edule. This experiment, carried out in laboratory conditions, revealed that in Cd-exposed cockles, induction of Cemt1 is time-dependent following a 'pulse-scheme' with significant upregulation at 24 h and 168 h intersected by time point (72 h) with significant downregulation. MT protein concentration increases with time in gills of exposed cockles in relation with the progressive accumulation of Cd in soluble fraction. On contrary, Hg exposure does not lead to any induction of Cemt1 mRNA expression or MT protein synthesis compared to control, despite a higher accumulation of this metal in gills of cockles compared to Cd. The localization of Hg (85-90%) is in insoluble fraction, whereas MT was located in the cytoplasm of cells. This gives us a first clue to understand the inability of Hg to activate MT synthesis. However, other biochemical processes probably occur in gills of C. edule since the remaining soluble fraction of Hg exceeds MT sequestration ability. Finally, since one of the first main targets of metal toxicity in cells was the mitochondria, some genes involved in mitochondria metabolism were also analyzed in order to assess potential differences in cellular damages between two metal exposures. Indeed, until T{sub 168}, no impact on mitochondrial genes was shown following Hg exposure, despite the complete lack of MT response. This result indicated the presence of other effective cellular ligands which sequester the cytosolic fraction of

  16. Ultrastructural, Confocal and Viscoelastic Characteristics of Whole Blood and Plasma After Exposure to Cadmium and Chromium Alone and in Combination: An Ex Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle Venter

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Heavy metal pollution is increasing in the environment, contaminating water, food and air supplies. This can be linked to many anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals are absorbed through the skin, inhalation and/or orally. Irrespective of the manner of heavy metal entry in the body, the blood circulatory system is potentially the first to be affected following exposure and adverse effects on blood coagulation can lead to associated thrombotic disease. Although the plasma levels and the effects of cadmium (Cd and chromium (Cr on erythrocytes and lymphocytes have been described, the environmental exposure to heavy metals are not limited to a single metal and often involves metal mixtures, with each metal having different rates of absorption, different cellular, tissue, and organ targets. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the heavy metals Cd and Cr alone and whether Cr synergistically increases the effect of Cd on physiological important processes such as blood coagulation. Methods: Human blood was exposed to the heavy metals ex vivo, and thereafter morphological analysis was performed with scanning electron- and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM in conjunction with thromboelastography®. Results: The erythrocytes, platelets and fibrin networks presented with ultrastructural changes, including varied erythrocytes morphologies, activated platelets and significantly thicker fibrin fibres in the metal-exposed groups. CLSM analysis revealed the presence of phosphatidylserine on the outer surface of the membranes of the spherocytic erythrocytes exposed to Cd and Cr alone and in combination. The viscoelastic analysis revealed only a trend that indicates that clots that will form after heavy metal exposure, will likely be fragile and unstable especially for Cd and Cr in combination. Conclusion: This study identified the blood as an important target system of Cd and Cr toxicity.

  17. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  18. Cadmium and high temperature effects on brain and behaviour of Lymantria dispar L. caterpillars originating from polluted and less-polluted forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Petković, Branka; Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Dronjak Čučaković, Slađana; Todorović, Dajana; Vlahović, Milena

    2017-10-01

    Insects brain as a part of nervous system is the first-line of fast stress response that integrate stress signals to regulate all aspects of insect physiology and behaviour. The cadmium (Cd) bioaccumulation factor (BF), activity of the neurotoxicity biomarker acetylcholinesterase (AChE), dopamine content, expression and amount of Hsp70 in the brain and locomotor activity were evaluated in the 4th instar of Lymantria dispar L. caterpillars fed a Cd supplemented diet and reared in an optimal temperature regime (23 °C) and/or exposed to high temperature (28 °C). The insects originated from two forests, one close to "Nikola Tesla" thermoelectric power plant, Obrenovac (polluted population), and the other Kosmaj mountain (less-polluted population, far from any industrial region). The Cd BF was higher in the less-polluted than in the polluted population especially at the high ambient temperature. AChE activity and dopamine content were changed in the brains of L. dispar from both populations in the same manner. Hsp70 concentration in caterpillar brains showed opposite trends, a decrease in the less-polluted and an increase in the polluted population. Locomotor activity was modified in both Lymantria dispar populations, but the pattern of changes depended on the stressors and their combined effect. ACh activity and dopamine content are sensitive parameters to Cd exposure, regardless of pollutant experience, and might be promising biomarkers in monitoring forest ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Removal of cadmium by Lactobacillus kefir as a protective tool against toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbino, Esteban; Carasi, Paula; Tymczyszyn, E Elizabeth; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus kefir strains to remove cadmium cations and protect eukaryotic cells from cadmium toxicity. Lb. kefir CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818 were grown in a 1/2 dilution of MRS broth supplemented with Cd(NO3)2 ranging 0 to 1 mM. Growth kinetics were followed during 76 h at 30 °C by registering optical density at 600 nm every 4-10 h. The accumulated concentration of cadmium was determined on cultures in the stationary phase by atomic absorption. The viability of a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) upon exposure to (a) free cadmium and (b) cadmium previously incubated with Lb. kefir strains was evaluated by determining the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Lb. kefir strains were able to grow and tolerate concentrations of cadmium cations up to 1 mM. The addition of cadmium to the culture medium increased the lag time in all the concentrations used. However, a decrease of the total biomass (maximum Absorbance) was observed only at concentrations above 0.0012 and 0.0011 mM for strains CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818, respectively. Shorter and rounder lactobacilli were observed in both strains upon microscopic observations. Moreover, dark precipitates compatible with intracellular precipitation of cadmium were observed in the cytoplasm of both strains. The ability of Lb. kefir to protect eukaryotic cells cultures from cadmium toxicity was analysed using HepG2 cells lines. Concentrations of cadmium greater than 3×10(-3) mM strongly decreased the viability of HepG2 cells. However, when the eukaryotic cells were exposed to cadmium pre-incubated 1 h with Lb. kefir the toxicity of cadmium was considerably lower, Lb. kefir JCM 5818 being more efficient. The high tolerance and binding capacity of Lb. kefir strains to cadmium concentrations largely exceeding the tolerated weekly intake (TWI) of cadmium for food (2.5 μg per kg of body weight) and water (3 μg/l) addressed to human consumption, is an important added value when

  20. Role of cadmium in carcinogenesis with special reference to cancer of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscator, M

    1981-08-01

    It has been shown in animal experiments that injections of large amounts of cadmium cause sarcoma at injection sites or testicular damage and eventually testicular tumors. Long-term exposure with small doses of cadmium has not caused testicular or prostatic tumors in experimental animals. Epidemiological studies on cadmium-exposed workers have shown excess deaths due to prostatic cancer in at least three independent investigations. All reported cases probably had considerable exposure decades ago, but there are not enough data to permit any dose-response calculations. The general epidemiology of prostatic cancer was not taken into account in any of the studies. A review of recent literature on epidemiology of prostatic cancer has revealed some basic facts. Small latent prostatic cancer has been shown to be as common in areas with low mortality from prostatic cancer as in areas with high mortality. In the U.S. the black population has a much higher death rate from prostatic cancer than the white population. Marital status has also been implied as a factor in the development of prostatic cancer. Black populations in Africa have much lower death rates than blacks in the U.S., which may depend on large differences in dietary habits. Thus racial, sexual and nutritional factors might be important for the development of prostatic cancer, since they may influence hormonal status. Cadmium concentrations in testes and prostate increase during heavy exposure, and it has been shown that testosterone synthesis will decrease in cadmium-exposed animals. Excessive exposure may interfere with the zinc/hormone relationship in the prostate, which could be a possible explanation for the development of prostatic cancer in heavily exposed individuals. Direct action of cadmium on the cells is not likely, nor is it probable that low level exposure to cadmium can be a causative factor for prostatic cancer.

  1. Deletion of Phytochelatin Synthase Modulates the Metal Accumulation Pattern of Cadmium Exposed C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona J. Essig

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental metal pollution is a growing health risk to flora and fauna. It is therefore important to fully elucidate metal detoxification pathways. Phytochelatin synthase (PCS, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of phytochelatins (PCs, plays an important role in cadmium detoxification. The PCS and PCs are however not restricted to plants, but are also present in some lower metazoans. The model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, for example, contains a fully functional phytochelatin synthase and phytochelatin pathway. By means of a transgenic nematode strain expressing a pcs-1 promoter-tagged GFP (pcs-1::GFP and a pcs-1 specific qPCR assay, further evidence is presented that the expression of the C. elegans phytochelatin synthase gene (pcs-1 is transcriptionally non-responsive to a chronic (48 h insult of high levels of zinc (500 μM or acute (3 h exposures to high levels of cadmium (300 μM. However, the accumulation of cadmium, but not zinc, is dependent on the pcs-1 status of the nematode. Synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence imaging uncovered that the cadmium body burden increased significantly in the pcs-1(tm1748 knockout allele. Taken together, this suggests that whilst the transcription of pcs-1 may not be mediated by an exposure zinc or cadmium, it is nevertheless an integral part of the cadmium detoxification pathway in C. elegans.

  2. Deletion of Phytochelatin Synthase Modulates the Metal Accumulation Pattern of Cadmium Exposed C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Yona J.; Webb, Samuel M.; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental metal pollution is a growing health risk to flora and fauna. It is therefore important to fully elucidate metal detoxification pathways. Phytochelatin synthase (PCS), an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of phytochelatins (PCs), plays an important role in cadmium detoxification. The PCS and PCs are however not restricted to plants, but are also present in some lower metazoans. The model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, for example, contains a fully functional phytochelatin synthase and phytochelatin pathway. By means of a transgenic nematode strain expressing a pcs-1 promoter-tagged GFP (pcs-1::GFP) and a pcs-1 specific qPCR assay, further evidence is presented that the expression of the C. elegans phytochelatin synthase gene (pcs-1) is transcriptionally non-responsive to a chronic (48 h) insult of high levels of zinc (500 μM) or acute (3 h) exposures to high levels of cadmium (300 μM). However, the accumulation of cadmium, but not zinc, is dependent on the pcs-1 status of the nematode. Synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence imaging uncovered that the cadmium body burden increased significantly in the pcs-1(tm1748) knockout allele. Taken together, this suggests that whilst the transcription of pcs-1 may not be mediated by an exposure zinc or cadmium, it is nevertheless an integral part of the cadmium detoxification pathway in C. elegans. PMID:26907254

  3. Effects of Long-term exposure of Gelatinated and Non-gelatinated Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots on Differentiated PC12 cells

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prasad, Babu R

    2012-01-20

    Abstract Background The inherent toxicity of unmodified Quantum Dots (QDs) is a major hindrance to their use in biological applications. To make them more potent as neuroprosthetic and neurotherapeutic agents, thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped CdTe QDs, were coated with a gelatine layer and investigated in this study with differentiated pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells. The QD - cell interactions were investigated after incubation periods of up to 17 days by MTT and APOTOX-Glo Triplex assays along with using confocal microscopy. Results Long term exposure (up to 17 days) to gelatinated TGA-capped CdTe QDs of PC12 cells in the course of differentiation and after neurites were grown resulted in dramatically reduced cytotoxicity compared to non-gelatinated TGA-capped CdTe QDs. Conclusion The toxicity mechanism of QDs was identified as caspase-mediated apoptosis as a result of cadmium leaking from the core of QDs. It was therefore concluded that the gelatine capping on the surface of QDs acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic ions from the core QDs in the long term (up to 17 days).

  4. Experimental exposure to cadmium affects metallothionein-like protein levels but not survival and growth in wolf spiders from polluted and reference populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eraly, Debbie, E-mail: debbie.eraly@ugent.b [Terrestrial Ecology Unit, Department of Biology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Hendrickx, Frederik, E-mail: frederik.hendrickx@naturalsciences.b [Terrestrial Ecology Unit, Department of Biology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Department of Entomology, Vautierstraat 29, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Bervoets, Lieven, E-mail: lieven.bervoets@ua.ac.b [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Lens, Luc, E-mail: luc.lens@ugent.b [Terrestrial Ecology Unit, Department of Biology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    Both local adaptation and acclimation in tolerance mechanisms may allow populations to persist under metal pollution. However, both mechanisms are presumed to incur (energetic) costs and to trade-off with other life-history traits. To test this hypothesis, we exposed Pardosa saltans (Lycosidae) spiderlings originating from metal-polluted and unpolluted sites to a controlled cadmium (Cd) treatment, and compared contents of metal-binding metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs), internal metal concentrations, and individual survival and growth rates with a reference treatment. While increased MTLP concentrations in offspring originating from both polluted and unpolluted populations upon exposure indicates a plastic tolerance mechanism, survival and growth rates remain largely unaffected, independent of the population of origin. However, MTLP and Cd concentrations were not significantly correlated. We suggest that MTLP production may be an important mechanism enabling P. saltans populations to persist in ecosystems polluted with heavy metals above a certain level. - Spiders from metal-polluted and unpolluted populations show a similar increase in MTLP production when exposed to Cd, with unaffected growth and survival.

  5. Effects of long-term exposure of gelatinated and non-gelatinated cadmium telluride quantum dots on differentiated PC12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Babu R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inherent toxicity of unmodified Quantum Dots (QDs is a major hindrance to their use in biological applications. To make them more potent as neuroprosthetic and neurotherapeutic agents, thioglycolic acid (TGA capped CdTe QDs, were coated with a gelatine layer and investigated in this study with differentiated pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12 cells. The QD - cell interactions were investigated after incubation periods of up to 17 days by MTT and APOTOX-Glo Triplex assays along with using confocal microscopy. Results Long term exposure (up to 17 days to gelatinated TGA-capped CdTe QDs of PC12 cells in the course of differentiation and after neurites were grown resulted in dramatically reduced cytotoxicity compared to non-gelatinated TGA-capped CdTe QDs. Conclusion The toxicity mechanism of QDs was identified as caspase-mediated apoptosis as a result of cadmium leaking from the core of QDs. It was therefore concluded that the gelatine capping on the surface of QDs acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic ions from the core QDs in the long term (up to 17 days.

  6. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, Jane A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States)]. E-mail: jamcelroy@wisc.edu; Shafer, Martin M. [University of Wisconsin, Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 600 N Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hampton, John M. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Cancer Prevention Program, 1100 Fairview Ave N, M4-B402 PO Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration.

  7. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8082 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu

    2008-01-15

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction.

  8. Accumulation of dietary and aqueous cadmium into the epidermal mucus of the discus fish Symphysodon sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunder, Richard J., E-mail: richard.maunder@astrazeneca.com [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Buckley, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.buckley@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Val, Adalberto L., E-mail: dalval@inpa.gov.br [Department of Ecology, Laboratory of Ecophysiology and Molecular Evolution, INPA, Manaus (Brazil); Sloman, Katherine A., E-mail: katherine.sloman@uws.ac.uk [School of Science, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    The discus fish Symphysodon sp. is an Amazonian cichlid with a unusual form of parental care where fry obligately feed from parental mucus for the first few weeks of life. Here, we investigated the possible impact of environmental cadmium on this species, particularly with respect to mucus contamination. We exposed groups of fish to cadmium either through their food (400 mg kg{sup -1}) or through the water (3 {mu}g l{sup -1}) for 4 weeks, and measured tissue concentrations and ATPase activities at weekly intervals. Cadmium significantly accumulated in all tissues (except for muscle) after 7 days, and tissue concentrations increased until the end of the experiment. Significant alterations in ATPase activities of intestine and kidney were observed at day 7 and 14, but no alterations in gill ATPase activities occurred. The epidermal mucus showed a high accumulation of cadmium from both exposures, but particularly from the diet, indicating that dietary cadmium can be transferred from gut to mucus. Combining this data with approximations of fry bite volumes and bite frequencies, we constructed daily estimates of the cadmium that could potentially be consumed by newly hatched fry feeding on this mucus. These calculations suggest that feeding fry might consume up to 11 {mu}g g{sup -1} day{sup -1}, and hence indicate that this species' dependency on parental mucus feeding of fry could make them particularly susceptible to cadmium contamination of their native habitat.

  9. Phytotoxicity of cadmium on protein, proline and antioxidant enzyme activities in growing Arachis hypogaea L. seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Phytotoxicity of cadmium on growing Arachis hypogaea L. seedlings was studied. Seeds were exposed to 25, 50, and 100 μmol/L CdCl2 concentrations, for a period of 10, 15, 20 and 25 d. The extent of damage to chlorophyll, protein, proline, nitrate and nitrite reductase, antioxidant enzyme activity in leaves and roots were evaluated after 10 d of cadmium stress. The higher concentration of cadmium (100 μmol/L) resulted (leaves and roots) total chlorophyll 91.01%, protein 79.51%, 83.61%, nitrate reductase 79.39%,80.72% and nitrite reductase 77.07%, 75.88% activity decreased with increase in cadmium concentrations and exposure periods. Cadmium caused significant changes in the activity of antioxidative enzymes. Contrastingly Cd treated plant tissues showed an increase in proline 159.87%, 239.6%, gluthion reductase (GR) 337.72%, 306.14%, superoxide disumutase (SOD) 688.56%, 381.72%, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) 226.47%, 252.14%, peroxidase (POD) 72.19%, 60.29% and catalase (CAT) 228.96%, 214.74% as compared to control. Cadmium stress caused a significant increase in the rate of SOD activity in leaves and roots of plant species. Results show the crop A. hypogaea is highly sensitive even at very low cadmium concentrations.

  10. Protective Effect of Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala Fruit Extract against Oxidative Renal Damage Caused by Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warut Poontawee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium nephrotoxicity is a serious environmental health problem as it will eventually end up with end stage renal disease. The pathobiochemical mechanism of this toxic heavy metal is related to oxidative stress. This study investigated whether Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala fruit extract (CNFE could protect the kidney against oxidative injury caused by cadmium. Initial analysis of the extract revealed antioxidant abilities and high levels of polyphenols, particularly catechin. Its potential renal benefits was further explored in rats treated with vehicle, CNFE, cadmium (2 mg/kg, and cadmium plus CNFE (0.5, 1, 2 g/kg for four weeks. Oxidative renal injury was developed after cadmium exposure as evidenced by blood urea nitrogen and creatinine retention, glomerular filtration reduction, renal structural damage, together with increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, but decreased antioxidant thiols, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in renal tissues. Cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity was diminished in rats supplemented with CNFE, particularly at the doses of 1 and 2 g/kg. It is concluded that CNFE is able to protect against the progression of cadmium nephrotoxicity, mostly via its antioxidant power. The results also point towards a promising role for this naturally-occurring antioxidant to combat other human disorders elicited by disruption of redox homeostasis.

  11. Influence of cadmium on ketamine-induced anesthesia and brain microsomal Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Y.; Sangiah, S. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States))

    1994-10-01

    Cadmium is a rare metallic element, present in almost all types of food. Shellfish, wheat and rice accumulate very high amounts. Occupational and environmental pollutants are the main sources of cadmium exposure. Cadmium has a very long biologic half-life. Exposure to Cadmium causes anemia, hypertension, hepatic, renal, pulmonary and cardiovascular disorders as well as being a possible mutagen, teratogen and carcinogen. Acute cadmium treatment increased the hexobarbital sleeping time and inhibited hepatic microsomal drug metabolism due to a decrease in cytochrome P[sub 450] content. Cadmium potentiated ethanol-induced sleep in a dose-dependent manner. Cadmium has been shown to inhibit brain microsomal Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase activity in vitro and in vivo. Cadmium and ethanol additively inhibited brain Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase. This might be a direct interaction between cadmium and ethanol in the central nervous system. Ketamine is an intravenous anesthetic agent. It acts on central nervous system and produces [open quotes]dissociative anaesthesia.[close quotes] Ketamine provides adequate surgical anesthesia and is used alone in humans and/or combination with xylazine, an [alpha][sub 2]-adrenergic agonist in animals. It produces CNS depression, analgesia, amnesia, immobility and a feeling of dissociation from the environment. Ketamine is a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA subset of the glutamate receptor. This perhaps results in an increase in neuronal activity leading to disorganization of normal neurotransmission and produces dissociative anesthetic state. Because it is different from most other anesthetics, ketamine may be expected to have a unique effect on brain biochemical parameters and enzymes. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions between cadmium and ketamine on the central nervous system and ATPase, in an attempt to further understand the mechanism of action. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Long-term cadmium exposure leads to the enhancement of lymphocyte proliferation via down-regulating p16 by DNA hypermethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dexiao; Ye, Shuang; Pan, Yan; Bao, Yizhong; Chen, Honghong; Shao, Chunlin

    2013-10-09

    Cadmium (Cd) is a well-established carcinogen, however, the underlying mechanism, especially the role of epigenetics in it, is still poorly understood. Our previous work has disclosed that when rats were exposed to 0.5mg CdCl2 (kgd) for 8 and 12 weeks, the growth of peripheral white blood cells (WBC) was obviously stimulated but no over-proliferation of granulocyte-monocyte (GM) progenitor cells was observed in the bone marrow, suggesting that the over-proliferation of lymphocyte was promoted by Cd exposure. Is DNA-methylation involved in this Cd-stimulated cell proliferation? The present study found that when human B lymphoblast HMy2.CIR cells were exposed to Cd with a dose lower than 0.1μM for 3 months, both cell proliferation and mRNA expressions of DNA methyltransferases of DNMT1 and DNMT3b were increased, while the mRNA of tumor suppressor gene p16 was remarkably decreased. Furthermore, the level of genomic DNA methylation was increased and the CpG island in p16 promoter was hypermethylated in the Cd-exposed cells. A DNA demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), diminished Cd-stimulated cell proliferation associated with p16 overexpression. Our results suggested that the chronic exposure of low dose Cd could induce hypermethylation of p16 promoter and hence suppress p16 expression and then promote cell proliferation, which might contribute to Cd-induced carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of cadmium toxicity on renal epithelial cells using nuclear microprobe analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodja, Hicham E-mail: khodja@drecam.cea.fr; Avoscan, Laure; Carriere, Marie; Carrot, Francine; Gouget, Barbara

    2003-09-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic metal that causes well-known severe renal damages. Its toxicity is frequently investigated in vitro using numerous epithelial models. The accumulation and transport of cadmium in cultured renal epithelial cells has been studied by means of nuclear microscopy (micro-PIXE coupled with micro-RBS) for cell monolayer analyses, and by ICP-MS for culture medium analyses. Cell viability, measured by biochemical tests, was used as toxicity indicator. Dependence on cadmium concentration (1-100 {mu}M) and exposure time (1-24 h) was found. Micro-PIXE reveals a strong anti-correlation of intra-cellular cadmium concentration with zinc concentration, a biological metal, suggesting substitution mechanism of both metals.

  14. A paradox of cadmium: a carcinogen that impairs the capability of human breast cancer cells to induce angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Stefania; Punzi, Tiziana; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium, a highly persistent heavy metal, has been categorized as a human carcinogen. Even though it is known that cadmium acts as estrogens in breast cancer cells, several studies failed to demonstrate whether cadmium is a causal factor for breast cancer. The lack of a strong association between cadmium and breast cancer could be found in the antiangiogenic properties of this heavy metal, which might counteract its carcinogenic properties in the progression of breast cancer. In this study, we exposed estrogen-responsive breast cancer cells to subtoxic levels of cadmium, and we evaluated their angiogenic potential using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay. Exposure of breast cancer cells to subtoxic levels of cadmium significantly inhibited the angiogenic potential of the breast cancer cell line, suggesting the possibility that cadmium might negatively regulate the production of proangiogenic factors in breast cancer cells. Our results suggest that cadmium might exert a paradoxical effect in breast cancer: on the one hand, it could promote carcinogenesis, and, on the other hand, it could delay the onset of tumors by inhibiting breast cancer cell-induced angiogenesis.

  15. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H., E-mail: gdonovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Jovan, Sarah E., E-mail: sjovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Gatziolis, Demetrios, E-mail: dgatziolis@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Burstyn, Igor, E-mail: igor.burstyn@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Michael, Yvonne L., E-mail: ylm23@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Amacher, Michael C., E-mail: mcamacher1@outlook.com [USDA Forest Service, Logan Forest Sciences Laboratory, 860 North 1200 East, Logan, UT 84321 (United States); Monleon, Vicente J., E-mail: vjmonleon@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50 m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon–Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500 m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500 m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120 m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4 ng/m{sup 3}, which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6 ng/m{sup 3}, and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #2. - Highlights: • Bio-indicators are a valid method for measuring atmospheric pollutants • We used moss to map atmospheric cadmium in Portland, Oregon • Using a spatial linear model, we identified two

  16. Bioavailability and toxicity of trace metals to the cladoceran Daphnia magna in relation to cadmium exposure history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Rui

    The cladoceran Daphnia magna is widely used in freshwater bioassessments and ecological risk assessments. This study designed a series of experiments employing radiotracer methodology to quantify the trace metals (mainly Cd and Zn) biokinetics in D. magna under different environmental and biological conditions and to investigate the influences of different Cd exposure histories on the bioavailability and toxicity of trace metals to D. magna. A bioenergetic-based kinetic model was finally applied in predicting the Cd accumulation dynamics in D. magna and the model validity under non-steady state was assessed. Cd assimilation was found in this study to be influenced by the food characteristics (e.g., metal concentration in food particles), the metal exposure history of the animals, and the genetic characteristics. Some of these influences could be interpreted by the capacity and/or competition of those metal binding sites within the digestive tract and/or the detoxifying proteins metallothionein (MT). My study demonstrated a significant induction of MT in response to Cd exposure and it was the dominant fraction in sequestering the internal nonessential trace metals in D. magna. The ratio of Cd body burden to MT might better predict the Cd toxicity on the digestion systems of D. magna than the Cd tissue burden alone within one-generational exposure to Cd. It was found that metal elimination (rate constant and contribution of different release routes) was independent of the food concentration and the dietary metal concentration, implying that the elimination may not be metabolically controlled. The incorporation of the bioenergetic-based kinetic model, especially under non-steady state, is invaluable in helping to understand the fate of trace metals in aquatic systems and potential environmental risks. The dependence of biokinetic parameters on environmental factors rather than on genotypes implies a great potential of using biokinetics in inter-laboratory comparisons.

  17. SEC ICP MS and CZE ICP MS investigation of medium and high molecular weight complexes formed by cadmium ions with phytochelatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczak, Agata; Rosłon, Magdalena; Zbroja, Grzegorz; Brama, Katarzyna; Szalacha, Elżbieta; Gawrońska, Helena; Pawlak, Katarzyna

    2013-05-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were applied to characterize low, medium, and high molecular weight cadmium complexes with glutathione and phytochelatins (PCs). The dominant stoichiometry of the complexes formed in vitro was established as 1:1 using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Calculated molecular masses of Cd1L1 complexes were used for calibration of the SEC and CZE methods. The results showed a lower (2 kDa) SEC column exclusion limit for cadmium complexes compared with free peptides (10 kDa), and most of the high molecular weight cadmium species were eluted in the void volume of the column. Moreover, the CZE method based on the semiempirical model of Offord to elucidate peptide migration allowed us to show a high propensity of Cd-PC complexes for polymorphism on complexation, which was also observed for extracts of Arabidopsis thaliana treated with cadmium. All the information presented is vital for understanding the mechanism of metal deactivation in plants.

  18. Overexpression of phytochelatin synthase in Arabidopsis leads to enhanced arsenic tolerance and cadmium hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujing; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Carreira, Laura; Lee, David; Chen, Alice; Schroeder, Julian I; Balish, Rebecca S; Meagher, Richard B

    2004-12-01

    Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of phytochelatins, which are a family of cysteine-rich thiol-reactive peptides believed to play important roles in processing many thiol-reactive toxicants. A modified Arabidopsis thaliana PCS sequence (AtPCS1) was active in Escherichia coli. When AtPCS1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis from a strong constitutive Arabidopsis actin regulatory sequence (A2), the A2::AtPCS1 plants were highly resistant to arsenic, accumulating 20-100 times more biomass on 250 and 300 microM arsenate than wild type (WT); however, they were hypersensitive to Cd(II). After exposure to cadmium and arsenic, the overall accumulation of thiol-peptides increased to 10-fold higher levels in the A2::AtPCS1 plants compared with WT, as determined by fluorescent HPLC. Whereas cadmium induced greater increases in traditional PCs (PC2, PC3, PC4), arsenic exposure resulted in the expression of many unknown thiol products. Unexpectedly, after arsenate or cadmium exposure, levels of the dipeptide substrate for PC synthesis, gamma-glutamyl cysteine (gamma-EC), were also dramatically increased. Despite these high thiol-peptide concentrations, there were no significant increases in concentrations of arsenic and cadmium in above-ground tissues in the AtPCS1 plants relative to WT plants. The potential for AtPCS1 overexpression to be useful in strategies for phytoremediating arsenic and to compound the negative effects of cadmium are discussed.

  19. [Evaluation of human health risk for a population from Cali, Colombia, by exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury, 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid and diuron associated with water and food consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverry, Ghisliane; Zapata, Andrés Mauricio; Páez, Martha Isabel; Méndez, Fabián; Peña, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to pollutants such as pesticides and heavy metals has been linked to health problems. Several studies have revealed the presence of these contaminants in Cali; however, there is no information available about the main routes of exposure and risk of these contaminants. To estimate the risk associated with the intake of cadmium, lead and mercury, and pesticides 2,4-D and diuron through the consumption of water and food in a population in Cali. Population and environmental data were obtained, and a risk assessment was performed using United States Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. The concentrations of the evaluated pollutants were below permissible levels as established by the Colombian Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial (3 µg/L -1 of cadmium; 10 µg/L -1 of lead; 1 µg/L -1 of mercury; 1 µg/L -1 of 2,4 D; 1 µg/L -1 of diuron). Salema butterfish ( Peprilus snyderi ) samples contained levels of cadmium between 20 and 80 µg/kg -1 , which are below the permissible limit set by the World Health Organization (100 µg/kg -1 ). The results of the risk assessment indicated that the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic attributable risk to population health from the intake of food contaminants was below the maximum level permitted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. It is believed that the findings in previous studies on pollutants may have been due to specific contamination events; therefore, monitoring and early warning about water intake is recommended. Furthermore, the report of cadmium being found in fish consumed as food suggests the need for quality control by regulators.

  20. Chronic waterborne zinc and cadmium exposures induced different responses towards oxidative stress in the liver of zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jia-Lang, E-mail: zhengjialang@aliyun.com [National Engineering Research Center of Marine Facilities Aquaculture, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022 (China); Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Wu, Chang-Wen [National Engineering Research Center of Marine Facilities Aquaculture, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022 (China); Li, Wei-Ye [Zhoushan fisheries research institute, Zhoushan 316022 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Zn and Cd induced some differences in oxidative damage in the liver of zebrafish. • Zn and Cd enhanced expression of Cu/Zn-SOD and CAT through Nrf2 pathway. • Zn and Cd did not affected protein levels of CAT. • Cd inhibited biological activities of Cu/Zn-SOD and CAT proteins. • Zn stimulated activity and protein levels of Cu/Zn-SOD. - Abstract: Based on the same toxic level of 0.6% LC{sub 50} for 96-h and the severe situation of water pollution, we compared effects of chronic Zn (180 μg L{sup −1}) and Cd exposures (30 μg L{sup −1}) on growth, survival, histology, ultrastructure, and oxidative stress in the liver of zebrafish for 5 weeks. Growth performance and survival rate remained relatively constant under Zn stress, but was reduced under Cd exposure. Cd exposure also induced severe pyknotic nuclei, evident ultrastructure damage, and considerable lipid inclusions in the hepatocytes. However, these phenomena were not pronounced under Zn exposure. The negative effects caused by Cd may be explained by an increase in hepatic oxidative damage, as reflected by the enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonylation (PC). The reduced activity of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) may result in the enhanced hepatic oxidative damage, though the mRNA and protein levels of both genes increased and remained unchanged respectively. On the contrary, Zn up-regulated the levels of mRNA, protein and activity of Cu/Zn-SOD, which may contribute to the decreased LPO levels. Nonetheless, the sharply up-regulated mRNA levels of CAT did not induce an increase in the protein and activity levels of CAT under Zn stress. Furthermore, transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression parelleled with its target genes, suggesting that Nrf2 is required for the protracted induction of antioxidant genes. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that essential and non-essential metals induced some differences in

  1. Prospects of novel front and back contacts for high efficiency cadmium telluride thin film solar cells from numerical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matin, M.A. [Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET), Chittagong (Bangladesh); Mannir Aliyu, M.; Quadery, Abrar H. [Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Amin, Nowshad [Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Center of Excellence for Research in Engineering Materials (CEREM), College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-09-15

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin film solar cell has long been recognized as a leading photovoltaic candidate for its high efficiency and low cost. A numerical simulation has been performed using AMPS-1D simulator to explore the possibility of higher efficiency and stable CdS/CdTe cell among several cell structures with indium tin oxide (ITO) and cadmium stannate (Cd{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}) as front contact material, tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}), zinc oxide (ZnO) and zinc stannate (Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}) as buffer layer, and silver (Ag) or antimony telluride (Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) with molybdenum (Mo) or zinc telluride (ZnTe) with aluminium (Al) as back contact material. The cell structure ITO/i-ZnO/CdS/CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x}/CdTe/Ag has shown the best conversion efficiency of 16.9% (Voc=0.9 V, Jsc=26.35 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF=0.783). This analysis has shown that ITO as front contact material, ZnO as buffer layer and ZnTe or Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} back surface reflector (BSR) are suitable material system for high efficiency (>15%) and stable CdS/CdTe cells. The cell normalized efficiency linearly decreased at a temperature gradient of -0.25%/ C for ZnTe based cells, and at -0.40%/ C for other cells. (author)

  2. Effects of copper and cadmium on heavy metal polluted waterbody restoration by duckweed (Lemna minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wenhua; Chen, Xiao; Song, Guanling; Wang, Qunhui; Chi Chang, Chein

    2007-01-01

    Aquatic plants have been identified as a potentially useful group for accumulating and bioconcentrating heavy metals. In the study, we investigated changes in the contents of soluble protein and photosynthetic pigments as well as the activity of antioxidant enzymes caused by copper sulfate and cadmium dichloride, respectively in duckweed (Lemna minor) during concentration-dependent exposure (0.05-20 mg l(-1)) to metal salt. The results demonstrated that exposure to high concentration heavy metals (Cu>10 mg l(-1), Cd>0.5 mg l(-1)) could result the disintegration of antioxidant system in duckweed. Also, the significant decrease of contents of soluble protein and photosynthetic pigments was observed to high-level metal stress. Additionally, cadmium was found to be more toxic than copper on plants. The outcome of this study corroborate that Lemna minor is a suitable candidate for the phytoremediation of low-level copper and cadmium contaminated waterbody.

  3. Lead and cadmium in wild birds in southeastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fernandez, A.J.; Sanchez-Garcia, J.A.; Luna, A. [Univ. of Murcia (Spain); Jimenez-Montalban, P. [Regional Environmental Agency, Murcia (Spain). Centro de Recuperacion de Fauna Silvestre El Valle

    1995-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor exposure to lead and cadmium in wild birds in Murcia, a southeastern region of Spain on the Mediterranean coast. This region lies on one of the African-European flyways. Samples of liver, kidney, brain, bone, and whole blood from several species of wild birds were obtained during 1993. The authors found a clear relationship between cadmium and lead concentrations in birds and their feedings habits. Vultures (Gyps fulvus) had the highest concentrations of lead (mean 40 {micro}g/dl in blood), and seagulls (Larus argentatus and Larus ridibundus) the highest concentrations of cadmium (mean 4.43 {micro}g/g in kidney). Insectivores had high concentrations of both metals, and diurnal and nocturnal raptors showed the lowest tissue concentrations. The findings that tissue and blood concentrations were generally not elevated suggests environmental (rather than acute) exposure. Birds from more industrialized areas of the region studied here had higher concentrations of both lead and cadmium.

  4. Highly efficient removal of lead and cadmium during wastewater irrigation using a polyethylenimine-grafted gelatin sponge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Zhou, Feng; Huang, Kai; Wang, Yipei; Mei, Surong; Zhou, Yikai; Jing, Tao

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater irrigation is a very important resource for heavy metal pollution in soil and then accumulation in vegetable crops. In this study, a polyethylenimine (PEI)-grafted gelatin sponge was prepared to effectively adsorb heavy metals during wastewater irrigation. Based on the strong water adsorption ability, wastewater remained in the PEI-grafted gelatin sponge for a sufficient time for the heavy metals to interact with the sorbents. The binding capacities of Pb(II) ions and Cd(II) ions on the PEI-grafted gelatin sponge were 66 mg g‑1 and 65 mg g‑1, which were much more than those on the gelatin sponge (9.75 mg g‑1 and 9.35 mg g‑1). Subsequently, the PEI-grafted gelatin sponge was spread on the surface of soil planted with garlic and then sprayed with synthetic wastewater. The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the garlic leaves were 1.59 mg kg‑1 and 5.69 mg kg‑1, respectively, which were much lower than those (15.78 mg kg‑1 and 27.98 mg kg‑1) without the gelatin sponge, and the removal efficiencies were 89.9% and 79.7%. The PEI-grafting gelatin sponge could effectively remove heavy metals during wastewater irrigation, which improved the soil environment and reduced human exposure to heavy metals.

  5. Effects of test media on reproduction in Potamopyrgus antipodarum and of pre-exposure population densities on sensitivity to cadmium in a reproduction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieratowicz, Agnes; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Wigh, Adriana; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Molluscan species can be affected by various anthropogenic substances. Yet, these effects are disregarded in chemical risk assessment as molluscs are unrepresented in standard OECD guidelines. The project "validation of a mollusc reproduction test" (Federal Environment Agency, code 371165417) deals with the development of a test method with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum for OECD purposes. In this context, the influence on reproduction of both, different media and varying snail density, has been observed in independent experiments. Further, the impact of density on the outcome of subsequent cadmium (Cd) toxicity in a test has been investigated to refine the existing methodology. First, adult snails were kept in different test media for 12 weeks. Second, snail density was increased for 4 weeks to induce stress. Snails from each density scenario were used for another 4 weeks in a reproduction test at an equal density with 12 μg Cd/L, respectively. Significant differences in reproduction between medium groups were noted after 4 and 8, but not 12, weeks. Further, reproduction was significantly altered by snail density in the beakers but after subsequent 4 weeks at a constant density, no differences were observed between control groups. Cd reduced reproduction and this effect increased with snail density in the pre-exposure period, demonstrating that a previous stress factor may result in increased sensitivity to chemicals and underlines the need for more standardized breeding conditions to minimize effect variations. Based on the outcome of this study, an acclimatization period of 12 weeks must be guaranteed for specimens transferred to another medium. Further, 4 weeks of acclimatization are necessary after density stress. An additional 12 weeks density experiment showed that medium volume in each replicate can be decreased by half to save on chemicals, water and space during tests.

  6. Effects of Water-Borne Mercury and Cadmium Exposure on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Mangrove Red Snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Feng Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of waterborne cadmium (Cd2+ and mercury (Hg2+ both separately and in combination on the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity in Lutjanus argentimaculatus was investigated. The fish was exposed for 3, 7 and 15 days respectively to Cd2+, Hg2+ and the mixture of both. Exposure to Cd2+ was done at three different concentrations viz 1, 5 and 100 μg/L .The fish was exposed to Hg2+ at 0.2,0.5 and 10 μg/L. Further L. argentimaculatus was also exposed to a mixture containing 5 μg/L Cd2+ and 0.5 μg/L Hg2+. The results showed increased levels of antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT and Peroxidase (POD (p<0.05 both in hepatic and branchial tissues. The level of Malonialdehyde (MDA which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation also showed significant increase (p<0.05. Further, antioxidant enzymes and MDA could not fall down to normal levels even after 15 days of release to clean sea water in all the treatments tested. However, the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the fishes exposed to mixture containing both Cd2+ and Hg2+ did not showed remarkable raise as when treated separately. The study indicated that the increase of antioxidant enzymes activity and MDA need to be considered carefully as pollution indicators as their values do not conform well to the corresponding metal ion concentrations, in view of co-effects of metals.

  7. Long-term effect of environmental cadmium exposure on human body's mineral metabolic balance%长期环境镉暴露对机体矿物质元素代谢平衡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌海团; 黄琼; 吕颖坚; 蒋琦; 杨杏芬; 吴永宁; 黄芮; 梁旭霞; 李志学; 王晶; 谭剑斌; 吴仕漩; 王萍; 陈子慧

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of long⁃term exposure to environmental cadmium on eight mineral element's metabolic balance of human body. Methods To choose a high cadmium area polluted by smelting and mining north of Guangdong province and a cadmium⁃free area with a similar economic level, and living and eating habit of residents as a contrast from April 2011 to August 2012. Stratified random sampling and clustered sampling method were adopted to choose the non⁃occupationally cadmium⁃exposed respondents who have lived in local area for more than 15 years, older than 40 years, having local rice and vegetable as the main dietary source, with simple and relatively stable diet, and without diabetes, kidney disease, thyroid disease, liver disease or other history of chronic disease. This study included 298 respondents, of whom 155 were in cadmium exposure group and 143 in control group. Questionnaires was used to acquire their health status and their morning urine samples were collected. Electrolytically coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP⁃MS) was used to test the concentrations of sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iodine (I). The Mann⁃Whitney U test method was used to compare the differences of concentrations of urinary cadmium, Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, I, and the ratio of Na to K (Na/K), Ca to P (Ca/P) between exposed group and control group.χ2 test was used to compare the abnormal rate of urinary cadmium between exposed group and control group. Pearson correlation and multiple regression method were used to investigate the relationship between urinary cadmium levels, gender, age, smoking, passive smoking, and minerals. Results The urinary cadmium level P50 (P25-P75) in exposed group was 5.45 (2.62-10.68)μg/g·cr, which was higher than that of the control group, which was 1.69 (1.22-2.36)μg/g · cr (Z=-10.49, P40周岁,在当地连续居住时间超过15年,以当地自产

  8. Effects of subchronic exposure of early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to copper, cadmium, and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, David W; Tompsett, Amber R; Sigurdson, Jacinda L; Doering, Jon A; Zhang, Xiaowei; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2011-11-01

    Populations of sturgeon (Acipenseridae) are declining in many places in the world because of several potential factors, including overharvesting, habitat alteration, and pollution. In North America, populations of the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) have been experiencing poor annual recruitment in major river systems for more than three decades. Metal pollution has been hypothesized as a potential contributing factor to the poor recruitment in some of the water bodies. In general, little is known about the toxicity of metals such as Cu, Cd, and Zn to white sturgeon and their potential influence on survival of embryos and juveniles. The present study was conducted to establish baseline toxicity data for the subchronic exposure of early life stages of white sturgeon to Cu, Cd, and Zn that can be used in metal-related risk assessments. Embryos, larvae, and fry were exposed to increasing concentrations of dissolved Cu, Cd, or Zn for 66 d using laboratory-based flow-through exposure systems. Hatching success was greater than 79% for all controls, and no significant differences were observed among treatment groups or between treatments and controls. Chronic lethal concentrations at which 20% mortality occurred (LC20s) for Cd (1.5 µg/L), Cu (5.5 µg/L), and Zn (112 µg/L) obtained for white sturgeon in the present study were comparable to those of sensitive salmonid species. Based on LC20 values for 19 or 58 d posthatch white sturgeon, the United States national ambient water quality criteria and the Canadian water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life that have been established for Cd, Cu, and Zn protect white sturgeon early life stages.

  9. Time-dependent changes in antioxidative enzyme expression and photosynthetic activity of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells under acute exposure to cadmium and anthracene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksmann, Anna; Pokora, Wojciech; Baścik-Remisiewicz, Agnieszka; Dettlaff-Pokora, Agnieszka; Wielgomas, Bartosz; Dziadziuszko, Małgorzata; Tukaj, Zbigniew

    2014-12-01

    Heavy metals (HM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in the freshwater environment at concentrations that can be hazardous to the biota. Among HMs and PAHs, cadmium (Cd) and anthracene (ANT) are the most prevalent and toxic ones. The response of Chlamydomonas cells to Cd and ANT at concentrations that markedly reduced the growth of algal population was investigated in this study. At such concentrations, both cadmium and anthracene were recognized as oxidative stress inducers, since high concentration of H2O2 in treated cultures was observed. Therefore, as a part of the "molecular phase" of the cell response to this stress, we examined the time-dependent expression of genes encoding the main antioxidative enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), as well as the activity of these enzymes in cells, with special attention paid to chloroplastic and mitochondrial isoforms of SOD. To characterize the cell response at the "physiological level", we examined the photosynthetic activity of stressed cells via analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence in vivo. In contrast to standard ecotoxicity studies in which the growth end-points are usually determined, herein we present time-dependent changes in algal cell response to Cd- and ANT-induced stress. The most significant effect(s) of the toxicants on photosynthetic activity was observed in the 6th hour, when strong depression of PI parameter value, an over 50 percent reduction of the active reaction center fraction (RC0) and a 3-fold increase in non-photochemical energy dissipation (DI0/RC) were noted. At the same time, the increase (up to 2.5-fold) in mRNA transcript of SOD and CAT genes, followed by the enhancement in the enzyme activity was observed. The high expression of the Msd 3 gene in treated Chlamydomonas cells probably complements the partial loss of chloroplast Fe-SOD and APX activity, while catalase and Mn-SOD 5 seem to be the major enzymes responsible for

  10. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved.

  11. Complex interactions between climate change and toxicants: evidence that temperature variability increases sensitivity to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly, David A; Salice, Christopher J

    2014-07-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects that global climate change will have significant impacts on environmental conditions including potential effects on sensitivity of organisms to environmental contaminants. The objective of this study was to test the climate-induced toxicant sensitivity (CITS) hypothesis in which acclimation to altered climate parameters increases toxicant sensitivity. Adult Physa pomilia snails were acclimated to a near optimal 22 °C or a high-normal 28 °C for 28 days. After 28 days, snails from each temperature group were challenged with either low (150 μg/L) or high (300 μg/L) cadmium at each temperature (28 or 22 °C). In contrast to the CITS hypothesis, we found that acclimation temperature did not have a strong influence on cadmium sensitivity except at the high cadmium test concentration where snails acclimated to 28 °C were more cadmium tolerant. However, snails that experienced a switch in temperature for the cadmium challenge, regardless of the switch direction, were the most sensitive to cadmium. Within the snails that were switched between temperatures, snails acclimated at 28 °C and then exposed to high cadmium at 22 °C exhibited significantly greater mortality than those snails acclimated to 22 °C and then exposed to cadmium at 28 °C. Our results point to the importance of temperature variability in increasing toxicant sensitivity but also suggest a potentially complex cost of temperature acclimation. Broadly, the type of temporal stressor exposures we simulated may reduce overall plasticity in responses to stress ultimately rendering populations more vulnerable to adverse effects.

  12. Thermo chemical stability of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles under intense pulsed light irradiation and high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colorado, H.A., E-mail: hcoloradolopera@ucla.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Universidad de Antioquia, Mechanical Engineering, Medellin (Colombia); Dhage, S.R. [International Advanced Research Center for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Hyderabad 500005 (India); Hahn, H.T. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > In this paper is about the thermochemical stability of CdS nanoparticles under Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) irradiation. > After few irradiation shots over the nano-particles, CdS pillars appeared without phase transformation. > No oxidation was observed during the treatment process. > CdS nanoparticles are thermally stable until around 400 deg. C and 600 deg. C for air and argon atmospheres respectively. > It has been studied and demonstrated the stability of CdS nanoparticles under intense pulsed light and under high temperature conditions. - Abstract: Thermo chemical stability of CdS nanoparticles under an Intense Pulsed Light from a xenon flash lamp and high temperature X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were investigated. The CdS nanoparticles were obtained with a chemical bath method. The CdSO{sub 4} (0.16 M) solution was added to an NH{sub 3} (7.5 M) solution under constant stirring. Afterwards, a thiourea (0.6 M) solution was added. The bath temperature and pH were maintained at 65 deg. C and 10, respectively and the mixture was stirred constantly until a solid precipitate of yellow CdS was produced. Its microstructure was investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy, and its electronic properties were determined by UV-visible and Photo luminescence Spectroscopy. The microstructure of the sintered CdS nanoparticles, obtained the high temperature XRD, was investigated with EDAX and X-ray micro Tomography. In addition, high temperature XRD and Themogravimetric Analysis tests were conducted over the samples. The CdS nanoparticles' crystallinity increased with the irradiation exposure and they were thermally stable until 600 deg. C in argon atmosphere. However new phases start to appear after annealing at 400 deg. C for 30 min in air atmosphere. The main contribution of this paper was to investigate the stability of CdS nanoparticles under intense light and high temperature conditions. It was found that the number of irradiation shots conducted with the

  13. Observations and theoretical analysis of highly excited singlet and triplet states of cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidolova-Angelova, E.; Baharis, C.; Roupakas, G.; Kompitsas, M.

    1996-06-01

    We have recorded the 0953-4075/29/12/010/img7 - 50) bound Rydberg spectrum of cadmium. We have fully resolved the multiplet up to n = 19 and partially up to n = 24. Furthermore, we have observed the odd singlet and triplet 5sn f Rydberg series for n = 10 - 22 and n = 4 - 21, respectively. We have applied two- and three-step laser schemes to excite Cd vapour in a heat pipe-like oven which was operated as a thermionic diode for detection. Theoretical calculations were performed for the energies of the 5sn p and 5sn f series using perturbation theory with a zero-order model approximation. There is a good agreement between theoretical and experimental results for the 5sn p series, the deviation decreasing with n and being 1 - 2 0953-4075/29/12/010/img8 for n = 50. The agreement for the 5sn f is satisfactory. From the quantum defect of the 5sn f series we approximate a value of the effective dipole polarizability of the 0953-4075/29/12/010/img9 ion of 0953-4075/29/12/010/img10 in units of the Bohr radius.

  14. High efficiency cadmium and zinc telluride-based thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, A.; Summers, C.J.; Erbil, A.; Sudharsanan, R.; Ringel, S. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (USA). School of Electrical Engineering)

    1990-10-01

    Polycrystalline Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te and Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te films with a band gap of 1.7 eV were successfully grown on glass/SnO{sub 2}/CdS substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), respectively. Polycrystalline Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te films grown by MBE resulted in uniform composition and sharp interfaces. However, polycrystalline Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te films grown by MOCVD showed nonuniform compositions and evidence of manganese accumulation at the Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te/CdS interface. We found that manganese interdiffuses and replaces cadmium in the CdS film. By improving the CdTe/CdS interface and, thus, reducing the collection function effects, the efficiency of the MOCVD CdTe cell can be improved to about 13.5%. MBE-grown CdTe cells also produced 8%--9% efficiencies. The standard CdTe process was not optimum for ternary films and resulted in a decrease in the band gap. Recent results indicate that CdCl{sub 2} + ZnCl{sub 2} chemical treatment may prevent the band-gap reduction, and that chromate etch (rather than bromine etch) may provide the solution to contact resistance in the ternary cells.

  15. Effects of cadmium on anaerobic energy metabolism and mRNA expression during air exposure and recovery of an intertidal mollusk Crassostrea virginica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanina, Anna V. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Sokolov, Eugene P. [Department of General Surgery, Carolina' s Medical Center, 1000 Blythe Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28203-5871 (United States); Sokolova, Inna M., E-mail: isokolov@uncc.edu [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Marine organisms are exposed to periodical oxygen deficiency and pollution stress in estuarine and coastal zones which may strongly affect their performance and survival. We studied the combined effects of exposure to a common pollutant, cadmium (Cd), and intermittent anoxia on anaerobic metabolism, energy status and mRNA expression of 13 genes involved in and/or controlled by the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway in hepatopancreas of an intertidal bivalve, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. In control oysters, prolonged anoxia resulted in a selective suppression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and upregulation of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX4) while the levels of other transcripts remained unchanged. During post-anoxic recovery, mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) was elevated, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), NOS and LON protease suppressed, and mRNA expression of other studied genes not changed. Notably, most of the key glycolytic genes that are stimulated by HIF-1 in mammals, either remained unchanged or were downregulated in anoxic oysters suggesting a different mechanism of molecular response to oxygen deficiency. Patterns of transcriptional response during anoxia and reoxygenation were significantly altered by Cd exposure in a gene-specific manner. Anaerobic metabolism (indicated by accumulation of L-alanine, succinate and acetate during anoxia) was also suppressed in Cd-exposed oysters. In control oysters, ATP turnover rate (M{sub ATP}) during anoxia was mostly sustained by anaerobic glycolysis with negligible contributions from ATP and PLA breakdown. In contrast, in Cd-exposed oysters ATP breakdown contributed significantly to anaerobic M{sub ATP}. Thus, while control oysters could efficiently defend the ATP levels and tissue energy status during prolonged anoxia, Cd-exposed oysters experienced a disturbance in tissue energy balance indicated by the depletion of ATP, a rapid decline in

  16. Is the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis a tissue of choice for estimating cadmium exposure by means of metallothioneins?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raspor, Biserka; Dragun, Zrinka; Erk, Marijana; Ivankovic, Dusica; Pavicic, Jasenka

    2004-10-15

    A study performed over 12 months with caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis in the coastal marine zone, which is under urban pressure, reveals a temporal variation of digestive gland mass, which causes 'biological dilution' of cytosolic metallothionein (MT) and trace metal (Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn) concentrations. The dilution effect was corrected by expressing the cytosolic MT and metal concentrations as the tissue content. Consequently, the changes of the average digestive gland mass coincide with the changes of MT and trace metal contents. From February to June, MT contents are nearly twice and trace metal contents nearly three times higher than those of the other months. The period of increased average digestive gland mass, of MT and trace metal contents probably overlaps with the sexual maturation of mussels (gametogenesis) and enhanced food availability. Since natural factors contribute more to the MT content than the sublethal levels of Cd, the digestive gland of M. galloprovincialis is not considered as a tissue of choice for estimating Cd exposure by means of MTs.

  17. Cadmium and postmenopausal bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Whelton, B.D.; Stern, P.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Moretti, E.S.; Dare, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Neither ovariectomy alone nor dietary cadmium exposure alone caused statistically significant decreases in the mean calcium contents and calcium/dry weight ratios of the femurs and lumbar vertebrae. Exposure to 50 ppM dietary Cd caused a significant increase in the loss of bone calcium after ovariectomy such that the calcium contents and calcium to dry weight ratios of both femurs and lumbar vertebrae were strikingly lower than those of all other groups.

  18. Interactions of cadmium and zinc during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorell, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    The interactions of cadmium exposure and zinc during pregnancy were investigated by studying rats exposed to 0, 5, 50, or 100 ppm cadmium (as CdCl{sub 2}) in the drinking water from day 6 to day 20 of pregnancy. On day 20 of pregnancy, fetuses of rats exposed to 50 and 100 ppm of cadmium were slightly but significantly smaller than those of control animals. Fetal weight was negatively correlated with fetal cadmium concentration and positively correlated with fetal cadmium concentration. Significant fetal cadmium accumulation occurred in both the 50 and 100 ppm cadmium exposure groups; fetal zinc concentrations were decreased. Maternal liver and kidney zinc concentrations were slightly elevated, and the possible role of maternal organ sequestration of available zinc is discussed. The activity of two zinc metalloenzymes, alkaline phosphatase and {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, was decreased in maternal and fetal tissues, providing evidence of an alteration in zinc metabolism. In addition, the placental transport of {sup 65}Zn was characterized in control animals and compared to exposed groups; placental zinc transport was significantly decreased in the 50 and 100 ppm exposure groups.

  19. Cadmium bioaccumulation in European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis from Middle Adriatic Sea (San Benedetto del Tronto district, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Ciccarelli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bivalve molluscs represent an important source of cadmium exposure in humans, in particular oysters, because of their high filter feeding capability and high concentration of metal-binding metallothionein in tissues. In this study the authors investigated the difference in cadmium bioaccumulation in European flat oysters harvested from production areas in the district of San Benedetto del Tronto (Ascoli Piceno province, Italy, as a function of their origin (farming or natural beds and the time of gathering. The beds lie 3 nm off-shore at a depth of 20-40 m and are collected by dredging. In the farms, baskets are suspended in the water column 2.5-3 nm offshore at a depth of 4 m. The authors analysed the results of cadmium monitoring plan carried out in oyster natural beds for a total of 15 samples collected from 2004 to 2012 and in two oyster farms for a total of 11 samples from 2009 to 2012. Although the few data did not allow to find a significant statistical association, they suggested two findings: i cadmium concentration in oysters from natural beds seemed to be lower than in farmed oysters; and ii in farmed oysters cadmium concentration even exceeded allowed maximum level for human consumption, in particular in autumn. The vertical stratification in the water column of phytoplankton and a cadmium dilution at oyster gonadal maturation might cause changes in oyster cadmium accumulation.

  20. Effects of genetic mutations and chemical exposures on Caenorhabditis elegans feeding: evaluation of a novel, high-throughput screening assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windy A Boyd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Government agencies have defined a need to reduce, refine or replace current mammalian-based bioassays with testing methods that use alternative species. Invertebrate species, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, provide an attractive option because of their short life cycles, inexpensive maintenance, and high degree of evolutionary conservation with higher eukaryotes. The C. elegans pharynx is a favorable model for studying neuromuscular function, and the effects of chemicals on neuromuscular activity, i.e., feeding. Current feeding methodologies, however, are labor intensive and only semi-quantitative. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here a high-throughput assay is described that uses flow cytometry to measure C. elegans feeding by determining the size and intestinal fluorescence of hundreds of nematodes after exposure to fluorescent-labeled microspheres. This assay was validated by quantifying fluorescence in feeding-defective C. elegans (eat mutants, and by exposing wild-type nematodes to the neuroactive compounds, serotonin and arecoline. The eat mutations previously determined to cause slow pumping rates exhibited the lowest feeding levels with our assay. Concentration-dependent increases in feeding levels after serotonin exposures were dependent on food availability, while feeding levels decreased in arecoline-exposed nematodes regardless of the presence of food. The effects of the environmental contaminants, cadmium chloride and chlorpyrifos, on wild-type C. elegans feeding were then used to demonstrate an application of the feeding assay. Cadmium exposures above 200 microM led to a sharp drop in feeding levels. Feeding of chlorpyrifos-exposed nematodes decreased in a concentration-dependent fashion with an EC(50 of 2 microM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The C. elegans fluorescence microsphere feeding assay is a rapid, reliable method for the assessment of neurotoxic effects of pharmaceutical drugs, industrial chemicals or

  1. Alternate cadmium exposure differentially affects the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex of male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular III, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Seara, R.; Fernandez-Rey, E.; Lafuente, A. [Lab. de Toxicologia, Universidad de Vigo, Orense (Spain)

    2001-05-01

    This work examines changes of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine contents in the hypothalamus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of the rat after an alternate schedule of cadmium administration. Age-associated changes were also evaluated, of those before puberty and after adult age. In control rats GABA content decreased with age in the median eminence and in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Taurine content showed similar results with the exception of mediobasal hypothalamus and striatum, where no changes were detected. In pubertal rats treated with cadmium from 30 to 60 days of life, GABA content significantly decreased in all brain regions except in the striatum. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90 of life, GABA content was significantly changed in prefrontal cortex only compared with the age matched controls. Taurine content showed similar results in pubertal rats, with the exception of the median eminence and the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither of which showed a change. However, when cadmium was administered to rats from day 60 to 90 of life, taurine content only changed in prefrontal cortex compared with the age matched controls. These results suggest that cadmium differentially affects GABA and taurine contents within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex as a function of age. (orig.)

  2. Screening micro-organisms for cadmium absorption from aqueous solution and cadmium absorption properties of Arthrobacter nicotianae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Takehiko; Umenai, Daishi; Hatano, Tomonobu; Hirajima, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    To obtain basic information on how microbial cells absorb cadmium from aqueous solution, we examined cadmium absorption in various micro-organisms. Of 51 micro-organism strains tested, we found that some Gram-positive bacteria, such as, Arthrobacter nicotianae and Bacillus subtilis, and some actinomycetes, such as, Streptomyces flavoviridis and S. levoris were highly capable of absorbing cadmium from an aqueous solution. A. nicotianae absorbed the largest amount of cadmium, over 800 μmol cadmium per gram of dry wt. cells. However, cadmium absorption by A. nicotianae was affected by the solution pH, cadmium concentration, and cell density. The absorption of cadmium was very rapid. Some factors that affected cadmium absorption by A. nicotianae cells were also discussed.

  3. Electrodialytic Removal of Cadmium from Straw Ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    1999-01-01

    A problem with flyash from straw and wood combustion is the high level of heavy metals, especially cadmium. Two electrodialytic remediation experiments were carried out on cadmium polluted flyash from straw combustion. The flyash could be cleaned to 1/3 of its initial level after 24 days...... of remediation. Further removal of cadmium could be possible with longer remediation time or a higher current density...

  4. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N R Munirathnam; D S Prasad; Ch Sudheer; J V Rao; T L Prakash

    2005-06-01

    We present the zone refining results of cadmium using horizontal resistive zone refiner under constant flow of moisture free hydrogen gas. The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) show that majority of the impurities are less than the detection limits. Comparatively, zinc is the most difficult impurity element to remove in cadmium matrix by zone refining.

  5. Color Sensitivity Multiple Exposure Fusion using High Dynamic Range Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Borole

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a high dynamic range imaging (HDRI method using a capturing camera image using normally exposure, over exposure and under exposure. We make three different images from a multiple input image using local histogram stretching. Because the proposed method generated three histogram-stretched images from a multiple input image, ghost artifacts that are the result of the relative motion between the camera and objects during exposure time, are inherently removed. Therefore, the proposed method can be applied to a consumer compact camera to provide the ghost artifacts free HDRI. Experiments with several sets of test images with different exposures show that the proposed method gives a better performance than existing methods in terms of visual results and computation time.

  6. Cadmium burden and the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tony T

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the association between prostate cancer and cadmium exposure have yielded conflicting results. This study explored cadmium burden on the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer in men with no evident environmental exposure. Methods Hospital-based 261 prostate cancer cases and 267 controls with benign diseases were recruited from four hospitals in Taiwan. Demographic, dietary and lifestyle data were collected by standardized questionnaires. Blood cadmium (BCd and creatinine-adjusted urine cadmium (CAUCd levels were measured for each participant. Statistical analyses measured the prostate cancer risk associated with BCd and CAUCd separately, controlling for age, smoking and institution. BCd and CAUCd levels within cases were compared in relation to the disease stage and the Gleason score. Results High family income, low beef intake, low dairy product consumption and positive family history were independently associated with the prostate carcinogenesis. There was no difference in BCd levels between cases and controls (median, 0.88 versus 0.87 μg/l, p = 0.45. Cases had lower CAUCd levels than controls (median, 0.94 versus 1.40 μg/g creatinine, p = 0.001. However, cases with higher BCd and CAUCd levels tended to be at more advanced stages and to have higher Gleason scores. The prostate cancer cases with Gleason scores of ≥ 8 had an odds ratio of 2.89 (95% confidence interval 1.25-6.70, compared with patients with scores of 2-6. Conclusion Higher CAUCd and BCd levels may be associated with advanced cancer phenotypes, but there was only a tenuous association between cadmium and prostate cancer.

  7. How does exposure to nickel and cadmium affect the transcriptome of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) – Results from a 1000 candidate-gene microarray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougas, Bérénice, E-mail: Berenice.Bougas@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre INRS Eau Terre et Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Département de biologie, Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Normandeau, Eric [Département de biologie, Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Pierron, Fabien [Université de Bordeaux, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); Campbell, Peter G.C. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre INRS Eau Terre et Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bernatchez, Louis [Département de biologie, Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Couture, Patrice [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre INRS Eau Terre et Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •The transcriptional responses of Perca flavescens to both metal and non metal stressors were measured with a 1000 candidate-gene microarray. •475, 287 and 176 genes were differentially transcribed depending on temperature, Ni and Cd concentrations, respectively. •Genes involved in iron metabolism, transcriptional and translational processes, vitamin metabolism, blood coagulation, and calcium transport were impacted by metals. •The developed microarray contributes to a better characterization of the impact of different stressors on the transcriptome. -- Abstract: The molecular mechanisms underlying nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) toxicity and their specific effects on fish are poorly understood. Documenting gene transcription profiles offers a powerful approach toward identifying the molecular mechanisms affected by these metals and to discover biomarkers of their toxicity. However, confounding environmental factors can complicate the interpretation of the results and the detection of biomarkers for fish captured in their natural environment. In the present study, a 1000 candidate-gene microarray, developed from a previous RNA-seq study on a subset of individual fish from contrasting level of metal contamination, was used to investigate the transcriptional response to metal (Ni and Cd) and non metal (temperature, oxygen, and diet) stressors in yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Specifically, we aimed at (1) identifying transcriptional signatures specific to Ni and Cd exposure, (2) investigating the mechanisms of their toxicity, and (3) developing a predictive tool to identify the sublethal effects of Ni and Cd contaminants in fish sampled from natural environments. A total of 475 genes displayed significantly different transcription levels when temperature varied while 287 and 176 genes were differentially transcribed at different concentrations of Ni and Cd, respectively. These metals were found to mainly affect the transcription level of genes

  8. Cadmium Toxicity to Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, R.; Riget, F. F.

    Cadmium concentrations in kidneys from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from North West Greenland (Qaanaaq) are high. Concentrations range at level known to induce renal toxic effects (mainly tubulopathy) and demineralisation (osteopenia) of the skeletal system (Fanconi's Syndrome) in humans as well...... as laboratory mammals. We have studied possible cadmium induced histopathological changes in the kidneys as well as a demineralisation of the skeletal system (DXA-scanning of lumbal vertebraes). No obvious cadmium induced toxic changes were found. Food composition and physiological adaptations may explain...... the absence of toxic effects of cadmium in ringed seal...

  9. Effects of cadmium exposure on sea urchin development assessed by SSH and RT-qPCR: metallothionein genes and their differential induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Salvatore; Gianguzza, Marco; Roccheri, Maria Carmela; Gianguzza, Fabrizio

    2013-03-01

    In order to study the defense strategies activated by Paracentrotus lividus embryos in response to sub-lethal doses of CdCl2, we compared the induced transcripts to that of control embryos by suppression subtractive hybridization technique. We isolated five metallothionein (MT) cDNAs and other genes related to detoxification, to signaling pathway components, to oxidative, reductive and conjugative biotransformation, to RNA maturation and protein synthesis. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that two of the five P. lividus MT (PlMT7 and PlMT8) genes appeared to be constitutively expressed and upregulated following cadmium treatment, whereas the other three genes (PlMT4, PlMT5, PlMT6) are specifically switched-on in response to cadmium treatment. Moreover, we found that this transcriptional induction is concentration dependent and that the cadmium concentration threshold for the gene activation is distinct for every gene. RT-qPCR experiments showed in fact that, among induced genes, PlMT5 gene is activated at a very low cadmium concentration (0.1 μM) whereas PlMT4 and PlMT6 are activated at intermediate doses (1-10 μM). Differently, PlMT7 and PlMT8 genes increase significantly their expression only in embryos treated with the highest dose (100 μM CdCl2). We found also that, in response to a lethal dose of cadmium (1 μM), only PlMT5 and PlMT6 mRNA levels increased further. These data suggest a hierarchical and orchestrated response of the P. lividus embryo to overcome differential environmental stressors that could interfere with a normal development.

  10. Assessment of sediment/water contamination by in vivo transplantation of the cockles Cerastoderma glaucum from a non contaminated to a contaminated area by cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machreki-Ajmi, M; Hamza-Chaffai, A

    2008-11-01

    were also subjected to some stress effect consisting in significant inhibition of cholinesterase activity by 26.5% when compared with control cockles. Increased levels of malondialdehydes (MDA) following cadmium exposure have been also reported, suggesting that exposed cockles have been submitted to an oxidative stress probably due to the presence of