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Sample records for high burn severity

  1. Spatial patterns of ponderosa pine regeneration in high-severity burn patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne M. Owen; Carolyn H. Sieg; Andrew J. Sanchez. Meador; Peter Z. Fule; Jose M. Iniguez; L. Scott. Baggett; Paula J. Fornwalt; Michael A. Battaglia

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary wildfires in southwestern US ponderosa pine forests can leave uncharacteristically large patches of tree mortality, raising concerns about the lack of seed-producing trees, which can prevent or significantly delay ponderosa pine regeneration. We established 4-ha plots in high-severity burn patches in two Arizona wildfires, the 2000 Pumpkin and 2002 Rodeo-...

  2. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, Donovan S; Morgan, Penelope; Smith, Alistair M S; Kolden, Crystal A; Hudak, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day. (letters)

  3. Diarrhea in severely burned children.

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    Thakkar, Kalpesh; Kien, C Lawrence; Rosenblatt, Judah I; Herndon, David N

    2005-01-01

    Diarrhea is a common problem in critically ill patients. Our patients are fed a high-carbohydrate enteral formula. We hypothesized that diarrhea in our patients may be related to the osmotic effects of unabsorbed carbohydrate in the small intestine and colon. We studied 19 patients, 3 months to 17 years, with burns >40% total body surface area. Each subject was studied weekly for up to 4 weeks postburn. Breath H2 concentration was measured. For the 24-hour period before the breath H2 measurement, the enteral carbohydrate intake, stool volume, and total enteral fluid volume were recorded. At each of several weekly intervals for each subject, the times when stool volume and enteral carbohydrate intake were each maximal were noted. Maximal stool volume ranged from 12 to 69 mL/kg/d. At the time point of maximal carbohydrate intake, diarrhea (stool volume >10 mL/kg/d) occurred in 18 of 19 patients, and maximal stool volume occurred in 10 of 19. Breath H2 concentration (ppm/5% CO2; mean +/- SEM) was 5.5 +/- 3.5 at the time of maximal carbohydrate intake, and was 25 +/- 20 at maximal stool volume. There were no correlations among breath H2 concentration, stool volume, enteral fluid intake, and enteral carbohydrate intake. Almost all the subjects had diarrhea over several weeks postburn. The lack of correlation of either carbohydrate intake or breath H2 with stool volume suggests that diarrhea in these patients may be caused by factors other than carbohydrate malabsorption. These data do not support altering nutrition support because of watery diarrhea.

  4. Development of Metabolic Indicators of Burn Injury: Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL and Acetoacetate Are Highly Correlated to Severity of Burn Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Louisa Izamis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypermetabolism is a significant sequela to severe trauma such as burns, as well as critical illnesses such as cancer. It persists in parallel to, or beyond, the original pathology for many months as an often-fatal comorbidity. Currently, diagnosis is based solely on clinical observations of increased energy expenditure, severe muscle wasting and progressive organ dysfunction. In order to identify the minimum number of necessary variables, and to develop a rat model of burn injury-induced hypermetabolism, we utilized data mining approaches to identify the metabolic variables that strongly correlate to the severity of injury. A clustering-based algorithm was introduced into a regression model of the extent of burn injury. As a result, a neural network model which employs VLDL and acetoacetate levels was demonstrated to predict the extent of burn injury with 88% accuracy in the rat model. The physiological importance of the identified variables in the context of hypermetabolism, and necessary steps in extension of this preliminary model to a clinically utilizable index of severity of burn injury are outlined.

  5. Simulating high spatial resolution high severity burned area in Sierra Nevada forests for California Spotted Owl habitat climate change risk assessment and management.

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    Keyser, A.; Westerling, A. L.; Jones, G.; Peery, M. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Sierra Nevada forests have experienced an increase in very large fires with significant areas of high burn severity, such as the Rim (2013) and King (2014) fires, that have impacted habitat of endangered species such as the California spotted owl. In order to support land manager forest management planning and risk assessment activities, we used historical wildfire histories from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project and gridded hydroclimate and land surface characteristics data to develope statistical models to simulate the frequency, location and extent of high severity burned area in Sierra Nevada forest wildfires as functions of climate and land surface characteristics. We define high severity here as BA90 area: the area comprising patches with ninety percent or more basal area killed within a larger fire. We developed a system of statistical models to characterize the probability of large fire occurrence, the probability of significant BA90 area present given a large fire, and the total extent of BA90 area in a fire on a 1/16 degree lat/lon grid over the Sierra Nevada. Repeated draws from binomial and generalized pareto distributions using these probabilities generated a library of simulated histories of high severity fire for a range of near (50 yr) future climate and fuels management scenarios. Fuels management scenarios were provided by USFS Region 5. Simulated BA90 area was then downscaled to 30 m resolution using a statistical model we developed using Random Forest techniques to estimate the probability of adjacent 30m pixels burning with ninety percent basal kill as a function of fire size and vegetation and topographic features. The result is a library of simulated high resolution maps of BA90 burned areas for a range of climate and fuels management scenarios with which we estimated conditional probabilities of owl nesting sites being impacted by high severity wildfire.

  6. Exploring the Relationship between Burn Severity Field Data and Very High Resolution GeoEye Images: The Case of the 2011 Evros Wildfire in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Dragozi; Ioannis Z. Gitas; Sofia Bajocco; Dimitris G. Stavrakoudis

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring post-fire vegetation response using remotely-sensed images is a top priority for post-fire management. This study investigated the potential of very-high-resolution (VHR) GeoEye images on detecting the field-measured burn severity of a forest fire that occurred in Evros (Greece) during summer 2011. To do so, we analysed the role of topographic conditions and burn severity, as measured in the field immediately after the fire (2011) and one year after (2012) using the Composite Burn ...

  7. Did enhanced afforestation cause high severity peat burn in the Fort McMurray Horse River wildfire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S. L.; Moore, P. A.; Flannigan, M. D.; Wotton, B. M.; Waddington, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change mediated drying of boreal peatlands is expected to enhance peatland afforestation and wildfire vulnerability. The water table depth-afforestation feedback represents a positive feedback that can enhance peat drying and consolidation and thereby increase peat burn severity; exacerbating the challenges and costs of wildfire suppression efforts and potentially shifting the peatland to a persistent source of atmospheric carbon. To address this wildfire management challenge, we examined burn severity across a gradient of drying in a black spruce dominated peatland that was partially drained in 1975-1980 and burned in the 2016 Fort McMurray Horse River wildfire. We found that post-drainage black spruce annual ring width increased substantially with intense drainage. Average (±SD) basal diameter was 2.6 ± 1.2 cm, 3.2 ± 2.0 cm and 7.9 ± 4.7 cm in undrained (UD), moderately drained (MD) and heavily drained (HD) treatments, respectively. Depth of burn was significantly different between treatments (p threshold will aid in developing effective adaptive management techniques and protecting boreal peatland carbon stocks.

  8. Myocardial Autophagy after Severe Burn in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Shi, Xiao-hua; Huang, Yue-sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Autophagy plays a major role in myocardial ischemia and hypoxia injury. The present study investigated the effects of autophagy on cardiac dysfunction in rats after severe burn. Methods Protein expression of the autophagy markers LC3 and Beclin 1 were determined at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 h post-burn in Sprague Dawley rats subjected to 30% total body surface area 3rd degree burns. Autophagic, apoptotic, and oncotic cell death were evaluated in the myocardium at each time point by immunofluorescence. Changes of cardiac function were measured in a Langendorff model of isolated heart at 6 h post-burn, and the autophagic response was measured following activation by Rapamycin and inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA). The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat, the angiotensin receptor I blocker losartan, and the reactive oxygen species inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) were also applied to the ex vivo heart model to examine the roles of these factors in post-burn cardiac function. Results Autophagic cell death was first observed in the myocardium at 3 h post-burn, occurring in 0.008 ± 0.001% of total cardiomyocytes, and continued to increase to a level of 0.022 ± 0.005% by 12 h post-burn. No autophagic cell death was observed in control hearts. Compared with apoptosis, autophagic cell death occurred earlier and in larger quantities. Rapamycin enhanced autophagy and decreased cardiac function in isolated hearts 6 h post-burn, while 3-MA exerted the opposite response. Enalaprilat, losartan, and DPI all inhibited autophagy and enhanced heart function. Conclusion Myocardial autophagy is enhanced in severe burns and autophagic cell death occurred early at 3 h post-burn, which may contribute to post-burn cardiac dysfunction. Angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species may play important roles in this process by regulating cell signaling transduction. PMID:22768082

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Burn Severity Field Data and Very High Resolution GeoEye Images: The Case of the 2011 Evros Wildfire in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Dragozi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring post-fire vegetation response using remotely-sensed images is a top priority for post-fire management. This study investigated the potential of very-high-resolution (VHR GeoEye images on detecting the field-measured burn severity of a forest fire that occurred in Evros (Greece during summer 2011. To do so, we analysed the role of topographic conditions and burn severity, as measured in the field immediately after the fire (2011 and one year after (2012 using the Composite Burn Index (CBI for explaining the post-fire vegetation response, which is measured using VHR satellite imagery. To determine this relationship, we applied redundancy analysis (RDA, which allowed us to identify which satellite variables among VHR spectral bands and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI can better express the post-fire vegetation response. Results demonstrated that in the first year after the fire event, variations in the post-fire vegetation dynamics can be properly detected using the GeoEye VHR data. Furthermore, results showed that remotely-sensed NDVI-based variables are able to encapsulate burn severity variability over time. Our analysis showed that, in this specific case, burn severity variations are mildly affected by the topography, while the NDVI index, as inferred from VHR data, can be successfully used to monitor the short-term post-fire dynamics of the vegetation recovery.

  10. [The Nutrition Care of Severe Burn Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsiu

    2016-02-01

    In addition to recent advances in burn patient care techniques such as maintaining warm circumambient temperature, the early excision of wounds, and the use of closed dressing, providing nutrition support through early feeding has proven instrumental in greatly increasing the survival rate of burn patients. Severe burns complicated by many factors initiate tremendous physiological stress that leads to postburn hypermetabolism that includes enhanced tissue catabolism, the loss of muscle mass, and decreases in the body's reservoirs of protein and energy. These problems have become the focus of burn therapy. Treating severe burns aims not only to enhance survival rates but also to restore normal bodily functions as completely as possible. Recent research evaluating the application of anabolic agents and immune-enhance formula for severe burns therapy has generated significant controversy. Inadequate caloric intake is one of the main differences among the related studies, with the effect of many special nutrients such as bran acid amides not taken into consideration. Therefore, considering the sufficiency of caloric and protein intake is critical in assessing effectiveness. Only after patients receive adequate calories and protein may the effect of special nutrients such as glutamine and supplements be evaluated effectively.

  11. Predictors of muscle protein synthesis after severe pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Eva C; Herndon, David N; Lee, Jinhyung; Porter, Craig; Cotter, Matthew; Suman, Oscar E; Sidossis, Labros S; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2015-04-01

    Following a major burn, skeletal muscle protein synthesis rate increases but is often insufficient to compensate for massively elevated muscle protein breakdown rates. Given the long-term nature of the pathophysiologic response to burn injury, we hypothesized that muscle protein synthesis rate would be chronically elevated in severely burned children. The objectives of this study were to characterize muscle protein synthesis rate of burned children over a period of 24 months after injury and to identify predictors that influence this response. A total of 87 children with 40% or greater total body surface area (TBSA) burned were included. Patients participated in stable isotope infusion studies at 1, 2, and approximately 4 weeks after burn and at 6, 12, and 24 months after injury to determine skeletal muscle protein fractional synthesis rate. Generalized estimating equations with log link normal distribution were applied to account for clustering of patients and control for patient characteristics. Patients (8 ± 6 years) had large (62, 51-72% TBSA) and deep (47% ± 21% TBSA third degree) burns. Muscle protein fractional synthesis rate was elevated throughout the first 12 months after burn compared with established values from healthy young adults. Muscle protein fractional synthesis rate was lower in boys, in children older than 3 years, and when burns were greater than 80% TBSA. Muscle protein synthesis is elevated for at least 1 year after injury, suggesting that greater muscle protein turnover is a component of the long-term pathophysiologic response to burn trauma. Muscle protein synthesis is highly affected by sex, age, and burn size in severely burned children. These findings may explain the divergence in net protein balance and lean body mass in different populations of burn patients. Prognostic study, level III.

  12. Does fire severity influence shrub resprouting after spring prescribed burning?

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    Fernández, Cristina; Vega, José A.; Fonturbel, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Prescribed burning is commonly used to reduce the risk of severe wildfire. However, further information about the associated environmental effects is required to help forest managers select the most appropriate treatment. To address this question, we evaluated if fire severity during spring prescribed burning significantly affects the resprouting ability of two common shrub species in shrubland under a Mediterranean climate in NW Spain. Fire behaviour and temperatures were recorded in tagged individuals of Erica australis and Pterospartum tridentatum during prescribed burning. The number and length of resprouted shoots were measured three times (6, 12 and 18 months) after the prescribed burning. The influence of a series of fire severity indicators on some plant resprouting vigour parameters was tested by canonical correlation analysis. Six months and one year after prescribed burning, soil burn severity (measured by the absolute reduction in depth of the organic soil layer, maximum temperatures in the organic soil layer and the mineral soil surface during burning and the post-fire depth of the organic soil layer) reduced the resprouting vigour of E. australis and P. tridentatum. In contrast, direct measurements of fire effects on plants (minimum branch diameter, duration of temperatures above 300 °C in the shrub crown and fireline intensity) did not affect the post-fire plant vigour. Soil burn severity during spring prescribed burning significantly affected the short-term resprouting vigour in a mixed heathland in Galicia. The lack of effects eighteen months after prescribed burning indicates the high resilience of these species and illustrates the need to conciliate fire prevention and conservation goals.

  13. Are High-Severity Fires Burning at Much Higher Rates Recently than Historically in Dry-Forest Landscapes of the Western USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William L

    2015-01-01

    Dry forests at low elevations in temperate-zone mountains are commonly hypothesized to be at risk of exceptional rates of severe fire from climatic change and land-use effects. Their setting is fire-prone, they have been altered by land-uses, and fire severity may be increasing. However, where fires were excluded, increased fire could also be hypothesized as restorative of historical fire. These competing hypotheses are not well tested, as reference data prior to widespread land-use expansion were insufficient. Moreover, fire-climate projections were lacking for these forests. Here, I used new reference data and records of high-severity fire from 1984-2012 across all dry forests (25.5 million ha) of the western USA to test these hypotheses. I also approximated projected effects of climatic change on high-severity fire in dry forests by applying existing projections. This analysis showed the rate of recent high-severity fire in dry forests is within the range of historical rates, or is too low, overall across dry forests and individually in 42 of 43 analysis regions. Significant upward trends were lacking overall from 1984-2012 for area burned and fraction burned at high severity. Upward trends in area burned at high severity were found in only 4 of 43 analysis regions. Projections for A.D. 2046-2065 showed high-severity fire would generally be still operating at, or have been restored to historical rates, although high projections suggest high-severity fire rotations that are too short could ensue in 6 of 43 regions. Programs to generally reduce fire severity in dry forests are not supported and have significant adverse ecological impacts, including reducing habitat for native species dependent on early-successional burned patches and decreasing landscape heterogeneity that confers resilience to climatic change. Some adverse ecological effects of high-severity fires are concerns. Managers and communities can improve our ability to live with high-severity fire in

  14. Object-based assessment of burn severity in diseased forests using high-spatial and high-spectral resolution MASTER airborne imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Metz, Margaret R.; Rizzo, David M.; Dillon, Whalen W.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2015-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are subject to a variety of disturbances with increasing intensities and frequencies, which may permanently change the trajectories of forest recovery and disrupt the ecosystem services provided by trees. Fire and invasive species, especially exotic disease-causing pathogens and insects, are examples of disturbances that together could pose major threats to forest health. This study examines the impacts of fire and exotic disease (sudden oak death) on forests, with an emphasis on the assessment of post-fire burn severity in a forest where trees have experienced three stages of disease progression pre-fire: early-stage (trees retaining dried foliage and fine twigs), middle-stage (trees losing fine crown fuels), and late-stage (trees falling down). The research was conducted by applying Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) to MASTER airborne images that were acquired immediately following the fire for rapid assessment and contained both high-spatial (4 m) and high-spectral (50 bands) resolutions. Although GEOBIA has gradually become a standard tool for analyzing high-spatial resolution imagery, high-spectral resolution data (dozens to hundreds of bands) can dramatically reduce computation efficiency in the process of segmentation and object-based variable extraction, leading to complicated variable selection for succeeding modeling. Hence, we also assessed two widely used band reduction algorithms, PCA (principal component analysis) and MNF (minimum noise fraction), for the delineation of image objects and the subsequent performance of burn severity models using either PCA or MNF derived variables. To increase computation efficiency, only the top 5 PCA and MNF and top 10 PCA and MNF components were evaluated, which accounted for 10% and 20% of the total number of the original 50 spectral bands, respectively. Results show that if no band reduction was applied the models developed for the three stages of disease progression had relatively

  15. RECENT ADVANCES IN BIOMARKERS IN SEVERE BURNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castilla, Mireia; Roca, Oriol; Masclans, Joan R; Barret, Joan P

    2016-02-01

    The pathophysiology of burn injuries is tremendously complex. A thorough understanding is essential for correct treatment of the burned area and also to limit the appearance of organ dysfunction, which, in fact, is a key determinant of morbidity and mortality. In this context, research into biomarkers may play a major role. Biomarkers have traditionally been considered an important area of medical research: the measurement of certain biomarkers has led to a better understanding of pathophysiology, while others have been used either to assess the effectiveness of specific treatments or for prognostic purposes. Research into biomarkers may help to improve the prognosis of patients with severe burn injury. The aim of the present clinical review is to discuss new evidence of the value of biomarkers in this setting.

  16. Self-esteem in severely burned adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran Haider Zaidi, Syed Muhammad; Yaqoob, Nazia; Noreen, Sidra

    2017-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the level of and gender difference in self-esteem among adult victims of severe burn injuries. Severely burned adults aged 20 to 40 years participated in this investigation from March 2015 to April 2016 in five hospitals of Faisalabad and Lahore. Purposive sampling technique was used and a self-esteem scale was used to assess different dimensions of self-esteem. Out of 40 patients, there were 25 men (62.5%) and 15 women (37.5%) with mean age of 28.28±4.60 years (range: 20-40 years). A significant positive relationship between subscales of self-esteem scale were found: self-acceptance and self-competence r=0.55, pself-acceptance and academic self-competence r=0.47, pself-acceptance and social and physical acceptance r=0.57, pself-competence and academic self-competence r=0.48, pself-competence and social and physical acceptance r=0.50, pself-competence and social and physical acceptance r=0.45, pself-competence among severely burned men and women (t=2.18; pself-competency component of self-esteem among women victims.

  17. High burn rate solid composite propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manship, Timothy D.

    High burn rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface area grain geometries. Utilizing high burn rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high burn rate propellants allow for a higher volumetric loading which reduces the overall missile's size and weight. The purpose of this study is to present methods of achieving a high burn rate propellant and to develop a composite propellant formulation that burns at 1.5 inches per second at 1000 psia. In this study, several means of achieving a high burn rate propellant were presented. In addition, several candidate approaches were evaluated using the Kepner-Tregoe method with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based propellants using burn rate modifiers and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)-based propellants being selected for further evaluation. Propellants with varying levels of nano-aluminum, nano-iron oxide, FeBTA, and overall solids loading were produced using the HTPB binder and evaluated in order to determine the effect the various ingredients have on the burn rate and to find a formulation that provides the burn rate desired. Experiments were conducted to compare the burn rates of propellants using the binders HTPB and DCPD. The DCPD formulation matched that of the baseline HTPB mix. Finally, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstock dogbones were attempted to be made for mechanical evaluation. Results from the study show that nano-additives have a substantial effect on propellant burn rate with nano-iron oxide having the largest influence. Of the formulations tested, the highest burn rate was a 84% solids loading mix using nano-aluminum nano-iron oxide, and ammonium perchlorate in a 3:1(20 micron: 200 micron) ratio which achieved a burn rate of 1.2 inches per second at 1000

  18. Comparing the reported burn conditions for different severity burns in porcine models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Christine J; Cuttle, Leila

    2017-12-01

    There are many porcine burn models that create burns using different materials (e.g. metal, water) and different burn conditions (e.g. temperature and duration of exposure). This review aims to determine whether a pooled analysis of these studies can provide insight into the burn materials and conditions required to create burns of a specific severity. A systematic review of 42 porcine burn studies describing the depth of burn injury with histological evaluation is presented. Inclusion criteria included thermal burns, burns created with a novel method or material, histological evaluation within 7 days post-burn and method for depth of injury assessment specified. Conditions causing deep dermal scald burns compared to contact burns of equivalent severity were disparate, with lower temperatures and shorter durations reported for scald burns (83°C for 14 seconds) compared to contact burns (111°C for 23 seconds). A valuable archive of the different mechanisms and materials used for porcine burn models is presented to aid design and optimisation of future models. Significantly, this review demonstrates the effect of the mechanism of injury on burn severity and that caution is recommended when burn conditions established by porcine contact burn models are used by regulators to guide scald burn prevention strategies. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Improved survival with an innovative approach to the treatment of severely burned patients: development of a burn treatment manual

    OpenAIRE

    Morisada, S.; Nosaka, N.; Tsukahara, K.; Ugawa, T.; Sato, K.; Ujike, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The management of severely burned patients remains a major issue worldwide as indicated by the high incidence of permanent debilitating complications and poor survival rates. In April 2012, the Advanced Emergency & Critical Care Medical Center of the Okayama University Hospital began implementing guidelines for severely burned patients, distributed as a standard burn treatment manual. The protocol, developed in-house, was validated by comparing the outcomes of patients with severe extensive b...

  20. Relations between soil hydraulic properties and burn severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moody, J.A.; Ebel, B.A.; Stoof, C.R.; Nyman, P.; Martin, D.A.; McKinley, R.

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire can affect soil hydraulic properties, often resulting in reduced infiltration. The magnitude of change in infiltration varies depending on the burn severity. Quantitative approaches to link burn severity with changes in infiltration are lacking. This study uses controlled laboratory

  1. Covering techniques for severe burn treatment: lessons for radiological burn accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsin, H.; Stephanazzi, J.; Lambert, F.; Curet, P.M.; Gourmelon, P.

    2002-01-01

    Covering techniques for severe burn treatment: lessons for radiological burn accidents. After a severe burn, the injured person is weakened by a risk of infection and a general inflammation. The necrotic tissues have to be removed because they are toxic for the organism. The injured person also needs to be covered by a cutaneous envelope, which has to be done by a treatment centre for burned people. The different techniques are the following: - auto grafts on limited burned areas; - cutaneous substitutes to cover temporary extended burned areas. Among them: natural substitutes like xenografts (pork skin, sheep skin,..) or allografts (human skin), - treated natural substitutes which only maintain the extracellular matrix. Artificial skins belong to this category and allow the development of high quality scars, - cell cultures in the laboratory: multiplying the individual cells and grafting them onto the patient. This technique is not common but allows one to heal severely injured patients. X-ray burns are still a problem. Their characteristics are analysed: intensive, permanent, antalgic resistant pain. They are difficult to compare with heat burns. In spite of a small number of known cases, we can give some comments and guidance on radio necrosis cures: the importance of the patients comfort, of ending the pain, of preventing infection, and nutritional balance. At the level of epidermic inflammation and phlyctena (skin blisters), the treatment may be completed by the use of growth factors. At the level of necrosis, after a temporary cover, an auto graft can be considered only if a healthy basis is guaranteed. The use of cellular cultures in order to obtain harmonious growth factors can be argued. (author)

  2. Coagulopathy and its management in patients with severe burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, G. J.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Schultz, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Severe burn injury is associated with systemic coagulopathy. The changes in coagulation described in patients with severe burns resemble those found patients with sepsis or major trauma. Coagulopathy in patients with severe burns is characterized by procoagulant changes, and impaired fibrinolytic

  3. Music therapy for children with severe burn injury

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Jane

    1998-01-01

    peer-reviewed Music therapy for children with severe burns is a developing field of practice and research interest in pediatric music therapy. The following article presents an overview of the nature of severe burn injury and provides a rationale for the use of music therapy in the Burn Unit. The application of song writing techniques to address needs of children receiving care for severe burns in a hospital setting is presented.

  4. Burn severity mapping using simulation modeling and satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva C. Karau; Robert E. Keane

    2010-01-01

    Although burn severity maps derived from satellite imagery provide a landscape view of fire impacts, fire effects simulation models can provide spatial fire severity estimates and add a biotic context in which to interpret severity. In this project, we evaluated two methods of mapping burn severity in the context of rapid post-fire assessment for four wildfires in...

  5. Postfire soil burn severity mapping with hyperspectral image unmixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter R. Robichaud; Sarah A. Lewis; Denise Y. M. Laes; Andrew T. Hudak; Raymond F. Kokaly; Joseph A. Zamudio

    2007-01-01

    Burn severity is mapped after wildfires to evaluate immediate and long-term fire effects on the landscape. Remotely sensed hyperspectral imagery has the potential to provide important information about fine-scale ground cover components that are indicative of burn severity after large wildland fires. Airborne hyperspectral imagery and ground data were collected after...

  6. Landscape Patterns of Burn Severity in the Soberanes Fire of 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Soberanes Fire started on July 22, 2016 in Monterey County on the California Central Coast from an illegal campfire. This fire burned for 10 weeks at a record cost of more than $208 million for protection and control. A progressive analysis of the normalized burn ratio from the Landsat satellite showed that the final high burn severity (HBS) area for the Soberanes Fire comprised 22 percent of the total area burned, whereas final moderate burn severity (MBS) area comprised about 10 percent of the total area burned of approximately 53,470 ha (132,130 acres). The resulting landscape pattern of burn severity classes from the 2016 Soberanes Fire revealed that the majority of HBS area was located in the elevation zone between 500 and 1000 m, in the slope zone between 15 percent and 30 percent, or on south-facing aspects.

  7. Burn Severities, Fire Intensities, and Impacts to Major Vegation Types from the Cerro Grande Fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balice, R.G.; Bennett, K.D.; Wright, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Cerro Grande Fire resulted in major impacts and changes to the ecosystems that were burned. To partially document these effects, we estimated the acreage of major vegetation types that were burned at selected burn severity levels and fire intensity levels. To accomplish this, we adopted independently developed burn severity and fire intensity maps, in combination with a land cover map developed for habitat management purposes, as a basis for the analysis. To provide a measure of confidence in the acreage estimates, the accuracies of these maps were also assessed. In addition, two other maps of comparable quality were assessed for accuracy: one that was developed for mapping fuel risk and a second map that resulted from a preliminary application of an evolutionary computation software system, called GENIE. According to the burn severity map and the fire intensity map, the Cerro Grande Fire is estimated to have covered 42,885.4 acres and 42,854.7 acres, respectively. Of this, 57.0 percent was burned at low severity and 34.7 percent was burned at high severity. Similarly, 40.0 percent of the Cerro Grande Fire burned at high fire intensity, greater than 70 percent mortality, while 33.1 percent burned at moderately low intensity, 10 to 40 percent mortality. The most frequently burned cover types over the entire Cerro Grande Fire were ponderosa pine forest and mixed conifer forest, at approximately 43 percent each. However, portions of the fire that burned on Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) property were predominantly in ponderosa pine forests, whereas the Cerro Grande Fire burned primarily in mixed conifer forests on lands managed by other agencies. Some of the polygons of burn severities and fire intensities were extensive. The two largest burn severity polygons were 10,111 acres and 10,903 acres and these were burned at low severity. The next two largest polygons were 8999 acres (14 square miles) and 1551 acres (2.4 square miles) and both of these polygons

  8. Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns across the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Christos; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Kempeneers, Pieter; Sedano, Fernando; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Camia, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is highly susceptible to wildfires. On average, about 60,000 fires take place in this region every year, burning on average half a million hectares of forests and natural vegetation. Wildfires cause environmental degradation and affect the lives of thousands of people in the region. In order to minimize the consequences of these catastrophic events, fire managers and national authorities need to have in their disposal accurate and updated spatial information concerning the size of the burned area as well as the burn severity patterns. Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns is necessary to effectively support the decision-making process in what concerns strategic (long-term) planning with the definition of post-fire actions at European and national scales. Although a comprehensive archive of burnt areas exists at the European Forest Fire Information System, the analysis of the severity of the areas affected by forest fires in the region is not yet available. Fire severity is influenced by many variables, including fuel type, topography and meteorological conditions before and during the fire. The analysis of fire severity is essential to determine the socio-economic impact of forest fires, to assess fire impacts, and to determine the need of post-fire rehabilitation measures. Moreover, fire severity is linked to forest fire emissions and determines the rate of recovery of the vegetation after the fire. Satellite imagery can give important insights about the conditions of the live fuel moisture content and can be used to assess changes on vegetation structure and vitality after forest fires. Fire events occurred in Greece, Portugal and Spain during the fire season of 2009 were recorded and analyzed in a GIS environment. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) were calculated from 8-days composites MODIS/TERRA imagery from March to October 2009. In

  9. Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, John Quan; Crouzet, Christian; Mai, Tuan; Riola, Kathleen; Uchitel, Daniel; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Bernal, Nicole; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2013-06-01

    Frequent monitoring of early-stage burns is necessary for deciding optimal treatment and management. Both superficial and full thickness burns are relatively easy to diagnose based on clinical observation. In between these two extremes are superficial-partial thickness and deep-partial thickness burns. These burns, while visually similar, differ dramatically in terms of clinical treatment and are known to progress in severity over time. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for noninvasively mapping quantitative changes in chromophore and optical properties that may be an indicative of burn wound severity. A controlled protocol of graded burn severity was developed and applied to 17 rats. SFDI data was acquired at multiple near-infrared wavelengths over a course of 3 h. Burn severity was verified using hematoxylin and eosin histology. From this study, we found that changes in water concentration (edema), deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and optical scattering (tissue denaturation) to be statistically significant at differentiating superficial partial-thickness burns from deep-partial thickness burns.

  10. The relation between forest structure and soil burn severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain; Russell T. Graham; David S. Pilliod

    2006-01-01

    A study funded through National Fire Plan evaluates the relation between pre-wildfire forest structure and post-wildfire soil burn severity across three forest types: dry, moist, and cold forests. Over 73 wildfires were sampled in Idaho, Oregon, Montana, Colorado, and Utah, which burned between 2000 and 2003. Because of the study’s breadth, the results are applicable...

  11. Quantifying soil burn severity for hydrologic modeling to assess post-fire effects on sediment delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, Mariana; Brooks, Erin; Lew, Roger; Kolden, Crystal; Quinn, Dylan; Elliot, William; Robichaud, Pete

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion is a secondary fire effect with great implications for many ecosystem resources. Depending on the burn severity, topography, and the weather immediately after the fire, soil erosion can impact municipal water supplies, degrade water quality, and reduce reservoirs' storage capacity. Scientists and managers use field and remotely sensed data to quickly assess post-fire burn severity in ecologically-sensitive areas. From these assessments, mitigation activities are implemented to minimize post-fire flood and soil erosion and to facilitate post-fire vegetation recovery. Alternatively, land managers can use fire behavior and spread models (e.g. FlamMap, FARSITE, FOFEM, or CONSUME) to identify sensitive areas a priori, and apply strategies such as fuel reduction treatments to proactively minimize the risk of wildfire spread and increased burn severity. There is a growing interest in linking fire behavior and spread models with hydrology-based soil erosion models to provide site-specific assessment of mitigation treatments on post-fire runoff and erosion. The challenge remains, however, that many burn severity mapping and modeling products quantify vegetation loss rather than measuring soil burn severity. Wildfire burn severity is spatially heterogeneous and depends on the pre-fire vegetation cover, fuel load, topography, and weather. Severities also differ depending on the variable of interest (e.g. soil, vegetation). In the United States, Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) maps, derived from Landsat satellite images, are used as an initial burn severity assessment. BARC maps are classified from either a Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) or differenced Normalized Burned Ratio (dNBR) scene into four classes (Unburned, Low, Moderate, and High severity). The development of soil burn severity maps requires further manual field validation efforts to transform the BARC maps into a product more applicable for post-fire soil rehabilitation activities

  12. A new metric for quantifying burn severity: The Relativized Burn Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Gregory K. Dillon; Carol Miller

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-inferred burn severity data have become increasingly popular over the last decade for management and research purposes. These data typically quantify spectral change between pre-and post-fire satellite images (usually Landsat). There is an active debate regarding which of the two main equations, the delta normalized burn ratio (dNBR) and its relativized form...

  13. Skin bioengineering and stem cells for severe burn treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lataillade, J.J.; Trouillas, M.; Alexaline, M.; Brachet, M.; Bey, E.; Duhamel, P.; Leclerc, T.; Bargues, L.

    2015-01-01

    Severely burned patients need definitive and efficient wound coverage. The outcome of massive burns has improved with cultured epithelial auto-grafts (CEA). In spite of its fragility, percentage of success, cost of treatment and long-term tendency to contracture, this surgical technique has been developed in some burn centres. The first improvements involved combining CEA and dermis-like substitutes. Cultured skin substitutes provide faster skin closure and satisfying functional results. These methods have been used successfully in massive burns. A second improvement was to enable skin regeneration by using epidermal stem cells. Stem cells can differentiate into keratinocytes, to promote wound repair and to regenerate skin appendages. Human mesenchymal stem cells foster wound healing and were used in cutaneous radiation syndrome. Skin regeneration and tissue engineering methods remain a complex challenge and offer the possibility of new treatment for injured and burned patients. (authors)

  14. Modulation of inflammatory and catabolic responses in severely burned children by early burn wound excision in the first 24 hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN

    Hypothesis: Early burn wound excision modulates the hypermetabolic response in severe pediatric burn injuries. Design: Before-after trial. Setting: A 30-bed burn referral center in a private, university-affiliated hospital. Methods: We studied 35 severely burned children who were divided into 2

  15. Post-Fire Regeneration and Diversity Response to Burn Severity in Pinus halepensis Mill. Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonsoles González-De Vega

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, fire regimes have been modified by various factors such as changes in land use, global change or forest management policies. The vulnerability of Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems is increasing due to more severe and frequent droughts. This study aimed to determine the plant response of ecosystems during the short-term post-fire period by relating alpha diversity, floristic richness and tree recruitment dynamics to burn severity 5 years after a wildfire. Our results conclude that in the short term, Pinus halepensis Mill. stands in southeastern Spain quickly recovered alpha diversity values, mainly in areas burned with low severity. We observed that moderate and high severities affected the ecosystem more significantly, showing higher values for the Shannon Index but lower for the Simpson index. Pine recruitment was higher in burned areas, and we found the highest number of Aleppo pine seedlings under a moderate burn severity. Post-fire regeneration functional groups (obligate seeders and resprouters were promoted under moderate and high burn severity, increasing their abundance. Annual species (mainly herbs colonized burned areas, persisting with higher presence under moderate burn severity. Restoration tools should be focused on reducing fire severity, mainly in areas at high risk of desertification, and promoting resistance, vulnerability and resilience of these ecosystems.

  16. Predicting gully rejuvenation after wildfire using remotely sensed burn severity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Kevin; Woods, Scott W.; Donahue, Jack

    2007-05-01

    The loss of surface vegetation and reduced infiltration caused by wildfires can trigger gully rejuvenation, resulting in damage to downstream aquatic resources and risk to human life and property. We developed a spatially explicit metric of burn severity — the Burn Severity Distribution Index (BSDI) — and tested its ability to predict post-fire gully rejuvenation in 1st and 2nd order basins burned in the 2000 Valley Complex fires in the Sapphire Mountains of western Montana. The BSDI was derived from burn severity data interpreted from Landsat 7 satellite imagery using the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) method, and ranged from 0.0 for completely unburned basins to 4.0 for basins burned entirely at high severity. In July 2001 rainstorms with peak 30-minute intensities of up to 17 mm h - 1 triggered gully rejuvenation in 66 of the 171 basins examined. The frequency of gully rejuvenation was higher in basins with higher BSDI values, increasing from zero for basins with a BSDI less than 1.3 to 67% for basins with a BSDI greater than 3.0. Binary logistic regression indicated that BSDI was a more significant predictor of gully rejuvenation than basin morphometric variables. The absence of gully rejuvenation in several basins with a high BSDI was attributed to low gradient, dense riparian vegetation, or concentration of high burn severity at lower elevations in the basin. The presence of gully rejuvenation in several basins with a low BSDI was associated with false negative NBR classification errors in northwest aspects, and concentration of severe burn impacts in the drainage headslopes. BSDI is a useful metric for predicting gully rejuvenation after wildfire. The use of the BSDI in Burned Area Emergency Response team assessments could improve the planning, implementation, and monitoring of burned area recovery treatments.

  17. Burn Severity and Its Impact on Soil Properties: 2016 Erskine Fire in the Southern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, S.; Guo, J.; Krugh, W. C.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfire frequency in the southern Sierra Nevada has increased over the past decades. The effects of wildfires on soils can increase the frequency of slope failure and debris flow events, which pose a greater risk to people, as human populations expand into foothill and mountainous communities of the Sierra Nevada. Alterations in the physical properties of burned soils are one such effect that can catalyze slope failure and debris flow events. Moreover, the degree of a soil's physical alteration resulting from wildfire is linked to fire intensity. The 2016 Erskine fire occurred in the southern Sierra Nevada, burning 48,019 acres, resulting in soils of unburned, low, moderate, and high burn severities. In this study, the physical properties of soils with varying degrees of burn severity are explored within the 2016 Erskine fire perimeter. The results constrain the effects of burn severity on soil's physical properties. Unburned, low, moderate, and high burn severity soil samples were collected within the Erskine fire perimeter. Alterations in soils' physical properties resulting from burn severity are explored using X-ray diffractometry analysis, liquid limit, plastic limit, and shear strength tests. Preliminary results from this study will be used to assess debris flow and slope failure hazard models within burned areas of the Kern River watershed in the southern Sierra Nevada.

  18. Determining relative contributions of vegetation and topography to burn severity from LANDSAT imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiwei; He, Hong S; Liang, Yu; Cai, Longyan; Lewis, Bernard J

    2013-10-01

    Fire is a dominant process in boreal forest landscapes and creates a spatial patch mosaic with different burn severities and age classes. Quantifying effects of vegetation and topography on burn severity provides a scientific basis on which forest fire management plans are developed to reduce catastrophic fires. However, the relative contribution of vegetation and topography to burn severity is highly debated especially under extreme weather conditions. In this study, we hypothesized that relationships of vegetation and topography to burn severity vary with fire size. We examined this hypothesis in a boreal forest landscape of northeastern China by computing the burn severity of 24 fire patches as the difference between the pre- and post-fire Normalized Difference Vegetation Index obtained from two Landsat TM images. The vegetation and topography to burn severity relationships were evaluated at three fire-size levels of small (1,000 ha, n = 3). Our results showed that vegetation and topography to burn severity relationships were fire-size-dependent. The burn severity of small fires was primary controlled by vegetation conditions (e.g., understory cover), and the burn severity of large fires was strongly influenced by topographic conditions (e.g., elevation). For moderate fires, the relationships were complex and indistinguishable. Our results also indicated that the pattern trends of relative importance for both vegetation and topography factors were not dependent on fire size. Our study can help managers to design fire management plans according to vegetation characteristics that are found important in controlling burn severity and prioritize management locations based on the relative importance of vegetation and topography.

  19. Improved survival with an innovative approach to the treatment of severely burned patients: development of a burn treatment manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisada, S; Nosaka, N; Tsukahara, K; Ugawa, T; Sato, K; Ujike, Y

    2015-09-30

    The management of severely burned patients remains a major issue worldwide as indicated by the high incidence of permanent debilitating complications and poor survival rates. In April 2012, the Advanced Emergency & Critical Care Medical Center of the Okayama University Hospital began implementing guidelines for severely burned patients, distributed as a standard burn treatment manual. The protocol, developed in-house, was validated by comparing the outcomes of patients with severe extensive burns (SEB) treated before and after implementation of these new guidelines at this institution. The patients included in this study had a burn index (BI) ≥30 or a prognostic burn index (PBI = BI + patient's age) ≥100. The survival rate of the patients with BI ≥30 was 65.2% with the traditional treatment and 100% with the new guidelines. Likewise, the survival rate of the patients with PBI ≥100 was 61.1% with the traditional treatment compared to 100% with the new guidelines. Together, these data demonstrate that the new treatment guidelines dramatically improved the treatment outcome and survival of SEB patients.

  20. Burn Severity Dominates Understory Plant Community Response to Fire in Xeric Jack Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Pinno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fire is the most common disturbance in northern boreal forests, and large fires are often associated with highly variable burn severities across the burnt area. We studied the understory plant community response to a range of burn severities and pre-fire stand age four growing seasons after the 2011 Richardson Fire in xeric jack pine forests of northern Alberta, Canada. Burn severity had the greatest impact on post-fire plant communities, while pre-fire stand age did not have a significant impact. Total plant species richness and cover decreased with disturbance severity, such that the greatest richness was in low severity burns (average 28 species per 1-m2 quadrat and plant cover was lowest in the high severity burns (average 16%. However, the response of individual plant groups differed. Lichens and bryophytes were most common in low severity burns and were effectively eliminated from the regenerating plant community at higher burn severities. In contrast, graminoid cover and richness were positively related to burn severity, while forbs did not respond significantly to burn severity, but were impacted by changes in soil chemistry with increased cover at pH >4.9. Our results indicate the importance of non-vascular plants to the overall plant community in this harsh environment and that the plant community is environmentally limited rather than recruitment or competition limited, as is often the case in more mesic forest types. If fire frequency and severity increase as predicted, we may see a shift in plant communities from stress-tolerant species, such as lichens and ericaceous shrubs, to more colonizing species, such as certain graminoids.

  1. A project for monitoring trends in burn severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Schwind, Brian; Brewer, Ken; Zhu, Zhu-Liang; Quayle, Brad; Howard, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    Jeff Eidenshink, Brian Schwind, Ken Brewer, Zhi-Liang Zhu, Brad Quayle, and Elected officials and leaders of environmental agencies need information about the effects of large wildfires in order to set policy and make management decisions. Recently, the Wildland Fire Leadership Council (WFLC), which implements and coordinates the National Fire Plan (NFP) and Federal Wildland Fire Management Policies (National Fire Plan 2004), adopted a strategy to monitor the effectiveness of the National Fire Plan and the Healthy Forests Restoration Act (HFRA). One component of this strategy is to assess the environmental impacts of large wildland fires and identify the trends of burn severity on all lands across the United States. To that end, WFLC has sponsored a six-year project, Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS), which requires the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDA-FS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to map and assess the burn severity for all large current and historical fires. Using Landsat data and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm, the USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) and USDA-FS Remote Sensing Applications Center will map burn severity of all fires since 1984 greater than 202 ha (500ac) in the east, and 404 ha (1,000 ac) in the west. The number of historical fires from this period combined with current fires occurring during the course of the project will exceed 9,000. The MTBS project will generate burn severity data, maps, and reports, which will be available for use at local, state, and national levels to evaluate trends in burn severity and help develop and assess the effectiveness of land management decisions. Additionally, the information developed will provide a baseline from which to monitor the recovery and health of fire-affected landscapes over time. Spatial and tabular data quantifying burn severity will augment existing information used to estimate risk associated with a range

  2. Total inpatient treatment costs in patients with severe burns: towards a more accurate reimbursement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Tarun; Koljonen, Virve; Seifert, Burkhardt; Volbracht, Jörk; Giovanoli, Pietro; Plock, Jan; Moos, Rudolf Maria

    2015-01-01

    Reimbursement systems have difficulties depicting the actual cost of burn treatment, leaving care providers with a significant financial burden. Our aim was to establish a simple and accurate reimbursement model compatible with prospective payment systems. A total of 370 966 electronic medical records of patients discharged in 2012 to 2013 from Swiss university hospitals were reviewed. A total of 828 cases of burns including 109 cases of severe burns were retained. Costs, revenues and earnings for severe and nonsevere burns were analysed and a linear regression model predicting total inpatient treatment costs was established. The median total costs per case for severe burns was tenfold higher than for nonsevere burns (179 949 CHF [167 353 EUR] vs 11 312 CHF [10 520 EUR], interquartile ranges 96 782-328 618 CHF vs 4 874-27 783 CHF, p <0.001). The median of earnings per case for nonsevere burns was 588 CHF (547 EUR) (interquartile range -6 720 - 5 354 CHF) whereas severe burns incurred a large financial loss to care providers, with median earnings of -33 178 CHF (30 856 EUR) (interquartile range -95 533 - 23 662 CHF). Differences were highly significant (p <0.001). Our linear regression model predicting total costs per case with length of stay (LOS) as independent variable had an adjusted R2 of 0.67 (p <0.001 for LOS). Severe burns are systematically underfunded within the Swiss reimbursement system. Flat-rate DRG-based refunds poorly reflect the actual treatment costs. In conclusion, we suggest a reimbursement model based on a per diem rate for treatment of severe burns.

  3. Live Skin Allograft in the Management of Severe Burns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    skin substitute should in some way be incorporated into the healing wound as ... liquid nitrogen or they may be lyophilized and freeze- dried (4, 5). ... more severe the burn the greater the degree of immunosuppresion. ... Humby knife under spinal anesthesia. .... Alloantibody Effect on Skin Graft Survival in Mice. Hiroshima J ...

  4. [Clinical and biological monitoring of nutritional status in severe burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargues, L; Cottez-Gacia, S; Jault, P; Renard, C; Vest, P

    2009-01-01

    Burn patients are subject to hypermetabolism and catabolic states. Aim was to evaluate our current practice in nutrition. Twenty-one severely burned patients were prospectively included during three months period. Body weight was measured at least two times in a week during all stay in burn ICU. Biological markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, CRP) and nutrition (prealbumin) were performed weekly. Protocol included early nasogastric feeding, tolerated gastric stasis less than 250 mL at four hours nasogastric aspirations, caloric target value of 40 Kcal/kg per day and measurement of total daily calorie intakes. Patient demographics showed a mean percent total body surface burn of 51.1+/-27 % (range 20-90), age of 38.7+/-13.1 years (range 18-67) and 57.3 % of smoke inhalation. All patients were ventilated and 19 patients survived. Length of stay was 75.7+/-47 days (range 22-184). Patients received only 58.9+/-10 % of calorie intakes recommended by French burn society. Loss of body mass was 15.2+/-9 kg (range 3-31) or 19.1+/-10 % of admission weight (range 5-37). Erosion of body mass was not correlated with burned surface (p=0.08), calorie intakes (p=0.26), smoke inhalation (p=0.46), lengths of stay (p=0.53), lengths of ventilation (p=0.08) or nutrition (p=0.12), days of antibiotic (p=0.72), number of dressing changes (p=0.6) or surgery (p=0.64). Biological parameters showed CRP decreasing and prealbumin improving values. New strategies of nutrition are necessary to improve outcome and reduce body mass loss in burns.

  5. Sodium butyrate protects against severe burn-induced remote acute lung injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Liang

    Full Text Available High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1, a ubiquitous nuclear protein, drives proinflammatory responses when released extracellularly. It plays a key role as a distal mediator in the development of acute lung injury (ALI. Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has been demonstrated to inhibit HMGB1 expression. This study investigates the effect of sodium butyrate on burn-induced lung injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: 1 sham group, sham burn treatment; 2 burn group, third-degree burns over 30% total body surface area (TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution for resuscitation; 3 burn plus sodium butyrate group, third-degree burns over 30% TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution containing sodium butyrate for resuscitation. The burned animals were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 48 h after burn injury. Lung injury was assessed in terms of histologic changes and wet weight to dry weight (W/D ratio. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-8 protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HMGB1 expression in the lung was determined by Western blot analysis. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration were measured to reflect neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress in the lung, respectively. As a result, sodium butyrate significantly inhibited the HMGB1 expressions in the lungs, reduced the lung W/D ratio, and improved the pulmonary histologic changes induced by burn trauma. Furthermore, sodium butyrate administration decreased the TNF-α and IL-8 concentrations in BALF and serum, suppressed MPO activity, and reduced the MDA content in the lungs after severe burn. These results suggest that sodium butyrate attenuates inflammatory responses, neutrophil infiltration, and oxidative stress in the lungs, and protects against remote ALI induced by severe burn, which is associated with inhibiting HMGB1

  6. Hot soup! Correlating the severity of liquid scald burns to fluid and biomedical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loller, Cameron; Buxton, Gavin A; Kerzmann, Tony L

    2016-05-01

    Burns caused by hot drinks and soups can be both debilitating and costly, especially to pediatric and geriatric patients. This research is aimed at better understanding the fluid properties that can influence the severity of skin burns. We use a standard model which combines heat transfer and biomedical equations to predict burn severity. In particular, experimental data from a physical model serves as the input to our numerical model to determine the severity of scald burns as a consequence of actual fluid flows. This technique enables us to numerically predict the heat transfer from the hot soup into the skin, without the need to numerically estimate the complex fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the potentially highly viscous and heterogeneous soup. While the temperature of the soup is obviously is the most important fact in determining the degree of burn, we also find that more viscous fluids result in more severe burns, as the slower flowing thicker fluids remain in contact with the skin for longer. Furthermore, other factors can also increase the severity of burn such as a higher initial fluid temperature, a greater fluid thermal conductivity, or a higher thermal capacity of the fluid. Our combined experimental and numerical investigation finds that for average skin properties a very viscous fluid at 100°C, the fluid must be in contact with the skin for around 15-20s to cause second degree burns, and more than 80s to cause a third degree burn. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Vegetation burn severity mapping using Landsat-8 and WorldView-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhuoting; Middleton, Barry R.; Hetzler, Robert; Vogel, John M.; Dye, Dennis G.

    2015-01-01

    We used remotely sensed data from the Landsat-8 and WorldView-2 satellites to estimate vegetation burn severity of the Creek Fire on the San Carlos Apache Reservation, where wildfire occurrences affect the Tribe's crucial livestock and logging industries. Accurate pre- and post-fire canopy maps at high (0.5-meter) resolution were created from World- View-2 data to generate canopy loss maps, and multiple indices from pre- and post-fire Landsat-8 images were used to evaluate vegetation burn severity. Normalized difference vegetation index based vegetation burn severity map had the highest correlation coefficients with canopy loss map from WorldView-2. Two distinct approaches - canopy loss mapping from WorldView-2 and spectral index differencing from Landsat-8 - agreed well with the field-based burn severity estimates and are both effective for vegetation burn severity mapping. Canopy loss maps created with WorldView-2 imagery add to a short list of accurate vegetation burn severity mapping techniques that can help guide effective management of forest resources on the San Carlos Apache Reservation, and the broader fire-prone regions of the Southwest.

  8. Clostridium difficile infections in patients with severe burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    placards indicating that hand hygiene should involve soap and water. Periodic hand hygiene compliance surveys have indicated relatively consistent...care unit: epidemiology, costs, and colonization pressure. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28:123–30. [6] Marcon AP, Gamba MA, Vianna LA. Nosocomial ...Clostridium difficile infections in patients with severe burns§ Scott J. Crabtree a, Janelle L. Robertson a,b, Kevin K. Chung c, Evan M. Renz b,c

  9. Sensitivity of Landsat image-derived burn severity indices to immediate post-fire effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. T. Hudak; S. Lewis; P. Robichaud; P. Morgan; M. Bobbitt; L. Lentile; A. Smith; Z. Holden; J. Clark; R. McKinley

    2006-01-01

    The USFS Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC) and the USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) produce Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) maps as a rapid, preliminary indication of burn severity on large wildfire events. Currently the preferred burn severity index is the delta Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR), which requires NBR values...

  10. Burn severity of areas reburned by wildfires in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary A. Holden; Penelope Morgan; Andrew T. Hudak

    2010-01-01

    We describe satellite-inferred burn severity patterns of areas that were burned and then reburned by wildland fire from 1984 to 2004 within the Gila Aldo Leopold Wilderness Complex, New Mexico, USA. Thirteen fires have burned 27 000 hectares across multiple vegetation types at intervals between fires ranging from 3 yr to 14 yr. Burn severity of reburned areas showed...

  11. Land surface temperature as potential indicator of burn severity in forest Mediterranean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintano, C.; Fernández-Manso, A.; Calvo, L.; Marcos, E.; Valbuena, L.

    2015-04-01

    Forest fires are one of the most important causes of environmental alteration in Mediterranean countries. Discrimination of different degrees of burn severity is critical for improving management of fire-affected areas. This paper aims to evaluate the usefulness of land surface temperature (LST) as potential indicator of burn severity. We used a large convention-dominated wildfire, which occurred on 19-21 September, 2012 in Northwestern Spain. From this area, a 1-year series of six LST images were generated from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data using a single channel algorithm. Further, the Composite Burn Index (CBI) was measured in 111 field plots to identify the burn severity level (low, moderate, and high). Evaluation of the potential relationship between post-fire LST and ground measured CBI was performed by both correlation analysis and regression models. Correlation coefficients were higher in the immediate post-fire LST images, but decreased during the fall of 2012 and increased again with a second maximum value in summer, 2013. A linear regression model between post-fire LST and CBI allowed us to represent spatially predicted CBI (R-squaredadj > 85%). After performing an analysis of variance (ANOVA) between post-fire LST and CBI, a Fisher's least significant difference test determined that two burn severity levels (low-moderate and high) could be statistically distinguished. The identification of such burn severity levels is sufficient and useful to forest managers. We conclude that summer post-fire LST from moderate resolution satellite data may be considered as a valuable indicator of burn severity for large fires in Mediterranean forest ecosytems.

  12. Can we make an early 'do not resuscitate' decision in severe burn patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüce, Yücel; Acar, Hakan Ahmet; Erkal, Kutlu Hakan; Tuncay, Erhan

    2017-03-01

    , early do-not-resuscitate or do-not-intubate protocol for these patients is suggested. Resources could then be directed to other patients with high expectancy of life and patients with burns that are beyond treatment can experience more comfortable end of life. At present in Turkey, it is not possible to give DNR order for patient with severe burns that are incompatible with survival due to legal interdiction. This subject should be discussed at high-level meetings with participation of doctors, legal experts, economists, and theologians.

  13. [Effects of hydrogen on the lung damage of mice at early stage of severe burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, C; Bian, Y X; Feng, T T; Zhang, J H; Yu, Y H

    2017-11-20

    Objective: To investigate the effects of hydrogen on the lung damage of mice at early stage of severe burn. Methods: One hundred and sixty ICR mice were divided into sham injury, hydrogen, pure burn, and burn+ hydrogen groups according to the random number table, with 40 mice in each group. Mice in pure burn group and burn+ hydrogen group were inflicted with 40% total body surface area full-thickness scald (hereafter referred to as burn) on the back, while mice in sham injury group and hydrogen group were sham injured. Mice in hydrogen group and burn+ hydrogen group inhaled 2% hydrogen for 1 h at post injury hour (PIH) 1 and 6, respectively, while mice in sham injury group and pure burn group inhaled air for 1 h. At PIH 24, lung tissue of six mice in each group was harvested, and then pathological changes of lung tissue were observed by HE staining and the lung tissue injury pathological score was calculated. Inferior vena cava blood and lung tissue of other eight mice in each group were obtained, and then content of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum and lung tissue was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and lung tissue was detected by spectrophotometry. After arterial blood of other six mice in each group was collected for detection of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2)), the wet and dry weight of lung tissue were weighted to calculate lung wet to dry weight ratio. The survival rates of the other twenty mice in each group during post injury days 7 were calculated. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, LSD test and log-rank test. Results: (1) At PIH 24, lung tissue of mice in sham injury group and hydrogen group showed no abnormality. Mice in pure burn group were with pulmonary interstitial edema, serious rupture of alveolar capillary wall, and infiltration of a large number of inflammatory cells. Mice in burn+ hydrogen group were with mild

  14. Effects of Burn Severity and Environmental Conditions on Post-Fire Regeneration in Siberian Larch Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Chu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-fire forest regeneration is strongly influenced by abiotic and biotic heterogeneity in the pre- and post-fire environments, including fire regimes, species characteristics, landforms, hydrology, regional climate, and soil properties. Assessing these drivers is key to understanding the long-term effects of fire disturbances on forest succession. We evaluated multiple factors influencing patterns of variability in a post-fire boreal Larch (Larix sibirica forest in Siberia. A time-series of remote sensing images was analyzed to estimate post-fire recovery as a response variable across the burned area in 1996. Our results suggested that burn severity and water content were primary controllers of both Larch forest recruitment and green vegetation cover as defined by the forest recovery index (FRI and the fractional vegetation cover (FVC, respectively. We found a high rate of Larch forest recruitment in sites of moderate burn severity, while a more severe burn was the preferable condition for quick occupation by vegetation that included early seral communities of shrubs, grasses, conifers and broadleaf trees. Sites close to water and that received higher solar energy during the summer months showed a higher rate of both recovery types, defined by the FRI and FVC, dependent on burn severity. In addition to these factors, topographic variables and pre-fire condition were important predictors of post-fire forest patterns. These results have direct implications for the post-fire forest management in the Siberian boreal Larch region.

  15. Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Vogelmann, James E.; Rollins, Matt; Ohlen, Donald; Key, Carl H.; Yang, Limin; Huang, Chengquan; Shi, Hua

    2011-01-01

    It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can providemultitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed burn severity, and to provide a practical method to estimate burn severity and vegetation recovery. The study site is the Jasper Fire area in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, that burned during August and September 2000. Six multitemporal Landsat images acquired from 2000 (pre-fire), 2001 (post-fire), 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to assess burn severity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized burn ratio (NBR), integrated forest index (IFI) and the differences of these indices between the pre-fire and post-fire years were computed and analysed with 66 field-based composite burn index (CBI) plots collected in 2002. Results showed that differences of NDVI and differences of EVI between the pre-fire year and the first two years post-fire were highly correlated with the CBI scores. The correlations were low beyond the second year post-fire. Differences of NBR had good correlation with CBI scores in all study years. Differences of IFI had low correlation with CBI in the first year post-fire and had good correlation in later years. A CBI map of the burnt area was produced using regression tree models and the multitemporal images. The dynamics of four spectral indices from 2000 to 2007 indicated that both NBR and IFI are valuable for monitoring long-term vegetation recovery. The high burn severity areas had a much slower recovery than the moderate and low burn areas.

  16. Vegetation, topography and daily weather influenced burn severity in central Idaho and western Montana forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan S. Birch; Penelope Morgan; Crystal A. Kolden; John T. Abatzoglou; Gregory K. Dillon; Andrew T. Hudak; Alistair M. S. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Burn severity as inferred from satellite-derived differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) is useful for evaluating fire impacts on ecosystems but the environmental controls on burn severity across large forest fires are both poorly understood and likely to be different than those influencing fire extent. We related dNBR to environmental variables including vegetation,...

  17. [Severe ocular burns by calcium carbide in a speleologist: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, F; Voegtlé, R; Nordmann, J P; Descotes, J

    2002-03-01

    A case of severe ocular burns in an amateur speleologist is reported. The explosion of his acetylene lamp caused the projection of calcium carbide particles, which induced burning of the cornea and conjunctiva in both eyes. He slowly recovered in several months. The pathophysiology of the burns, linked to the in situ production of lime, and their management are discussed.

  18. Peatland water repellency: Importance of soil water content, moss species, and burn severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P. A.; Lukenbach, M. C.; Kettridge, N.; Petrone, R. M.; Devito, K. J.; Waddington, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, with northern peat reserves expected to become more vulnerable to wildfire as climate change enhances the length and severity of the fire season. Recent research suggests that high water table positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). Post-fire recovery of the moss surface in Sphagnum-feathermoss peatlands, however, has been shown to be limited where moss type and burn severity interact to result in a water repellent surface. While in situ measurements of moss water repellency in peatlands have been shown to be greater for feathermoss in both a burned and unburned state in comparison to Sphagnum moss, it is difficult to separate the effect of water content from species. Consequently, we carried out a laboratory based drying experiment where we compared the water repellency of two dominant peatland moss species, Sphagnum and feathermoss, for several burn severity classes including unburned samples. The results suggest that water repellency in moss is primarily controlled by water content, where a sharp threshold exists at gravimetric water contents (GWC) lower than ∼1.4 g g-1. While GWC is shown to be a strong predictor of water repellency, the effect is enhanced by burning. Based on soil water retention curves, we suggest that it is highly unlikely that Sphagnum will exhibit strong hydrophobic conditions under field conditions.

  19. Burned Area Detection and Burn Severity Assessment of a Heathland Fire in Belgium Using Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy (APEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennert Schepers

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled, large fires are a major threat to the biodiversity of protected heath landscapes. The severity of the fire is an important factor influencing vegetation recovery. We used airborne imaging spectroscopy data from the Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX sensor to: (1 investigate which spectral regions and spectral indices perform best in discriminating burned from unburned areas; and (2 assess the burn severity of a recent fire in the Kalmthoutse Heide, a heathland area in Belgium. A separability index was used to estimate the effectiveness of individual bands and spectral indices to discriminate between burned and unburned land. For the burn severity analysis, a modified version of the Geometrically structured Composite Burn Index (GeoCBI was developed for the field data collection. The field data were collected in four different vegetation types: Calluna vulgaris-dominated heath (dry heath, Erica tetralix-dominated heath (wet heath, Molinia caerulea (grass-encroached heath, and coniferous woodland. Discrimination between burned and unburned areas differed among vegetation types. For the pooled dataset, bands in the near infrared (NIR spectral region demonstrated the highest discriminatory power, followed by short wave infrared (SWIR bands. Visible wavelengths performed considerably poorer. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR outperformed the other spectral indices and the individual spectral bands in discriminating between burned and unburned areas. For the burn severity assessment, all spectral bands and indices showed low correlations with the field data GeoCBI, when data of all pre-fire vegetation types were pooled (R2 maximum 0.41. Analysis per vegetation type, however, revealed considerably higher correlations (R2 up to 0.78. The Mid Infrared Burn Index (MIRBI had the highest correlations for Molinia and Erica (R2 = 0.78 and 0.42, respectively. In Calluna stands, the Char Soil Index (CSI achieved the highest correlations, with R2 = 0

  20. Heterogeneity in fire severity within early season and late season prescribed burns in a mixed-conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, E.E.; Keeley, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Structural heterogeneity in forests of the Sierra Nevada was historically produced through variation in fire regimes and local environmental factors. The amount of heterogeneity that prescription burning can achieve might now be more limited owing to high fuel loads and increased fuel continuity. Topography, woody fuel loading, and vegetative composition were quantified in plots within replicated early and late season burn units. Two indices of fire severity were evaluated in the same plots after the burns. Scorch height ranged from 2.8 to 25.4 m in early season plots and 3.1 to 38.5 m in late season plots, whereas percentage of ground surface burned ranged from 24 to 96% in early season plots and from 47 to 100% in late season plots. Scorch height was greatest in areas with steeper slopes, higher basal area of live trees, high percentage of basal area composed of pine, and more small woody fuel. Percentage of area burned was greatest in areas with less bare ground and rock cover (more fuel continuity), steeper slopes, and units burned in the fall (lower fuel moisture). Thus topographic and biotic factors still contribute to the abundant heterogeneity in fire severity with prescribed burning, even under the current high fuel loading conditions. Burning areas with high fuel loads in early season when fuels are moister may lead to patterns of heterogeneity in fire effects that more closely approximate the expected patchiness of historical fires.

  1. Predictors of muscle protein synthesis after severe pediatric burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Following a major burn, muscle protein synthesis rate increases but in most patients, this response is not sufficient to compensate the also elevated protein breakdown. Given the long-term nature of the pathophysiologic response to burn injury, we hypothesized that skeletal muscle prot...

  2. Outcome after burns: an observational study on burn scar maturation and predictors for severe scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Martijn B A; Vloemans, Jos F P M; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; van de Ven, Peter; van Unen, Ella; van Zuijlen, Paul P M; Middelkoop, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Long-term outcome of burn scars as well as the relation with clinically relevant parameters has not been studied quantitatively. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis on the clinical changes of burn scars in a longitudinal setup. In addition, we focused on the differences in scar quality in relation to the depth, etiology of the burn wound and age of the patient. Burn scars of 474 patients were subjected to a scar assessment protocol 3, 6, and 12 months postburn. Three different age groups were defined (≤5, 5-18, and ≥18 years). The observer part of the patient and observer scar assessment scale revealed a significant (p burned (p  0.230) have no significant influence on scar quality when corrected for sex, total body surface area burned, time, and age or etiology, respectively. © 2012 by the Wound Healing Society.

  3. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells transplantation promotes cutaneous wound healing of severe burned rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingying Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe burns are a common and highly lethal trauma. The key step for severe burn therapy is to promote the wound healing as early as possible, and reports indicate that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC therapy contributes to facilitate wound healing. In this study, we investigated effect of human umbilical cord MSCs (hUC-MSCs could on wound healing in a rat model of severe burn and its potential mechanism. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, burn, and burn transplanted hUC-MSCs. GFP labeled hUC-MSCs or PBS was intravenous injected into respective groups. The rate of wound closure was evaluated by Image Pro Plus. GFP-labeled hUC-MSCs were tracked by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI, and human-specific DNA expression in wounds was detected by PCR. Inflammatory cells, neutrophils, macrophages, capillaries and collagen types I/III in wounds were evaluated by histochemical staining. Wound blood flow was evaluated by laser Doppler blood flow meter. The levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, VEGF, collagen types I/III in wounds were analyzed using an ELISA. RESULTS: We found that wound healing was significantly accelerated in the hUC-MSC therapy group. The hUC-MSCs migrated into wound and remarkably decreased the quantity of infiltrated inflammatory cells and levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and increased levels of IL-10 and TSG-6 in wounds. Additionally, the neovascularization and levels of VEGF in wounds in the hUC-MSC therapy group were markedly higher than those in other control groups. The ratio of collagen types I and III in the hUC-MSC therapy group were markedly higher than that in the burn group at indicated time after transplantation. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that hUC-MSCs transplantation can effectively improve wound healing in severe burned rat model. Moreover, these data might provide the theoretical foundation for the further clinical application of hUC-MSC in burn areas.

  4. Examining Spatial Variation in the Effects of Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora on Burn Severity Using Geographically Weighted Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Joo Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Burn severity has profound impacts on the response of post-fire forest ecosystems to fire events. Numerous previous studies have reported that burn severity is determined by variables such as meteorological conditions, pre-fire forest structure, and fuel characteristics. An underlying assumption of these studies was the constant effects of environmental variables on burn severity over space, and these analyses therefore did not consider the spatial dimension. This study examined spatial variation in the effects of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora on burn severity. Specifically, this study investigated the presence of spatially varying relationships between Japanese red pine and burn severity due to changes in slope and elevation. We estimated conventional ordinary least squares (OLS and geographically weighted regression (GWR models and compared them using three criteria; the coefficients of determination (R2, Akaike information criterion for small samples (AICc, and Moran’s I-value. The GWR model performed considerably better than the OLS model in explaining variation in burn severity. The results provided strong evidence that the effect of Japanese red pine on burn severity was not constant but varied spatially. Elevation was a significant factor in the variation in the effects of Japanese red pine on burn severity. The influence of red pine on burn severity was considerably higher in low-elevation areas but became less important than the other variables in high-elevation areas. The results of this study can be applied to location-specific strategies for forest managers and can be adopted to improve fire simulation models to more realistically mimic the nature of fire behavior.

  5. Outcome after burns: An observational study on burn scar maturation and predictors for severe scarring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, M.B.A.; Vloemans, J.F.P.M.; Tuinebreijer, W.E.; van de Ven, P.M.; van Unen, E.; van Zuijlen, P.P.M.; Middelkoop, E.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term outcome of burn scars as well as the relation with clinically relevant parameters has not been studied quantitatively. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis on the clinical changes of burn scars in a longitudinal setup. In addition, we focused on the differences in scar quality in

  6. Integrating satellite imagery with simulation modeling to improve burn severity mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva C. Karau; Pamela G. Sikkink; Robert E. Keane; Gregory K. Dillon

    2014-01-01

    Both satellite imagery and spatial fire effects models are valuable tools for generating burn severity maps that are useful to fire scientists and resource managers. The purpose of this study was to test a new mapping approach that integrates imagery and modeling to create more accurate burn severity maps. We developed and assessed a statistical model that combines the...

  7. Prehospital cooling of severe burns: Experience of the Emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only cooling performed by the patient, their family, bystanders or prehospital staff was recorded. Cooling performed by the Edendale Hospital ED staff was not included. Duration of cooling with water was documented as per the report given by the patient. Variables assessed included age, gender, time of burn, day of week,.

  8. Severe burning treatment tested on lowland pine sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; E. B. Moore

    1953-01-01

    Since the prescribed use of fire is a fairly new silvicultural technique for preparing seedbeds for pine in the New Jersey pine region, it has been used rather cautiously. Burning treatments have been made in the winter, when periodic light fires can be easily controlled. The treatments have been used almost exclusively on upland sites.

  9. The effect of seasonality on burn incidence, severity and outcome in Central Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Anna F; Gallaher, Jared; Mjuweni, Stephen; Cairns, Bruce A; Charles, Anthony G

    2017-08-01

    In much of the world, burns are more common in cold months. However, few studies have described the seasonality of burns in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines the effect of seasonality on the incidence and outcome of burns in central Malawi. A retrospective analysis was performed at Kamuzu Central Hospital and included all patients admitted from May 2011 to August 2014. Demographic data, burn mechanism, total body surface area (%TBSA), and mortality were analyzed. Seasons were categorized as Rainy (December-February), Lush (March-May), Cold (June-August) and Hot (September-November). A negative binomial regression was used to assess the effect of seasonality on burn incidence. This was performed using both the raw and deseasonalized data in order to evaluate for trends not attributable to random fluctuation. A total of 905 patients were included. Flame (38%) and Scald (59%) burns were the most common mechanism. More burns occurred during the cold season (41% vs 19-20% in the other seasons). Overall mortality was 19%. Only the cold season had a statistically significant increase in burn . The incidence rate ratios (IRR) for the hot, lush, and cold seasons were 0.94 (CI 0.6-1.32), 1.02 (CI 0.72-1.45) and 1.6 (CI 1.17-2.19), respectively, when compared to the rainy season. Burn severity and mortality did not differ between seasons. The results of this study demonstrate the year-round phenomenon of burns treated at our institution, and highlights the slight predominance of burns during the cold season. These data can be used to guide prevention strategies, with special attention to the implications of the increased burn incidence during the cold season. Though burn severity and mortality remain relatively unchanged between seasons, recognizing the seasonal variability in incidence of burns is critical for resource allocation in this low-income setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. [Advance on human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of ALI in severe burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Hu, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    Severe burn is often accompanied by multiple organ damage. Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the most common complications, and often occurs in the early stage of severe burns. If it is not treated in time, it will progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which will be a serious threat to the lives of patients. At present, the treatment of ALI in patients with severe burn is still remained in some common ways, such as the liquid resuscitation, the primary wound treatment, ventilation support, and anti-infection. In recently, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have been found having some good effects on ALI caused by various causes, but few reports on the efficacy of ALI caused by severe burns were reported. By reviewing the mechanism of stem cell therapy for ALI, therapeutic potential of hUCMSCs in the treatment of severe burns with ALI and a new approach for clinical treatment was provided.

  11. TNF-α/IL-10 ratio correlates with burn severity and may serve as a risk predictor of increased susceptibility to infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Tsurumi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn injury renders patients susceptible to multiple infection episodes, however identifying specific patient groups at high risk remains challenging. Burn-induced inflammatory response dramatically modifies the levels of various cytokines. Whether these changes could predict susceptibility to infections remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the early changes in the pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratio and investigate its ability to predict susceptibility to repeated infections after severe burn trauma. The patient population consisted of 34 adult patients having early (≤48 hours since injury blood draws following severe (≥20% total burn surface area (TBSA burn injury, and suffering from a first infection episode at least one day after blood collection. Plasma TNF-α and IL-10 levels were measured to explore the association between the TNF-α/IL-10 ratio, hypersusceptibility to infections, burn size (TBSA, and common severity scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHEII, Baux, modified Baux (R-Baux, Ryan Score, Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI. TNF-α/IL10 plasma ratio measured shortly after burn trauma was inversely correlated with burn size and the injury severity scores investigated, and was predictive of repeated infections (≥3 infection episodes outcome (AUROC [95%CI] of 0.80 [0.63–0.93]. Early measures of circulating TNF-α/IL10 ratio may be a previously unidentified biomarker associated with burn injury severity and predictive of the risk of hypersusceptibility to repeated infections.

  12. "Fire Moss" Cover and Function in Severely Burned Forests of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, H.; Doherty, K.; Sieg, C.; Robichaud, P. R.; Fulé, P. Z.; Bowker, M.

    2017-12-01

    With wildfires increasing in severity and extent throughout the Western United States, land managers need new tools to stabilize recently burned ecosystems. "Fire moss" consists of three species, Ceratodon purpureus, Funaria hygrometrica, and Bryum argentum. These mosses colonize burned landscapes quickly, aggregate soils, have extremely high water holding capacity, and can be grown rapidly ex-situ. In this talk, I will focus on our efforts to understand how Fire Moss naturally interacts with severely burned landscapes. We examined 14 fires in Arizona, New Mexico, Washington, and Idaho selecting a range of times since fire, and stratified plots within each wildfire by winter insolation and elevation. At 75+ plots we measured understory plant cover, ground cover, Fire Moss cover, and Fire Moss reproductive effort. On plots in the Southwest, we measured a suite of soil characteristics on moss covered and adjacent bare soil including aggregate stability, shear strength, compressional strength, and infiltration rates. Moss cover ranged from 0-75% with a mean of 16% across all plots and was inversely related to insolation (R2 = .32, p = stability and infiltration rates as adjacent bare ground. These results will allow us to model locations where Fire Moss will naturally increase postfire hillslope soil stability, locations for targeting moss restoration efforts, and suggest that Fire Moss could be a valuable tool to mitigate post wildfire erosion.

  13. Normalized burn ratios link fire severity with patterns of avian occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Eli T.; Simons, Theodore R.; Klein, Rob; McKerrow, Alexa

    2016-01-01

    ContextRemotely sensed differenced normalized burn ratios (DNBR) provide an index of fire severity across the footprint of a fire. We asked whether this index was useful for explaining patterns of bird occurrence within fire adapted xeric pine-oak forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains.ObjectivesWe evaluated the use of DNBR indices for linking ecosystem process with patterns of bird occurrence. We compared field-based and remotely sensed fire severity indices and used each to develop occupancy models for six bird species to identify patterns of bird occurrence following fire.MethodsWe identified and sampled 228 points within fires that recently burned within Great Smoky Mountains National Park. We performed avian point counts and field-assessed fire severity at each bird census point. We also used Landsat™ imagery acquired before and after each fire to quantify fire severity using DNBR. We used non-parametric methods to quantify agreement between fire severity indices, and evaluated single season occupancy models incorporating fire severity summarized at different spatial scales.ResultsAgreement between field-derived and remotely sensed measures of fire severity was influenced by vegetation type. Although occurrence models using field-derived indices of fire severity outperformed those using DNBR, summarizing DNBR at multiple spatial scales provided additional insights into patterns of occurrence associated with different sized patches of high severity fire.ConclusionsDNBR is useful for linking the effects of fire severity to patterns of bird occurrence, and informing how high severity fire shapes patterns of bird species occurrence on the landscape.

  14. Contributions of Severe Burn and Disuse to Bone Structure and Strength in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, L.A.; Wu, X.; Tou, J. C.; Johnson, E.; Wolf, S.E.; Wade, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    Burn and disuse results in metabolic and bone changes associated with substantial and sustained bone loss. Such loss can lead to an increased fracture incidence and osteopenia. We studied the independent effects of burn and disuse on bone morphology, composition and strength, and microstructure of the bone alterations 14 days after injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: Sham/Ambulatory (SA), Burn/Ambulatory (BA), Sham/Hindlimb Unloaded (SH) and Burn/Hindlimb Unloaded (BH). Burn groups received a 40% total body surface area full-thickness scald burn. Disuse by hindlimb unloading was initiated immediately following injury. Bone turnover was determined in plasma and urine. Femur biomechanical parameters were measured by three-point bending tests and bone microarchitecture was determined by microcomputed tomography (uCT). On day 14, a significant reduction in body mass was observed as a result of burn, disuse and a combination of both. In terms of bone health, disuse alone and in combination affected femur weight, length and bone mineral content. Bending failure energy, an index of femur strength, was significantly reduced in all groups and maximum bending stress was lower when burn and disuse were combined. Osteocalcin was reduced in BA compared to the other groups, indicating influence of burn. The reductions observed in femur weight, BMC, biomechanical parameters and indices of bone formation are primarily responses to the combination of burn and disuse. These results offer insight into bone degradation following severe injury and disuse. PMID:23142361

  15. Adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy in severe burns: Experience in Taiwan Formosa Water Park dust explosion disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, I-Han; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Huang, Kun-Lun; Chou, Yu-Ching; Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Peng, Chung-Kan

    2017-06-01

    Despite major advances in therapeutic strategies for the management of patients with severe burns, significant morbidity and mortality is observed. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) increases the supply of oxygen to burn areas. The aim of this study was to determine whether HBOT is effective in the treatment of major thermal burns. On June 27, 2015 in New Taipei, Taiwan, a mass casualty disaster occurred as fire erupted over a large crowd, injuring 499 people. Fifty-three victims (20 women and 33 men) were admitted to Tri-Service General Hospital. Thirty-eight patients underwent adjunctive HBOT (HBOT group), and 15 patients received routine burn therapy (control group). Serum procalcitonin (PCT) level, a sepsis biomarker, was measured until it reached normal levels (burn care combined with adjunctive HBOT improves sepsis control compared with standard treatment without HBOT. Prospective studies are required to define the role of HBOT in extensive burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Gut microbiota trajectory in patients with severe burn: A time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinying; Yang, Jianbo; Tian, Feng; Zhang, Li; Lei, Qiucheng; Jiang, Tingting; Zhou, Jihong; Yuan, Siming; Wang, Jun; Feng, Zhijian; Li, Jieshou

    2017-12-01

    This time series experiments aimed to investigate the dynamic change of gut microbiomes after severe burn and its association with enteral nutrition (EN). Seven severely burned patients who suffered from a severe metal dust explosion injury were recruited in this study. The dynamic changes of gut microbiome of fecal samples at six time points (1-3days, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6weeks after severe burn) were detected using 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing technology. Following the post-burn temporal order, gut microbiota dysbiosis was detected in the gut microbiome after severe burn, then it was gradually resolved. The bio-diversity of gut bacteria was initially decreased, and then returned to normal level. In addition, at the early stage (from 2 to 4weeks), the majority of those patients' gut microbiome were opportunistic pathogen genus, Enterococcus and Escherichia; while at the end of this study, the majority was a beneficial genus, Bacteroides. EN can promote the recovery of gut microbiota, especially in EN well-tolerated patients. Severe burn injury can cause a dramatic dysbiosis of gut microbiota. A trend of enriched beneficial bacteria and diminished opportunistic pathogen bacteria may serve as prognosis microbiome biomarkers of severe burn patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Full MOX high burn-up PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Tsutomu; Kugo, Teruhiko; Shimada, Shoichiro; Araya, Fumimasa; Ochiai, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-12-01

    As a part of conceptual investigation on advanced light water reactors for the future, a light water reactor with the high burn-up of 100 GWd/t, the long cycle operation of 3 years and the full MOX core is being studied, aiming at the improvement on economical aspects, the reduction of the spent fuel production, the utilization of Plutonium and so forth. The present report summarizes investigation on PWR-type reactors. The core with the increased moderation of the moderator-to-fuel volume ratio of 2.6 {approx} 3.0 has been proposed be such a core that accomplishes requirements mentioned above. Through the neutronic and the thermo-hydrodynamic evaluation, the performances of the core have been evaluated. Also, the safety designing is underway considering the reactor system with the passive safety features. (author)

  18. Fuel treatments and landform modify landscape patterns of burn severity in an extreme fire event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Prichard; Maureen C. Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    Under a rapidly warming climate, a critical management issue in semiarid forests of western North America is how to increase forest resilience to wildfire. We evaluated relationships between fuel reduction treatments and burn severity in the 2006 Tripod Complex fires, which burned over 70 000 ha of mixed-conifer forests in the North Cascades range of Washington State...

  19. Challenges of assessing fire and burn severity using field measures, remote sensing and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penelope Morgan; Robert E. Keane; Gregory K. Dillon; Theresa B. Jain; Andrew T. Hudak; Eva C. Karau; Pamela G. Sikkink; Zachery A. Holden; Eva K. Strand

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of ecological change after fires have burned forests and rangelands is important if we are to understand, predict and measure fire effects. We highlight the challenges in effective assessment of fire and burn severity in the field and using both remote sensing and simulation models. We draw on diverse recent research for guidance on assessing...

  20. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot ... and gases are the most common causes of burns. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by ...

  1. Domestic bioethanol-fireplaces--a new source of severe burn accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubrech, Florian; Kiefer, Jurij; Schmidt, Volker J; Bigdeli, Amir K; Hernekamp, J Frederick; Kremer, Thomas; Kneser, Ulrich; Radu, Christian Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Bioethanol-fueled fireplaces are popular interior home decoration accessories. Although their safety is promoted frequently, actual presentations of severe burn injuries in our burn intensive care unit (ICU) have focused the authors on safety problems with these devices. In this article we want to explore the mechanisms for these accidents and state our experiences with this increasingly relevant risk for severe burn injuries. The computerized medical records of all burn intensive care patients in our burn unit between 2000 and 2014 were studied. Since 2010, 12 patients with bioethanol associated burn injuries were identified. Their data was compared to the values of all patients, except the ones injured by bioethanol fireplaces that presented themselves to our burn ICU between the years 2010 and 2014. At time of admission the bioethanol patients had a mean ABSI-score of 4.8 (+/- 2.2 standard deviation (SD)). A mean of 17 percent (+/- 9.1 SD) body surface area was burned. Involvement of face and hands was very common. An operative treatment was needed in 8 cases. A median of 20 days of hospitalization (range 3-121) and a median of 4.5 days on the ICU (range 1-64) were necessary. No patient died. In most cases the injuries happened while refilling or while starting the fire, even though safety instructions were followed. In the control group, consisting of 748 patients, the mean ABSI-score was 5.6 (+/- 2.7 SD). A mean of 16.5 percent (+/- 10.1 SD) body surface area was burned. Treatment required a median of 3 days on the burn ICU (range 1-120). Regarding these parameters, the burden of disease was comparable in both groups. Bioethanol-fueled fireplaces for interior home decoration are a potential source for severe burn accidents even by intended use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Season and severity of prescribed burn in ponderosa pine forests: implications for understory native and exotic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky K. Kerns; Walter G. Thies; Christine G. Niwa

    2006-01-01

    We investigated herbaceous richness and cover in relation to fire season and severity, and other variables, five growing seasons following prescribed fires. Data were collected from six stands consisting of three randomly applied treatments: no burn, spring burn, and fall burn. Fall burns had significantly more exotic/native annual/biennial (an/bi) species and greater...

  3. Structural Equation Modeling on Life-world Integration in People with Severe Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyeong Suk Lee, PhD, RN

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Physical function should be directly improved to adjust to life-world integration. A comprehensive integration approach is also necessary to help people with severe burns successfully return to society.

  4. Using acute kidney injury severity and scoring systems to predict outcome in patients with burn injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kuo

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Our results revealed that AKI stage has considerable discriminative power for predicting mortality. Compared with other prognostic models, AKI stage is easier to use to assess outcome in patients with severe burn injury.

  5. Fire behavior, weather, and burn severity of the 2007 Anaktuvuk River tundra fire, North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin M. Jones; Crystal A. Kolden; Randi Jandt; John T. Abatzoglu; Frank Urban; Christopher D. Arp

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the Anaktuvuk River Fire (ARF) became the largest recorded tundra fire on the North Slope of Alaska. The ARF burned for nearly three months, consuming more than 100,000 ha. At its peak in early September, the ARF burned at a rate of 7000 ha d-1. The conditions potentially responsible for this large tundra fire include modeled record high...

  6. Methods to reduce intraocular pressure on secondary glaucoma after severe eye burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Solovieva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Show the results of treatment of secondary glaucoma after severe eye burns.Methods: We observed 70 patients (108 eyes with severe burns the eyes and their consequences, secondary glaucoma was observed in 40 patients (58 eyes. All patients with secondary glaucoma received traditional antihypertensive therapy, with its failure to resort to antiglaucomatous surgery. Cataract extraction performed in 24 cases, 16 of them in combination with other surgery: the reconstruction of the anterior chamber, penetrating keratoplasty, sinustrabeculectomy, diode laser cyclocoagulation. Diode laser cy- clocoagulation performed 42 times in 8 of them in combination with other antiglaucomatous surgery: cataract surgery, reconstruction of the anterior chamber. Sinustrabeculectomy in patients with secondary glaucoma was performed in 7 cases, 4 of them with collagen implant drainage. Ahmed glaucoma drainage implant performed in 5 cases.Results: In 23 out of 58 (39.6% of long-term compensation glaucoma IOP was achieved antihypertensive therapy without sur- gery. After cataract extraction resistant compensated IOP was achieved in 10 cases, a temporary (1 to 42 months — in 11 cases, IOP is not reduced in 2 cases. After completing diode laser cyclocoagulation stable normalization of IOP occurred in 16 cases, the temporary (from 1 month to 2 years — in 20 cases, 4 cases of IOP reduction was not achieved. As a result sinustrabeculectomy in 4 cases IOP decreased, in one case the hypotensive effect is not there. After implantation Ahmed glaucoma valve in 2 cases was achieved stable normalization of IOP, in the 2 cases — the temporary; in 1 case developed endophthalmitis, and the device was removed.Conclusion: the immediate effect of antiglaucomatous treatment was 96.6%, but the high incidence of IOP decompensation (73.7% suggesting the need for continuous follow-up patients after severe eye burn injury, and a readiness to use other methods to reduce IOP.

  7. Methods to reduce intraocular pressure on secondary glaucoma after severe eye burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Solovieva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Show the results of treatment of secondary glaucoma after severe eye burns.Methods: We observed 70 patients (108 eyes with severe burns the eyes and their consequences, secondary glaucoma was observed in 40 patients (58 eyes. All patients with secondary glaucoma received traditional antihypertensive therapy, with its failure to resort to antiglaucomatous surgery. Cataract extraction performed in 24 cases, 16 of them in combination with other surgery: the reconstruction of the anterior chamber, penetrating keratoplasty, sinustrabeculectomy, diode laser cyclocoagulation. Diode laser cy- clocoagulation performed 42 times in 8 of them in combination with other antiglaucomatous surgery: cataract surgery, reconstruction of the anterior chamber. Sinustrabeculectomy in patients with secondary glaucoma was performed in 7 cases, 4 of them with collagen implant drainage. Ahmed glaucoma drainage implant performed in 5 cases.Results: In 23 out of 58 (39.6% of long-term compensation glaucoma IOP was achieved antihypertensive therapy without sur- gery. After cataract extraction resistant compensated IOP was achieved in 10 cases, a temporary (1 to 42 months — in 11 cases, IOP is not reduced in 2 cases. After completing diode laser cyclocoagulation stable normalization of IOP occurred in 16 cases, the temporary (from 1 month to 2 years — in 20 cases, 4 cases of IOP reduction was not achieved. As a result sinustrabeculectomy in 4 cases IOP decreased, in one case the hypotensive effect is not there. After implantation Ahmed glaucoma valve in 2 cases was achieved stable normalization of IOP, in the 2 cases — the temporary; in 1 case developed endophthalmitis, and the device was removed.Conclusion: the immediate effect of antiglaucomatous treatment was 96.6%, but the high incidence of IOP decompensation (73.7% suggesting the need for continuous follow-up patients after severe eye burn injury, and a readiness to use other methods to reduce IOP.

  8. 78 FR 57486 - Eligibility of Disabled Veterans and Members of the Armed Forces With Severe Burn Injuries for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Members of the Armed Forces With Severe Burn Injuries for Financial Assistance in the Purchase of an... ``severe burn injury (as determined pursuant to regulations prescribed by the Secretary)'' as one of the... severe burn injuries, the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs explained that, ``[d]ue...

  9. 77 FR 66419 - Eligibility of Disabled Veterans and Members of the Armed Forces With Severe Burn Injuries for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Members of the Armed Forces With Severe Burn Injuries for Financial Assistance in the Purchase of an... the Armed Forces with Severe Burn Injuries for Financial Assistance in the Purchase of an Automobile... (U.S.C.), by reformatting the statute and adding ``severe burn injury (as determined pursuant to...

  10. 77 FR 70389 - Eligibility of Disabled Veterans and Members of the Armed Forces With Severe Burn Injuries for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Members of the Armed Forces With Severe Burn Injuries for Financial Assistance in the Purchase of an... reformatting the statute and adding ``severe burn injury (as determined pursuant to regulations prescribed by...)(iv), VA proposes to amend 38 CFR 3.808 to define the term ``severe burn injury.'' In the proposed...

  11. A decadal glimpse on climate and burn severity influences on ponderosa pine post-fire recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newingham, B. A.; Hudak, A. T.; Bright, B. C.; Smith, A.; Khalyani, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to affect plants at the margins of their distribution. Thus, ecosystem recovery after fire is likely to vary with climate and may be slowest in drier and hotter areas. However, fire regime characteristics, including burn severity, may also affect vegetation recovery. We assessed vegetation recovery one and 9-15 years post-fire in North American ponderosa pine ecosystems distributed across climate and burn severity gradients. Using climate predictors derived from downscaled 1993-2011 climate normals, we predicted vegetation recovery as indicated by Normalized Burn Ratio derived from 1984-2012 Landsat time series imagery. Additionally, we collected field vegetation measurements to examine local topographic controls on burn severity and post-fire vegetation recovery. At a regional scale, we hypothesized a positive relationship between precipitation and recovery time and a negative relationship between temperature and recovery time. At the local scale, we hypothesized southern aspects to recovery slower than northern aspects. We also predicted higher burn severity to slow recovery. Field data found attenuated ponderosa pine recovery in hotter and drier regions across all burn severity classes. We concluded that downscaled climate data and Landsat imagery collected at commensurate scales may provide insight into climate effects on post-fire vegetation recovery relevant to ponderosa pine forest managers.

  12. Multispectral imaging burn wound tissue classification system: a comparison of test accuracies between several common machine learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squiers, John J.; Li, Weizhi; King, Darlene R.; Mo, Weirong; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Yang; Sellke, Eric W.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael; Thatcher, Jeffrey E.

    2016-03-01

    The clinical judgment of expert burn surgeons is currently the standard on which diagnostic and therapeutic decisionmaking regarding burn injuries is based. Multispectral imaging (MSI) has the potential to increase the accuracy of burn depth assessment and the intraoperative identification of viable wound bed during surgical debridement of burn injuries. A highly accurate classification model must be developed using machine-learning techniques in order to translate MSI data into clinically-relevant information. An animal burn model was developed to build an MSI training database and to study the burn tissue classification ability of several models trained via common machine-learning algorithms. The algorithms tested, from least to most complex, were: K-nearest neighbors (KNN), decision tree (DT), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), weighted linear discriminant analysis (W-LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), ensemble linear discriminant analysis (EN-LDA), ensemble K-nearest neighbors (EN-KNN), and ensemble decision tree (EN-DT). After the ground-truth database of six tissue types (healthy skin, wound bed, blood, hyperemia, partial injury, full injury) was generated by histopathological analysis, we used 10-fold cross validation to compare the algorithms' performances based on their accuracies in classifying data against the ground truth, and each algorithm was tested 100 times. The mean test accuracy of the algorithms were KNN 68.3%, DT 61.5%, LDA 70.5%, W-LDA 68.1%, QDA 68.9%, EN-LDA 56.8%, EN-KNN 49.7%, and EN-DT 36.5%. LDA had the highest test accuracy, reflecting the bias-variance tradeoff over the range of complexities inherent to the algorithms tested. Several algorithms were able to match the current standard in burn tissue classification, the clinical judgment of expert burn surgeons. These results will guide further development of an MSI burn tissue classification system. Given that there are few surgeons and facilities specializing in burn care

  13. [Preclinical treatment of severe burn trauma due to an electric arc on an overhead railway cable].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelten, O; Wetsch, W A; Hinkelbein, J

    2013-09-01

    Severe burns due to electrical accidents occur rarely in Germany but represent a challenge for emergency physicians and their team. Apart from extensive burns cardiac arrhythmia, neurological damage caused by electric current and osseous injury corresponding to the trauma mechanism are also common. It is important to perform a survey of the pattern of injuries and treat acute life-threatening conditions immediately in the field. Furthermore, specific conditions related to burns must be considered, e.g. fluid resuscitation, thermal management and analgesia. In addition, a correct strategy for further medical care in an appropriate hospital is essential. Exemplified by this case guidelines for the treatment of severe burns and typical pitfalls are presented.

  14. Burn Severities, Fire Intensities, and Impacts to Major Vegetation Types from the Cerro Grande Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balice, Randy G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, Kathryn D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wright, Marjorie A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2004-12-15

    The Cerro Grande Fire resulted in major impacts and changes to the ecosystems that were burned. To partially document these effects, we estimated the acreage of major vegetation types that were burned at selected burn severity levels and fire intensity levels. To accomplish this, we adopted independently developed burn severity and fire intensity maps, in combination with a land cover map developed for habitat management purposes, as a basis for the analysis. To provide a measure of confidence in the acreage estimates, the accuracies of these maps were also assessed. In addition, two other maps of comparable quality were assessed for accuracy: one that was developed for mapping fuel risk and a second map that resulted from a preliminary application of an evolutionary computation software system, called GENIE.

  15. A small single-nozzle rainfall simulator to measure erosion response on different burn severities in southern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covert, Ashley; Jordan, Peter

    2010-05-01

    To study the effects of wildfire burn severity on runoff generation and soil erosion from high intensity rainfall, we constructed an effective yet simple rainfall simulator that was inexpensive, portable and easily operated by two people on steep, forested slopes in southern British Columbia, Canada. The entire apparatus, including simulator, pumps, hoses, collapsible water bladders and sample bottles, was designed to fit into a single full-sized pick-up truck. The three-legged simulator extended to approximately 3.3 metres above ground on steep slopes and used a single Spraying Systems 1/2HH-30WSQ nozzle which can easily be interchanged for other sized nozzles. Rainfall characteristics were measured using a digital camera which took images of the raindrops against a grid. Median drop size and velocity 5 cm above ground were measured and found to be 3/4 of the size of natural rain drops of that diameter class, and fell 7% faster than terminal velocity. The simulator was used for experiments on runoff and erosion on sites burned in 2007 by two wildfires in southern British Columbia. Simulations were repeated one and two years after the fires. Rainfall was simulated at an average rate of 67 mm hr-1 over a 1 m2 plot for 20 minutes. This rainfall rate is similar to the 100 year return period rainfall intensity for this duration at a nearby weather station. Simulations were conducted on five replicate 1 m2 plots in each experimental unit including high burn severity, moderate burn severity, unburned, and unburned with forest floor removed. During the simulation a sample was collected for 30 seconds every minute, with two additional samples until runoff ceased, resulting in 22 samples per simulation. Runoff, overland flow coefficient, infiltration and sediment yield were compared between treatments. Additional simulations were conducted immediately after a 2009 wildfire to test different mulch treatments. Typical results showed that runoff on plots with high burn

  16. Complex Relationships of the Effects of Topographic Characteristics and Susceptible Tree Cover on Burn Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Joo Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires and burn severity mosaics have profound impacts on the post-fire dynamics and complexity of forest ecosystems. Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between topographic variables and susceptible tree covers with regard to burn severity. However, these relationships have not been fully elucidated, because most studies have assumed linearity in these relationships. Therefore, we examined the linearity and the nonlinearity in the relationships between topographic variables and susceptible tree covers with burn severity by comparing linear and nonlinear models. The site of the Samcheok fire, the largest recorded forest fire in Korea, was used as the study area. We generated 802 grid cells with a 500-m resolution that encompassed the entire study area and collected a dataset that included the topographic variables and percentage of red pine trees, which are the most susceptible tree cover types in Korea. We used conventional linear models and generalized additive models to estimate the linear and the nonlinear models based on topographic variables and Japanese red pine trees. The results revealed that the percentage of red pine trees had linear effects on burn severity, reinforcing the importance of silviculture and forest management to lower burn severity. Meanwhile, the topographic variables had nonlinear effects on burn severity. Among the topographic variables, elevation had the strongest nonlinear effect on burn severity, possibly by overriding the effects of susceptible fuels over elevation effects or due to the nonlinear effects of topographic characteristics on pre-fire fuel conditions, including the spatial distribution and availability of susceptible tree cover. To validate and generalize the nonlinear effects of elevation and other topographic variables, additional research is required at different fire sites with different tree cover types in different geographic locations.

  17. Transcriptome modulation by hydrocortisone in severe burn shock: ancillary analysis of a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassais, Jonathan; Venet, Fabienne; Cazalis, Marie-Angélique; Le Quang, Diane; Pachot, Alexandre; Monneret, Guillaume; Tissot, Sylvie; Textoris, Julien

    2017-06-16

    Despite shortening vasopressor use in shock, hydrocortisone administration remains controversial, with potential harm to the immune system. Few studies have assessed the impact of hydrocortisone on the transcriptional response in shock, and we are lacking data on burn shock. Our objective was to assess the hydrocortisone-induced transcriptional modulation in severe burn shock, particularly modulation of the immune response. We collected whole blood samples during a randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of hydrocortisone administration in burn shock. Using whole genome microarrays, we first compared burn patients (n = 32) from the placebo group to healthy volunteers to describe the transcriptional modulation induced by burn shock over the first week. Then we compared burn patients randomized for either hydrocortisone administration or placebo, to assess hydrocortisone-induced modulation. Study groups were similar in terms of severity and major outcomes, but shock duration was significantly reduced in the hydrocortisone group. Many genes (n = 1687) were differentially expressed between burn patients and healthy volunteers, with 85% of them exhibiting a profound and persistent modulation over seven days. Interestingly, we showed that hydrocortisone enhanced the shock-associated repression of adaptive, but also innate immunity. We found that the initial host response to burn shock encompasses wide and persistent modulation of gene expression, with profound modulation of pathways associated with metabolism and immunity. Importantly, hydrocortisone administration may worsen the immunosuppression associated with severe injury. These data should be taken into account in the risk ratio of hydrocortisone administration in patients with inflammatory shock. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00149123 . Registered on 6 September 2005.

  18. [Advances in the research of zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation treatment in patients with severe burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X X; Zhang, M J; Li, X B

    2018-01-20

    Zinc is one of the essential trace elements in human body, which plays an important role in regulating acute inflammatory response, glucose metabolism, anti-oxidation, immune and gastrointestinal function of patients with severe burns. Patients with severe burns may suffer from zinc deficiency because of insufficient amount of zinc intake from the diet and a large amount of zinc lose through wounds and urine. Zinc deficiency may affect their wound healing process and prognosis. This article reviews the characteristics of zinc metabolism in patients with severe burns through dynamic monitoring the plasma and urinary concentration of zinc. An adequate dosage of zinc supplemented to patients with severe burns by an appropriate method can increase the level of zinc in plasma and skin tissue and improve wound healing, as well as reduce the infection rates and mortality. At the same time, it is important to observe the symptoms and signs of nausea, dizziness, leukopenia and arrhythmia in patients with severe burns after supplementing excessive zinc.

  19. Combination of Landsat and Sentinel-2 MSI data for initial assessing of burn severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintano, C.; Fernández-Manso, A.; Fernández-Manso, O.

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays Earth observation satellites, in particular Landsat, provide a valuable help to forest managers in post-fire operations; being the base of post-fire damage maps that enable to analyze fire impacts and to develop vegetation recovery plans. Sentinel-2A MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) records data in similar spectral wavelengths that Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), and has higher spatial and temporal resolutions. This work compares two types of satellite-based maps for evaluating fire damage in a large wildfire (around 8000 ha) located in Sierra de Gata (central-western Spain) on 6-11 August 2015. 1) burn severity maps based exclusively on Landsat data; specifically, on differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) and on its relative versions (Relative dNBR, RdNBR, and Relativized Burn Ratio, RBR) and 2) burn severity maps based on the same indexes but combining pre-fire data from Landsat 8 OLI with post-fire data from Sentinel-2A MSI data. Combination of both Landsat and Sentinel-2 data might reduce the time elapsed since forest fire to the availability of an initial fire damage map. Interpretation of ortho-photograph Pléiades 1 B data (1:10,000) provided us the ground reference data to measure the accuracy of both burn severity maps. Results showed that Landsat based burn severity maps presented an adequate assessment of the damage grade (κ statistic = 0.80) and its spatial distribution in wildfire emergency response. Further using both Landsat and Sentinel-2 MSI data the accuracy of burn severity maps, though slightly lower (κ statistic = 0.70) showed an adequate level for be used by forest managers.

  20. Two new risk factors for heterotopic ossification development after severe burns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Thefenne

    Full Text Available Life after severe burns is conditioned by the remaining sequelae. The pathophysiology and risk factors of Heterotopic Ossification (HO after burns are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine: 1 the incidence of HO after burns and 2 the risk factors associated with HO development, in a large retrospective study.A case-control study of patients admitted to the burns intensive care unit of Percy Hospital, Paris, from the 1st January 2009 to the 31st December 2013 and then admitted to one of three centres specialised in the rehabilitation of patients with burns. Multivariate analysis was carried out to analyse the relationship between HO development and demographic and clinical data.805 patients were included. 32 patients (4.0% developed a total of 74 heterotopic ossifications, that is a little higher incidence than the incidence found in the literature. The epidemiological characteristics of the population studied was similar to the literature. HOs were mainly localized around the elbows, followed by the hips, shoulders and knees. Each case-patient was paired with 3 control-patients. There were significant associations between HO development and the length of stay in the burns intensive care unit, the extent and depth of the burns, the occurrence of pulmonary or cutaneous infections, use of curare and use of an air-fluidized bed.In addition to recognized risk factors (duration of stay in the intensive care burns unit, extent and depth of burns, pulmonary and cutaneous infections, the use of curare and the use of a fluidized bed (with the duration of use were significantly associated with HO formation.

  1. 14 year follow-up for a severe electrical burn to mouth and lip: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Roberto; Garcia, Javier; Espinosa, Roberto; Saadia, Marc; Valencia, Evaristo

    2010-01-01

    Electrical burns range from 4 to 7% of the total burn accidents and many of them affect primarily children biting on a live wire. Great confusion exists in the literature about the proper management of electrical burns to the mouth in the acute and late phases. 14 year results are shown in a severe electrical burn sustained in a 1 year 2 months old girl, involving 90% of the lips and commissures, tongue, alveolar ridges and teeth (primary central incisors and permanent dental germs). Two weeks after she was out of danger, an active splint expansion device was built and used for 8 months to prevent secondary microstomia. Later a new active splint device was used for a year after lip plastic surgery. At age 13, orthopedics and orthodontics were accomplished with a lip tattoo completed at age 15. No matter how good the final esthetic and occlusal results are, prevention is always the best option.

  2. Severe burn injuries caused by bioethanol-design fireplaces-an overview on recreational fire threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Robert; Knobloch, Karsten; Lorenzen, Johan; Breuing, Karl H; Koennecker, Soeren; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Vogt, Peter M

    2011-01-01

    Commercially available bioethanol-fueled fireplaces have become increasingly popular additions for interior home decoration in Europe and more recently in the United States. These fireplaces are advertised as smokeless, ecologically friendly, and do not require professional installation, formal gas lines, or venting. Although manufacturers and businesses promote their safety, recent presentations of injuries have alerted the authors to the relevant danger bioethanol fireplaces can pose for the incautious user. Are bioethanol fireplaces going to become the future threat in domestic burn accidents beside common barbeque burns? A Medline literature search on barbeque and domestic fireplace accidents was performed to compare and stratify the injury patterns reported and to identify a risk profile for contemporary bioethanol-fueled fireplaces. To exemplify, two representative clinical cases of severe burn accidents caused by bioethanol-fueled fireplaces, both treated in the burn unit of the authors, are being presented. Design fireplaces are being recognized as an increasing source of fuel and fire-related danger in the home. This risk may be underestimated by the uninformed customer, resulting in severe burn injuries. Because bioethanol-fueled fireplaces have become more commonplace, they may overtake barbecue-related injury as the most common domestic burn injury.

  3. Glutamine granule-supplemented enteral nutrition maintains immunological function in severely burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi; Yan, Hong; You, Zhongyi; Wang, Pei; Wang, Shiliang

    2006-08-01

    Glutamine is an important energy source for immune cells. It is a necessary nutrient for cell proliferation, and serves as specific fuel for lymphocytes, macrophages, and enterocytes when it is present in appropriate concentrations. The purpose of this clinical study was to observe the effects of enteral nutrition supplemented with glutamine granules on immunologic function in severely burned patients. Forty-eight severely burned patients (total burn surface area 30-75%, full thickness burn area 20-58%) who met the requirements of the protocol joined this double-blind randomized controlled clinical trail. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: burn control group (B group, 23 patients) and glutamine treated group (Gln group, 25 patients). There was isonitrogenous and isocaloric intake in both groups, Gln and B group patents were given glutamine granules or placebo (glycine) at 0.5 g/kgd for 14 days with oral feeding or tube feeding, respectively. The plasma level of glutamine and several indices of immunologic function including lymphocyte transformation ratio, neutrophil phagocytosis index (NPI), CD4/CD8 ratio, the content of immunoglobulin, complement C3, C4 and IL-2 levels were determined. Moreover, wound healing rate of burn area was observed and then hospital stay was recorded. The results showed significantly reduced plasma glutamine and damaged immunological function after severe burn Indices of cellular immunity function were remarkably decreased from normal controls. After taking glutamine granules for 14 days, plasma glutamine concentration was significantly higher in Gln group than that in B group (607.86+/-147.25 micromol/L versus 447.63+/-132.38 micromol/L, P0.05). In addition, wound healing was better and hospital stay days were reduced in Gln group (46.59+/-12.98 days versus 55.68+/-17.36 days, Pburn; supplemented glutamine granules with oral feeding or tube feeding abate the degree of immunosuppression, improve immunological function

  4. Importance of risk factors in the development of complications of infectious and inflammatory genesis in patients with severe burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Guzenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infectious and inflammatory complications , such as pneumonia and burn sepsis, often develop in patients with extensive burns, thus causing high mortality. The aim of the work was to determine the risk factors for the development of infectious and inflammatory complications in patients with burns. Materials and methods. The study involved 140 burned patients divided into two groups: Group 1 – 78 patients who underwent necrectomy within 3-7 days after the burn, Group 2 (control – 62 patients with necrectomy performed in later period. Results of the research. In the 1st group pneumonia was diagnosed in 11 (14.10 ± 3.94% patients, sepsis – in 13 (16.67 ± 4.22%. In the control group pneumonia was diagnosed in 20 (32.26 ± 5.94% patients, sepsis – in 23 (37.10 ± 6.13% (p < 0.05. In the burned patients of the main group the development of infectious and inflammatory complications was observed mainly in patients over 45 years of age (43%, that is 2.9 times more often than in the patients of younger age (p < 0.05. In patients with the severity index of burn damage exceeding 90 units complications were diagnosed in 32.14 ± 6.24% of cases, which is 7 times more than in the other subgroup (p < 0.05. In the control group patients with the severity index of destruction exceeding 90 units had complications in 56.41 ± 7.94% of cases, which is 2.6 times more than in patients with less severity index (p = 0.004. If the total area of the skin burns was over 40%, the number of sepsis and pneumonia complications significantly increased in both groups, and was 1.7 times greater than in patients with a smaller area of the burn. If the area of deep skin burns was over 25%, the number of cases of pneumonia and sepsis in patients of the main group increased in 2.4 times, and in the control group it was in 1.6 times higher. Among patients with area of deep burns exceeding 40% the incidence of sepsis and pneumonia was 78% (p = 0.03 in the main

  5. Copper wire theft and high voltage electrical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Eamon C; Shelley, Odhran P

    2014-01-01

    High voltage electrical burns are uncommon. However in the midst of our economic recession we are noticing an increasing number of these injuries. Copper wire is a valuable commodity with physical properties as an excellent conductor of electricity making it both ubiquitous in society and prized on the black market. We present two consecutive cases referred to the National Burns Unit who sustained life threatening injuries from the alleged theft of high voltage copper wire and its omnipresence on an international scale.

  6. Copper wire theft and high voltage electrical burns

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Eamon C; Shelley, Odhran P

    2014-01-01

    High voltage electrical burns are uncommon. However in the midst of our economic recession we are noticing an increasing number of these injuries. Copper wire is a valuable commodity with physical properties as an excellent conductor of electricity making it both ubiquitous in society and prized on the black market. We present two consecutive cases referred to the National Burns Unit who sustained life threatening injuries from the alleged theft of high voltage copper wire and its omnipresenc...

  7. Propranolol attenuates hemorrhage and accelerates wound healing in severely burned adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arham; Herndon, David N; Mamachen, Ashish; Hasan, Samir; Andersen, Clark R; Grogans, Ro-Jon; Brewer, Jordan L; Lee, Jong O; Heffernan, Jamie; Suman, Oscar E; Finnerty, Celeste C

    2015-05-04

    Propranolol, a nonselective β-blocker, exerts an indirect effect on the vasculature by leaving α-adrenergic receptors unopposed, resulting in peripheral vasoconstriction. We have previously shown that propranolol diminishes peripheral blood following burn injury by increasing vascular resistance. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether wound healing and perioperative hemodynamics are affected by propranolol administration in severely burned adults. Sixty-nine adult patients with burns covering ≥ 30% of the total body surface area (TBSA) were enrolled in this IRB-approved study. Patients received standard burn care with (n = 35) or without (control, n = 34) propranolol. Propranolol was administered within 48 hours of burns and given throughout hospital discharge to decrease heart rate by approximately 20% from admission levels. Wound healing was determined by comparing the time between grafting procedures. Blood loss was determined by comparing pre- and postoperative hematocrit while factoring in operative graft area. Data were collected between first admission and first discharge. Demographics, burn size, and mortality were comparable in the control and propranolol groups. Patients in the propranolol group received an average propranolol dose of 3.3 ± 3.0 mg/kg/day. Daily average heart rate over the first 30 days was significantly lower in the propranolol group (P operative intervention is optimal.

  8. Impact of facial burns: relationship between depressive symptoms, self-esteem and scar severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewerf, Cornelis Johannes; van Baar, Margriet Elisabeth; Middelkoop, Esther; van Loey, Nancy Elisa

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the role of self-reported facial scar severity as a possible influencing factor on self-esteem and depressive symptoms in patients with facial burns. A prospective multicentre cohort study with a 6 months follow-up was conducted including 132 patients with facial burns. Patients completed the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the relations between depressive symptoms, self-esteem and scar severity. The model showed that patient-rated facial scar severity was not predictive for self-esteem and depressive symptoms six months post-burn. There was, however, a significant relationship between early depressive symptoms and both patient-rated facial scar severity and subsequent self-esteem. The variables in the model accounted for 37% of the variance in depressive symptoms six months post-burn and the model provided a moderately well-fitting representation of the data. The study suggests that self-esteem and depressive symptoms were not affected by self-reported facial scar severity but that earlier depressive symptoms were indicative for a more severe self-reported facial scar rating. Therefore, routine psychological screening during hospitalisation is recommended in order to identify patients at risk and to optimise their treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Contribution of Bacterial and Viral infections to Attributable Mortality in Patients with Severe Burns: An Autopsy Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    and related mortality following severe burns. Burns 2008;3(4):1108 12. [5] Nash G , Foley FD. Herpetic infection of the middle and lower respiratory...Albrecht M, Griffith M, Murray C, Chung K, Horvath E, Ward J, et al. Impact of Acinetobacter infection on the mortality of burn patients. J Am Coll... Mason AD. Survival benefit conferred by topical antimicrobial preparations in burn patients: a historical perspective. J Trauma 2004;56:863 6. [27

  10. [Improving myocardial mechanics parameters of severe burn rabbits with oral fluid resuscitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jing; Zhang, Bing-qian; Wang, Guang; Luo, Zhong-hua; Zheng, Qing-yi; Zheng, Jian-sheng; Huang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Rong

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the protective effect of oral fluid resuscitation on cardiac function in severe burn rabbits. One hundred and fifty rabbits were randomly divided into normal control group (NC group, n = 6, without treatment), burn group (B group, n = 42, without fluid therapy), immediate oral fluid resuscitation group (C group, n = 42), delayed oral fluid resuscitation group (D group, n = 30) and delayed and rapid oral fluid resuscitation group (E group, n = 30). The rabbits in B, C, D, E groups were subjected to 40% TBSA full-thickness burn, then were treated with fluid therapy immediately after burn (C group), at 6 hour after burn (D, E groups). The myocardial mechanics parameters including mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), LV +/- dp/dt max were observed at 2, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 post burn hour (PBH). Urine output was also examined. The level of LVSP, LV +/- dp/dt max in B roup were significantly lower than those in NC group. The level of LVSP, LV +/- dp/dt max in the C and E group were singnificantly increased during 24 hour after burn. The level of LV + dp/dt max and LV-dp/dt max in C group peaked at 8 PBH (892 +/- 116 kPa/s) and at 6PBH (724 +/- 149 kPa/s) respectively. The levels of LV +/- dp/dt max, LVSP in D group at each time point were similar to B group (P > 0.05). Both the levels of LV +/- dp/dt max in E group peaked at 8 PBH. The level of LVEDP was no obvious difference between B and other groups at each time point (P > 0.05). The changes of MAP and urine output on 24 PBH in each group were similar to above indices. Effective oral fluid therapy in severe burn rabbits during 24 hours after burn can ameliorate myocardial mechanics parameters. The amount of fluid resuscitation can be estimated according to relevant formula for delayed fluid resuscitation in burn rabbits.

  11. Role of autophagy and its molecular mechanisms in mice intestinal tract after severe burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duan Y; Qiu, Wei; Jin, PeiS; Wang, Peng; Sun, Yong

    2017-10-01

    Severe burn can lead to hypoxia/ischemia of intestinal mucosa. Autophagy is the process of intracellular degradation, which is essential for cell survival under stresses, such as hypoxia/ischemia and nutrient deprivation. The present study was designed to investigate whether there were changes in intestinal autophagy after severe burn in mice and further to explore the effect and molecular mechanisms of autophagy on intestinal injury. This study includes three experiments. Kunming species mice were subjected to 30% total body surface area third-degree burn. First, we determined protein of LC3 (light chain 3), beclin-1, and cleaved-caspase3 by Western blotting and immunohistochemical (paraffin) staining to investigate whether there were changes in intestinal autophagy after severe burn in mice. Then, changes of the status of enteric damage postburn were measured by observing intestinal mucosa morphology under a magnifier, hematoxylin and eosin staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting under the condition that the intestinal autophagy was respectively activated by rapamycin and inhibited by 3-methyladenine. Finally, protein of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, LC3-II and beclin-1 were assayed, and mice were treated with compound C before burn. The protein of LC3 and beclin-1 were observed at 1 hour postburn and increased to peak-point at 24 hours, reaching the normal level at 96 hours. The cleaved caspase-3 expression increased at 1 hour postburn, but the peak point occurred at 12 hours and had dropped to normal level at 72 hours. In addition, rapamycin enhanced intestinal autophagy and alleviated burn-induced gut damage, while 3-methyladenine showed the against behavior. The AMPK/mTOR pathway which was inhibited decreased the expression of phosphorylated AMPK, LC3-II, and beclin-1, increasing the expression of phosphorylated mTOR. Intestinal autophagy is activated and response to intestinal

  12. [Severe burns of lower limb due to association of hot water and citrullus colocynthis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejjal, N; Gharib, N E; El Mazouz, S; Abbassi, A; Belmahi, A

    2011-06-30

    The case is reported of a patient suffering from severe burns through having used Citrullus colocynthis as a medicinal plant together with hot water. This led to carbonization of the foot and to its amputation. A description of the plant and its toxicity is given.

  13. Impact of facial burns: relationship between depressive symptoms, self-esteem and scar severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogewerf, C.J.; van Baar, M.E.; Middelkoop, E.; van Loey, N.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the role of self-reported facial scar severity as a possible influencing factor on self-esteem and depressive symptoms in patients with facial burns. Method: A prospective multicentre cohort study with a 6 months follow-up was conducted including 132 patients with

  14. Impact of facial burns : relationship between depressive symptoms, self-esteem and scar severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogewerf, Cornelis Johannes; van Baar, Margriet Elisabeth; Middelkoop, Esther; Van Loey, N.E.E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of self-reported facial scar severity as a possible influencing factor on self-esteem and depressive symptoms in patients with facial burns. METHOD: A prospective multicentre cohort study with a 6 months follow-up was conducted including 132 patients with

  15. Safe method for release of severe post burn neck contracture under tumescent local anaesthesia and ketamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Pawan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe post burn neck contracture results in difficult intubation, which can be life threatening and can result in multiple serious complications and sequels. Thirty patients with age ranging from 12 to 50 years were operated under local tumescent anesthesia supplemented with intravenous ketamine for release of post burn neck contracture and split skin grafted. This technique obviates the need for endotracheal intubation. There were no complications attributed to this anesthesia technique. There was no graft loss and blood loss was minimal.

  16. [Fatal hyperpyrexia in an adolescent patient with severe burns after a traffic accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaehn, T; Sievers, R; Junger, A; Graunke, F; Blings, A; Reichert, B

    2016-07-01

    After a motorcycle accident a 16-year-old patient suffered severe burns to 40.5 % of the total body surface area (TBSA) of which 37 % were deep subdermal burns. After tangential and partly epifascial necrosectomy, Integra® was used as a temporary dermis replacement material for the lower extremities, combined with extensive negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). In the further course of the treatment the patient developed uncontrollable hyperpyrexia with a fatal outcome. Possible influencing factors, such as the dermis replacement material combined with NPWT over large areas as well as the differential diagnoses propofol infusion syndrome, heatstroke and malignant hyperthermia are discussed.

  17. Small high temperature gas-cooled reactors with innovative nuclear burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liem, Peng Hong; Ismail; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Since the innovative concept of CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron Flux, nuclide densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) burning strategy was proposed, intensive research works have been continuously conducted to evaluate the feasibility and the performance of the burning strategy on both fast and thermal reactors. We learned that one potential application of the burning strategy for thermal reactors is for the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGR) with prismatic/block-type fuel elements. Several characteristics of CANDLE burning strategy such as constant reactor characteristics during burn-up, no need for burn-up reactivity control mechanism, proportionality of core height with core lifetime, sub-criticality of fresh fuel elements, etc. enable us to design small sized HTGR with a high degree of safety easiness of operation and maintenance, and long core lifetime which are required for introducing the reactors into remote areas or developing countries with limited infrastructures and resources. In the present work, we report our evaluation results on small sized block-type HTGR designs with CANDLE burning strategy and compared with other existing small HTGR designs including the ones with pebble fuel elements, under both uranium and thorium fuel cycles. (author)

  18. Hypertonic lactated saline resuscitation reduces the risk of abdominal compartment syndrome in severely burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Jun; Ueyama, Masashi; Yamashita, Katsuyuki; Inoue, Takuya; Noborio, Mitsuhiro; Ode, Yasumasa; Aoki, Yoshiki; Sugimoto, Hisashi

    2006-01-01

    Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is a lethal complication after resuscitation from burn shock. Hypertonic lactated saline (HLS) infusion reduces early fluid requirements in burn shock, but the effects of HLS on intraabdominal pressure have not been clarified. Patients admitted to our burn unit between 2002 and 2004 with burns > or =40% of the total body surface area without severe inhalation injury were entered into a fluid resuscitation protocol using HLS (n = 14) or lactated Ringer's solution (n = 22). Urine output was monitored hourly with a goal of 0.5 to 1.0 mL/kg per hour. Hemodynamic parameters, blood gas analysis, intrabladder pressure as an indicator of intraabdominal pressure (IAP), and the peak inspiratory pressure were recorded. Pulmonary compliance and the abdominal perfusion pressure were also calculated. In the HLS group, the amount of intravenous fluid volume needed to maintain adequate urine output was less at 3.1 +/- 0.9 versus 5.2 +/- 1.2 mL/24 h per kg per percentage of total body surface area, and the peak IAP and peak inspiratory pressure at 24 hours after injury were significantly lower than those in the lactated Ringer's group. Two of 14 patients (14%) in the HLS group and 11 of 22 patients (50%) developed IAH within 20.8 +/- 7.2 hours after injury. In patients with severe burn injury, a large intravenous fluid volume decreases abdominal perfusion during the resuscitative period because of increased IAP. Our data suggest that HLS resuscitation could reduce the risk of secondary abdominal compartment syndrome with lower fluid load in burn shock patients.

  19. Sustained oxidative stress causes late acute renal failure via duplex regulation on p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation in severely burned rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical evidence indicates that late acute renal failure (ARF predicts high mortality in severely burned patients but the pathophysiology of late ARF remains undefined. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that sustained reactive oxygen species (ROS induced late ARF in a severely burned rat model and to investigate the signaling mechanisms involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were exposed to 100°C bath for 15 s to induce severe burn injury (40% of total body surface area. Renal function, ROS generation, tubular necrosis and apoptosis, and phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt were measured during 72 hours after burn. RESULTS: Renal function as assessed by serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen deteriorated significantly at 3 h after burn, alleviated at 6 h but worsened at 48 h and 72 h, indicating a late ARF was induced. Apoptotic cells and cleavage caspase-3 in the kidney went up slowly and turned into significant at 48 h and 72 h. Tubular cell ROS production shot up at 6 h and continuously rose during the 72-h experiment. Scavenging ROS with tempol markedly attenuated tubular apoptosis and renal dysfunction at 72 h after burn. Interestingly, renal p38 MAPK phosphorylation elevated in a time dependent manner whereas Akt phosphorylation increased during the first 24 h but decreased at 48 h after burn. The p38 MAPK specific inhibitor SB203580 alleviated whereas Akt inhibitor exacerbated burn-induced tubular apoptosis and renal dysfunction. Furthermore, tempol treatment exerted a duplex regulation through inhibiting p38 MAPK phosphorylation but further increasing Akt phosphorylation at 72 h postburn. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that sustained renal ROS overproduction induces continuous tubular cell apoptosis and thus a late ARF at 72 h after burn in severely burned rats, which may result from ROS-mediated activation of p38 MAPK but a late inhibition of Akt phosphorylation.

  20. Review of high burn-up RIA and LOCA database and criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitanza, C.; Hrehor, M.

    2006-01-01

    This document is intended to provide regulators, their technical support organizations and industry with a concise review of existing fuel experimental data at RIA and LOCA conditions and considerations on how these data affect fuel safety criteria at increasing burn-up. It mostly addresses experimental results relevant to BWR and PWR fuel and it encompasses several contributions from the various experts that participated in the CSNI SEGFSM activities. It also covers the information presented at the joint CSNI/CNRA Topical Discussion on high burn-up fuel issues that took place on this subject in December 2004. The report is organized in the following way: the CABRI RIA database (14 tests), the NSRR database (26 tests) and other databases, RIA failure thresholds, comparison of failure thresholds for the HZP case, LOCA database ductility tests and quench tests, LOCA safety limit, provisional burn-up dependent criterion for Zr-4. The conclusions are as follows. On RIA, there is a well-established testing method and a significant and relatively consistent database from NSRR and Cabri tests, especially on high burn-up Zr-2 and Zr-4 cladding. It is encouraging that several correlations have been proposed for the RIA fuel failure threshold. Their predictions are compared and discussed in this paper for a representative PWR case. On LOCA, there are two different test methods, one based on ductility determinations and the other based on 'integral' quench tests. The LOCA database at high burn-up is limited to both testing methods. Ductility tests carried out with pre-hydrided non-irradiated cladding show a pronounced hydrogen effect. Data for actual high burn-up specimens are being gathered in various laboratories and will form the basis for a burn-up dependent LOCA limit. A provisional burn-up dependent criterion is discussed in the paper

  1. Acute insulin resistance mediated by advanced glycation endproducts in severely burned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Xu, Jie; Cai, Xiaoqing; Ji, Lele; Li, Jia; Cao, Bing; Li, Jun; Hu, Dahai; Li, Yan; Wang, Haichang; Xiong, Lize; Xiao, Ruiping; Gao, Feng

    2014-06-01

    Hyperglycemia often occurs in severe burns; however, the underlying mechanisms and importance of managing postburn hyperglycemia are not well recognized. This study was designed to investigate the dynamic changes of postburn hyperglycemia and the underlying mechanisms and to evaluate whether early glycemic control is beneficial in severe burns. Prospective, randomized experimental study. Animal research laboratory. Sprague-Dawley rats. Anesthetized rats were subjected to a full-thickness burn injury comprising 40% of the total body surface area and were randomized to receive vehicle, insulin, and a soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts treatments. An in vitro study was performed on cultured H9C2 cells subjected to vehicle or carboxymethyllysine treatment. We found that blood glucose change presented a distinct pattern with two occurrences of hyperglycemia at 0.5- and 3-hour postburn, respectively. Acute insulin resistance evidenced by impaired insulin signaling and glucose uptake occurred at 3-hour postburn, which was associated with the second hyperglycemia and positively correlated with mortality. Mechanistically, we found that serum carboxymethyllysine, a dominant species of advanced glycation endproducts, increased within 1-hour postburn, preceding the occurrence of insulin resistance. More importantly, treatment of animals with soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts, blockade of advanced glycation endproducts signaling, alleviated severe burn-induced insulin resistance. In addition, early hyperglycemic control with insulin not only reduced serum carboxymethyllysine but also blunted postburn insulin resistance and reduced mortality. These findings suggest that severe burn-induced insulin resistance is partly at least mediated by serum advanced glycation endproducts and positively correlated with mortality. Early glycemic control with insulin or inhibition of advanced glycation endproducts with soluble form of receptor

  2. Impact of stress-induced diabetes on outcomes in severely burned children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Celeste C; Ali, Arham; McLean, Josef; Benjamin, Nicole; Clayton, Robert P; Andersen, Clark R; Mlcak, Ronald P; Suman, Oscar E; Meyer, Walter; Herndon, David N

    2014-04-01

    Post-burn hyperglycemia leads to graft failure, multiple organ failure, and death. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is used to keep serum glucose between 60 and 110 mg/dL. Because of frequent hypoglycemic episodes, a less-stringent sliding scale insulin protocol is used to maintain serum glucose levels between 80 and 160 mg/dL after elevations >180 mg/dL. We randomized pediatric patients with massive burns into 2 groups, patients receiving sliding scale insulin to lower blood glucose levels (n = 145) and those receiving no insulin (n = 98), to determine the differences in morbidity and mortality. Patients 0 to 18 years old with burns covering ≥ 30% of the total body surface area and not randomized to receive anabolic agents were included in this study. End points included glucose levels, infections, resting energy expenditure, lean body mass, bone mineral content, fat mass, muscle strength, and serum inflammatory cytokines, hormones, and liver enzymes. Maximal glucose levels occurred within 6 days of burn injury. Blood glucose levels were age dependent, with older children requiring more insulin (p patients not receiving insulin, only in patients who received insulin (p patients receiving insulin (p Burn-induced hyperglycemia develops in a subset of severely burned children. Length of stay was reduced in the no insulin group, and there were no deaths in this group. Administration of insulin positively impacted bone mineral content and muscle strength, but increased resting energy expenditure, hypoglycemic episodes, and mortality. New glucose-lowering strategies might be needed. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High-burn-up fuels for fast reactors. Past experience and novel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, Kevan D.; Gilleland, John; Whitmer, Charles; Zimmerman, George

    2009-01-01

    Fast reactors in the U.S. routinely achieved fuel burn-ups of 10%, with some fuel able to reach peak burn-ups of 20%, notably in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II and the Fast Flux Test Facility. Maximum burn-up has historically been constrained by chemical and mechanical interactions between the fuel and its cladding, and to some extent by radiation damage and thermal effects (e.g., radiation-induced creep, thermal creep, and radiation embrittlement) that cause the cladding to weaken. Although fast reactors have used several kinds of fuel - including oxide, metal alloy, carbide, and nitride - the vast majority of experience with fast reactors has been using oxide (including mixed oxide) and metal-alloy fuels based on uranium. Our understanding of high-burn-up operation is also limited by the fact that breeder reactor programs have historically assumed that their fuel would eventually undergo reprocessing; the programs thus have not made high burn-up a top priority. Recently a set of novel designs have emerged for fast reactors that require little initial enrichment and no reprocessing. These reactors exploit a concept known as a traveling wave (sometimes referred to as a breed-and-burn wave, fission wave, or nuclear-burning wave). By breeding and using its own fuel in place as it operates, a traveling-wave reactor can obtain burn-ups that approach 50%, well beyond the current base of knowledge and experience. Our computational work on the physics of traveling-wave reactors shows that they require metal-alloy fuel to provide the margins of reactivity necessary to sustain a breed-and-burn wave. This paper reviews operating experience with high-burn-up fuels and the technical feasibility of moving to a qualitatively new burn-up regime. We discuss our calculations on traveling-wave reactors, including those concerning the possible use of thorium. The challenges associated with high burn-up and fluence in fuels and materials are also discussed. (author)

  4. Epidemiology of pediatric burns and future prevention strategies-a study of 475 patients from a high-volume burn center in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhopte, Amol; Tiwari, V K; Patel, Pankaj; Bamal, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric burns have a long-term social impact. This is more apparent in a developing country such as India, where their incidence and morbidity are high. The aim of this study was to provide recent prospective epidemiological data on pediatric burns in India and to suggest future preventive strategies. Children up to 18 years old admitted to the Department of Burns, Plastic & Maxillofacial Surgery, VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, between January and December 2014 were included in the study. Data regarding age, sex, etiology, total body surface area (TBSA), circumstances of injury, and clinical assessment were collected. The Mann-Whitney test or Kruskal-Wallis test or ANOVA was used to compare involved TBSA among various cohort groups accordingly. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of TBSA. There were a total of 475 patients involved in the study, including seven suicidal burns, all of whom were females with a mean age greater than the cohort average. Age, type of burns, mode of injury, presence or absence of inhalation injury, gender, and time of year (quarter) for admission were found to independently affect the TBSA involved. Electrical burns also formed an important number of presenting burn patients, mainly involving teenagers. Several societal issues have come forth, e.g., child marriage, child labor, and likely psychological problems among female children as suggested by a high incidence of suicidal burns. This study also highlights several issues such as overcrowding, lack of awareness, dangerous cooking practices, and improper use of kerosene oil. There is an emergent need to recognize the problems, formulate strategies, spread awareness, and ban or replace hazardous substances responsible for most burn accidents.

  5. Outcome predictors and quality of life of severe burn patients admitted to intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buoninsegni Laura

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite significant medical advances and improvement in overall mortality rate following burn injury, the treatment of patients with extensive burns remains a major challenge for intensivists. We present a study aimed to evaluate the short- and the long-term outcomes of severe burn patients (total body surface area, TBSA > 40% treated in a polyvalent intensive care unit (ICU and to assess the quality of life of survivors, one year after the injury using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D questionnaire. Methods A prospective-observational study was performed in an ICU of a University-affiliated hospital. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors predicting in-hospital mortality. The EQ-5D questionnaire was used to asses participant's long term self-reported general health. Results During a period of five years, 50 patients participated in the study. Their mean age was 53.8 ± 19.8; they had a mean of %TBSA burned of 54.5 ± 18.1. 44% and 10% of patients died in the ICU and in the ward after ICU discharge, respectively. Baux index, SAPS II and SOFA on admission to the ICU, infectious and respiratory complications, and time of first burn wound excision were found to have a significant predictive value for hospital mortality. The level of health of all survivors was worse than before the injury. Problems in the five dimensions studied were present as follows: mobility (moderate 68.5%; extreme 0%, self-care (moderate 21%; extreme 36.9%, usual activities (moderate 68.5%; extreme 21%, pain/discomfort (moderate 68.5%; extreme 10.5%, anxiety/depression (moderate 36.9%; extreme 42.1%. Conclusions In severe burn patients, Baux index, severity of illness on admission to the ICU, complications, and time of first burn wound excision were the major contributors to hospital mortality. Quality of life was influenced by consequences of injury both in psychological and physical health.

  6. Copper wire theft and high voltage electrical burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Eamon C; Shelley, Odhran P

    2014-01-01

    High voltage electrical burns are uncommon. However in the midst of our economic recession we are noticing an increasing number of these injuries. Copper wire is a valuable commodity with physical properties as an excellent conductor of electricity making it both ubiquitous in society and prized on the black market. We present two consecutive cases referred to the National Burns Unit who sustained life threatening injuries from the alleged theft of high voltage copper wire and its omnipresence on an international scale. PMID:25356371

  7. The relationship of field burn severity measures to satellite-derived Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Hudak; Penelope Morgan; Carter Stone; Pete Robichaud; Terrie Jain; Jess Clark

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from ongoing research on spatial variability of fire effects on soils and vegetation from the Black Mountain Two and Cooney Ridge wildfires, which burned in western Montana during the 2003 fire season. Extensive field fractional cover data were sampled to assess the efficacy of quantitative satellite image-derived indicators of burn...

  8. Clinical and protein metabolic efficacy of glutamine granules-supplemented enteral nutrition in severely burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi; Yan, Hong; You, Zhongyi; Wang, Pei; Wang, Shiliang

    2005-05-01

    As an abundant amino acid in the human body, glutamine has many important metabolic roles that may protect or promote tissue integrity and enhance the immune system. A relative deficiency of glutamine in such patients could compromise recovery and result in prolonged illness and an increase in late mortality. The purpose of this clinical study is to observe the effects of enteral supplement with glutamine granules on protein metabolism in severely burned patients. Forty-eight severe burn patients (total burn surface area 30-75%, full thickness burn area 20-58%) who met the requirements of the protocol joined this double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: burn control group (B group, 23 patients) and glutamine treated group (Gln group, 25 patients). There was isonitrogenous and isocaloric intake in both groups, glutamine and B group patents were supplemented with glutamine granules or placebo (glycine) at 0.5 g/kg per day for 14 days with oral feeding or tube feeding, respectively. The level of plasma glutamine, plasma protein content, urine nitrogen and urine 3-methylhistidine (3-MTH) excretion were determined, wound healing rate of the burned area and hospital stay were recorded. The results showed that there were significant reductions in plasma glutamine level and abnormal protein metabolism. After supplement with glutamine granules for 14 days, the plasma glutamine concentration was significantly higher than that in B group (607.86+/-147.25 micromol/L versus 447.63+/-132.38 micromol/L, P0.05). On the other hand, the amount of urine nitrogen and 3-MTH excreted in Gln group were significantly lower than that in B group. In addition, wound healing was faster and hospital stay days were shorter in Gln group than B group (46.59+/-12.98 days versus 55.68+/-17.36 days, P<0.05). These indicated that supplement glutamine granules with oral feeding or tube feeding could abate the degree of glutamine depletion

  9. Post-fire burn severity and vegetation response following eight large wildfires across the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh B. Lentile; Penelope Morgan; Andrew T. Hudak; Michael J. Bobbitt; Sarah A. Lewis; Alistair M. S. Smith; Peter R. Robichaud

    2007-01-01

    Vegetation response and burn severity were examined following eight large wildfires that burned in 2003 and 2004: two wildfires in California chaparral, two each in dry and moist mixed-conifer forests in Montana, and two in boreal forests in interior Alaska. Our research objectives were: 1) to characterize one year post-fire vegetation recovery relative to initial fire...

  10. Two-year follow-up of outcomes related to scarring and distress in children with severe burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Forbes, Abigail A; Hundeshagen, Gabriel; Andersen, Clark R; Epperson, Kathryn M; Meyer, Walter J; Kamolz, Lars P; Branski, Ludwik K; Suman, Oscar E; Herndon, David N; Finnerty, Celeste C

    2017-08-01

    We assessed the perception of scarring and distress by pediatric burn survivors with burns covering more than one-third of total body surface area (TBSA) for up to 2 years post-burn. Children with severe burns were admitted to our hospital between 2004 and 2012, and consented to this IRB-approved-study. Subjects completed at least one Scars Problems and/or Distress questionnaire between discharge and 24 months post burn. Outcomes were modeled with generalized estimating equations or using mixed linear models. Significance was accepted at p body areas over time (p self-conscious with respect to their body image even 2 years after burn injury. Implications for Rehabilitation According to self-assessment questionnaires, severely burned children perceive significant improvements in scarring and distress during the first 2 years post burn. Significant improvements were seen in reduction of pain, itching, sleeping disturbances, tightness, range of motion, and strength (p body areas. The rehabilitation team should provide access to wigs or other aids to pediatric burn survivors to address these needs.

  11. A protocol guided by transpulmonary thermodilution and lactate levels for resuscitation of patients with severe burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Mette M; Que, Yok Ai

    2013-11-11

    Over-resuscitation is deleterious in many critically ill conditions, including major burns. For more than 15 years, several strategies to reduce fluid administration in burns during the initial resuscitation phase have been proposed, but no single or simple parameter has shown superiority. Fluid administration guided by invasive hemodynamic parameters usually resulted in over-resuscitation. As reported in the previous issue of Critical Care, Sánchez-Sánchez and colleagues analyzed the performance of a 'permissive hypovolemia' protocol guided by invasive hemodynamic parameters (PiCCO, Pulsion Medical Systems, Munich, Germany) and vital signs in a prospective cohort over a 3-year period. The authors' results confirm that resuscitation can be achieved with below-normal levels of preload but at the price of a fluid administration greater than predicted by the Parkland formula (2 to 4 mL/kg per% burn). The classic approach based on an adapted Parkland equation may still be the simplest until further studies identify the optimal bundle of resuscitation goals.

  12. Toll like receptors gene expression of human keratinocytes cultured of severe burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornick, Sarita Mac; Noronha, Silvana Aparecida Alves Corrêa de; Noronha, Samuel Marcos Ribeiro de; Cezillo, Marcus V B; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Gragnani, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the expression profile of genes related to Toll Like Receptors (TLR) pathways of human Primary Epidermal keratinocytes of patients with severe burns. After obtaining viable fragments of skin with and without burning, culture hKEP was initiated by the enzymatic method using Dispase (Sigma-Aldrich). These cells were treated with Trizol(r) (Life Technologies) for extraction of total RNA. This was quantified and analyzed for purity for obtaining cDNA for the analysis of gene expression using specific TLR pathways PCR Arrays plates (SA Biosciences). After the analysis of gene expression we found that 21% of these genes were differentially expressed, of which 100% were repressed or hyporegulated. Among these, the following genes (fold decrease): HSPA1A (-58), HRAS (-36), MAP2K3 (-23), TOLLIP (-23), RELA (-18), FOS (-16), and TLR1 (-6.0). This study contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms related to TLR pathways and underlying wound infection caused by the burn. Furthermore, it may provide new strategies to restore normal expression of these genes and thereby change the healing process and improve clinical outcome.

  13. Innate and adaptive immunity gene expression of human keratinocytes cultured of severe burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Silvana Aparecida Alves Corrêa de; Noronha, Samuel Marcos Ribeiro de; Lanziani, Larissa Elias; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Gragnani, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the expression profile of genes related to Innate and Adaptive Immune System (IAIS) of human Primary Epidermal keratinocytes (hPEKP) of patients with severe burns. After obtaining viable fragments of skin with and without burning, culture hKEP was initiated by the enzymatic method using Dispase (Sigma-Aldrich). These cells were treated with Trizol(r) (Life Technologies) for extraction of total RNA. This was quantified and analyzed for purity for obtaining cDNA for the analysis of gene expression using specific IAIS PCR Arrays plates (SA Biosciences). After the analysis of gene expression we found that 63% of these genes were differentially expressed, of which 77% were repressed and 23% were hyper-regulated. Among these, the following genes (fold increase or decrease): IL8 (41), IL6 (32), TNF (-92), HLA-E (-86), LYS (-74), CCR6 (- 73), CD86 (-41) and HLA-A (-35). This study contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying wound infection caused by the burn. Furthermore, it may provide new strategies to restore normal expression of these genes and thereby change the healing process and improve clinical outcome.

  14. Pyogenic cervical spondylitis with quadriplegia as a complication of severe burns: Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakage, Naoki; Katami, Atsuo; Takekawa, Satoru; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Goto, Michitoshi; Fukai, Ryuta

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of cervical pyogenic spondylitis complicated by epidural abscess with quadriplegia during treatment of severe burns. The patient was a 49-year-old man with 3rd-degree burns to 20% of his body, involving the lower extremities. We performed escharectomy of the 3rd-degree necrosis on days 7 and 16, followed by the first skin graft on day 23. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected in the postoperative graft wound culture. On day 23 after the skin graft, he became febrile and began to experience cervical pain and muscle weakness of the extremities. By day 24, quadriplegia had developed. A cervical vertebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed pyogenic spondylitis with an epidural abscess, which was causing the quadriplegia. We treated the patient by performing curettage of the pyogenic lesion and anterior fixation of the cervical vertebral bodies. The fact that P. aeruginosa was detected in the pyogenic focus culture indicated that burn wound sepsis was responsible for the infection. This case reinforces that acting on a strong suspicion helps to establish a diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment early.

  15. The view of severely burned patients and healthcare professionals on the blind spots in the aftercare process: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Wendy; Van de Walle, Elke; Devresse, Sophie; Van Halewyck, Dries; Benahmed, Nadia; Paulus, Dominique; Van den Heede, Koen

    2015-08-01

    In most Western countries burn centres have been developed to provide acute and critical care for patients with severe burn injuries. Nowadays, those patients have a realistic chance of survival. However severe burn injuries do have a devastating effect on all aspects of a person's life. Therefore a well-organized and specialized aftercare system is needed to enable burn patients to live with a major bodily change. The aim of this study is to identify the problems and unmet care needs of patients with severe burn injuries throughout the aftercare process, both from patient and health care professional perspectives in Belgium. By means of face-to-face interviews (n = 40) with individual patients, responsible physicians and patient organizations, current experiences with the aftercare process were explored. Additionally, allied healthcare professionals (n = 17) were interviewed in focus groups. Belgian burn patients indicate they would benefit from a more integrated aftercare process. Quality of care is often not structurally embedded, but depends on the good intentions of local health professionals. Most burn centres do not have a written discharge protocol including an individual patient-centred care plan, accessible to all caregivers involved. Patients reported discontinuity of care: nurses working at general wards or rehabilitation units are not specifically trained for burn injuries, which sometimes leads to mistakes or contradictory information transmission. Also professionals providing home care are often not trained for the care of burn injuries. Some have to be instructed by the patient, others go to the burn centre to learn the right skills. Finally, patients themselves underestimate the chronic character of burn injuries, especially at the beginning of the care process. The variability in aftercare processes and structures, as well as the failure to implement locally developed best-practices on a wider scale emphasize the need for a comprehensive network

  16. Severe Burn-Induced Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction Is Associated With Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yalan; Feng, Yanhai; Wang, Yu; Wang, Pei; Wang, Fengjun; Ren, Hui

    2018-01-01

    The disruption of intestinal barrier plays a vital role in the pathophysiological changes after severe burn injury, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Severe burn causes the disruption of intestinal tight junction (TJ) barrier. Previous studies have shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy are closely associated with the impairment of intestinal mucosa. Thus, we hypothesize that ER stress and autophagy are likely involved in burn injury-induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction. Mice received a 30% total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness burn, and were sacrificed at 0, 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h postburn. The results showed that intestinal permeability was increased significantly after burn injury, accompanied by the damage of mucosa and the alteration of TJ proteins. Severe burn induced ER stress, as indicated by increased intraluminal chaperone binding protein (BIP), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and inositol-requiring enzyme 1(IRE1)/X-box binding protein 1 splicing (XBP1). Autophagy was activated after burn injury, as evidenced by the increase of autophagy related protein 5 (ATG5), Beclin 1 and LC3II/LC3I ratio and the decrease of p62. Besides, the number of autophagosomes was also increased after burn injury. The levels of p-PI3K(Ser191), p-PI3K(Ser262), p-AKT(Ser473), and p-mTOR were decreased postburn, suggesting that autophagy-related PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is involved in the intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction following severe burn. In summary, severe burn injury induces the ER stress and autophagy in intestinal epithelia, leading to the disruption of intestinal barrier. PMID:29740349

  17. Ultrasonic measurement of high burn-up fuel elastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laux, D.; Despaux, G.; Augereau, F.; Attal, J.; Gatt, J.; Basini, V.

    2006-01-01

    The ultrasonic method developed for the evaluation of high burn-up fuel elastic properties is presented hereafter. The objective of the method is to provide data for fuel thermo-mechanical calculation codes in order to improve industrial nuclear fuel and materials or to design new reactor components. The need for data is especially crucial for high burn-up fuel modelling for which the fuel mechanical properties are essential and for which a wide range of experiments in MTR reactors and high burn-up commercial reactor fuel examinations have been included in programmes worldwide. To contribute to the acquisition of this knowledge the LAIN activity is developing in two directions. First one is development of an ultrasonic focused technique adapted to active materials study. This technique was used few years ago in the EdF laboratory in Chinon to assess the ageing of materials under irradiation. It is now used in a hot cell at ITU Karlsruhe to determine the elastic moduli of high burnup fuels from 0 to 110 GWd/tU. Some of this work is presented here. The second on going programme is related to the qualification of acoustic sensors in nuclear environments, which is of a great interest for all the methods, which work, in a hostile nuclear environment

  18. Clinical Trial of Imipenem/Cilastatin in Severely Burned and Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    34"OT FILE CO.Y CLINICAL TRIAL OF IMIPENEM /CILASTATIN IN SEVERELY BURNED AND INFECTED PATIENTS Gary R. Culbertson, M.D., Albert T. McManus, PH.D., D T...NOV 1 3 1987 San Antonio, Texas b H Imipenem /cilastatin was examined for safety and effi- ,-;Opportunistic organisms causing infections in cacy in a...All of the clinical failures were in the pulmonary in ec- imipenem /cilastatin, a novel thienamycin alti- tion group. No serious toxicity or side

  19. [Clinical study on the postburn change in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal hormones in severely burned patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-mian; Liang, Zi-qian; Luo, Zuo-jie

    2003-06-01

    To investigate the postburn dynamic changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal hormones in severely burned patients. Fifty burn patients were enrolled in the study. The plasma contents of total GC (cortisol), ACTH and aldosterone (ALDO) and urinary contents of 17-OHO and 17-KS were determined with radio-immunological assay (RIA) method after burn injury to compare with the normal values which were well established clinically. The postburn plasma and urinary contents of the above indices were increased evidently with two peak values in shock and infectious stages, whilst the majority of he indices were lower than the normal values after 6 postburn weeks (PBWs). The values of these hormones were the lowest in dying patients. On the other hand, the values approached normal levels in those patients whose burn wounds were healing. Increases of the plasma and urinary levels of hypothalamus-pituitary -adrenal hormones in severely burned patients were constantly seen. Burn shock and infection seemed to be the two major factors in inducing postburn stress reaction in burn victims. Abrupt decrease of the hormone levels in plasma and or urine indicated adrenal failure predicting a poor prognosis of the burn patients.

  20. Burn-Up Determination by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry: Fission Product Migration Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R S; Blackadder, W H; Ronqvist, N

    1967-04-15

    The migration of solid fission products, in particular caesium and ruthenium, in high temperature oxide fuel can create a severe problem during the application of non-destructive burn-up methods employing gamma spectrometry, since caesium-137 is otherwise the most convenient long-lived burn-up monitor and ruthenium-106 can be used to distinguish between fissions in U-235 and Pu-239. As part of an experimental programme to develop burn-up methods, gamma scanning experiments have been performed on slices of irradiated UO{sub 2} pellets using a lithium-drifted germanium detector. The usefulness of the technique for migration studies has been demonstrated by comparing the fission product distribution curves across the specimen diameters with the microstructure of the specimens after polishing and etching.

  1. Performance of high burned PWR fuel during transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Fujishiro, Toshio

    1992-01-01

    In a majority of Japanese light water type commercial powder reactors (LWRs), UO 2 pellet sheathed by zircaloy cladding is used. Licensed discharged burn-up of the PWR fuel rod is going to be increased from 39 MWd/kgU to 48 MWd/kgU. This requests the increased reliability of cladding material as a strong barrier against fission product (FP). A long time usage in the neutron field and in the high temperature coolant will cause the zircaloy hardening and embrittlement. The cladding material is also degraded by waterside corrosion. These degradations are enhanced much by increased burn-up. A increased magnitude of the pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) is of importance for increasing the stress of cladding material. In addition, aggressive FPs released from the fuel tends to attack the cladding material to cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC). At the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) in JAERI, 14 x 14 PWR type fuel rods preirradiation up to 42 MWd/kgU was prepared for the transient pulse irradiation under the simulated reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions. This will cause a prompt increase of the fuel temperature and stress on the highly burned cladding material. In the present paper, steady-state and transient behavior observed from the tested PWR fuel rod and calculational results obtained from the computer code FPRETAIN will be described. (author)

  2. How robust are burn severity indices when applied in a new region? Evaluation of alternate field-based and remote-sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Alina Cansler; Donald. McKenzie

    2012-01-01

    Remotely sensed indices of burn severity are now commonly used by researchers and land managers to assess fire effects, but their relationship to field-based assessments of burn severity has been evaluated only in a few ecosystems. This analysis illustrates two cases in which methodological refinements to field-based and remotely sensed indices of burn severity...

  3. Analysis of the burns profile and the admission rate of severely burned adult patient to the National Burn Center of Chile after the 2010 earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornoz, Claudia; Villegas, Jorge; Sylvester, Marilu; Peña, Veronica; Bravo, Iside

    2011-06-01

    Chile is located in the Ring of Fire, in South America. An earthquake 8.8° affected 80% of the population in February 27th, 2010. This study was conducted to assess any change in burns profile caused by the earthquake. This was an ecologic study. We compared the 4 months following the earthquake in 2009 and 2010. age, TBSA, deep TBSA, agent, specific mortality rate and rate of admissions to the National burn Center of Chile. Mann-Whitney test and a Poisson regression were performed. Age, agent, TBSA and deep TBSA percentages did not show any difference. Mortality rate was lower in 2010 (0.52 versus 1.22 per 1,000,000 habitants) but no meaningful difference was found (Poisson regression p = 0.06). Admission rate was lower in 2010, 4.6 versus 5.6 per 1,000,000 habitants, but no differences were found (p = 0.26). There was not any admissions directly related to the earthquake. As we do not have incidence registries in Chile, we propose to use the rate of admission to the National Burn Reference Center as an incidence estimator. There was not any significant difference in the burn profile, probably because of the time of the earthquake (3 am). We conclude the earthquake did not affect the way the Chilean people get burned. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomass burning in eastern Europe during spring 2006 caused high deposition of ammonium in northern Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per Erik; Ferm, Martin; Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    High air concentrations of ammonium were detected at low and high altitude sites in Sweden, Finland and Norway during the spring 2006, coinciding with polluted air from biomass burning in eastern Europe passing over central and northern Fennoscandia. Unusually high values for throughfall deposition...... of ammonium were detected at one low altitude site and several high altitude sites in north Sweden. The occurrence of the high ammonium in throughfall differed between the summer months 2006, most likely related to the timing of precipitation events. The ammonia dry deposition may have contributed to unusual...... visible injuries on the tree vegetation in northern Fennoscandia that occurred during 2006, in combination with high ozone concentrations. It is concluded that long-range transport of ammonium from large-scale biomass burning may contribute substantially to the nitrogen load at northern latitudes. © 2013...

  5. High explosive programmed burn in the FLAG code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, D.; Burton, D.; Lund, C.

    1998-02-01

    The models used to calculate the programmed burn high-explosive lighting times for two- and three-dimensions in the FLAG code are described. FLAG uses an unstructured polyhedra grid. The calculations were compared to exact solutions for a square in two dimensions and for a cube in three dimensions. The maximum error was 3.95 percent in two dimensions and 4.84 percent in three dimensions. The high explosive lighting time model described has the advantage that only one cell at a time needs to be considered.

  6. Intensive insulin therapy improves insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial function in severely burned children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Ricki Y; Cree, Melanie G; Wolfe, Robert R; Mlcak, Ronald P; Qian, Ting; Chinkes, David L; Herndon, David N

    2010-06-01

    oxidative capacity while decreasing resting energy expenditure in severely burned children.

  7. Health-related quality of life 6 months after burns among hospitalized patients: Predictive importance of mental disorders and burn severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmu, Raimo; Partonen, Timo; Suominen, Kirsi; Saarni, Samuli I; Vuola, Jyrki; Isometsä, Erkki

    2015-06-01

    Major burns are likely to have a strong impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We investigated the level of and predictors for quality of life at 6 months after acute burn. Consecutive acute adult burn patients (n=107) admitted to the Helsinki Burn Centre were examined with a structured diagnostic interview (SCID) at baseline, and 92 patients (86%) were re-examined at 6 months after injury. During follow-up 55% (51/92) suffered from at least one mental disorder. The mean %TBSA was 9. TBSA of men did not differ from that of women. Three validated instruments (RAND-36, EQ-5, 15D) were used to evaluate the quality of life at 6 months. All the measures (RAND-36, EQ-5, 15D) consistently indicated mostly normal HRQoL at 6 months after burn. In the multivariate linear regression model, %TBSA predicted HRQoL in one dimension (role limitations caused by physical health problems, p=0.039) of RAND-36. In contrast, mental disorders overall and particularly major depressive disorder (MDD) during follow-up (p-values of 0.001-0.002) predicted poor HRQoL in all dimensions of RAND-36. HRQoL of women was worse than that of men. Self-perceived HRQoL among acute burn patients at 6 months after injury seems to be mostly as good as in general population studies in Finland. The high standard of acute treatment and the inclusion of small burns (%TBSAburn itself on HRQoL. Mental disorders strongly predicted HRQoL at 6 months. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Resiliency characteristics and Rorschach variables in children and adolescents with severe burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaday, M; Terrell, D

    1994-01-01

    Three raters classified 40 children and adolescents (ages 8 to 19 years) with severe burns who were placed in two groups designated as Resilient (N = 28) and Nonresilient (N = 12). Nine hypothesized differences in Rorschach responding between groups were developed through a review of the literature and operationalized through descriptive statements from a rating scale now being developed. The Resilient group gave more Cooperative Movement responses than the Nonresilient group (p = 0.0270), and they were more likely to have D scores that were within the normal range (p = 0.0700). The Nonresilient group had lower Egocentricity Index scores than the Resilient group (p = 0.0368) and more often had a positive Coping Deficit Index (p = 0.1285). Texture, Diffuse Shading, and Passive: Active responses appeared similar between groups. Differences found concerning Experience Actual and Z frequency were not statistically significant. Possible interventions addressing the emotional needs of burned children and adolescents such as strengthening certain personality characteristics are noted.

  9. Learn from the burn: The High Park Fire 5 years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue Miller; Charles Rhodes; Pete Robichaud; Sandra Ryan; Jen Kovecses; Carl Chambers; Sara Rathburn; Jared Heath; Stephanie Kampf; Codie Wilson; Dan Brogan; Brad Piehl; Mary Ellen Miller; John Giordanengo; Erin Berryman; Monique Rocca

    2017-01-01

    It has been 5 years since the High Park Fire burned over 85,000 acres in Northern Colorado, causing extensive property damage, loss of life, and severe impacts to the water quality of the Poudre River. In the fall of 2016, a conference was organized by the USFS Rocky Mountain Research Station and the Coalition for the Poudre River Watershed to discuss what has been...

  10. High-voltage electrical burns due to copper theft - Case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, M J; Oliveira, I; Egipto, P; Silva, A

    2016-03-31

    Electrical burns are among the most devastating trauma inflicted on the human body. These burns have a higher morbidity, length of stay and a much higher risk of amputation than any other type of burn. Electrical burns affect mostly young, working males because they are more frequently the result of a work accident. However, possibly due to the worldwide economic crisis, we are experiencing a new phenomenon: the theft of high-voltage copper wiring.

  11. High-voltage electrical burns due to copper theft – Case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, M.J.; Oliveira, I.; Egipto, P.; Silva, A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Electrical burns are among the most devastating trauma inflicted on the human body. These burns have a higher morbidity, length of stay and a much higher risk of amputation than any other type of burn. Electrical burns affect mostly young, working males because they are more frequently the result of a work accident. However, possibly due to the worldwide economic crisis, we are experiencing a new phenomenon: the theft of high-voltage copper wiring. PMID:27857650

  12. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in severely burned patients: a case-control study to assess risk factors, causes, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jin; Koh, Dong Hee; Park, Se Woo; Park, Sun Man; Choi, Min Ho; Jang, Hyun Joo; Kae, Sea Hyub; Lee, Jin; Byun, Hyun Woo

    2014-01-01

    To determine the risk factors, causes, and outcome of clinically important upper gastrointestinal bleeding that occurs in severely burned patients. The charts of all patients admitted to the burn intensive care unit were analyzed retrospectively over a 4-year period (from January 2006 to December 2009). Cases consisted of burned patients who developed upper gastrointestinal bleeding more than 24 hours after admission to the burn intensive care unit. Controls were a set of patients, in the burn intensive care unit, without upper gastrointestinal bleeding matched with cases for age and gender. Cases and controls were compared with respect to the risk factors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and outcomes. During the study period, clinically important upper gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 20 patients out of all 964 patients. The most common cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was duodenal ulcer (11 of 20 cases, 55%). In the multivariate analysis, mechanical ventilation (p = 0.044) and coagulopathy (p = 0.035) were found to be the independent predictors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in severely burned patients. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage tends to occur more frequently after having prolonged mechanical ventilation and coagulopathy.

  13. The interactive effects of surface-burn severity and canopy cover on conifer and broadleaf tree seedling ecophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel Bansal; Till Jochum; David A. Wardle; Marie-Charlotte Nilsson

    2014-01-01

    Fire has an important role for regeneration of many boreal forest tree species, and this includes both wildfire and prescribed burning following clear-cutting. Depending on the severity, fire can have a variety of effects on above- and belowground properties that impact tree seedling establishment. Very little is known about the impacts of ground fire severity on post-...

  14. Severe childhood burns in the Czech Republic: risk factors and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čelko, Alexander Martin; Dáňová, Jana; Barss, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess risk factors for paediatric burn injuries in the Czech Republic and to suggest preventive measures. Methods This study included all children aged 0–16 years hospitalized during 1993–2000 at the Prague Burn Centre and data from the Czech Ministry of Health on national paediatric burn hospitalizations during 1996–2006. Personal, equipment and environmental risk factors were identified from hospital records. Findings The incidence of burn admissions among 0–14 year-olds increased from 85 to 96 per 100 000 between 1996 and 2006, mainly due to a 13% increase among 1–4 year-olds. Between 1993–2000 and 2006, the proportion of burn victims in the country hospitalized at the Prague Burn Centre increased from 9% to 21%. Detailed data were available on 1064 children (64% boys). Around 31% of all burn hospitalizations were in 1 year-olds. Some 79% of burns occurred at home: 70% in the kitchen, 14% in the living room or bedroom and 11% in the bathroom. Of the 18% occurring outdoors, 80% involved boys. Scalds from hot liquids accounted for 70% of all burns. The mean hospital stay was 22 days for boys and 18 days for girls. Conclusion Most burns involved scalds from hot liquids at home: beverages in kitchens and water in bathrooms. There is a need for passive preventive measures, such as redesigned domestic cooking and eating areas, safer electrical kettles and temperature control devices for bathrooms. Educational programmes should be developed for parents and caregivers. A national plan for child burn prevention with specific targets would be helpful. PMID:19551256

  15. High-fidelity plasma codes for burn physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Graziani, Frank [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marinak, Marty [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Murillo, Michael [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-10-19

    Accurate predictions of equation of state (EOS), ionic and electronic transport properties are of critical importance for high-energy-density plasma science. Transport coefficients inform radiation-hydrodynamic codes and impact diagnostic interpretation, which in turn impacts our understanding of the development of instabilities, the overall energy balance of burning plasmas, and the efficacy of self-heating from charged-particle stopping. Important processes include thermal and electrical conduction, electron-ion coupling, inter-diffusion, ion viscosity, and charged particle stopping. However, uncertainties in these coefficients are not well established. Fundamental plasma science codes, also called high-fidelity plasma codes, are a relatively recent computational tool that augments both experimental data and theoretical foundations of transport coefficients. This paper addresses the current status of HFPC codes and their future development, and the potential impact they play in improving the predictive capability of the multi-physics hydrodynamic codes used in HED design.

  16. Long-term skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with hypermetabolism in severely burned children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The long-term impact of burn trauma on skeletal muscle bioenergetics remains unknown. Here, we determined respiratory capacity and function of skeletal muscle mitochondria in healthy individuals and in burn victims for up to two years post-injury. Biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis...

  17. [Effects of early enteral nutrition in the treatment of patients with severe burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y W; Liu, J; Jin, J; Liu, L J; Wu, Y F

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To investigate the effects of early enteral nutrition (EEN) in the treatment of patients with severe burns. Methods: Medical records of 52 patients with severe burns hospitalized in the three affiliations of authors from August to September in 2014 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into EEN group ( n =28) and non-early enteral nutrition (NEEN) group ( n =24) according to the initiation time of enteral nutrition. On the basis of routine treatment, enteral nutrition was given to patients in group EEN within post injury day (POD) 3, while enteral nutrition was given to patients in group NEEN after POD 3. The following items were compared between patients of the two groups, such as the ratio of enteral nutrition intake to total energy intake, the ratio of parenteral nutrition intake to total energy intake, the ratio of total energy intake to energy target on POD 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 21, and 28, the levels of prealbumin, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation Ⅱ (APACHE Ⅱ) score on POD 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28, the first operation time, the number of operations, and the frequencies of abdominal distension, diarrhea, vomiting, aspiration, catheter blockage, and low blood sugar within POD 28. Data were processed with χ (2)test, t test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) The ratio of parenteral nutrition intake to total energy intake of patients in group EEN on POD 1 was obviously lower than that in group NEEN ( Z =2.078, P 0.05). On POD 28, the prealbumin level of patients in group EEN was obviously higher than that in group NEEN ( t =3.163, P 0.05). (3) The APACHE Ⅱ scores of patients in group EEN were (22.5±3.1) and (15.6±3.8) points respectively on POD 1 and 3, which were close to (23.6±3.0) and (17.6±4.2) points of patients in group NEEN ( t =1.352, 1.733, P >0.05). The APACHE Ⅱ scores of patients in group EEN on POD 7, 14

  18. Skin graft fixation in severe burns: use of topical negative pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamolz, L P; Lumenta, D B; Parvizi, D; Wiedner, M; Justich, I; Keck, M; Pfurtscheller, K; Schintler, M

    2014-09-30

    Over the last 50 years, the evolution of burn care has led to a significant decrease in mortality. The biggest impact on survival has been the change in the approach to burn surgery. Early excision and grafting has become a standard of care for the majority of patients with deep burns; the survival of a given patient suffering from major burns is invariably linked to the take rate and survival of skin grafts. The application of topical negative pressure (TNP) therapy devices has demonstrated improved graft take in comparison to conventional dressing methods alone. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of TNP therapy on skin graft fixation in large burns. In all patients, we applied TNP dressings covering a %TBSA of >25. The following parameters were recorded and documented using BurnCase 3D: age, gender, %TBSA, burn depth, hospital length-of-stay, Baux score, survival, as well as duration and incidence of TNP dressings. After a burn depth adapted wound debridement, coverage was simultaneously performed using split-thickness skin grafts, which were fixed with staples and covered with fatty gauzes and TNP foam. The TNP foam was again fixed with staples to prevent displacement and finally covered with the supplied transparent adhesive film. A continuous subatmospheric pressure between 75-120 mm Hg was applied (VAC®, KCI, Vienna, Austria). The first dressing change was performed on day 4. Thirty-six out of 37 patients, suffering from full thickness burns, were discharged with complete wound closure; only one patient succumbed to their injuries. The overall skin graft take rate was over 95%. In conclusion, we consider that split thickness skin graft fixation by TNP is an efficient method in major burns, notably in areas with irregular wound surfaces or subject to movement (e.g. joint proximity), and is worth considering for the treatment of aged patients.

  19. Rocket propellants with reduced smoke and high burning rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menke, K.; Eisele, S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal-Berghausen (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    Rocket propellants with reduced smoke and high burning rates recommend themselves for use in a rocket motor for high accelerating tactical missiles. They serve for an improved camouflage on the battle field and may enable guidance control due to the higher transmission of their rocket plume compared to traditional aluminized composite propellants. In this contribution the material based ranges of performance and properties of three non aluminized rocket propellants will be introduced and compared to each other. The selected formulations based on AP/HTPB; AP/PU/TMETN and AP/HMX/GAP/TMETN have roughly the same specific impulse of I{sub SP}=2430 Ns/kg at 70:1 expansion ratio. The burning rates in the pressure range from 10-18 MPa vary from to 26-33 mm/s for the AP/HTPB propellant, 52-68 mm/s for the formulation based on AP/PU/TMETN and 28-39 mm/s for the propellant based on AP/HMX/GAP. With 58% and 20% AP-contents the propellants with nitrate ester plasticizers create a much smaller secondary signature than the AP/HTPB representative containing 85% AP. Their disadvantage, however, is the connection of high performance to a high level of energetic plasticizer. For this reason, the very fast burning propellant based on AP/PU/TMETN is endowed with a low elastic modulus and is limited to a grain configuration which isn`t exposed too much to the fast and turbulent airstream. The mechanical properties of the AP/HMX/GAP-propellant are as good or better as those of the AP/HTPB propellant. The first one exhibits the same performance and burn rates as the composite representative but produces only one fifth of HCl exhaust. For this reason it is recommended for missile applications, which must have high accelerating power together with a significantly reduced plume signature and smoke production. (orig.) [Deutsch] Rauchreduzierte Festtreibstoffe mit hohen Abbrandgeschwindigkeiten bieten sich fuer den Antrieb hochbeschleunigender taktischer Flugkoerper an, da sie gegenueber

  20. Missense Variant in MAPK Inactivator PTPN5 Is Associated with Decreased Severity of Post-Burn Hypertrophic Scarring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi F Sood

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic scarring (HTS is hypothesized to have a genetic mechanism, yet its genetic determinants are largely unknown. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways are important mediators of inflammatory signaling, and experimental evidence implicates MAPKs in HTS formation. We hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in MAPK-pathway genes would be associated with severity of post-burn HTS.We analyzed data from a prospective-cohort genome-wide association study of post-burn HTS. We included subjects with deep-partial-thickness burns admitted to our center who provided blood for genotyping and had at least one Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS assessment. After adjusting for HTS risk factors and population stratification, we tested MAPK-pathway gene SNPs for association with the four VSS variables in a joint regression model. In addition to individual-SNP analysis, we performed gene-based association testing.Our study population consisted of 538 adults (median age 40 years who were predominantly White (76% males (71% admitted to our center from 2007-2014 with small-to-moderate-sized burns (median burn size 6% total body surface area. Of 2,146 SNPs tested, a rare missense variant in the PTPN5 gene (rs56234898; minor allele frequency 1.5% was significantly associated with decreased severity of post-burn HTS (P = 1.3×10-6. In gene-based analysis, PTPN5 (P = 1.2×10-5 showed a significant association and BDNF (P = 9.5×10-4 a borderline-significant association with HTS severity.We report PTPN5 as a novel genetic locus associated with HTS severity. PTPN5 is a MAPK inhibitor expressed in neurons, suggesting a potential role for neurotrophic factors and neuroinflammatory signaling in HTS pathophysiology.

  1. Ignition and burn in contaminated DT fuel at high densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasley, J.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Radiation hydrodynamics simulations have been performed to quantify the effect of contamination upon the ignition threshold in DT at high densities. A detailed thermonuclear burn model, with multi-group multispecies ions, is incorporated alongside a multigroup diffusion approximation for thermal radiation transport. The code used is the research version of the HYADES 1D code. Acceptable levels of contamination are identified for a range of contaminant ion species. A range of different contaminant spatial distribution within the fuel are explored: i) in which the contamination is uniformly distributed throughout the fuel; ii) in which the impurity ions are confined to the hotspot, or iii) where contamination is restricted to a particular region of the hotspot (either centrally, near the surface, or at an intermediate location). Initially the fuel has a constant density with the hotspot located centrally. The overall radius of the fuel is chosen to be sufficiently large that it has no significant effect upon the success or failure of ignition. The evolution of the system is then simulated until ignition either establishes widespread thermonuclear burning, or a failure to ignite is observed. The critical ρr for ignition is found by iteration on the hotspot radius. We show that varying the spatial distribution of the contaminant within the ignition spot has little effect, so long as the total mass of contaminant is held the same. As expected, high-Z contamination is far more detrimental than that by low-Z ions. Discussion of the findings in the context of re-entrant cone-guided fast ignition is presented, in addition to a theoretical interpretation of the results.

  2. Cost of nursing most frequent procedures performed on severely burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita de Oliveira Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the mean direct cost (MDC of the most frequent procedures performed by nursing professionals on severely burned patients in an Intensive Care Unit. Method: exploratory-descriptive quantitative single-case study. The MDC was calculated by multiplying time (timed spent by nursing professionals in the performance of the procedures by the unit cost of direct labor, and adding the costs of material and medicine/solutions. Results: a MDC of US$ 0.65 (SD=0.36 was obtained for "vital signs monitoring"; US$ 10.00 (SD=24.23 for "intravenous drug administration"; US$ 5.90 (SD=2.75 for "measurement of diuresis"; US$ 0.93 (SD=0.42 for "capillary blood glucose monitoring"; and US$ 99.75 (SD=129.55 for "bandaging". Conclusion: the knowledge developed can support managerial decision-making, contribute to the efficiency distribution of the resources involved and, when possible, provide cost-containment or cost-minimization strategies without impairing the quality of nursing care.

  3. Temporal characterisation of soil-plant natural recovery related to fire severity in burned Pinus halepensis Mill. forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, D; González-De Vega, S; García-Orenes, F; Morugán-Coronado, A; Arcenegui, V; Mataix-Solera, J; Lucas-Borja, M E; De Las Heras, J

    2018-05-28

    Despite Mediterranean ecosystems' high resilience to fire, both climate and land use change, and alterations in fire regimes increase their vulnerability to fire by affecting the long-term natural recovery of ecosystem services. The objective of this work is to study the effects of fire severity on biochemical soil indicators, such as chemical composition or enzymatic activity, related to time after fire and natural vegetation recovery (soil-plant interphase). Soil samples from three wildfires occurring 3, 15 and 21 years ago were taken in the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula (semiarid climate). Sampling included three fire severity levels in naturally regenerated (and changing to shrublands) Pinus halepensis Mill. forests. In the short-term post-fire period, phosphorus concentration, electrical conductivity and urease activity were positively linked to fire severity, and also influenced β-glucosidade activity in a negative relationship. During the 15-21-year post-fire period, the effects related to medium-high fire severity were negligible and soil quality indicators were linked to natural regeneration success. The results showed that most soil properties recovered in the long term after fire (21 years). These outcomes will help managers and stakeholders to implement management tools to stabilise soils and to restore burned ecosystems affected by medium-high fire severity. Such knowledge can be considered in adaptive forest management to reduce the negative effects of wildfires and desertification, and to improve the resilience of vulnerable ecosystems in a global change scenario. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Both topography and climate affected forest and woodland burn severity in two regions of the western US, 1984 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory K. Dillon; Zachery A. Holden; Penelope Morgan; Michael A. Crimmins; Emily K. Heyerdahl; Charles H. Luce

    2011-01-01

    Fire is a keystone process in many ecosystems of western North America. Severe fires kill and consume large amounts of above- and belowground biomass and affect soils, resulting in long-lasting consequences for vegetation, aquatic ecosystem productivity and diversity, and other ecosystem properties. We analyzed the occurrence of, and trends in, satellite-derived burn...

  5. Using "The Burns Suite" as a Novel High Fidelity Simulation Tool for Interprofessional and Teamwork Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadideen, Hazim; Wilson, David; Moiemen, Naiem; Kneebone, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Educational theory highlights the importance of contextualized simulation for effective learning. The authors recently published the concept of "The Burns Suite" (TBS) as a novel tool to advance the delivery of burns education for residents/clinicians. Effectively, TBS represents a low-cost, high-fidelity, portable, immersive simulation environment. Recently, simulation-based team training (SBTT) has been advocated as a means to improve interprofessional practice. The authors aimed to explore the role of TBS in SBTT. A realistic pediatric burn resuscitation scenario was designed based on "advanced trauma and life support" and "emergency management of severe burns" principles, refined utilizing expert opinion through cognitive task analysis. The focus of this analysis was on nontechnical and interpersonal skills of clinicians and nurses within the scenario, mirroring what happens in real life. Five-point Likert-type questionnaires were developed for face and content validity. Cronbach's alpha was calculated for scale reliability. Semistructured interviews captured responses for qualitative thematic analysis allowing for data triangulation. Twenty-two participants completed TBS resuscitation scenario. Mean face and content validity ratings were high (4.4 and 4.7 respectively; range 4-5). The internal consistency of questions was high. Qualitative data analysis revealed two new themes. Participants reported that the experience felt particularly authentic because the simulation had high psychological and social fidelity, and there was a demand for such a facility to be made available to improve nontechnical skills and interprofessional relations. TBS provides a realistic, novel tool for SBTT, addressing both nontechnical and interprofessional team skills. Recreating clinical challenge is crucial to optimize SBTT. With a better understanding of the theories underpinning simulation and interprofessional education, future simulation scenarios can be designed to provide

  6. Detonation of high explosives in Lagrangian hydrodynamic codes using the programmed burn technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.E.

    1975-09-01

    Two initiation methods were developed for improving the programmed burn technique for detonation of high explosives in smeared-shock Lagrangian hydrodynamic codes. The methods are verified by comparing the improved programmed burn with existing solutions in one-dimensional plane, converging, and diverging geometries. Deficiencies in the standard programmed burn are described. One of the initiation methods has been determined to be better for inclusion in production hydrodynamic codes

  7. Surgical treatment and management of the severely burn patient: Review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacto-Sanchez, P

    Since one of the main challenges in treating acute burn injuries is preventing infection, early excising of the eschar and covering of the wound becomes critical. Non-viable tissue is removed by initial aggressive surgical debridement. Many surgical options for covering the wound bed have been described, although split-thickness skin grafts remain the standard for the rapid and permanent closure of full-thickness burns. Significant advances made in the past decades have greatly improved burns patient care, as such that major future improvements in survival rates seem to be more difficult. Research into stem cells, grafting, biomarkers, inflammation control, and rehabilitation will continue to improve individualized care and create new treatment options for these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Severe Vaginal Burns in a 5-Year-Old Girl Due to an Alkaline Battery in the Vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Alexander; Klein, Tobias; Vahdad, Mohammad Reza; Boemers, Thomas M; Pohle, Rebecca

    2015-10-01

    The ingestion or insertion of alkaline batteries in the body can cause severe damage to hollow organs. We report here a case of severe vaginal burns in a young patient caused by an alkaline battery. A 5-year-old girl presented to our outpatient department with pelvic pain and vaginal discharge. Further workup suggested the presence of a vaginal foreign body. Under general anesthesia, an alkaline battery was removed from her vagina, which showed severe burns with partial-thickness necrosis. Complete healing was confirmed at 3 months after initial presentation. In this rare case of an alkaline battery present in the vagina of a prepubescent girl, we discuss the available treatment and management options in comparison to similar previously reported cases. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Test of calorimetry for high burn-up plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beets, C.; Carchon, R.; Fettweis, P.

    1984-01-01

    In recent times, the interest of applying calorimetry for safeguards purpose is steadily increasing. Calorimetric measurements have been performed on a set of high burn-up (25000 MWd/t) Pu samples, ranging in mass between 60 g and 2.5 kg Pu, distributed as PuO 2 powder embedded in stainless steel containers. The powers produced by these containers ranged between 0.8 W and 36 W. The calorimeter used was the Mound 150 type, and the isotopics and the Am content have been determined earlier by mass spectroscopy, completed with α and γ counting, and were later verified by the same methods. Watts/gram measurements were made on twelve 60 g samples of the same plutonium lot to demonstrate the Pu elemental and isotopic homogeneity, and hence, its suitability for subsequent NDA experiments. These samples were also measured in a stacked way to fill up the mass and wattage gaps between 60 g (0.8W) and 1 kg (14W). Calorimetric assay values, obtained with both isotopic measurements are discussed

  10. SELECTIVE INTESTINAL DECONTAMINATION FOR PREVENTION OF WOUND COLONIZATION IN SEVERELY BURNED PATIENTS - A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSON, WL; KLASEN, HJ; SAUER, EW; OLIEMAN, A

    In this study the effect of selective intestinal decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) on wound colonization was investigated. Ninety-one patients with at least 25 per cent total burned surface area (TBSA) were included in this study. All patients received oral polymyxin. In 63 patients oral

  11. The relation between tree burn severity and forest structure in the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain; Russell T. Graham

    2007-01-01

    Many wildfire events have burned thousands of hectares across the western United States, such as the Bitterroot (Montana), Rodeo-Chediski (Arizona), Hayman (Colorado), and Biscuit (Oregon) fires. These events led to Congress enacting the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003, which, with other policies, encourages federal and state agencies to decrease wildfire risks...

  12. Previous fires moderate burn severity of subsequent wildland fires in two large western US wilderness areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Cara R. Nelson; Zachary A. Holden

    2014-01-01

    Wildland fire is an important natural process in many ecosystems. However, fire exclusion has reduced frequency of fire and area burned in many dry forest types, which may affect vegetation structure and composition, and potential fire behavior. In forests of the western U.S., these effects pose a challenge for fire and land managers who seek to restore the ecological...

  13. Fatty infiltration of the liver in severely burned pediatric patients : Autopsy findings and clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Jeschke, MG; Herndon, DN

    2001-01-01

    Background. Trauma induces hypermetabolic responses that are characterized by the mobilization of all available substrates. The marked increase of peripheral lipolysis after a burn can lead to the development of fatty liver, which has been associated with immunodepression and increased mortality.

  14. FIVE-YEAR OUTCOMES AFTER LONG-TERM OXANDROLONE ADMINISTRATION IN SEVERELY BURNED CHILDREN: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Patrick T; Herndon, David N; Tanksley, Jessica D; Jennings, Kristofer; Klein, Gordon L; Mlcak, Ronald P; Clayton, Robert P; Crites, Nancy N; Hays, Joshua P; Andersen, Clark; Lee, Jong O; Meyer, Walter; Suman, Oscar E; Finnerty, Celeste C

    2016-01-01

    Administration of oxandrolone, a non-aromatizable testosterone analog, to children for 12 months following severe burn injury has been shown to improve height, increase bone mineral content (BMC), reduce cardiac work, and augment muscle strength. Surprisingly, the increase in BMC persists well beyond the period of oxandrolone administration. This study was undertaken to determine if administration of oxandrolone for 2 years yields greater effects on long-term BMC and bone mineral density (BMD...

  15. The largest forest fires in Portugal: the constraints of burned area size on the comprehension of fire severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedim, Fantina; Remelgado, Ruben; Martins, João; Carvalho, Salete

    2015-01-01

    Portugal is a European country with highest forest fires density and burned area. Since beginning of official forest fires database in 1980, an increase in number of fires and burned area as well as appearance of large and catastrophic fires have characterized fire activity in Portugal. In 1980s, the largest fires were just a little bit over 10,000 ha. However, in the beginning of 21st century several fires occurred with a burned area over 20,000 ha. Some of these events can be classified as mega-fires due to their ecological and socioeconomic severity. The present study aimed to discuss the characterization of large forest fires trend, in order to understand if the largest fires that occurred in Portugal were exceptional events or evidences of a new trend, and the constraints of fire size to characterize fire effects because, usually, it is assumed that larger the fire higher the damages. Using Portuguese forest fire database and satellite imagery, the present study showed that the largest fires could be seen at the same time as exceptional events and as evidence of a new fire regime. It highlighted the importance of size and patterns of unburned patches within fire perimeter as well as heterogeneity of fire ecological severity, usually not included in fire regime description, which are critical to fire management and research. The findings of this research can be used in forest risk reduction and suppression planning.

  16. A comprehensive biomass burning emission inventory with high spatial and temporal resolution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Xing, Xiaofan; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wei, Lin; Wei, Xiao; Liu, Chao

    2017-02-01

    . As for the straw burning emission of various crops, corn straw burning has the largest contribution to all of the pollutants considered, except for CH4; rice straw burning has highest contribution to CH4 and the second largest contribution to other pollutants, except for SO2, OC, and Hg; wheat straw burning is the second largest contributor to SO2, OC, and Hg and the third largest contributor to other pollutants. Heilongjiang, Shandong, and Henan provinces located in the north-eastern and central-southern regions of China have higher emissions compared to other provinces in China. Gridded emissions, which were obtained through spatial allocation based on the gridded rural population and fire point data from emission inventories at county resolution, could better represent the actual situation. High biomass burning emissions are concentrated in the areas with more agricultural and rural activity. The months of April, May, June, and October account for 65 % of emissions from in-field crop residue burning, while, regarding EC, the emissions in January, February, October, November, and December are relatively higher than other months due to biomass domestic burning in heating season. There are regional differences in the monthly variations of emissions due to the diversity of main planted crops and climatic conditions. Furthermore, PM2.5 component results showed that OC, Cl-, EC, K+, NH4+, elemental K, and SO42- are the main PM2.5 species, accounting for 80 % of the total emissions. The species with relatively high contribution to NMVOC emission include ethylene, propylene, toluene, mp-xylene, and ethyl benzene, which are key species for the formation of secondary air pollution. The detailed biomass burning emission inventory developed by this study could provide useful information for air-quality modelling and could support the development of appropriate pollution-control strategies.

  17. Management of High-Voltage Burns of the Hand and Wrist with Negative Pressure Dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazım Gümüş

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Negative pressure dressing stimulates wound healing by promoting cellular proliferation and regeneration. It also removes interstitial edema and increases local blood flow, resulting in rapid growth of the granulation tissue. We used the dressing method in deep hand and wrist burns caused by high-voltage electrical current, which leads to progressive tissue necrosis, elevated compartment pressure, and deep tissue edema, to reveal if subatmospheric pressure could limit the zone of injury or ongoing tissue necrosis after electrical burn. Material and Methods: Six hands of five patients, who came in contact with high-voltage electrical wire carrying more than 1000 volts, are presented in this study. Hands and wrists were seriously injured and contracted. After the initial treatment involving fluid resuscitation, fasciotomy, carpal tunnel release, and debridement, a negative pressure dressing was applied to the wounds of hand, wrist, and forearm with 125 mm Hg continuous pressure, and maintained for 20 days. Results: When negative pressure dressing was stopped on the 20th day, significant granulation tissue developed over the hand and forearm wounds. However, wrist wounds needed more debridement and repeated dressings because of the presence of necrosis. Edema of the hands subsided significantly during the use of negative pressure dressing. Time to closure for hand and forearm wounds decreased considerably. Moreover, in one wrist, spontaneous closure was achieved at about one month. All hands except one treated with negative pressure dressing could be saved from amputation; however, significant tissue loss developed, needing complex reconstruction procedures. One hand was amputated because of the permanent loss of blood perfusion. Conclusion: The management of high-voltage burns of hand and wrist with subatmospheric pressure appears to be capable of reducing hand edema and accelerating closure of the wounds. It seems that negative

  18. Plasma NGAL predicts early acute kidney injury no earlier than s-creatinine or cystatin C in severely burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakkolainen, Ilmari; Vuola, Jyrki

    2016-03-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a novel biomarker used in acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnostics. Studies on burn patients have highlighted it as a promising biomarker for early detection of AKI. This study was designed to discover whether plasma NGAL is as a biomarker superior to serum creatinine and cystatin C in detecting AKI in severely burned patients. Nineteen subjects were enrolled from March 2013 to September 2014 in the Helsinki Burn Centre. Serum creatinine, cystatin C, and plasma NGAL were collected from the patients at admission and every 12h during the first 48h and thereafter daily until seven days following admission. AKI was defined by acute kidney injury network criteria. Nine (47%) developed AKI during their intensive care unit stay and two (11%) underwent renal replacement therapy. All biomarkers were significantly higher in the AKI group but serum creatinine- and cystatin C values reacted more rapidly to changes in kidney function than did plasma NGAL. Plasma NGAL tended to rise on average 72h±29h (95% CI) later in patients with early AKI than did serum creatinine. Area-under-the-curve values calculated for each biomarker were 0.92 for serum creatinine, 0.87 for cystatin C, and 0.62 for plasma NGAL predicting AKI by the receiver-operating-characteristic method. This study demonstrated serum creatinine and cystatin C as faster and more reliable biomarkers than plasma NGAL in detecting early AKI within one week of injury in patients with severe burns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Subgroup analysis of continuous renal replacement therapy in severely burned patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaechul Yoon

    Full Text Available Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT is administered to critically ill patients with renal injuries as renal replacement or renal support. We aimed to identify predictors of mortality among burn patients receiving CRRT, and to investigate clinical differences according to acute kidney injury (AKI status. This retrospective observational study evaluated 216 Korean burn patients who received CRRT at a burn intensive care unit. Patients were categorized by AKI status. Data were collected regarding arterial pH, laboratory results, ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PF ratio, and urine production. Among surviving patients, CRRT duration and the sequential organ failure assessment score were 6.5 days and 4.7 in the non-AKI group and 23.4 days and 7.4 in the AKI group, respectively (p = 0.003 and p = 0.008. On logistic regression analyses, mortality was significantly associated with a pH of 5.0 mEg/L (p = 0.045, creatinine levels of >2.0 mg/dL (p = 0.011, lactate levels of >2 mmol/L (p2 mmol/L, and a platelet count of 2 mg/dL. In the non-AKI group, poor outcomes were associated with lactate levels of >1.5 mmol/L, a PF ratio of 1.2 mg/dL. Duration of the CRRT application and the requirement for either renal replacement or renal support at the initiation of CRRT application are important considerations depending on its application.

  20. Emergency percutaneous tracheostomy in a severely burned patient with upper airway obstruction and circulatory arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossmacher, Pascal; Martinet, Olivier; Testud, Richard; Agesilas, Fabrice; Benhamou, Léon; Gauzëre, Bernard Alex

    2006-02-01

    We report the life-saving use of Griggs percutaneous tracheostomy in an arrested patient with complex upper airway obstruction, as a result of burns, smoke injuries and iterative tracheal intubation attempts. The technique was performed blindly at bedside to treat an acute episode of failed ventilation and intubation and cardiac arrest in a patient with altered neck anatomy. The intervention salvaged the situation, leaving a definitive airway. The feasibility of using an emergency Griggs percutaneous tracheostomy versus cricothyroidotomy is suggested in selected cases.

  1. Effects of different duration exercise programs in children with severe burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Robert P; Wurzer, Paul; Andersen, Clark R; Mlcak, Ronald P; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2017-06-01

    Burns lead to persistent and detrimental muscle breakdown and weakness. Standard treatment at our institution includes a voluntary 12-week rehabilitative exercise program to limit and reverse the effects of increased muscle catabolism. In the present work, we investigated if different durations of exercise, 6 or 12 weeks, produce comparable improvements in muscle strength, body composition, and cardiopulmonary fitness. We prospectively enrolled and randomized patients with ≥30% total body surface area (TBSA) burned to receive 6 or 12 weeks of exercise rehabilitation. Patients were evaluated for muscle strength, oxygen consumption capacity, and lean body mass at discharge (n=42) and after exercise. After 6 weeks (n=18) or 12 weeks (n=24) of exercise training, leg muscle strength was assessed as peak torque per body weight using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. Oxygen consumption capacity, measured as peak VO 2 , was studied using a standard treadmill-based test, and lean body mass was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Significant improvements in muscle strength, peak VO 2 , and lean body mass were seen after 6 weeks of exercise training (pburn patients. However, continuation of at- or near-home cardiopulmonary training following the 6 weeks of at-hospital rehabilitation may be useful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Young Children's Acute Stress After a Burn Injury: Disentangling the Role of Injury Severity and Parental Acute Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Ann-Christin; Landolt, Markus A

    2017-09-01

    Although injury severity and parental stress are strong predictors of posttraumatic adjustment in young children after burns, little is known about the interplay of these variables. This study aimed at clarifying mediation processes between injury severity and mother's, father's, and young child's acute stress. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships between injury severity and parental and child acute stress. Parents of 138 burn-injured children (ages 1-4 years) completed standardized questionnaires on average 19 days postinjury. Sixteen children (11.7%) met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, preschool criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (excluding time criterion). The model revealed a significant mediation of maternal acute stress, with the effect of injury severity on a child's acute stress mediated by maternal acute stress. Paternal acute stress failed to serve as a mediating variable. Our findings confirm mothers' crucial role in the posttraumatic adjustment of young children. Clinically, mothers' acute stress should be monitored. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. High-Pressure Burning Rate Studies of Solid Rocket Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    monopropellant burning rate. The self-de§agration rates of neat AP are plotted in Fig. 2 for both pressed pellets and single crystals. There is agreement...rate data from various investigators: 1 ¡ [2]; pressed pellets : 2 ¡ [3], 3 ¡ [4], and 4 ¡ [2]; and single crystals: 5 ¡ [5], and 6 ¡ [6]. Line ¡ AP...7]. Strand or window burners have had more use in the solid propellant community. There are numerous types and styles of combustion vessels, but they

  4. D-T plasma of self-sustained burning under high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Xueyu

    2003-01-01

    By adopting a Bohm-type thermal diffusion coefficient related to the energy confinement enhancement factor H within the conventional magnetic shear regime, and a mixed Bohm-gyro-Bohm thermal diffusion coefficient related to the shear within the negative central magnetic shear regime, considering the effect of the α particle anomalous diffusion and the dynamic feedback heating, and starting from energy transport of electrons and ions, we have studied the high performance self-sustaining burning deuterium-tritium plasma under a given plasma density profile for the two different kinds of magnetic shear regimes. Some conclusions are obtained: under the conventional shear, only when H≥3, the D-T burning can produce a large power output, and when H is larger than a certain value (H≅4), D-T plasma self-sustained burning can be maintained without the dynamic feedback heating; under the negative central shear, the plasmas have a higher plasma performance and a larger power output than that under conventional shear, and D-T plasma self-sustained burning can be maintained without the dynamic feedback heating power, the suitable alpha particle diffusion is advantage ous to D-T plasma burning under the conventional shear, and D-T self-sustained burning cannot be maintained under a large α particle anomalous diffusion for the negative central shear. The dynamic feedback heating power is important for sustaining D-T plasma burning under the conventional shear

  5. High-resolution mapping of biomass burning emissions in tropical regions across three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yusheng; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Saito, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Biomass burning emissions from open vegetation fires (forest fires, savanna fires, agricultural waste burning), human waste and biofuel combustion contain large amounts of trace gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) and aerosols (BC and OC), which significantly impact ecosystem productivity, global atmospheric chemistry, and climate . With the help of recently released satellite products, biomass density based on satellite and ground-based observation data, and spatial variable combustion factors, this study developed a new high-resolution emissions inventory for biomass burning in tropical regions across three continents in 2010. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols from open vegetation burning are estimated from burned areas, fuel loads, combustion factors, and emission factors. Burned areas were derived from MODIS MCD64A1 burned area product, fuel loads were mapped from biomass density data sets for herbaceous and tree-covered land based on satellite and ground-based observation data. To account for spatial heterogeneity in combustion factors, global fractional tree cover (MOD44B) and vegetation cover maps (MCD12Q1) were introduced to estimate the combustion factors in different regions by using their relationship with tree cover under less than 40%, between 40-60% and above 60% conditions. For emission factors, the average values for each fuel type from field measurements are used. In addition to biomass burning from open vegetation fires, the emissions from human waste (residential and dump) burning and biofuel burning in 2010 were also estimated for 76 countries in tropical regions across the three continents and then allocated into each pixel with 1 km grid based on the population density (Gridded Population of the World v3). Our total estimates for the tropical regions across the three continents in 2010 were 17744.5 Tg CO2, 730.3 Tg CO, 32.0 Tg CH4, 31.6 Tg NOx, 119.2 Tg NMOC, 6.3 Tg SO2, 9.8 NH3 Tg, 81.8 Tg PM2.5, 48.0 Tg OC, and 5.7 Tg BC, respectively. Open

  6. Parameters Affecting the Erosive Burning of Solid Rocket Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelaziz Almostafa; Guozhu Liang; Elsayed Anwer

    2018-01-01

    Increasing the velocity of gases inside solid rocket motors with low port-to-throat area ratios, leading to increased occurrence and severity of burning rate augmentation due to flow of propellant products across burning propellant surfaces (erosive burning), erosive burning of high energy composite propellant was investigated to supply rocket motor design criteria and to supplement knowledge of combustion phenomena, pressure, burning rate and high velocity of gases all of these are parameter...

  7. A simulation study on burning profile tailoring of steady state, high bootstrap current tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Takei, N.; Tobita, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Fujita, T.; Fukuyama, A.; Jardin, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    From the aspect of fusion burn control in steady state DEMO plant, the significant challenges are to maintain its high power burning state of ∝3-5 GW without burning instability, hitherto well-known as ''thermal stability'', and also to keep its desired burning profile relevant with internal transport barrier (ITB) that generates high bootstrap current. The paper presents a simulation modeling of the burning stability coupled with the self-ignited fusion burn and the structure-formation of the ITB. A self-consistent simulation, including a model for improved core energy confinement, has pointed out that in the high power fusion DEMO plant there is a close, nonlinear interplay between the fusion burnup and the current source of non-inductive, ITB-generated bootstrap current. Consequently, as much distinct from usual plasma controls under simulated burning conditions with lower power (<<1 GW), the selfignited fusion burn at a high power burning state of ∝3-5 GW becomes so strongly selforganized that any of external means except fuelling can not provide the effective control of the stable fusion burn.It is also demonstrated that externally applied, inductive current perturbations can be used to control both the location and strength of ITB in a fully noninductive tokamak discharge. We find that ITB structures formed with broad noninductive current sources such as LHCD are more readily controlled than those formed by localized sources such as ECCD. The physics of the inductive current is well known. Consequently, we believe that the controllability of the ITB is generic, and does not depend on the details of the transport model (as long as they can form an ITB for sufficiently reversed magnetic shear q-profile). Through this external control of the magnetic shear profile, we can maintain the ITB strength that is otherwise prone to deteriorate when the bootstrap current increases. These distinguishing capabilities of inductive current perturbation provide steady

  8. Effect of N-acetylcysteine treatment on oxidative stress and inflammation after severe burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csontos, C; Rezman, B; Foldi, V; Bogar, L; Drenkovics, L; Röth, E; Weber, G; Lantos, J

    2012-05-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation generate edema in burns. The aim of our study was to assess effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on oxidative stress, inflammation, fluid requirement, multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) score and vasoactive drug requirement. In this study 15 patients were on standard therapy, whereas for other 15 patients NAC was supplemented. Blood samples were taken on admission and on the next five consecutive mornings. Levels of malondialdehyde, protein sulfhydril (PSH) groups, reduced gluthation (GSH), activity of myeloperoxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes and induced free radical generating capacity were measured as well as concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. MOD score, use of vasopressor agents and fluid utilisation were recorded daily. NAC treatment increased GSH level on days 4-5 (ptreatment is associated with a diminished oxidative stress reflected in preserved antioxidant levels, lower inflammation mirrored in lower interleukin levels and less vasopressor requirement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. FIVE-YEAR OUTCOMES AFTER LONG-TERM OXANDROLONE ADMINISTRATION IN SEVERELY BURNED CHILDREN: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Patrick T; Herndon, David N; Tanksley, Jessica D; Jennings, Kristofer; Klein, Gordon L; Mlcak, Ronald P; Clayton, Robert P; Crites, Nancy N; Hays, Joshua P; Andersen, Clark; Lee, Jong O; Meyer, Walter; Suman, Oscar E; Finnerty, Celeste C

    2016-04-01

    Administration of oxandrolone, a nonaromatizable testosterone analog, to children for 12 months following severe burn injury has been shown to improve height, increase bone mineral content (BMC), reduce cardiac work, and augment muscle strength. Surprisingly, the increase in BMC persists well beyond the period of oxandrolone administration. This study was undertaken to determine if administration of oxandrolone for 2 years yields greater effects on long-term BMC and bone mineral density (BMD). Patients between 0 and 18 years of age with ≥30% of total body surface area burned were consented to an IRB-approved protocol and randomized to receive either placebo (n = 84) or 0.1 mg/kg oxandrolone orally twice daily for 24 months (n = 35). Patients were followed prospectively from the time of admission until 5 years postburn in a single-center, intent-to-treat setting. Height, weight, BMC, and BMD were recorded annually through 5 years postinjury. The long-term administration of oxandrolone for 16 ± 1 months postburn (range, 12.1-25.2 months) significantly increased whole-body (WB) BMC (p patients who were in growth spurt years (7-18 years). When adjusted for height, sex, and age, LS BMD was found to significantly increase with long-term oxandrolone administration (p patients receiving oxandrolone exhibited LS BMD z scores below -2.0 as compared with controls, indicating a significantly reduced risk for future fracture with oxandrolone administration. Long-term oxandrolone patients had significantly greater height velocity than controls throughout the first 2-year postburn (p patients receiving long-term oxandrolone to previously described patients receiving 12 months of oxandrolone revealed that long-term oxandrolone administration imparted significantly greater increases in WB-BMC, WB-BMD, and LS-BMD (p burned pediatric patients significantly improves WB BMC, LS BMC, LS BMD, and height velocity. The administration of long-term oxandrolone was more efficacious than

  10. The early enteral feeding and rehabilitation of severely burned patients%严重烧伤患者的早期肠道营养与康复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢德荣

    2002-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of rehabilitation through analysis the early enteral feeding on the prevention of enteral infection in severely burned patients .Method A total of 22 patients with severe burns were randomly divided into an early enteral feeding group (EF) and a delayed enteral feeding group (DF). The levels of serum endotoxin were detected in the members of both groups in 1, 3, and 5 days .Result The levels of serum endotoxin in severely burned patients were significantly higher than in normal subjects (P< 0.01) . The levels of serum endotoxin in the EF group were significantly lower than in the DF group (P< 0.01). Conclusion Early enteral feeding may decrease enterogenic infection and it helps the nutrition support, improve the patient resistance, facilitate the repair of damaged tissue , so it contributes to the rehabilitation of burned patients.

  11. Impact of anesthesia, analgesia, and euthanasia technique on the inflammatory cytokine profile in a rodent model of severe burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Kulp, Gabriela A; Branski, Ludwik K; Kraft, Robert; Mecott, Gabriel A; Williams, Felicia N; Herndon, David N; Jeschke, Marc G

    2010-09-01

    Anesthetics used in burn and trauma animal models may be influencing results by modulating inflammatory and acute-phase responses. Accordingly, we determined the effects of various anesthetics, analgesia, and euthanasia techniques in a rodent burn model. Isoflurane (ISO), ketamine-xylazine (KX), or pentobarbital (PEN) with or without buprenorphine were administered before scald-burn in 72 rats that were euthanized without anesthesia by decapitation after 24 h and compared with unburned shams. In a second experiment, 120 rats underwent the same scald-burn injury using KX, and 24 h later were euthanized under anesthesia or carbon dioxide (CO2). In addition, we compared euthanasia by exsanguination with that of decapitation. Serum cytokine levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the first experiment, ISO was associated with elevation of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 2 (CINC-2) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and KX and PEN was associated with elevation of CINC-1,CINC-2, IL-6, and MCP-1. Pentobarbital also decreased IL-1". IL-6 increased significantly when ISO or PEN were combined with buprenorphine. In the second experiment, euthanasia performed by exsanguination under ISO was associated with reduced levels of IL-1", CINC-1, CINC-2, and MCP-1, whereas KX reduced CINC-2 and increased IL-6 levels. Meanwhile, PEN reduced levels of IL-1" and MCP-1, and CO2 reduced CINC-2 and MCP-1. In addition,decapitation after KX, PEN, or CO2 decreased IL-1" and MCP-1, although we found no significant difference between ISO and controls. Euthanasia by exsanguination compared with decapitation using the same agent also led to modulation of several cytokines. Differential expression of inflammatory markers with the use of anesthetics and analgesics should be considered when designing animal studies and interpreting results because these seem to have a significant modulating impact. Our findings indicate that brief anesthesia with ISO

  12. The influence of burn severity on post-fire vegetation recovery and albedo change during early succession in North American boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Goetz, S. J.; Beck, P. S.; Loranty, M. M.; Goulden, M.

    2011-12-01

    Severity of burning can influence multiple aspects of forest composition, carbon cycling, and climate forcing. We quantified how burn severity affected vegetation recovery and albedo change during early succession in Canadian boreal regions by combining satellite observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Canadian Large Fire Data Base (LFDB). We used the difference Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) and changes in spring albedo derived from MODIS 500m albedo product as measures of burn severity. We found that the most severe burns had the greatest reduction in summer EVI in first year after fire, indicating greater loss of vegetation cover immediately following fire. By 5-7 years after fire, summer EVI for all severity classes had recovered to within 90-110% of pre-fire levels. Burn severity had a positive effect on the increase of post-fire spring albedo during the first 7 years after fire, and a shift from low to moderate or moderate to severe fires led to amplification of the post-fire albedo increase by approximately 30%. Fire-induced increases in both spring and summer albedo became progressively larger with stand age from years 1-7, with the trend in spring albedo likely driven by continued losses of needles and branches from trees killed by the fire (and concurrent losses of black carbon coatings on remaining debris), and the summer trend associated with increases in leaf area of short-stature herbs and shrubs. Our results suggest that increases in burn severity and carbon losses observed in some areas of boreal forests (e.g., Turetsky et al., 2011) may be at least partly offset by increases in negative forcing associated with changes in surface albedo.

  13. Pathological changes after bone marrow and skin allograft transplantation in rats inflicted with severe combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Huaien; Cheng Tianmin; Yan Yongtang

    1994-01-01

    Bone marrow and skin allografts from the same donor were transplanted to rats inflicted with 8 Gy γ-radiation combined with third degree burns of 15% body surface area within 6 hr post injury. Pathological changes of hematopoietic tissues and skin allografts were studied. All injured controls died within 7 days post injury without bone marrow regeneration; 50% of treated rats survived with living skin allografts on 50th day post injury. On days 100 and 480 post operation, grafted skin still survived well on recipients with normal ultrastructure. Epidermic cells of skin allografts proliferated on day 5, developed and repaired on day 10. Histological structure of the skin returned to normal on day 30 post operation. The regeneration of bone marrow appeared on 5th day, increased markedly on day 10, and almost completed on day 15 after bone marrow transplantation. However, the regeneration of lymphocytes in cortex of spleen and lymph nodes did not appear until day 15 of BMT. The results show that bone marrow and skin allograft transplantation at early time post injury in most severe combined radiation-burn injury have tremendous beneficial effects, and the skin allograft can survive for a long time

  14. The efficacy and safety of oxandrolone treatment for patients with severe burns: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Guo, Yinan; Yang, Zhenyu; Roy, Mridul; Guo, Qulian

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using oxandrolone in patients with severe burns. PubMed, Medline, Ovid, Cochrane Library, Elsevier Science, ProQuest, and Springer Link databases were searched. Randomized trials were included, and clinically important measures were selected. The outcomes were pooled with Revman 5.2. Other outcomes that could not be pooled were described in detail. Finally, 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified for analysis in this review, including 806 participants. 1. Mortality, infection, and hepatic function: Oxandrolone therapy did not affect mortality (relative risk (RR)=0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI)=(0.38, 1.89), P=0.69) or infection (RR=0.87, (0.69, 1.11), P=0.26). The two groups (oxandrolone group vs. control group) showed no significant difference in liver dysfunction (RR=1.15, (0.83, 1.59), P=0.41). All the 15 RCTs reported no incidence of hepatic insufficiency in controls or treatment groups. 2. In the catabolic phase: Treatment with oxandrolone shortened length of stay by 3.02 (2.37, 3.66) days, donor-site healing time by 4.41 (3.41, 5.41) days, the time between surgical procedures by 0.63 (0.11, 1.16) days, as well as reduced weight loss by 5 (3.70, 6.30) kg and nitrogen loss by 8.19 (6.87, 9.52) g/day, with all PTreatment with oxandrolone shortened the length of stay to 6.45 (4.20, 8.69) days, as well as decreased weight loss by 0.86 (0.76, 0.96) kg/week and reduction of lean body mass by 5% (3.34, 6.66), with all Ptreatment led to an additional gain in lean body mass of 3.99% (3.08, 4.89) after 6 months and 10.78% (9.92, 11.64) after 12 months in patients with severe burns, with all Ptreatment of severe burns with oxandrolone is significantly effective without obvious side effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. A rare case of severe third degree friction burns and large Morel-Lavallee lesion of the abdominal wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Darnell J; Lu, Kuo Jung G; Chang, Kristina; Levin, Jennifer; Schulz, John T; Goverman, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    Morel-Lavallee lesions (MLLs) are rare internal degloving injuries typically caused by blunt traumatic injuries and most commonly occur around the hips and in association with pelvic or acetabular fractures. MLL is often overlooked in the setting of poly-trauma; therefore, clinicians must maintain a high degree of suspicion and be familiar with the management of such injuries, especially in obese poly-trauma patients. We present a 30-year-old female pedestrian struck by a motor vehicle who sustained multiple long bone fractures, a mesenteric hematoma, and full-thickness abdominal skin friction burn which masked a significant underlying abdominal MLL. The internal degloving caused significant devascularization of the overlying soft tissue and skin which required surgical drainage of hematoma, abdominal wall reconstruction with tangential excision, allografting, negative pressure wound therapy, and ultimately autografting. MLL is a rare, often overlooked, internal degloving injury. Surgeons must maintain a high index of suspicion when dealing with third degree friction burns as they may mask underlying injuries such as MLL, and a delay in diagnosis can lead to increased morbidity.

  16. Use of multi-sensor active fire detections to map fires in the United States: the future of monitoring trends in burn severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picotte, Joshua J.; Coan, Michael; Howard, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    The effort to utilize satellite-based MODIS, AVHRR, and GOES fire detections from the Hazard Monitoring System (HMS) to identify undocumented fires in Florida and improve the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) mapping process has yielded promising results. This method was augmented using regression tree models to identify burned/not-burned pixels (BnB) in every Landsat scene (1984–2012) in Worldwide Referencing System 2 Path/Rows 16/40, 17/39, and 1839. The burned area delineations were combined with the HMS detections to create burned area polygons attributed with their date of fire detection. Within our study area, we processed 88,000 HMS points (2003–2012) and 1,800 Landsat scenes to identify approximately 300,000 burned area polygons. Six percent of these burned area polygons were larger than the 500-acre MTBS minimum size threshold. From this study, we conclude that the process can significantly improve understanding of fire occurrence and improve the efficiency and timeliness of assessing its impacts upon the landscape.

  17. Mesoscopic approach to describe high burn-up fuel behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, M.

    1999-01-01

    The grain sub-division and the rim structure formation are new phenomena for LWR fuel engineering. The consequence of these are now under investigation in several international programs such as HBRP (High Burnup Rim Project) of CRIEPI, NFIR of EPRI, and EdF/CEA program in France. The theoretical understanding of this phenomenon is underway. Here, the process is peculiar in the following points; (1) majority of the domain of the material are changed to a new morphology after the restructuring, (2) the final size of the new grains is around 0.1 μm which is neither atomic scale nor macroscopic scale. (3) the morphology of the restructured domain indicates fractal like feature which indicates complex process is under-taken. From the first feature, the process is similar to phase transitions or metallographic transformations. However, as the crystallographic structure has no change before and after the restructuring, it is not the phase transition nor the transformation of atomic scale instability. The focus could be put on the material transport of mesoscopic scale which create the peculiar morphology. Indeed there are flows of energy and disturbances in crystallographic structure in nuclear materials on duty. Although the fission energy is 10 4 larger than the formation energy of the defects, thanks to the stability of the selected material, most of energy is thermalized without crystallographic instability. Little remained energy creates flows of disturbances and the new structure is a consequence of ordering process driven by these flows of disturbances. Therefore this phenomenon is a good example to study cooperative ordering process in physics of materials. This paper presents some of present understandings of the rim structure formation based on the mesoscopic mechanistic theories. Possible future development is also proposed (author) (ml)

  18. The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN: a high resolution global model to estimate the emissions from open burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wiedinmyer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Fire INventory from NCAR version 1.0 (FINNv1 provides daily, 1 km resolution, global estimates of the trace gas and particle emissions from open burning of biomass, which includes wildfire, agricultural fires, and prescribed burning and does not include biofuel use and trash burning. Emission factors used in the calculations have been updated with recent data, particularly for the non-methane organic compounds (NMOC. The resulting global annual NMOC emission estimates are as much as a factor of 5 greater than some prior estimates. Chemical speciation profiles, necessary to allocate the total NMOC emission estimates to lumped species for use by chemical transport models, are provided for three widely used chemical mechanisms: SAPRC99, GEOS-CHEM, and MOZART-4. Using these profiles, FINNv1 also provides global estimates of key organic compounds, including formaldehyde and methanol. Uncertainties in the emissions estimates arise from several of the method steps. The use of fire hot spots, assumed area burned, land cover maps, biomass consumption estimates, and emission factors all introduce error into the model estimates. The uncertainty in the FINNv1 emission estimates are about a factor of two; but, the global estimates agree reasonably well with other global inventories of biomass burning emissions for CO, CO2, and other species with less variable emission factors. FINNv1 emission estimates have been developed specifically for modeling atmospheric chemistry and air quality in a consistent framework at scales from local to global. The product is unique because of the high temporal and spatial resolution, global coverage, and the number of species estimated. FINNv1 can be used for both hindcast and forecast or near-real time model applications and the results are being critically evaluated with models and observations whenever possible.

  19. X-ray analysis of 80 patients with severe endemic fluorosis caused by coal burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z.P.; Yuan, M.B.; Liu, G.F. [Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou (China)

    1996-05-01

    Radiographs of 80 patients with severe endemic fluorosis of coalburning type (CBFF) - 49 males and 31 females aged 30 to 70 years - were analysed to examine the changes to the bone substance, peripheral structure of bone, and joints. The changes to bone substance were: (1) osteosclerosis type, 62 cases (77.5%); (2) mixed type, 16 cases (21.25%); (3) osteoporosis type, one case (1.25%); (4) osteomalacia type, one case (1.25%). The changes to the joints were found in the hips and elbows in 79 cases (98.75%), and in the knees in 75 cases (93.75%). When combinations of the above three changes occur, the classification of the disease is according to the most severe one of the three. Our findings can increase the accuracy of X-ray diagnosis, making it more consistent with clinical diagnosis, thus improving prevention and treatment of CBEF.

  20. Fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up: analysis of reactivity coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, E.F.; Shmelev, A.N.; Ternovykh, M.J.; Tikhomirov, G.V.; Jinhong, L.; Saito, M.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cycles of light-water reactors (LWR) with high fuel burn-up (above 100 MWd/kg), as a rule, involve large amounts of fissionable materials. It leads to forming the neutron spectrum harder than that in traditional LWR. Change of neutron spectrum and significant amount of non-traditional isotopes (for example, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 231 Pa, 232 U) in such fuel compositions can alter substantially reactivity coefficients as compared with traditional uranium-based fuel. The present work addresses the fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up which are based on Th-Pa-U and U-Np-Pu fuel compositions. Numerical analyses are carried out to determine effective neutron multiplication factor and void reactivity coefficient (VRC) for different values of fuel burn-up and different lattice parameters. The algorithm is proposed for analysis of isotopes contribution to these coefficients. Various ways are considered to upgrade safety of nuclear fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up. So, the results obtained in this study have demonstrated that: -1) Non-traditional fuel compositions developed for achievement of high fuel burn-up in LWR can possess positive values of reactivity coefficients that is unacceptable from the reactor operation safety point of view; -2) The lattice pitch of traditional LWR is not optimal for non-traditional fuel compositions, the increased value of the lattice pitch leads to larger value of initial reactivity margin and provides negative VRC within sufficiently broad range of coolant density; -3) Fuel burn-up has an insignificant effect on VRC dependence on coolant density, so, the measures undertaken to suppress positive VRC of fresh fuel will be effective for partially burnt-up fuel compositions also and; -4) Increase of LWR core height and introduction of additional moderators into the fuel lattice can be used as the ways to reach negative VRC values for full range of possible coolant density variations

  1. Fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up: analysis of reactivity coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryuchkov, E.F.; Shmelev, A.N.; Ternovykh, M.J.; Tikhomirov, G.V.; Jinhong, L. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (Russian Federation); Saito, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Fuel cycles of light-water reactors (LWR) with high fuel burn-up (above 100 MWd/kg), as a rule, involve large amounts of fissionable materials. It leads to forming the neutron spectrum harder than that in traditional LWR. Change of neutron spectrum and significant amount of non-traditional isotopes (for example, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 231}Pa, {sup 232}U) in such fuel compositions can alter substantially reactivity coefficients as compared with traditional uranium-based fuel. The present work addresses the fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up which are based on Th-Pa-U and U-Np-Pu fuel compositions. Numerical analyses are carried out to determine effective neutron multiplication factor and void reactivity coefficient (VRC) for different values of fuel burn-up and different lattice parameters. The algorithm is proposed for analysis of isotopes contribution to these coefficients. Various ways are considered to upgrade safety of nuclear fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up. So, the results obtained in this study have demonstrated that: -1) Non-traditional fuel compositions developed for achievement of high fuel burn-up in LWR can possess positive values of reactivity coefficients that is unacceptable from the reactor operation safety point of view; -2) The lattice pitch of traditional LWR is not optimal for non-traditional fuel compositions, the increased value of the lattice pitch leads to larger value of initial reactivity margin and provides negative VRC within sufficiently broad range of coolant density; -3) Fuel burn-up has an insignificant effect on VRC dependence on coolant density, so, the measures undertaken to suppress positive VRC of fresh fuel will be effective for partially burnt-up fuel compositions also and; -4) Increase of LWR core height and introduction of additional moderators into the fuel lattice can be used as the ways to reach negative VRC values for full range of possible coolant density variations.

  2. Repair effect of transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on liver injury in severe burned rats and its mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hao; Zhou Yubo; Zhang Ying; Qin Yonggang; Guo Li; Yin Fei; Meng Chunyang; Yang Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the repair effect of transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on liver injury in severe burned rats, and to clarify its mechanism. Methods: The BMSCs of rats were isolated, cultured, amplified, identified, and labeled in vitro. 30 Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group (n=10), model group (n=10) and cell therapy group (n=10). The burned rat model was established. The BMSCs labeled by chlormethyl-benzamidodialkylcarbocyanine (CM-Dil) were transplanted into the rats in cell therapy group by retro-orbital intravenous injection and the saline was injected into the rats in model group. The general status of all rats were observed. The liver tissues of rats were obtained 2 weeks after transplantation, and the pathohistological changes were observed and the pathohistological scores were detected; the apoptotic rate of liver cells was detected by TUNEL method; the engraftment of BMSCs in liver tissues of the rats was observed under laser scanning confocal microscope. Results: 2 weeks after transplantation, the rats in model group were obviously malaise dispirited and the rats in cell therapy group showed obviously better, and the body weight of the rats in cell therapy group was higher than that in model group (P<0.05). The pathohistological results showed the normal liver lobules of the rats in model group disappeared, and the liver cords disordered, and some liver sinusoids dilated and congested, lymphocytes infiltrated with occasional focal aggregating, and cell edema was found, cytoplasm loose and steatosis were seen in liver tissue. However, the pathohistological changes of liver tissue of the rats in cell therapy group were significantly better than those in model group. The pathohistological score of the rats in cell therapy group was significantly lower than that in model group (P<0.05). The TUNEL staining results showed that there were lots of apoptotic liver cells in liver tissue of the rats in

  3. MR imaging findings of high-voltage electrical burns in the upper extremities: correlation with angiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyung Kyu; Kang, Ik Won; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Min, Seon Jung; Han, You Mi (Dept. of Radiology, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Suh, Kyung Jin (Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Gyeongju Hospital, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)), email: kyungjin.suh@gmail.com; Choi, Min Ho (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-02-15

    Background: A high-voltage electrical burn is often associated with deep muscle injuries. Hidden, undetected deep muscle injuries have a tendency for progressive tissue necrosis, and this can lead to major amputations or sepsis. MRI has excellent soft tissue contrast and it may aid in differentiating the areas of viable deep muscle from the areas of non-viable deep muscle. Purpose: To describe the MR imaging findings of a high-voltage electrical burn in the upper extremity with emphasis on the usefulness of the gadolinium-enhanced MRI and to compare the MR imaging findings with angiography. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies of six patients with high-voltage electrical burns who underwent both MRI and angiography at the burn center of our hospital from January 2005 to December 2009. The imaging features were evaluated for the involved locations, the MR signal intensity of the affected muscles, the MR enhancement pattern, the involved arteries and the angiographic findings (classified as normal, sluggish flow, stenosis or occlusion) of the angiography of the upper extremity. We assessed the relationship between the MR imaging findings and the angiographic findings. Results: The signal intensities of affected muscles were isointense or of slightly high signal intensity as compared with the adjacent unaffected skeletal muscle on the T1-weighted MR images. Affected muscles showed heterogenous high signal intensity relative to the adjacent unaffected skeletal muscle on the T2- weighted images. The gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images showed diffuse inhomogeneous enhancement or peripheral rim enhancement of the affected muscles. The angiographic findings of the arterial injuries showed complete occlusion in three patients, severe stenosis in two patients and sluggish flow in one patient. Of these, the five patients with complete occlusion or severe stenosis on angiography showed non-perfused and non-viable areas of edematous muscle on

  4. Effect of gamma-hydroxybutyrate on keratinocytes proliferation: A preliminary prospective controlled study in severe burn patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Anne-Françoise; Bargues, Laurent; Bever, Hervé Le; Vest, Philippe; Cavalier, Etienne; Ledoux, Didier; Piérard, Gérald E.; Damas, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypermetabolism and hyposomatotropism related to severe burns lead to impaired wound healing. Growth hormone (GH) boosts wound healing notably following stimulation of the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), a mitogen factor for keratinocytes. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) stimulates endogenous GH secretion. Aim: To assess effects of GHB sedation on keratinocytes proliferation (based on immunohistochemical techniques). Design: Monocentric, prospective, controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Patients (aging 18-65 years, burn surface area >30%, expected to be sedated for at least one month) were alternately allocated, at the 5th day following injury, in three groups according to the intravenous GHB dose administered for 21 days: Evening bolus of 50 mg/kg (Group B), continuous infusion at the rate of 10 mg/kg/h (Group C), or absence of GHB (Group P). They all received local standard cares. Immunohistochemistry (Ki67/MIB-1, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and Mac 387 antibodies) was performed at D21 on adjacent unburned skin sample for assessing any keratinocyte activation. Serum IGF1 levels were measured at initiation and completion of the protocol. Statistical Analysis: Categorical variables were compared with Chi-square test. Comparisons of medians were made using Kruskal-Wallis test. Post hoc analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. A P study (Group B: n = 5, Group C: n = 5, Group P: n = 4). Continuous administration of GHB was associated with a significant higher Ki67 immunolabeling at D21 (P = 0.049) and with a significant higher increase in the IGF1 concentrations at D21 (P = 0.024). No adverse effects were disclosed. Conclusions: Our preliminary data support a positive effect of GHB on keratinocyte proliferation and are encouraging enough to warrant large prospective studies. PMID:25024938

  5. Fission gas release from UO2 pellet fuel at high burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitanza, C.; Kolstad, E.; Graziani, U.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of in-reactor measurements of fuel center temperature and rod internal pressure at the OECD Halden Reactor Project has led to the development of an empirical fission gas release model, which is described. The model originally derived from data obtained in the low and intermediate burn-up range, appears to give good predictions for rods irradiated to high exposures as well. PIE puncturing data from seven fuel rods, operated at relatively constant powers and peak center temperatures between 1900 and 2000 0 C up to approx. 40,000 MWd/t UO 2 , did not exhibit any burn-up enhancement on the fission gas release rate

  6. Comparative Analysis of Single and Dual Irradiation Pass of Deep Burn High Temperature Reactor Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Jo, Chang Keun; Noh, Jae Man

    2012-01-01

    A concept of a deep-burn (DB) of trans uranic (TRU) elements in a high temperature reactor (HTR) has been proposed and studied with a single irradiation pass. However, there is still a significant amount of TRU after burn in an HTR. Therefore, it is necessary to burn more TRU in a fast reactor (FR) with repeated reprocessing such as a pyro-process. In this study, the fuel cycle calculations are performed and the results are compared for a singlepass DB-HHR scenario and a dual-pass sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) scenario. For the analysis, front-end and back-end parameters are compared. The calculations were performed by the DANESS (Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies), which is an integrated system dynamic fuel cycle analysis code

  7. Development of high performance liquid chromatography for rapid determination of burn-up of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, M.; Karunasagar, D.; Saha, B.

    1996-01-01

    Burn-up an important parameter during evaluation of the performance of any nuclear fuel. Among the various techniques available, the preferred one for its determination is based on accurate measurement of a suitable fission product monitor and the residual heavy elements. Since isotopes of rare earth elements are generally used as burn-up monitors, conditions were standardized for rapid separation (within 15 minutes) of light rare earths using high performance liquid chromatography based on either anion exchange (Partisil 10 SAX) in methanol-nitric acid medium or by cation exchange on a reverse phase column (Spherisorb 5-ODS-2 or Supelcosil LC-18) dynamically modified with 1-octane sulfonate or camphor-10-sulfonic acid (β). Both these methods were assessed for separation of individual fission product rare earths from their mixtures. A new approach has been examined in detail for rapid assay of neodymium, which appears promising for faster and accurate measurement of burn-up. (author)

  8. High burn-up structure in nuclear fuel: impact on fuel behavior - 4005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noirot, J.; Pontillon, Y.; Zacharie-Aubrun, I.; Hanifi, K.; Bienvenu, P.; Lamontagne, J.; Desgranges, L.

    2016-01-01

    When UO 2 and (U,Pu)O 2 fuels locally reach high burn-up, a major change in the microstructure takes place. The initial grains are replaced by thousands of much smaller grains, fission gases form micrometric bubbles and metallic fission products form precipitates. This occurs typically at the rim of the pellets and in heterogeneous MOX fuel Pu rich agglomerates. The high burn-up at the rim of the pellets is due to a high capture of epithermal neutrons by 238 U leading locally to a higher concentration of fissile Pu than in the rest of the pellet. In the heterogeneous MOX fuels, this rim effect is also active, but most of the high burn-up structure (HBS) formation is linked to the high local concentration of fissile Pu in the Pu agglomerates. This Pu distribution leads to sharp borders between HBS and non-HBS areas. It has been shown that the size of the new grains, of the bubbles and of the precipitates increase with the irradiation local temperatures. Other parameters have been shown to have an influence on the HBS initiation threshold, such as the irradiation density rate, the fuel composition with an effect of the Pu presence, but also of the Gd concentration in poisoned fuels, some of the studied additives, like Cr, and, maybe some of the impurities. It has been shown by indirect and direct approaches that HBS formation is not the main contributor to the increase of fission gas release at high burn-up and that the HBS areas are not the main source of the released gases. The impact of HBS on the fuel behavior during ramp on high burn-up fuels is still unclear. This short paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  9. Sun burn incidence and knowledge of greek elementary and high school children about sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridi, Maria Ioannis; Toska, Aikaterini George; Rekleiti, Maria Dimitrios; Tsironi, Maria; Geitona, Maria; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2015-01-01

    Overexposure to sun radiation and particularly its accumulation during childhood and adolescence is a significant risk factor for skin cancer development. The sun burn is particularly important. To estimate sun burn incidence in young pupils in a coastal area of Greece. Two surveys were conducted in a school population in the same district in Greece, over different periods of time, in young people 9 to 18 years old (n=2 977). Anonymous questionnaires were completed. Levels of significance were two- tailed and statistical significance was set at p=0.05. SPSS 17.0 software was used for statistical analysis. From the individual characteristics of the participants it was shown that the majority of them had dark hair and fair skin, whereas a significant percentage reported the existence of moles on face and their body (83.4% vs 68.1%). The sun burn incidence was high in adolescents and the younger pupils (41.9% vs 55.6%). The younger aged children who were living in an urban area had significantly higher rates of sun burn than those living in semi-urban areas (33.8% vs 24.8%, p=0.020). As far as the knowledge of pupils about the risks of sun radiation it was shown that the elementary school pupils had better knowledge than those at high school. Finally, those with better knowledge had the fewer sun burns (Mean 2.83 SD 0.87, pknowledge to the decrease of sun burn incidence is important as long as this is continuous. Therefore, the education should concern not only children but also teachers and parents in the context of continuous and systematic programs of health education.

  10. Burning of forest materials under late Paleozoic high atmospheric oxygen levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A., Jr. Wildman; Leo J. Hickey; Matthew B. Dickinson; Robert A. Berner; Jennifer M. Robinson; Michael Dietrich; Robert H. Essenhigh; Craig B. Wildman

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that atmospheric oxygen reached concentrations as high as 35% O2 during the past 550 m.y. Previous burning experiments using strips of paper have challenged this idea, concluding that ancient wildfires would have decimated plant life if O2 significantly exceeded its present level of 21%. New...

  11. Study on the thermal-hydraulic stability of high burn up STEP III fuel in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Kitamura, H.; Toba, A.; Omoto, A.

    2004-01-01

    Japanese BWR utilities have performed a joint study of the Thermal Hydraulic Stability of High Burn up STEP III Fuel. In this study, the parametric dependency of thermal hydraulic stability threshold was obtained. It was confirmed through experiments that the STEP III Fuel has sufficient stability characteristics. (author)

  12. Health and environmental risk-related impacts of actinide burning on high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1992-05-01

    The potential health and environmental risk-related impacts of actinide burning for high-level waste disposal were evaluated. Actinide burning, also called waste partitioning-transmutation, is an advanced method for radioactive waste management based on the idea of destroying the most toxic components in the waste. It consists of two steps: (1) selective removal of the most toxic radionuclides from high-level/spent fuel waste and (2) conversion of those radionuclides into less toxic radioactive materials and/or stable elements. Risk, as used in this report, is defined as the probability of a failure times its consequence. Actinide burning has two potential health and environmental impacts on waste management. Risks and the magnitude of high-consequence repository failure scenarios are decreased by inventory reduction of the long-term radioactivity in the repository. (What does not exist cannot create risk or uncertainty.) Risk may also be reduced by the changes in the waste characteristics, resulting from selection of waste forms after processing, that are superior to spent fuel and which lower the potential of transport of radionuclides from waste form to accessible environment. There are no negative health or environmental impacts to the repository from actinide burning; however, there may be such impacts elsewhere in the fuel cycle

  13. High-tension electrical-arc-induced thermal burns caused by railway overhead cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, J

    1991-10-01

    Eleven patients with high-tension electrical-arc-induced thermal burns due to railway overhead cables were treated at the Bratislava Burn Department during a relatively short period of 18 months. All the injuries occurred by the same mechanism, that is persons climbing on top of railway carriages and approaching the 25,000 V a.c. overhead cables. All the burns were the result of an electrical arc passing externally to the body, with subsequent ignition of the victim's clothes. The cutaneous burns, ranging from 24 to 79 per cent of the BSA, were mostly deep partial to full skin thickness injuries. One patient died on day 5 postburn, the other survived. In spite of high-tension aetiology, no true electrical injuries appear to have occurred and no amputations were necessary. The pathophysiology and possible preventive measures are discussed. It must be stressed that arcing can be induced by an earthed object approaching, but not touching, a cable carrying a high voltage.

  14. High Latitude Corals Tolerate Severe Cold Spell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenae A. Tuckett

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Climatically extreme weather events often drive long-term ecological responses of ecosystems. By disrupting the important symbiosis with zooxanthellae, Marine Cold Spells (MCS can cause bleaching and mortality in tropical and subtropical scleractinian corals. Here we report on the effects of a severe MCS on high latitude corals, where we expected to find bleaching and mortality. The MCS took place off the coast of Perth (32°S, Western Australia in 2016. Bleaching was assessed before (2014 and after (2017 the MCS from surveys of permanent plots, and with timed bleaching searches. Temperature data was recorded with in situ loggers. During the MCS temperatures dipped to the coldest recorded in ten years (15.3°C and periods of <17°C lasted for up to 19 days. Only 4.3% of the surveyed coral colonies showed signs of bleaching. Bleaching was observed in 8 species where those most affected were Plesiastrea versipora and Montipora mollis. These findings suggest that high latitude corals in this area are tolerant of cold stress and are not persisting near a lethal temperature minimum. It has not been established whether other environmental conditions are limiting these species, and if so, what the implications are for coral performance on these reefs in a warmer future.

  15. Burning Behaviour of High-Pressure CH4-H2-Air Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo D'Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental characterization of the burning behavior of gaseous mixtures has been carried out, analyzing spherical expanding flames. Tests were performed in the Device for Hydrogen-Air Reaction Mode Analysis (DHARMA laboratory of Istituto Motori—CNR. Based on a high-pressure, constant-volume bomb, the activity is aimed at populating a systematic database on the burning properties of CH4, H2 and other species of interest, in conditions typical of internal combustion (i.c. engines and gas turbines. High-speed shadowgraph is used to record the flame growth, allowing to infer the laminar burning parameters and the flame stability properties. Mixtures of CH4, H2 and air have been analyzed at initial temperature 293÷305 K, initial pressure 3÷18 bar and equivalence ratio  = 1.0. The amount of H2 in the mixture was 0%, 20% and 30% (vol.. The effect of the initial pressure and of the Hydrogen content on the laminar burning velocity and the Markstein length has been evaluated: the relative weight and mutual interaction has been assessed of the two controlling parameters. Analysis has been carried out of the flame instability, expressed in terms of the critical radius for the onset of cellularity, as a function of the operating conditions.

  16. Cell formation effects on the burning speeds and flame front area of synthetic gas at high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askari, Omid; Elia, Mimmo; Ferrari, Matthew; Metghalchi, Hameed

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of cell formation on burning speed and flame surface area is investigated. • A new developed non-dimensional number called cellularity factor is introduced. • Cellular burning speed and mass burning rate are calculated using differential based multi-shell model. • Flame instability is studied using thermo-diffusive and hydrodynamics effects. • Power law correlations are developed for cellular burning speeds and mass burning rates. - Abstract: Cellular burning speeds and mass burning rates of premixed syngas/oxidizer/diluent (H_2/CO/O_2/He) have been determined at high pressures and temperatures over a wide range of equivalence ratios which are at engine-relevant conditions. Working on high pressure combustion helps to reduce the pollution and increase the energy efficiency in combustion devices. The experimental facilities consisted of two spherical and cylindrical chambers. The spherical chamber, which can withstand high pressures up to 400 atm, was used to collect pressure rise data due to combustion, to calculate cellular burning speed and mass burning rate. For flame structure and instability analysis the cylindrical chamber was used to take pictures of propagating flame using a high speed CMOS camera and a schlieren photography system. A new differential based multi-shell model based on pressure rise data was used to determine the cellular burning speed and mass burning rate. In this paper, cellular burning speed and mass burning rate of H_2/CO/O_2/He mixture have been measured for a wide range of equivalence ratios from 0.6 to 2, temperatures from 400 to 750 K and pressures from 2 to 50 atm for three hydrogen concentrations of 5, 10 and 25% in the syngas. The power law correlations for cellular burning speed and mass burning rate were developed as a function of equivalence ratio, temperature and pressure. In this study a new developed parameter, called cellularity factor, which indicates the cell formation effect on flame

  17. Optimization and Control of Burning Plasmas Through High Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankin, Alexei [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-18

    This project has revived the FACETS code, that has been developed under SciDAC fund- ing in 2008-2012. The code has been dormant for a number of years after the SciDAC funding stopped. FACETS depends on external packages. The external packages and libraries such as PETSc, FFTW, HDF5 and NETCDF that are included in FACETS have evolved during these years. Some packages in FACETS are also parts of other codes such as PlasmaState, NUBEAM, GACODES, and UEDGE. These packages have been also evolved together with their host codes which include TRANSP, TGYRO and XPTOR. Finally, there is also a set of packages in FACETS that are being developed and maintained by Tech-X. These packages include BILDER, SciMake, and FcioWrappers. Many of these packages evolved significantly during the last several years and FACETS had to be updated to synchronize with the re- cent progress in the external packages. The PI has introduced new changes to the BILDER package to support the updated interfaces to the external modules. During the last year of the project, the FACETS version of the UEDGE code has been extracted from FACETS as a standalone package. The PI collaborates with the scientists from LLNL on the updated UEDGE model in FACETS. Drs. T. Rognlien, M. Umansky and A. Dimits from LLNL are contributing to this task.

  18. A new forest fire paradigm: The need for high-severity fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica L. Bond; Rodney B. Siegel; Richard L. Hutto; Victoria A. Saab; Stephen A. Shunk

    2012-01-01

    Bond, Monica L.; Siegel, Rodney B.; Hutto, Richard L.; Saab, Victoria A.; Shunk, Stephen A. 2012. A new forest fire paradigm: The need for high-severity fires. The Wildlife Professional. Winter 2012: 46-49. During the 2012 fire season from June through August, wildfires in the drought-stricken western and central United States burned more than 3.6 million acres of...

  19. High density internal transport barriers for burning plasma operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridolfini, V Pericoli [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy); Barbato, E [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy); Buratti, P [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy)] (and others)

    2005-12-15

    A tokamak plasma with internal transport barriers (ITBs) is the best candidate for a steady ITER operation, since the high energy confinement allows working at plasma currents (I{sub p}) lower than the reference scenario. To build and sustain an ITB at the ITER high density ({>=}10{sup 20} m{sup -3}) and largely dominant electron (e{sup -}) heating is not trivial in most existing tokamaks. FTU can instead meet both requests, thanks to its radiofrequency heating systems, lower hybrid (LH, up to 1.9 MW) and electron cyclotron (EC up to 1.2 MW). By the combined use of them, ITBs are obtained up to peak densities n{sub e0} > 1.3 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}, with central e{sup -} temperatures T{sub e0} {approx} 5.5 keV, and are sustained for as long as the heating pulse is applied (>35 confinement times, {tau}{sub E}). At n{sub e0} {approx} 0.8 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} T{sub e0} can be larger than 11 keV. Almost full current drive (CD) and an overall good steadiness is attained within about one {tau}{sub E}, 20 times faster than the ohmic current relaxation time. The ITB extends over a central region with an almost flat or slightly reversed q profile and q{sub min} {approx} 1.3 that is fully sustained by off-axis lower hybrid current drive. Consequent to this is the beneficial good alignment of the bootstrap current, generated by the ITB large pressure gradients, with the LH driven current. Reflectometry shows a clear change in the turbulence close to the ITB radius, consistent with the reduced e{sup -} transport. Ions (i{sup +}) are significantly heated via collisions, but thermal equilibrium with electrons cannot be attained since the e{sup -}-i{sup +} equipartition time is always 4-5 times longer than {tau}{sub E}. No degradation of the overall ion transport, rather a reduction of the i{sup +} heat diffusivity, is observed inside the ITB. The global confinement has been improved up to 1.6 times over the scaling predictions. The ITB radius can be controlled by adjusting the

  20. Development and Characterization of Fast Burning Solid Fuels/Propellants for Hybrid Rocket Motors with High Volumetric Efficiency

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposed work is to develop several fast burning solid fuels/fuel-rich solid propellants for hybrid rocket motor applications. In the...

  1. Bridging burn care education with modern technology, an integration with high fidelity human patient simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Patrick T; Borgman, Matthew A; Caldwell, Nicole W; Patel, Leela; Aden, James; Duggan, John P; Serio-Melvin, Maria L; Mann-Salinas, Elizabeth A

    2018-08-01

    The Advanced Burn Life Support (ABLS) program is a burn-education curriculum nearly 30 years in the making, focusing on the unique challenges of the first 24h of care after burn injury. Our team applied high fidelity human patient simulation (HFHPS) to the established ABLS curriculum. Our hypothesis was that HFHPS would be a feasible, easily replicable, and valuable adjunct to the current curriculum that would enhance learner experience. This prospective, evidenced-based practice project was conducted in a single simulation center employing the American Burn Association's ABLS curriculum using HFHPS. Participants managed 7 separate simulated polytrauma and burn scenarios with resultant clinical complications. After training, participants completed written and practical examinations as well as satisfaction surveys. From 2012 to 2013, 71 students participated in this training. Simulation (ABLS-Sim) participants demonstrated a 2.5% increase in written post-test scores compared to traditional ABLS Provider Course (ABLS Live) (p=0.0016). There was no difference in the practical examination when comparing ABLS-Sim versus ABLS Live. Subjectively, 60 (85%) participants completed surveys. The Educational Practice Questionnaire showed best practices rating of 4.5±0.7; with importance of learning rated at 4.4±0.8. The Simulation Design Scale rating for design was 4.6±0.6 with an importance rating of 4.4±0.8. Overall Satisfaction and Self-Confidence with Learning were 4.4±0.7 and 4.5±0.7, respectfully. Integrating HFHPS with the current ABLS curriculum led to higher written exam scores, high levels of confidence, satisfaction, and active learning, and presented an evidenced-based model for education that is easily employable for other facilities nationwide. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Strength and Cardiorespiratory Exercise Rehabilitation for Severely Burned Patients During Intensive Care Units: A Survey of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiaso-Daniel, Janos; Parry, Ingrid; Rivas, Eric; Kemp-Offenberg, Jennifer; Sen, Soman; Rizzo, Julie A; Serghiou, Michael A; Kowalske, Karen; Wolf, Steven E; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2018-03-22

    Minimizing the deconditioning of burn injury through early rehabilitation programs (RP) in the intensive care unit (ICU) is of importance for improving the recovery time. The aim of this study was to assess current standard of care (SOC) for early ICU exercise programs in major burn centers. We designed a survey investigating exercise RP on the ICU for burn patients with >30% total burned surface area. The survey was composed of 23 questions and submitted electronically via SurveyMonkey® to six major (pediatric and adult) burn centers in Texas and California. All centers responded and reported exercise as part of their RP on the ICU. The characteristics of exercises implemented were not uniform. All centers reported to perform resistive and aerobic exercises but only 83% reported isotonic and isometric exercises. Determination of intensity of exercise varied with 50% of centers using patient tolerance and 17% using vital signs. Frequency of isotonic, isometric, aerobic, and resistive exercise was reported as daily by 80%, 80%, 83%, and 50% of centers, respectively. Duration for all types of exercises was extremely variable. Mobilization was used as a form of exercise by 100% of burn centers. Our results demonstrate that although early RP seem to be integral during burn survivor's ICU stay, no SOC exists. Moreover, early RP are inconsistently administered and large variations exist in frequency, intensity, duration, and type of exercise. Thus, future prospective studies investigating the various components of exercise interventions are needed to establish a SOC and determine how and if early exercise benefits the burn survivor.

  3. Partial-thickness burn wounds healing by topical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Saeidinia, Amin; Keihanian, Faeze; Lashkari, Ardalan Pasdaran; Lahiji, Hossein Ghavvami; Mobayyen, Mohammadreza; Heidarzade, Abtin; Golchai, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Burns are common event and associated with a high incidence of death, disability, and high costs. Centella asiatica (L.) is a medicinal herb, commonly growing in humid areas in several tropical countries that improve wound healing. On the basis of previous studies, we compared the efficacy of Centiderm versus silver sulfadiazine (SSD) in partial thickness burning patients. Methods: Study population comprised burn victims referred to Velayat Burning Hospital at Rasht, Iran...

  4. A pervasive role for biomass burning in tropical high ozone/low water structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel C.; Nicely, Julie M.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Canty, Timothy P.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Apel, Eric C.; Atlas, Elliot; Bannan, Thomas; Bauguitte, Stephane; Blake, Nicola J.; Bresch, James F.; Campos, Teresa L.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Cohen, Mark D.; Evans, Mathew; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Kahn, Brian H.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Hall, Samuel R.; Harris, Neil R. P.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Le Breton, Michael; Lee, James D.; Percival, Carl; Pfister, Leonhard; Pierce, R. Bradley; Riemer, Daniel D.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Stunder, Barbara J. B.; Thompson, Anne M.; Ullmann, Kirk; Vaughan, Adam; Weinheimer, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Air parcels with mixing ratios of high O3 and low H2O (HOLW) are common features in the tropical western Pacific (TWP) mid-troposphere (300-700 hPa). Here, using data collected during aircraft sampling of the TWP in winter 2014, we find strong, positive correlations of O3 with multiple biomass burning tracers in these HOLW structures. Ozone levels in these structures are about a factor of three larger than background. Models, satellite data and aircraft observations are used to show fires in tropical Africa and Southeast Asia are the dominant source of high O3 and that low H2O results from large-scale descent within the tropical troposphere. Previous explanations that attribute HOLW structures to transport from the stratosphere or mid-latitude troposphere are inconsistent with our observations. This study suggest a larger role for biomass burning in the radiative forcing of climate in the remote TWP than is commonly appreciated.

  5. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23

    blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid system is subcritical, a LIFE engine can burn any fertile or fissile nuclear material, including unenriched natural or depleted U and SNF, and can extract a very high percentage of the energy content of its fuel resulting in greatly enhanced energy generation per metric ton of nuclear fuel, as well as nuclear waste forms with vastly reduced concentrations of long-lived actinides. LIFE engines could thus provide the ability to generate vast amounts of electricity while greatly reducing the actinide content of any existing or future nuclear waste and extending the availability of low cost nuclear fuels for several thousand years. LIFE also provides an attractive pathway for burning excess weapons Pu to over 99% FIMA (fission of initial metal atoms) without the need for fabricating or reprocessing mixed oxide fuels (MOX). Because of all of these advantages, LIFE engines offer a pathway toward sustainable and safe nuclear power that significantly mitigates nuclear proliferation concerns and minimizes nuclear waste. An important aspect of a LIFE engine is the fact that there is no need to extract the fission fuel from the fission blanket before it is burned to the desired final level. Except for fuel inspection and maintenance process times, the nuclear fuel is always within the core of the reactor and no weapons-attractive materials are available outside at any point in time. However, an important consideration when discussing proliferation concerns associated with any nuclear fuel cycle is the ease with which reactor fuel can be converted to weapons usable materials, not just when it is extracted as waste, but at any point in the fuel cycle. Although the nuclear fuel remains in the core of the engine until ultra deep actinide burn up is achieved, soon after start up of the engine, once the system breeds up to full power, several tons of fissile material is present in the fission blanket. However, this fissile material is widely dispersed in

  6. Cellular automata approach to investigation of high burn-up structures in nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akishina, E.P.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kostenko, B.F.

    2005-01-01

    Micrographs of uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) corresponding to exposure times in reactor during 323, 953, 971, 1266 and 1642 full power days were investigated. The micrographs were converted into digital files isomorphous to cellular automata (CA) checkerboards. Such a representation of the fuel structure provides efficient tools for its dynamics simulation in terms of primary 'entities' imprinted in the micrographs. Besides, it also ensures a possibility of very effective micrograph processing by CA means. Interconnection between the description of fuel burn-up development and some exactly soluble models is ascertained. Evidences for existence of self-organization in the fuel at high burn-ups were established. The fractal dimension of microstructures is found to be an important characteristic describing the degree of radiation destructions

  7. New Fuel Alloys Seeking Optimal Solidus and Phase Behavior for High Burnup and TRU Burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, R.D.; Porter, D.L.; Kennedy, J.R.; Hayes, S.L.; Blackwood, V.S.; Jones, Z.S.; Olson, D.L.; Mishra, B.

    2015-01-01

    Recent modifications to fast reactor metallic fuels have been directed toward improving the melting and phase behaviors of the fuel alloy, for the purpose of ultra-high burnup and transuranic (TRU) burning. Improved melting temperatures increase the safety margin for uranium-based fast reactor fuel alloys, which is especially important for transuranic burning because the introduction of plutonium and neptunium acts to lower the alloy melting temperature. Improved phase behavior—single-phase, body-centered cubic—is desired because the phase is isotropic and the alloy properties are more predictable. An optimal alloy with both improvements was therefore sought through a comprehensive literature survey and theoretical analyses, and the creation and testing of some alloys selected by the analyses. Summarized here are those analyses, the impact of alloy modifications, and recent experimental results for selected pseudo-binary alloy systems that are hoped to accomplish the goals in a short timeframe. (author)

  8. Application of the cultured epidermal autograft "JACE(®") for treatment of severe burns: Results of a 6-year multicenter surveillance in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Hajime; Matsushima, Asako; Ueyama, Masashi; Kumagai, Norio

    2016-06-01

    In the 1970s, Green et al. developed a method that involved culturing keratinocyte sheets and used for treatment of burns. Since then, the take rate of cultured epidermal autograft (CEA) onto fascia, granulation tissue, or allografts has been extensively reported, while that on an artificial dermis in a large case series is not. Moreover, the contribution of CEA to patient survival has not been analyzed in a multicenter study. We conducted a 6-year multicenter surveillance on the application of the CEA "JACE(®") for treatment of burns >30% total body surface area (TBSA) across 118 Japanese hospitals. This surveillance included 216 patients and 718 graft sites for efficacy analysis. The CEA take rate at 4 weeks after grafting was evaluated, and safety was monitored until 52 weeks. In addition, the survival curve obtained in this study and the data obtained from the Tokyo Burn Unit Association (TBUA) were compared. The mean CEA take rates at week 4 were 66% (sites) and 68% (patients), and the rate on the artificial dermis was 65% for 226 sites. CEA application combined with wide split-thickness auto or patch autograft increased the CEA take rate. On comparison with the data obtained from the TBUA, which included data on individuals with burns of the same severity, CEA application was found to contribute to patient survival until 7 weeks after burn. We reported the take rate of CEA based on a 6-year multicenter surveillance. From our results, we found that the application of CEA is a useful treatment for the patients with extensive burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute pain management in burn patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst-Jensen, Hejdi; Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria Oline

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Burn patients suffer excruciating pain due to their injuries and procedures related to surgery, wound care, and mobilization. Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, chronic pain and depression are highly prevalent among survivors of severe burns. Evidence-based pain...... patients. The most highly recommended guidelines provided clear and accurate recommendations for the nursing and medical staff on pain management in burn patients. We recommend the use of a validated appraisal tool such as the AGREE instrument to provide more consistent and evidence-based care to burn...

  10. Vitamin D status after a high dose of cholecalciferol in healthy and burn subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Anne-Françoise; Damas, Pierre; Ledoux, Didier; Lukas, Pierre; Carlisi, Agnès; Le Goff, Caroline; Gadisseur, Romy; Cavalier, Etienne

    2015-08-01

    Burn patients are at risk of vitamin D (VD) deficiency and may benefit from its pleiotropic effects as soon as acute phase. Aim of this observational study was to assess effects of a cholecalciferol (VD3) bolus on VD status in adult burn patients (Group B, GB) after admission, compared to healthy subjects (Group H, GH). Both groups received an oral dose of 100,000 IU VD3. Blood samples were collected before (D0) and 7 days (D7) after bolus to measure 250H-D, 1,25(OH)2-D, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Albumin (ALB) and VD binding protein (DBP) were measured and used to calculate free 25OH-D level. Data were expressed as median (min-max) or proportions. A total of 49 subjects were included: 29 in GH and 20 in GB. At D0, prevalence of VD deficiency was higher in GB: 25OH-D was 21.5 (10.1-46.3) ng/ml in GH vs 11 (1.8-31.4) ng/ml in GB. DBP and ALB were lower in GB. At D7, DBP was stable in both groups while ALB decreased in GB. 25OH-D increased by 66.6 (13.5-260.3)% in GH. In GB, changes in 25OH-D extended from -36.7% to 333.3% with a median increase of 33.1%. Similar changes were observed in each group for free 25OH-D. High FGF23 levels were observed in GB. This study highlighted the differences in VD status and in response to a high dose VD3 in burn patients when compared to healthy patients. Pitfalls in VD status assessment are numerous during acute burn care: 25OH-D measurement needs cautious interpretation and interest of free 25OH-D is still questionable. They should not prevent burn patients to receive VD supplements during acute care. Higher doses than general recommendations should probably be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. The protective effects of sildenafil in acute lung injury in a rat model of severe scald burn: A biochemical and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokakin, Ali Kagan; Deveci, Koksal; Kurt, Atilla; Karakus, Boran Cihat; Duger, Cevdet; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Topcu, Omer

    2013-09-01

    Severe burn induces biochemical mediators such as reactive oxygen species that leads to lipid peroxidation which may have a key role in formation of acute lung injury (ALI). Sildenafil is a selective and potent inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate specific phosphodiesterase-5. Sildenafil preserves alveolar growth, angiogenesis, reduces inflammation and airway reactivity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different dosages of sildenafil in ALI due to severe scald burn in rats. Twenty-four rats were subjected to 30% total body surface area severe scald injury and were randomly divided into three equal groups as follow: control, 10 and 20mg/kg sildenafil groups. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), activities of glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), catalase (Cat), total oxidative stress (TOS), and total antioxidative capacity (TAC) were measured in both tissues and serums. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. A semi-quantitative scoring system was used for the evaluation of histopatological findings. Sildenafil increased Gpx, Cat, TAC and decreased MDA, TOS and OSI. Sildenafil decreased inflammation scores in lungs. Our results reveal that sildenafil is protective against scald burn related ALI by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation and the dosage of 10mg/kg could be apparently better than 20mg/kg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Sustained high incidence of injuries from burns in a densely populated urban slum in Kenya: an emerging public health priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joshua M; Nyachieo, Dhillon O; Benzekri, Noelle A; Cosmas, Leonard; Ondari, Daniel; Yekta, Shahla; Montgomery, Joel M; Williamson, John M; Breiman, Robert F

    2014-09-01

    Ninety-five percent of burn deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); however, longitudinal household-level studies have not been done in urban slum settings, where overcrowding and unsafe cook stoves may increase likelihood of injury. Using a prospective, population-based disease surveillance system in the urban slum of Kibera in Kenya, we examined the incidence of household-level burns of all severities from 2006-2011. Of approximately 28,500 enrolled individuals (6000 households), we identified 3072 burns. The overall incidence was 27.9/1000 person-years-of-observation. Children slums rapidly increases in many African countries, characterizing and addressing the rising burden of burns is likely to become a public health priority. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of high burn-up and MOX fuel on reprocessing, vitrification and disposal of PWR and BWR spent fuels based on accurate burn-up calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Iwasaki, T.; Wada, K. [Tohoku Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Suyama, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata-Shirane 2-4, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    To examine the procedures of the reprocessing, the vitrification and the geologic disposal, precise burn-up calculation for high burn-up and MOX fuels has been performed for not only PWR but also BWR by using SWAT and SWAT2 codes which are the integrated bum-up calculation code systems combined with the bum-up calculation code, ORIGEN2, and the transport calculation code, SRAC (the collision probability method) or MVP (the continuous energy Monte Carlo method), respectively. The calculation results shows that all of the evaluated items (heat generation and concentrations of Mo and Pt) largely increase and those significantly effect to the current procedures of the vitrification and the geologic disposal. The calculation result by SWAT2 confirms that the bundle calculation is required for BWR to be discussed about those effects in details, especially for the MOX fuel. (authors)

  14. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmar...

  15. Parameters Affecting the Erosive Burning of Solid Rocket Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Almostafa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the velocity of gases inside solid rocket motors with low port-to-throat area ratios, leading to increased occurrence and severity of burning rate augmentation due to flow of propellant products across burning propellant surfaces (erosive burning, erosive burning of high energy composite propellant was investigated to supply rocket motor design criteria and to supplement knowledge of combustion phenomena, pressure, burning rate and high velocity of gases all of these are parameters affect on erosive burning. Investigate the phenomena of the erosive burning by using the 2’inch rocket motor and modified one. Different tests applied to fulfil all the parameters that calculated out from the experiments and by studying the pressure time curve and erosive burning phenomena.

  16. Establishment of Technical Collaboration basis between Korea and France for the development of severe accident assessment computer code under high burnup condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. D.; Kim, D. H.; Park, S. Y.; Park, J. H.

    2005-10-01

    This project was performed by KAERI in the frame of construction of the international cooperative basis on the nuclear energy. This was supported from MOST under the title of 'Establishment of Technical Collaboration basis between Korea and France for the development of severe accident assessment computer code under high burn up condition'. The current operating NPP are converting the burned fuel to the wasted fuel after burn up of 40 GWD/MTU. But in Korea, burn up of more than 60 GWD/MTU will be expected because of the high fuel efficiency but also cost saving for storing the wasted fuel safely. The domestic research for the purpose of developing the fuel and the cladding that can be used under the high burn up condition up to 100 GWD/MTU is in progress now. But the current computer code adopts the model and the data that are valid only up to the 40 GWD/MTU at most. Therefore the current model could not take into account the phenomena that may cause differences in the fission product release behavior or in the core damage process due to the high burn up operation (more than 40 GWD/MTU). To evaluate the safety of the NPP with the high burn up fuel, the improvement of current severe accident code against the high burn up condition is an important research item. Also it should start without any delay. Therefore, in this study, an expert group was constructed to establish the research basis for the severe accident under high burn up conditions. From this expert group, the research items regarding the high burn up condition were selected and identified through discussion and technical seminars. Based on these selected items, the meeting between IRSN and KAERI to find out the cooperative research items on the severe accident under the high burn up condition was held in the IRSN headquater in Paris. After the meeting, KAERI and IRSN agreed to cooperate with each other on the selected items, and to co-host the international seminar, and to develop the model and to

  17. Fission gas release at high burn-up: beyond the standard diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landskron, H.; Sontheimer, F.; Billaux, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    At high burn-up standard diffusion models describing the release of fission gases from nuclear fuel must be extended to describe the experimental loss of xenon observed in the fuel matrix of the rim zone. Marked improvements of the prediction of integral fission gas release of fuel rods as well as of radial fission gas profiles in fuel pellets are achieved by using a saturation concept to describe fission gas behaviour not only in the pellet rim but also as an additional fission gas path in the whole pellet. (author)

  18. High Efficiency of Mixed Th-U Fuel Utilisation in Innovative Nuclear Burning Wave Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomin, Sergii; Fomin, A.; Mel’nik, Yu.; Pilipenko, V.; Shul’ga, N.

    2013-01-01

    The presentation provides information about nuclear fuel reproduction and the U-Pu fuel cycle; the history of the Breed and Burn concept and the traveling wave concept; the non-stationary theory of nuclear burning wave; the Nuclear Burning Wave in Fast Reactor with U-Pu Fuel; nuclear burning wave in 5m length cylindrical FR for different reactor radius R and about the Reactor Power Control by Reflector Efficiency

  19. EBSD and TEM Characterization of High Burn-up Mixed Oxide Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, Melissa C; Gorman, Brian P.; Miller, Brandon D; King, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Understanding and studying the irradiation behavior of high burn-up oxide fuel is critical to licensing of future fast breeder reactors. Advancements in experimental techniques and equipment are allowing for new insights into previously irradiated samples. In this work dual column focused ion beam (FIB)/scanning electron microscope (SEM) was utilized to prepared transmission electron microscope samples from mixed oxide fuel with a burn-up of 6.7% FIMA. Utilizing the FIB/SEM for preparation resulted in samples with a dose rate of <0.5 mRem/h compared to approximately 1.1 R/h for a traditionally prepared TEM sample. The TEM analysis showed that the sample taken from the cooler rim region of the fuel pellet had approximately 2.5x higher dislocation density than that of the sample taken from the mid-radius due to the lower irradiation temperature of the rim. The dual column FIB/SEM was additionally used to prepared and serially slice approximately 25 um cubes. High quality electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) were collected from the face at each step, showing, for the first time, the ability to obtain EBSD data from high activity irradiated fuel

  20. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Zheng, B.S.; Aposhian, H.V.; Zhou, Y.S.; Chen, M.L.; Zhang, A.H.; Waalkes, M.P. [NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)

    2002-07-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China was investigated. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such over exposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area.

  1. [Influence of high-voltage electric burn on the microcirculation of heart in rabbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-fu; Zhou, Hui-min; Wang, Che-jiang; Shao, Hong-bo

    2012-06-01

    To study the influence of high-voltage electric burn on the microcirculation of heart in rabbit. One-hundred and twenty New Zealand rabbits of clean grade were divided into control group (C) and electric burn group (EB) according to the random number table, with 60 rabbits in each group. Rabbits in EB group were subjected to high-voltage electric burn (the electrical current flow into the left foreleg at the lateral side of proximal end and out from the corresponding site of the right hind leg) with voltage regulator and experimental transformer. Rabbits in C group were sham injured with the same devices without electrification. At 15 minutes before injury, and 5 minutes, 1, 2, 4, 8 hour (s) post injury (PIM or PIH), ten rabbits in each group were chosen to examine the cardiac apex microcirculation hemoperfusion (CAMH) with laser Doppler hemoperfusion image instrument. The morphologic changes of microvessels of left ventricular wall tissues of 2 rabbits from each of the 10 rabbits collected at above-mentioned time points were observed with light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Auricular vein blood of rabbit was harvested at above-mentioned time points for the determination of aspartate amino transferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), creatine kinase (CK), and creatine kinase isozyme MB (CK-MB) by full-automatic biochemical analyzer. Data were processed with two-factor analysis of variance and LSD test. (1) The differences between C group and EB group in detection results were statistically significant, with F values from 425.991 to 3046.834, P values all below 0.01. Only the data within EB group were comparable. (2) At PIM 5, the CAMH value of rabbits in EB group was (1.96 ± 0.09) V, which was lower than that at 15 minutes before injury [(4.34 ± 0.35) V, P electric burn can bring damage to the microvessels of heart in rabbits and change blood flow of microcirculation, which should be given adequate

  2. Calibration and validation of the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) to three measures of fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.D.; Knapp, E.E.; Key, C.H.; Skinner, C.N.; Isbell, C.J.; Creasy, R.M.; Sherlock, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data have become a common tool used in the mapping of wildland fire effects. Fire severity, defined as the degree to which a site has been altered, is often the variable mapped. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) used in an absolute difference change detection protocol (dNBR), has become the remote sensing method of choice for US Federal land management agencies to map fire severity due to wildland fire. However, absolute differenced vegetation indices are correlated to the pre-fire chlorophyll content of the vegetation occurring within the fire perimeter. Normalizing dNBR to produce a relativized dNBR (RdNBR) removes the biasing effect of the pre-fire condition. Employing RdNBR hypothetically allows creating categorical classifications using the same thresholds for fires occurring in similar vegetation types without acquiring additional calibration field data on each fire. In this paper we tested this hypothesis by developing thresholds on random training datasets, and then comparing accuracies for (1) fires that occurred within the same geographic region as the training dataset and in similar vegetation, and (2) fires from a different geographic region that is climatically and floristically similar to the training dataset region but supports more complex vegetation structure. We additionally compared map accuracies for three measures of fire severity: the composite burn index (CBI), percent change in tree canopy cover, and percent change in tree basal area. User's and producer's accuracies were highest for the most severe categories, ranging from 70.7% to 89.1%. Accuracies of the moderate fire severity category for measures describing effects only to trees (percent change in canopy cover and basal area) indicated that the classifications were generally not much better than random. Accuracies of the moderate category for the CBI classifications were somewhat better, averaging in the 50%-60% range. These results underscore the difficulty in

  3. Historic records of organic compounds from a high Alpine glacier: influences of biomass burning, anthropogenic emissions, and dust transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Müller-Tautges

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Historic records of α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal, methylglyoxal, carboxylic acids (C6–C12 dicarboxylic acids, pinic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, phthalic acid, 4-methylphthalic acid, and ions (oxalate, formate, calcium were determined with annual resolution in an ice core from Grenzgletscher in the southern Swiss Alps, covering the time period from 1942 to 1993. Chemical analysis of the organic compounds was conducted using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC coupled to electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS for dicarbonyls and long-chain carboxylic acids and ion chromatography for short-chain carboxylates. Long-term records of the carboxylic acids and dicarbonyls, as well as their source apportionment, are reported for western Europe. This is the first study comprising long-term trends of dicarbonyls and long-chain dicarboxylic acids (C6–C12 in Alpine precipitation. Source assignment of the organic species present in the ice core was performed using principal component analysis. Our results suggest biomass burning, anthropogenic emissions, and transport of mineral dust to be the main parameters influencing the concentration of organic compounds. Ice core records of several highly correlated compounds (e.g., p-hydroxybenzoic acid, pinic acid, pimelic, and suberic acids can be related to the forest fire history in southern Switzerland. P-hydroxybenzoic acid was found to be the best organic fire tracer in the study area, revealing the highest correlation with the burned area from fires. Historical records of methylglyoxal, phthalic acid, and dicarboxylic acids adipic acid, sebacic acid, and dodecanedioic acid are comparable with that of anthropogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. The small organic acids, oxalic acid and formic acid, are both highly correlated with calcium, suggesting their records to be affected by changing mineral dust transport to the drilling site.

  4. An investigation into fuel pulverization with specific reference to high burn-up LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagnik, Suresh; Turnbull, James; Noirot, Jean; Walker, Clive; Hallstadius, Lars; Waeckel, N.; Blanpain, P.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the phenomenon of high burn-up fuel pellet material potentially disintegrating into powder under a rapid temperature transient, such as in a LOCA-type accident scenario, two independent scoping studies were commissioned. The first was to investigate the effect of hydrostatic restraint pressure on Fission Gas Release (FGR) from small samples of highly irradiated fuel (71 MWd/kgU) during a series of rapid temperature ramps. Experimentally, when the FGR increased rapidly during the temperature transients, the fuel was assumed to be 'pulverized', i.e., fragmented into powder. In the second series of experiments, laser heating of small samples was used to investigate the temperature at which fuel pulverization was initiated. Subsequent to fuel disintegration, there was always a spectrum of particle sizes present. The significance of this observation was recognized in the context of extended burn-up operation in commercial reactors. Based on the observation from these investigations, a fuel fragmentation threshold has been discussed and developed. We conclude that fuel disintegration could be of potential importance in limiting the performance and productive lifetime of nuclear fuel. However, since only fuel closely adjacent to ballooned or ruptured cladding would be released in a LOCA-type transient, expulsion of pulverized fuel from the ruptured fuel rod is not considered a safety issue; cooling of the defected assembly remains possible and there is no issue with respect to local criticality. (author)

  5. Reactive Burn Model Calibration for PETN Using Ultra-High-Speed Phase Contrast Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carl; Ramos, Kyle; Bolme, Cindy; Sanchez, Nathaniel; Barber, John; Montgomery, David

    2017-06-01

    A 1D reactive burn model (RBM) calibration for a plastic bonded high explosive (HE) requires run-to-detonation data. In PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate, 1.65 g/cc) the shock to detonation transition (SDT) is on the order of a few millimeters. This rapid SDT imposes experimental length scales that preclude application of traditional calibration methods such as embedded electromagnetic gauge methods (EEGM) which are very effective when used to study 10 - 20 mm thick HE specimens. In recent work at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source we have obtained run-to-detonation data in PETN using ultra-high-speed dynamic phase contrast imaging (PCI). A reactive burn model calibration valid for 1D shock waves is obtained using density profiles spanning the transition to detonation as opposed to particle velocity profiles from EEGM. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) methods were used to operate the LANL hydrocode FLAG iteratively to refine SURF RBM parameters until a suitable parameter set attained. These methods will be presented along with model validation simulations. The novel method described is generally applicable to `sensitive' energetic materials particularly those with areal densities amenable to radiography.

  6. Behaviour of fission gas in the rim region of high burn-up UO2 fuel pellets with particular reference to results from an XRF investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogensen, M.; Walker, C.T.

    1999-01-01

    XRF and EPMA results for retained xenon from Battelle's high burn-up effects program are re-evaluated. The data reviewed are from commercial low enriched BWR fuel with burn-ups of 44.8-54.9 GWd/tU and high enriched PWR fuel with burn-ups from 62.5 to 83.1 GWd/tU. It is found that the high burn-up structure penetrated much deeper than initially reported. The local burn-up threshold for the formation of the high burn-up structure in those fuels with grain sizes in the normal range lay between 60 and 75 GWd/tU. The high burn-up structure was not detected by EPMA in a fuel that had a grain size of 78 μm although the local burn-up at the pellet rim had exceeded 80 GWd/tU. It is concluded that fission gas had been released from the high burn-up structure in three PWR fuel sections with burn-ups of 70.4, 72.2 and 83.1 GWd/tU. In the rim region of the last two sections at the locations where XRF indicated gas release the local burn-up was higher than 75 GWd/tU. (orig.)

  7. Reducing the Indication for Ventilatory Support in the Severely Burned Patient: Results of a New Protocol Approach at a Regional Burn Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Jochen; Bauer, Nicole; Malcharek, Michael J; Dragu, Adrian; Sablotzki, Armin; Taha, Hischam; Czeslick, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Initial management of the severely injured routinely includes sedation and mechanical ventilatory support. However, nonjudiciously applied mechanical ventilatory support can itself lead to poorer patient outcomes. In an attempt to reduce this iatrogenic risk, a standardized, in-house, five-point protocol providing clinical guidance on the use and duration of ventilation was introduced and analyzed, and the impact on patient outcomes was assessed. In 2007, a protocol for early spontaneous breathing was introduced and established in clinical practice. This protocol included: 1) early extubation (≤6 hours after admission) in the absence of absolute ventilatory indication; 2) avoidance of "routine intubation" in spontaneously breathing patients; 3) early postoperative extubation, including patients requiring multiple surgical interventions; 4) intensive chest and respiratory physiotherapy with routine application of expectorants; and 5) early active mobilization. A retrospective clinical study compared patients (group A) over a 2-year period admitted under the new protocol with a historical patient group (group B). Patients in group A (n = 38) had fewer ventilator days over the time-course of treatment (3 [1; 5.8] vs 18.5 days [0.5; 20.5]; P = .0001) with a lower rate of tracheostomies (15.8 vs 54%; P = .0003). Patients on ventilation at admission in group A had shorter ventilation periods after admission (4.75 [4; 22.25] vs 378 hours [8.5; 681.5]; P = .0003), and 66.7% of these patients were extubated within 6 hours of admission (vs 9.1% in group B). No patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria required re- or emergency intubation. In the first 5 days of treatment, significantly lower Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were recorded in group A. There was also a trend for lower mortality rates (0 [0%] vs 6 [14%]), sepsis rates (24 [63.2%] vs 37 [88.1%]), and cumulative fluid balance on days 3 and 7 in group A. In contrast, group A demonstrated an elevated

  8. Regional citrate anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy in severe burns-a retrospective analysis of a protocol-guided approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Jochen; Sablotzki, Armin; Malcharek, Michael; Raff, Thomas; Mogk, Martin; Parentin, Torsten

    2014-12-01

    For critically ill patients, the use of regional citrate anticoagulation as part of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has become increasingly common in recent years. However, there are scarce data on the use of this technique in patients with burns. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness, feasibility and complications of regional citrate anticoagulation for CRRT in burn patients, as well as the effects on coagulation and the electrolyte and acid-base balance. This retrospective study included all patients who received renal replacement therapy with citrate anticoagulation to treat acute kidney injury (AKI) between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2009 at the burn unit of St. Georg Hospital GmbH in Leipzig. During the examination period, 18 patients were treated using CRRT with regional citrate anticoagulation (CVVHDF in the pre-dilution mode). The median patient age was 64 years (49.5; 71), with a median TBSA of 42.5% (33.25; 52.5) and a median ABSI score of 10 (9; 10). The CRRT was initiated on a median of 6 days (4; 8.75) after admission to the hospital and continued for a median duration of 7 days (5; 8). The median dialysis dose was 38.2mlkgBW(-1)h(-1) (31.8; 42.1). The median effective filter operation time was 67h (46; 72). No relevant disorders associated with acid-base balance, electrolytes or coagulation occurred, and there were no bleeding complications. In terms of bleeding risk and electrolyte and acid-base balance, regional citrate anticoagulation may be considered to be an effective, safe and user-friendly procedure for patients with severe burns and AKI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Mineralogical and micromorphological modifications in soil affected by slash pile burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Nobles; W. J. Massman; M. Mbila; G. Butters

    2010-01-01

    Silvicultural practices, such as slash pile burning, are commonly used for fire and ecosystem management. This management technique can drastically alter chemical, physical and biological soil properties due to the high temperatures achieved during the prolonged severe burn. Little is known, however, about the impact of high-temperature slash pile burning on soil...

  10. High-speed three-dimensional plasma temperature determination of axially symmetric free-burning arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, B; Ekkert, K; Bachmann, J-P; Marques, J-L; Schein, J; Kozakov, R; Gött, G; Schöpp, H; Uhrlandt, D

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an experimental technique that allows for high-speed, three-dimensional determination of electron density and temperature in axially symmetric free-burning arcs. Optical filters with narrow spectral bands of 487.5–488.5 nm and 689–699 nm are utilized to gain two-dimensional spectral information of a free-burning argon tungsten inert gas arc. A setup of mirrors allows one to image identical arc sections of the two spectral bands onto a single camera chip. Two-different Abel inversion algorithms have been developed to reconstruct the original radial distribution of emission coefficients detected with each spectral window and to confirm the results. With the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium we calculate emission coefficients as a function of temperature by application of the Saha equation, the ideal gas law, the quasineutral gas condition and the NIST compilation of spectral lines. Ratios of calculated emission coefficients are compared with measured ones yielding local plasma temperatures. In the case of axial symmetry the three-dimensional plasma temperature distributions have been determined at dc currents of 100, 125, 150 and 200 A yielding temperatures up to 20000 K in the hot cathode region. These measurements have been validated by four different techniques utilizing a high-resolution spectrometer at different positions in the plasma. Plasma temperatures show good agreement throughout the different methods. Additionally spatially resolved transient plasma temperatures have been measured of a dc pulsed process employing a high-speed frame rate of 33000 frames per second showing the modulation of the arc isothermals with time and providing information about the sensitivity of the experimental approach. (paper)

  11. Pyogenic Arthritis of the Ankle Joint Following a High-Voltage Electrical Burn in the Lower Extremity: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kuk Seon; Lee, Gyung Kyu; Kang, Ik Won; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Lee, Eil Seong; Min, Seon Jung; Han, You Mie [Dept. of Radiology, Hangang Scared Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eil Seong [Dept.of Radiology, Gyeongju Hospital, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    A high-voltage electrical burn caused extensive deep muscle injuries beneath a relatively small skin wound at the contact point. Hidden, undetected deep muscle injuries have a tendency for progressive tissue necrosis, which can lead to major amputations or sepsis. The radiologic features of this rare, sometimes life-threatening injury have occasionally been described in the literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports on a case of pyogenic arthritis of the ankle joint following a high-voltage electrical burn involving the lower extremity. We report a case of the pyogenic arthritis of the ankle joint following a high-voltage electrical burn involving the lower extremity.

  12. A high-resolution open biomass burning emission inventory based on statistical data and MODIS observations in mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Fan, M.; Huang, Z.; Zheng, J.; Chen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Open biomass burning which has adverse effects on air quality and human health is an important source of gas and particulate matter (PM) in China. Current emission estimations of open biomass burning are generally based on single source (alternative to statistical data and satellite-derived data) and thus contain large uncertainty due to the limitation of data. In this study, to quantify the 2015-based amount of open biomass burning, we established a new estimation method for open biomass burning activity levels by combining the bottom-up statistical data and top-down MODIS observations. And three sub-category sources which used different activity data were considered. For open crop residue burning, the "best estimate" of activity data was obtained by averaging the statistical data from China statistical yearbooks and satellite observations from MODIS burned area product MCD64A1 weighted by their uncertainties. For the forest and grassland fires, their activity levels were represented by the combination of statistical data and MODIS active fire product MCD14ML. Using the fire radiative power (FRP) which is considered as a better indicator of active fire level as the spatial allocation surrogate, coarse gridded emissions were reallocated into 3km ×3km grids to get a high-resolution emission inventory. Our results showed that emissions of CO, NOx, SO2, NH3, VOCs, PM2.5, PM10, BC and OC in mainland China were 6607, 427, 84, 79, 1262, 1198, 1222, 159 and 686 Gg/yr, respectively. Among all provinces of China, Henan, Shandong and Heilongjiang were the top three contributors to the total emissions. In this study, the developed open biomass burning emission inventory with a high-resolution could support air quality modeling and policy-making for pollution control.

  13. IFPE/HBEP REV.1, Battelle's High Burn-Up Effects Programme for Fuel Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Description: It contains data from phase 2 and 3 on fabrication, dimensions, fuel and cladding properties and composition, reactor conditions and Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) data of the High Burn-up Effects Programme (HBEP) carried out at the Battelle North-west Laboratories. Each data set contains a full irradiation history with clad temperature and local power listed for each rod at 5, 10 or 12 axial zones as a function of cumulative time to the end of the given time interval over which the power has been constant. Data is provided for 45 rods from phase 2 and 36 rods from phase 3. The different rods have been manufactured by: ASEA/TVO, BN, BNFL, FBFC, FRA/CEA, GE, KWU/CE, WEC

  14. Burn-up measurements on nuclear reactor fuels using high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaraman, N.; Subramaniam, S.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Burn-up measurements on thermal as well as fast reactor fuels were carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A column chromatographic technique using di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) coated column was employed for the isolation of lanthanides from uranium, plutonium and other fission products. Ion-pair HPLC was used for the separation of individual lanthanides. The atom percent fissions were calculated from the concentrations of the lanthanide (neodymium in the case of thermal reactor and lanthanum for the fast reactor fuels) and from uranium and plutonium contents of the dissolver solutions. The HPLC method was also used for determining the fractional fissions from uranium and plutonium for the thermal reactor fuel. (author)

  15. Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P

    2012-11-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  16. Micrographic study on distribution of fission products in high burn-up metallic alloy fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolay, S.; Basu, M.; Das, D.

    2012-01-01

    One of the important mandates in the three-stage nuclear power generation programme of India is to utilize uranium-plutonium based alloy fuels in enabling shorter doubling time for breeding of the fissile isotopes ( 239 Pu and 233 U ) to be used in thorium based driver fuel in the third stage. Reported information shows the successful performance of alloy fuel with somewhat porous matrix in achieving 10-15 atom% burnup. The porosity and microstructure of these alloys are strongly dependent on their composition and phases present. Porosity also influences the extent of fuel swelling and gas release. So to assess fuel performance and fuel integrity under high burn-up condition it is essential to have knowledge about the new phases formed and their redistribution that occurs as a result of inter-diffusion and temperature gradient. This study addresses these issues taking the base alloy U-10 wt %Zr

  17. Suicide by burning: epidemiological and clinical profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Panagiotis; Phan, Vu T Q; Weinand, Christian; Maegele, Marc; Maurer, Christoph A; Perbix, Walter; Leitsch, Sebastian; Lefering, Rolf; Spilker, Gerald

    2011-04-01

    Self-immolation constitutes a rare form of suicide in developed countries, though it accounts for unique injury characteristics in the burn intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to present the epidemiological and clinical features of patients burned during a suicidal attempt seen in a North Rhine-Westphalia burn intensive care unit (BICU). To address this aim, we undertook a 21-year retrospective study involving patients with thermal injuries admitted to the largest burn unit in Germany. A total of 125 suicide-related burn victims were identified in the study period (9.4%). Comparing the self-immolation group with the rest burn patient cohort, suicide victims were more likely to be single and to act under the influence of alcohol. The suicidal group had a larger extent of burns, higher incidence of inhalation injury, required more surgical procedures, catecholamines, blood transfusions, and a longer BICU stay. Their clinical course was complicated by prolonged intubation period, higher rate of multiple drug-resistant bacteria acquisition and sepsis, leading to a higher mortality rate. Although the proportion of self-immolation victims among all burned patients is not high, the markedly higher severity of their burns and their poorer quality of outcomes makes them an important clinical subgroup for further study.

  18. Seasonal and spatial variation of organic tracers for biomass burning in PM1 aerosols from highly insolated urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drooge, B L; Fontal, M; Bravo, N; Fernández, P; Fernández, M A; Muñoz-Arnanz, J; Jiménez, B; Grimalt, J O

    2014-10-01

    PM1 aerosol characterization on organic tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan and its isomers and dehydroabietic acid) was conducted within the AERTRANS project. PM1 filters (N = 90) were sampled from 2010 to 2012 in busy streets in the urban centre of Madrid and Barcelona (Spain) at ground-level and at roof sites. In both urban areas, biomass burning was not expected to be an important local emission source, but regional emissions from wildfires, residential heating or biomass removal may influence the air quality in the cities. Although both areas are under influence of high solar radiation, Madrid is situated in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, while Barcelona is located at the Mediterranean Coast and under influence of marine atmospheres. Two extraction methods were applied, i.e. Soxhlet and ASE, which showed equivalent results after GC-MS analyses. The ambient air concentrations of the organic tracers for biomass burning increased by an order of magnitude at both sites during winter compared to summer. An exception was observed during a PM event in summer 2012, when the atmosphere in Barcelona was directly affected by regional wildfire smoke and levels were four times higher as those observed in winter. Overall, there was little variation between the street and roof sites in both cities, suggesting that regional biomass burning sources influence the urban areas after atmospheric transport. Despite the different atmospheric characteristics in terms of air relative humidity, Madrid and Barcelona exhibit very similar composition and concentrations of biomass burning organic tracers. Nevertheless, levoglucosan and its isomers seem to be more suitable for source apportionment purposes than dehydroabietic acid. In both urban areas, biomass burning contributions to PM were generally low (2 %) in summer, except on the day when wildfire smoke arrive to the urban area. In the colder periods the contribution increase to around 30 %, indicating that regional

  19. The effects of sildenafil in liver and kidney injury in a rat model of severe scald burn: a biochemical and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökakın, Ali Kağan; Atabey, Mustafa; Deveci, Koksal; Sancakdar, Enver; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Duger, Cevdet; Topcu, Omer

    2014-09-01

    Severe burn induces systemic inflammation and reactive oxygen species leading to lipid peroxidation which may play role in remote organs injury. Sildenafil is a selective and potent inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate specific phosphodiesterase-5. Sildenafil reduces oxidative stress and inflammation in distant organs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different dosages of sildenafil in remote organs injury. A total of thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four equal groups. The groups were designated as follows: Sham, Control, 10, and T20 mg/kg sildenafil treatment groups. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor (Flt-1), activities of glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), levels of total antioxidative capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS) were measured in both tissues and serum, and a semi-quantitative scoring system was used for the evaluation of histopathological findings. Sildenafil increased levels of Gpx, and Flt-1, and decreased MDA and VEGF levels in tissues. Sildenafil also increased serum levels of TAC and Flt-1 and decreased TOS, OSI, and VEGF. Sildenafil decreased inflammation scores in remote organs in histopathological evaluation. It has protective effects in severe burn-related remote organ injuries by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation.

  20. A protocol of early aggressive acceleration of tube feeding increases ileus without perceptible benefit in severely burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesey, Jennifer; Dissanaike, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is essential to the recovery of burned patients. The authors evaluated the efficacy of an aggressive nutrition delivery protocol. The following protocol was implemented: initiation of tube feeds within 4 hours, acceleration to goal rate within 8 hours, and tolerance of gastric residual volumes of 400 ml. Patients on the protocol formed the study group whereas patients admitted immediately before implementation served as controls for a study period of 7 days after admission. Outcome variables included ileus, prokinetic medication use, intensive care unit and overall length of stay, ventilator days and mortality. Variables were compared using bivariate analysis. The 42 study subjects and 34 controls were similar at baseline. Time to initiation was similar (6.8 vs 9.4 hours; P = .226), however, goal rate was achieved much sooner in the study group (11.2 vs 20.9 hours; P protocol was successfully implemented and resulted in early achievement of goal tube feed rates. However, this resulted in tube feed intolerance as manifested by more cases of clinical ileus.

  1. [Dynamic change in microcirculation of pancreas after experimental high-voltage electric burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-fu; Bai, Yong-qiang

    2009-10-01

    To observe the changes in surface microcirculation of pancreas after high-voltage electric burn (HEB). Thirty rabbits were divided into electrical injury (E) group and control (C) group in a simple random method, with 15 rabbits in each group. Rabbit model of HEB was reproduced from E group with TC-30-20KVA type voltage regulator and YDJ-10KVA type experimental transformer. Rabbits in C group were shamly burned with the same equipment as in E group but not electrified. Intravenous blood of rabbits in both groups was drawn 15 mins before HEB and 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 h after to determine the levels of serum amylase and blood glucose. The morphology of the pancreas microvessels and its surrounding tissues, and the dynamic changes in microvascular blood flow were observed with WX-9 microscope and its image analytical system. The level of serum amylase of rabbits in E group increased gradually and peaked (849 +/- 39) U/L at 8 post HEB h (PHH), which decreased gradually reaching the nadir (153 +/- 21) U/L at 8 PHH in C group (P 0.05), and no erythrocyte aggregation or microthrombus was found in both groups. In E group, blood flow speed slowed down at 0 PHH as compared with that before HEB, it accelerated at 1 h and slowed down later; erythrocyte aggregation in venules and capillaries was found at 0 PHH, and it aggregated gradually. No above-mentioned change was found in C group. HEB produces microcirculation disturbance and functional disturbance of pancreas.

  2. High-severity fire: evaluating its key drivers and mapping its probability across western US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Sean A.; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Panunto, Matthew H.; Jolly, W. Matt; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Dillon, Gregory K.

    2018-04-01

    Wildland fire is a critical process in forests of the western United States (US). Variation in fire behavior, which is heavily influenced by fuel loading, terrain, weather, and vegetation type, leads to heterogeneity in fire severity across landscapes. The relative influence of these factors in driving fire severity, however, is poorly understood. Here, we explore the drivers of high-severity fire for forested ecoregions in the western US over the period 2002–2015. Fire severity was quantified using a satellite-inferred index of severity, the relativized burn ratio. For each ecoregion, we used boosted regression trees to model high-severity fire as a function of live fuel, topography, climate, and fire weather. We found that live fuel, on average, was the most important factor driving high-severity fire among ecoregions (average relative influence = 53.1%) and was the most important factor in 14 of 19 ecoregions. Fire weather was the second most important factor among ecoregions (average relative influence = 22.9%) and was the most important factor in five ecoregions. Climate (13.7%) and topography (10.3%) were less influential. We also predicted the probability of high-severity fire, were a fire to occur, using recent (2016) satellite imagery to characterize live fuel for a subset of ecoregions in which the model skill was deemed acceptable (n = 13). These ‘wall-to-wall’ gridded ecoregional maps provide relevant and up-to-date information for scientists and managers who are tasked with managing fuel and wildland fire. Lastly, we provide an example of the predicted likelihood of high-severity fire under moderate and extreme fire weather before and after fuel reduction treatments, thereby demonstrating how our framework and model predictions can potentially serve as a performance metric for land management agencies tasked with reducing hazardous fuel across large landscapes.

  3. Record high peaks in PCB concentrations in the Arctic atmosphere due to long-range transport of biomass burning emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eckhardt

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Soils and forests in the boreal region of the Northern Hemisphere are recognised as having a large capacity for storing air-borne Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Following reductions of primary emissions of various legacy POPs, there is an increasing interest and debate about the relative importance of secondary re-emissions on the atmospheric levels of POPs. In spring of 2006, biomass burning emissions from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe were transported to the Zeppelin station on Svalbard, where record-high levels of many air pollutants were recorded (Stohl et al., 2007. Here we report on the extremely high concentrations of PCBs that were also measured during this period. 21 out of 32 PCB congeners were enhanced by more than two standard deviations above the long-term mean concentrations. In July 2004, about 5.8 million hectare of boreal forest burned in North America, emitting a pollution plume which reached the Zeppelin station after a travel time of 3–4 weeks (Stohl et al., 2006. Again, 12 PCB congeners were elevated above the long-term mean by more than two standard deviations, with the less chlorinated congeners being most strongly affected. We propose that these abnormally high concentrations were caused by biomass burning emissions. Based on enhancement ratios with carbon monoxide and known emissions factors for this species, we estimate that 130 and 66 μg PCBs were released per kilogram dry matter burned, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study relating atmospheric PCB enhancements with biomass burning. The strong effects on observed concentrations far away from the sources, suggest that biomass burning is an important source of PCBs for the atmosphere.

  4. High-performance self-compacting concrete with the use of coal burning waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhrakh, Anton; Solodov, Artyom; Naruts, Vitaly; Larsen, Oksana; Alimov, Lev; Voronin, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Today, thermal power plants are the main producers of energy in Russia. Most of thermal power plants use coal as fuel. The remaining waste of coal burning is ash, In Russia ash is usually kept at dumps. The amount of utilized ash is quite small, less than 13%. Meanwhile, each ash dump is a local ecological disaster. Ash dumps take a lot of place and destroy natural landscape. The use of fly ash in building materials can solve the problem of fly ash dumps in Russia. A lot of papers of scientists are devoted to the use of fly ash as filler in concrete. The main advantage of admixing fly ash in concrete is decrease of amount of used cement. This investigation was held to find out if it is possible to utilize fly ash by its use in high amounts in self-compacting concrete. During experiments three mixtures of SCC with different properties were obtained. The first one is experimental and shows the possibility of obtaining SCC with high compressive strength with 60% of fly ash from the mass of cement. Two other mixtures were optimized with the help of the math planning method to obtain high 7-day and 28-day high compressive strength.

  5. Non-instrumented capsule design of HANARO irradiation test for the high burn-up large grain UO2 pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, C. B.; Oh, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    Non-instrumented capsule was designed to irradiate the large grain UO 2 pellet developed for the high burn-up LWR fuel in the HANARO in-pile capsule. UO 2 pelletes will be irradiated up to the burn-up higher than 70 MWD/kgU in HANARO. To irradiate the UO 2 pellets up to the burn-up 70 MWD/kgU, need the time about 60 months and ensure the integrity of non-instrumented capsule for 30 months until replace the new capsule. In addition, to satisfy the safety criteria of HANARO such as prevention of ONB(Onset of Nucleate Boiling), fuel melting and wear damage of the capsule during the long term irradiation, design of the non-instrumented capsule was optimized

  6. Transition from equilibrium ignition to non-equilibrium burn for ICF capsules surrounded by a high-Z pusher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ji W.; Chang, Lei; Li, Yun S.; Li, Jing H.

    2011-01-01

    For the ICF capsule surrounded by a high-Z pusher which traps the radiation and confines the hot fuel, the fuel will first be ignited in thermal equilibrium with radiation at a much lower temperature than hot-spot ignition, which is also the low temperature ignition. Because of the lower areal density for ICF capsules, the equilibrium ignition must be developed into a non-equilibrium burn to shorten the reaction time and lower the drive energy. In this paper, the transition from the equilibrium ignition to non-equilibrium burn is discussed and the energy deposited by α particles required for the equilibrium ignition and non-equilibrium burn to occur is estimated.

  7. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....

  8. Experimental modeling of high burn-up structure in SIMFUEL with ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, V.; Isaenkova, M.; Lunev, A.; Tenishev, A.; Khlunov, A.

    2013-01-01

    Experiments are conducted to simulate high burn-up structure in accelerator conditions. Three ion irradiation schemes are used: 1. Xe 27+ 160 MeV up to 5x10 15 cm -2 (thermal spikes). 2. Xe 16+ 320 keV up to 1x10 17 cm -2 (collision cascades). 3. He + 20 keV up to 5,5x10 17 cm -2 (implantation stage). Structural characterization performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray analysis and atomic force microscopy revealed prominent grain refinement in case of Xe 27+ irradiation. Artificial energy variation for incident ions showed varying size of subgrains. At maximum energy of incident ions, subgrain size amounts ∼ 320 nm. Moving to the edge of irradiated region changes the size to ∼ 170 nm. Typical size of coherent scattering regions matches subgrain size for high-energy irradiation. Low-energy irradiation results in less significant structural changes: flaky structure at random sites for samples irradiated with low-energy xenon ions and bubble nucleation for helium irradiation. Dislocation density increases significantly, and it is shown that a single fluence dependence exists for low- and high-energy irradiation. (authors)

  9. Reduction on high level radioactive waste volume and geological repository footprint with high burn-up and high thermal efficiency of HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukaya, Yuji, E-mail: fukaya.yuji@jaea.go.jp; Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate the number of canisters and its footprint for HTGR. • We proposed new waste loading method for direct disposal of HTGR. • HTGR can significantly reduce HLW volume compared with LWR. - Abstract: Reduction on volume of High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) and footprint in a geological repository due to high burn-up and high thermal efficiency of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) has been investigated. A helium-cooled and graphite-moderated commercial HTGR was designed as a Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300), and that has particular features such as significantly high burn-up of approximately 120 GWd/t, high thermal efficiency around 50%, and pin-in-block type fuel. The pin-in-block type fuel was employed to reduce processed graphite volume in reprocessing. By applying the feature, effective waste loading method for direct disposal is proposed in this study. By taking into account these feature, the number of HLW canister generations and its repository footprint are evaluated by burn-up fuel composition, thermal calculation and criticality calculation in repository. As a result, it is found that the number of canisters and its repository footprint per electricity generation can be reduced by 60% compared with Light Water Reactor (LWR) representative case for direct disposal because of the higher burn-up, higher thermal efficiency, less TRU generation, and effective waste loading proposed in this study for HTGR. But, the reduced ratios change to 20% and 50% if the long term durability of LWR canister is guaranteed. For disposal with reprocessing, the number of canisters and its repository footprint per electricity generation can be reduced by 30% compared with LWR because of the 30% higher thermal efficiency of HTGR.

  10. [Effects of lung protective ventilation strategy combined with lung recruitment maneuver on patients with severe burn complicated with acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojian; Zhong, Xiaomin; Deng, Zhongyuan; Zhang Xuhui; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Tao; Tang, Wenbin; Chen, Bib; Liu, Changling; Cao, Wenjuan

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effects of lung protective ventilation strategy combined with lung recruitment maneuver on ARDS complicating patients with severe burn. Clinical data of 15 severely burned patients with ARDS admitted to our burn ICU from September 2011 to September 2013 and conforming to the study criteria were analyzed. Right after the diagnosis of acute lung injury/ARDS, patients received mechanical ventilation with lung protective ventilation strategy. When the oxygenation index (OI) was below or equal to 200 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0. 133 kPa), lung recruitment maneuver was performed combining incremental positive end-expiratory pressure. When OI was above 200 mmHg, lung recruitment maneuver was stopped and ventilation with lung protective ventilation strategy was continued. When OI was above 300 mmHg, mechanical ventilation was stopped. Before combining lung recruitment maneuver, 24 h after combining lung recruitment maneuver, and at the end of combining lung recruitment maneuver, variables of blood gas analysis (pH, PaO2, and PaCO2) were obtained by blood gas analyzer, and the OI values were calculated; hemodynamic parameters including heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP) of all patients and the cardiac output (CO), extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) of 4 patients who received pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) monitoring were monitored. Treatment measures and outcome of patients were recorded. Data were processed with analysis of variance of repeated measurement of a single group and LSD test. (1) Before combining lung recruitment maneuver, 24 h after combining lung recruitment maneuver, and at the end of combining lung recruitment maneuver, the levels of PaO2 and OI of patients were respectively (77 ± 8), (113 ± 5), (142 ± 6) mmHg, and (128 ± 12), (188 ± 8), (237 ± 10) mmHg. As a whole, levels of PaO2 and OI changed significantly at different time points (with F values respectively 860. 96 and 842. 09, P values below

  11. Determination of silver and cerium in the liver and the kidney from a severely burned infant treated with silver sulfadiazine and cerium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Keiko

    1983-01-01

    Silver and cerium in the liver and the kidney from severely burned infant were analyzed by neutron activation method. The patient was treated topically with cerium nitrate/silver sulfadiazine cream and cerium nitrate solution for 3 months. Then, the treatment with these drugs was stopped because o f abdominal distention. The patient died 1 month after the cessation of the treatment with these drugs. The tissue specimens, blank liver sample and reference standards were irradiated with TRIGA MARK II Reactor of Rikkyo University. About 1 month after the irradiation, the activities were measured with a Ge(Li) detector coupled to a 4096 channel pulse height analyzer. A large amount of silver was detected both in the liver and in the kidney and a trace of cerium only in the liver. A considerable amount of silver was detected in the liver and its quantity was about 1600 times more than that of normal livers reported by Hamilton, Minski and Cleary (1972 -- 73). Neither silver nor cerium were detected in the blank liver. These results suggest that prolonged topical chemotherapy of cerium nitrate/silver sulfadiazine cream and cerium nitrate solution for the extensive burn injuries causes considerable absorption of silver and cerium into the liver and the kidney. (author)

  12. CONTAIN code calculations of the effects on the source term of CsI to I/sub 2/ conversion due to severe hydrogen burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, G.D.; Williams, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    In experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories large amounts of elemental iodine were produced when CsI-Al 2 O 3 aerosol was exposed to hydrogen/air combustion. To evaluate some of the implications of the iodide conversion (observed to occur with up to 75% efficiency) for the severe accident source term, computational simulations of representative accident sequences were conducted with the CONTAIN code. The following conclusions can be drawn from this preliminary source term assessment: (1) If the containment sprays are inoperative during the accident, or failed by the hydrogen burn, the late-time source term is almost tripled when the iodide is converted to I 2 . (2) With the sprays active, the amount released without conversion of the CsI aerosol is 63% higher than for the case when conversion occurs. (3) For the case where CsI is converted to I 2 continued operation of the sprays reduces the release by a factor of 40, relative to the case in which the sprays fail at the time of the hydrogen burn. When there is no conversion, the reduction factor for continued spray operation is about a factor of 9, relative to the failed spray case

  13. Simulated LOCA Test and Characterization Study Related to High Burn-Up Issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, D. J.; Jung, Y. I.; Choi, B. K.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, H. G.; Park, J. Y.

    2012-01-01

    For the safety evaluation of fuel cladding during the injection of emergency core coolant, simulated Loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) test was performed by using Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding samples. Zircaloy-4 tube samples with and without prehydring were oxidized in a steam environment with the test temperature of 1200 .deg. C. Prehydrided cladding was prepared from as-fabricated Zircaloy-4 to study the effects of hydrogen on mechanical properties of cladding during high temperature oxidation and quench conditions. In order to measure the ductility of the tube samples embrittled by quenching water, ring compression test was carried out by using 8 mm ring sample sectioned from oxidized tube sample and microstructural analysis was also performed after simulated LOCA test. The results showed that hydrogen increases oxygen solubility and pickup rate in the beta layer. This reduces ductility of prehydrided fuel cladding compared with as-fabricated cladding. Trend in ductility decrease for prehydrided sample under simulated LOCA condition was very similar with data obtained from tests conducted using irradiated high burn-up fuel claddings

  14. TEM Characterization of High Burn-up Microstructure of U-7Mo Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian Gan; Brandon Miller; Dennis Keiser; Adam Robinson; James Madden; Pavel Medvedev; Daniel Wachs

    2014-04-01

    As an essential part of global nuclear non-proliferation effort, the RERTR program is developing low enriched U-Mo fuels (< 20% U-235) for use in research and test reactors that currently employ highly enriched uranium fuels. One type of fuel being developed is a dispersion fuel plate comprised of U-7Mo particles dispersed in Al alloy matrix. Recent TEM characterizations of the ATR irradiated U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates include the samples with a local fission densities of 4.5, 5.2, 5.6 and 6.3 E+21 fissions/cm3 and irradiation temperatures of 101-136?C. The development of the irradiated microstructure of the U-7Mo fuel particles consists of fission gas bubble superlattice, large gas bubbles, solid fission product precipitates and their association to the large gas bubbles, grain subdivision to tens or hundreds of nanometer size, collapse of bubble superlattice, and amorphisation. This presentation will describe the observed microstructures specifically focusing on the U-7Mo fuel particles. The impact of the observed microstructure on the fuel performance and the comparison of the relevant features with that of the high burn-up UO2 fuels will be discussed.

  15. A fuel performance analysis for a 450 MWth deep burn-high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Min; Jo, Chang Keun; Jun, Ji Su; Cho, Moon Sung; Venneri, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We have checked, through a fuel performance analysis, if a 450 MW th high temperature reactor was safe for the deep burn of a TRU fuel. → During a core heat-up event, the fuel temperature was below 1600 deg. C and the maximum gas pressure in the void of coated fuel particle was about 90 MPa. → At elevated temperatures of the accident event, the failure fraction of coated fuel particles resulted from the mechanical failure and the thermal decomposition of the SiC barrier was 3.30 x 10 -3 . - Abstract: A performance analysis for a 450 MW th deep burn-high temperature reactor (DB-HTR) fuel was performed using COPA, a fuel performance analysis code of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The code computes gas pressure buildup in the void volume of a tri-isotropic coated fuel particle (TRISO), temperature distribution in a DB-HTR fuel, thermo-mechanical stress in a coated fuel particle (CFP), failure fractions of a batch of CFPs, and fission product (FP) releases into the coolant. The 350 μm DB-HTR kernel is composed of 30% UO 2 + 70% (5% NpO 2 + 95% PuO 1.8 ) mixed with 0.6 moles of silicon carbide (SiC) per mole of heavy metal. The DB-HTR is operated at the constant temperature and power of 858 deg. C and 39.02 mW per CFP for 1395 effective full power days (EFPD) and is subjected to a core heat-up event for 250 h during which the maximum coolant temperature reaches 1548.70 deg. C. Within the normal operating temperature, the fuel showed good thermal and mechanical integrity. At elevated temperatures of the accident event, the failure fraction of CFPs resulted from the mechanical failure (MF) and the thermal decomposition (TD) of the SiC barrier is 3.30 x 10 -3 .

  16. Levoglucosan indicates high levels of biomass burning aerosols over oceans from the Arctic to Antarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi-Hou; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Wang, Xin-Ming; Kang, Hui; Zhang, Pengfei

    2013-11-01

    Biomass burning is known to affect air quality, global carbon cycle, and climate. However, the extent to which biomass burning gases/aerosols are present on a global scale, especially in the marine atmosphere, is poorly understood. Here we report the molecular tracer levoglucosan concentrations in marine air from the Arctic Ocean through the North and South Pacific Ocean to Antarctica during burning season. Levoglucosan was found to be present in all regions at ng/m(3) levels with the highest atmospheric loadings present in the mid-latitudes (30°-60° N and S), intermediate loadings in the Arctic, and lowest loadings in the Antarctic and equatorial latitudes. As a whole, levoglucosan concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere were comparable to those in the Northern Hemisphere. Biomass burning has a significant impact on atmospheric Hg and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) from pole-to-pole, with more contribution to WSOC in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere.

  17. Estimation of fuel burning rate and heating value with highly variable properties for optimum combustion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi, C.-L.; Kuo, J.-T.

    2008-01-01

    Estimating solid residue gross burning rate and heating value burning in a power plant furnace is essential for adequate manipulation to achieve energy conversion optimization and plant performance. A model based on conservation equations of mass and thermal energy is established in this work to calculate the instantaneous gross burning rate and lower heating value of solid residue fired in a combustion chamber. Comparing the model with incineration plant control room data indicates that satisfactory predictions of fuel burning rates and heating values can be obtained by assuming the moisture-to-carbon atomic ratio (f/a) within the typical range from 1.2 to 1.8. Agreement between mass and thermal analysis and the bed-chemistry model is acceptable. The model would be useful for furnace fuel and air control strategy programming to achieve optimum performance in energy conversion and pollutant emission reduction

  18. [Burn injuries to military personnel during the Six Day War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfuss, U Y

    2000-05-01

    About 2500 soldiers were injured during the Six Day War (June 1967) of whom 115 suffered from burns. In 34 of them 15% or more of their body surface was involved and 11 died. Typical features of these burn cases were supplementary injuries, a high rate of infection, and long periods of hospitalization. Prophylactic antibiotics were not useful. The general condition of many deteriorated during the first week after injury, indicating the importance of treating severe burns in specialized facilities.

  19. Root Disease, Longleaf Pine Mortality, and Prescribed Burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otrosina, W.J; C.H. Walkinshaw; S.J. Zarnoch; S-J. Sung; B.T. Sullivan

    2001-01-01

    Study to determine factors involved in decline of longleaf pine associated with prescribed burning. Trees having symptoms were recorded by crown rating system based upon symptom severity-corresponded to tree physiological status-increased in hot burn plots. Root pathogenic fungi widespread throughout the study site. Histological studies show high fine root mortality rate in the hot burn treatment. Decline syndrome is complexed by root pathogens, soil factors, root damage and dysfunction.

  20. Plutonium-burn high temperature gas-cooled reactor for 3E+3S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koji

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Development in Japan is facing a very difficult conditions after Fukushima-Daiichi NPP Accident. Nuclear Energy has strong advantages on 3E, i.e., Energy security, Economical efficiency and Environment. However, people does not believe the Safety 'S' of Nuclear Energy, now. The disadvantage of 'S' overrides the advantages of '3E'. In Nuclear Energy, 'S' is expanded into 3S, i.e., Safety, Security and Safeguards. Especially, the management of Plutonium inventory in Spent Fuel generated by the NPP operation is very important in the viewpoints of non-proliferation. The high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) is the solution of these disadvantages of '3S' in Nuclear Energy. The fuel of HTGR is composed by 1 mm spherical fuel particle, i.e., TRISO made by fuel, graphite and silicon-carbide. The silicon-carbide can confine the fission products in any conditions of fuel life cycle, i.e., during operation, accidents and disposal for 1 million years. The confinement of the radioactive materials can be confirmed by the TRISO. The HTGR core has strong negative feedback for temperature. So, the fission automatically stopped at the accidental conditions, such as loss of flow and LOCA. Also, the residual heat can be cooled by the radiation heat transfer to reactor vessel wall. The HTGR system usually has passive vessel wall cooling system. When the passive cooling system had been failed, the heat can be transferred to the land by heat conductions, and fuel does not reach the SiC broken temperature. The fission chain reaction has been stopped automatically by negative feedback, i.e., physics. The residual heat had been cooled automatically by radiation. The radioactive materials had been confined automatically by silicon-carbide. The HTGR is superior for 'S' safety. Plutonium can be burned by the HTGR. In the viewpoints of non-proliferation, the fuel should be made by YSZ-PuO 2 , stabilized buffer

  1. On the thermal conductivity of UO2 nuclear fuel at a high burn-up of around 100 MWd/kgHM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.T.; Staicu, D.; Sheindlin, M.; Papaioannou, D.; Goll, W.; Sontheimer, F.

    2006-01-01

    A study of the thermal conductivity of a commercial PWR fuel with an average pellet burn-up of 102 MWd/kgHM is described. The thermal conductivity data reported were derived from the thermal diffusivity measured by the laser flash method. The factors determining the fuel thermal conductivity at high burn-up were elucidated by investigating the recovery that occurred during thermal annealing. It was found that the thermal conductivity in the outer region of the fuel was much higher than it would have been if the high burn-up structure were not present. The increase in thermal conductivity is a consequence of the removal of fission products and radiation defects from the fuel lattice during recrystallisation of the fuel grains (an integral part of the formation process of the high burn-up structure). The gas porosity in the high burn-up structure lowers the increase in thermal conductivity caused by recrystallisation

  2. Influence of biomass burning from South Asia at a high-altitude mountain receptor site in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly time-resolved in situ measurements of airborne particles were conducted at Mt. Yulong (3410 m above sea level on the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau in China from 22 March to 14 April 2015. The detailed chemical composition was measured by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer together with other online instruments. The average mass concentration of the submicron particles (PM1 was 5.7 ± 5.4 µg m−3 during the field campaign, ranging from 0.1 up to 33.3 µg m−3. Organic aerosol (OA was the dominant component in PM1, with a fraction of 68 %. Three OA factors, i.e., biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, biomass-burning-influenced oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA-BB and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, were resolved using positive matrix factorization analysis. The two oxygenated OA factors accounted for 87 % of the total OA mass. Three biomass burning events were identified by examining the enhancement of black carbon concentrations and the f60 (the ratio of the signal at m∕z 60 from the mass spectrum to the total signal of OA. Back trajectories of air masses and satellite fire map data were integrated to identify the biomass burning locations and pollutant transport. The western air masses from South Asia with active biomass burning activities transported large amounts of air pollutants, resulting in elevated organic concentrations up to 4-fold higher than those of the background conditions. This study at Mt. Yulong characterizes the tropospheric background aerosols of the Tibetan Plateau during pre-monsoon season and provides clear evidence that the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau was affected by the transport of anthropogenic aerosols from South Asia.

  3. Influence of biomass burning from South Asia at a high-altitude mountain receptor site in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Hu, Min; Du, Zhuofei; Shang, Dongjie; Gong, Zhaoheng; Qin, Yanhong; Fang, Jingyao; Gu, Fangting; Li, Mengren; Peng, Jianfei; Li, Jie; Zhang, Yuqia; Huang, Xiaofeng; He, Lingyan; Wu, Yusheng; Guo, Song

    2017-06-01

    Highly time-resolved in situ measurements of airborne particles were conducted at Mt. Yulong (3410 m above sea level) on the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau in China from 22 March to 14 April 2015. The detailed chemical composition was measured by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer together with other online instruments. The average mass concentration of the submicron particles (PM1) was 5.7 ± 5.4 µg m-3 during the field campaign, ranging from 0.1 up to 33.3 µg m-3. Organic aerosol (OA) was the dominant component in PM1, with a fraction of 68 %. Three OA factors, i.e., biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), biomass-burning-influenced oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA-BB) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), were resolved using positive matrix factorization analysis. The two oxygenated OA factors accounted for 87 % of the total OA mass. Three biomass burning events were identified by examining the enhancement of black carbon concentrations and the f60 (the ratio of the signal at m/z 60 from the mass spectrum to the total signal of OA). Back trajectories of air masses and satellite fire map data were integrated to identify the biomass burning locations and pollutant transport. The western air masses from South Asia with active biomass burning activities transported large amounts of air pollutants, resulting in elevated organic concentrations up to 4-fold higher than those of the background conditions. This study at Mt. Yulong characterizes the tropospheric background aerosols of the Tibetan Plateau during pre-monsoon season and provides clear evidence that the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau was affected by the transport of anthropogenic aerosols from South Asia.

  4. The effect of supplemental enteral glutamine on plasma levels, gut function, and outcome in severe burns: a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye-Ping; Jiang, Zhu-Ming; Sun, Yong-Hua; Wang, Xiu-Rong; Ma, En-Ling; Wilmore, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of enterally administered glutamine (gln) dipeptide on metabolic, gastrointestinal, and outcome parameters after severe burn injury. Forty thermally injured patients with total body surface burns ranging between 50% and 80%, and third-degree burns ranging between 20% and 40% and without respiratory injuries, were randomized into a prospective, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. One group received gln-enriched enteral nutrition and the other group received the standard enteral formulation. Tube feedings were initiated on postburn day 1 (PBD +1), and isocaloric and isonitrogenous feedings were administered to both groups until PBD +12. The gln was given as the dipeptide of alanyl-gln (Ajinomoto, Tokyo, Japan), which provided 0.35 g gln/kg body weight/d. Plasma amino acid profiles, serum endotoxin concentrations, and the lactulose/mannitol absorption ratio (which reflects gut permeability) were measured at specific times throughout the clinical course. Wound healing at day 30 was assessed, and length of hospital stay and total costs were determined at discharge. The 2 groups were similar in terms of age and extent of injury. Plasma gln concentrations were approximately 300 umol/L in both groups on PBD +1 and remained low in the control group (399 +/- 40 umol/L, mean +/- SD) but increased toward normal in the supplemented group to 591 +/- 74 (p = .048). Lactulose/mannitol ratios were increased above normal on POD +1 (control, 0.221 +/- 0.169; gln, 0.268 +/- 0.202; not significant), reflecting increased intestinal permeability after burn injury. On POD +3, the ratio in the gln group was lower than control (0.025 +/- 0.008 versus 0.049 +/- 0.016; p = .0001), and both groups returned toward normal ratios with time. Endotoxin levels on PBD +1 were elevated in both groups (control, 0.089 +/- 0.023 EU/mL; gln, 0.103 +/- 0.037 EU/mL; NS) but decreased significantly on PBD +3 in the patients receiving gln. Hospital stay

  5. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    . Carrying the sacred icons of the saints, participants dance over hot coals as the saint moves them. The Burning Saints presents an analysis of these rituals and the psychology behind them. Based on long-term fieldwork, The Burning Saints traces the historical development and sociocultural context......, The Burning Saints presents a highly original analysis of how mental processes can shape social and religious behaviour....

  6. Deep sole burns in several participants in a traditional festival of the firewalking ceremony in Kee-lung, Taiwan--clinical experiences and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shun-Cheng; Hsu, Chih-Kang; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Teng, Shou-Cheng; Fu, Ju-Peng; Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Chen, Tim-Mo; Feng, Chun-Che

    2012-11-01

    Firewalking is a common Taoist cleansing ceremony in Taiwan, but burns associated with the practice have rarely been reported. We analyzed the patients with plantar burns from one firewalking ceremony. In one firewalking ceremony, 12 Taoist disciples suffered from contact burns to the soles of their feet while walking over burning coals. Eight of them had at least second-degree burns over areas larger than 1% of their total body surface areas (TBSAs). The age, sex, medical history, date of injury, time taken to traverse the fire pit, depth and TBSA of the burns, treatment, length of stay, and outcome were recorded and analyzed. Deep, disseminated second- to third-degree burns were noted and healing took as long as three weeks in some patients. Because disseminated hypertrophic scars form after burns, the soles involved regain much of their tensile strength while walking. The patients experienced only a few difficulties in their daily lives three months after injury. From our experience treating patients with deep disseminated second- to third-degree plantar burns caused by firewalking, we conclude that they should be treated conservatively, with secondary healing rather than a skin graft. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemiological Study Of Burn Cases And Their Mortality Experiences Amongst Adults From A Tertiary Level Care Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: How to use hospital statistics in establishing epidemiology of burns amongst adults? Objectives: To identify epidemiological determinants for Ii Various burn injuries and ii their mortality experiences. Study design: Hospital based study carried out for a period of one year (1st January 1991 to 31st December 1991. Settings: Wards of department of Burn & Plastic Surgery, BJ Medical College, Ahmedabad. Participants: 386 adults (20 years and above admitted at the centre for burn injuries during 1991. Study variables: Epidemiological determinants (age, sex, temporal, place, etc. for various burn injuries and the determinants of mortality (type of burn, extent of burn, referral time lag etc. Outcome profile: Common profile of burn victims with relation to the epidemiological factors and other factors responsible for high mortality in burn cases. Statistical analysis: Chi- square and Z tests. Results:Burns occured more in females specially in the age group of 20-24 years. Eighty five percent were flame burns. Flame burns were more in females, while electric burns were more in males. Burns were less during monsoon (27.7% than winter (32.6% and summer (39.6%, but electric burns were twice more common during monsoon. Maximum burns (81.9% were domestic, occurring mainly either in kitchen or living room. They were seen more in late evening. Sixty two percent cases were severe as total burn surface area (TBSA was >40%. Case fatality correlated positively with TBSA and death was almost universal with TBSA >60%. Early referral reduced fatality significantly in less severe burns (TBSA<40% but failed to influence it in severe burns. Appraisal of alleged suicide cases (2.6% and of stove bursting (4.4% revealed that young females carry additional risk of burn injuries.

  8. New Fuel Alloys Seeking Optimal Solidus and Phase Behavior for High Burnup and TRU Burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwood, V.S.; Jones, Z.S.; Olson, D.L.; Mishra, B.; Mariani, R.D.; Porter, D.L.; Kennedy, J.R.; Hayes, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: • Pd will bind lanthanide fission products. • 2 wt% Pd in alloy is expected to allow 20 at% Heavy Metal burnup, 4 wt% Pd possibly 30-40 at% HM burnup. • For recycled fuel with some lanthanide carryover, palladium additive will also prevent premature FCCI. • Novel uranium alloy systems suitable for burning transuranics were identified. • U-Mo-Ti-Zr and U-W-Mo irradiations may perform comparably to U-10Zr, but the real tests needed must include Pu and Np for TRU burning. – Diffusion couples with alloys and Fe or cladding; – Irradiations

  9. Burn Wise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn Wise is a partnership program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  10. The role of grain boundary fission gases in high burn-up fuel under reactivity initiated accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, F.; Papin, J.; Frizonnet, J.M.; Cazalis, B.; Rigat, H.

    2002-01-01

    In the frame of reactivity-initiated accidents (RIA) studies, the CABRI REP-Na programme is currently performed, focused on high burn-up UO 2 and MOX fuel behaviour. From 1993 to 1998, seven tests were performed with UO 2 fuel and three with MOX fuel. In all these tests, particular attention has been devoted to the role of fission gases in transient fuel behaviour and in clad loading mechanisms. From the analysis of experimental results, some basic phenomena were identified and a better understanding of the transient fission gas behaviour was obtained in relation to the fuel and clad thermo-mechanical evolution in RIA, but also to the initial state of the fuel before the transient. A high burn-up effect linked to the increasing part of grain boundary gases is clearly evidenced in the final gas release, which would also significantly contribute to the clad loading mechanisms. (authors)

  11. Modelling of pore coarsening in the high burn-up structure of UO{sub 2} fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veshchunov, M.S.; Tarasov, V.I., E-mail: tarasov@ibrae.ac.ru

    2017-05-15

    The model for coalescence of randomly distributed immobile pores owing to their growth and impingement, applied by the authors earlier to consideration of the porosity evolution in the high burn-up structure (HBS) at the UO{sub 2} fuel pellet periphery (rim zone), was further developed and validated. Predictions of the original model, taking into consideration only binary impingements of growing immobile pores, qualitatively correctly describe the decrease of the pore number density with the increase of the fractional porosity, however notably underestimate the coalescence rate at high burn-ups attained in the outmost region of the rim zone. In order to overcome this discrepancy, the next approximation of the model taking into consideration triple impingements of growing pores was developed. The advanced model provides a reasonable consent with experimental data, thus demonstrating the validity of the proposed pore coarsening mechanism in the HBS.

  12. Maximization of Transuranic Deep-Burn in High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, K. S.; Hong, S. G.; Shim, H. J.; Jo, C. K.; Lee, S. W.

    2008-03-01

    An optimization study of a single-pass transuranic (TRU) deep burn (DB) has been performed for a block-type modular helium reactor (MHR) proposed. A high-burnup TRU feed vector from light water reactors is considered. For three dimensional equilibrium cores, the performance analysis is done by using the Monte Carlo code McCARD. The core optimization is performed from the viewpoints of the core configuration, fuel management, TRISO fuel specification, and neutron spectrum. With regard to core configuration, two annular cores are investigated in terms of the neutron economy. A conventional radial shuffling scheme of fuel blocks is compared with an axial-only block-shuffling strategy in terms of the fuel bum up and core power distributions. The impact of the kernel size of the TRISO fuel is evaluated, and a diluted kernel, instead of a conventional concentrated kernel, is introduced to maximize the TRU burnup by reducing the self-shielding effects of the TRISO particles. In addition, it is shown that the core power distribution can be effectively controlled by a zoning of the packing fraction of the TRISO fuels. We also have shown that a long-cycle DB-MHR core can be designed by using a two- or three-batch fuel-reloading scheme, at the expense of only a marginal decrease of the TRU discharge bum up. Preliminary safety characteristics of a DBMHR core have been investigated in terms of the temperature coefficients and effective delayed neutron fraction. It has been found that, depending on the fuel management scheme and fuel specifications, the TRU burnup in an optimized DB-MHR core can be over 60% in a single-pass irradiation campaign. In addition, the equilibrium cycle mass balance analyses were also performed for 12 fuel cycles and the impact of TRU deep-bum on the repository was evaluated as well. Additionally, an SFR (Sodium Fast Reactor) fed with DB-MHR spent fuel were designed and characterized

  13. The experience of burning the high-moistured waste of biomass conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fincker, F.Z.; Zysin, L.V.; Kubyshkin, I.B. [MGVP Polytechenergo, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1993-12-31

    Industrially developed countries have a large stock of operating boiler plants to utilize timber industry waste materials (bagasse, bark, wood chips, hydrolytic lignine, sawdust, etc.) for biogenesis of energy. Standard combustion methods employing a bed or flare process cannot guarantee a reliable and economic boiler plant operation with abruptly changing biomass characteristic features. The moisture content in bark or lignin can vary from 50 to 75% during an hour. Particle sizes can vary from powdered to very large, and can have a hundred thousand times size difference. Large metal and mineral inclusions into the starting fuel also complicate the process. The low-temperature whirling combustion technology developed in Russia was taken as a basic. An economical and stable operation of boilers has been achieved by means of up-to-date vortex chamber aerial dynamics, the use of unique devices of fuel feed and preparation with screening the waste materials into sizes. The firing chamber is equipped with a multi-chamber device where screening and fuel particles preparation with the removal of noncombustible inclusions take place. At presenting the firing chamber with multi-step process of burning is in operation with 20 boilers. The firm {open_quotes}POLYTECHENERGO,{close_quotes} a developer and producer of such equipment, carries out the modernization of the boiler plant without changes in the its thermal circuit. In most of cases no replacement of draught means is needed. Competitive with the proposed low-temperature whirling technological process can be only a fluidized bed process, but due to the complexity in service, low reliability, high energy expenditures, such chambers at present are very few. The capital expenses one existing boilers updating for a fluidized bed process exceed the expenses on a low-temperature whirling process by 15--20 fold.

  14. A Fuel Microanalysis for a Deep Burn-High Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Min; Jo, Chang Keun; Jun, Ji Su; Cho, Moon Sung

    2010-08-01

    The microanalysis for a deep burn-high temperature reactor (DB-HTR) covers the gas pressure buildup in a coated fuel particle (CFP), the thermo-mechanical behavior of a CFP, the failure probabilities of CFPs, the thermal analysis for a fuel element and a CFP, and the fission product transport into a coolant. The fuel performance analysis code of KAERI, COPA, is used in the microanalysis. The considered fuel materials are 0.2% UO 2 + 99.8% (5% NpO 2 + 95% PuO 1.8 ) mixed with 0.6 moles of silicon carbide (SiC) per mole of heavy metal and 30% UO 2 + 70% (5% NpO 2 + 95% PuO 1.8 ) mixed with 0.6 moles SiC per mole of heavy metal. Two thermal powers, 600 and 450 MW th , are taken into account. It was assumed that the DB-HTR was operated at constant temperature and power for normal operation and then was subjected to a low pressure conduction cooling (LPCC) accident for 250 hours. All the fuels of the DB-HTRs had good mechanical and thermal integrity during normal operation. But in the LPCC accident, whole particle failure occurred in the 600 MW DB-HTRs and the failure fractions in the 450 MW DB-HTRs are below 0.03. In order to secure the integrity of CFPs during the LPCC accident, it is necessary to reduce the excessive temperatures and the gas pressure in a CFP

  15. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia during a high fire event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled a large fire-induced haze episode in 2006 stemming mostly from Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations. Two simulations were run with WRF-Chem using the complex volatility basis set (VBS) scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic and biomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent data sets for comparison including airborne measurements of particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) column observations from four satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement between the model runs and both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA) with values up to 600 μg m-3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration

  16. The Effect of Humidity on the Knock Behavior in a Medium BMEP Lean-Burn High-Speed Gas Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Essen, Vincent Martijn; Gersen, Sander; van Dijk, Gerco; Mundt, Torsten; Levinsky, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The effects of air humidity on the knock characteristics of fuels are investigated in a lean-burn, high-speed medium BMEP engine fueled with a CH4 + 4.7 mole% C3H8 gas mixture. Experiments are carried out with humidity ratios ranging from 4.3 to 11 g H2O/kg dry air. The measured pressure profiles at

  17. Fission Gas Release in LWR Fuel Rods Exhibiting Very High Burn-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, H.

    1980-01-01

    Two UO2Zr BWR type test fuel rods were irradiated to a burn-up of about 38000 MWd/tUO2. After non-destructive characterization, the fission gas released to the internal free volume was extracted and analysed. The irradiation was simulated by means of the Danish fuel performance code WAFER-2, which...

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Imipenem/Cilastatin Burn Intensive Care Unit Patients Undergoing High-Dose Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Bradley A; Hudson, Joanna Q; Hill, David M; Swanson, Joseph M; Wood, G Christopher; Laizure, S Casey; Arnold-Ross, Angela; Hu, Zhe-Yi; Hickerson, William L

    2016-12-01

    High-dose continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) is a continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) used frequently in patients with burns. However, antibiotic dosing is based on inference from studies assessing substantially different methods of CRRT. To address this knowledge gap for imipenem/cilastatin (I/C), we evaluated the systemic and extracorporeal clearances (CLs) of I/C in patients with burns undergoing high-dose CVVH. Prospective clinical pharmacokinetic study. Ten adult patients with burns receiving I/C for a documented infection and requiring high-dose CVVH were studied. Blood and effluent samples for analysis of I/C concentrations were collected for up to 6 hours after the I/C infusion for calculation of I/C total CL (CL T otal ), CL by CVVH (CL HF ), half-life during CVVH, volume of distribution at steady state (Vd ss ), and the percentage of drug eliminated by CVVH. In this patient sample, the mean age was 50 ± 17 years, total body surface area burns was 23 ± 27%, and 80% were male. Nine patients were treated with high-dose CVVH for acute kidney injury and one patient for sepsis. The mean delivered CVVH dose was 52 ± 14 ml/kg/hour (range 32-74 ml/kg/hr). The imipenem CL HF was 3.27 ± 0.48 L/hour, which accounted for 23 ± 4% of the CL T otal (14.74 ± 4.75 L/hr). Cilastatin CL HF was 1.98 ± 0.56 L/hour, which accounted for 45 ± 19% of the CL T otal (5.16 + 2.44 L/hr). The imipenem and cilastatin half-lives were 1.77 ± 0.38 hours and 4.21 ± 2.31 hours, respectively. Imipenem and cilastatin Vd ss were 35.1 ± 10.3 and 32.8 ± 13.8 L, respectively. Efficient removal of I/C by high-dose CVVH, a high overall clearance, and a high volume of distribution in burn intensive care unit patients undergoing this CRRT method warrant aggressive dosing to treat serious infections effectively depending on the infection site and/or pathogen. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  19. Total surface area change of Uranium dioxide fuel in function of burn-up and its impact on fission gas release during neutron irradiation for small, intermediate and high burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuta, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the early published papers it was observed that the fractional fission gas release from the specimen have a tendency to increase with the total surface area of the specimen - a fairy linear relationship was indicated. Moreover it was observed that the increase of total surface area during irradiation occurs in the result of connection the closed porosity with the open porosity what in turn causes the increase of fission gas release. These observations let us surmise that the process of knock-out release is the most significant process of fission gas release since its quantity is proportional to the total surface area. Review of the experiments related to the increase of total surface area in function of burn-up is presented in the paper. For very high burn-up the process of grain sub-division (polygonization) occurs under condition that the temperature of irradiated fuel lies below the temperature of grain re-crystallization. Simultaneously with the process of polygonization, the increase in local porosity and the decrease in local density in function of burn-up occurs, which leads to the increase of total surface area. It is suggested that the same processes take place in the transformed fuel as in the original fuel, with the difference that the total surface area is so big that the whole fuel can be treated as that affected by the knock-out process. This leads to explanation of the experimental data that for very high burn-up (>120 MWd/kgU) the concentration of xenon is constant. An explanation of the grain subdivision process in function of burn-up in the 'athermal' rim region in terms of total surface area, initial grain size and knock-out release is undertaken. Correlation of the threshold burn-up, the local fission gas concentration, local total surface area, initial and local grain size and burn-up in the rim region is expected. (author)

  20. A "high severity" spruce beetle outbreak in Wyoming causes moderate-severity carbon cycle perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, E.; Frank, J. M.; Speckman, H. N.; Bradford, J. B.; Ryan, M. G.; Massman, W. J.; Hawbaker, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks in Western North American forests are often considered a high-severity disturbance from a carbon (C) cycling perspective, but field measurements that quantify impacts on C dynamics are very limited. Often, factors out of the researcher's control complicate the separation of beetle impacts from other drivers of C cycling variability and restrict statistical inference. Fortuitously, we had four years of pre-spruce beetle outbreak C cycle measurements in a subalpine forest in southeastern Wyoming (Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiments Site, or GLEES) and sustained intermittent monitoring for nearly a decade after the outbreak. Here, we synthesize published and unpublished pre- and post-outbreak measurements of key C cycle stocks and fluxes at GLEES. Multiple lines of evidence, including chamber measurements, eddy covariance measurements, and tracking of soil and forest floor C pools over time, point to the GLEES outbreak as a moderate-severity disturbance for C loss to the atmosphere, despite 70% to 80% of overstory tree death. Reductions in NEE were short-lived and the forest quickly returned to a carbon-neutral state, likely driven by an uptick in understory growth. Effect of mortality on the C cycle was asymmetrical, with a 50% reduction in net carbon uptake (NEE) two years into the outbreak, yet no measureable change in either ecosystem or growing season soil respiration. A small pulse in soil respiration occurred but was only detectable during the winter and amounted to < 10% of NEE. Possible reasons for the lack of measureable respiration response are discussed with emphasis on lessons learned for monitoring and modeling future outbreaks. We suggest a comprehensive assessment and definition of "moderate-severity" disturbances for Western forests and suggest that all tree mortality events may not be high-severity when it comes to C fluxes.

  1. Burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J.

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R ampersand D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration

  2. HIGH-QUALITY SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE WITH COAL BURNING WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin Viktor Valerianovich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject: nowadays self-compacting concretes (SCC, the use of which requires no additional compaction, have become widespread for use in densely-reinforced structures and hard-to-reach places. In self-compacting concretes, finely-ground admixtures-microfillers are widely used for controlling technological properties. Their introduction into the concrete mix allows us to obtain more dense structure of concrete. The influence of micro-fillers on water consumption and plasticity of concrete mix, on kinetics of strength gain rate, heat release and corrosion resistance is also noticeable. Research objectives: the work focuses on the development of composition of self-compacting concrete with assigned properties with the use of fly ash based on coal burning waste, optimized with the help of experimental design method in order to clarify the influence of ash and cement quantity, sand size on strength properties. Materials and methods: pure Portland cement CEM I 42.5 N was used as a binder. Crushed granite of fraction 5…20 mm was used as coarse aggregate, coarse quartz sand with the fineness modulus of 2.6 and fine sand with the fineness modulus of 1.4 were used as fillers. A superplasticizer BASF-Master Glenium 115 was used as a plasticizing admixture. The fly ash from Cherepetskaya thermal power plant was used as a filler. The study of strength and technological properties of self-compacting concrete was performed by using standard methods. Results: we obtained three-factor quadratic dependence of strength properties on the content of ash, cement and fraction of fine filler in the mix of fine fillers. Conclusions: introduction of micro-filler admixture based on the fly ash allowed us to obtain a concrete mix with high mobility, fluidity and self-compaction property. The obtained concrete has high strength characteristics, delayed strength gain rate due to replacement of part of the binder with ash. Introduction of the fly ash increases degree of

  3. Implications of high altitude desert dust transport from Western Sahara to Nile Delta during biomass burning season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Anup K., E-mail: aprasad@chapman.ed [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); Center of Excellence in Earth Observing, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); El-Askary, Hesham [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); Center of Excellence in Earth Observing, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Moharem Bek, Alexandria 21522 (Egypt); National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Science (NARSS), Cairo (Egypt); Kafatos, Menas [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); Center of Excellence in Earth Observing, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The air over major cities and rural regions of the Nile Delta is highly polluted during autumn which is the biomass burning season, locally known as black cloud. Previous studies have attributed the increased pollution levels during the black cloud season to the biomass or open burning of agricultural waste, vehicular, industrial emissions, and secondary aerosols. However, new multi-sensor observations (column and vertical profiles) from satellites, dust transport models and associated meteorology present a different picture of the autumn pollution. Here we show, for the first time, the evidence of long range transport of dust at high altitude (2.5-6 km) from Western Sahara and its deposition over the Nile Delta region unlike current Models. The desert dust is found to be a major contributor to the local air quality which was previously considered to be due to pollution from biomass burning enhanced by the dominant northerly winds coming from Europe. - New evidence of desert dust transport from Western Sahara to Nile Delta during black cloud season and its significance for regional aerosols, dust models, and potential impact on the regional climate.

  4. Implications of high altitude desert dust transport from Western Sahara to Nile Delta during biomass burning season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Anup K.; El-Askary, Hesham; Kafatos, Menas

    2010-01-01

    The air over major cities and rural regions of the Nile Delta is highly polluted during autumn which is the biomass burning season, locally known as black cloud. Previous studies have attributed the increased pollution levels during the black cloud season to the biomass or open burning of agricultural waste, vehicular, industrial emissions, and secondary aerosols. However, new multi-sensor observations (column and vertical profiles) from satellites, dust transport models and associated meteorology present a different picture of the autumn pollution. Here we show, for the first time, the evidence of long range transport of dust at high altitude (2.5-6 km) from Western Sahara and its deposition over the Nile Delta region unlike current Models. The desert dust is found to be a major contributor to the local air quality which was previously considered to be due to pollution from biomass burning enhanced by the dominant northerly winds coming from Europe. - New evidence of desert dust transport from Western Sahara to Nile Delta during black cloud season and its significance for regional aerosols, dust models, and potential impact on the regional climate.

  5. [Risk factors for development of hypomagnesemia in the burned patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Vega, Héctor César; Romero-Aviña, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez-Salgado, Jorge Eduardo; Silva-Díaz, Teresita; Ramos-Durón, Luis Ernesto; Carrera-Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2004-01-01

    Electrolyte abnormalities are common in the severely burned patient. There is little information with regard to the frequency and magnitude of hypomagnesemia, as well as on risk factors for this condition. We performed an observational, retrospective analysis of 35 burned patients treated at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Service at the Hospital Central Sur PEMEX, Mexico City. We determined serum magnesium behavior and divided patients into two groups: the first included 11 patients with burns and hypomagnesemia, and the second, 24 patients with burns but without hypomagnesemia. Risk factor identification was performed. We found patient at risk was the one with more than 40% of 2nd or 3rd degree total burned body area, in day 4 or 10 after the burn, and with hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, or both, and without intravenous (i.v.) supplementation of magnesium. The best way to prevent or avoid major complications is to identify the high-risk patient, or to diagnose earlier.

  6. Outcomes of burns in the elderly: revised estimates from the Birmingham Burn Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearn, Christopher; Hardwicke, Joseph; Kitsios, Andreas; Siddons, Victoria; Nightingale, Peter; Moiemen, Naiem

    2015-09-01

    Outcomes after burn have continued to improve over the last 70 years in all age groups including the elderly. However, concerns have been raised that survival gains have not been to the same magnitude in elderly patients compared to younger age groups. The aims of this study were to analyze the recent outcomes of elderly burn injured patients admitted to the Birmingham Burn Centre, compare data with a historical cohort and published data from other burn centres worldwide. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients ≥65 years of age, admitted to our centre with cutaneous burns, between 2004 and 2012. Data was compared to a previously published historical cohort (1999-2003). 228 patients were included. The observed mortality for the study group was 14.9%. The median age of the study group was 79 years, the male to female ratio was 1:1 and median Total Body Surface Area (TBSA) burned was 5%. The incidence of inhalation injury was 13%. Median length of stay per TBSA burned for survivors was 2.4 days/% TBSA. Mortality has improved in all burn size groups, but differences were highly statistically significant in the medium burn size group (10-20% TBSA, p≤0.001). Burn outcomes in the elderly have improved over the last decade. This reduction has been impacted by a reduction in overall injury severity but is also likely due to general improvements in burn care, improved infrastructure, implementation of clinical guidelines and increased multi-disciplinary support, including Geriatric physicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. LWR high burn-up operation and MOX introduction. Fuel cycle performance from the viewpoint of waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yaohiro; Iwasaki, Tomohiko; Niibori, Yuichi; Sato, Seichi; Ohe, Toshiaki; Kato, Kazuyuki; Torikai, Seishi; Nagasaki, Shinya; Kitayama, Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    From the viewpoint of waste management, a quantitative evaluation of LWR nuclear fuel cycle system performance was carried out, considering both higher burn-up operation of UO 2 fuel coupled with the introduction of MOX fuel. A major parameter to quantify this performance is the number of high-level waste (HLW) glass units generated per GWd (gigawatt-day based on reactor thermal power generation before electrical conversion). This parameter was evaluated for each system up to a maximum burn-up of 70GWd/THM (gigawatt-day per ton of heavy metal) assuming current conventional reprocessing and vitrification conditions where the waste loading of glass is restricted by the heat generation rate, the MoO 3 content, or the noble metal content. The results showed that higher burn-up operation has no significant influence on the number of glass units generated per GWd for UO 2 fuel, though the number of glass units per THM increases linearly with burn-up and is restricted by the heat generation rate. On the other hand, the introduction of MOX fuel causes the number of glass units per GWd to double owing to the increase in the heat generation rate. An extended cooling period of the spent fuel prior to reprocessing effectively reduces the heat generation rate for UO 2 fuel, while a separation of minor actinides (Np, Am, and Cm) from the high-level waste provides additional reduction for MOX fuel. However, neither of these leads to a substantial reduction in the number of glass units, since the MoO 3 content or the noble metal content restricts the number of glass units rather than the heat generation rate. These results suggest that both the MoO 3 content and the noble metal content provide the key to reducing the amount of waste glass that is generated, leading to an overall improvement in fuel cycle system performance. (author)

  8. Investigating of four main carbapenem-resistance mechanisms in high-level carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Rostami

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: Emerging antimicrobial resistance in burn wound bacterial pathogens is a serious therapeutic challenge for clinicians. In the present study, most of the isolates were MDR. This finding indicated an alarming spread of resistant isolates and suggested that infection control strategies should be considered. Resistance to carbapenems is influenced by several factors, not all of which were evaluated in our study; however, the results showed that production of MBLs and overexpression of the mexB gene were the most frequent mechanisms in carbapenem-resistant isolates.

  9. The Use of Virtual Reality Facilitates Dialectical Behavior Therapy® "Observing Sounds and Visuals" Mindfulness Skills Training Exercises for a Latino Patient with Severe Burns: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jocelyn; Hoffman, Hunter G; Bistricky, Steven L; Gonzalez, Miriam; Rosenberg, Laura; Sampaio, Mariana; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Navarro-Haro, Maria V; Alhalabi, Wadee; Rosenberg, Marta; Meyer, Walter J; Linehan, Marsha M

    2017-01-01

    Sustaining a burn injury increases an individual's risk of developing psychological problems such as generalized anxiety, negative emotions, depression, acute stress disorder, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing use of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy® (DBT®) by clinical psychologists, to date, there are no published studies using standard DBT® or DBT® skills learning for severe burn patients. The current study explored the feasibility and clinical potential of using Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) enhanced DBT® mindfulness skills training to reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions of a patient with severe burn injuries. The participant was a hospitalized (in house) 21-year-old Spanish speaking Latino male patient being treated for a large (>35% TBSA) severe flame burn injury. Methods: The patient looked into a pair of Oculus Rift DK2 virtual reality goggles to perceive the computer-generated virtual reality illusion of floating down a river, with rocks, boulders, trees, mountains, and clouds, while listening to DBT® mindfulness training audios during 4 VR sessions over a 1 month period. Study measures were administered before and after each VR session. Results: As predicted, the patient reported increased positive emotions and decreased negative emotions. The patient also accepted the VR mindfulness treatment technique. He reported the sessions helped him become more comfortable with his emotions and he wanted to keep using mindfulness after returning home. Conclusions: Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is an empirically validated treatment approach that has proved effective with non-burn patient populations for treating many of the psychological problems experienced by severe burn patients. The current case study explored for the first time, the use of immersive virtual reality enhanced DBT® mindfulness skills training with a burn patient. The patient reported reductions in negative emotions and increases in positive emotions

  10. The Use of Virtual Reality Facilitates Dialectical Behavior Therapy® “Observing Sounds and Visuals” Mindfulness Skills Training Exercises for a Latino Patient with Severe Burns: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jocelyn; Hoffman, Hunter G.; Bistricky, Steven L.; Gonzalez, Miriam; Rosenberg, Laura; Sampaio, Mariana; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Navarro-Haro, Maria V.; Alhalabi, Wadee; Rosenberg, Marta; Meyer, Walter J.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2017-01-01

    Sustaining a burn injury increases an individual's risk of developing psychological problems such as generalized anxiety, negative emotions, depression, acute stress disorder, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing use of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy® (DBT®) by clinical psychologists, to date, there are no published studies using standard DBT® or DBT® skills learning for severe burn patients. The current study explored the feasibility and clinical potential of using Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) enhanced DBT® mindfulness skills training to reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions of a patient with severe burn injuries. The participant was a hospitalized (in house) 21-year-old Spanish speaking Latino male patient being treated for a large (>35% TBSA) severe flame burn injury. Methods: The patient looked into a pair of Oculus Rift DK2 virtual reality goggles to perceive the computer-generated virtual reality illusion of floating down a river, with rocks, boulders, trees, mountains, and clouds, while listening to DBT® mindfulness training audios during 4 VR sessions over a 1 month period. Study measures were administered before and after each VR session. Results: As predicted, the patient reported increased positive emotions and decreased negative emotions. The patient also accepted the VR mindfulness treatment technique. He reported the sessions helped him become more comfortable with his emotions and he wanted to keep using mindfulness after returning home. Conclusions: Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is an empirically validated treatment approach that has proved effective with non-burn patient populations for treating many of the psychological problems experienced by severe burn patients. The current case study explored for the first time, the use of immersive virtual reality enhanced DBT® mindfulness skills training with a burn patient. The patient reported reductions in negative emotions and increases in positive emotions

  11. The Use of Virtual Reality Facilitates Dialectical Behavior Therapy® “Observing Sounds and Visuals” Mindfulness Skills Training Exercises for a Latino Patient with Severe Burns: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Gomez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustaining a burn injury increases an individual's risk of developing psychological problems such as generalized anxiety, negative emotions, depression, acute stress disorder, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing use of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy® (DBT® by clinical psychologists, to date, there are no published studies using standard DBT® or DBT® skills learning for severe burn patients. The current study explored the feasibility and clinical potential of using Immersive Virtual Reality (VR enhanced DBT® mindfulness skills training to reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions of a patient with severe burn injuries. The participant was a hospitalized (in house 21-year-old Spanish speaking Latino male patient being treated for a large (>35% TBSA severe flame burn injury.Methods: The patient looked into a pair of Oculus Rift DK2 virtual reality goggles to perceive the computer-generated virtual reality illusion of floating down a river, with rocks, boulders, trees, mountains, and clouds, while listening to DBT® mindfulness training audios during 4 VR sessions over a 1 month period. Study measures were administered before and after each VR session.Results: As predicted, the patient reported increased positive emotions and decreased negative emotions. The patient also accepted the VR mindfulness treatment technique. He reported the sessions helped him become more comfortable with his emotions and he wanted to keep using mindfulness after returning home.Conclusions: Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is an empirically validated treatment approach that has proved effective with non-burn patient populations for treating many of the psychological problems experienced by severe burn patients. The current case study explored for the first time, the use of immersive virtual reality enhanced DBT® mindfulness skills training with a burn patient. The patient reported reductions in negative emotions and increases in

  12. Acute pavement burns: a unique subset of burn injuries: a five-year review of resource use and cost impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Andrew G; Dunford, Gerrit M; Zamboni, William A; Baynosa, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the hospital care of a rare subset of burn injuries caused by contact with environmentally heated pavement, to further understand the required use of resources. This article aims to show that pavement burns are typically more severe than their flame/scald counterparts. A retrospective review of patients admitted to the burn center with injuries suffered from contact with hot pavement was performed. Patients were stratified on the presence or absence of altered mental status (AMS) and additional inciting factors. A representative sample of similarly sized flame and scald wounds treated in the same time period was compiled for comparison. Those with pavement burns had a significantly greater requirement for operative intervention, repetitive debridements, overall cost/percent burned, and lengthier hospital stays than those with flame/scald burns. Pavement burn victims with AMS were significantly more likely to require an operation, a greater cost/percent burned, and longer hospital stays than those without AMS. Pavement burns are significantly worse than similarly sized scald/flame burns with regards to length of stay and total hospital costs, and the necessity of initial and repetitive operative intervention. These discrepancies are even greater in patients with AMS as a concomitant inciting factor. It is apparent that these wounds often continue to deepen during a patient's stay, likely because of continued pressure on the wounds while recumbent. As such, this article highly recommends pressure off-loading beds and more aggressive debridement in the treatment of these unique injuries.

  13. Managing fusion high-level waste-A strategy for burning the long-lived products in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Fusion devices appear to be a viable option for burning their own high-level waste (HLW). We propose a novel strategy to eliminate (or minimize) the HLW generated by fusion systems. The main source of the fusion HLW includes the structural and recycled materials, refractory metals, and liquid breeders. The basic idea involves recycling and reprocessing the waste, separating the long-lived radionuclides from the bulk low-level waste, and irradiating the limited amount of HLW in a specially designed module to transmute the long-lived products into short-lived radioisotopes or preferably, stable elements. The potential performance of the new concept seems promising. Our analysis indicated moderate to excellent transmutation rates could be achieved in advanced fusion designs. Successive irradiation should burn the majority of the HLW. The figures of merit for the concept relate to the HLW burn-up fraction, neutron economy, and impact on tritium breeding. Hopefully, the added design requirements could be accommodated easily in fusion power plants and the cost of the proposed system would be much less than disposal in a deep geological HLW repository. Overall, this innovative approach offers benefits to fusion systems and helps earn public acceptance for fusion as a HLW-free source of clean nuclear energy

  14. A protocol for resuscitation of severe burn patients guided by transpulmonary thermodilution and lactate levels: a 3-year prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Manuel; García-de-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Herrero, Eva; Lopez, Teresa; Galvan, Beatriz; Asensio, María José; Cachafeiro, Lucia; Casado, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The use of urinary output and vital signs to guide initial burn resuscitation may lead to suboptimal resuscitation. Invasive hemodynamic monitoring may result in over-resuscitation. This study aimed to evaluate the results of a goal-directed burn resuscitation protocol that used standard measures of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and urine output, plus transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) and lactate levels to adjust fluid therapy to achieve a minimum level of preload ...

  15. Impact of pediatric burn camps on participants' self esteem and body image: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Anne; Van der Heijden, Peter G M; Van Son, Maarten J M; Van de Schoot, Rens; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2011-12-01

    This study focuses on possible effects of specialized summer camps on young burn survivors' self esteem and body image. Quantitative as well as qualitative measures was used. To study possible effects, a pretest-posttest comparison group design with a follow-up was employed. Self-report questionnaires were used to measure self esteem and body image in a burn camp group (n=83, 8-18 years) and in a comparison group of children with burns who did not attend a burn camp during the course of the study (n=90, 8-18 years). Additionally, burn camp participants and parents completed an evaluation form about benefits derived from burn camp. A small positive short-term effect of burn camp participation was found on the 'satisfaction with appearance' component of body image. Overall, participants and parents showed high appreciation of the burn camps and reported several benefits, particularly concerning meeting other young burn survivors. Albeit statistically modest, this is the first quantitative study to document on a significant short-term impact of burn camp on young burn survivors' body image. Implications of this result for future research and burn camp organization were discussed, including the strengths of residential camps for young burn survivors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D

    2008-06-01

    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  17. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military burn casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate burns, or complicate burn management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay.

  18. Saturday-morning television: do sponsors promote high-risk behavior for burn injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Tina L; Aoki, Traci; Combs, Elena; Curri, Terese; Garma, Sylvia; Kaulkin, Cammie; Lawless, Mary Beth; Nelson, Kate; Sanders, Johanna; Warden, Nancy; Greenhalgh, David G

    2004-01-01

    Television has become an important tool for learning and socialization in children. Although television violence has been associated with adverse effects, data on depiction of fire and burn injury are lacking. We sought to determine whether Saturday-morning television programming, viewed primarily by children, depicts fire and burn injury as safe or without consequence, thus potentially increasing the incidence of burn injury in children. This was a prospective observational study. Saturday-morning children's television programs were videotaped from 7 AM to 11 AM for eight different television networks during a 6-month period. Tapes were scored for scenes depicting fire or smoke by independent observers. Recorded items included show category, scene type, gender target, context of fire, and outcome after exposure to flame. Fire events were documented during programs and their associated commercials. A total of 108 hours of children's programs, 16 hours per network, were recorded. Scenes depicting fire or smoke were identified 1960 times, with 39% of events occurring during the program itself and 61% in commercials. Fire was depicted as either safe or without consequence in 64% of incidents. Action adventure stories accounted for 56% of flame depictions. Overall, one incident involving flame and fire was portrayed for each 3 minutes of television programming. Saturday-morning television programming frequently depicts fire as safe, empowering, or exciting. The incidence of flame use in programming varies between stations but is most prevalent in action/adventure stories. Television commercials, although brief, provide the majority of the misinformation regarding fire. Medical professional societies should alert the public to this potential hazard and recommend responsible portrayal of fire in children's television programming.

  19. The Effect of Prescribed Burns and Wildfire on Vegetation in Bastrop State Park, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    In 2011, central Texas had its worst drought since the 1950's. This, in conjunction with the strong winds produced by Tropical Storm Lee created conditions that made possible the Bastrop County Complex Fire in September 2011. These record-breaking wildfires burned over 95% of the 6,565-acre Bastrop State Park (BSP). Since 2003, BSP had been using prescribed burns as a management practice to reduce fuel load and prevent high severity wildfires. Although these prescribed fires did not prevent the 2011 wildfires they may have mitigated their effects. This study considered the effect of prescribed burn history and wildfire burn severity on vegetation recovery in BSP since the 2011 wildfire. The hypotheses of this study are that prescribed burn history and wildfire burn severity separately and jointly have affected post wildfire vegetation. To test these hypotheses, data were collected in 2013 from 46 plots across BSP using the Fire Effects Monitoring and Inventory (FIREMON) protocol to determine herbaceous plant density, shrub density, overstory density, and midstory tree density. Data were analyzed using analyses of variance (ANOVA) to determine the effects of prescribed fire and wildfire severity on these vegetation measurements. It was found that more severely burned plots had more herbaceous plants, fewer midstory trees, and lower shrub densities than less severely burned plots. Contrary to an initial hypotheses, there were few relationships between prescribed burn history and wildfire effects. The only significant effect detected for prescribed burning was the positive effect of prescribed fire on midstory tree density, but only for plots that were not severely burned in the wildfire. In this system, burn severity had a greater effect on post-wildfire vegetation than prescribed burns.

  20. Isotopic analyses and calculation by use of JENDL-3.2 for high burn-up UO2 and MOX spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasahara, Akihiro; Matsumura, Tetsuo; Nicolaou, G.; Betti, M.; Walker, C.T.

    1997-01-01

    The post irradiation examinations (PIE) were carried out for high burn-up UO 2 spent fuel (3.8%U235, average burn-up:60GWd/t) and mixed oxide (MOX) spent fuel (5.07%Pu, average burn-up:45GWd/t). The PIE includes, a) isotopic analysis, b) electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) in pellet cross section and so on. The results of isotopic analyses and EPMA were compared with ORIGEN2/82 and VIM-BURN calculation results. In VIM-BURN calculation, the nuclear data of actinides were proceeded from new data file, JENDL-3.2. The sensitivities of power history and moderator density to nuclides composition were investigated by VIM-BURN calculation and consequently power history mainly effected on Am241 and Am242m and moderator density effected on fissile nuclides. From EPMA results of U and Pu distribution in pellet, VIM-BURN calculation showed reasonable distribution in pellet cross section. (author)

  1. Isotopic analyses and calculation by use of JENDL-3.2 for high burn-up UO{sub 2} and MOX spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasahara, Akihiro; Matsumura, Tetsuo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.; Nicolaou, G.; Betti, M.; Walker, C.T.

    1997-03-01

    The post irradiation examinations (PIE) were carried out for high burn-up UO{sub 2} spent fuel (3.8%U235, average burn-up:60GWd/t) and mixed oxide (MOX) spent fuel (5.07%Pu, average burn-up:45GWd/t). The PIE includes, (a) isotopic analysis, (b) electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) in pellet cross section and so on. The results of isotopic analyses and EPMA were compared with ORIGEN2/82 and VIM-BURN calculation results. In VIM-BURN calculation, the nuclear data of actinides were proceeded from new data file, JENDL-3.2. The sensitivities of power history and moderator density to nuclides composition were investigated by VIM-BURN calculation and consequently power history mainly effected on Am241 and Am242m and moderator density effected on fissile nuclides. From EPMA results of U and Pu distribution in pellet, VIM-BURN calculation showed reasonable distribution in pellet cross section. (author)

  2. Social and Ecological Factors Influencing Attitudes Toward the Application of High-Intensity Prescribed Burns to Restore Fire Adapted Grassland Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Toledo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fire suppression in grassland systems that are adapted to episodic fire has contributed to the recruitment of woody species in grasslands worldwide. Even though the ecology of restoring these fire prone systems back to grassland states is becoming clearer, a major hurdle to the reintroduction of historic fires at a landscape scale is its social acceptability. Despite the growing body of literature on the social aspects of fire, an understanding of the human dimensions of applying high-intensity prescribed burns in grassland and savanna systems is lacking. We used structural equation modeling to examine how landowners' attitudes toward high-intensity prescribed burns are affected by previous experience with burning, perceptions of brush encroachment, land condition, proximity constraints, risk orientation, fire management knowledge and skill, access to fire management equipment, and subjective norms. Our results suggest that experience, risk taking orientation, and especially social norms, i.e., perceived support from others, when implementing prescribed burns play an important role in determining the attitudes of landowners toward the use of high-intensity prescribed burns. Concern over lack of skill, knowledge, and insufficient resources have a moderately negative effect on these attitudes. Our results highlight the importance of targeted engagement strategies to address risk perceptions, subjective norms, and landowner's concerns. With these concerns allayed, it is possible to increase the adoption of high-intensity prescribed burns that lead to landscape-scale grassland restoration and conservation.

  3. Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor - TRU Utilization and Nuclear Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel V.

    2013-01-01

    Summary of our historical and ongoing efforts: • We have a long history of R and Ds supporting DB-HTRs. Our R and Ds carry V and V and are consistent with ongoing benchmark efforts. • We are looking at DB-HTR configurations based on HTTR block and GA block (NGNP). Both offer advantages. • MAs as a Fuel lead to the designs of Ultra-Long Life VHTRs, which may be focused on Deep Burn or autonomy (not HLW management). • Our role in the Deep Burn Project R and D package was focused on 3D optimization and related software development. • Scenario studies towards an Environmentally Benign Sustainable and Secure Energy Source (integration of DB-HTRs within a fuel cycle) demonstrate advantages of DB-HTRs. • Advanced sensing and 3D mapping are of importance to DB-HTRs. • Fission product management in HTRs is a viable supplementary option in addition to their potential TRU management role in advanced fuel cycle scenarios

  4. UO2 fuel behaviour at rod burn-ups up to 105 MWd/kgHM. A review of 10 years of high burn-up examinations commissioned by AREVA NP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goll, W.; Hoffmann, P.B.; Hellwig, C.; Sauser, W.; Spino, J.; Walker, C.T.

    2007-01-01

    Irradiation experience gained on fuel rods with burn-ups greater than 60 MWd/kgHM irradiated in the Nuclear Power Plant Goesgen, Switzerland, is described. Emphasis is placed on the fuel behaviour, which has been analysed by hot cell examinations at the Institute for Transuranium Elements and the Paul-Scherrer-Institute. Above 60 MWd/kgHM, the so-called high burn-up structure (HBS) forms and the fission gas release increases with burn-up and rod power. Examinations performed in the outer region of the fuel revealed that most if not all of the fission gas created was retained in the HBS, even at 25% porosity. Furthermore, the HBS has a relatively low swelling rate, greatly increased plasticity, and its thermal conductivity is higher than expected from the porosity. The post-irradiation examinations showed that the HBS has no detrimental effects on the performance of stationary irradiated PWR fuel irradiated to the high burn-ups that can be achieved with 5 wt% U-235 enrichment. On the contrary, the HBS results in fuel performance that is generally better than it would have been if the HBS had not formed. (orig.)

  5. [Enteral nutrition in burn patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J L; Garrido, M; Gómez-Cía, T; Serrera, J L; Franco, A; Pumar, A; Relimpio, F; Astorga, R; García-Luna, P P

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional support plays an important role in the treatment of patients with burns. Due to the severe hypercatabolism that develops in these patients, oral support is insufficient in most cases, and this makes it essential to initiate artificial nutritional support (either enteral or parenteral). Enteral nutrition is more physiological than parenteral, and data exist which show that in patients with burns, enteral nutrition exercises a protective effect on the intestine and may even reduce the hypermetabolic response in these patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of enteral nutritional support with a hypercaloric, hyperproteic diet with a high content of branched amino acids in the nutritional support of patients suffering from burns. The study included 12 patients (8 males and 4 females), admitted to the Burns Unit. Average age was 35 +/- 17 years (range: 21-85 years). The percentage of body surface affected by the burns was 10% in two cases, between 10-30% in three cases, between 30-50% in five cases and over 50% in two cases. Initiation of the enteral nutrition was between twenty-four hours and seven days after the burn. The patients were kept in the unit until they were discharged, and the average time spent in the unit was 31.5 days (range: 17-63 days). Total energetic requirements were calculated based on Harris-Benedict, with a variable aggression factor depending on the body surface burned, which varied from 2,000 and 4,000 cal day. Nitrogenous balance was determined on a daily basis, and plasmatic levels of total proteins, albumin and prealbumin on a weekly basis. There was a significant difference between the prealbumin values at the initiation and finalization of the enteral nutrition (9.6 +/- 2.24 mg/dl compared with 19.75 +/- 5.48 mg/dl; p diet was very good, and only mild complications such as diarrhoea developed in two patients. Enteral nutrition is a suitable nutritional support method for patients with

  6. High tidal volume decreases adult respiratory distress syndrome, atelectasis, and ventilator days compared with low tidal volume in pediatric burned patients with inhalation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousse, Linda E; Herndon, David N; Andersen, Clark R; Ali, Arham; Benjamin, Nicole C; Granchi, Thomas; Suman, Oscar E; Mlcak, Ronald P

    2015-04-01

    Inhalation injury, which is among the causes of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), continues to represent a significant source of mortality in burned patients. Inhalation injury often requires mechanical ventilation, but the ideal tidal volume strategy is not clearly defined in burned pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of low and high tidal volume on the number of ventilator days, ventilation pressures, and incidence of atelectasis, pneumonia, and ARDS in pediatric burned patients with inhalation injury within 1 year post burn injury. From 1986 to 2014, inhalation injury was diagnosed by bronchoscopy in pediatric burned patients (n = 932). Patients were divided into 3 groups: unventilated (n = 241), high tidal volume (HTV, 15 ± 3 mL/kg, n = 190), and low tidal volume (LTV, 9 ± 3 mL/kg, n = 501). High tidal volume was associated with significantly decreased ventilator days (p tidal volume significantly decreases ventilator days and the incidence of both atelectasis and ARDS compared with low tidal volume in pediatric burned patients with inhalation injury. Therefore, the use of HTV may interrupt sequences leading to lung injury in our patient population. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. High-Wattage Pulsed Irradiation of Linearly Polarized Near-Infrared Light to Stellate Ganglion Area for Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Momota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to apply high-wattage pulsed irradiation of linearly polarized near-infrared light to the stellate ganglion area for burning mouth syndrome (BMS and to assess the efficacy of the stellate ganglion area irradiation (SGR on BMS using differential time-/frequency-domain parameters (D parameters. Three patients with BMS received high-wattage pulsed SGR; the response to SGR was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS representing the intensity of glossalgia and D parameters used in heart rate variability analysis. High-wattage pulsed SGR significantly decreased the mean value of VAS in all cases without any adverse event such as thermal injury. D parameters mostly correlated with clinical condition of BMS. High-wattage pulsed SGR was safe and effective for the treatment of BMS; D parameters are useful for assessing efficacy of SGR on BMS.

  8. Development of ultrasonic high temperature system for severe accidents research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Young Ro and others

    2000-07-01

    The aims of this study are to find a gap formation between corium melt and the reactor lower head vessel, to verify the principle of the gap formation and to analyze the effect of the gap formation on the thermal behavior of corium melt and the lower plenum. This report aims at suggesting development of a new high temperature measuring system using an ultrasonic method which overcomes the limitations of the present thermocouple method used for severe accident experiments. Also, this report describes the design and manufacturing method of the ultrasonic system. At that time, the sensor element is fabricated to a reflective element using 1mm diameter and 50 mm and 80 mm long tungsten alloy wires. This temperature measuring system is intended to measure up to 2800 deg C

  9. Effects of thermal-hydraulic feedback on burnup modeling of the deep burn modular high temperature reactor (DB-MHR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bei, Yea; Wen, Wua; Di, Yuna; Stubbins, J.F.; Venneri, F.

    2007-01-01

    The Deep-Burn concept investigates the use of commercial high temperature gas-cooled reactors such as modular helium reactors (DB-MHR) to transmute spent fuel from light water reactors (LWRs). An essential feature of this technology is the fabrication of spent fuel into TRISO particles with full transuranic composition to achieve very extensive destruction levels (deep-burn) in a one-pass fuel cycle. Due to the strong temperature influence on the cross sections of transuranics, the coupling between temperature and neutronics is very important to be able to simulate realistic operations of the deep burn reactor. In this study, detailed simulations of the DB-MHR operation are performed with a Monte Carlo code system (MCNP-5 + ORIGEN-2.2 + MONTEBURNS-2 for neutronics calculations), POKE code (General Atomics, for thermohydraulics calculations) and NJOY-99 code (for processing nuclear data libraries), called MHRBURNS. Resulting power densities of fuel blocks (from neutronics calculations) are provided as input to the POKE code, which in turn, calculates new temperature distributions. The temperature distributions obtained from POKE are used to update the MCNP input, and NJOY is called to process new nuclear cross sections based on appropriate temperatures. These steps are repeated to calculate the entire burnup performance of the system. In this preliminary study only the feedback on graphite temperature is taken into account. It is observed that the temperature feedback results show a 200 K higher temperature and thus a slight difference in 237 Np and 239 Pu destruction rates, although the overall burnup rates remain the same

  10. Burn-Up Determination by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry: Axial and Diametral Scanning Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R S; Blackadder, W H; Ronqvist, N

    1967-02-15

    In the gamma spectrometric determination of burn-up the use of a single fission product as a monitor of the specimen fission rate is subject to errors caused by activity saturation or, in certain cases, fission product migration. Results are presented of experiments in which all the resolvable gamma peaks in the fission product spectrum have been used to calculate the fission rate; these results form a pattern which reflect errors in the literature values of the gamma branching ratios, fission yields etc., and also represent a series of empirical correction factors. Axial and diametral scanning experiments on a long-irradiated low-enrichment fuel element are also described and demonstrate that it is possible to differentiate between fissions in U-235 and in Pu-239 respectively by means of the ratios of the Ru-106 activity to the activities of the other fission products.

  11. Microstructure Changes in a high burn up Spent Fuel (57,900 MWd/tU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Soon; Kwon, Hyoung Mun; Seo, Hang Seok; Ha, Yeong Keong; Song, Kyuseok

    2009-01-01

    In the nuclear industry, an increase in the burn up and the residence time of fuels is being considered because of the advantages in the fuel cycle cost and the spent fuel management. But, it leads to structural changes in an outer zone (rim) of a UO 2 pellet within a few hundreds of micrometers in thickness. Despite its thin layer, this rim would determine the thermal behavior of a fuel. Therefore, to identify a rim zone effect, the microstructures such as the pores, the grains and the UO 2 lattice size have been investigated by many researchers. In this study, the microstructure changes in the rim of a UO 2 spent fuel, the corrosion layer of a Zry-4 cladding and the interface between a fuel and a cladding were investigated by a micro-XRD and a SEM

  12. Method of burning highly reactive strongly slagging coal dust in a chamber furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protsaylo, M.Ya.; Kotler, V.R.; Lobov, G.V.; Mechev, V.P.; Proshkin, A.V.; Zhuravlev, Yu.A.

    1982-01-01

    In the chamber furnace in order to reduce slagging, it is proprosed that, above the coal dust burners, nozzles be installed with inclination downwards through which air is fed in a mixture with flue gases. Under the influence of this flue gas-air mixture, the coal dust flame is deviated downwards. In this case there is an increase in the length of the flame and degree of filling of the volume of the furnace with the flame. This increases the effectiveness of dust burning. The input into the furnace of fuel jointly with the air and flue gases (optimally 10-15% of the total quantity of gases formed during fuel combustion) makes it possible to reduce the temperature in the furnace and the probability of slagging of the furnace walls.

  13. Initial evaluation and management of the critical burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivó, C; Galeiras, R; del Caz, Ma D P

    2016-01-01

    The major improvement in burn therapy is likely to focus on the early management of hemodynamic and respiratory failures in combination with an aggressive and early surgical excision and skin grafting for full-thickness burns. Immediate burn care by first care providers is important and can vastly alter outcomes, and it can significantly limit burn progression and depth. The goal of prehospital care should be to cease the burning process as well as prevent future complications and secondary injuries for burn shock. Identifying burn patients appropriate for immediate or subacute transfer is an important step in reducing morbidity and mortality. Delays in transport to Burn Unit should be minimized. The emergency management follows the principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support Guidelines for assessment and stabilization of airway, breathing, circulation, disability, exposure and environment control. All patients with suspected inhalation injury must be removed from the enclosure as soon as possible, and immediately administer high-flow oxygen. Any patient with stridor, shortness of breath, facial burns, singed nasal hairs, cough, soot in the oral cavity, and history of being in a fire in an enclosed space should be strongly considered for early intubation. Fibroscopy may also be useful if airway damage is suspected and to assess known lung damage. Secondary evaluation following admission to the Burn Unit of a burned patient suffering a severe thermal injury includes continuation of respiratory support and management and treatment of inhalation injury, fluid resuscitation and cardiovascular stabilization, pain control and management of burn wound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of high-strength aluminum alloys for basket in transport and storage cask for high burn-up spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeguchi, T.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Kamiwaki, Y.; Ishii, M.; Yamamoto, T.

    2004-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has developed high-strength borated aluminum alloys (high-strength B-Al alloys), suitable for application to baskets in transport and storage casks for high burn-up spent fuels. Aluminum is a suitable base material for the baskets due to its low density and high thermal conductivity. The aluminum basket would reduce weight of the cask, and effectively release heat generated by spent fuels. MHI had already developed borated aluminum alloys (high-toughness B-Al alloy), and registered them as ASME Code Case ''N-673''. However, there has been a strong demand for basket materials with higher strength in the case of MSF (Mitsubishi Spent Fuel) casks for high-burn up spent fuels, since the basket is required to stand up to higher stress at higher temperature. The high-strength basket material enables the design of a compact cask under a limitation of total size and weight. MHI has developed novel high-strength B-Al alloys which meet these requirements, based on a new manufacturing process. The outline of mechanical and metallurgical characteristics of the high-strength B-Al alloys is described in this paper

  15. Electroacupuncture improves burn-induced impairment in gastric motility mediated via the vagal mechanism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J; Yin, J; Sallam, H S; Bai, T; Chen, Y; Chen, J D Z

    2013-10-01

    Delayed gastric emptying (GE) is common in patients with severe burns. This study was designed to investigate effects and mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) on gastric motility in rats with burns. Male rats (intact and vagotomized) were implanted with gastric electrodes, chest and abdominal wall electrodes for investigating the effects of EA at ST-36 (stomach-36 or Zusanli) on GE, gastric slow waves, autonomic functions, and plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) 6 and 24 h post severe burns. (i) Burn delayed GE (P Electroacupuncture improved GE 6 and 24 h post burn (P Electroacupuncture improved burn-induced gastric dysrhythmia. The percentage of normal slow waves was increased with EA 6 and 24 h post burn (P = 0.02). (iii) Electroacupuncture increased vagal activity assessed by the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). The high-frequency component reflecting vagal component was increased with EA 6 (P = 0.004) and 24 h post burn (P = 0.03, vs sham-EA). (iv) Electroacupuncture attenuated burn-induced increase in plasma IL-6 at both 6 (P = 0.03) and 24 h post burn (P = 0.003). Electroacupuncture at ST-36 improves gastric dysrhythmia and accelerates GE in rats with burns. The improvement seems to be mediated via the vagal pathway involving the inflammatory cytokine IL-6. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Development of newly designed wood burning systems with low emissions and high efficiency; Tehokkaan ja vaehaepaeaestoeisen puulaemmitysjaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyytiaeinen, H [Tulisydaen Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The investigations in the project will focus on the combustion behaviour of wood burning systems of untreated wood fuels with batch-wise and quasi-continuous mechanical feeding. The objectives will be to minimise the pollutant release of these combustion systems during the different operational phases by a consequent optimisation of the fuel burning technique and to reduce the CO release by increasing the efficiency of the combustion. To reduce the pollutant release during the operation phases and to increase the efficiency, products of incomplete combustion i.e. carbon monoxide, toxic organic compounds like benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot have to be minimised in a further extent. For that the following goals will be attained: improvement of the mixing process of combustion gases in the reaction zones, averaging the residence time spectrum in the burnout zone reduction, of emissions during initial and burnout phase in firings with batch-wise feeding reduction of emissions under partial-load conditions in firings with quasi-continuous feeding, higher combustion stability even in case of changing fuel qualities, defining guidelines for the design of stoves and boilers with low emissions and high efficiency. By the foreseen reduction of the pollutant release and improved efficiency the environmental acceptance of wood combustion firings can be increased and for instance local restrictions can be removed. The project is funded in part by The European Commission in the framework of The Non Nuclear Energy Programme. (orig.)

  17. Study of development of non-destructive method for determining FGR from high burned PWR type fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Miyanishi, Hideyuki; Kitagawa, Isamu; Iida, Shozo; Ito, Tadaharu; Amano, Hidetoshi.

    1991-11-01

    Experimental study was made to evaluate the FGR (Fission Product Gas Release) from high burned PWR type fuel rods by means of non-destructive method through measurement of the gamma activity of 85 Kr isotope which was accumulated in the fuel top plenum. Experimental result shows that it is possible to know the amounts of FGR at fuel plenum by the equations given in the followings. FGR = 0.28C/V f or FGR = 0.07C where, FGR (%) is the amounts of Xe and Kr released from UO 2 fuel, C (counts/h) the radioactivity of 85 Kr at plenum of the tested fuel rod and V f (ml) the plenum volume of the tested fuel rod, respectively. The present study was made by using 14 x 14 PWR type fuel rods preirradiated up to the burn-up of 42.1 MWd/kgU, followed by the pulse irradiation at Nuclear Safety Research Reactor of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The FGR of the tested segmented fuel rods were measured by puncturing and found to range from 0.6% to 12% according to the magnitude of the deposited energy given by pulse. Estimated experimental error bands against the above equations were within plus minus 30%. (author)

  18. Characterization of primary organic aerosol emissions from meat cooking, trash burning, and motor vehicles with high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry and comparison with ambient and chamber observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Claudia; Huffman, Alex; Cubison, Michael J; Aiken, Allison C; Docherty, Kenneth S; Kimmel, Joel R; Ulbrich, Ingrid M; Hannigan, Michael; Jimenez, Jose L

    2009-04-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) emissions from motor vehicles, meat-cooking and trash burning are analyzed here using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). High resolution data show that aerosols emitted by combustion engines and plastic burning are dominated by hydrocarbon-like organic compounds. Meat cooking and especially paper burning emissions contain significant fractions of oxygenated organic compounds; however, their unit-resolution mass spectral signatures are very similar to those from ambient hydrocarbon-like OA, and very different from the mass spectra of ambient secondary or oxygenated OA (OOA). Thus, primary OA from these sources is unlikelyto be a significant direct source of ambient OOA. There are significant differences in high-resolution tracer m/zs that may be useful for differentiating some of these sources. Unlike in most ambient spectra, all of these sources have low total m/z 44 and this signal is not dominated by the CO2+ ion. All sources have high m/z 57, which is low during high OOA ambient periods. Spectra from paper burning are similar to some types of biomass burning OA, with elevated m/z 60. Meat cooking aerosols also have slightly elevated m/z 60, whereas motor vehicle emissions have very low signal at this m/z.

  19. Long-range transport biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas: insights from high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Y.; Shichang, K.; Ma, Y.

    2017-12-01

    An intensive measurement was conducted at a remote, background, and high-altitude site (Qomolangma station, QOMS, 4276 m a.s.l.) in the northern Himalayas, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) along with other collocated instruments. The field measurement was performed from April 12 to May 12, 2016 to chemically characterize high time-resolved submicron particulate matter (PM1) and obtain the influence of biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas, frequently transported from south Asia during pre-monsoon season. Two high aerosol loading periods were observed during the study. Overall, the average (± 1σ) PM1 mass concentration was 4.44 (± 4.54) µg m-3 for the entire study, comparable with those observed at other remote sites worldwide. Organic aerosols (OA) was the dominant PM1 species (accounting for 54.3% of total PM1 mass on average) and its contribution increased with the increase of total PM1 mass loading. The average size distributions of PM1 species all peaked at an overlapping accumulation mode ( 500 nm), suggesting that aerosol particles were internally well-mixed and aged during long-range transportations. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis on the high-resolution organic mass spectra identified three distinct OA factors, including a biomass burning related OA (BBOA, 43.7%) and two oxygenated OA (Local-OOA and LRT-OOA; 13.9% and 42.4%) represented sources from local emissions and long-range transportations, respectively. Two polluted air mass origins (generally from the west and southwest of QOMS) and two polluted episodes with enhanced PM1 mass loadings and elevated BBOA contributions were observed, respectively, suggesting the important sources of wildfires from south Asia. One of polluted aerosol plumes was investigated in detail to illustrate the evolution of aerosol characteristics at QOMS driving by different impacts of wildfires, air mass origins, meteorological conditions and

  20. Burning Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be accompanied by a pins and needles sensation (paresthesia) or numbness, or both. Burning feet may also be referred to as tingling feet or paresthesia. While fatigue or a skin infection can cause ...

  1. Application of high-order uncertainty for severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Donghan; Ha, Jaejoo

    1998-01-01

    The use of probability distribution to represent uncertainty about point-valued probabilities has been a controversial subject. Probability theorists have argued that it is inherently meaningless to be uncertain about a probability since this appears to violate the subjectivists' assumption that individual can develop unique and precise probability judgments. However, many others have found the concept of uncertainty about the probability to be both intuitively appealing and potentially useful. Especially, high-order uncertainty, i.e., the uncertainty about the probability, can be potentially relevant to decision-making when expert's judgment is needed under very uncertain data and imprecise knowledge and where the phenomena and events are frequently complicated and ill-defined. This paper presents two approaches for evaluating the uncertainties inherent in accident management strategies: 'a fuzzy probability' and 'an interval-valued subjective probability'. At first, this analysis considers accident management as a decision problem (i.e., 'applying a strategy' vs. 'do nothing') and uses an influence diagram. Then, the analysis applies two approaches above to evaluate imprecise node probabilities in the influence diagram. For the propagation of subjective probabilities, the analysis uses the Monte-Carlo simulation. In case of fuzzy probabilities, the fuzzy logic is applied to propagate them. We believe that these approaches can allow us to understand uncertainties associated with severe accident management strategy since they offer not only information similar to the classical approach using point-estimate values but also additional information regarding the impact from imprecise input data

  2. Thermomechanical behavior and modeling of zircaloy cladding tubes from an unirradiated state to high burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffler-Le Pichon, I.; Geyer, P.; Bouffioux, P.

    1997-01-01

    Creep laws are nowadays commonly used to simulate the fuel rod response to the solicitations it faces during its life. These laws are sufficient for describing the base operating conditions (where only creep appears), but they have to be improved for power ramp conditions (where hardening and relaxation appear). The modification due to a neutronic irradiation of the thermomechanical behavior of stress-relieved Zircaloy 4 fuel tubes that have been analysed for five different fluences ranging from a non-irradiated material to a material for which the combustion rate was very high is presented. In the second part, a viscoplastic model able to simulate, for different isotherms, out-of-flux anisotropic mechanical behavior of the cladding tubes irradiated until high burn-up is proposed. Finally, results of numerical simulations show the ability of the model to reproduce the totality of the thermomechanical experiments. (author)

  3. Development of a method for xenon determination in the microstructure of high burn-up nuclear fuel[Dissertation 17527

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, M. I

    2008-07-01

    In nuclear fuel, in approximately one quarter of the fissions, one of the two formed fission products is gaseous. These are mainly the noble gases xenon and krypton with isotopes of xenon contributing up to 90% of the product gases. These noble fission gases do not combine with other species, and have a low solubility in the normally used uranium oxide matrix. They can be dissolved in the fuel matrix or precipitate in nanometer-sized bubbles within the fuel grain, in micrometer-sized bubbles at the grain boundaries, and a fraction also precipitates in fuel pores, coming from fuel fabrication. A fraction of the gas can also be released into the plenum of the fuel rod. With increasing fission, and therefore burn-up, the ceramic fuel material experiences a transformation of its structure in the 'cooler' rim region of the fuel. A subdivision occurs of the original fuel grains of few microns size into thousands of small grains of sub-micron sizes. Additionally, larger pores are formed, which also leads into an increasing porosity in the fuel rim, called high burn-up structure. In this structure, only a small fraction of the fission gas remains in the matrix, the major quantity is said to accumulate in these pores. Because of this accumulation, the knowledge of the quantities of gas within these pores is of major interest in consideration to burn-up, fuel performance and especially for safety issues. In case of design based accidents, i.e. rapidly increasing temperature transients, the behavior of the fuel has to be estimated. Various analytical techniques have been used to determine the Xe concentration in nuclear fuel samples. The capabilities of EPMA (Electron Probe Micro-Analyser) and SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) have been studied and provided some qualitative information, which has been used for determining Xe-matrix concentrations. First approaches combining these two techniques to estimate pore pressures have been recently reported. However

  4. Development of a method for xenon determination in the microstructure of high burn-up nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, M. I.

    2008-01-01

    In nuclear fuel, in approximately one quarter of the fissions, one of the two formed fission products is gaseous. These are mainly the noble gases xenon and krypton with isotopes of xenon contributing up to 90% of the product gases. These noble fission gases do not combine with other species, and have a low solubility in the normally used uranium oxide matrix. They can be dissolved in the fuel matrix or precipitate in nanometer-sized bubbles within the fuel grain, in micrometer-sized bubbles at the grain boundaries, and a fraction also precipitates in fuel pores, coming from fuel fabrication. A fraction of the gas can also be released into the plenum of the fuel rod. With increasing fission, and therefore burn-up, the ceramic fuel material experiences a transformation of its structure in the 'cooler' rim region of the fuel. A subdivision occurs of the original fuel grains of few microns size into thousands of small grains of sub-micron sizes. Additionally, larger pores are formed, which also leads into an increasing porosity in the fuel rim, called high burn-up structure. In this structure, only a small fraction of the fission gas remains in the matrix, the major quantity is said to accumulate in these pores. Because of this accumulation, the knowledge of the quantities of gas within these pores is of major interest in consideration to burn-up, fuel performance and especially for safety issues. In case of design based accidents, i.e. rapidly increasing temperature transients, the behavior of the fuel has to be estimated. Various analytical techniques have been used to determine the Xe concentration in nuclear fuel samples. The capabilities of EPMA (Electron Probe Micro-Analyser) and SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) have been studied and provided some qualitative information, which has been used for determining Xe-matrix concentrations. First approaches combining these two techniques to estimate pore pressures have been recently reported. However, relevant Xe

  5. The Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand: progressing the evidence base for burn care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Heather; Greenwood, John E; Wood, Fiona M; Read, David J; Wong She, Richard; Maitz, Peter; Castley, Andrew; Vandervord, John G; Simcock, Jeremy; Adams, Christopher D; Gabbe, Belinda J

    2016-03-21

    Analysis of data from the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ) to determine the extent of variation between participating units in treatment and in specific outcomes during the first 4 years of its operation. BRANZ, an initiative of the Australian and New Zealand Burn Association, is a clinical quality registry developed in accordance with the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Healthcare national operating principles. Patients with burn injury who fulfil pre-defined criteria are transferred to and managed in designated burn units. There are 17 adult and paediatric units in Australia and New Zealand that manage almost all patients with significant burn injury. Twelve of these units treat adult patients. Data on 7184 adult cases were contributed by ten acute adult burn units to the registry between July 2010 and June 2014.Major outcomes: In-hospital mortality, hospital length of stay, skin grafting rates, and rates of admission to intensive care units. Considerable variations in unit profiles (including numbers of patients treated), in treatment and in outcomes were identified. Despite the highly centralised delivery of care to patients with severe or complex burn injury, and the relatively small number of specialist burn units, we found significant variation between units in clinical management and in outcomes. BRANZ data from its first 4 years of operation support its feasibility and the value of further development of the registry. Based on these results, the focus of ongoing research is to improve understanding of the reasons for variations in practice and of their effect on outcomes for patients, and to develop evidence-informed clinical guidelines for burn management in Australia and New Zealand.

  6. Burning issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raloff, J.

    1993-01-01

    The idea of burning oil slicks at sea has intrigued oil-cleanup managers for more than a decade, but it wasn't until the advent of fireproof booms in the mid-1980's and a major spill opportunity (the March 1989 Exxon Valdez) that in-situ burning got a real sea trial. The results of this and other burning experiments indicate that, when conditions allow it, nothing can compete with fire's ability to remove oil from water. Burns have the potential to remove as much oil in one day as mechanical devices can in one month, along with minimal equipment, labor and cost. Reluctance to burn in appropriate situations comes primarily from the formation of oily, black smoke. Analysis of the potentially toxic gases have been done, indicating that burning will not increase the levels of polluting aldehydes, ketones, dioxins, furans, and PAHs above those that normally evaporate from spilled oil. This article contains descriptions of planned oil fires and the discussion on the advantages and concerns of such a policy

  7. Using Coupled Mesoscale Experiments and Simulations to Investigate High Burn-Up Oxide Fuel Thermal Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Melissa C.; Fromm, Bradley S.; Tonks, Michael R.; Field, David P.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear energy is a mature technology with a small carbon footprint. However, work is needed to make current reactor technology more accident tolerant and to allow reactor fuel to be burned in a reactor for longer periods of time. Optimizing the reactor fuel performance is essentially a materials science problem. The current understanding of fuel microstructure have been limited by the difficulty in studying the structure and chemistry of irradiated fuel samples at the mesoscale. Here, we take advantage of recent advances in experimental capabilities to characterize the microstructure in 3D of irradiated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel taken from two radial positions in the fuel pellet. We also reconstruct these microstructures using Idaho National Laboratory's MARMOT code and calculate the impact of microstructure heterogeneities on the effective thermal conductivity using mesoscale heat conduction simulations. The thermal conductivities of both samples are higher than the bulk MOX thermal conductivity because of the formation of metallic precipitates and because we do not currently consider phonon scattering due to defects smaller than the experimental resolution. We also used the results to investigate the accuracy of simple thermal conductivity approximations and equations to convert 2D thermal conductivities to 3D. It was found that these approximations struggle to predict the complex thermal transport interactions between metal precipitates and voids.

  8. A contribution to the understanding of the high burn-up structure formation in nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonnet, J.

    2007-01-01

    An increase of the discharge burn-up of UO 2 nuclear fuels in the light water reactors results in the appearance of a change of microscopic structure, called HBS. Although well characterised experimentally, important points on the mechanisms of its formation remain to be cleared up. In order to answer these questions, a study of the contribution of the dislocation-type defects was conducted. In a first part, a calculation method of the stress field associated with periodic configurations of dislocations was developed. The method was applied to the cases of edge dislocation pile-up and wall, for which an explicit expression of the internal stress potential was obtained. Through the study of other examples of dislocation configurations, it was highlighted that this method also allows the calculation of any periodic dislocation configuration. In a second part, the evolution of interstitial-type dislocation loops was studied in UO 2 fuel samples doped with 10% in mass of alpha emitters. The experimental loop size distributions were obtained for these samples stored during 4 and 7 years at room temperature. Kinetic equations are proposed in order to study the influence of the resolution process of interstitials from a loop back to the matrix due to an impact with the recoil atom 234 U, as well as the coalescence of two interstitial loops that can diffuse by a volume mechanism. The application of the model shows that the two processes must be considered in the study of the evolution of radiation damage. (author)

  9. Ethnicity and etiology in burn trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Anthony; Haythornthwaite, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrieve data from the British Columbia Professional Firefighters Burn Unit registry, with a focus on ethnicity and how it is involved in burn trauma. It is hypothesized that mechanism, severity, and other patient characteristics are significantly different among different ethnic groups. Furthermore, it is believed that these data can be used to augment burn prevention strategies. Data for burn patients admitted from 1979 to 2009 were reviewed from the burn registry. The main focus was with differences seen among the four main ethnicities throughout the analysis, Caucasian, Aboriginal, Asian, and Indoasian, reflecting the population distribution of the region. Age and sex were also considered when looking at burn mechanism, severity, contributing and copresenting factors. Caucasians were the largest group (79.1%) and included the largest male:female ratio (3.3:1), with high numbers of flame injury (53.9%). Caucasians presented with the highest mortality (6.6% compared with 4.1% for all other ethnicities; P workplace (28.9%) injuries with a larger proportion of scald injury (38.9%). Indoasian patients included larger numbers of women (36.4%) and household scald injuries (33.9%) whereas Aboriginals suffered the most flame injuries (60.1%) in rural areas with more frequent contributing factors such as alcohol. The study found multiple significant differences in the burn injury population when segmented by ethnicity. Though the exact reasons for these differences are difficult to say with certainty, it allows a unique opportunity to focus communication and prevention efforts to specific communities.

  10. The diagnosis of severe thunderstorms with high-resolution WRF ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Service (AWS) Technical Report 1990). The LI has proved useful for indicating the likelihood of severe thunderstorms. The chances of a severe thunder- storm are best when the LI is less than or equal to a) 1000 UTC b) 1100 UTC c) 1200 UTC d) 1300 UTC. Figure 4. (c) Same as figure 4(a) except using THOM microphysics ...

  11. Effects of cholecalciferol supplementation and optimized calcium intakes on vitamin D status, muscle strength and bone health: a one-year pilot randomized controlled trial in adults with severe burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Anne-Françoise; Foidart-Desalle, Marguerite; Ledoux, Didier; Remy, Christophe; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Damas, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne

    2015-03-01

    Burn patients are at risk of hypovitaminosis D and osteopenia or sarcopenia. Vitamin D pleiotropic effects may influence bone and muscle health. The aim of this pilot study was to assess effects of a cholecalciferol (VD3) supplementation and an optimized calcium (Ca) regimen on vitamin D (VD) status, bone and muscle health during sequelar stage of burn injury. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Fifteen adults with thermal burns dating from 2 to 5 years were randomized into two groups. For 12 months, they either received a quarterly IM injection of 200,000IU VD3 and daily oral Ca (Group D) or placebo (Group P). VD status and bone remodeling markers were assessed every 3 months. Knee muscle strength and bone mineral density were, respectively, assessed using isokinetic dynamometry and dual X-ray absorptiometry at initiation (M0) and completion (M12) of the protocol. Of all the patients, 66% presented with VD deficiency and 53% (with 3 men burn adults. When combined with optimized Ca intakes, it demonstrated positive effects on muscle health but not on bone health. A high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and osteopenia in these patients, as well as their wide range of muscle performances, seem to be worrying when considering rehabilitation and quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. On the rate determining step in fission gas release from high burn-up water reactor fuel during power transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.T.; Mogensen, M.

    1987-01-01

    The radial distribution of grain boundary gas in a PWR and a BWR fuel is reported. The measurements were made using a new approach involving X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron probe microanalysis. In both fuels the concentration of grain boundary gas was much higher than hitherto suspected. The gas was mainly contained in the bubble/pore structure. The factors that determined the fraction of gas released from the grains and the level of gas retention on the grain boundaries are identified and discussed. The variables involved are the local fuel stoichiometry, the amount of open porosity, the magnitude of the local compressive hydrostatic stress and the interaction of metallic precipitates with gas bubbles on the grain faces. It is concluded that under transient conditions the interlinkage of gas bubbles on the grain faces and the subsequent formation of grain edge tunnels is the rate determining step for gas release; at least when high burn-up fuel is involved. (orig.)

  13. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francesco Venneri; Chang-Keun Jo; Jae-Man Noh; Yonghee Kim; Claudio Filippone; Jonghwa Chang; Chris Hamilton; Young-Min Kim; Ji-Su Jun; Moon-Sung Cho; Hong-Sik Lim; MIchael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Vincent Descotes; Brian Boer

    2010-09-01

    The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450

  14. A protocol for resuscitation of severe burn patients guided by transpulmonary thermodilution and lactate levels: a 3-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Manuel; García-de-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Herrero, Eva; Lopez, Teresa; Galvan, Beatriz; Asensio, María; Cachafeiro, Lucia; Casado, Cesar

    2013-08-15

    The use of urinary output and vital signs to guide initial burn resuscitation may lead to suboptimal resuscitation. Invasive hemodynamic monitoring may result in over-resuscitation. This study aimed to evaluate the results of a goal-directed burn resuscitation protocol that used standard measures of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and urine output, plus transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) and lactate levels to adjust fluid therapy to achieve a minimum level of preload to allow for sufficient vital organ perfusion. We conducted a three-year prospective cohort study of 132 consecutive critically burned patients. These patients underwent resuscitation guided by MAP (>65 mmHg), urinary output (0.5 to 1 ml/kg), TPTD and lactate levels. Fluid therapy was adjusted to achieve a cardiac index (CI) >2.5 L/minute/m² and an intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI) >600 ml/m2, and to optimize lactate levels. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed models. We also used Pearson or Spearman methods and the Mann-Whitney U-test. A total of 98 men and 34 women (mean age, 48 ± 18 years) was studied. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 35% ± 22%. During the early resuscitation phase, lactate levels were elevated (2.58 ± 2.05 mmol/L) and TPTD showed initial hypovolemia by the CI (2.68 ± 1.06 L/minute/m²) and the ITBVI (709 ± 254 mL/m²). At 24 to 32 hours, the CI and lactic levels were normalized, although the ITBVI remained below the normal range (744 ± 276 ml/m²). The mean fluid rate required to achieve protocol targets in the first 8 hours was 4.05 ml/kg/TBSA burned, which slightly increased in the next 16 hours. Patients with a urine output greater than or less than 0.5 ml/kg/hour did not show differences in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, CI, ITBVI or lactate levels. Initial hypovolemia may be detected by TPTD monitoring during the early resuscitation phase. This hypovolemia might not be reflected by blood pressure and hourly urine output. An

  15. Análise do lavado broncoalveolar em vítimas de queimaduras faciais graves Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis in victims of severe facial burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eucir Rabello

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o lavado broncoalveolar (LBA de vítimas de queimaduras que inalaram fumaça a fim de identificar alterações que possam estar associadas à morte ou à sobrevida. MÉTODOS: Dezoito vítimas de queimaduras faciais foram submetidas a LBA até 24 h após o evento, sendo realizadas a análise do conteúdo celular e proteico, incluindo TNF-α, HLA-DR, CD14, CD68 e iNOS. RESULTADOS: Dos 18 pacientes submetidos à broncoscopia, 8 (44,4% morreram durante o seguimento. A média de idade dos pacientes que morreram foi significativamente maior (44,7 vs. 31,5 anos. A superfície corporal queimada foi em média de 60,1% nos pacientes que morreram e de 26,1% nos sobreviventes (p OBJECTIVE: To analyze bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL specimens of burn victims who inhaled smoke, in order to identify alterations associated with mortality or survival. METHODS: Eighteen victims of facial burns were submitted to BAL up to 24 h after the event. We investigated cell and protein content, including TNF-α, HLA-DR, CD14, CD68 and iNOS. RESULTS: Of the 18 patients submitted to bronchoscopy, 8 (44.4% died during the follow-up period. The mean age of patients who died was significantly higher (44.7 vs. 31.5 years. On average, the patients who died had burns covering 60.1% of the total body surface area, compared with 26.1% in the survivors (p < 0.0001. Of the 18 patients submitted to bronchoscopy, 11 (61.1% showed endoscopic signs of smoke inhalation injury, and 4 (36.4% of those 11 died. Of the 7 patients with no signs of smoke inhalation injury, 4 (57.1% died. The mean number of ciliated epithelial cells in the BAL fluid was significantly higher in the patients who died than in the survivors (6.6% vs. 1.4%; p = 0.03. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of any of the other parameters evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The total body surface area burned was a predictive factor for mortality. Increased numbers of ciliated epithelial cells

  16. Community integration after burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselman, P C; Ptacek, J T; Kowalske, K; Cromes, G F; deLateur, B J; Engrav, L H

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of community integration is a meaningful outcome criterion after major burn injury. The Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) was administered to 463 individuals with major burn injuries. The CIQ results in Total, Home Integration, Social Integration, and Productivity scores. The purposes of this study were to determine change in CIQ scores over time and what burn injury and demographic factors predict CIQ scores. The CIQ scores did not change significantly from 6 to 12 to 24 months postburn injury. Home integration scores were best predicted by sex and living situation; Social Integration scores by marital status; and Productivity scores by functional outcome, burn severity, age, and preburn work factors. The data demonstrate that individuals with burn injuries have significant difficulties with community integration due to burn and nonburn related factors. CIQ scores did not improve over time but improvement may have occurred before the initial 6-month postburn injury follow-up in this study.

  17. Intracranial Pressure during HighVolume Hemofiltration in Severe Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Berdnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the prognostic value of intracranial pressure (ICP changes in highvolume hemofiltration (HVHF in patients with severe sepsis and normal preperfusion ICP.Subjects and methods. A retrospective study was conducted in 50 patients (a total of 134 sessions with severe sepsis and normal baseline ICP who received ther apy using HVHF for extrarenal indications. Based on ICP changes before and after HVHF, the investigators identified 2 groups: 1 no ICP changes (n=81; 2 elevated ICP (n=53.Conclusion. HVHF is ineffective when the normal preperfusion ICP is increased in patients with severe sepsis who have a concurrence of an arteriovenous carbon dioxide difference of more than 8 mm Hg and a Glasgow coma score of less than 10.

  18. [Changes of platelet rheological behavior and the interventional effects of ulinastatin in rats with high-voltage electrical burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q F; Li, Y; Feng, J K; Xu, Y F; Tu, L L

    2017-12-20

    Objective: To explore the influence of high-voltage electrical burns on the number of platelet aggregation, β-thromboglobulin (β-TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF-4) and the interventional effects of ulinastatin in rats with high-voltage electrical burns. Methods: A total of 240 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham injury (SI) group, simple electrical burn (SEB) group, normal saline (NS) group, and ulinastatin (UTI) group according to the random number table, with 60 rats in each group. The electrical current was applied to the outside proximal part of left forelimb of rats and exited from the outside proximal part of right hind limb of rats. Rats in groups SEB, NS, and UTI were inflicted with high-voltage electrical burn wounds of 1 cm×1 cm at current entrances and exits, with the voltage regulator and experimental transformer. Rats in group SI were sham injured through connecting the same equipments without electricity. At 2 min post injury, rats in group NS were intraperitoneally injected with 2 mL/kg NS, and rats in group UTI were intraperitoneally injected with 2×10(4) U/kg UTI of 10 g/L. At 15 min before injury and 5 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h post injury, 10 rats in each group were selected to collect 5-7 mL blood of heart respectively. Blood of 0.05 mL were collected to make fresh blood smear for observing the number of platelet aggregation, and serum were separated from the remaining blood to determine content of β-TG and PF-4 with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were processed with analysis of factorial design of variance, student-Newman-Keuls test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) At 15 min before injury, the numbers of platelet aggregation of rats were close among groups SI, SEB, NS and UTI (5.9±1.2, 5.8±1.2, 5.9±1.3, 5.9±1.1, respectively, with P values above 0.05). At 5 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h post injury, the numbers of platelet aggregation of rats in group SEB were 57.2±16.3, 59

  19. Energy and nitrogen balances in 24 severely burned patients receiving 4 isocaloric diets of about 10 MJ/m2/day (2392 Kcalories/m2/day).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serog, P; Baigts, F; Apfelbaum, M; Guilbaud, J; Chauvin, B; Pecqueur, M L

    1983-07-01

    Twenty-four subjects with burns ranging from 25-70 per cent received for 12 days exclusively per os a series of 4 isocaloric diets of about 4000 Kcal--'normal', or hyperproteic, or hyperlipidic, or hyperglucidic according to a randomized schedule. Oxygen consumptions were measured at the end of each diet and nitrogen balance was determined every day. Though patients were not massively overfed there remained a positive energy gap. The nitrogen balance was found to be equilibrated on the whole but clearly positive with the hyperproteic diet and clearly negative with the hyperlipidic-normoproteic diet. Thus there is no rationale for the huge energy overfeeding classically used.

  20. Explanatory Model of Resilience in Pediatric Burn Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Lucía; González, Mónica T; Mecott, Gabriel A

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors of adjustment in pediatric burn patients may facilitate appropriate mental health interventions postinjury. The aim of this is study was to explore the roles of both the patient's and caregivers' resilience and posttraumatic stress in pediatric burn survivor adjustment. For the purposes of the study, "51 patient-parent/guardian" dyads participated. Patients answered the Resilience Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents, and caregivers answered the Mexican Resilience Scale and the Davidson Trauma Scale. The roles of patient age, time since the burn, and size of burn injury were also considered. Statistical analyses included Spearman's ρ for correlations and structural equation modeling. P less than .05 was considered significant. Patients and caregivers reported high levels of resilience, and the majority of caregivers reported low severity of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Pediatric burn survivors' resilience was associated with being younger at the time of the burn and less severity of intrusive and avoidance symptoms in caregivers; it was also associated with a higher resilience in caregivers. It can be concluded that psychological responses of caregivers of pediatric burn survivors affect the well being and positive adjustment of patients; thus psychological services for caregivers would likely have a double benefit for both caregivers and patients.

  1. Plutonium burning in a pebble-bed type high temperature nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bende, E.E

    2000-01-24

    This thesis deals with the pebble-bed High Temperature Reactor that is fuelled with pure reactor-grade plutonium. It is stressed that neither burnable poisons nor fertile materials like 238U and 212Th are present in the calculational models throughout this thesis. Chapter 2 discusses the general properties of the pebble-bed HTR: the passive safety features of this reactor; different fuel scenarios according to which the pebble-bed HTR can be operated; properties of the pebbles and the coated particles (CPs), including a concise overview of the mechanisms that can lead to coated particle failure. Special attention is paid to the effect of Pu as fuel inside these CPs thereby aiming to indicate which mechanisms are of concern when such CPs are considered as fuel in future reactors. In the last part of this chapter constraints are listed that were imposed to the models considered in the framework of this thesis. Chapter 3 presents the results of unit-cell calculations performed with three code systems. The main objective of this chapter is to compare the calculational results of one particular code system, which is a candidate for the generation of cross sections for a full-core calculation, to those of the other two code systems. Also some reactor physics interpretations of the calculational results are presented. The unit-cell calculations embrace the computation of a number of reactor physics parameters for pebbles with a varying plutonium mass per pebble and with different types of coated particles. For one pebble configuration, these parameters have been calculated for various fuel temperatures and over-all (uniform) temperatures. For that particular pebble configuration, also the results of a two burnup calculations were compared. Chapter 4 reports the results of a parameter study in which the number of coated particles per pebble as well as the type and size of the CPs have been varied. The effect of different pebble configurations on several reactor physics

  2. Wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, H

    1955-01-01

    Discussed are the use of wood as a fuel, the technique of wood combustion and the operation of wood-burning stoves for cooking and heating. In addition, there is a section which reviews the use of wood stoves in various countries and lists manufacturers of stoves, central heating furnaces and in some cases sawdust burners.

  3. Current issues in burn wound infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, D; Stutman, H R

    1991-01-01

    As we have emphasized, the diagnosis of burn wound infections in the high-risk burned child can be difficult and depends on a very high degree of suspicion and daily clinical evaluation of the burn wound site by consistent observers. Appropriate precautions include meticulous hand-washing and the use of gloves when handling the wound site and prophylactic application of a topical antibacterial agent such as SSD cream. Wound therapy should include routine vigorous surgical débridement. Surveillance wound cultures should be done weekly to determine the emergency of colonization and aid in the selection of empiric antimicrobial regimens when these are appropriate. Wound biopsy for histological examination and quantitative culture is highly recommended in the severely ill child with an unclear etiology or site of infection. If, despite these measures, sepsis ensues, then systemic antibiotics must be started empirically as an adjuctive therapy to surgical débridement. Knowledge of the organisms colonizing a wound will prove useful in choosing an antibiotic regimen while awaiting definitive results of blood and wound biopsy cultures. Without this information, early burn sepsis therapy should focus on gram-positive organisms, while infection later in the course should raise suspicion of nosocomial pathogens such as P. aeruginosa, other enteric bacilli, and C. albicans. An initial regimen might include nafcillin plus ceftazidime or an aminoglycoside, with anaerobic coverage depending on considerations noted previously. Once the causative agent is identified, therapy must be modified accordingly. Amphotericin B and acyclovir use should be guided by positive cultures from the burn wound site along with systemic evidence of dissemination. Available studies do not yet make clear the role of empiric immunotherapy with intravenous gamma globulin in the burned child. Therefore, its use cannot be recommended at the present time, although the development of specific

  4. Electrical Burns: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local emergency number if the source of the burn is a high-voltage wire or lightning. Don't get near high-voltage ... 20 feet (about 6 meters) away — farther if wires are jumping and sparking. Don't move a person with ... breathing Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) Cardiac ...

  5. Mapping burned areas using dense time-series of Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, Todd J.; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Beal, Yen-Ju G.; Takacs, Joshua; Schmidt, Gail L.; Falgout, Jeff T.; Williams, Brad; Brunner, Nicole M.; Caldwell, Megan K.; Picotte, Joshua J.; Howard, Stephen M.; Stitt, Susan; Dwyer, John L.

    2017-01-01

    Complete and accurate burned area data are needed to document patterns of fires, to quantify relationships between the patterns and drivers of fire occurrence, and to assess the impacts of fires on human and natural systems. Unfortunately, in many areas existing fire occurrence datasets are known to be incomplete. Consequently, the need to systematically collect burned area information has been recognized by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which have both called for the production of essential climate variables (ECVs), including information about burned area. In this paper, we present an algorithm that identifies burned areas in dense time-series of Landsat data to produce the Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV) products. The algorithm uses gradient boosted regression models to generate burn probability surfaces using band values and spectral indices from individual Landsat scenes, lagged reference conditions, and change metrics between the scene and reference predictors. Burn classifications are generated from the burn probability surfaces using pixel-level thresholding in combination with a region growing process. The algorithm can be applied anywhere Landsat and training data are available. For this study, BAECV products were generated for the conterminous United States from 1984 through 2015. These products consist of pixel-level burn probabilities for each Landsat scene, in addition to, annual composites including: the maximum burn probability and a burn classification. We compared the BAECV burn classification products to the existing Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED; 1997–2015) and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS; 1984–2013) data. We found that the BAECV products mapped 36% more burned area than the GFED and 116% more burned area than MTBS. Differences between the BAECV products and the GFED were especially high in the West and East where the

  6. Educational Materials - Burn Wise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  7. Numerical analysis and simulation of behavior of high burn-up PWR fuel pulse-irradiated in reactivity-initiated accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, M.; Sugiyama, T.; Udagawa, Y.; Nagase, F.; Fuketa, T.

    2010-01-01

    The four cases of the NSRR experiments, consisting of two room temperature tests and two high temperature tests, using high burn-up PWR fuel rods are analyzed by using the RANNS code to discuss the fuel behavior in hypothetical pulse-irradiation conditions, and the results are compared with metallography observations of ruptured claddings. The cladding rupture occurred by a shear sliding which starts from the tip of incipient crack generated in the hydride dense layer. The analyses reveal that the onset of shear sliding leading to cladding rupture can be closely associated with the stress intensity factor KI at the crack tip and local plastic strain evolution around the tip as well, and that these two factors depend also on the temperature of cladding. Simulation calculations on the basis of experimental conditions reveals that the cladding stress is dependent on the height and half-width of pulse power, and for the same integral enthalpy of pulse a larger half-width mitigates the severity of transient and decreases KI to allow plastic strain by temperature rise, thus failure possibility would be markedly decreased

  8. Instant release fraction and matrix release of high burn-up UO{sub 2} spent nuclear fuel: Effect of high burn-up structure and leaching solution composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano-Purroy, D., E-mail: Daniel.serrano-purroy@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Clarens, F.; Gonzalez-Robles, E. [CTM Centre Tecnologic, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Barcelona (Spain); Glatz, J.P.; Wegen, D.H. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Pablo, J. de [CTM Centre Tecnologic, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, I.; Gimenez, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Martinez-Esparza, A. [ENRESA, C/Emilio Vargas 7, 28043 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Two weak points in Performance Assessment (PA) exercises regarding the alteration of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) are the contribution of the so-called Instant Release Fraction (IRF) and the effect of High Burn-Up Structure (HBS). This manuscript focuses on the effect of HBS in matrix (long term) and instant release of a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) SNF irradiated in a commercial reactor with a mean Burn-Up (BU) of 60 GWd/tU. In order to study the HBS contribution, two samples from different radial positions have been prepared. One from the centre of the SNF, labelled CORE, and one from the periphery, enriched with HBS and labelled OUT. Static leaching experiments have been carried out with two synthetic leaching solutions: bicarbonate (BIC) and Bentonitic Granitic Groundwater (BGW), and in all cases under oxidising conditions. IRF values have been calculated from the determined Fraction of Inventory in Aqueous Phase (FIAP). In all studied cases, some radionuclides (RN): Rb, Sr and Cs, have shown higher release rates than uranium, especially at the beginning of the experiment, and have been considered as IRF. Redox sensitive RN like Mo and Tc have been found to dissolve slightly faster than uranium and further studies might be needed to confirm if they can also be considered part of the IRF. Most of the remaining studied RN, mainly actinides and lanthanides, have been found to dissolve congruently with the uranium matrix. Finally, Zr, Ru and Rh presented lower release rates than the matrix. Higher matrix release has been determined for CORE than for OUT samples showing that the formation of HBS might have a protective effect against the oxidative corrosion of the SNF. On the contrary, no significant differences have been observed between the two studied leaching solutions (BIC and BGW). Two different IRF contributions have been determined. One corresponding to the fraction of inventory segregated in the external open grain boundaries, directly available to water and

  9. Prescribed burning: a topical issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovio G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed burning is a promising technique for the prevention of forest fires in Italy. The research deepened several ecological and operative aspects. However, legal issues need to be thoroughly investigated.

  10. In Developping a Bench-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor to Burn High Ash Brazilian Coal-Dolomites Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Behainne, Jhon Jairo; Hory, Rogério Ishikawa; Goldstein, Leonardo; Bernárdez Pécora, Araí Augusta

    This work considers some of the questions in burning high ash Brazilian coal-dolomite mixtures in a bench-scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Experimental tests were performed with the CE4500 coal from Santa Catarina State, in southern Brazil, with a Sauter mean diameter d p =43 μm. The coal particles were mixed with dolomite particles of d p = 111 μm and this fuel mixture was fed into the circulating fluidized reactor, previously loaded with quartz sand particles of d p =353 μm. This inert material was previously heated by the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas up to the ignition temperature of the fuel mixture. The CFBC unit has a 100mm internal diameter riser, 4.0m high, as well as a 62.8mm internal diameter downcomer. The loop has a cyclone, a sampling valve to collect particles and a 62.8mm internal diameter L-valve to recirculate the particles in the loop. A screw feeder with a rotation control system was used to feed the fuel mixture to the reactor. The operational conditions were monitored by pressure taps and thermocouples installed along the loop. A data acquisition system showed the main operational conditions to control. Experimental tests performed put in evidence the problems found during bed operation, with special attention to the solids feed device, to the L-valve operation, to particle size, solids inventory, fluidized gas velocity, fuel mixture and recirculated solids feeding positions.

  11. “This is not a burning issue for me”: How citizens justify their use of wood heaters in a city with a severe air pollution problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, Ian; Scott, John; Hine, Donald W.; Bhullar, Navjot

    2013-01-01

    Although wood smoke pollution has been linked to health problems, wood burning remains a popular form of domestic heating in many countries across the world. In this paper, we describe the rhetoric of resistance to wood heater regulation amongst citizens in the regional Australian town of Armidale, where wood smoke levels regularly exceed national health advisory limits. We discuss how this is related to particular sources of resistance, such as affective attachment to wood heating and socio-cultural norms. The research draws on six focus groups with participants from households with and without wood heating. With reference to practice theory, we argue that citizen discourses favouring wood burning draw upon a rich suite of justifications and present this activity as a natural and traditional activity promoting comfort and cohesion. Such discourses also emphasise the identity of the town as a rural community and the supposed gemeinschaft qualities of such places. We show that, in this domain of energy policy, it is not enough to present ‘facts’ which have little emotional association or meaning for the populace. Rather, we need understand how social scripts, often localised, inform identity and practice. - Highlights: ► The negative health effects of wood smoke from wood heaters are known by citizens. ► Continued use of wood heating is justified with a rich suite of rhetorical strategies. ► Some strategies try to negate or diminish the case for phasing out wood heaters. ► Other strategies present wood heating as a natural, traditional and social activity

  12. EPIDEMOLOGY OF BURNS IN ENUGU, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JIBURUM

    community is encouraged to study the epidemiology of burns since this important ... CONCLUSION The incidence and mortality of burn injury has remained high in this .... they are a group at risk. ... epidemiology and the compliance factors in.

  13. High Job Demands, Still Engaged and Not Burned Out? The Role of Job Crafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakanen, Jari J.; Seppälä, Piia; Peeters, Maria C W

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Traditionally, employee well-being has been considered as resulting from decent working conditions arranged by the organization. Much less is known about whether employees themselves can make self-initiated changes to their work, i.e., craft their jobs, in order to stay well, even in highly

  14. Instant release of fission products in leaching experiments with high burn-up nuclear fuels in the framework of the Euratom project FIRST- Nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmens, K., E-mail: klemmens@sckcen.be [Waste and Disposal Expert Group, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); González-Robles, E.; Kienzler, B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (KIT-INE), PO Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Curti, E. [Laboratory for Waste Management, Nuclear Energy and Safety Dept., Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Serrano-Purroy, D. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre - JRC, Directorate G - Nuclear Safety & Security, Department G.III, PO Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sureda, R.; Martínez-Torrents, A. [CTM Centre Tecnològic, Plaça de la Ciència 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Roth, O. [Studsvik, Nuclear AB, 611 82 Nyköping (Sweden); Slonszki, E. [Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Energiatudományi Kutatóközpont (MTA EK), PO Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Mennecart, T. [Waste and Disposal Expert Group, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Günther-Leopold, I. [Laboratory for Waste Management, Nuclear Energy and Safety Dept., Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Hózer, Z. [Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Energiatudományi Kutatóközpont (MTA EK), PO Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-02-15

    The instant release of fission products from high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuels and one MOX fuel was investigated by means of leach tests. The samples covered PWR and BWR fuels at average rod burn-up in the range of 45–63 GWd/t{sub HM} and included clad fuel segments, fuel segments with opened cladding, fuel fragments and fuel powder. The tests were performed with sodium chloride – bicarbonate solutions under oxidizing conditions and, for one test, in reducing Ar/H{sub 2} atmosphere. The iodine and cesium release could be partially explained by the differences in sample preparation, leading to different sizes and properties of the exposed surface areas. Iodine and cesium releases tend to correlate with FGR and linear power rating, but the scatter of the data is significant. Although the gap between the fuel and the cladding was closed in some high burn-up samples, fissures still provide possible preferential transport pathways. - Highlights: • Leach tests were performed to study the instant release of fission products from high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuels and one MOX fuel. • In these tests, the fission gas release given by the operator was a pessimistic estimator of the iodine and cesium release. • Iodine and cesium release is proportional to linear power rating beyond 200 W cm{sup −1}. • Closure of the fuel-cladding gap at high burn-up slows down the release. • The release rate decreases following an exponential equation.

  15. Role of burning season on initial understory vegetation response to prescribed fire in a mixed conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, E.E.; Schwilk, D.W.; Kane, J.M.; Keeley, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Although the majority of fires in the western United States historically occurred during the late summer or early fall when fuels were dry and plants were dormant or nearly so, early-season prescribed burns are often ignited when fuels are still moist and plants are actively growing. The purpose of this study was to determine if burn season influences postfire vegetation recovery. Replicated early-season burn, late-season burn, and unburned control units were established in a mixed conifer forest, and understory vegetation was evaluated before and after treatment. Vegetation generally recovered rapidly after prescribed burning. However, late-season burns resulted in a temporary but significant drop in cover and a decline in species richness at the 1 m 2 scale in the following year. For two of the several taxa that were negatively affected by burning, the reduction in frequency was greater after late-season than early-season burns. Early-season burns may have moderated the effect of fire by consuming less fuel and lessening the amount of soil heating. Our results suggest that, when burned under high fuel loading conditions, many plant species respond more strongly to differences in fire intensity and severity than to timing of the burn relative to stage of plant growth. ?? 2007 NRC.

  16. Third Degree Skin Burns Caused by an MRI Compatible Electrocardiographic Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lau; Isaksen, Christin Rosendahl Graff; Kristensen, Birgitte Hornbæk

    of the assigned compatibility specifications of the leads due to the use of TFE sequences with high SAR values. MRI compatible monitoring systems are only safe when used with proper care. The presented burn cases may have been avoided if space had been provided between the ECG leads and the skin using a cloth....... This holds true even in cases in which the devices are MRI compatible and therefore safe in specified MRI environments. Of particular interest to this case report is skin burns caused by the ECG monitoring equipment. In this context, several cases of ECG electrode related burns have been reported, while...... burns caused by the ECG cables are less common [1]. This case report presents two unusual cases of skin burns which were caused by MRI safe ECG leads during scanning. Cases:Two patients suffered third degree burns using MRI approved ECG leads (Medrad® Veris MR Monitor system) in a Siemens Skyra 3...

  17. Psychosocial needs of burns nurses: a descriptive phenomenological inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; Wilson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the psychosocial needs of nurses who care for patients with severe burn injuries. Burns nurses work in an emotionally challenging and confronting environment, for which they are in need of emotional and clinical support. Exposure to such high levels of stress in this occupational environment has implications for nurses' health and psychosocial well-being. Seven burns nurses were recruited in 2009 from a severe burn injury unit in New South Wales, Australia. A qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to construct themes depicting nurses' experiences. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data were collected through in-depth individual semistructured interviews using open-ended questions. Data were analyzed with Colaizzi's phenomenological method of data analysis. The psychosocial needs of burns nurses were identified and organized into five categories: peer nursing support, informal support, lack of support, multidisciplinary team collaboration, and professional support. The findings clearly demonstrate that support and unity within the workplace are fundamental factors for the psychosocial well-being of nurses caring for patients who have sustained a severe burn injury. Support for nurses in the form of regular professional or collegial debriefing sessions and utilization of employee assistance programs could ease the impact of the stressful environment in which they operate, and could influence staff retention. However, a supportive workplace culture is necessary to encourage nurses to access these services.

  18. The Mechanism of Burn-in Loss in a High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Craig H.

    2011-10-11

    Degradation in a high efficiency polymer solar cell is caused by the formation of states in the bandgap. These states increase the energetic disorder in the system. The power conversion efficiency loss does not occur when current is run through the device in the dark but occurs when the active layer is photo-excited. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. "Train surfers": analysis of 23 cases of electrical burns caused by high tension railway overhead cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternick, I; Gomes, R D; Serra, M C; Radwanski, H N; Pitanguy, I

    2000-08-01

    The term "train surfers" describes a group of adolescents from the outskirts of the city of Rio de Janeiro, who are compelled by the overcrowded railway trains to travel on the roofs of the wagons. Collision with electrical high-tension wires is a relatively frequent occurrence, causing extensive and complex injuries. This study analyzes this clinical and surgical phenomenon which has caused over 100 fatalities in more than 200 registered accidents over the past 10 years.

  20. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  1. Observation of magnetooptical effects in several high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, J.F. Jr; Lyons, K.B.

    1992-01-01

    Recent so called 'anyon' theories of high temperature superconductivity in layer structure materials suggested that at some temperature T TP ≥T c there is a symmetry breaking transition below which these materials may be in either of two distinct states related to each other by time reversal. The study of magneto-optical effects in superconductors reviewed here was undertaken to explore time reversal symmetry of these materials. Using novel technique with rotating λ/2 plate at 525 nm, 'circular dichroism' was observed on reflection from epitaxial films and single crystals of cuprate superconductor with layer structures. The onset of dichroism was at temperatures of ∼ 180K to ∼ 300K. These results appear to support the 'anyon' theories. However, circular dichroism was also seen in films and single crystals of bismuthate superconductors with cubic structure, to which the theories seem inapplicable. In sharp contrast, Spielman et al., at Stanford in a very sensitive experiment at 1060 nm have seen no evidence of non-reciprocal circular birefringence in epitaxial cuprate superconducting films. Weber et al. at Dortmund have recently reported the observation at 633 nm of non-reciprocal magneto-optical effects on single crystals of cuprate superconductors, but none on films. (author). 15 refs., 5 figs

  2. High Job Demands, Still Engaged and Not Burned Out? The Role of Job Crafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakanen, Jari J; Seppälä, Piia; Peeters, Maria C W

    2017-08-01

    Traditionally, employee well-being has been considered as resulting from decent working conditions arranged by the organization. Much less is known about whether employees themselves can make self-initiated changes to their work, i.e., craft their jobs, in order to stay well, even in highly demanding work situations. The aim of this study was to use the job demands-resources (JD-R model) to investigate whether job crafting buffers the negative impacts of four types of job demands (workload, emotional dissonance, work contents, and physical demands) on burnout and work engagement. A questionnaire study was designed to examine the buffering role of job crafting among 470 Finnish dentists. All in all, 11 out of 16 possible interaction effects of job demands and job crafting on employee well-being were significant. Job crafting particularly buffered the negative effects of job demands on burnout (7/8 significant interactions) and to a somewhat lesser extent also on work engagement (4/8 significant interactions). Applying job crafting techniques appeared to be particularly effective in mitigating the negative effects of quantitative workload (4/4 significant interactions). By demonstrating that job crafting can also buffer the negative impacts of high job demands on employee well-being, this study contributed to the JD-R model as it suggests that job crafting may even be possible under high work demands, and not only in resourceful jobs, as most previous studies have indicated. In addition to the top-down initiatives for improving employee well-being, bottom-up approaches such as job crafting may also be efficient in preventing burnout and enhancing work engagement.

  3. Evaluation of the U.S. Geological Survey Landsat burned area essential climate variable across the conterminous U.S. using commercial high-resolution imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Brunner, Nicole M.; Beal, Yen-Ju G.; Hawbaker, Todd J.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has produced the Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV) product for the conterminous United States (CONUS), which provides wall-to-wall annual maps of burned area at 30 m resolution (1984–2015). Validation is a critical component in the generation of such remotely sensed products. Previous efforts to validate the BAECV relied on a reference dataset derived from Landsat, which was effective in evaluating the product across its timespan but did not allow for consideration of inaccuracies imposed by the Landsat sensor itself. In this effort, the BAECV was validated using 286 high-resolution images, collected from GeoEye-1, QuickBird-2, Worldview-2 and RapidEye satellites. A disproportionate sampling strategy was utilized to ensure enough burned area pixels were collected. Errors of omission and commission for burned area averaged 22 ± 4% and 48 ± 3%, respectively, across CONUS. Errors were lowest across the western U.S. The elevated error of commission relative to omission was largely driven by patterns in the Great Plains which saw low errors of omission (13 ± 13%) but high errors of commission (70 ± 5%) and potentially a region-growing function included in the BAECV algorithm. While the BAECV reliably detected agricultural fires in the Great Plains, it frequently mapped tilled areas or areas with low vegetation as burned. Landscape metrics were calculated for individual fire events to assess the influence of image resolution (2 m, 30 m and 500 m) on mapping fire heterogeneity. As the spatial detail of imagery increased, fire events were mapped in a patchier manner with greater patch and edge densities, and shape complexity, which can influence estimates of total greenhouse gas emissions and rates of vegetation recovery. The increasing number of satellites collecting high-resolution imagery and rapid improvements in the frequency with which imagery is being collected means greater opportunities to utilize these sources

  4. Study of the fire behavior of high-energy lithium-ion batteries with full-scale burning test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Ping; Wang, QingSong; Huang, PeiFeng; Li, Ke; Sun, JinHua; Kong, DePeng; Chen, ChunHua

    2015-07-01

    A full-scale burning test is conducted to evaluate the safety of large-size and high-energy 50 Ah lithium-iron phosphate/graphite battery pack, which is composed of five 10 Ah single cells. The complex fire hazards associated with the combustion process of the battery are presented. The battery combustion behavior can be summarized into the following stages: battery expansion, jet flame, stable combustion, a second cycle of a jet flame followed by stable combustion, a third cycle of a jet flame followed by stable combustion, abatement and extinguishment. The multiple jets of flame indicate serious consequences for the battery and pose a challenge for battery safety. The battery ignites when the battery temperature reaches approximately 175-180 °C. This critical temperature is related to an internal short circuit of the battery, which results from the melting of the separator. The maximum temperature of the flame can reach 1500 °C. The heat release rate (HRR) varies based on the oxygen generated by the battery and the Joule effect of the internal short circuit. The HRR and heat of combustion can reach 49.4 kW and 18,195.1 kJ, respectively. The state of charge of the battery has a significant effect on the maximum HRR, the overall heat generation and the mass loss of the battery.

  5. SEM Characterization of the High Burn-up Microstructure of U-7Mo Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Jian Gan; Brandon Miller; Adam Robinson; Pavel Medvedev; James Madden; Dan Wachs; M. Teague

    2014-04-01

    During irradiation, the microstructure of U-7Mo evolves until at a fission density near 5x1021 f/cm3 a high-burnup microstructure exists that is very different than what was observed at lower fission densities. This microstructure is dominated by randomly distributed, relatively large, homogeneous fission gas bubbles. The bubble superlattice has collapsed in many microstructural regions, and the fuel grain sizes, in many areas, become sub-micron in diameter with both amorphous fuel and crystalline fuel present. Solid fission product precipitates can be found inside the fission gas bubbles. To generate more information about the characteristics of the high-fission density microstructure, three samples irradiated in the RERTR-7 experiment have been characterized using a scanning electron microscope equipped with a focused ion beam. The FIB was used to generate samples for SEM imaging and to perform 3D reconstruction of the microstructure, which can be used to look for evidence of possible fission gas bubble interlinkage.

  6. Animal Models in Burn Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury; to elucidate the pathophysiology and explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review paper aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

  7. Application of high energy accelerator to study of single event burn-out (SEB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hada, Takashi; Aoki, Shiro; Nakamura, Masao; Matsuda, Sumio [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Hirao, Toshio; Nashiyama, Isamu; Hirose, Takayuki; Ohira, Hideharu; Nagai, Yuki

    1996-12-01

    Hitherto, as nuclear fission fragments of 252-Cf, one of radioactive matters have been used for elucidation of single event mechanism, this method has a limit for analysis of power MOSFET with long charge collection region (generally, empty layer) and is difficult to form the experiment simulating the space environment, because of their wide LET (Linear Energy Transfer) range and of short flying distance of about 15 micrometer. As a result, some irradiation experiments using an accelerator capable of forming charged particle beam with long flying distance and single energy became essential to elucidate the SEB mechanism. In this paper, an experiment result of SEB phenomenon using high energy accelerator was reported. As a result, following items were found: (1) With increase of impressed charge, collected charge shows two peaks, and also increases, (2) commercial power MOSFET shows about 280 V in SEB resistance, and power MOSFET developed for the space use shows about 320 V, which is improved about 40 V for the commercial one, and so forth. (G.K.)

  8. Osteomyelitis in burn patients requiring skeletal fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Desai, MH; Herndon, DN

    Deep and severe burns often present with the exposure of musculoskeletal structures and severe deformities. Skeletal fixation, suspension and/or traction are part of their comprehensive treatment. Several factors put burn patients at risk for osteomyelitis, osteosynthesis material being one of them.

  9. Soil heating and impact of prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Prescribed burning is highly uncommon in the Netherlands, where wildfire awareness is increasing but its risk management does not yet include fuel management strategies. A major exception is on two military bases, that need to burn their fields in winter and spring to prevent wildfires during summer shooting practice. Research on these very frequent burns has so far been limited to effects on biodiversity, yet site managers and policy makers have questions regarding the soil temperatures reached during these burns because of potential impact on soil properties and soil dwelling fauna. In March 2015, I therefore measured soil and litter temperatures under heath and grass vegetation during a prescribed burn on military terrain in the Netherlands. Soil and litter moisture were sampled pre- and post-fire, ash was collected, and fireline intensity was estimated from flame length. While standing vegetation was dry (0.13 g water/g biomass for grass and 0.6 g/g for heather), soil and litter were moist (0.21 cm3/cm3 and 1.6 g/g, respectively). Soil heating was therefore very limited, with maximum soil temperature at the soil-litter interface remaining being as low as 6.5 to 11.5°C, and litter temperatures reaching a maximum of 77.5°C at the top of the litter layer. As a result, any changes in physical properties like soil organic matter content and bulk density were not significant. These results are a first step towards a database of soil heating in relation to fuel load and fire intensity in this temperate country, which is not only valuable to increase understanding of the relationships between fire intensity and severity, but also instrumental in the policy debate regarding the sustainability of prescribed burns.

  10. Protocol for a systematic review of quantitative burn wound microbiology in the management of burns patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwei, Johnny; Halstead, Fenella D; Dretzke, Janine; Oppenheim, Beryl A; Moiemen, Naiem S

    2015-11-06

    Sepsis from burn injuries can result from colonisation of burn wounds, especially in large surface area burns. Reducing bacterial infection will reduce morbidity and mortality, and mortality for severe burns can be as high as 15 %. There are various quantitative and semi-quantitative techniques to monitor bacterial load on wounds. In the UK, burn wounds are typically monitored for the presence or absence of bacteria through the collection and culture of swabs, but no absolute count is obtained. Quantitative burn wound culture provides a measure of bacterial count and is gaining increased popularity in some countries. It is however more resource intensive, and evidence for its utility appears to be inconsistent. This systematic review therefore aims to assess the evidence on the utility and reliability of different quantitative microbiology techniques in terms of diagnosing or predicting clinical outcomes. Standard systematic review methods aimed at minimising bias will be employed for study identification, selection and data extraction. Bibliographic databases and ongoing trial registers will be searched and conference abstracts screened. Studies will be eligible if they are prospective studies or systematic reviews of burn patients (any age) for whom quantitative microbiology has been performed, whether it is compared to another method. Quality assessment will be based on quality assessment tools for diagnostic and prognostic studies and tailored to the review as necessary. Synthesis is likely to be primarily narrative, but meta-analysis may be considered where clinical and methodological homogeneity exists. Given the increasing use of quantitative methods, this is a timely systematic review, which will attempt to clarify the evidence base. As far as the authors are aware, it will be the first to address this topic. PROSPERO, CRD42015023903.

  11. Sedation and Analgesia in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Akıncı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is one of the most serious injuries that mankind may face. In addition to serious inflammation, excessive fluid loss, presence of hemodynamic instability due to intercurrent factors such as debridements, infections and organ failure, very different levels and intensities of pain, psychological problems such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, delirium at different levels that occur in patient with severe burn are the factors which make it difficult to provide the patient comfort. In addition to a mild to moderate level of baseline permanent pain in burn patients, which is due to tissue damage, there is procedural pain as well, which occurs by treatments such as grafting and dressings, that are severe, short-term burst style 'breakthrough' pain. Movement and tactile stimuli are also seen in burn injury as an effect to sensitize the peripheral and central nervous system. Even though many burn centers have established protocols to struggle with the pain, studies show that pain relief still inadequate in burn patients. Therefore, the treatment of burn pain and the prevention of possible emergence of future psychiatric problems suc as post-traumatic stress disorder, the sedative and anxiolytic agents should be used as a recommendation according to the needs and hemodynamic status of individual patient. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 26-30

  12. Developing a savanna burning emissions abatement methodology for tussock grasslands in high rainfall regions of northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Russell-Smith

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fire-prone tropical savanna and grassland systems are a significant source of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases.  In recent years, substantial research has been directed towards developing accounting methodologies for savanna burning emissions to be applied in Australia’s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, as well as for commercial carbon trading purposes.  That work has focused on woody savanna systems.  Here, we extend the methodological approach to include tussock grasslands and associated Melaleuca-dominated open woodlands (<10% foliage cover in higher rainfall (>1,000 mm/annum regions of northern Australia.  Field assessments under dry season conditions focused on deriving fuel accumulation, fire patchiness and combustion relationships for key fuel types: fine fuels − grass and litter; coarse woody fuels − twigs <6 mm diameter; heavy woody fuels − >6 mm diameter; and shrubs.  In contrast with previous savanna burning assessments, fire treatments undertaken under early dry season burning conditions resulted in negligible patchiness and very substantial consumption of fine fuels.  In effect, burning in the early dry season provides no benefits in greenhouse gas emissions and emissions reductions in tussock grasslands can be achieved only through reducing the extent of burning.  The practical implications of reduced burning in higher rainfall northern Australian grassland systems are discussed, indicating that there are significant constraints, including infrastructural, cultural and woody thickening issues.  Similar opportunities and constraints are observed in other international contexts, but especially project implementation challenges associated with legislative, political and governance issues.

  13. [Inventory building of phages against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from wounds of patients with severe burn and related characteristic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z C; Deng, L Y; Gong, Y L; Yin, S P; Jiang, B; Huang, G T; Peng, Y Z; Hu, F Q

    2016-09-20

    To build inventory of phages against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii isolated from wounds of inpatients of burn ICU and analyze related characteristics. In 2014 and 2015, 131 strains of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii were isolated from wounds of inpatients of burn ICU from one hospital in Chongqing. In 2015, 98 strains of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii were isolated from wounds of inpatients of burn ICU from 6 hospitals in Guangdong province. Above-mentioned 229 strains were collected for conducting experiments as follows: (1) Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of strains isolated from Chongqing and Guangdong province was analyzed. (2) Sewage co-culture method was applied for isolation of phages with above-mentioned strains and sewage from Chongqing and Guangdong province. Numbers of isolated phages and times of successful isolation and unsuccessful isolation were recorded. (3) The most prevalent subtypes of strains from Chongqing and Guangdong province in 2015 were collected, and their phages respectively underwent cross infection with all strains from Chongqing and those from Guangdong province. The lysis ability of phage was observed when phage underwent cross infection with the same subtype of strain or not the same, and the lytic ratio was calculated. (4) Fluid of phage in one type was randomly selected and equally divided into 3 parts, and its titer was determined by double dilution method. Then each part of phage fluid was subdivided into 3 small parts, which were cultured with LB fluid medium and respectively stored under the condition of -20 ℃, 4 ℃, and room temperature. After being stored for 1 month and 2 months, the titer of phage was determined for evaluating stability of phage. Data were processed with Fisher's exact test, chi-square test, and one-way analysis of variance. (1) The major type of strains from Chongqing in 2014 was ST368 (45%, 31/69), and major types of strains from Chongqing

  14. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Ohgi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. An attempt has been made to present the basic aspects of burn rehabilitation, provide practical information, and discuss the goals and conceptualization of rehabilitation as well as the development of rehabilitation philosophy and strategies.

  15. Mortality pattern of burn patients admitted in S. G. M. Hospital Rewa: A teaching institute of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Lal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burn injuries rank among the most severe types of injuries suffered by the human body with an attendant high mortality and morbidity rate. In previous studies, incidence, severity and deaths due to burn were found higher in young married women in India. Study to find out mortality pattern in burn patient was not carried out in this part of country. Objective: To identify demographic and sociocultural factors, type, modes, causes and risk factors for burn injuries and their gender-wise association. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective study. Data were collected from all burn patients who admitted and died while on the treatment from 2004 to 2009. A total of 586 patients were included in this study. Data were gathered from hospital records and entered in the excel sheet. Analysis of data was done by using SPSS version 17 statistical software. Results: The mean age of patients was 22.66 years (range 1 m to 80 years. Episodes of burn were 4.63 times common in female (82.25% than in male (17.75%. It was statistically significant in females of age group 21-30 years (93.93% vs. 15.33% P < 0.0001. Married females (86.80% burned more commonly than married males (13.19% P < 0.0001. Flame burn was the major cause of death (95.56%. Kerosene was the most common (69% source of flame burn. Clothes caught fire while working on Chullha were 25% cases ( P < 0.0001. Accidental (86.44% burn was the most common intention of injury. The majority of burn deaths (68% occurred within one week of the incident due to septicemia (57%. Conclusion: Factors associated with an increase in mortality were accidental burns, burn size, young age, married women, and flame burns. For planning and implementing prevention programs, the approach has to be multidisciplinary and coordinated.

  16. Healing of cornea following an electric burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Tanveer Anjum; Shaikh, Farheen; Ahmad, Khabir

    2012-08-01

    Electrical injuries have become a significant health problem in developing countries because of increase in access to electricity in the last few decades and lack of adequate safety measures. Electrical injuries of eyes are relatively uncommon. A case report of a rapid and complete corneal healing accompanied by satisfactory visual recovery after an electric burn event in a 20-year-old male is reported. The patient had accidental exposure to high voltage live wire while he was repairing it, resulting in severe ocular and superficial body burn. He was not wearing any protective equipment at the time of injury. On examination, the best-corrected visual acuity was counting fingers in the left eye with severe corneal epithelial loss and diffuse corneal oedema. The patient was treated medically, with a rapid corneal healing and resolution of oedema over the next few days. Visual acuity in the worse eye (left) improved to 20/25 from counting fingers.

  17. High-temperature rapid pyrometamorphism induced by a charcoal pit burning: The case of Ricetto, central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, Flavio; Larocca, Francesco; Improta, Salvatore

    Bulk chemistry and mineralogy of the peculiar rock of Ricetto (Carseolani Mts., Central Apennines, Italy) was studied to resolve its controversial origin: igneous dyke or anthropic product. This hybrid rock consists of a colorless, felsic component made up of glass plus quartz, and a brown, femic component made up of fans and spherulites of diopside, calcic plagioclase, wollastonite, and melilite. Textural relationships indicate very rapid cooling and immiscibility phenomena. The bulk chemistry of the rock is the same as that of the surrounding siliciclastic sandstone. The 14C analysis of a coal fragment from bottom of the body yields the conventional age of 227(+/-50) years. The Ricetto occurrence is an example of pyrometamorphism of a siliceous limestone induced by a charcoal pit burning. The small size of the heat source at Ricetto caused an intense but short-lived melting of the country rock. Prograde metamorphism caused a temperature increase up to 1,000-1,100 °C when melilite crystallization conditions were reached at appreciable P(CO2) and high f(O2). Melting occurred in a close system represented by the simplified equation: 3Cal+16.5Qtz+Ms+Bt-->Mel+Melt+2H2O+3CO2+0.5O2. Diopside+calcic plagioclase+wollastonite formed by melilite breakdown during rapid cooling, through the reaction: 6Mel+6Qtz+0.5O2-->3Di+2An+7Wo. Liquid immiscibility caused the separation between the felsic melt component and the femic melilite-bearing component. Immiscibility was characterized by different fractionation of alumina and alkalies between these two phases. Differences in bulk, glass, and mineral chemistry between the Ricetto and other melilite-bearing pyrometamorphic rocks can be attributed mainly to different protoliths.

  18. Development and application of a high-temperature sampling probe for burning chamber conditions of fluidized-bed combustion; Korkean laempoetilan naeytteenottosondin kehittaeminen ja soveltaminen leijukerrospolton tulipesaeolosuhteisiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjava, K.; Paerkkae, M.; Jormanainen, P.; Roine, J.; Paakkinen, K. [VTT Chemistry, Espoo (Finland); Linna, V. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    A sampling probe for the burning chamber conditions of fluidized-bed combustion will be developed in this project. The probe will be suitable for sampling vaporous heavy and alkali metals and other condensing compounds (e.g. chlorides) as well combustion gases and alternatively also flue gas particles at high temperatures. The knowledge gained with the probe will help understanding, developing and modeling combustion processes and will thus aid the manufacturers of the boilers. (author)

  19. Extensive colonization with carbapenemase-producing microorganisms in Romanian burn patients : infectious consequences from the Colectiv fire disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirii, L E; Friedrich, A W; Rossen, J W A; Vogels, W; Beerthuizen, G I J M; Nieuwenhuis, M K; Kooistra-Smid, A M D; Bathoorn, E

    Health care of severe burn patients is highly specialized and may require international patient transfer. Burn patients have an increased risk of developing infections. Patients that have been hospitalized in countries where carbapenemase-producing microorganisms (CPMO) are endemic may develop

  20. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia during a high fire event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G.R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled a large fire-induced haze episode in 2006 stemming mostly from Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We

  1. [Burns in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Rodríguez, R; Domínguez Amillo, E; Soto Beauregard, C; Díaz González, M; López Gutiérrez, J C; Ros Mar, Z; Tovar Larrucea, J A

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to know the epidemiology of burns in teenagers. Burn patients over 11 years old admitted in our Institution in the last 10 years were included. Etiology, burn size, hospital stay, quirurgical interventions and long term sequelae were registered. One thousand and eight patients were admitted, 89 were over 11 years (8.8%), 70.7% were boys and 29.3% girls. Fire was the principal agent in 58 cases (65.1%), due to fireworks in 13 (22.4%), alcohol in 7 (12%), explosion of flammable containers (spray) in 4 (6.8%) and gasoline in 3 (5.2%). Fireworks injuries and spray explosions affected face and hand in 88% cases. The median hospital stay was 8 days after admission (1 to 90). 83.1% required surgical treatment with mean of 1.8 +/- 1.4 interventions and 21.3% had long-term sequelaes that required at least one surgical intervention. Fire is the main cause of burns in adolescents. Fireworks injuries represented a quarter of that lesions, and highlights paint spray explosions as new causative agents. Considering the high morbidity in this age group, with permanent functional and aesthetic sequelae, prevention campaigns are needed to reduce such accidents.

  2. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Home Health Info Health Topics Burning Mouth Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a painful, complex condition often described ... or other symptoms. Read More Publications Cover image Burning Mouth Syndrome Publication files Download Language English PDF — Number of ...

  3. Burning issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, C.

    1998-10-01

    Coal is world`s most abundant source of energy. Turning this potential pollutant into a clean, cost-effective fuel for power production has become a matter for global concern. Some problems and their solutions are highlighted in this article. Environmental problems caused by the giant Mae Moh plant in Thailand were overcome with an extensive retrofit programme that included flue gas desulfurisation systems. For new and smaller coal-fuelled plant, boilers using circulating fluidised bed (CFB) technology provide a cost effective and efficient system which meets environmental standards. A large independent power plant at Colver, Pennsylvania, USA uses CFB technology to burn bituminous gob. AMM and Alstom can provide turnkey packages for coal-fired power plant using a modular concept based on CFB technology. 2 photos.

  4. Development of continuous energy Monte Carlo burn-up calculation code MVP-BURN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Sasaki, Makoto

    2001-01-01

    Burn-up calculations based on the continuous energy Monte Carlo method became possible by development of MVP-BURN. To confirm the reliably of MVP-BURN, it was applied to the two numerical benchmark problems; cell burn-up calculations for High Conversion LWR lattice and BWR lattice with burnable poison rods. Major burn-up parameters have shown good agreements with the results obtained by a deterministic code (SRAC95). Furthermore, spent fuel composition calculated by MVP-BURN was compared with measured one. Atomic number densities of major actinides at 34 GWd/t could be predicted within 10% accuracy. (author)

  5. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  6. Burn and they will come! The western regional birds and burns study examines bird responses to prescribed fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Thompson; John Lehmkuhl

    2008-01-01

    Although prescribed fire is increasingly being used in ponderosa pine forests as a management tool to reduce the risk of future high-severity wildfire, its effects on wildlife habitat have rarely been examined. The Birds and Burns Network was created to assist managers in planning prescribed fire projects that will reduce fuels and enhance bird habitat. Researchers...

  7. The application of FORMOSAT-2 high-temporal- and high-spatial resolution imagery for monitoring open straw burning and carbon emission detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice is produced in more than 95 countries worldwide and is a staple food for over half of the world's population. Rice is also a major food crop of Taiwan. There are numerous rice crops planted on the western plains of Taiwan, and, after the harvest season, the left-over straw is often burned on-site. The air pollutants from the burning emissions include CO2, CO, CH4 and other suspended particles, most of these being the greenhouse gases which cause global climate change. In this study FORMOSAT-2 satellite images and ground-truth data from 2008 and 2009 are used to conduct supervised classification and calculate the extent of the straw burning areas. It was found that 10% of the paddies in the study area were burned after harvest during this 2-yr period. On this pro rata basis, we calculated the overall carbon emissions from the burning of the straw. The findings showed that these few farmers produced up to 34 000 tons of carbon emissions in 2008, and 40 000 tons in 2009. The study results indicate that remotely sensed images can be used to efficiently evaluate the important characteristics for carbon emission detection. It also provides quantitative results that are relevant to tracking sources of transport pollution, postharvest burning, and Asian dust in Taiwan.

  8. Methylated spirit burns: an ongoing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansbeken, J R H; Vloemans, A F P M; Tempelman, F R H; Breederveld, R S

    2012-09-01

    Despite many educational campaigns we still see burns caused by methylated spirit every year. We undertook a retrospective study to analyse the impact of this problem. We retrospectively collected data of all patients with burns caused by methylated spirit over twelve years from 1996 to 2008. Our main endpoints were: incidence, age, mechanism of injury, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, burn depth, need for surgery and length of hospital stay. Ninety-seven patients with methylated spirit burns were included. During the study period there was no decrease in the number of patients annually admitted to the burn unit with methylated spirit burns. 28% of the patients (n=27) were younger than eighteen years old, 15% (n=15) were ten years old or younger. The most common cause of burns was carelessness in activities involving barbecues, campfires and fondues. Mean TBSA burned was 16% (SD 12.4). 70% (n=68) had full thickness burns. 66% (n=64) needed grafting. Mean length of hospital stay was 23 days (SD 24.7). The use of methylated spirit is an ongoing problem, which continues to cause severe burns in adults and children. Therefore methylated spirit should be banned in households. We suggest sale only in specialised shops, clear labelling and mandatory warnings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Accuracy of burn size estimation in patients transferred to adult Burn Units in Sydney, Australia: an audit of 698 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, Varun; Raymond, Andrew P; Issler, Andrea C; Lajevardi, Sepehr S; Chang, Ling-Yun; Maitz, Peter K M; Kennedy, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare burn size estimation between referring centres and Burn Units in adult patients transferred to Burn Units in Sydney, Australia. A review of all adults transferred to Burn Units in Sydney, Australia between January 2009 and August 2013 was performed. The TBSA estimated by the referring institution was compared with the TBSA measured at the Burns Unit. There were 698 adults transferred to a Burns Unit. Equivalent TBSA estimation between the referring hospital and Burns Unit occurred in 30% of patients. Overestimation occurred at a ratio exceeding 3:1 with respect to underestimation, with the difference between the referring institutions and Burns Unit estimation being statistically significant (Pburn-injured patients as well as in patients transferred more than 48h after the burn (Pburn (Pburns (≥20% TBSA) were found to have more satisfactory burn size estimations compared with less severe injuries (burn size assessment by referring centres. The systemic tendency for overestimation occurs throughout the entire TBSA spectrum, and persists with increasing time after the burn. Underestimation occurs less frequently but rises with increasing time after the burn and with increasing TBSA. Severe burns (≥20% TBSA) are more accurately estimated by the referring hospital. The inaccuracies in burn size assessment have the potential to result in suboptimal treatment and inappropriate referral to specialised Burn Units. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon Transfers and Emissions Following Harvest and Pile Burning in Coastal Douglas-fir Forests Determined from Analysis of High-Resolution UAV Imagery and Point Clouds and from Field Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Gougeon, F.; Kelley, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Forest carbon (C) models require knowledge on C transfers due to intense disturbances such as fire, harvest, and slash burning. In such events, live trees die and C transferred to detritus or exported as round wood. With burning, live and detrital C is lost as emissions. Burning can be incomplete, leaving wood, charred and scattered or in unburnt rings and piles. For harvests, all round wood volume is routinely measured, while dispersed and piled residue volumes are typically assessed in field surveys, scaled to a block. Recently, geospatial methods have been used to determine, for an entire block, piled residues using LiDAR or image point clouds (PC) and dispersed residues by analysis of high-resolution imagery. Second-growth Douglas-fir forests on eastern Vancouver Island were examined, 4 blocks at Oyster River (OR) and 2 at Northwest Bay (NB). OR blocks were cut winter 2011, piled spring 2011, field survey, aerial RGB imagery and LiDAR PC acquired fall 2011, piles burned, burn residues surveyed, and post-burn aerial RGB imagery acquired 2012. NB blocks were cut fall 2014, piled spring 2015, field survey, UAV RGB imagery and image PC acquired summer 2015, piles burned and burn residues surveyed spring 2016, and post-burn UAV RGB imagery and PC acquired fall 2016. Volume to biomass conversion used survey species proportions and wood density. At OR, round wood was 261.7 SE 13.1, firewood 1.7 SE 0.3, and dispersed residue by survey, 13.8 SE 3.6 tonnes dry mass (t dm) ha-1. Piled residues were 8.2 SE 0.9 from pile surveys vs. 25.0 SE 5.9 t dm ha-1 from LiDAR PC bulk pile volumes and packing ratios. Post-burn, piles lost 5.8 SE 0.5 from survey of burn residues vs. 18.2 SE 4.7 t dm ha-1 from pile volume changes using 2011 LiDAR PC and 2012 imagery. The percentage of initial merchantable biomass exported as round & fire wood, remaining as dispersed & piled residue, and lost to burning was, respectively, 92.5%, 5.5% and 2% using only field methods vs. 87%, 7% and 6% from

  11. The high pressure liquid chromatography and its application to the separation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric dust and burning residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.-C.

    1975-09-01

    A new technique of analysis is described: the high speed liquid chromatography or more exactly the high performance liquid chromatography because of the progress achieved on the new packings of the columns. The main types of chromatography, according to the phenomena involved are described: adsorption, partition, ion-exchange and exclusion chromatography. A brief outline is given of the theory for determination of stationary and mobile phases in order to obtain the optimum conditions of separation. Some exemples of possible applications are given, particularly the use of this technique for the separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric pollution and burning residues [fr

  12. Burns From Hot Wheat Bags: A Public Safety Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anna; Amprayil, Mathew; Solanki, Nicholas S.; Greenwood, John Edward

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Wheat bags are therapeutic devices that are heated in microwaves and commonly used to provide relief from muscle and joint pain. The Royal Adelaide Hospital Burns Unit has observed a number of patients with significant burn injuries resulting from their use. Despite their dangers, the products come with limited safety information. Methods: Data were collected from the Burns Unit database for all patients admitted with burns due to hot wheat bags from 2004 to 2009. This was analyzed to determine the severity of the burn injury and identify any predisposing factors. An experimental study was performed to measure the temperature of wheat bags when heated to determine their potential for causing thermal injury. Results: 11 patients were admitted with burns due to hot wheat bags. The median age was 52 years and the mean total body surface area was 1.1%. All burns were either deep dermal (45.5%) or full thickness (54.5%). Ten patients required operative management. Predisposing factors (eg, neuropathy) to thermal injury were identified in 7 patients. The experimental study showed that hot wheat bags reached temperatures of 57.3°C (135.1°F) when heated according to instructions, 63.3°C (145.9°F) in a 1000 W microwave and 69.6°C (157.3°F) on reheating. Conclusions: Hot wheat bags cause serious burn injury. When heated improperly, they can reach temperatures high enough to cause epidermal necrosis in a short period of time. Patients with impaired temperature sensation are particularly at risk. There should be greater public awareness of the dangers of wheat bag use and more specific safety warnings on the products. PMID:21915357

  13. Cathode erosion in a high-pressure high-current arc: calculations for tungsten cathode in a free-burning argon arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemchinsky, Valerian

    2012-01-01

    The motion of an evaporated atom of the cathode material in a near-cathode plasma is considered. It is shown that the evaporated atom is ionized almost instantly. The created ion, under the influence of a strong electric field existing in the cathode proximity, has a high probability of returning to the cathode. A small fraction of evaporated atoms are able to diffuse away from the cathode to the region where they are involved in plasma flow and lose their chance to return to the cathode. The fraction of the total evaporated atoms, which do not return to the cathode, the escape factor, determines the net erosion rate. In order to calculate this factor, the distributions of the plasma parameters in the near-cathode plasma were considered. Calculations showed that the escape factor is on the order of a few per cent. Using experimental data on the plasma and cathode temperatures, we calculated the net erosion rate for a free-burning 200 A argon arc with a thoriated tungsten cathode. The calculated erosion rate is close to 1 µg s -1 , which is in agreement with available experimental data. (paper)

  14. Burning mouth syndrome: etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchiari, Dafne Patrícia; de Moricz, Renata Dutra; Sanjar, Fernanda Alves; Rapoport, Priscila Bogar; Moretti, Giovana; Guerra, Marja Michelin

    2006-01-01

    The Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is an oral mucosa pain--with or without inflammatory signs--without any specific lesion. It is mostly observed in women aged 40-60 years. This pain feels like a moderate/severe burning, and it occurs more frequently on the tongue, but it may also be felt at the gingiva, lips and jugal mucosa. It may worsen during the day, during stress and fatigue, when the patient speaks too much, or through eating of spicy/hot foods. The burning can be diminished with cold food, work and leisure. The goal of this review article is to consider possible BMS etiologies and join them in 4 groups to be better studied: local, systemic, emotional and idiopathic causes of pain. Knowing the different diagnoses of this syndrome, we can establish a protocol to manage these patients. Within the local pain group, we must investigate dental, allergic and infectious causes. Concerning systemic causes we need to look for connective tissue diseases, endocrine disorders, neurological diseases, nutritional deficits and salivary glands alterations that result in xerostomia. BMS etiology may be of difficult diagnosis, many times showing more than one cause for oral pain. A detailed interview, general physical examination, oral cavity and oropharynx inspection, and lab exams are essential to avoid a try and error treatment for these patients.

  15. [Psychiatric co-morbidity, body image problems and psychotherapeutic interventions for burn survivors: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Stefanie; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; de Zwaan, Martina

    2013-11-01

    Due to progress in burn treatment, more patients even with severe burn injuries survive. Despite this positive development, however, there are still negative somatic and mental consequences. These include the life-long care of scars and pain. In addition, posttraumatic-stress disorder and depression are common consequences. Also distress due to disfigurement and body image problems have to be considered, since this is likely to result in social withdrawal, low self-esteem, and reduction of quality of life. Overall, the impact of mental strain on burn victims is quite high. Therefore, psychotherapeutic treatment approaches should be integrated into the care of patients with burns. This might be helpful for both coping and compliance with long-term treatment. This paper provides a review of the mental co-morbidity of burn victims and of psychotherapeutic treatment approaches focusing on changes in body image and the respective social consequences. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Comparison of tokamak burn cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehst, D.A.; Brooks, J.N.; Cha, Y.; Evans, K. Jr.; Hassanein, A.M.; Kim, S.; Majumdar, S.; Misra, B.; Stevens, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental confirmation of noninductive current drive has spawned a number of suggestions as to how this technique can be used to extend the fusion burn period and improve the reactor prospects of tokamaks. Several distinct burn cycles, which employ various combinations of Ohmic and noninductive current generation, are possible, and we will study their relative costs and benefits for both a commerical reactor as well as an INTOR-class device. We begin with a review of the burn cycle options

  17. Independent Predictive Factors of Hospitalization in a North-West Burn Center of Iran; an Epidemiologic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Shams Vahdati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A high grade burn is one of the most devastating injuries with several medical, social, economic, and psychological effects. These injuries are the most common cause of accidental deaths after traffic injuries in both the developed and developing countries. Therefore this research was aimed to determine demographic characteristics of patients with burn injury admitted to the emergency department and identify predictive factors of hospitalization. Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive study, which is done in 20 March up to 20 September 2011 in emergency department of Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Patients’ information including demographic characteristic, cause of burn, place of accident, anatomical areas burned, grading and percent of burning and disposition were gathered and analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 statistical software. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis was used for recognition of independent predictive factors of hospitalization in burned patients. Results: One hundred and sixty patients were enrolled (54.4% female. The average age of those was 20.47±13.5 years. The prevalence of burn was significantly higher in ages under 20 years (p<0.001. Lower limb (37.5%, head and neck (21.25% and upper limb (17.5% were three frequent site of burn. The most common cause of burns was boiling water scalding (34.4%. Home related burn was significantly higher than other place (p<0.001. The most frequent percent of burn was <5% (46.25%. Finally 50 (31.25% cases hospitalized. Univariate analysis demonstrated that age under 20 years old (p=0.02 female gender (p=0.02, burning site (p=0.002, cause (p=0.005, place (p<0.001, grade (p<0.001, and percent (p<0.001 was related to disposition of patients. Stepwise multiple logistic regression showed female gender (OR=3.52; 95% CI: 1.57-7.88; p=0.002, work related burning (OR=1.78; 95% CI: 1.26-2.52; p=0.001, and burning over 5 percent (OR=2.15; 95% CI: 1.35-3.41; p=0.001 as

  18. Reactivity loss validation of high burn-up PWR fuels with pile-oscillation experiments in MINERVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leconte, P.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Eschbach, R.; Di-Salvo, J.; Antony, M.; Pepino, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2012-07-01

    The ALIX experimental program relies on the experimental validation of the spent fuel inventory, by chemical analysis of samples irradiated in a PWR between 5 and 7 cycles, and also on the experimental validation of the spent fuel reactivity loss with bum-up, obtained by pile-oscillation measurements in the MINERVE reactor. These latter experiments provide an overall validation of both the fuel inventory and of the nuclear data responsible for the reactivity loss. This program offers also unique experimental data for fuels with a burn-up reaching 85 GWd/t, as spent fuels in French PWRs never exceeds 70 GWd/t up to now. The analysis of these experiments is done in two steps with the APOLLO2/SHEM-MOC/CEA2005v4 package. In the first one, the fuel inventory of each sample is obtained by assembly calculations. The calculation route consists in the self-shielding of cross sections on the 281 energy group SHEM mesh, followed by the flux calculation by the Method Of Characteristics in a 2D-exact heterogeneous geometry of the assembly, and finally a depletion calculation by an iterative resolution of the Bateman equations. In the second step, the fuel inventory is used in the analysis of pile-oscillation experiments in which the reactivity of the ALIX spent fuel samples is compared to the reactivity of fresh fuel samples. The comparison between Experiment and Calculation shows satisfactory results with the JEFF3.1.1 library which predicts the reactivity loss within 2% for burn-up of {approx}75 GWd/t and within 4% for burn-up of {approx}85 GWd/t. (authors)

  19. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Renton, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Bruning mouth syndrome is a burning sensation of one or several oral soft tissues with the tongue being affected the most, and may be associated with some other symptoms outside the oral structures. The oral symptoms may appear suddenly or gradually within a time course, may be persistent throughout the day or get more intense as the day progresses in a complaint-free patient in the morning. The syndrome affects mostly women and those over 50 years old, and usually caused by multiple factors....

  20. Long-term RF burn-in effects on dielectric charging of MEMS capacitive switches

    KAUST Repository

    Molinero, David G.; Luo, Xi; Shen, Chao; Palego, Cristiano; Hwang, James; Goldsmith, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper experimentally quantified the long-term effects of RF burn-in, in terms of burn-in and recovery times, and found the effects to be semipermanent. Specifically, most of the benefit could be realized after approximately 20 min of RF burn-in, which would then last for several months. Additionally, since similar effects were observed on both real and faux switches, the effects appeared to be of electrical rather than mechanical nature. These encouraging results should facilitate the application of the switches in RF systems, where high RF power could be periodically applied to rejuvenate the switches. © 2001-2011 IEEE.

  1. Idiopathic burning mouth syndrome: a common treatment-refractory somatoform condition responsive to ECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGirr, Alexander; Davis, Lindsay; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel

    2014-04-30

    Somatic symptom disorders are common causes of disability and suffering, and can pose significant management challenges. Idiopathic burning mouth syndrome is a challenging somatic symptom disorder with relatively high prevalence, particularly among post-menopausal women. Here, we present the case of a woman with severe treatment refractory idiopathic burning mouth syndrome and comorbid major depressive disorder, who was successfully treated with bitemporal electroconvulsive therapy. This case highlights the potential effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy in idiopathic burning mouth syndrome when other treatment options have been exhausted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term RF burn-in effects on dielectric charging of MEMS capacitive switches

    KAUST Repository

    Molinero, David G.

    2013-03-01

    This paper experimentally quantified the long-term effects of RF burn-in, in terms of burn-in and recovery times, and found the effects to be semipermanent. Specifically, most of the benefit could be realized after approximately 20 min of RF burn-in, which would then last for several months. Additionally, since similar effects were observed on both real and faux switches, the effects appeared to be of electrical rather than mechanical nature. These encouraging results should facilitate the application of the switches in RF systems, where high RF power could be periodically applied to rejuvenate the switches. © 2001-2011 IEEE.

  3. Training and burn care in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamania Shobha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn care is a huge challenge in India, having the highest female mortality globally due to flame burns. Burns can happen anywhere, but are more common in the rural region, affecting the poor. Most common cause is flame burns, the culprit being kerosene and flammable flowing garments worn by the women. The infrastructure of healthcare network is good but there is a severe resource crunch. In order to bring a positive change, there will have to be more trained personnel willing to work in the rural areas. Strategies for prevention and training of burn team are discussed along with suggestions on making the career package attractive and satisfying. This will positively translate into improved outcomes in the burns managed in the rural region and quick transfer to appropriate facility for those requiring specialised attention.

  4. Unsupported inferences of high-severity fire in historical dry forests of the western United States: Response to Williams and Baker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulé, Peter Z.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Brown, Peter M.; Falk, Donald A.; Peterson, David L.; Allen, Craig D.; Aplet, Gregory H.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Binkley, Dan; Farris, Calvin; Keane, Robert E.; Margolis, Ellis Q.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri; Miller, Carol; Sieg, Carolyn Hull; Skinner, Carl; Stephens, Scott L.; Taylor, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructions of dry western US forests in the late 19th century in Arizona, Colorado and Oregon based on General Land Office records were used by Williams & Baker (2012; Global Ecology and Biogeography, 21, 1042–1052; hereafter W&B) to infer past fire regimes with substantial moderate and high-severity burning. The authors concluded that present-day large, high-severity fires are not distinguishable from historical patterns. We present evidence of important errors in their study. First, the use of tree size distributions to reconstruct past fire severity and extent is not supported by empirical age–size relationships nor by studies that directly quantified disturbance history in these forests. Second, the fire severity classification of W&B is qualitatively different from most modern classification schemes, and is based on different types of data, leading to an inappropriate comparison. Third, we note that while W&B asserted ‘surprising’ heterogeneity in their reconstructions of stand density and species composition, their data are not substantially different from many previous studies which reached very different conclusions about subsequent forest and fire behaviour changes. Contrary to the conclusions of W&B, the preponderance of scientific evidence indicates that conservation of dry forest ecosystems in the western United States and their ecological, social and economic value is not consistent with a present-day disturbance regime of large, high-severity fires, especially under changing climate

  5. Extended fuel swelling models and ultra high burn-up fuel behavior of U–Pu–Zr metallic fuel using FEAST-METAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karahan, Aydın, E-mail: karahan@alum.mit.edu [Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 24-215, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Andrews, Nathan C., E-mail: nandrews@mit.edu [Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 24-215, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Improved fuel swelling models in phase structure dependent form. ► A probabilistic verification exercise for the open porosity formation threshold. ► Satisfactory validation effort for available EBR-II database. ► Ultra high burn-up behavior of U–6Zr fuel with 60% smear density fuel. -- Abstract: Computational models in FEAST-METAL U–Pu–Zr metallic fuel behavior code have been upgraded to improve fission gas, solid fission product swelling, and pore sintering behavior in a microstructure dependent form. First, fission gas bubble growth is modeled by selecting small and large bubble groups according to a fixed number of gas atoms per bubble group. Small bubbles nucleated at phase boundaries grow via gas migration and turn into large bubbles. Furthermore, bubble morphology for each phase structure is captured by selecting the number of atoms per bubble and the shape of the bubbles in a phase dependent form. The gas diffusion coefficients for the single gamma phase and effective dual (α + δ) and (β + γ) phase structures are modeled separately, using the activation energy of the corresponding phase structure. In this study, it is found that pressure sintering of the interconnected porosity in dual phases should be less effective than the reference model in order to match clad strain and fission gas release behavior. In addition to these improvements, a probabilistic approach is taken to verify the fission gas-swelling threshold at which interconnected porosity begins. This fracture problem is treated as a function of critical crack length formed via bubble coalescence. It was found that a 10% gas-swelling threshold is appropriate for a wide range of gas bubble sizes. The new version of FEAST-METAL predicts the burn-up, smear density, and axial variation of the clad hoop strain and fission gas release behavior satisfactorily for selected test pins under EBR-II conditions. The code is used to predict ultra-high burn-up U–Pu–6Zr vented

  6. Extended fuel swelling models and ultra high burn-up fuel behavior of U–Pu–Zr metallic fuel using FEAST-METAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karahan, Aydın; Andrews, Nathan C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Improved fuel swelling models in phase structure dependent form. ► A probabilistic verification exercise for the open porosity formation threshold. ► Satisfactory validation effort for available EBR-II database. ► Ultra high burn-up behavior of U–6Zr fuel with 60% smear density fuel. -- Abstract: Computational models in FEAST-METAL U–Pu–Zr metallic fuel behavior code have been upgraded to improve fission gas, solid fission product swelling, and pore sintering behavior in a microstructure dependent form. First, fission gas bubble growth is modeled by selecting small and large bubble groups according to a fixed number of gas atoms per bubble group. Small bubbles nucleated at phase boundaries grow via gas migration and turn into large bubbles. Furthermore, bubble morphology for each phase structure is captured by selecting the number of atoms per bubble and the shape of the bubbles in a phase dependent form. The gas diffusion coefficients for the single gamma phase and effective dual (α + δ) and (β + γ) phase structures are modeled separately, using the activation energy of the corresponding phase structure. In this study, it is found that pressure sintering of the interconnected porosity in dual phases should be less effective than the reference model in order to match clad strain and fission gas release behavior. In addition to these improvements, a probabilistic approach is taken to verify the fission gas-swelling threshold at which interconnected porosity begins. This fracture problem is treated as a function of critical crack length formed via bubble coalescence. It was found that a 10% gas-swelling threshold is appropriate for a wide range of gas bubble sizes. The new version of FEAST-METAL predicts the burn-up, smear density, and axial variation of the clad hoop strain and fission gas release behavior satisfactorily for selected test pins under EBR-II conditions. The code is used to predict ultra-high burn-up U–Pu–6Zr vented

  7. Neutronics performances study of silicon carbide as an inert matrix to achieve very high burn-up for light water reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabert, C.; Coulon-Picard, E.; Pelletier, M.

    2007-01-01

    In order to extend the actual limits of light water reactors, the Cea has put emphasis on the exploration of major fuel innovations that would allow us to increase the competitiveness, the safety and flexibility, while keeping the standard PWR environment. Different fuel concepts have been chosen and are actually studied to evaluate their advantages and drawbacks. The objectives of these new fuels are to increase the safety performances and to achieve a very high burn-up. One concept is a CERCER fuel with silicon carbide (SiC) as an inert matrix devoted to reduce the fuel temperature at nominal conditions. Besides the investigation of the neutronic performance, analyses on the thermomechanical performances, the fuel fabrication, the fuel reprocessing and economic aspects have been performed. This paper presents particularly neutronic results obtained for the CERCER fuel. The results show that a very high burn-up, a high safety performance and a better competitiveness cannot be achieved with this fuel concept. (authors)

  8. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerson, J.T; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G.R.; Rogers, B.M.; Morton, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often

  9. Supporting biodiversity by prescribed burning in grasslands - A multi-taxa approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkó, Orsolya; Deák, Balázs; Magura, Tibor; Török, Péter; Kelemen, András; Tóth, Katalin; Horváth, Roland; Nagy, Dávid D; Debnár, Zsuzsanna; Zsigrai, György; Kapocsi, István; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2016-12-01

    There are contrasting opinions on the use of prescribed burning management in European grasslands. On the one hand, prescribed burning can be effectively used for the management of open landscapes, controlling dominant species, reducing accumulated litter or decreasing wildfire risk. On the other hand burning can have a detrimental impact on grassland biodiversity by supporting competitor grasses and by threatening several rare and endangered species, especially arthropods. We studied the effects of prescribed burning in alkaline grasslands of high conservation interest. Our aim was to test whether dormant-season prescribed burning can be an alternative conservation measure in these grasslands. We selected six sites in East-Hungary: in three sites, a prescribed fire was applied in November 2011, while three sites remained unburnt. We studied the effects of burning on soil characteristics, plant biomass and on the composition of vegetation and arthropod assemblages (isopods, spiders, ground beetles and rove beetles). Soil pH, organic matter, potassium and phosphorous did not change, but soluble salt content increased significantly in the burnt sites. Prescribed burning had several positive effects from the nature conservation viewpoint. Shannon diversity and the number of flowering shoots were higher, and the cover of the dominant grass Festuca pseudovina was lower in the burnt sites. Graminoid biomass was lower, while total, green and forb biomass were higher in the burnt plots compared to the control. The key finding of our study was that prescribed burning did not decrease the abundance and diversity of arthropod taxa. Species-level analyses showed that out of the most abundant invertebrate species, 10 were not affected, 1 was negatively and 1 was positively affected by burning. Moreover, our results suggest that prescribed burning leaving unburnt patches can be a viable management tool in open landscapes, because it supports plant diversity and does not threaten

  10. IFPE/IFA-597.3, centre-line temperature, fission gas release and clad elongation at high burn-up (60-62 MWd/kg)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Description: The fuel segments for the high burn-up integral rod behaviour test IFA-597 were taken from fuel rod 33-25065, which was irradiated in the Ringhals 1 BWR for approximately 12 years. The irradiation of this rod and its sibling rod 33-25046 was performed in two stages. During the first irradiation, 1980 to 1986, the rods were part of Ringhals assembly 6477 and an approximate rod averaged burn-up of 31 MWd/kg UO 2 was reached. The rods were then placed into fuel assembly 9902 for a second period of irradiation from 1986 to 1992. The location of the fuel rods 33-25065 and 33-25046 in this assembly were in positions 9902/D and 9902/E4 respectively. A final rod averaged burn-up of 52 MWd/kg UO 2 was achieved. The burn-up at the location of the Halden segments was estimated as 59 MWd/kg UO 2 , well beyond the formation of High Burn-up Structure (Hobs) formation at the pellet rim. At the rim, the burn-up was estimated as 130 MWd/kg UO 2 . After commercial irradiation, PIE was performed at Studsvik. Inner and outer clad oxide thickness measurements were 42 and 5 microns respectively. The measured cold rod diameter varied between 12.20 and 12.25 mm, thus only a small amount of creep-down had occurred from the original diameter of 12.25 mm. Cold gap measurements were taken by diametral compression of the clad onto the fuel. The stiffness changes twice during these measurements, the first (relocated gap) associated with the onset of pellet fragment movement, the second (compressed gap) when the fragments are together and the pellet is compressed. For these rods, the compressed diametral gap was measured as 30 microns. This is in agreement with the pellet and cladding being in contact during the final irradiation cycle, i.e., at ∼12 kW/m. FGR measurements were made after puncturing and values of 2.5%-3.3% were calculated from the extracted gas. The uncertainty is due to different methods of calculation. Ceramography showed a normal crack pattern and no evidence of

  11. Microbiological Monitoring and Proteolytic Study of Clinical Samples From Burned and Burned Wounded Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toema, M.A.; El-Bazza, Z.E.; El-Hifnawi, H.N.; Abd-El-Hakim, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, clinical samples were collected from 100 patients admitted to Burn and Plastic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt, over a period of 12 months. The proteolytic activity of 110 clinical samples taken from surfaces swabs which taken from burned and burned wounded patients with different ages and gender was examined. Screening for the proteolytic activity produced by pathogenic bacteria isolated from burned and burned wounded patients was evaluated as gram positive Bacilli and gram negative bacilli showed high proteolytic activity (46.4%) while 17.9% showed no activity. The isolated bacteria proved to have proteolytic activity were classified into high, moderate and weak. The pathogenic bacteria isolated from burned and burned wounded patients and showing proteolytic activity were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella ozaeanae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas fluoresces.

  12. Peculiarities of highly burned-up NPP SNF reprocessing and new approach to simulation of solvent extraction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, Y.S.; Zilberman, B.Y.; Goletskiy, N.D.; Puzikov, E.A.; Ryabkov, D.V.; Rodionov, S.A.; Beznosyuk, V.I.; Petrov, Y.Y.; Saprykin, V.F.; Murzin, A.A.; Bibichev, B.A.; Aloy, A.S.; Kudinov, A.S.; Blazheva, I.V. [RPA ' V.G.Khlopin Radium Institute' , 28, 2 Murinsky av., St-Petersburg, 194 021 (Russian Federation); Kurenkov, N.V. [Institute of Industrial Nuclear Technology NRNU MEPHI, 31, Kashirskoye shosse, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Substantiation, general description and performance characteristics of a reprocessing flowsheet for WWER-1000 spent fuel with burn-up >60 GW*day/t U is given. Pu and U losses were <0.1%, separation factor > 10{sup 4}; their decontamination factor from γ-emitting fission products was 4*10{sup 4} and 3*10{sup 7}, respectively. Zr, Tc, Np removal was >98% at U and Pu losses <0.05%. A new approach to simulation of extraction equilibrium has been developed. It is based on a set of simultaneous chemical reactions characterized by apparent concentration constants. A software package was created for simulation of spent fuel component distribution in multistage countercurrent extraction processes in the presence of salting out agents. (authors)

  13. The Contribution of High Levels of Somatic Symptom Severity to Sickness Absence Duration, Disability and Discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, Rob; Blankenstein, Annette H.; Krol, Boudien; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Introduction: The primary objectives were to compare the duration of sickness absence in employees with high levels of somatic symptom severity (HLSSS) with employees with lower levels of somatic symptom severity, and to establish the long-term outcomes concerning return to work (RTW), disability

  14. Determination of burn-up of irradiated nuclear fuels using mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagadish Kumar, S.; Telmore, V.M.; Shah, R.V.; Sasi Bhushan, K.; Paul, Sumana; Kumar, Pranaw; Rao, Radhika M.; Jaison, P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Burn-up defined as the atom percent fission, is a vital parameter used for assessing the performance of nuclear fuel during its irradiation in the reactor. Accurate data on the actinide isotopes are also essential for the reliable accountability of nuclear materials and for nuclear safeguards. Both destructive and non-destructive methods are employed in the post-irradiation analysis for the burn-up measurements. Though non-destructive methods are preferred from the point view of remote handling of irradiated fuels with high radioactivity, they do not provide the high accuracy as achieved by the chemical analysis methods. Thus destructive radiochemical and chemical analyses are still the established reference methods for accurate and reliable burn-up determination of irradiated nuclear fuels. In the destructive method, burn-up of irradiated nuclear fuel is determined by correlating the amount of a fission product formed during irradiation with that of heavy elements. Thus the destructive experimental determination of burn-up involves the dissolution of irradiated fuel samples followed by the separation and determination of heavy elements and fission product(s) to be used as burn-up monitor(s). Another approach for the experimental determination of burn-up is based on the changes in the abundances of the heavy element isotopes. A widely accepted method for burn-up determination is based on stable "1"4"8Nd and "1"3"9La as burn-up monitors. Several properties such as non-volatility, nearly same yields for thermal fissions of "2"3"5U and "2"3"9Pu etc justifies the selection of "1"4"8Nd as a burn-up monitor

  15. Experience and outcomes of micrografting for major paediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, H; Martinez, R; Potgieter, D; Adams, S; Rogers, A D

    2017-08-01

    The deficit of donor sites in major burns over 50% of the total body surface area has necessitated the application of methods besides traditional meshed autografting to achieve definitive skin cover. The Meek micrografting technique was introduced at this hospital in 2011, especially in the absence of a reliable source of deceased donor allograft skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this strategy with reference to its technical execution, efficacy and indications in the context of major paediatric burn surgery. A cohort study was performed of all paediatric patients with major burn who underwent Meek micrografting at a dedicated paediatric burn centre in a developing country over a five year period. Demographics, details of their burns, operative management and clinical course and outcomes were collected from patient records and operative notes and analysed. Thirty-five patients were managed using the micrografting technique during the study period. The mean patient age was 4.1 years (range 3 months-11 years) and their mean total body surface area (TBSA) burn was 49.7% (range 15-86%). Eleven patients sustained inhalation injuries and five developed a re-feeding syndrome on account of delayed referral. The mean abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 8.5 (range 2-13). The hospital length of stay in the 27 survivors was a mean of 75.5 days, equating to 1.4 days per percentage burn. Eight patients died during the course of treatment, with a mean TBSA burn of 67.75% (range 38-86%). Graft take one month after surgery was documented to be more than 90% in 24 patients, of whom 3 subsequently died. Eleven patients had less than 90% graft take at this time, of whom 5 died. There is a considerable 'learning curve' associated with this technique. In order to achieve success one must ensure a completely viable, non-infected bed, obtained by tangential or fascial excision, followed by allografting as temporary coverage and to 'test the wound bed' for definitive

  16. Biomass Burning: Major Uncertainties, Advances, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokelson, R. J.; Stockwell, C.; Veres, P. R.; Hatch, L. E.; Barsanti, K. C.; Liu, X.; Huey, L. G.; Ryerson, T. B.; Dibb, J. E.; Wisthaler, A.; Müller, M.; Alvarado, M. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Toon, O. B.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.

    2014-12-01

    Domestic and open biomass burning are poorly-understood, major influences on Earth's atmosphere composed of countless individual fires that (along with their products) are difficult to quantify spatially and temporally. Each fire is a minimally-controlled complex phenomenon producing a diverse suite of gases and aerosols that experience many different atmospheric processing scenarios. New lab, airborne, and space-based observations along with model and algorithm development are significantly improving our knowledge of biomass burning. Several campaigns provided new detailed emissions profiles for previously undersampled fire types; including wildfires, cooking fires, peat fires, and agricultural burning; which may increase in importance with climate change and rising population. Multiple campaigns have better characterized black and brown carbon and used new instruments such as high resolution PTR-TOF-MS and 2D-GC/TOF-MS to improve quantification of semi-volatile precursors to aerosol and ozone. The aerosol evolution and formation of PAN and ozone, within hours after emission, have now been measured extensively. The NASA DC-8 sampled smoke before and after cloud-processing in two campaigns. The DC-8 performed continuous intensive sampling of a wildfire plume from the source in California to Canada probing multi-day aerosol and trace gas aging. Night-time plume chemistry has now been measured in detail. Fire inventories are being compared and improved, as is modeling of mass transfer between phases and sub-grid photochemistry for global models.

  17. Burn Control Mechanisms in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M. A.; Stacey, W. M.

    2015-11-01

    Burn control and passive safety in accident scenarios will be an important design consideration in future tokamak reactors, in particular fusion-fission hybrid reactors, e.g. the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor. We are developing a burning plasma dynamics code to explore various aspects of burn control, with the intent to identify feedback mechanisms that would prevent power excursions. This code solves the coupled set of global density and temperature equations, using scaling relations from experimental fits. Predictions of densities and temperatures have been benchmarked against DIII-D data. We are examining several potential feedback mechanisms to limit power excursions: i) ion-orbit loss, ii) thermal instability density limits, iii) MHD instability limits, iv) the degradation of alpha-particle confinement, v) modifications to the radial current profile, vi) ``divertor choking'' and vii) Type 1 ELMs. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-00ER54538, DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  18. [Recognizing prevention and treatment of burn sepsis with the concept of holistic integrative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, J N

    2017-04-20

    Sepsis remains a major cause of death in severe burns. The effect of sepsis management is influenced by its complicated pathophysiologic changes. In order to improve the outcome of burn sepsis, the predisposing factor of sepsis after burn analyzed by advanced technology, the early prevention, antibiotics therapy, and combined treatment in severe burns with sepsis are discussed using the concept of holistic integrative medicine.

  19. Treatment and follow-up results of children with electrical burn who observed in burn intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Aliosmanoğlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical burns are infrequent relative to other injuries, but they are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess management and follow-up results of pediatric patients’ who observed in intensive care unit and also review the precautions for preventing electrical burns.Materials and methods: Totally 22 patients aged under 17 years who were observed in the burn intensive care unit of Şanlıurfa Education and Research Hospital during the period between July 2009-October 2010. Cases were investigated retrospectively. The patients’ age, gender, total burn surface area, length of stay in hospital, musculo-skeletal system complication, cardiovascular system complication, kidney damage and attempts were recorded.Results: Of the 22 cases, 19 (86.3% were male and 3 (13.7% were female. The mean age of the patients was 11.5 years. In 10 (45.4% children burns were occurred in workplace and working area and 12 (54.6% were occurred in the home environment. Depth of burns were third degree in 10 (45.4% children and second degree in 12 (54.6%. The mean percentage of burn surface area was 25.9%. The mean length of stay in hospital was 17 days. Debridement and grafting were performed to 12 (54.6% cases and 10 (45.4% children were treated with dressings. No patient had increased creatinine kinase levels, oliguria, myoglobuinuria and arrhythmia. The mean hospitalization time was 17 days.Conclusion: Nearly half of patients underwent debridement plus grafting. None of our patients developed renal failure other severe system dysfunction.

  20. Epidermal-dermal crosstalk during burn wound scar maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.E. Hakvoort (Eveline)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBurn injuries arc among the worst traumas which can happen to man. The larger a burn injury, the more severe the consequences and the highcr the chance of an adverse outcome or even death. In The Netherlands each year 40,000 people visit a general practitioner for treatment of a burn

  1. Severe obesity and high blood pressure among children, Philadelphia health centers, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, John V; Robbins, Jessica M; Houck, Kevin L; Nobis, Elizabeth A; Inman, Katelyn A; Khan, Khudsiya S; Robbins, Susan W

    2014-04-01

    Child obesity is a major health problem particularly affecting disadvantaged population groups. Severe obesity carries additional health risks for children. In the context of the childhood obesity epidemic, high blood pressure among children is of increasing concern. Chart reviews were carried out to examine the prevalence of severe obesity and its association with high blood pressure measurements among randomly selected patients aged 3 to 17 years who had well-child care visits at 8 public community health centers during 2010. A majority of the 691 patients reviewed were African American (58%); an additional 16% were Hispanic. The prevalence of severe obesity was 7.7% (95% confidence interval = 5.8% to 9.9%) and the prevalence of high blood pressure measurements was 17.5% (95% confidence interval = 14.8% to 20.6%). Patients who were severely obese were more than twice as likely as other children to have high blood pressure values. Severe obesity is associated with substantially increased frequency of high blood pressure measurements in children, and should be investigated further as a potential marker for hypertension in children. Primary care providers should be prepared to diagnose and treat hypertension in severely obese children.

  2. Epidemiology of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from

  3. Reflective THz and MR imaging of burn wounds: a potential clinical validation of THz contrast mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Neha; Nowroozi, Bryan; Sung, Shijun; Garritano, James; Maccabi, Ashkan; Tewari, Priyamvada; Culjat, Martin; Singh, Rahul; Alger, Jeffry; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary

    2012-10-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging is an expanding area of research in the field of medical imaging due to its high sensitivity to changes in tissue water content. Previously reported in vivo rat studies demonstrate that spatially resolved hydration mapping with THz illumination can be used to rapidly and accurately detect fluid shifts following induction of burns and provide highly resolved spatial and temporal characterization of edematous tissue. THz imagery of partial and full thickness burn wounds acquired by our group correlate well with burn severity and suggest that hydration gradients are responsible for the observed contrast. This research aims to confirm the dominant contrast mechanism of THz burn imaging using a clinically accepted diagnostic method that relies on tissue water content for contrast generation to support the translation of this technology to clinical application. The hydration contrast sensing capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically T2 relaxation times and proton density values N(H), are well established and provide measures of mobile water content, lending MRI as a suitable method to validate hydration states of skin burns. This paper presents correlational studies performed with MR imaging of ex vivo porcine skin that confirm tissue hydration as the principal sensing mechanism in THz burn imaging. Insights from this preliminary research will be used to lay the groundwork for future, parallel MRI and THz imaging of in vivo rat models to further substantiate the clinical efficacy of reflective THz imaging in burn wound care.

  4. Actinide burning and waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigford, T H [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Here we review technical and economic features of a new proposal for a synergistic waste-management system involving reprocessing the spent fuel otherwise destined for a U.S. high-level waste repository and transmuting the recovered actinides in a fast reactor. The proposal would require a U.S. fuel reprocessing plant, capable of recovering and recycling all actinides, including neptunium americium, and curium, from LWR spent fuel, at recoveries of 99.9% to 99.999%. The recovered transuranics would fuel the annual introduction of 14 GWe of actinide-burning liquid-metal fast reactors (ALMRs), beginning in the period 2005 to 2012. The new ALMRs would be accompanied by pyrochemical reprocessing facilities to recover and recycle all actinides from discharged ALMR fuel. By the year 2045 all of the LWR spent fuel now destined f a geologic repository would be reprocessed. Costs of constructing and operating these new reprocessing and reactor facilities would be borne by U.S. industry, from the sale of electrical energy produced. The ALMR program expects that ALMRs that burn actinides from LWR spent fuel will be more economical power producers than LWRs as early as 2005 to 2012, so that they can be prudently selected by electric utility companies for new construction of nuclear power plants in that era. Some leaders of DOE and its contractors argue that recovering actinides from spent fuel waste and burning them in fast reactors would reduce the life of the remaining waste to about 200-300 years, instead of 00,000 years. The waste could then be stored above ground until it dies out. Some argue that no geologic repositories would be needed. The current view expressed within the ALMR program is that actinide recycle technology would not replace the need for a geologic repository, but that removing actinides from the waste for even the first repository would simplify design and licensing of that repository. A second geologic repository would not be needed. Waste now planned

  5. Actinide burning and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1990-01-01

    Here we review technical and economic features of a new proposal for a synergistic waste-management system involving reprocessing the spent fuel otherwise destined for a U.S. high-level waste repository and transmuting the recovered actinides in a fast reactor. The proposal would require a U.S. fuel reprocessing plant, capable of recovering and recycling all actinides, including neptunium americium, and curium, from LWR spent fuel, at recoveries of 99.9% to 99.999%. The recovered transuranics would fuel the annual introduction of 14 GWe of actinide-burning liquid-metal fast reactors (ALMRs), beginning in the period 2005 to 2012. The new ALMRs would be accompanied by pyrochemical reprocessing facilities to recover and recycle all actinides from discharged ALMR fuel. By the year 2045 all of the LWR spent fuel now destined f a geologic repository would be reprocessed. Costs of constructing and operating these new reprocessing and reactor facilities would be borne by U.S. industry, from the sale of electrical energy produced. The ALMR program expects that ALMRs that burn actinides from LWR spent fuel will be more economical power producers than LWRs as early as 2005 to 2012, so that they can be prudently selected by electric utility companies for new construction of nuclear power plants in that era. Some leaders of DOE and its contractors argue that recovering actinides from spent fuel waste and burning them in fast reactors would reduce the life of the remaining waste to about 200-300 years, instead of 00,000 years. The waste could then be stored above ground until it dies out. Some argue that no geologic repositories would be needed. The current view expressed within the ALMR program is that actinide recycle technology would not replace the need for a geologic repository, but that removing actinides from the waste for even the first repository would simplify design and licensing of that repository. A second geologic repository would not be needed. Waste now planned

  6. Multi-Accuracy-Level Burning Plasma Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Garcia, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Huynh, P.; Huysmans, G.; Imbeaux, F.; Johner, J.; Scheider, M.

    2007-01-01

    The design of a reactor grade tokamak is based on a hierarchy of tools. We present here three codes that are presently used for the simulations of burning plasmas. At the first level there is a 0-dimensional code that allows to choose a reasonable range of global parameters; in our case the HELIOS code was used for this task. For the second level we have developed a mixed 0-D / 1-D code called METIS that allows to study the main properties of a burning plasma, including profiles and all heat and current sources, but always under the constraint of energy and other empirical scaling laws. METIS is a fast code that permits to perform a large number of runs (a run takes about one minute) and design the main features of a scenario, or validate the results of the 0-D code on a full time evolution. At the top level, we used the full 1D1/2 suite of codes CRONOS that gives access to a detailed study of the plasma profiles evolution. CRONOS can use a variety of modules for source terms and transport coefficients computation with different level of complexity and accuracy: from simple estimators to highly sophisticated physics calculations. Thus it is possible to vary the accuracy of burning plasma simulations, as a trade-off with computation time. A wide range of scenario studies can thus be made with CRONOS and then validated with post-processing tools like MHD stability analysis. We will present in this paper results of this multi-level analysis applied to the ITER hybrid scenario. This specific example will illustrate the importance of having several tools for the study of burning plasma scenarios, especially in a domain that present devices cannot access experimentally. (Author)

  7. Posttraumatic Stress and Cognitive Processes in Patients with Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Sveen, Josefin

    2011-01-01

    A severe burn is one of the most traumatic injuries a person can experience. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is relatively common after burns, and can be devastating for the individual’s possibilities for recovery. The principal aims were to gain knowledge regarding posttraumatic stress symptoms and cognitive processes after burn and to evaluate methods for assessing symptoms of PTSD up to one year after burn. The psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Impact of Event Scale-...

  8. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc G. Jeschke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p  0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p < 0.05. These clinical outcomes were associated with a delayed hypermetabolic response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p < 0.05. In summary, elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly.

  9. Effect of a controlled burn on the thermophysical properties of a dry soil using a new model of soil heat flow and a new high temperature heat flux sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Massman; J. M. Frank

    2004-01-01

    Some fires can be beneficial to soils but, if a fire is sufficiently intense, soil can be irreversible altered. We measured soil temperatures and heat fluxes at several soil depths before, during, and after a controlled surface burn at Manitou Experimental Forest (southern Colorado, USA) to evaluate its effects on the soil's thermophysical properties (thermal...

  10. To burn or not to burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, L.

    1993-01-01

    While taking a match to an oil slick may sound like the making of a chaotic inferno, emergency response specialists say burning may be the most efficient way to remove large oil spills from the ocean's surface. But tests of this technique are being resisted by environmentalists as well as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which has final authority over the matter. The debate over test burning arose most recently in Alaska when a proposal to spill and then ignite 1,000 barrels of crude on the Arctic Ocean this past summer was rejected by the EPA. The EPA didn't object to the technique or to the notion of burning spilled oil. However, it contends that it's not necessary to spill thousands of gallons of oil to conduct tests, and unnecessarily pollute the environment, when plenty of oil is already available from accidental spills. Researchers disagree, claiming they won't be able to use the burning technique on an actual spill until it has been tested in a controlled experiment. Despite such concerns, the Canadian government is going ahead with a test burn off the coast of Newfoundland next year. Faced with a choice of test burning or the kind of shoreline contamination left in the wake of the Exxon Valdez disaster, Environment Canada opts for testing. Learning valuable lessons about rapid oil-spill cleanup is worth the relatively minor risks to the environment that test burning would pose

  11. [Influence of three-level collaboration network of pediatric burns treatment in Anhui province on treatment effects of burn children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Z G; Zhou, X L; Kong, W C; Li, X Z; Song, J H; Fang, L S; Hu, D L; Cai, C; Tang, Y Z; Yu, Y X; Wang, C H; Xu, Q L

    2018-03-20

    Objective: To explore the influence of three-level collaboration network of pediatric burns in Anhui province on treatment effects of burn children. Methods: The data of medical records of pediatric burn children transferred from Lu'an People's Hospital and Fuyang People's Hospital to the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from January 2014 to December 2015 and January 2016 to September 2017 (before and after establishing three-level collaboration network of pediatric burns treatment) were analyzed: percentage of transferred burn children to hospitalized burn children in corresponding period, gender, age, burn degree, treatment method, treatment result, occurrence and treatment result of shock, and operative and non-operative treatment time and cost. Rehabilitation result of burn children transferred back to local hospitals in 2016 and 2017. Data were processed with t test, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Fisher's exact test. Results: (1) Percentage of burn children transferred from January 2014 to December 2015 was 34.3% (291/848) of the total number of hospitalized burn children in the same period of time, which was close to 30.4% (210/691) of burn children transferred from January 2016 to September 2017 ( χ (2)=2.672, P >0.05). (2) Gender, age, burn degree, and treatment method of burn children transferred from the two periods of time were close ( χ (2)=3.382, Z =-1.917, -1.911, χ (2)=3.133, P >0.05). (3) Cure rates of children with mild, moderate, and severe burns transferred from January 2016 to September 2017 were significantly higher than those of burn children transferred from January 2014 to December 2015 ( χ (2)=11.777, 6.948, 4.310, P burns transferred from the two periods of time were close ( χ (2)=1.181, P >0.05). (4) Children with mild and moderate burns transferred from the two periods of time were with no shock. The incidence of shock of children with severe burns transferred from January 2014 to December 2015 was 6

  12. Axial gas transport and loss of pressure after ballooning rupture of high burn-up fuel rods subjected to LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenack, Wolfgang; Oberlaender, Barbara; Kekkonen, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has implemented integral in-pile tests on issues related to fuel behaviour under LOCA conditions. In this test series, the interaction of bonded fuel and cladding, the behaviour of fragmented fuel around the ballooning area, and the axial gas communication in high burn-up rods as affected by gap closure and fuel-clad bonding are of major interest for the investigations. In the Halden reactor tests, the decay heat is simulated by a low level of nuclear heating, in contrast to the heating conditions implemented in hot laboratory set-ups, and the thermal expansion of fuel and cladding relative to each other is more similar to the real event. The paper deals with observations regarding the loss of rod pressure following the rupture of the cladding. In the majority of the tests conducted so far, the rod pressure dropped practically instantaneously as a consequence of ballooning rupture, while one test showed a remarkably slow pressure loss. The slow loss of pressure in this test was analysed, showing that the 'hydraulic diameter' of the rod over an un-distended upper part was about 30 - 35 μm which is typical of high burn-up fuel at hot-standby conditions. The 'plug' of fuel restricts the gas flow from the plenum through the fuel column and thus limits the availability of high pressure gas for driving the ballooning. This observation is relevant for the analysis of the behaviour of a full length fuel rod under LOCA conditions since restricted gas flow may influence bundle blockage and the number of failures. (authors)

  13. Intake of 238U and 232Th through the consumption of foodstuffs by tribal populations practicing slash and burn agriculture in an extremely high rainfall area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Gothankar, S.; Iongwai, P.S.; Kharbuli, B.; War, S.A.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 232 Th, 238 U was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in different food groups namely cereals, vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers cultivated and consumed by tribal population residing around the proposed uranium mine. The study area is a part of rural area K. P. Mawthabah (Domiasiat) in the west Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, India located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition without much outside influence. Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. A total of 89 samples from locally grown food products were analyzed. The concentration of 238 U and 232 Th in the soil of the study area was found to vary 1.6–15.5 and 2.0–5.0 times respectively to the average mean value observed in India. The estimated daily dietary intake of 238 U and 232 Th were 2.0 μg d −1 (25 mBq d −1 ) and 3.4 μg d −1 (14 mBq d −1 ) is comparable with reported range 0.5–5.0 μg d −1 and 0.15–3.5 μg d −1 respectively for the Asian population. - Highlights: ► 232 Th, 238 U were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). ► Study area located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition. ► Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. ► The estimated daily intake of 232 Th and 238 U in high rainfall area was found to be 3.4 and 2.0 μg respectively.

  14. In-situ burning of heavy oils and Orimulsion : mid-scale burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Brown, C.E.; Gamble, L.

    2004-01-01

    In-situ burning is considered to be a viable means to clean oil spills on water. In-situ burning, when performed under the right conditions, can reduce the volume of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of the recovered oil. This paper presented the results of bench-scale in-situ burning tests in which Bunker C, Orimulsion and weathered bitumen were burned outdoors during the winter in burn pans of approximately 1 square metre. Each test was conducted on salt water which caused the separation of the bitumen from the water in the Orimulsion. Small amounts of diesel fuel was used to ignite the heavy oils. Quantitative removal of the fuels was achieved in all cases, but re-ignition was required for the Orimulsion. Maximum efficiency was in the order of 70 per cent. The residue was mostly asphaltenes and resins which cooled to a solid, glass like material that could be readily removed. The study showed that the type of oil burned influences the behaviour of the burns. Bunker C burned quite well and Orimulsion burned efficiently, but re-ignition was necessary. It was concluded that there is potential for burning heavy oils of several types in-situ. 6 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs

  15. High or low oxygen saturation and severe retinopathy of prematurity: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minghua L; Guo, Lei; Smith, Lois E H; Dammann, Christiane E L; Dammann, Olaf

    2010-06-01

    Low oxygen saturation appears to decrease the risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm newborns when administered during the first few weeks after birth. High oxygen saturation seems to reduce the risk at later postmenstrual ages (PMAs). However, previous clinical studies are not conclusive individually. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to report the association between severe ROP incidence of premature infants with high or low target oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry. Studies were identified through PubMed and Embase literature searches through May 2009 by using the terms "retinopathy of prematurity and oxygen" or "retinopathy of prematurity and oxygen therapy." We selected 10 publications addressing the association between severe ROP and target oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry. Using a random-effects model we calculated the summary-effect estimate. We visually inspected funnel plots to examine possible publication bias. Low oxygen saturation (70%-96%) in the first several postnatal weeks was associated with a reduced risk of severe ROP (risk ratio [RR]: 0.48 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31-0.75]). High oxygen saturation (94%-99%) at > or = 32 weeks' PMA was associated with a decreased risk for progression to severe ROP (RR: 0.54 [95% CI: 0.35-0.82]). Among preterm infants with a gestational age of large randomized clinical trial with long-term developmental follow-up is warranted to confirm this meta-analytic result.

  16. Management of acid burns: experience from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kishore Kumar; Olga, Loren; Peck, Michael; Morselli, Paolo G; Salek, A J M

    2015-05-01

    Acid burn injuries in Bangladesh primarily occur as a result of intentional attacks although there are incidences of accidental acid burns in industry, on the street, and at home. A total of 126 patients with acid burns, 95 from attacks and 31 from accidents, were studied from July 2004 to December 2012. A diagnosis of acid burn was made from history, physical examination and in some cases from chemical analysis of the patients' clothing. Alkali burns were excluded from the study. In the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital, we applied a slightly different protocol for management of acid burns, beginning with plain water irrigation of the wound, which effectively reduced burn depth and the requirement of surgical treatment. Application of hydrocolloid dressing for 48-72 h helped with the assessment of depth and the course of treatment. Early excision and grafting gives good results but resultant acid trickling creates a marble cake-like appearance of the wound separated by the vital skin. Excision with a scalpel and direct stitching of the wounds are often a good option. Observation of patients on follow-up revealed that wounds showed a tendency for hypertrophy. Application of pressure garments and other scar treatments were given in all cases unless the burn was highly superficial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. PCDD/F measurement at a high-altitude station in Central Taiwan: evaluation of long-range transport of PCDD/Fs during the Southeast Asia biomass burning event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Kai Hsien; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Yang, Chang-Feng Ou; Wang, Jia-Lin; Lin, Neng-Heui; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lee, Chung-Te

    2010-04-15

    Recent biomass burning in Southeast Asia has raised global concerns over its adverse effects on visibility, human health, and global climate. The concentrations of total suspended particles (TSPs) and other vapor-phase pollutants (CO and ozone) were monitored at Lulin, an atmospheric background station in central Taiwan in 2008. To evaluate the long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during the Southeast Asia biomass burning event, the atmospheric polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were also measured at Lulin station. The atmospheric PCDD/F and TSP concentrations measured at Lulin station ranged from 0.71-3.41 fg I-TEQ/m(3) and 5.32-55.6 microg/m(3), respectively, during the regular sampling periods. However, significantly higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs, TSPs, CO, and ozone were measured during the spring season. These high concentrations could be the result of long-range transport of the products of Southeast Asia biomass burning. During the Southeast Asia biomass burning event (March 18-24, 2008), an intensive observation program was also carried out at the same station. The results of this observation program indicated that the atmospheric PCDD/F concentration increased dramatically from 2.33 to 390 fg I-TEQ/m(3) (March 19, 2008). The trace gas (CO) of biomass burning also significantly increased to 232 ppb during the same period, while the particle-bound PCDD/Fs in the TSP increased from 28.7 to 109 pg I-TEQ/g-TSP at Lulin station during the burning event. We conclude that there was a significant increase in the PCDD/F concentration in ambient air at a high-altitude background station in central Taiwan during the Southeast Asia biomass burning event.

  18. Partial-thickness burn wounds healing by topical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidinia, Amin; Keihanian, Faeze; Lashkari, Ardalan Pasdaran; Lahiji, Hossein Ghavvami; Mobayyen, Mohammadreza; Heidarzade, Abtin; Golchai, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Burns are common event and associated with a high incidence of death, disability, and high costs. Centella asiatica (L.) is a medicinal herb, commonly growing in humid areas in several tropical countries that improve wound healing. On the basis of previous studies, we compared the efficacy of Centiderm versus silver sulfadiazine (SSD) in partial thickness burning patients. Methods: Study population comprised burn victims referred to Velayat Burning Hospital at Rasht, Iran. The intervention group received Centiderm and control group SSD cream. Burn wounds were treated once daily at home. All of the wounds were evaluated till complete healing occurred and at the admission, days 3, 7, 14 objective signs; visual acuity score (VAS) and subjective signs were recorded. Re-epithelialization time and complete healing days were recorded. We used random fixed block for randomization. The randomization sequence was created using the computer. Patients and burning specialist physician were blinded. Results: Seventy-five patients randomized into 2 groups; (40 patients: Centiderm group; 35 patients: SSD group). The mean age of them was 30.67 ± 9.91 years and 19 of them were male (31.7%). Thirty patients in Centiderm and 30 patients in SSD group were analyzed. All of objective and subjective signs and mean of re-epithelialization and complete healing were significantly better in Centiderm group rather than SSD group (P < 0.05). There was no infection in Centiderm group. Conclusions: We showed that use of Centiderm ointment not only improved the objective and subjective signs in less than 3 days, but also the re-epithelialization and complete healing rather than SSD without any infection in the subjects. PMID:28248871

  19. Object-based assessment of burn severity in diseased forests using high-spatial and high-spectral resolution MASTER airborne imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Chen; M.R. Metz; D.M. Rizzo; W.W. Dillon; R.K. Meentemeyer

    2015-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are subject to a variety of disturbances with increasing intensities and frequencies, which may permanently change the trajectories of forest recovery and disrupt the ecosystem services provided by trees. Fire and invasive species, especially exotic disease-causing pathogens and insects, are examples of disturbances that together could pose major...

  20. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor With Results from FY-2011 Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Pope

    2011-10-01

    The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450

  1. Effects of fire severity and pre-fire stand treatment on plant community recovery after a large wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda M. Kuenzi; Peter Z. Fulé; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2008-01-01

    The Rodeo-Chediski fire burned approximately 189,650 ha in east­central Arizona from June 18 to July 7, 2002, 113,700 ha of it on White Mountain Apache tribal land. In 2004 and 2005, we measured plant canopy cover and richness in areas of high and low burn severity in each of two treatments: (1) cutting and prescribed burning, or (2) untreated, in the 11 years prior to...

  2. Advanced tokamak burning plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P.T.; Ramos, J.; Schultz, J.; Nevins, W.N.

    2001-01-01

    A new reduced size ITER-RC superconducting tokamak concept is proposed with the goals of studying burn physics either in an inductively driven standard tokamak (ST) mode of operation, or in a quasi-steady state advanced tokamak (AT) mode sustained by non-inductive means. This is achieved by reducing the radiation shield thickness protecting the superconducting magnet by 0.34 m relative to ITER and limiting the burn mode of operation to pulse lengths as allowed by the TF coil warming up to the current sharing temperature. High gain (Q≅10) burn physics studies in a reversed shear equilibrium, sustained by RF and NB current drive techniques, may be obtained. (author)

  3. Infections in critically ill burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, F; Mas, D; Rubio, M; Garcia-Hierro, P

    2016-04-01

    Severe burn patients are one subset of critically patients in which the burn injury increases the risk of infection, systemic inflammatory response and sepsis. The infections are usually related to devices and to the burn wound. Most infections, as in other critically ill patients, are preceded by colonization of the digestive tract and the preventative measures include selective digestive decontamination and hygienic measures. Early excision of deep burn wound and appropriate use of topical antimicrobials and dressings are considered of paramount importance in the treatment of burns. Severe burn patients usually have some level of systemic inflammation. The difficulty to differentiate inflammation from sepsis is relevant since therapy differs between patients with and those without sepsis. The delay in prescribing antimicrobials increases morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the widespread use of antibiotics for all such patients is likely to increase antibiotic resistance, and costs. Unfortunately the clinical usefulness of biomarkers for differential diagnosis between inflammation and sepsis has not been yet properly evaluated. Severe burn injury induces physiological response that significantly alters drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These alterations impact antimicrobials distribution and excretion. Nevertheless the current available literature shows that there is a paucity of information to support routine dose recommendations. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  4. [Nosocomial infection due to Trichosporon asahii in a critical burned patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo Lomas, Luis; Domínguez-Gil González, Marta; Martín Luengo, Ana Isabel; Eiros Bouza, José María; Piqueras Pérez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Invasive fungal infection is an important cause of morbimortality in patients with severe burns. The advances in burn care therapy have considerably extended the survival of seriously burned patients, exposing them to infectious complications, notably fungal infections, with increased recognition of invasive infections caused by Candida species. However, some opportunistic fungi, like Trichosporon asahii, have emerged as important causes of nosocomial infection. A case of nosocomial infection due to T. asahii in a severely ill burned patient successfully treated with voriconazole is presented. The management of invasive fungal infections in burned patients, from diagnosis to selection of the therapeutic protocol, is often a challenge. Early diagnosis and treatment are associated with a better prognosis. In this case report, current treatment options are discussed, and a review of previously published cases is presented. Due to the difficulty in the diagnosis of invasive mycoses and their high associated mortality rates, it is advisable to keep a high degree of clinical suspicion of trichosporonosis in susceptible patients, including burned patients. The isolation of T. asahii in clinical specimens of this type of host must raise clinical alert, since it may precede an invasive infection. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of dissolved hydrogen on the dissolution of {sup 233}U doped UO{sub 2}(s) high burn-up spent fuel and MOX fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbol, P [Inst. for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany); Spahiu, K [and others

    2005-03-01

    In this report the results of the experimental work carried out in a large EU-research project (SFS, 2001-2004) on spent fuel stability in the presence of various amounts of near field hydrogen are presented. Studies of the dissolution of {sup 233}U doped UO{sub 2}(s) simulating 'old' spent fuel were carried out as static leaching tests, autoclave tests with various hydrogen concentrations and electrochemical tests. The results of the leaching behaviour of a high burn-up spent fuel pellet in 5 M NaCl solutions in the presence of 3.2 bar H{sub 2} pressure and of MOX fuel in dilute synthetic groundwater under 53 bar H{sub 2} pressure are also presented. In all the experimental studies carried out in this project, a considerable effect of hydrogen in the dissolution rates of radioactive materials was observed. The experimental results obtained in this project with a-doped UO{sub 2}, high burn-up spent fuel and MOX fuel together with literature data give a reliable background to use fractional alteration/dissolution rates for spent fuel of the order of 10{sup -6}/yr - 10{sup -8}/yr with a recommended value of 4x10{sup -7}/yr for dissolved hydrogen concentrations above 10{sup -3} M and Fe(II) concentrations typical for European repository concepts. Finally, based on a review of the experimental data and available literature data, potential mechanisms of the hydrogen effect are also discussed. The work reported in this document was performed as part of the Project SFS of the European Commission 5th Framework Programme under contract no FIKW-CT-2001-20192 SFS. It represents the deliverable D10 of the experimental work package 'Key experiments using a-doped UO{sub 2} and real spent fuel', coordinated by SKB with the participation of ITU, FZK-INE, ENRESA, CIEMAT, ARMINES-SUBATECH and SKB.

  6. The effect of dissolved hydrogen on the dissolution of 233U doped UO2(s) high burn-up spent fuel and MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbol, P.; Spahiu, K.

    2005-03-01

    In this report the results of the experimental work carried out in a large EU-research project (SFS, 2001-2004) on spent fuel stability in the presence of various amounts of near field hydrogen are presented. Studies of the dissolution of 233 U doped UO 2 (s) simulating 'old' spent fuel were carried out as static leaching tests, autoclave tests with various hydrogen concentrations and electrochemical tests. The results of the leaching behaviour of a high burn-up spent fuel pellet in 5 M NaCl solutions in the presence of 3.2 bar H 2 pressure and of MOX fuel in dilute synthetic groundwater under 53 bar H 2 pressure are also presented. In all the experimental studies carried out in this project, a considerable effect of hydrogen in the dissolution rates of radioactive materials was observed. The experimental results obtained in this project with a-doped UO 2 , high burn-up spent fuel and MOX fuel together with literature data give a reliable background to use fractional alteration/dissolution rates for spent fuel of the order of 10 -6 /yr - 10 -8 /yr with a recommended value of 4x10 -7 /yr for dissolved hydrogen concentrations above 10 -3 M and Fe(II) concentrations typical for European repository concepts. Finally, based on a review of the experimental data and available literature data, potential mechanisms of the hydrogen effect are also discussed. The work reported in this document was performed as part of the Project SFS of the European Commission 5th Framework Programme under contract no FIKW-CT-2001-20192 SFS. It represents the deliverable D10 of the experimental work package 'Key experiments using a-doped UO 2 and real spent fuel', coordinated by SKB with the participation of ITU, FZK-INE, ENRESA, CIEMAT, ARMINES-SUBATECH and SKB

  7. Chemistry of burning the forest floor during the FROSTFIRE experimental burn, interior Alaska, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, J.W.; Neff, J.C.; Sandberg, D.V.; Turetsky, M.R.; Ottmar, R.; Gleixner, G.; Fries, T.L.; Manies, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    Wildfires represent one of the most common disturbances in boreal regions, and have the potential to reduce C, N, and Hg stocks in soils while contributing to atmospheric emissions. Organic soil layers of the forest floor were sampled before and after the FROSTFIRE experimental burn in interior Alaska, and were analyzed for bulk density, major and trace elements, and organic compounds. Concentrations of carbon, nutrients, and several major and trace elements were significantly altered by the burn. Emissions of C, N, and Hg, estimated from chemical mass balance equations using Fe, Al, and Si as stable constituents, indicated that 500 to 900 g C and up to 0 to 4 ?? 10-4 g Hg/M2 were lost from the site. Calculations of nitrogen loss range from -4 to +6 g/m2 but were highly variable (standard deviation 19), with some samples showing increased N concentrations post-burn potentially from canopy ash. Noncombustible major nutrients such as Ca and K also were inherited from canopy ash. Thermogravimetry indicates a loss of thermally labile C and increase of lignin-like C in char and ash relative to unburned counterparts. Overall, atmospheric impacts of boreal fires include large emissions of C, N and Hg that vary greatly as a function of severe fire weather and its access to deep organic layers rich in C, N, and Hg. In terrestrial systems, burning rearranges the vertical distribution of nutrients in fuels and soils, the proximity of nutrients and permafrost to surface biota, and the chemical composition of soil including its nutrient and organic constituents, all of which impact C cycling. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. High-severity wildfire effects on carbon stocks and emissions in fuels treated and untreated forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm P. North; Matthew D. Hurteau

    2011-01-01

    Forests contain the world's largest terrestrial carbonstocks, but in seasonally dry environments stock stability can be compromised if burned by wildfire, emitting carbon back to the atmosphere. Treatments to reduce wildfireseverity can reduce emissions, but with an immediate cost of reducing carbonstocks. In this study we examine the tradeoffs in...

  9. In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens

    in the small scale water basin. Boilovers were also observed during the burning of a heavy crude oil with a substantial light fraction without a water layer, however, which suggests that water is not essential for boilover occurrence. Further studies are required to determine the conditions under which......The fire dynamics and fire chemistry of in-situ burning of crude oil on water was studied in order to improve predictions on the suitability of this oil spill response method. For this purpose, several operational parameters were studied to determine the factors that control the burning efficiency...... of in-situ burning, i.e. the amount of oil (in wt%) removed from the water surface by the burning process. The burning efficiency is the main parameter for expressing the oil removal effectiveness of in-situ burning as response method and is thus relevant for suitability predictions of in-situ burning...

  10. Air Pollution Episodes Associated with Prescribed Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, M.; Di Virgilio, G.; Jiang, N.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution events associated with wildfires have been associated with extreme health impacts. Prescribed burns are an important tool to reduce the severity of wildfires. However, if undertaken during unfavourable meteorological conditions, they too have the capacity to trigger extreme air pollution events. The Australian state of New South Wales has increased the annual average area treated by prescribed burn activities by 45%, in order to limit wildfire activity. Prescribed burns need to be undertaken during meteorological conditions that allow the fuel load to burn, while still allowing the burn to remain under control. These conditions are similar to those that inhibit atmospheric dispersion, resulting in a fine balance between managing fire risk and managing ambient air pollution. During prescribed burns, the Sydney air shed can experience elevated particulate matter concentrations, especially fine particulates (PM2.5) that occasionally exceed national air quality standards. Using pollutant and meteorological data from sixteen monitoring stations in Sydney we used generalized additive model and CART analyses to profile the meteorological conditions influencing air quality during planned burns. The insights gained from this study will help improve prescribed burn scheduling in order to reduce the pollution risk to the community, while allowing fire agencies to conduct this important work.

  11. Full-length high-temperature severe fuel damage test No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesson, G.M.; Lombardo, N.J.; Pilger, J.P.; Rausch, W.N.; King, L.L.; Hurley, D.E.; Parchen, L.J.; Panisko, F.E.

    1993-09-01

    Hazardous conditions associated with performing the Full-Length High- Temperature (FLHT). Severe Fuel Damage Test No. 2 experiment have been analyzed. Major hazards that could cause harm or damage are (1) radioactive fission products, (2) radiation fields, (3) reactivity changes, (4) hydrogen generation, (5) materials at high temperature, (6) steam explosion, and (7) steam pressure pulse. As a result of this analysis, it is concluded that with proper precautions the FLHT- 2 test can be safely conducted

  12. Stress corrosion cracking of several high strength ferrous and nickel alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E. E.

    1971-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of several high strength ferrous and nickel base alloys has been determined in a sodium chloride solution. Results indicate that under these test conditions Multiphase MP35N, Unitemp L605, Inconel 718, Carpenter 20Cb and 20Cb-3 are highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking. AISI 410 and 431 stainless steels, 18 Ni maraging steel (250 grade) and AISI 4130 steel are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under some conditions.

  13. High-speed radiation dose calculations for severe accidents using INDOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, G.R.; Godin-Jacqmin, L.J.; Raines, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The computer code INDOS (in-plant dose) has been developed for the high-speed calculation of in-plant radiation dose rates and doses during and/or due to a severe accident at a nuclear power plant. This paper describes the current capabilities of the code and presents the results of calculations for several severe-accident scenarios. The INDOS code can be run either as a module of MAAP, a code widely used in the nuclear industry for simulating the response of a light water reactor system during severe accidents, or as a stand-alone code using output from an alternative companion code. INDOS calculates gamma dose rates and doses in