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Sample records for high brilliance x-ray

  1. R and D Toward a Compact High-Brilliance X-Ray Source Based on Channeling Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piot, P.; Brau, C.A.; Gabella, W.E.; Choi, B.K.; Jarvis, J.D.; Mendenhall, M.H.; Lewellen, J.W.; Mihalcea, D.

    2012-01-01

    X-rays have been valuable to a large number of fields including Science, Medicine, and Security. Yet, the availability of a compact high-spectral brilliance X-ray sources is limited. A technique to produce X-rays with spectral brilliance B ∼ 10 12 photons.(mm-mrd) -2 .(0.1% BW) -1 .s -1 is discussed. The method is based on the generation and acceleration of a low-emittance field-emitted electron bunches. The bunches are then focused on a diamond crystal thereby producing channeling radiation. In this paper, after presenting the overarching concept, we discuss the generation, acceleration and transport of the low-emittance bunches with parameters consistent with the production of high-brilliance X-rays through channeling radiation. We especially consider the example of the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) currently in construction at Fermilab where a proof-of-principle experiment is in preparation.

  2. R and D toward a compact high-brilliance X-ray source based on channeling radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piot, P.; Brau, C. A.; Gabella, W. E.; Choi, B. K.; Jarvis, J. D.; Lewellen, J. W.; Mendenhall, M. H.; Mihalcea, D. [Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development and Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States) and Accelerator Physics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States) and Vanderbilt Institute of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Physics Department and Combat Systems, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development and Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States)

    2012-12-21

    X-rays have been valuable to a large number of fields including Science, Medicine, and Security. Yet, the availability of a compact high-spectral brilliance X-ray sources is limited. A technique to produce X-rays with spectral brilliance B{approx} 10{sup 12} photons.(mm-mrd){sup -2}. (0.1% BW){sup -1}.s{sup -1} is discussed. The method is based on the generation and acceleration of a low-emittance field-emitted electron bunches. The bunches are then focused on a diamond crystal thereby producing channeling radiation. In this paper, after presenting the overarching concept, we discuss the generation, acceleration and transport of the low-emittance bunches with parameters consistent with the production of high-brilliance X-rays through channeling radiation. We especially consider the example of the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) currently in construction at Fermilab where a proof-of-principle experiment is in preparation.

  3. Line focus x-ray tubes-a new concept to produce high brilliance x-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartzsch, Stefan; Oelfke, Uwe

    2017-10-27

    Currently hard coherent x-ray radiation at high photon fluxes can only be produced with large and expensive radiation sources, such as 3[Formula: see text] generation synchrotrons. Especially in medicine, this limitation prevents various promising developments in imaging and therapy from being translated into clinical practice. Here we present a new concept of highly brilliant x-ray sources, line focus x-ray tubes (LFXTs), which may serve as a powerful and cheap alternative to synchrotrons and a range of other existing technologies. LFXTs employ an extremely thin focal spot and a rapidly rotating target for the electron beam which causes a change in the physical mechanism of target heating, allowing higher electron beam intensities at the focal spot. Monte Carlo simulations and numeric solutions of the heat equation are used to predict the characteristics of the LFXT. In terms of photon flux and coherence length, the performance of the line focus x-ray tube compares with inverse Compton scattering sources. Dose rates of up to 180 Gy [Formula: see text] can be reached in 50 cm distance from the focal spot. The results demonstrate that the line focus tube can serve as a powerful compact source for phase contrast imaging and microbeam radiation therapy. The production of a prototype seems technically feasible.

  4. Polarized high-brilliance and high-resolution soft x-ray source at ELETTRA: The performance of beamline BACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangrando, M.; Zacchigna, M.; Finazzi, M.; Cocco, D.; Rochow, R.; Parmigiani, F.

    2004-01-01

    BACH, a soft x-ray beamline for polarization-dependent experiments at the Italian synchrotron radiation facility ELETTRA, was recently completed and characterized. Its performance, in terms of energy resolution, flux and polarization, is presented. Based on two APPLE II undulators, BACH covers the energy range between 35 and 1600 eV with the control of the light polarization. The monochromator is equipped with four gratings and allows one to work either in a high resolution or in a high flux mode. After the monochromator, the beamline is split into two branches with different refocusing properties. One is optimized to exploit the performance of the soft x-ray spectrometer (ComIXS) available at the beamline. Resolving powers between 12000 at 90 eV photon energy and 6600 near 867 eV were achieved using the high-resolution gratings and the smallest available slit width (10 μm). For the high-brilliance grating, which works between 290 and 1600 eV, resolving powers between 7000 at 400 eV and 2200 at 867 eV were obtained. The flux in the experimental chamber, measured with the high-resolution gratings for linearly polarized light at the best achievable resolution, ranges between 4x10 11 photons/s at 125 eV and 2x10 10 photons/s between 900 and 1250 eV. In circularly polarized mode the flux is two times larger for energies up to 380 eV. A gain of nearly one order of magnitude is obtained for the high-brilliance grating, in accordance with theoretical predictions. Flux beyond 1.3x10 11 photons/s was measured up to 1300 eV, and thus over nearly the complete energy range covered by this high-brilliance grating, with a maximum of 1.6x10 11 photons/s between 800 and 1100 eV. First results from polarization measurements confirm a polarization above 99.7% for both linearly and circularly polarized modes at low energies. Circular dichroism experiments indicate a circular polarization beyond 90% at the Fe L 2 /L 3 edge near 720 eV

  5. Electron acceleration and generation of high-brilliance x-ray radiation in kilojoule, subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ferri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Petawatt, picosecond laser pulses offer rich opportunities in generating synchrotron x-rays. This paper concentrates on the regimes accessible with the PETAL laser, which is a part of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ facility. We explore two physically distinct scenarios through Particle-in-Cell simulations. The first one realizes in a dense plasma, such that the period of electron Langmuir oscillations is much shorter than the pulse duration. Hallmarks of this regime are longitudinal breakup (“self-modulation” of the picosecond-scale laser pulse and excitation of a rapidly evolving broken plasma wake. It is found that electron beams with a charge of several tens of nC can be obtained, with a quasi-Maxwellian energy distribution extending to a few-GeV level. In the second scenario, at lower plasma densities, the pulse is shorter than the electron plasma period. The pulse blows out plasma electrons, creating a single accelerating cavity, while injection on the density downramp creates a nC quasi-monoenergetic electron bunch within the cavity. This bunch accelerates without degradation beyond 1 GeV. The x-ray sources in the self-modulated regime offer a high number of photons (∼10^{12} with the slowly decaying energy spectra extending beyond 60 keV. In turn, quasimonoenergetic character of the electron beam in the blowout regime results in the synchrotron-like spectra with the critical energy around 10 MeV and a number of photons >10^{9}. Yet, much smaller source duration and transverse size increase the x-ray brilliance by more than an order of magnitude against the self-modulated case, also favoring high spatial and temporal resolution in x-ray imaging. In all explored cases, accelerated electrons emit synchrotron x-rays of high brilliance, B>10^{20}  photons/s/mm^{2}/mrad^{2}/0.1%BW. Synchrotron sources driven by picosecond kilojoule lasers may thus find an application in x-ray diagnostics on such facilities such as the LMJ or National

  6. Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

    1996-08-01

    A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms

  7. Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

    1996-08-01

    A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms.

  8. Small-angle X-ray scattering at high brilliance european synchrotrons for biotechnology and nano-technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svergun, D.; Malfois, M.; Svergun, D.; Douka, M.; Riekel, Ch.; Perez, J.; Roessle, M.; Amenitsch, H.; Gunter Grossman, J.; Vestergaard, B.; Receveur-Brechot, V.; Roth, St.V.; Ferrari, E.

    2007-01-01

    Different issues such as micro-fluidic devices for SAXS (small-angle X-ray diffraction), the use of electro-spray and ion trapping for SAXS in the gas phase, the study of flexible and disordered proteins through SAXS, the time-resolved SAXS studies in solution, or the study of nano-structured soft materials, were addressed in this workshop. This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations

  9. Small-angle X-ray scattering at high brilliance european synchrotrons for biotechnology and nano-technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svergun, D.; Malfois, M. [EMBL c/o DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Svergun, D. [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Douka, M. [Commission Europeenne, DG III, Bruxelles (Belgium); Riekel, Ch. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38 - Grenoble (France); Perez, J. [Soleil, 91 - Saclay (France); Roessle, M. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Amenitsch, H. [IBN/Elettra (Germany); Gunter Grossman, J. [Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) (United Kingdom); Vestergaard, B. [University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark); Receveur-Brechot, V. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS/AFMB), 13 - Marseille (France); Roth, St.V. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (HASYLAB), Hamburg (Germany); Ferrari, E. [National Institute for the Physics of Matter (CNR-INFM), Trieste (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    Different issues such as micro-fluidic devices for SAXS (small-angle X-ray diffraction), the use of electro-spray and ion trapping for SAXS in the gas phase, the study of flexible and disordered proteins through SAXS, the time-resolved SAXS studies in solution, or the study of nano-structured soft materials, were addressed in this workshop. This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations.

  10. Isolated elliptically polarized attosecond soft X-ray with high-brilliance using polarization gating of harmonics from relativistic plasmas at oblique incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ya; Li, Bo-Yuan; Chen, Min; Liu, Feng

    2018-02-19

    The production of intense isolated attosecond pulse is a major goal in ultrafast research. Recent advances in high harmonic generation from relativistic plasma mirrors under oblique incidence interactions gave rise to photon-rich attosecond pulses with circular or elliptical polarization. However, to achieve an isolated elliptical attosecond pulse via polarization gating using currently available long driving pulses remains a challenge, because polarization gating of high harmonics from relativistic plasmas is assumed only possible at normal or near-normal incidence. Here we numerically demonstrate a scheme around this problem. We show that via control of plasma dynamics by managing laser polarization, it is possible to gate an intense single attosecond pulse with high ellipticity extending to the soft X-ray regime at oblique incidence. This approach thus paves the way towards a powerful tool enabling high-time-resolution probe of dynamics of chiral systems and magnetic materials with current laser technology.

  11. Hard-x-ray phase-difference microscopy with a low-brilliance laboratory x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Hiroaki; Yashiro, Wataru; Harasse, Sebastien; Momose, Atsushi; Mizutani, Haruo

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a hard-X-ray phase-imaging microscopy method using a low-brilliance X-ray source. The microscope consists of a sample, a Fresnel zone plate, a transmission grating, and a source grating creating an array of mutually incoherent X-ray sources. The microscope generates an image exhibiting twin features of the sample with opposite signs separated by a distance, which is processed to generate a phase image. The method is quantitative even for non-weak-phase objects that are difficult to be quantitatively examined by the widely used Zernike phase-contrast microscopy, and it has potentially broad applications in the material and biological science fields. (author)

  12. Science research with high-brilliance synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Milan K.

    2013-01-01

    Synchrotron-science has changed dramatically since the development of high brilliance electron accelerator-based light sources in 1990s. In the last twenty years or so, several such facilities have come up, particularly in developed countries, as material characterizations in relevant atmosphere and protein crystallography with tiny-crystals have strong implications in industrial competitiveness. Moreover several new techniques have been developed recently over the entire spectral range of emitted light, from infra-red to high energy X-rays, which have altered our basic understanding of various materials like biomaterials, nanomaterials, soft-matter and semiconductor quantum structures. In addition, rapid development of various X-ray imaging techniques for nondestructive evaluation of compositional/structural homogeneity of engineering materials with nanometer resolution will have tremendous impact in manufacturing industries. As India becomes a developed country, it must have access to such an advanced synchrotron facility in the country that enables knowledge generation in the ever-expanding fields of design-characterization-production of advanced materials and modern medicines. Development of such state-of-the art facility will also enable us to carry out frontier-basic-research in our own country and help us to retain and bring back Indian talents to India. Here we shall discuss briefly the characteristics of a high brilliance synchrotron source and outline the nature of basic and applied science research that can be done with such a state-of-the-art facility. (author)

  13. Structural analysis with high brilliance synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    The research subjects in diffraction and scattering of materials with high brilliance synchrotron radiation such as SPring-8 (Super Photon ring 8 GeV) are summarized. The SPring-8 project is going well and 10 public beamlines will be opened for all users in October, 1997. Three JAERI beamlines are also under construction for researches of heavy element science, physical and structural properties under extreme conditions such as high temperature and high pressure. (author)

  14. A 1.5 GeV high brilliance synchrotron light source with combined function lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, M.; Lindgren, L.J.; Andersson, Aa.; Roejsel, P.; Werin, S.

    1988-01-01

    A 1.5 GeV synchrotron light source with a combined function lattice is studied. The light source will offer X-ray radiation with λc=1.0 angstrom from a superconducting wiggler and high brilliance VUV-radiation from undulators. The magnet lattice, magnet design and ring performance is discussed. (authors)

  15. Advanced development of catalysts by using the high-brilliance synchrotron radiation in SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The advanced development of catalysts by using the high-brilliance synchrotron radiation in SPring-8 is described: (1) the industrial use of SPring-8, (2) the analytical methods of catalyst using SPring-8 (XAFS, powder X-ray diffraction, thin film X-ray scattering, X-ray imaging, infrared analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, and photoelectron spectroscopy etc.), (3) the history of synchrotron radiation and catalyst investigations, (4) the new advanced measuring methods of catalyst using synchrotron radiation (various X-ray spectroscopic methods, and application of XAFS to highly-disperse systems of catalyst), and (5) the new advanced development of catalysts using synchrotron radiation and its applications (motor-car catalysts, light catalysts, fuel cells, nanotechnology, and trace amounts of catalyst in wastes). (M.H.)

  16. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.M.F. de

    2000-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption

  17. High-speed X-ray topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckers, W.; Oppolzer, H.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of lattice defects in semiconductor crystals by conventional X-ray diffraction topography is very time-consuming. Exposure times can be reduced by using high-intensity X-rays and X-ray image intensifiers. The described system comprises a high-power rotating-anode X-ray tube, a remote-controlled X-ray topography camera, and a television system operating with an X-ray sensing VIDICON. System performance is demonstrated with reference to exploratory examples. The exposure time for photographic plates is reduced to 1/20 and for the X-ray TV system (resolution of the order of 30 μm) to 1/100 relative to that required when using a conventional topography system. (orig.) [de

  18. High speed gated x-ray imagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, J.D.; Bell, P.; Hanks, R.; Power, G.; Turner, R.E.; Wiedwald, J.

    1988-01-01

    Single and multi-frame gated x-ray images with time-resolution as fast as 150 psec are described. These systems are based on the gating of microchannel plates in a stripline configuration. The gating voltage comes from the avalanche breakdown of reverse biased p-n junction producing high power voltage pulses as short as 70 psec. Results from single and four frame x-ray cameras used on Nova are described. 8 refs., 9 figs

  19. High-temperature x-ray camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il' inskii, A G; Romanova, A V; Prikhod' ko, N P

    1974-03-25

    A high-temperature x-ray chamber for taking x-ray photographs of flat horizontally set samples in a vacuum or gas medium is described. The chamber is fitted out with a water-cooled vacuum closed hull with a window letting the x-rays pass, a centering mechanism and a device for heating the samples. To widen its functional abilities the chamber is provided with a goniometric device, fixed immovably to the body foundation by means of two stands. Bearings are mounted to the stands; one of them is equipped with a screw wheel and an endless screw with a limb in the ring; a traverse to which a counter for the x-ray radiation is installed is attached to the shafts of both the bearings. The centering mechanism has a cooled metalic rod, which is connected through a spiral screw thread with the limb fixable by a fork. The position of the shaft of rotation of the counter is adjusted with the help of a nit, extended through the plug openings, positioned on the stands. The chamber can be applied for x-ray structural analyses.

  20. High pressure X-ray studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    High pressure research has already led to new insights in the physical properties of materials and at times to the synthesis of new ones. In all this, X-ray diffraction has been a valuable diagnostic experimental tool. In particular, X-rays in high pressure field have been used (a) for crystallographic identification of high pressure polymorphs and (b) for study of the effect of pressure on lattice parameters and volume under isothermal conditions. The results in the area (a) are reviewed. The techniques of applying high pressures are described. These include both static and dynamic shockwave X-ray apparatus. To illustrate the effect of pressure, some of the pressure induced phase transitions in pure metals are described. It has been found that there is a clear trend for elements in any group of the periodic table to adopt similar structures at high pressures. These studies have enabled to construct generalized phase diagrams for many groups. In the case of alloys, the high pressure work done on Ti-V alloys is presented. (author)

  1. A high resolution position sensitive X-ray MWPC for small angle X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.; Stephenson, R.; Tappern, G.J.

    1981-02-01

    A small sealed-off delay line readout MWPC X-ray detector has been designed and built for small angle X-ray diffraction applications. Featuring a sensitive area of 100 mm x 25 mm it yields a spatial resolution of 0.13 mm (standard deviation) with a high rate capability and good quantum efficiency for copper K radiation. (author)

  2. X-ray spectral meter of high voltages for X-ray apparatuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubkov, I.P.; Larchikov, Yu.V.

    1993-01-01

    Design of the X-ray spectral meter of high voltages (XRSMHV) for medical X-ray apparatuses permitting to conduct the voltage measurements without connection to current circuits. The XRSMHV consists of two main units: the detector unit based on semiconductor detector and the LP4900B multichannel analyzer (Afora, Finland). The XRSMYV was tested using the pilot plant based on RUM-20 X-ray diagnostic apparatus with high-voltage regulator. It was shown that the developed XRSMHV could be certify in the range of high constant voltages form 40 up to 120 kV with the basic relative error limits ±0.15%. The XRSMHV is used at present as the reference means for calibration of high-voltage medical X-ray equipment

  3. High-resolution X-ray imaging - a powerful nondestructive technique for applications in semiconductor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschech, Ehrenfried; Yun, Wenbing; Schneider, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    The availability of high-brilliance X-ray sources, high-precision X-ray focusing optics and very efficient CCD area detectors has contributed essentially to the development of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) and X-ray computed tomography (XCT) with sub-50 nm resolution. Particularly, the fabrication of high aspect ratio Fresnel zone plates with zone widths approaching 15 nm has contributed to the enormous improvement in spatial resolution during the previous years. Currently, Fresnel zone plates give the ability to reach spatial resolutions of 15 to 20 nm in the soft and of about 30 to 50 nm in the hard X-ray energy range. X-ray microscopes with rotating anode X-ray sources that can be installed in an analytical lab next to a semiconductor fab have been developed recently. These unique TXM/XCT systems provide an important new capability of nondestructive 3D imaging of internal circuit structures without destructive sample preparation such as cross sectioning. These lab systems can be used for failure localization in micro- and nanoelectronic structures and devices, e.g., to visualize voids and residuals in on-chip metal interconnects without physical modification of the chip. Synchrotron radiation experiments have been used to study new processes and materials that have to be introduced into the semiconductor industry. The potential of TXM using synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray energy range is shown for the nondestructive in situ imaging of void evolution in embedded on-chip copper interconnect structures during electromigration and for the imaging of different types of insulating thin films between the on-chip interconnects (spectromicroscopy). (orig.)

  4. High resolution x-ray microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Gary, C. K.; Park, H.; Lombardo, L. W.; Piestrup, M. A.; Cremer, J. T.; Pantell, R. H.; Dudchik, Y. I.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present x-ray images of grid meshes and biological material obtained using a microspot x-ray tube with a multilayer optic and a 92-element parabolic compound refractive lens CRL made of a plastic containing only hydrogen and carbon. Images obtained using this apparatus are compared with those using an area source with a spherical lens and a spherical lens with multilayer condenser. The authors found the best image quality using the multilayer condenser with a parabolic lens, com...

  5. Dosimetry of x-rays from high-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takayoshi; Abe, Nobuyuki; Kawanishi, Masaharu

    1980-01-01

    Study on the dosimetry of ionizing radiations, especially of X-rays, emitted from high-temperature plasms has been made. As to the unpolarized Bremsstrahlung, a brief method to estimate electron temperatures with TLD is described and evaluation of average energy and current of the run-away electrons in the turbulent heating Tokamak is made by observing the half-value layer of the emitted X-rays and the total exposure per one shot of the Tokamak discharge. As to the polarized one, it is shown that the anisotropic electron temperature is related to the degree of polarization of the X-rays. Furthermore, reference is made to the possibility of developing such X-ray generators as can emit nearly monochromatic X-rays (characteristic X-rays) or polarized ones arbitrarily. (author)

  6. [High-Performance Active Pixel X-Ray Sensors for X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautz, Mark; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi

    2005-01-01

    The subject grants support development of High-Performance Active Pixel Sensors for X-ray Astronomy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Center for Space Research and at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory. This memo reports our progress in the second year of the project, from April, 2004 through the present.

  7. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J; Mancuso, Christopher A; Hogle, Craig W; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L; Dorney, Kevin M; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M; Milošević, Dejan B; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2015-11-17

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform.

  8. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Schnopper, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the perfection of state-of-the-art multilayers are presented. Data were obtained using a triple-axis perfect-crystal X-ray diffractometer. Measurements reveal large-scale figure errors in the substrate. A high-resolution triple-axis set up is required...

  9. Simple, compact, high brightness source for x-ray lithography and x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, compact, high brightness x-ray source has recently been built. This source utilizes a commercially available, cylindrical geometry electron beam evaporator, which has been modified to enhance the thermal cooling to the anode. Cooling is accomplished by using standard, low-conductivity laboratory water, with an inlet pressure of less than 50 psi, and a flow rate of approx.0.3 gal/min. The anode is an inverted cone geometry for efficient cooling. The x-ray source has a measured sub-millimeter spot size (FWHM). The anode has been operated at 1 KW e-beam power (10 KV, 100 ma). Higher operating levels will be investigated. A variety of different x-ray lines can be obtained by the simple interchange of anodes of different materials. Typical anodes are made from easily machined metals, or materials which are vacuum deposited onto a copper anode. Typically, a few microns of material is sufficient to stop 10 KV electrons without significantly decreasing the thermal conductivity through the anode. The small size and high brightness of this source make it useful for step and repeat exposures over several square centimeter areas, especially in a research laboratory environment. For an aluminum anode, the estimated Al-K x-ray flux at 10 cms from the source is 70 μW/cm 2

  10. Ultra high resolution X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, U.; Buehler, M.; Hentig, R. von; Hertrich, T.; Phelan, K.; Wernicke, D.; Hoehne, J.

    2001-01-01

    CSP Cryogenic Spectrometers GmbH is developing cryogenic energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers based on superconducting detector technology. Superconducting sensors exhibit at least a 10-fold improvement in energy resolution due to their low energy gap compared to conventional Si(Li) or Ge detectors. These capabilities are extremely valuable for the analysis of light elements and in general for the analysis of the low energy range of the X-ray spectrum. The spectrometer is based on a mechanical cooler needing no liquid coolants and an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) stage which supplies the operating temperature of below 100 mK for the superconducting sensor. Applications include surface analysis in semiconductor industry as well material analysis for material composition e.g. in ceramics or automobile industry

  11. High energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojciech, Blachucki [Univ. of Fribourg (Switzerland). Dept. of Physics

    2015-10-16

    This work treats of the high energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy (HEROS) method of determining the density of unoccupied electronic states in the vicinity of the absorption edge. HEROS is an alternative to the existing X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) methods and opens the way for new studies not achievable before.

  12. Final Report - X-ray Studies of Highly Correlated Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Clement [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States)

    2017-11-27

    The overall goal of the research was to improve the capabilities of x-ray synchrotron instrumentation to enable cutting-edge research in condensed matter physics. The main goal of the current grant cycle was to find a method to measure the polarization of the scattered x-ray in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. To do this, we developed a polarization analysis apparatus using a thin, toroidally bent single crystal, which could be set to reflect one or the other of the two polarization components in the scattered x-ray beam. Resonant x-ray scattering measurements were also carried out on interfaces and the charge density wave in high temperature superconducting materials.

  13. Miniaturized High-Speed Modulated X-Ray Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith C. (Inventor); Arzoumanian, Zaven (Inventor); Kenyon, Steven J. (Inventor); Spartana, Nick Salvatore (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A miniaturized high-speed modulated X-ray source (MXS) device and a method for rapidly and arbitrarily varying with time the output X-ray photon intensities and energies. The MXS device includes an ultraviolet emitter that emits ultraviolet light, a photocathode operably coupled to the ultraviolet light-emitting diode that emits electrons, an electron multiplier operably coupled to the photocathode that multiplies incident electrons, and an anode operably coupled to the electron multiplier that is configured to produce X-rays. The method for modulating MXS includes modulating an intensity of an ultraviolet emitter to emit ultraviolet light, generating electrons in response to the ultraviolet light, multiplying the electrons to become more electrons, and producing X-rays by an anode that includes a target material configured to produce X-rays in response to impact of the more electrons.

  14. Effective high voltage at X-ray tube in hard X-ray chest imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.

    1987-01-01

    The FRG standard TGL 36 661 (March 1980) for synoptical chest pictures of large size in adults specifies the 120 kV voltage at the X-ray tube together with maximal, 100% use of the capacity of the tube (hard picture, short exposure time). By means of circular recording and by measuring the high voltage at the X-ray tube it was quantitatively shown that the effective voltage during exposure is (according to the exposure time and the attenuation phase of the generator) always lower than the set-up voltage of 120 kV. This phenomenon is the more marked the shorter the actual exposure time in comparison with the attenuation phase of the generator. The typical characteristic of a hard X-ray chest picture is thus not given only by the setting-up of voltage. The impact of the reduction in voltage is thus quantitatively shown also from the aspect of the radiation burden for the patient. (author). 7 figs., 8 refs

  15. Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sang-Kil; Geffert, Otfried; Santra, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Compton scattering is the nonresonant inelastic scattering of an x-ray photon by an electron and has been used to probe the electron momentum distribution in gas-phase and condensed-matter samples. In the low x-ray intensity regime, Compton scattering from atoms dominantly comes from bound electrons in neutral atoms, neglecting contributions from bound electrons in ions and free (ionized) electrons. In contrast, in the high x-ray intensity regime, the sample experiences severe ionization via x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics. Thus, it becomes necessary to take into account all the contributions to the Compton scattering signal when atoms are exposed to high-intensity x-ray pulses provided by x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). In this paper, we investigate the Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity, using an extension of the integrated x-ray atomic physics toolkit, xatom. As the x-ray fluence increases, there is a significant contribution from ionized electrons to the Compton spectra, which gives rise to strong deviations from the Compton spectra of neutral atoms. The present study provides not only understanding of the fundamental XFEL-matter interaction but also crucial information for single-particle imaging experiments, where Compton scattering is no longer negligible. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. B. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Sang-Kil Son was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. B as an Emerging Leader.

  16. High-speed image converter x-ray studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryukhnevitch, G.I.; Kas'yanov, Yu.S.; Korobkin, V.V.; Prokhorov, A.M.; Stepanov, B.M.; Chevokin, V.K.; Schelev, M.Ya.

    1975-01-01

    Two X-ray high-speed image-converter cameras (ICC) have been developed. In the first one a soft X-ray radiation is converted into visible light with the aid of a 0.5ns response time, plastic scintillator. The second camera incorporates a photocathode which is sensitive to visible and X-ray radiation. Its calculated temporal resolution approaches 5 to 7ps. Both developed cameras were employed for studies of X-ray radiation emitted by laser plasma. For the smooth nanosecond excited laser pulses, a noticeable amplitude modulation was recorded in all laser pulses reflected by plasma as well as in each third pulse of X-ray plasma radiation. It was also observed that the duration of X-ray plasma radiation is 20 to 40% shorter than that of the incident nanosecond laser pulses and this duration being 3 to 6 times longer than that of the picosecond irradiating pulses. The half-width of the recorded X-ray plasma pulses was 30 to 60ps. (author)

  17. High spectral resolution X-ray observations of AGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaastra, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    brief overview of some highlights of high spectral resolution X-ray observations of AGN is given, mainly obtained with the RGS of XMM-Newton. Future prospects for such observations with XMM-Newton are given.

  18. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidler, G. T., E-mail: seidler@uw.edu; Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R. [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ∼5 keV to ∼10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  19. Radiation processing with high-energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Stichelbaut, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    The physical, chemical or biological characteristics of selected commercial products and materials can be improved by radiation processing. The ionizing energy can be provided by accelerated electrons with energies between 75 keV and 10 MeV, gamma rays from cobalt-60 with average energies of 1.25 MeV or X-rays with maximum energies up to 7.5 MeV. Electron beams are preferred for thin products, which are processed at high speeds. Gamma rays are used for products that are too thick for treatment with electron beams. High-energy X-rays can also be used for these purposes because their penetration in solid materials is similar to or even slightly greater than that of gamma rays. Previously, the use of X-rays had been inhibited by their slower processing rates and higher costs when compared with gamma rays. Since then, the price of cobalt-60 sources has been increased and the radiation intensity from high-energy, high-power X-ray generators has also increased. For facilities requiring at least 2 MCi of cobalt-60, the capital and operating costs of X-ray facilities with equivalent processing rates can be less than that of gamma-ray irradiators. Several high-energy electron beam facilities have been equipped with removable X-ray targets so that irradiation processes can be done with either type of ionizing energy. A new facility is now being built which will be used exclusively in the X-ray mode to sterilize medical products. Operation of this facility will show that high-energy, high-power X-ray generators are practical alternatives to large gamma-ray sources. (author)

  20. Diagnostic Spectrometers for High Energy Density X-Ray Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A.; Seely, J. F.; Holland, G. E.

    2007-01-01

    A new generation of advanced laser, accelerator, and plasma confinement devices are emerging that are producing extreme states of light and matter that are unprecedented for laboratory study. Examples of such sources that will produce laboratory x-ray emissions with unprecedented characteristics include megajoule-class and ultrafast, ultraintense petawatt laser-produced plasmas; tabletop high-harmonic-generation x-ray sources; high-brightness zeta-pinch and magnetically confined plasma sources; and coherent x-ray free electron lasers and compact inverse-Compton x-ray sources. Characterizing the spectra, time structure, and intensity of x rays emitted by these and other novel sources is critical to assessing system performance and progress as well as pursuing the new and unpredictable physical interactions of interest to basic and applied high-energy-density (HED) science. As these technologies mature, increased emphasis will need to be placed on advanced diagnostic instrumentation and metrology, standard reference data, absolute calibrations and traceability of results.We are actively designing, fabricating, and fielding wavelength-calibrated x-ray spectrometers that have been employed to register spectra from a variety of exotic x-ray sources (electron beam ion trap, electron cyclotron resonance ion source, terawatt pulsed-power-driven accelerator, laser-produced plasmas). These instruments employ a variety of curved-crystal optics, detector technologies, and data acquisition strategies. In anticipation of the trends mentioned above, this paper will focus primarily on optical designs that can accommodate the high background signals produced in HED experiments while also registering their high-energy spectral emissions. In particular, we review the results of recent laboratory testing that explores off-Rowland circle imaging in an effort to reclaim the instrumental resolving power that is increasingly elusive at higher energies when using wavelength

  1. High-intensity, subkilovolt x-ray calibration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckuck, R.W.; Gaines, J.L.; Ernst, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    A high-intensity subkilovolt x-ray calibration source utilizing proton-induced inner-shell atomic fluorescence of low-Z elements is described. The high photon yields and low bremsstrahlung background associated with this phenomenon are ideally suited to provide intense, nearly monoenergetic x-ray beams. The proton accelerator is a 3 mA, 300 kV Cockroft-Walton using a conventional rf hydrogen ion source. Seven remotely-selectable targets capable of heat dissipation of 5 kW/cm 2 are used to provide characteristic x-rays with energies between 100 and 1000 eV. Source strengths are of the order of 10 13 to 10 14 photons/sec. Methods of reducing spectral contamination due to hydrocarbon build-up on the target are discussed. Typical x-ray spectra (Cu-L, C-K and B-K) are shown

  2. Treatment of foods with high-energy X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, M.R.; Meissner, J.; Herer, A.S.; Beers, E.W.

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of foods with ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, accelerated electrons, and X rays can produce beneficial effects, such as inhibiting the sprouting in potatoes, onions, and garlic, controlling insects in fruits, vegetables, and grains, inhibiting the growth of fungi, pasteurizing fresh meat, poultry, and seafood, and sterilizing spices and food additives. After many years of research, these processes have been approved by regulatory authorities in many countries and commercial applications have been increasing. High-energy X rays are especially useful for treating large packages of food. The most attractive features are product penetration, absorbed dose uniformity, high utilization efficiency and short processing time. The ability to energize the X-ray source only when needed enhances the safety and convenience of this technique. The availability of high-energy, high-power electron accelerators, which can be used as X-ray generators, makes it feasible to process large quantities of food economically. Several industrial accelerator facilities already have X-ray conversion equipment and several more will soon be built with product conveying systems designed to take advantage of the unique characteristics of high-energy X rays. These concepts will be reviewed briefly in this paper

  3. Treatment of foods with high-energy X rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, M. R.; Meissner, J.; Herer, A. S.; Beers, E. W.

    2001-07-01

    The treatment of foods with ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, accelerated electrons, and X rays can produce beneficial effects, such as inhibiting the sprouting in potatoes, onions, and garlic, controlling insects in fruits, vegetables, and grains, inhibiting the growth of fungi, pasteurizing fresh meat, poultry, and seafood, and sterilizing spices and food additives. After many years of research, these processes have been approved by regulatory authorities in many countries and commercial applications have been increasing. High-energy X rays are especially useful for treating large packages of food. The most attractive features are product penetration, absorbed dose uniformity, high utilization efficiency and short processing time. The ability to energize the X-ray source only when needed enhances the safety and convenience of this technique. The availability of high-energy, high-power electron accelerators, which can be used as X-ray generators, makes it feasible to process large quantities of food economically. Several industrial accelerator facilities already have X-ray conversion equipment and several more will soon be built with product conveying systems designed to take advantage of the unique characteristics of high-energy X rays. These concepts will be reviewed briefly in this paper.

  4. High-intensity laser synchrotron x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1995-10-01

    A laser interacting with a relativistic electron beam behaves like a virtual wiggler of an extremely short period equal to half of the laser wavelength. This approach opens a route to relatively compact, high-brightness x-ray sources alternative or complementary to conventional synchrotron light sources. Although not new, the Laser Synchrotron Light Source (LSLS) concept is still waiting for a convincing demonstration. Available at the BNL's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a high-brightness electron beam and the high-power C0 2 laser may be used as prototype LSLS brick stones. In a feasible demonstration experiment, 10-GW, 100-ps C0 2 laser beam will be brought to a head-on collision with a 10-ps, 0.5-nC, 70 MeV electron bunch. Flashes of well-collimated, up to 9.36-keV (∼ Angstrom) x-rays of 10-ps pulse duration, with a flux of ∼10 19 photons/sec will be produced via linear Compton backscattering. The x-ray spectrum is tunable proportionally to a variable e-beam energy. A natural short-term extension of the proposed experiment would be further enhancement of the x-ray flux to a 10 21 -10 22 photons/sec level, after the ongoing ATF CO 2 laser upgrade to 1 TW peak power and electron bunch shortening to 3 ps. The ATF LSLS x-ray beamline, exceeding by orders of magnitude the peak fluxes attained at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) x-ray storage ring, may become attractive for certain users, e.g., for biological x-ray microscopy. In addition, a terawatt CO 2 laser will enable harmonic multiplication of the x-ray spectrum via nonlinear Compton scattering

  5. Progress in high-resolution x-ray holographic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Howells, M.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.; Feder, R.; Sayre, D.

    1987-07-01

    Among the various types of x-ray microscopes that have been demonstrated, the holographic microscope has had the largest gap between promise and performance. The difficulties of fabricating x-ray optical elements have led some to view holography as the most attractive method for obtaining the ultimate in high resolution x-ray micrographs; however, we know of no investigations prior to 1987 that clearly demonstrated submicron resolution in reconstructed images. Previous efforts suffered from problems such as limited resolution and dynamic range in the recording media, low coherent x-ray flux, and aberrations and diffraction limits in visible light reconstruction. We have addressed the recording limitations through the use of an undulator x-ray source and high-resolution photoresist recording media. For improved results in the readout and reconstruction steps, we have employed metal shadowing and transmission electron microscopy, along with numerical reconstruction techniques. We believe that this approach will allow holography to emerge as a practical method of high-resolution x-ray microscopy. 30 refs., 4 figs

  6. Progress in high-resolution x-ray holographic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Howells, M.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.; Feder, R.; Sayre, D.

    1987-07-01

    Among the various types of x-ray microscopes that have been demonstrated, the holographic microscope has had the largest gap between promise and performance. The difficulties of fabricating x-ray optical elements have led some to view holography as the most attractive method for obtaining the ultimate in high resolution x-ray micrographs; however, we know of no investigations prior to 1987 that clearly demonstrated submicron resolution in reconstructed images. Previous efforts suffered from problems such as limited resolution and dynamic range in the recording media, low coherent x-ray flux, and aberrations and diffraction limits in visible light reconstruction. We have addressed the recording limitations through the use of an undulator x-ray source and high-resolution photoresist recording media. For improved results in the readout and reconstruction steps, we have employed metal shadowing and transmission electron microscopy, along with numerical reconstruction techniques. We believe that this approach will allow holography to emerge as a practical method of high-resolution x-ray microscopy. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Low Mass X-ray Binary 4U1705-44 Exiting an Extended High X-ray State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Rebecca; Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, Alan P.

    2017-09-01

    The neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U1705-44, which exhibited high amplitude long-term X-ray variability on the order of hundreds of days during the 16-year continuous monitoring by the RXTE ASM (1995-2012), entered an anomalously long high state in July 2012 as observed by MAXI (2009-present).

  8. High-Resolution and Lightweight X-ray Optics for the X-Ray Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William

    Envisioned in "Enduring Quest, Daring Visions" and under study by NASA as a potential major mission for the 2020s, the X-ray Surveyor mission will likely impose three requirements on its optics: (1) high angular resolution: 0.5 PSF, (2) large effective area: e10,000 cm2 or more, and (3) affordable production cost: $500M. We propose a technology that can meet these requirements by 2020. It will help the X-ray Surveyor secure the endorsement of the coming decadal survey and enable its implementation following WFIRST. The technology comprises four elements: (1) fabrication of lightweight single crystal silicon mirrors, (2) coating these mirrors with iridium to maximize effective area without figure degradation, (3) alignment and bonding of these mirrors to form meta-shells that will be integrated to make a mirror assembly, and (4) systems engineering to ensure that the mirror assembly meet all science performance and spaceflight environmental requirements. This approach grows out of our existing approach based on glass slumping. Using glass slumping technology, we have been able to routinely build and test mirror modules of 10half-power diameter (HPD). While comparable in HPD to XMM-Newtons electroformed nickel mirrors, these mirror modules are 10 times lighter. Likewise, while comparable in weight to Suzakus epoxy-replicated aluminum foil mirrors, these modules have 10 times better HPD. These modules represent the current state of the art of lightweight X-ray optics. Although both successful and mature, the glass slumping technology has reached its limit and cannot achieve sub-arc second HPD. Therefore, we are pursuing the new approach based on polishing single crystal silicon. The new approach will enable the building and testing of mirror modules, called meta-shells, capable of 3HPD by 2018 and 1HPD by 2020, and has the potential to reach diffraction limits ( 0.1) in the 2020s.

  9. High brilliance multicusp ion source for hydrogen microscopy at SNAKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, M., E-mail: marcus.moser@unibw.de [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Reichart, P. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Carli, W. [Maier-Leibniz-Laboraturium der LMU und TU Muenchen, 85478 Garching (Germany); Greubel, C.; Peeper, K. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Hartung, P. [Maier-Leibniz-Laboraturium der LMU und TU Muenchen, 85478 Garching (Germany); Dollinger, G. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    In order to improve the lateral resolution of the 3D hydrogen microscopy by proton-proton scattering at the Munich microprobe SNAKE, we have installed a new multicusp ion source for negative hydrogen ions manufactured by HVEE at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator that boosts the proton beam brilliance with the potential to reduce the beam diameter at the focal plane of SNAKE. We measured a beam brilliance B = 27 A m{sup -2} rad{sup -2} eV{sup -1} directly behind the ion source that is at the space charge limit for conventional ion sources. After preacceleration to in total 180 keV beam energy we measure a slightly reduced beam brilliance of B = 10 {mu}A mm{sup -2} mrad{sup -2} MeV{sup -1}. For injection into the tandem accelerator, the extracted H{sup -}-current of the multicusp source of 1 mA is reduced to about 10 {mu}A because of radiation safety regulations and heating problems at the object slits of SNAKE. Due to beam oscillations and influences of the terminal stripper of the tandem we measured a reduced beam brilliance of 0.8 {mu}A mm{sup -2} mrad{sup -2} MeV{sup -1} in front of SNAKE at 25 MeV but still being nearly 10 times larger than measured with any other ion source.

  10. Atomic physics at high brilliance synchrotron sources: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, G.; Cowan, P.; Gemmell, D.

    1994-08-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: present status of SPring-8 and the atomic physics undulator beamline; recent photoabsorption measurements in the rare gases and alkalis in the 3 to 15 keV proton energy region; atomic and molecular physics at LURE; experiments on atoms, ions and small molecules using the new generation of synchrotron radiation sources; soft x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using tunable synchrotron radiation; soft x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy excited by synchrotron radiation: Inelastic and resonant scattering near threshold; outer-shell photoionization of ions; overview of the APS BESSRC beamline development; the advanced light source: Research opportunities in atomic and molecular physics; Photoionization of the Ba + ion by 4d shell excitation; decay dynamics of inner-shell excited atoms and molecules; absorption of atomic Ca, Cr, Mn and Cu; High-resolution photoelectron studies of resonant molecular photoionization; radiative and radiationless resonant raman scattering by synchrotron radiation; auger spectrometry of atoms and molecules; some thoughts of future experiments with the new generation of storage rings; Electron spectroscopy studies of argon K-shell excitation and vacancy cascades; ionization of atoms by high energy photons; ion coincidence spectroscopy on rare gas atoms and small molecules after photoexcitation at energies of several keV; an EBIS for use with synchrotron radiation photoionization of multiply charged ions and PHOBIS; gamma-2e coincidence measurements the wave of the future in inner-shell electron spectroscopy; recoil momentum spectroscopy in ion-atom and photon-atom collisions; a study of compton ionization of helium; future perspectives of photoionization studies at high photon energies; and status report on the advanced photon source. These papers have been cataloged separately elsewhere

  11. Active x-ray optics for high resolution space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Peter; Atkins, Carolyn; Brooks, D.; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Meggs, Carl; James, Ady; Willis, Graham; Smith, Andy

    2017-11-01

    The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project started in April 2006 and will end in October 2010. The aim is to develop new technologies in the field of X-ray focusing, in particular the application of active and adaptive optics. While very major advances have been made in active/adaptive astronomical optics for visible light, little was previously achieved for X-ray optics where the technological challenges differ because of the much shorter wavelengths involved. The field of X-ray astronomy has been characterized by the development and launch of ever larger observatories with the culmination in the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra missions which are currently operational. XMM-Newton uses a multi-nested structure to provide modest angular resolution ( 10 arcsec) but large effective area, while Chandra sacrifices effective area to achieve the optical stability necessary to provide sub-arc second resolution. Currently the European Space Agency (ESA) is engaged in studies of the next generation of X-ray space observatories, with the aim of producing telescopes with increased sensitivity and resolution. To achieve these aims several telescopes have been proposed, for example ESA and NASA's combined International X-ray Observatory (IXO), aimed at spectroscopy, and NASA's Generation-X. In the field of X-ray astronomy sub 0.2 arcsecond resolution with high efficiency would be very exciting. Such resolution is unlikely to be achieved by anything other than an active system. The benefits of a such a high resolution would be important for a range of astrophysics subjects, for example the potential angular resolution offered by active X-ray optics could provide unprecedented structural imaging detail of the Solar Wind bowshock interaction of comets, planets and similar objects and auroral phenomena throughout the Solar system using an observing platform in low Earth orbit. A major aim of the SXO project was to investigate the production of thin

  12. X-ray absorption intensity at high-energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Takashi; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically discuss X-ray absorption intensity in high-energy region far from the deepest core threshold to explain the morphology-dependent mass attenuation coefficient of some carbon systems, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and fullerenes (C 60 ). The present theoretical approach is based on the many-body X-ray absorption theory including the intrinsic losses (shake-up losses). In the high-energy region the absorption coefficient has correction term dependent on the solid state effects given in terms of the polarization part of the screened Coulomb interaction W p . We also discuss the tail of the valence band X-ray absorption intensity. In the carbon systems C 2s contribution has some influence on the attenuation coefficient even in the high energy region at 20 keV.

  13. Portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer of high sensitivity using X-ray tube excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatai, E.; Ando, L.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the three main methods of X-ray fluorescence analysis and their problems is given. The attainable accuracy and effectiveness of each method are discussed. The main properties of portable X-ray analyzers required by the industry are described. The results and experiences of R and D activities in ATOMKI (Debrecen, Hungary) for developing portable X-ray analyzers are presented. The only way for increasing the accuracy and decreasing the measuring time is the application of X-ray tube excitation instead of radioactive sources. The new ATOMKI equipment presently under construction and patenting uses X-ray tube excitation; it will increase the accuracy of concentration determination by one order of magnitude. (D.Gy.)

  14. High-resolution accelerator alignment using x-ray optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Yang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel alignment technique utilizing the x-ray beam of an undulator in conjunction with pinholes and position-sensitive detectors for positioning components of the accelerator, undulator, and beam line in an x-ray free-electron laser. Two retractable pinholes at each end of the undulator define a stable and reproducible x-ray beam axis (XBA. Targets are precisely positioned on the XBA using a pinhole camera technique. Position-sensitive detectors responding to both x-ray and electron beams enable direct transfer of the position setting from the XBA to the electron beam. This system has the potential to deliver superior alignment accuracy (1–3   μm for target pinholes in the transverse directions over a long distance (200 m or longer. It can be used to define the beam axis of the electron-beam–based alignment, enabling high reproducibility of the latter. This x-ray–based concept should complement the electron-beam–based alignment and the existing survey methods to raise the alignment accuracy of long accelerators to an unprecedented level. Further improvement of the transverse accuracy using x-ray zone plates will be discussed. We also propose a concurrent measurement scheme during accelerator operation to allow real-time feedback for transverse position correction.

  15. Highly porous nanoberyllium for X-ray beam speckle suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goikhman, Alexander, E-mail: agoikhman@ymail.com; Lyatun, Ivan; Ershov, Petr [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Snigireva, Irina [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Wojda, Pawel [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza, Gdańsk 80-233 (Poland); Gorlevsky, Vladimir; Semenov, Alexander; Sheverdyaev, Maksim; Koletskiy, Viktor [A. A. Bochvar High-Technology Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials, Rogova str. 5a, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Snigirev, Anatoly [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2015-04-09

    A speckle suppression device containing highly porous nanoberyllium is proposed for manipulating the spatial coherence length and removing undesirable speckle structure during imaging experiments. This paper reports a special device called a ‘speckle suppressor’, which contains a highly porous nanoberyllium plate squeezed between two beryllium windows. The insertion of the speckle suppressor in an X-ray beam allows manipulation of the spatial coherence length, thus changing the effective source size and removing the undesirable speckle structure in X-ray imaging experiments almost without beam attenuation. The absorption of the nanoberyllium plate is below 1% for 1 mm thickness at 12 keV. The speckle suppressor was tested on the ID06 ESRF beamline with X-rays in the energy range from 9 to 15 keV. It was applied for the transformation of the phase–amplitude contrast to the pure amplitude contrast in full-field microscopy.

  16. Highly porous nanoberyllium for X-ray beam speckle suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goikhman, Alexander; Lyatun, Ivan; Ershov, Petr; Snigireva, Irina; Wojda, Pawel; Gorlevsky, Vladimir; Semenov, Alexander; Sheverdyaev, Maksim; Koletskiy, Viktor; Snigirev, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    A speckle suppression device containing highly porous nanoberyllium is proposed for manipulating the spatial coherence length and removing undesirable speckle structure during imaging experiments. This paper reports a special device called a ‘speckle suppressor’, which contains a highly porous nanoberyllium plate squeezed between two beryllium windows. The insertion of the speckle suppressor in an X-ray beam allows manipulation of the spatial coherence length, thus changing the effective source size and removing the undesirable speckle structure in X-ray imaging experiments almost without beam attenuation. The absorption of the nanoberyllium plate is below 1% for 1 mm thickness at 12 keV. The speckle suppressor was tested on the ID06 ESRF beamline with X-rays in the energy range from 9 to 15 keV. It was applied for the transformation of the phase–amplitude contrast to the pure amplitude contrast in full-field microscopy

  17. A MEMS-based high frequency x-ray chopper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siria, A; Schwartz, W; Chevrier, J [Institut Neel, CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Dhez, O; Comin, F [ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Torricelli, G [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-29

    Time-resolved x-ray experiments require intensity modulation at high frequencies (advanced rotating choppers have nowadays reached the kHz range). We here demonstrate that a silicon microlever oscillating at 13 kHz with nanometric amplitude can be used as a high frequency x-ray chopper. We claim that using micro-and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS), it will be possible to achieve higher frequencies in excess of hundreds of megahertz. Working at such a frequency can open a wealth of possibilities in chemistry, biology and physics time-resolved experiments.

  18. High intensity line source for x-ray spectrometer calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoe, R.S.

    1986-06-01

    A high intensity electron-impact x-ray source using a one-dimensional Pierce lens has been built for the purpose of calibrating a bent crystal x-ray spectrometer. This source focuses up to 100 mA of 20-keV electrons to a line on a liquid-cooled anode. The line (which can serve as a virtual slit for the spectrometer) measures approximately 800 μ x 2 cm. The source is portable and therefore adaptable to numerous types of spectrometer applications. One particular application, the calibration of a high resolution (r = 10 4 ) time-resolved cyrstal spectrometer, will be discussed in detail

  19. High spatial resolution soft-x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer-Ilse, W.; Medecki, H.; Brown, J.T. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    A new soft x-ray microscope (XM-1) with high spatial resolution has been constructed by the Center for X-ray Optics. It uses bending magnet radiation from beamline 6.1 at the Advanced Light Source, and is used in a variety of projects and applications in the life and physical sciences. Most of these projects are ongoing. The instrument uses zone plate lenses and achieves a resolution of 43 nm, measured over 10% to 90% intensity with a knife edge test sample. X-ray microscopy permits the imaging of relatively thick samples, up to 10 {mu}m thick, in water. XM-1 has an easy to use interface, that utilizes visible light microscopy to precisely position and focus the specimen. The authors describe applications of this device in the biological sciences, as well as in studying industrial applications including structured polymer samples.

  20. X-ray radiography with highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Roscoe E.

    2000-01-01

    An extremely small (1-250 micron FWHM) beam of slow highly charged ions deexciting on an x-ray production target generates x-ray monochromatic radiation that is passed through a specimen and detected for imaging. The resolution of the x-ray radiograms is improved and such detection is achieved with relatively low dosages of radiation passing through the specimen. An apparatus containing an electron beam ion trap (and modifications thereof) equipped with a focusing column serves as a source of ions that generate radiation projected onto an image detector. Electronic and other detectors are able to detect an increased amount of radiation per pixel than achieved by previous methods and apparati.

  1. High-resolution x-ray photoemission spectra of silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrie, A.; Christensen, N. E.

    1976-01-01

    An electron spectrometer fitted with an x-ray monochromator for Al Kα1,2 radiation (1486.6 eV) has been used to record high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectra for the 4d valence band as well as the 3d spin doublet in silver. The core-level spectrum has a line shape that can be described...... successfully in terms of the many-body theory of Mahan, Nozières, and De Dominicis. The 4d spectrum agrees well with predictions based on a relativistic-augmented-plane-wave band-structure calculation....

  2. High resolution projection X-ray microscope equipped with fluorescent X-ray analyzer and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, K; Saito, Y; Kai, H; Shirota, K; Yada, K

    2009-01-01

    We have newly developed an open type fine-focus X-ray tube 'TX-510' to realize a spatial resolution of 50nm and to radiate low energy characteristic X-rays for giving high absorption contrast to images of microscopic organisms. The 'TX-510' employs a ZrO/W(100) Schottky emitter and an 'In-Lens Field Emission Gun'. The key points of the improvements are (1) reduced spherical aberration coefficient of magnetic objective lens, (2) easy and accurate focusing, (3) newly designed astigmatism compensator, (4) segmented thin film target for interchanging the target materials by electron beam shift and (5) fluorescent X-ray analysis system.

  3. Editorial: Focus on X-ray Beams with High Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian; Gruebel, Gerhard; Mochrie, Simon

    2010-03-01

    This editorial serves as the preface to a special issue of New Journal of Physics, which collects together solicited papers on a common subject, x-ray beams with high coherence. We summarize the issue's content, and explain why there is so much current interest both in the sources themselves and in the applications to the study of the structure of matter and its fluctuations (both spontaneous and driven). As this collection demonstrates, the field brings together accelerator physics in the design of new sources, particle physics in the design of detectors, and chemical and materials scientists who make use of the coherent beams produced. Focus on X-ray Beams with High Coherence Contents Femtosecond pulse x-ray imaging with a large field of view B Pfau, C M Günther, S Schaffert, R Mitzner, B Siemer, S Roling, H Zacharias, O Kutz, I Rudolph, R Treusch and S Eisebitt The FERMI@Elettra free-electron-laser source for coherent x-ray physics: photon properties, beam transport system and applications E Allaria, C Callegari, D Cocco, W M Fawley, M Kiskinova, C Masciovecchio and F Parmigiani Beyond simple exponential correlation functions and equilibrium dynamics in x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy Anders Madsen, Robert L Leheny, Hongyu Guo, Michael Sprung and Orsolya Czakkel The Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Sébastien Boutet and Garth J Williams Dynamics and rheology under continuous shear flow studied by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy Andrei Fluerasu, Pawel Kwasniewski, Chiara Caronna, Fanny Destremaut, Jean-Baptiste Salmon and Anders Madsen Exploration of crystal strains using coherent x-ray diffraction Wonsuk Cha, Sanghoon Song, Nak Cheon Jeong, Ross Harder, Kyung Byung Yoon, Ian K Robinson and Hyunjung Kim Coherence properties of the European XFEL G Geloni, E Saldin, L Samoylova, E Schneidmiller, H Sinn, Th Tschentscher and M Yurkov Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data G J

  4. High resolution X-ray diffraction studies on unirradiated

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction technique, employing a three-crystal monochromator–collimator combination is used to study the irradiation induced defects in flux grown Sr-hexaferrite crystals irradiated with 50 MeV Li3+ ion beams at room temperature with a fluence value of 1 × 1014 ions/cm2. The diffraction curves of the ...

  5. Refractive x-ray lens for high pressure diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Yasuo

    2001-01-01

    A stacked compound refractive x-ray lens was designed to produce a efficiently focused (φ 2 and a peak gain of 12, is well matched to these requirements. It is composed of many plastic chips made by molding, which is allowing many identical chips to be made precisely. Other advantages of this lens include high throughput, simple energy tunability and easy installation. (author)

  6. Performance of a high-resolution x-ray microprobe at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Z.; Lai, B.; Yun, W.; McNulty, I.; Khounsary, A.; Maser, J.; Ilinski, P.; Legnini, D.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Xu, S.; Tieman, B.; Wiemerslage, G.; Gluskin, E.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have developed a x-ray microprobe in the energy region from 6 to 20 keV using undulator radiation and zone-plate optics for microfocusing-based techniques and applications at a beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The performance of the beamline was shown to meet the design objectives, including preservation of the source brilliance and coherence, selectable transverse coherence length and energy bandwidth, high angular stability, and harmonic suppression of the beam. These objectives were achieved by careful thermal management and use of a novel mirror and crystal monochromator cooling geometry. All beamline optical components are water cooled, and the x-ray beam in the experiment station is stable in beam intensity, energy, and position over many days with no active feedback. Using a double-crystal Si(111) monochromator, they have obtained a focal spot size (FWHM) of 0.15 (micro)m (v) x 1.0 (micro)m (h), and a photon flux of 4 x 10 9 photons/sec at the focal spot, and thus a photon flux density gain of 15,000. A circular beam spot of 0.15 (micro)m in diameter can be achieved by reducing the horizontal source size using a white beam slit located 43.5 meters upstream of the zone plate, with an order of magnitude less flux in the focal spot

  7. High spatial resolution grain orientation and strain mapping in thin films using polychromatic submicron x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, N.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Valek, B.; Bravman, J. C.; Spolenak, R.; Brown, W. L.; Marieb, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Batterman, B. W.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    The availability of high brilliance synchrotron sources, coupled with recent progress in achromatic focusing optics and large area two-dimensional detector technology, has allowed us to develop an x-ray synchrotron technique that is capable of mapping orientation and strain/stress in polycrystalline thin films with submicron spatial resolution. To demonstrate the capabilities of this instrument, we have employed it to study the microstructure of aluminum thin film structures at the granular and subgranular levels. Due to the relatively low absorption of x-rays in materials, this technique can be used to study passivated samples, an important advantage over most electron probes given the very different mechanical behavior of buried and unpassivated materials.

  8. Direct observation of organic layer growth by dynamic spectro-microscopy using high-brilliance synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach, E.

    2004-01-01

    It was always the dream of scientists to watch microscopic objects directly on an atomic scale, to follow their dynamical behaviour, and to know everything about them, i.e. to get as much spectroscopic information as possible. While instruments have become available which may fulfill two of these wishes simultaneously, it is much more difficult to get all three at once. The development of so called spectro-microscopes which operate at 3rd generation synchrotron sources nourishes the hope that this dream will become true in the near future. The talk intends to show how much can be learned about organic thin films and interfaces if high-brilliance synchrotron radiation is combined with new instruments, for instance a high energy resolution beamline and a high-spatial resolution spectro-microscope. While the former is standard technology of today, the latter is a new development, combining brilliant undulator radiation of variable polarization with a specially developed, energy-filtered low energy electron microscope. First, it will be shown that many new details about the electronic structure of organic materials and their interaction with one another or with an interface can be obtained using high-resolution photoemission and x-ray absorption. For instance, from a careful analysis of the fine structure of photoemission spectra one can derive details about the interface bonding, about the interaction between molecules, and about the dynamic response of the molecular system upon creation of a core hole. Or, from a careful analysis of the fine structure of high resolution x-ray absorption spectra one gets insight into the intermolecular interaction, the coupling between electronic and vibronic excitations, and even about the shapes of potential curves. Second, the dynamic growth of highly-ordered organic thin films will be followed as a function of molecule and preparation conditions. The formation of islands, the inner structure of organic crystallites, diffusion

  9. High temperature GaAs X-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioliou, G.; Whitaker, M. D. C.; Barnett, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Two GaAs p+-i-n+ mesa X-ray photodiodes were characterized for their electrical and photon counting X-ray spectroscopic performance over the temperature range of 100 °C to -20 °C. The devices had 10 μm thick i layers with different diameters: 200 μm (D1) and 400 μm (D2). The electrical characterization included dark current and capacitance measurements at internal electric field strengths of up to 50 kV/cm. The determined properties of the two devices were compared with previously reported results that were made with a view to informing the future development of photon counting X-ray spectrometers for harsh environments, e.g., X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of planetary surfaces in high temperature environments. The best energy resolution obtained (Full Width at Half Maximum at 5.9 keV) decreased from 2.00 keV at 100 °C to 0.66 keV at -20 °C for the spectrometer with D1, and from 2.71 keV at 100 °C to 0.71 keV at -20 °C for the spectrometer with D2. Dielectric noise was found to be the dominant source of noise in the spectra, apart from at high temperatures and long shaping times, where the main source of photopeak broadening was found to be the white parallel noise.

  10. Phase contrast imaging with coherent high energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snigireva, I. [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    X-ray imaging concern high energy domain (>6 keV) like a contact radiography, projection microscopy and tomography is used for many years to discern the features of the internal structure non destructively in material science, medicine and biology. In so doing the main contrast formation is absorption that makes some limitations for imaging of the light density materials and what is more the resolution of these techniques is not better than 10-100 {mu}m. It was turned out that there is now way in which to overcome 1{mu}m or even sub-{mu}m resolution limit except phase contrast imaging. It is well known in optics that the phase contrast is realised when interference between reference wave front and transmitted through the sample take place. Examples of this imaging are: phase contrast microscopy suggested by Zernike and Gabor (in-line) holography. Both of this techniques: phase contrast x-ray microscopy and holography are successfully progressing now in soft x-ray region. For imaging in the hard X-rays to enhance the contrast and to be able to resolve phase variations across the beam the high degree of the time and more importantly spatial coherence is needed. Because of this it was reasonable that the perfect crystal optics was involved like Bonse-Hart interferometry, double-crystal and even triple-crystal set-up using Laue and Bragg geometry with asymmetrically cut crystals.

  11. HPHT growth and x-ray characterization of high-quality type IIa diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R C; Chumakov, A I; Connell, S H; Dube, D; Godfried, H P; Hansen, J O; Härtwig, J; Hoszowska, J; Masiello, F; Mkhonza, L; Rebak, M; Rommevaux, A; Setshedi, R; Van Vaerenbergh, P

    2009-09-09

    The trend in synchrotron radiation (x-rays) is towards higher brilliance. This may lead to a very high power density, of the order of hundreds of watts per square millimetre at the x-ray optical elements. These elements are, typically, windows, polarizers, filters and monochromators. The preferred material for Bragg diffracting optical elements at present is silicon, which can be grown to a very high crystal perfection and workable size as well as rather easily processed to the required surface quality. This allows x-ray optical elements to be built with a sufficient degree of lattice perfection and crystal processing that they may preserve transversal coherence in the x-ray beam. This is important for the new techniques which include phase-sensitive imaging experiments like holo-tomography, x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, coherent diffraction imaging and nanofocusing. Diamond has a lower absorption coefficient than silicon, a better thermal conductivity and lower thermal expansion coefficient which would make it the preferred material if the crystal perfection (bulk and surface) could be improved. Synthetic HPHT-grown (high pressure, high temperature) type Ib material can readily be produced in the necessary sizes of 4-8 mm square and with a nitrogen content of typically a few hundred parts per million. This material has applications in the less demanding roles such as phase plates: however, in a coherence-preserving beamline, where all elements must be of the same high quality, its quality is far from sufficient. Advances in HPHT synthesis methods have allowed the growth of type IIa diamond crystals of the same size as type Ib, but with substantially lower nitrogen content. Characterization of this high purity type IIa material has been carried out with the result that the crystalline (bulk) perfection of some of the HPHT-grown materials is approaching the quality required for the more demanding applications such as imaging applications and imaging

  12. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the crystalline quality through full-width at half-maximum values. .... angular divergence of ∆α = 12 arc sec. X-rays generated from the monochromator were diffracted from (0 0 6) LiNbO3 atomic planes with the (+, −, −, +, +) geometry. [8].

  13. High vacuum high temperature x-ray camera (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.L.

    1961-01-01

    - This camera makes it possible to carry out X-ray studies on highly oxidisable materials, up to about 900 deg. C. Most of the existing models do not provide sufficient protection against the formation of surface oxide or carbide films on the sample. The present arrangement makes it possible to operate at very low pressures: 5 x 10 -8 to 10 -7 torr, thanks to an entirely metallic apparatus. The radiation heating system consists of an incandescent lamp, outside the evacuated portion, and a reflector which concentrates the energetic flux into the sample through a silica window. The heated parts have thus only a small thermal inertia. With the apparatus it has been possible to determine the phase parameters of uranium-α up to 650 deg. C with a precision of ± 0.0015 A. A similar study has been carried out on a uranium-chromium alloy in the β-phase up to 740 deg. C. (author) [fr

  14. Temporally coherent x-ray laser with the high order harmonic light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Noboru; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kishimoto, Maki; Sukegawa, Kouta; Tanaka, Momoko; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Nishikino, Masaharu; Kawazome, Hayato; Nagashima, Keisuke

    2005-01-01

    We obtained the neon-like manganese x-ray laser with the injection of the high order harmonic light as the seed x-ray at the wavelength of 26.9 nm for the purpose of generation of the temporally coherent x-ray laser. The x-ray amplifier, which has quite narrow spectral width, selected and amplified the temporally coherent mode of the harmonic light. The temporal coherence of the mode selected harmonic light was nearly transform limited pulse, and the obtained x-ray laser with the seed x-ray expected to be nearly temporally coherent x-ray. (author)

  15. Workshop on high heat load x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A workshop on ''High Heat Load X-Ray Optics'' was held at Argonne National Laboratory on August 3--5, 1989. The object of this workshop was to discuss recent advances in the art of cooling x-ray optics subject to high heat loads from synchrotron beams. The cooling of the first optical element in the intense photon beams that will be produced in the next generation of synchrotron sources is recognized as one of the major challenges that must be faced before one will be able to use these very intense beams in future synchrotron experiments. Considerable advances have been made in this art during the last few years, but much work remains to be done before the heating problem can be said to be completely solved. Special emphasis was placed on recent cooling experiments and detailed ''finite element'' and ''finite difference'' calculations comparing experiment with theory and extending theory to optimize performance

  16. High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    We propose to design and build the first imaging hard X-ray detector system that incorporates 3D stacking of closely packed detector readouts in finely-spaced imaging arrays with their required data processing and control electronics. In virtually all imaging astronomical detectors, detector readout is done with flex connectors or connections that are not vertical but rather horizontal , requiring loss of focal plane area. For high resolution pixel detectors needed for high speed event-based X-ray imaging, from low energy applications (CMOS) with focusing X-ray telescopes, to hard X-ray applications with pixelated CZT for large area coded aperture telescopes, this new detector development offers great promise. We propose to extend our previous and current APRA supported ProtoEXIST program that has developed the first large area imaging CZT detectors and demonstrated their astrophysical capabilities on two successful balloon flight to a next generation High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI), which would incorporate microvia technology for the first time to connect the readout ASIC on each CZT crystal directly to its control and data processing system. This 3-dimensional stacking of detector and readout/control system means that large area (>2m2) imaging detector planes for a High Resolution Wide-field hard X-ray telescope can be built with initially greatly reduced detector gaps and ultimately with no gaps. This increases detector area, efficiency, and simplicity of detector integration. Thus higher sensitivity wide-field imagers will be possible at lower cost. HREXI will enable a post-Swift NASA mission such as the EREXS concept proposed to PCOS to be conducted as a future MIDEX mission. This mission would conduct a high resolution (<2 arcmin) , broad band (5 200 keV) hard X-ray survey of black holes on all scales with ~10X higher sensitivity than Swift. In the current era of Time Domain Astrophysics, such a survey capability, in conjunction with a n

  17. High resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fei; Wang Huanyu; Peng Wenxi; Liang Xiaohua; Zhang Chunlei; Cao Xuelei; Jiang Weichun; Zhang Jiayu; Cui Xingzhu

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer (SOX) payload onboard a satellite is developed. A silicon drift detector (SDD) is adopted as the detector of the SOX spectrometer. The spectrometer consists of the detectors and their readout electronics, a data acquisition unit and a payload data handling unit. A ground test system is also developed to test SOX. The test results show that the design goals of the spectrometer system have been achieved. (authors)

  18. The high energy X-ray spectra of supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdo, S. H.; Nugent, J. J.

    The results of fitting an ionization-nonequilibrium (INE) model to the high-energy (above 5-keV) X-ray spectra of the young supernova remnants Cas A and Tycho are presented. As an additional constraint, the models must simultaneously fit lower-energy, higher-resolution data. For Cas A, a single INE component cannot adequately reproduce the features for the entire X-ray spectrum because the ionization structure of iron ions responsible for the K emission is inconsistent with that of the ions responsible for the lower-energy lines, and the flux of the highest-energy X-rays is underestimated. The iron K line and the high-energy continuum could arise from the same INE component, but the identification of this component with either the blast wave or the ejecta in the standard model is difficult. In Tycho, the high-energy data rule out a class of models for the lower-energy data which have too large a continuum contribution.

  19. Metallic magnetic calorimeters for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, M.; Hengstler, D.; Geist, J.; Schoetz, C.; Hassel, K.; Hendricks, S.; Keller, M.; Kempf, S.; Gastaldo, L.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). KIP

    2015-07-01

    We develop microfabricated, energy dispersive particle detector arrays based on metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy to challenge bound-state QED calculations. Our MMCs are operated at about T=30 mK and use a paramagnetic temperature sensor, read-out by a SQUID, to measure the energy deposited by single X-ray photons. We discuss the physics of MMCs, the detector performance and the cryogenic setups for two different detector arrays. We present their microfabrication layouts with focus on challenges like the heatsinking of each pixel of the detector and the overhanging absorbers. The maXs-20 detector is a linear 1x8-pixel array with excellent linearity in its designated energy range up to 20 keV and unsurpassed energy resolution of 1.6 eV for 6 keV x-rays. MaXs-20 operated in a highly portable pulse tube cooled ADR setup has already been used at the EBIT facilities of the MPI-K for new reference measurements of V-like and Ti-like tungsten. The maXs-30 detector currently in development is a 8x8-pixel 2d-array with an active detection area of 16 mm{sup 2} and is designed to detect X-rays up to 50 keV with a designated energy resolution below 5 eV. MaXs-30 will be operated in a cryogen free 3He/4He-dilution refrigerator at the tip of a 40 cm long cold finger at T=20 mK.

  20. Beam brilliance investigation of high current ion beams at GSI heavy ion accelerator facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonin, A A; Hollinger, R

    2014-02-01

    In this work the emittance measurements of high current Ta-beam provided by VARIS (Vacuum Arc Ion Source) ion source are presented. Beam brilliance as a function of beam aperture at various extraction conditions is investigated. Influence of electrostatic ion beam compression in post acceleration gap on the beam quality is discussed. Use of different extraction systems (single aperture, 7 holes, and 13 holes) in order to achieve more peaked beam core is considered. The possible ways to increase the beam brilliance are discussed.

  1. On the origin of highly ionized X-ray absorbers detected in the galactic X-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yang; Fang, Taotao

    2014-01-01

    X-ray observations of the Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs) revealed numerous highly ionized metal absorption lines. However, it is unclear whether such lines are produced by the hot interstellar medium (ISM) or the circumstellar medium intrinsic to the binaries. Here we present a Chandra X-ray absorption line study of 28 observations of 12 XRBs, with a focus on the Ne IX and Fe XVII lines. We report the first detections of these lines in a significant amount of observations. We do not find a significant dependence of the line equivalent width on the distance of the XRBs, but we do see a weak dependence on the source X-ray luminosity. We also find 2 out of 12 selected targets show strong temporal variation of the Ne IX absorbers. While the line ratio between the two ion species suggests a temperature consistent with the previous predictions of the ISM, comparing with two theoretical models of the ISM shows the observed column densities are significantly higher than predictions. On the other hand, photoionization by the XRBs provides a reasonably good fit to the data. Our findings suggest that a significant fraction of these X-ray absorbers may originate in the hot gas intrinsic to the XRBs, and that the ISM makes small, if not negligible, contribution. We briefly discuss the implications to the study of the Milky Way hot gas content.

  2. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of laser generated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faenov, A.Ya.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Rosmej, F.B.

    1999-01-01

    The application of recently developed spectroscopic instruments in laser produced plasmas with simultaneous high spectral and spatial resolution combined with high luminosity discovered new types of X-ray spectra. These new types are characterised by the disappearance of the resonance lines and the strong emission of dielectronic satellite spectra. Several types of transitions of highly charged ions are discovered which are unknown from usual sources employed in atomic physics. New theoretical models are developed and successfully applied for the interpretation and for plasma diagnostics. (orig.)

  3. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of laser generated plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faenov, A.Ya.; Skobelev, I.Yu. [Multicharged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Rosmej, F.B. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1999-11-01

    The application of recently developed spectroscopic instruments in laser produced plasmas with simultaneous high spectral and spatial resolution combined with high luminosity discovered new types of X-ray spectra. These new types are characterised by the disappearance of the resonance lines and the strong emission of dielectronic satellite spectra. Several types of transitions of highly charged ions are discovered which are unknown from usual sources employed in atomic physics. New theoretical models are developed and successfully applied for the interpretation and for plasma diagnostics. (orig.) 28 refs.

  4. High-current Rhodotron for X-ray facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezu, Toru; Tsujiura, Yuichiro; Bol, Jean Louis

    2009-01-01

    The Rhodotron is a widely employed high-power industrial accelerator developed and exclusively distributed by IBA. Most early examples of the accelerator were optimized to operate at 10 MeV. A new Rhodotron configuration recently advanced produces a lower-energy higher-current beam dedicated with x-ray to sterilize and enhancement materials. Core elements of this system's evolution include a higher performance RF electron gun (operating range, response control, and cathode lifetime). This operational machine is now producing 100 mA at 7 MeV (700 kW of beam) and treat medical devices, thick cable and pipes with a high efficiency. (author)

  5. Masks for high aspect ratio x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, C.K.; Jackson, K.H.; Bonivert, W.D.; Hruby, J.

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of very high aspect ratio microstructures, as well as ultra-high precision manufacturing is of increasing interest in a multitude of applications. Fields as diverse as micromechanics, robotics, integrated optics, and sensors benefit from this technology. The scale-length of this spatial regime is between what can be achieved using classical machine tool operations and that which is used in microelectronics. This requires new manufacturing techniques, such as the LIGA process, which combines x-ray lithography, electroforming, and plastic molding

  6. Development of X-ray diode with high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Lifei; Yang Gouhong; Liu Shenye; Wei Minxi; Yi Tao; Jiang Shao'en; Sun Kexu

    2011-01-01

    A new type of X-ray diode (XRD-II) with ultrafast response time was developed. XRD-II detector was improved on the basis of old XRD (XRD-I), and its performances were studied on the 8 ps laser facility. The results show that XRD-II has excellent high-Jantage tolerance (to 6 kV) and super-fast response time (rise time is about 40 ps, and full width at half maximum (FWHM) is about 80 ps when bias Jantage is 5 kV). The detector calibration was carried out on Beijing synchrotron radiation facility, which shows that the detector's sensitivity has not deteriorated. (authors)

  7. 21 CFR 892.1700 - Diagnostic x-ray high voltage generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray high voltage generator. 892.1700... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1700 Diagnostic x-ray high voltage generator. (a) Identification. A diagnostic x-ray high voltage generator is a device that is intended to...

  8. High efficiency, multiterawatt x-ray free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Emma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present undulator magnet tapering methods for obtaining high efficiency and multiterawatt peak powers in x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs, a key requirement for enabling 3D atomic resolution single molecule imaging and nonlinear x-ray science. The peak power and efficiency of tapered XFELs is sensitive to time dependent effects, like synchrotron sideband growth. To analyze this dependence in detail we perform a comparative numerical optimization for the undulator magnetic field tapering profile including and intentionally disabling these effects. We show that the solution for the magnetic field taper profile obtained from time independent optimization does not yield the highest extraction efficiency when time dependent effects are included. Our comparative optimization is performed for a novel undulator designed specifically to obtain TW power x-ray pulses in the shortest distance: superconducting, helical, with short period and built-in strong focusing. This design reduces the length of the breaks between modules, decreasing diffraction effects, and allows using a stronger transverse electron focusing. Both effects reduce the gain length and the overall undulator length. We determine that after a fully time dependent optimization of a 100 m long Linac coherent light source-like XFEL we can obtain a maximum efficiency of 7%, corresponding to 3.7 TW peak radiation power. Possible methods to suppress the synchrotron sidebands, and further enhance the FEL peak power, up to about 6 TW by increasing the seed power and reducing the electron beam energy spread, are also discussed.

  9. Stress Free Multilayer Coating for High Resolution X-ray Mirrors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Most of X-ray optics research and development in the US is to build a high resolution, large collecting area and light-weight optic, namely an soft X-ray mirror for...

  10. Highly magnetic Co nanoparticles fabricated by X-ray radiolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Dustin M.; Castano, Carlos E.; Rojas, Jessika V.

    2018-03-01

    Advanced routes for the synthesis of nanomaterials, such as ferromagnetic nanoparticles, are being explored that are easy to perform using cost-effective and non-toxic precursors. Radiolytic syntheses based on the use of X-rays as ionizing radiation are promising towards this effort. X-rays were used to produce highly magnetic cobalt nanoparticles (NPs), stable in air up to 200 °C, from the radiolysis of water. Crystal structure analysis by XRD indicates a mixture of Cofcc, 63%, and Cohcp, 37%, phases. Magnetic analysis by VSM gave a saturation magnetization (Ms) 136 emu/g at 1 T and coercivity (Hc) = 325 Oe when the reaction solution was purged with N2 while an air-purged treatment resulted in Co NPs having 102 emu/g with a coercivity (Hc) 270 Oe. Overall, the reduction of Co2+ occurred in an aqueous reaction environment without addition of chemical reductants resulting in Co NPs with size distribution from 20 to 140 nm. This clean approach at ambient temperature produced highly magnetic Co NPs that may be used for switching devices (i.e. reed switches) or as additives for alloys that require high Curie points.

  11. Production of hollow atoms by high brightness x-ray sources and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moribayashi, Kengo

    2004-01-01

    We study x-ray emissions from the (multi-)inner-shell states and hollow atoms of Si ions excited by high intensity x-ray sources. It is found that the x-ray number from multi-inner-shell excited states (1s 2 2s 2 2p k 3s 2 3p 2 , k=1-4) and hollow atoms (1s 2 2s 2 3p 2 ) is affected greatly by the high intensity short-pulse x-rays and little by weak intensity post-long pulse x-rays. The ratio of the x-ray intensities from hollow atoms to those from the multi-inner-shell excited states becomes almost independent of the pulses and dependent on the intensities of x-ray sources. This ratio may be used for the measurement of intensities of high intensity short pulse x-ray sources. (author)

  12. Diamond x-ray optics: Transparent, resilient, high-resolution, and wavefront preserving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvyd’ko, Yuri; Blank, Vladimir; Terentyev, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Diamond features a unique combination of outstanding physical properties perfect for numerous x-ray optics applications, where traditional materials such as silicon fail to perform. In the last two decades, impressive progress has been achieved in synthesizing diamond with high crystalline perfection, in manufacturing efficient, resilient, high-resolution, wavefront-preserving diamond optical components, and in implementing them in cutting-edge x-ray instruments. Diamond optics are essential for tailoring x-rays to the most challenging needs of x-ray research. Furthermore, they are becoming vital for the generation of fully coherent hard x-rays by seeded x-ray free-electron lasers. In this article, we review progress in manufacturing flawless diamond crystal components and their applications in diverse x-ray optical devices, such as x-ray monochromators, beam splitters, high-reflectance backscattering mirrors, lenses, phase plates, diffraction gratings, bent-crystal spectrographs, and windows.

  13. High-speed radiography and x-ray cinematography by high-current betatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimochkin, Yu.V.; Akulov, G.V.; Leunov, F.G.; Moskalev, V.A.; Ryabukhin, V.L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper provides a description of an equipment system comprising a pair of 25 MeV high-current betatrons and an X-ray drum-type cinecamera for high-speed radiography and X-ray cinematography for use when studying dynamics of objects moving at a rate of 0.5 - 3.0 km/s as well as in X-ray cinematography of processes at a rate of up to 1 m/s. (author)

  14. Catalogue of high-mass X-ray binaries in the Galaxy (4th edition)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.Z.; van Paradijs, J.; van den Heuvel, E.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new edition of the catalogue of high-mass X-ray binaries in the Galaxy. The catalogue contains source name(s), coordinates, finding chart, X-ray luminosity, system parameters, and stellar parameters of the components and other characteristic properties of 114 high-mass X-ray binaries,

  15. Characterization of ceramic archaeological by high resolution X ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Alessandra C.; Freitas, Renato; Calza, Cristiane F.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Lima, Inaya; Carvalho, Daniele D.; Gaspar, Maria D.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of ceramic fragments is a very important area of research in art and archeometry area because it enables a greater understanding of how ancient civilizations behave and what were their traditions and customs. Petrography and chemical analyses are commonly used, but these techniques are destructive, which is not interesting for this type of sample. Through the exchange of multidisciplinary scientific knowledge and new partnerships, high resolution X-ray microtomography has been introduced in archaeological area as a great possibility of 3D inspection in a non-destructive way. The goal of this work is to investigate the internal microstructures of four samples of archeological ceramic, from the Archaeological Site of Macacu - RJ. The X-ray microtomography were performed in a high resolution setup, and can be used to infer the nature of organic temper even with all plant remains completely burnt out during the firing process and also to ensure the homogeneity of samples envisaged for geochemical analyses, especially with respect to the distribution of chemically diverse fabric compounds. In this way this study intends to contribute to our understanding of the archaeological and historical formations of this region. (author)

  16. Characterization of ceramic archaeological by high resolution X ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Alessandra C.; Freitas, Renato; Calza, Cristiane F.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Lima, Inaya, E-mail: alecastro@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Carvalho, Daniele D.; Gaspar, Maria D. [Museu Nacional (MN/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of ceramic fragments is a very important area of research in art and archeometry area because it enables a greater understanding of how ancient civilizations behave and what were their traditions and customs. Petrography and chemical analyses are commonly used, but these techniques are destructive, which is not interesting for this type of sample. Through the exchange of multidisciplinary scientific knowledge and new partnerships, high resolution X-ray microtomography has been introduced in archaeological area as a great possibility of 3D inspection in a non-destructive way. The goal of this work is to investigate the internal microstructures of four samples of archeological ceramic, from the Archaeological Site of Macacu - RJ. The X-ray microtomography were performed in a high resolution setup, and can be used to infer the nature of organic temper even with all plant remains completely burnt out during the firing process and also to ensure the homogeneity of samples envisaged for geochemical analyses, especially with respect to the distribution of chemically diverse fabric compounds. In this way this study intends to contribute to our understanding of the archaeological and historical formations of this region. (author)

  17. Workshop on high heat load x-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A workshop on High Heat Load X-Ray Optics'' was held at Argonne National Laboratory on August 3--5, 1989. The object of this workshop was to discuss recent advances in the art of cooling x-ray optics subject to high heat loads from synchrotron beams. The cooling of the first optical element in the intense photon beams that will be produced in the next generation of synchrotron sources is recognized as one of the major challenges that must be faced before one will be able to use these very intense beams in future synchrotron experiments. Considerable advances have been made in this art during the last few years, but much work remains to be done before the heating problem can be said to be completely solved. Special emphasis was placed on recent cooling experiments and detailed finite element'' and finite difference'' calculations comparing experiment with theory and extending theory to optimize performance.

  18. The development of high resolution silicon x-ray microcalorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, F. S.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.

    2005-12-01

    Recently we have produced x-ray microcalorimeters with resolving powers approaching 2000 at 5.9 keV using a spare XRS microcalorimeter array. We attached 400 um square, 8 um thick HgTe absorbers using a variety of attachment methods to an XRS array and ran the detector array at temperatures between 40 and 60 mK. The best results were for absorbers attached using the standard XRS absorber-pixel thermal isolation scheme utilizing SU8 polymer tubes. In this scenario we achieved a resolution of 3.2 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV. Substituting a silicon spacer for the SU8 tubes also yielded sub-4eV results. In contrast, absorbers attached directly to the thermistor produced significant position dependence and thus degraded resolution. Finally, we tested standard 640um-square XRS detectors at reduced bias power at 50mK and achieved a resolution of 3.7eV, a 50% improvement over the XRS flight instrument. Implanted silicon microcalorimeters are a mature flight-qualified technology that still has a substantial phase space for future development. We will discuss these new high resolution results, the various absorber attachment schemes, planned future improvements, and, finally, their relevance to future high resolution x-ray spectrometers including Constellation-X.

  19. High resolution X-ray spectromicroscopy of laser produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faenov, A.Ya. [Multi-charged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI (MISDC), Mendeleevo, Moscow region, (Russian Federation)

    2000-01-01

    In recent years new classes of X-ray spectroscopic instruments possessing both dispersive and focusing properties have been manufactured. Their principal advantage over more traditional instruments is that they combine very high luminosity with high spatial resolution, while preserving the highest possible spectral resolution of their dispersive elements. These instruments opened up the registration of plasmas in new regimes and surroundings. The measurements delivered new information about the properties of even previously studied traditional plasma objects (e.g. ns-laser produced plasmas). Also the detailed investigation of relatively new plasma laboratory sources with very small dimensions and low energy content (e.g. mJ fs-laser pulses) became possible. The purpose of this report is to give a short review of the experimental and theoretical results obtained in the past few years by MISDC (Multi-charged Ions Spectra Data Center) research team in the field of X-ray spectroscopy of a laser-produced plasma. Experimental spectra have been obtained at various laser installations with nanosecond, sub-nanosecond, picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses interacting with solid, gaseous or cluster targets in collaborations with research teams from Russia, USA, Germany, France, Poland, Belgium, Italy, China and Israel. Practically all results have been obtained with the help of spectrographs with spherically bent mica crystals operating in FSSR-1D, 2D schemes. (author)

  20. Development of Compton X-ray spectrometer for high energy resolution single-shot high-flux hard X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Sadaoki, E-mail: kojima-s@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: sfujioka@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Sakata, Shohei; Zhang, Zhe; Abe, Yuki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke, E-mail: kojima-s@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: sfujioka@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Azechi, Hiroshi [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ozaki, Tetsuo [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Miyamoto, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takemoto, Akinori [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Kouto, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Hard X-ray spectroscopy is an essential diagnostics used to understand physical processes that take place in high energy density plasmas produced by intense laser-plasma interactions. A bundle of hard X-ray detectors, of which the responses have different energy thresholds, is used as a conventional single-shot spectrometer for high-flux (>10{sup 13} photons/shot) hard X-rays. However, high energy resolution (Δhv/hv < 0.1) is not achievable with a differential energy threshold (DET) X-ray spectrometer because its energy resolution is limited by energy differences between the response thresholds. Experimental demonstration of a Compton X-ray spectrometer has already been performed for obtaining higher energy resolution than that of DET spectrometers. In this paper, we describe design details of the Compton X-ray spectrometer, especially dependence of energy resolution and absolute response on photon-electron converter design and its background reduction scheme, and also its application to the laser-plasma interaction experiment. The developed spectrometer was used for spectroscopy of bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by intense laser-plasma interactions using a 200 μm thickness SiO{sub 2} converter. The X-ray spectrum obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer is consistent with that obtained with a DET X-ray spectrometer, furthermore higher certainly of a spectral intensity is obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer than that with the DET X-ray spectrometer in the photon energy range above 5 MeV.

  1. High-Resolution Detector For X-Ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Withrow, William K.; Pusey, Marc L.; Yost, Vaughn H.

    1988-01-01

    Proposed x-ray-sensitive imaging detector offers superior spatial resolution, counting-rate capacity, and dynamic range. Instrument based on laser-stimulated luminescence and reusable x-ray-sensitive film. Detector scans x-ray film line by line. Extracts latent image in film and simultaneously erases film for reuse. Used primarily for protein crystallography. Principle adapted to imaging detectors for electron microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy and general use in astronomy, engineering, and medicine.

  2. High-energy X-ray observations of extragalactic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, W.; Reppin, C.; Truemper, J.; Voges, W.; Lewin, W.; Kendziorra, E.; Staubert, R.

    1981-01-01

    During a balloon flight from Alice Springs, Australia, six extragalactic sources which are known as potential X-ray sources have been observed in hard X-rays (E > 20 keV). We present X-ray spectra of 3C 273 and Cen-A as well as upper limits on 3C 120, MKN 509, NGC 5506, and MR 2251-178. (orig.)

  3. X-ray Diffraction Study of Arsenopyrite at High Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D Fan; M Ma; W Zhou; S Wei; Z Chen; H Xie

    2011-12-31

    The high-pressure X-ray diffraction study of a natural arsenopyrite was investigated up to 28.2 GPa using in situ angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction and a diamond anvil cell at National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. The 16:3:1 methanol-ethanol-water mixture was used as a pressure-transmitting medium. Pressures were measured using the ruby-fluorescence method. No phase change has been observed up to 28.2 GPa. The isothermal equation of state (EOS) was determined. The values of K{sub 0}, and K'{sub 0} refined with a third-order Birch-Murnaghan EOS are K{sub 0} = 123(9) GPa, and K'{sub 0} = 5.2(8). Furthermore, we confirm that the linear compressibilities ({beta}) along a, b and c directions of arsenopyrite is elastically isotropic ({beta}{sub a} = 6.82 x 10{sup -4}, {beta}{sub b} = 6.17 x 10{sup -4} and {beta}{sub c} = 6.57 x 10{sup -4} GPa{sup -1}).

  4. Ultra high resolution soft x-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, W.S.; Trebes, J.E.; Goodman, D.M.; Lee, H.R.; McNulty, I.; Zalensky, A.O.

    1995-01-01

    Ultra high resolution three dimensional images of a microscopic test object were made with soft x-rays using a scanning transmission x-ray microscope. The test object consisted of two different patterns of gold bars on silicon nitride windows that were separated by ∼5 microm. A series of nine 2-D images of the object were recorded at angles between -50 to +55 degrees with respect to the beam axis. The projections were then combined tomographically to form a 3-D image by means of an algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) algorithm. A transverse resolution of ∼ 1,000 angstrom was observed. Artifacts in the reconstruction limited the overall depth resolution to ∼ 6,000 angstrom, however some features were clearly reconstructed with a depth resolution of ∼ 1,000 angstrom. A specially modified ART algorithm and a constrained conjugate gradient (CCG) code were also developed as improvements over the standard ART algorithm. Both of these methods made significant improvements in the overall depth resolution, bringing it down to ∼ 1,200 angstrom overall. Preliminary projection data sets were also recorded with both dry and re-hydrated human sperm cells over a similar angular range

  5. Ultra high resolution soft x-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, W.S.; Trebes, J.E.; Goodman, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Ultra high resolution three dimensional images of a microscopic test object were made with soft x-rays using a scanning transmission x-ray microscope. The test object consisted of two different patterns of gold bars on silicon nitride windows that were separated by ∼5μm. A series of nine 2-D images of the object were recorded at angles between -50 to +55 degrees with respect to the beam axis. The projections were then combined tomographically to form a 3-D image by means of an algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) algorithm. A transverse resolution of ∼1000 Angstrom was observed. Artifacts in the reconstruction limited the overall depth resolution to ∼6000 Angstrom, however some features were clearly reconstructed with a depth resolution of ∼1000 Angstrom. A specially modified ART algorithm and a constrained conjugate gradient (CCG) code were also developed as improvements over the standard ART algorithm. Both of these methods made significant improvements in the overall depth resolution bringing it down to ∼1200 Angstrom overall. Preliminary projection data sets were also recorded with both dry and re-hydrated human sperm cells over a similar angular range

  6. Measurement of soft X-ray power from high-power Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wensheng; Qiu Aici; Sun Fengrong; Luo Jianhui; Zhou Haisheng; He Duohui

    2003-01-01

    A Ni-film bolometer driven by the pulsed constant-voltage supply was developed for measuring soft X-ray energy under 1 keV generated from the Qiang-Guang-I, while the measuring system of the soft X-ray power was established with an X-ray diode detector. Results of the soft X-ray energy and power measurements were obtained at the experiment of Kr gas-puff high-power Z-pinch plasma

  7. Novel Hybrid CMOS X-ray Detector Developments for Future Large Area and High Resolution X-ray Astronomy Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Abe

    In the coming years, X-ray astronomy will require new soft X-ray detectors that can be read very quickly with low noise and can achieve small pixel sizes over a moderately large focal plane area. These requirements will be present for a variety of X-ray missions that will attempt to address science that was highly ranked by the 2010 Decadal Survey, including missions with science that overlaps with that of IXO and Athena, as well as other missions addressing science topics beyond those of IXO and Athena. An X-ray Surveyor mission was recently chosen by NASA for study by a Science & Technology Definition Team (STDT) so it can be considered as an option for an upcom-ing flagship mission. A mission such as this was endorsed by the NASA long term planning document entitled "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions," and a detailed description of one possible reali-zation of such a mission has been referred to as SMART-X, which was described in a recent NASA RFI response. This provides an example of a future mission concept with these requirements since it has high X-ray throughput and excellent spatial resolution. We propose to continue to modify current active pixel sensor designs, in particular the hybrid CMOS detectors that we have been working with for several years, and implement new in-pixel technologies that will allow us to achieve these ambitious and realistic requirements on a timeline that will make them available to upcoming X-ray missions. This proposal is a continuation of our program that has been work-ing on these developments for the past several years. The first 3 years of the program led to the development of a new circuit design for each pixel, which has now been shown to be suitable for a larger detector array. The proposed activity for the next four years will be to incorporate this pixel design into a new design of a full detector array (2k×2k pixels with digital output) and to fabricate this full-sized device so it can be thoroughly tested and

  8. 30-lens interferometer for high energy x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubomirskiy, M., E-mail: lyubomir@esrf.fr; Snigireva, I., E-mail: irina@esrf.fr; Vaughan, G. [European Synchrotron Radiation facility (ESRF), CS 40220, 71, av des Martyrs, F-38043, Grenoble (France); Kohn, V. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, 123182, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, S.; Yunkin, V. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology RAS, 142432, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Snigirev, A. [Baltic Federal University, 236041, Kaliningrad (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-27

    We report a hard X-ray multilens interferometer consisting of 30 parallel compound refractive lenses. Under coherent illumination each CRL creates a diffraction limited focal spot - secondary source. An overlapping of coherent beams from these sources resulting in the interference pattern which has a rich longitudinal structure in accordance with the Talbot imaging formalism. The proposed interferometer was experimentally tested at ID11 ESRF beamline for the photon energies 32 keV and 65 keV. The fundamental and fractional Talbot images were recorded with the high resolution CCD camera. An effective source size in the order of 15 µm was determined from the first Talbot image proving that the multilens interferometer can be used as a high resolution beam diagnostic tool.

  9. A new high-speed X-ray beam chopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, A.; Wang, J.; Lee, P. L.; Mills, D. M.

    1999-01-01

    A new high-speed x-ray beam chopper using laser scanner technology has been developed and tested on the SRI-CAT sector 1 beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring (1). As illustrated in figure 1, it is compact in size and has two sets of transmission windows: BK-7 glass for visible light transmission and 0.23-mm-thick Be for the transmission of x-rays. The rotor is made of aluminum and has a diameter of 50.8 mm. A 0.5-mm-wide and 2.29-mm-tall slit is cut through the center of the rotor. The circumference of the rotor has a coating of 1-mm-thick Ni, which gives an attenuation of 10 8 at 30 keV. Turning at nearly 80000 RPM, this beam chopper has an opening time window of 2450 ns, corresponding to 67% of the revolution time of the APS storage ring. The primary feature in selecting laser scanner technology to develop into an x-ray beam chopper was the high level of rotational speed control of the rotor that makes up the beam chopper element (2). By using an optical feedback circuit to sample the rotational speed four times each revolution, the jitter in the position of the transmission open time window is only 3 ns at the 3 standard deviation level. The APS storage ring orbital frequency, supplied by the control room, is divided down to provide the appropriate drive frequency for the beam chopper motor controller. By this means, both the storage ring and the beam chopper are operating off the same master clock. After a turn-on time of about 15 to 20 seconds, the rotational precision of the motor results in immediate phase locking to the temporal structure of the APS storage ring. By inserting a Stanford delay generator between the frequency divider and the beam chopper motor controller, the phase between the storage ring temporal structure and the beam chopper rotation can be adjusted to position the transmission time window of the beam chopper on any desired part of the storage ring fill pattern. If an asymmetric fill pattern is used in the APS storage

  10. Development of high resolution x-ray CT technique for irradiated fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimi, Akihiro; Katsuyama, Kozo; Maeda, Koji; Asaga, Takeo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    High X-ray CT technique was developed to observe the irradiation performance of FBR fuel assembly and MOX fuel. In this technique, the high energy X-ray pulse (12MeV) was used synchronizing detection system with the X-ray pulse to reduce the effect of the gamma ray emissions from the irradiated fuel assembly. In this study, this technique was upgraded to obtain high resolution X-ray CT image. In this upgrading, the collimator which had slit width of 0.1 mm and X-ray detector of a highly sensitive silicon semiconductor detector (100 channels) was introduced in the X-ray CT system. As a result of these developments, high resolution X-ray CT images could be obtained on the transverse cross section of irradiated fuel assembly. (author)

  11. High temperature x-ray micro-tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDowell, Alastair A., E-mail: aamacdowell@lbl.gov; Barnard, Harold; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.; Gludovatz, Bernd [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Haboub, Abdel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); current –Lincoln Univ., Jefferson City, Missouri, 65101 (United States); Larson, Natalie; Zok, Frank [University California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara CA 93106 (United States); Panerai, Francesco; Mansour, Nagi N. [NASA Ames Research Centre, Moffett Field, CA, 94035 (United States); Bale, Hrishikesh [University California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); current - Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy, 4385 Hopyard Rd #100, Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Acevedo, Claire [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Liu, Dong [University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TH (United Kingdom); Ritchie, Robert O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    There is increasing demand for 3D micro-scale time-resolved imaging of samples in realistic - and in many cases extreme environments. The data is used to understand material response, validate and refine computational models which, in turn, can be used to reduce development time for new materials and processes. Here we present the results of high temperature experiments carried out at the x-ray micro-tomography beamline 8.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source. The themes involve material failure and processing at temperatures up to 1750°C. The experimental configurations required to achieve the requisite conditions for imaging are described, with examples of ceramic matrix composites, spacecraft ablative heat shields and nuclear reactor core Gilsocarbon graphite.

  12. High-energy X-ray production in a boundary layer of an accreting neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawa, Tomoyuki

    1991-01-01

    It is shown by Monte Carlo simulation that high-energy X-rays are produced through Compton scattering in a boundary layer of an accreting neutron star. The following is the mechanism for the high-energy X-ray production. An accreting neutron star has a boundary layer rotating rapidly on the surface. X-rays radiated from the star's surface are scattered in part in the boundary layer. Since the boundary layer rotates at a semirelativistic speed, the scattered X-ray energy is changed by the Compton effect. Some X-rays are scattered repeatedly between the neutron star and the boundary layer and become high-energy X-rays. This mechanism is a photon analog of the second-order Fermi acceleration of cosmic rays. When the boundary layer is semitransparent, high-energy X-rays are produced efficiently. 17 refs

  13. High energy X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a random absorption mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Cai, Biao; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-07-28

    High energy X-ray imaging has unique advantage over conventional X-ray imaging, since it enables higher penetration into materials with significantly reduced radiation damage. However, the absorption contrast in high energy region is considerably low due to the reduced X-ray absorption cross section for most materials. Even though the X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques can provide substantially increased contrast and complementary information, fabricating dedicated optics for high energies still remain a challenge. To address this issue, we present an alternative X-ray imaging approach to produce transmission, phase and scattering signals at high X-ray energies by using a random absorption mask. Importantly, in addition to the synchrotron radiation source, this approach has been demonstrated for practical imaging application with a laboratory-based microfocus X-ray source. This new imaging method could be potentially useful for studying thick samples or heavy materials for advanced research in materials science.

  14. Design study on a high brilliance lattice of the PF storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, M.; Araki, A.; Kobayashi, Y.; Hori, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A high brilliance lattice of the PF storage ring is proposed. A small beam emittance of 27 nm-rad (about one fifth of the present value) can be achieved by doubling the number of the quadrupoles in the FODO cells. This emittance reduction will result in ten times brighter synchrotron light from the existing insertion devices. The problems incidental to the low emittance lattice, the small dynamic aperture and the short Touschek lifetime, will be discussed. (author)

  15. Time-resolved x-ray spectra of laser irradiated high-Z targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.H.Y.; Attwood, D.T.; Boyle, M.J.; Campbell, E.M.; Coleman, L.C.; Kornblum, H.N.

    1977-01-01

    Recent results obtained by using the Livermore 15 psec x-ray streak camera to record x-ray emission from laser-irradiated high-z targets in the 1-20 keV range are reported. Nine to eleven K-edge filter channels were used for the measurements. In the lower energy channels, a dynamic range of x-ray emission intensity of better than three orders of magnitude have been recorded. Data will be presented which describe temporally and spectrally resolved x-ray spectra of gold disk targets irradiated by laser pulses from the Argus facility, including the temporal evolution of the superthermal x-ray tail

  16. Copper L X-ray spectra measured by a high resolution ion-induced X-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryohei; Hamaguchi, Dai; Kageyama, Hiroyoshi [Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan); and others

    1997-03-01

    High resolution L X-ray emission spectra of Cu have been measured by 0.75 MeV/u H, He, and F, 0.73 MeV/u Ar, 0.64 MeV/u Si, and 0.073 MeV/u Si ion impacts with a crystal spectrometer. The X-ray transition energies in the Cu target for L{iota}, L{eta}, L{alpha}{sub 1,2}, L{beta}{sub 1}, and L{beta}{sub 3,4} diagram lines induced by light ion impacts are determined, which are in good agreement with those given in the reference. The difference in L X-ray emission spectra produced by H, He, F, Si, and Ar ions are considered and the L{alpha}{sub 1,2} and L{beta}{sub 1} emission spectra are compared with the calculated ones based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method. (author)

  17. Accelerator-driven X-ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-09

    After an introduction which mentions x-ray tubes and storage rings and gives a brief review of special relativity, the subject is treated under the following topics and subtopics: synchrotron radiation (bending magnet radiation, wiggler radiation, undulator radiation, brightness and brilliance definition, synchrotron radiation facilities), x-ray free-electron lasers (linac-driven X-ray FEL, FEL interactions, self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), SASE self-seeding, fourth-generation light source facilities), and other X-ray sources (energy recovery linacs, Inverse Compton scattering, laser wakefield accelerator driven X-ray sources. In summary, accelerator-based light sources cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Synchrotron radiation (bending magnet, wiggler and undulator radiation) has unique properties that can be tailored to the users’ needs: bending magnet and wiggler radiation is broadband, undulator radiation has narrow spectral lines. X-ray FELs are the brightest coherent X-ray sources with high photon flux, femtosecond pulses, full transverse coherence, partial temporal coherence (SASE), and narrow spectral lines with seeding techniques. New developments in electron accelerators and radiation production can potentially lead to more compact sources of coherent X-rays.

  18. Gas scintillation glass GEM detector for high-resolution X-ray imaging and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, T., E-mail: fujiwara-t@aist.go.jp [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Mitsuya, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Fushie, T. [Radiment Lab. Inc., Setagaya, Tokyo 156-0044 (Japan); Murata, K.; Kawamura, A.; Koishikawa, A. [XIT Co., Naruse, Machida, Tokyo 194-0045 (Japan); Toyokawa, H. [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    A high-spatial-resolution X-ray-imaging gaseous detector has been developed with a single high-gas-gain glass gas electron multiplier (G-GEM), scintillation gas, and optical camera. High-resolution X-ray imaging of soft elements is performed with a spatial resolution of 281 µm rms and an effective area of 100×100 mm. In addition, high-resolution X-ray 3D computed tomography (CT) is successfully demonstrated with the gaseous detector. It shows high sensitivity to low-energy X-rays, which results in high-contrast radiographs of objects containing elements with low atomic numbers. In addition, the high yield of scintillation light enables fast X-ray imaging, which is an advantage for constructing CT images with low-energy X-rays.

  19. Review - X-ray diffraction measurements in high magnetic fields and at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifuru Mitsui, Keiichi Koyama and Kazuo Watanabe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A system was developed measuring x-ray powder diffraction in high magnetic fields up to 5 T and at temperatures from 283 to 473 K. The stability of the temperature is within 1 K over 6 h. In order to examine the ability of the system, the high-field x-ray diffraction measurements were carried out for Si and a Ni-based ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy. The results show that the x-ray powder diffraction measurements in high magnetic fields and at high temperatures are useful for materials research.

  20. High-contrast x-ray microtomography in dental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Graham; Mills, David

    2017-09-01

    X-ray microtomography (XMT) is a well-established technique in dental research. The technique has been used extensively to explore the complex morphology of the root canal system, and to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate root canal instrumentation and filling efficacy in extracted teeth; enabling different techniques to be compared. Densitometric information can be used to identify and map demineralized tissue resulting from tooth decay (caries) and, in extracted teeth, the method can be used to evaluate different methods of excavation. More recently, high contrast XMT is being used to investigate the relationship between external insults to teeth and the pulpal reaction. When such insults occur, fluid may flow through dentinal tubules as a result of cracking or porosity in enamel. Over time, there is an increase in mineralization along the paths of the tubules from the pulp to the damaged region in enamel and this can be visualized using high contrast XMT. The scanner used for this employs time-delay integration to minimize the effects of detector inhomogeneity in order to greatly increase the upper limit on signal-to-noise ratio that can be achieved with long exposure times. When enamel cracks are present in extracted teeth, the presence of these pathways indicates that the cracking occurred prior to extraction. At high contrast, growth lines are occasionally seen in deciduous teeth which may have resulted from periods of maternal illness. Various other anomalies in mineralization resulting from trauma or genetic abnormalities can also be investigated using this technique.

  1. A new X-ray pinhole camera for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence imaging with high-energy and high-spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F.P., E-mail: romanop@lns.infn.it [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Altana, C. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cosentino, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Pappalardo, L. [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Rizzo, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    A new X-ray pinhole camera for the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) imaging of materials with high-energy and high-spatial resolution, was designed and developed. It consists of a back-illuminated and deep depleted CCD detector (composed of 1024 × 1024 pixels with a lateral size of 13 μm) coupled to a 70 μm laser-drilled pinhole-collimator, positioned between the sample under analysis and the CCD. The X-ray pinhole camera works in a coaxial geometry allowing a wide range of magnification values. The characteristic X-ray fluorescence is induced on the samples by irradiation with an external X-ray tube working at a maximum power of 100 W (50 kV and 2 mA operating conditions). The spectroscopic capabilities of the X-ray pinhole camera were accurately investigated. Energy response and energy calibration of the CCD detector were determined by irradiating pure target-materials emitting characteristic X-rays in the energy working-domain of the system (between 3 keV and 30 keV). Measurements were performed by using a multi-frame acquisition in single-photon counting. The characteristic X-ray spectra were obtained by an automated processing of the acquired images. The energy resolution measured at the Fe–Kα line is 157 eV. The use of the X-ray pinhole camera for the 2D resolved elemental analysis was investigated by using reference-patterns of different materials and geometries. The possibility of the elemental mapping of samples up to an area of 3 × 3 cm{sup 2} was demonstrated. Finally, the spatial resolution of the pinhole camera was measured by analyzing the profile function of a sharp-edge. The spatial resolution determined at the magnification values of 3.2 × and 0.8 × (used as testing values) is about 90 μm and 190 μm respectively. - Highlights: • We developed an X-ray pinhole camera for the 2D X-ray fluorescence imaging. • X-ray spectra are obtained by a multi-frame acquisition in single photon mode. • The energy resolution in the X-ray

  2. High-throughput screening with micro-x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havrilla, George J.; Miller, Thomasin C.

    2005-01-01

    Micro-x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) is a useful characterization tool for high-throughput screening of combinatorial libraries. Due to the increasing threat of use of chemical warfare (CW) agents both in military actions and against civilians by terrorist extremists, there is a strong push to improve existing methods and develop means for the detection of a broad spectrum of CW agents in a minimal amount of time to increase national security. This paper describes a combinatorial high-throughput screening technique for CW receptor discovery to aid in sensor development. MXRF can screen materials for elemental composition at the mesoscale level (tens to hundreds of micrometers). The key aspect of this work is the use of commercial MXRF instrumentation coupled with the inherent heteroatom elements within the target molecules of the combinatorial reaction to provide rapid and specific identification of lead species. The method is demonstrated by screening an 11-mer oligopeptide library for selective binding of the degradation products of the nerve agent VX. The identified oligopeptides can be used as selective molecular receptors for sensor development. The MXRF screening method is nondestructive, requires minimal sample preparation or special tags for analysis, and the screening time depends on the desired sensitivity

  3. High Spectral Resolution, High Cadence, Imaging X-ray Microcalorimeters for Solar Physics - Phase 2 Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcalorimeter x-ray instruments are non-dispersive, high spectral resolution, broad-band, high cadence imaging spectrometers. We have been developing these...

  4. The quality of high-energy X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRiviere, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    Supplement 17 of the British Journal of Radiology is a survey of central-axis depth doses for radiotherapy machines, patterned largely on BJR Supplement 11 (1972). Inspection of high-energy X-ray depth doses for a 10 x 10 cm field at an SSD of 100 cm disclosed large differences between the two sets of data, especially for qualities above 8 MV, e.g. a depth dose of 80% at 10 cm is rated at about 19 MV according to BJR Supplement 11, and 23 MV according to BJR Supplement 17. It was found that Supplement 17 depth-dose data above 8 MV were erratic, but Supplement 11 data could be represented by an analytical expression, providing a unique means of assigning MV quality. It was also found that dose-weighted average energy of the filtered beam plotted smoothly against depth dose. For dosimetric purposes, it is suggested that this parameter be used as a true measure of beam quality, removing discrepancies introduced by the use of nominal MV for this purpose. (author)

  5. Magnetic X-Ray Scattering with Synchrotron Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moncton, D. E.; Gibbs, D.; Bohr, Jakob

    1986-01-01

    With the availability of high-brilliance synchrotron radiation from multiple wigglers, magnetic X-ray scattering has become a powerful new probe of magnetic structure and phase transitions. Similar to the well-established magnetic neutron scattering technique, magnetic X-ray scattering methods have...... many complementary advantages. A brief review is presented of the history of magnetic X-ray scattering as well as recent results obtained in studies of the rare-earth magnet holmium with emphasis on instrumentational aspects. In particular, the development of a simple polarization analyzer...... to distinguish charge and magnetic scattering is described....

  6. Time-resolved X-ray studies using third generation synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1991-10-01

    The third generation, high-brilliance, hard x-ray, synchrotron radiation (SR) sources currently under construction (ESRF at Grenoble, France; APS at Argonne, Illinois; and SPring-8 at Harima, Japan) will usher in a new era of x-ray experimentation for both physical and biological sciences. One of the most exciting areas of experimentation will be the extension of x-ray scattering and diffraction techniques to the study of transient or time-evolving systems. The high repetition rate, short-pulse duration, high brilliance, and variable spectral bandwidth of these sources make them ideal for x-ray time-resolved studies. The temporal properties (bunch length, interpulse period, etc.) of these new sources will be summarized. Finally, the scientific potential and the technological challenges of time-resolved x-ray scattering from these new sources will be described. 13 refs., 4 figs

  7. Next Generation Astronomical X-ray Optics: High Angular Resolution, Light Weight, and Low Production Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang. W. W.; Biskach, M. P.; Blake, P. N.; Chan, K. W.; Gaskin, J. A.; Hong, M. L.; Jones, W. D.; Kolos, L. D.; Mazzarella, J. R.; McClelland, R. S.; hide

    2012-01-01

    X-ray astronomy depends on the availability of telescopes with high resolution and large photon collecting areas. Since x-ray observation can only be carried out above the atmosphere, these telescopes must be necessarily lightweight. Compounding the lightweight requirement is that an x-ray telescope consists of many nested concentric shells, which further require that x-ray mirrors must also be geometrically thin to achieve high packing efficiency. This double lightweight and geometrically thin requirement poses significant technical challenges in fabricating the mirrors and in integrating them into mirror assemblies. This paper reports on the approach, strategy and status of our x-ray optics development program whose objective is to meet these technical challenges at modest cost to enable future x-ray missions, including small Explorer missions in the near term, probe class missions in the medium term, and large flagship missions in the long term.

  8. Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography Using a High-Repetition-Rate Laser-Induced X-Ray Source for Sub-100 Nanometer Lithography Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Louis,; F. Bijkerk,; Shmaenok, L.; Voorma, H. J.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Schlatmann, R.; Verhoeven, J.; van der Drift, E. W. J. M.; Romijn, J.; Rousseeuw, B. A. C.; Voss, F.; Desor, R.; Nikolaus, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present the status of a joint development programme on soft x-ray projection lithography (SXPL) integrating work on high brightness laser plasma sources. fabrication of multilayer x-ray mirrors. and patterning of reflection masks. We are in the process of optimization of a

  9. The SWARF high energy flash X-ray facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, J.F.; Dove, E.W.D.

    1976-06-01

    A description is presented of the SWARF flash radiography facility at AWRE Foulness, which is stated to be the most powerful flash x-ray system available, in the U.K. The machine consists essentially of a Marx generator, a coaxial Blumlein system and an x-ray tube. The voltage output from the Marx generator (about 2.5 MV from an 80 kV input) is applied to a large re-entrant Blumlein pulse-forming line. Near maximum voltage, an adjustable oil switch short-circuits one end of the Blumlein generator and so applies a square voltage pulse of 65 ns duration to the x-ray tube. The x-rays are produced from a tantalum target which forms the anode of a vacuum field emission diode. The facility consists of two field machines positioned so that radiographs can be obtained from different angles. The description is given under the following heads: modus operandi; constructional details; oil installation; electrical details; commissioning, calibration and electrical data; flash radiography in explosives research; operational control of facility, film packs; radiographic results; further developments; overall performance. (U.K.)

  10. High energy X ray tomography. Development of an industrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, J.; Thomas, G.

    1985-01-01

    From its own experience in nondestructive testing and needs of industry, a versatile 420 kV X-ray tomodensitometer was designed by the CEA to study materials an structures. This project and results obtained with a laboratory prototype are presented [fr

  11. High performance X-ray and neutron microfocusing optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory Hirsch

    2000-01-01

    The use of extremely small diameter x-ray beams at synchrotron radiation facilities has become an important experimental technique for investigators in many other scientific disciplines. While there have been several different optical elements developed for producing such microbeams, this SBIR project was concerned with one particular device: the tapered-monocapillary optic

  12. Deposition and characterization of multilayers on thin foil x-ray mirrors for high-throughput x-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Ahsen M.; Joensen, Karsten D.; Hoeghoej, P.

    1996-01-01

    W/Si and Co/C multilayers have been deposited on epoxy- replicated Au mirrors from the ASTRO-E telescope project, SPectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) flight mirrors, DURAN glass substrates and Si witness wafers. A characterization of the multilayers with both hard x-rays and soft x-rays is presented....... This clearly indicates the effectiveness of the epoxy-replication process for the production of smooth substrates for multilayer deposition to be used in future x-ray telescopes....

  13. The superconducting high-resolution soft X-ray spectrometer at the advanced biological and environmental X-ray facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S. [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-188, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: Friedrich1@llnl.gov; Drury, O.B. [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-188, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Biophysics Group, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, EU-III, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); George, S.J. [Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cramer, S.P. [Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Biophysics Group, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, EU-III, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-11-11

    We have built a 36-pixel superconducting tunnel junction X-ray spectrometer for chemical analysis of dilute samples in the soft X-ray band. It offers an energy resolution of {approx}10-20 eV FWHM below 1 keV, a solid angle coverage of {approx}10{sup -3}, and can be operated at total rates of up to {approx}10{sup 6} counts/s. Here, we describe the spectrometer performance in speciation measurements by fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray facility at the ALS synchrotron.

  14. Ultraprecision motion control technique for high-resolution x-ray instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, D.; Toellner, T. S.; Alp, E. E.

    2000-07-17

    With the availability of third-generation hard x-ray synchrotron radiation sources, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory, x-ray inelastic scattering and x-ray nuclear resonant scattering provide powerful means for investigating the vibrational dynamics of a variety of materials and condensed matter systems. Novel high-resolution hard x-ray optics with meV energy resolution requires a compact positioning mechanism with 20--50-nrad angular resolution and stability. In this paper, the authors technical approach to this design challenge is presented. Sensitivity and stability test results are also discussed.

  15. High-resolution X-ray television and high-resolution video recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendle, J.; Horbaschek, H.; Alexandrescu, M.

    1977-01-01

    The improved transmission properties of the high-resolution X-ray television chain described here make it possible to transmit more information per television image. The resolution in the fluoroscopic image, which is visually determined, depends on the dose rate and the inertia of the television pick-up tube. This connection is discussed. In the last few years, video recorders have been increasingly used in X-ray diagnostics. The video recorder is a further quality-limiting element in X-ray television. The development of function patterns of high-resolution magnetic video recorders shows that this quality drop may be largely overcome. The influence of electrical band width and number of lines on the resolution in the X-ray television image stored is explained in more detail. (orig.) [de

  16. Plasma instability control toward high fluence, high energy x-ray continuum source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Patrick; Kirkwood, Robert; Wilks, Scott; Blue, Brent

    2017-10-01

    X-ray source development at Omega and NIF seeks to produce powerful radiation with high conversion efficiency for material effects studies in extreme fluence environments. While current K-shell emission sources can achieve tens of kJ on NIF up to 22 keV, the conversion efficiency drops rapidly for higher Z K-alpha energies. Pulsed power devices are efficient generators of MeV bremsstrahlung x-rays but are unable to produce lower energy photons in isolation, and so a capability gap exists for high fluence x-rays in the 30 - 100 keV range. A continuum source under development utilizes instabilities like Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) to generate plasma waves that accelerate electrons into high-Z converter walls. Optimizing instabilities using existing knowledge on their elimination will allow sufficiently hot and high yield electron distributions to create a superior bremsstrahlung x-ray source. An Omega experiment has been performed to investigate the optimization of SRS and high energy x-rays using Au hohlraums with parylene inner lining and foam fills, producing 10× greater x-ray yield at 50 keV than conventional direct drive experiments on the facility. Experiment and simulation details on this campaign will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DoE by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. A versatile, highly-efficient, high-resolution von Hamos Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vane, C.R.; Smith, M.S.; Raman, S.

    1988-01-01

    An efficient, high-resolution, vertical-focusing, Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer has been specifically designed and constructed for use in measurements of x rays produced in collisions of energetic heavy ions. In this report the design and resulting operational characteristics of the final instrument are fully described. A wide variety of sample data is also included to illustrate the utility of this device in several areas of research. 14 refs., 38 figs

  18. Superiority of Low Energy 160 KV X-Rays Compared to High Energy 6 MV X-Rays in Heavy Element Radiosensitization for Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sara N.; Pradhan, Anil K.; Nahar, Sultana N.; Barth, Rolf F.; Yang, Weilian; Nakkula, Robin J.; Palmer, Alycia; Turro, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    High energy X-rays in the MeV range are generally employed in conventional radiation therapy from linear accelerators (LINAC) to ensure sufficient penetration depths. However, lower energy X-rays in the keV range may be more effective when coupled with heavy element (high-Z or HZ) radiosensitizers. Numerical simulations of X-ray energy deposition for tumor phantoms sensitized with HZ radiosensitizers were performed using the Monte Carlo code Geant4. The results showed enhancement in energy deposition to radiosensitized phantoms relative to unsensitized phantoms for low energy X-rays in the keV range. In contrast, minimal enhancement was seen using high energy X-rays in the MeV range. Dose enhancement factors (DEFs) were computed and showed radiosensitization only in the low energy range nitrate, was initially used because it was 7x less toxic that an equivalent amount of carboplatin in vitro studies. This would allow us to separate the radiotoxic and the chemotoxic effects of HZ sensitizers. Results from this study showed a 10-fold dose dependent reduction in surviving fractions (SF) of radiosensitized cells treated with low energy 160 kV X-rays compared to those treated with 6 MV X-rays. This is in agreement with our simulations that show an increase in dose deposition in radiosensitized tumors for low energy X-rays. Due to unforeen in vivo toxicity, however, another in vitro study was performed using the commonly used, Pt-based chemotherapeutic drug carboplatin which confirmed earlier results. This lays the ground work for a planned in vivo study using F98 glioma bearing rats. This study demonstrates that while high energy X-rays are commonly used in cancer radiotherapy, low energy keV X-rays might be much more effective with HZ radiosensitization.

  19. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Galli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. A pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.

  20. High speed hydraulic scanner for deep x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, J.C.; Johnson, E.D.

    1997-07-01

    From their research and development in hard x-ray lithography, the authors have found that the conventional leadscrew driven scanner stages do not provide adequate scan speed or travel. These considerations have led the authors to develop a scanning system based on a long stroke hydraulic drive with 635 mm of travel and closed loop feedback to position the stage to better than 100 micrometers. The control of the device is through a PC with a custom LabView interface coupled to simple x-ray beam diagnostics. This configuration allows one to set a variety of scan parameters, including target dose, scan range, scan rates, and dose rate. Results from the prototype system at beamline X-27B are described as well as progress on a production version for the X-14B beamline

  1. High speed hydraulic scanner for deep x-ray lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, J.C.; Johnson, E.D.

    1997-07-01

    From their research and development in hard x-ray lithography, the authors have found that the conventional leadscrew driven scanner stages do not provide adequate scan speed or travel. These considerations have led the authors to develop a scanning system based on a long stroke hydraulic drive with 635 mm of travel and closed loop feedback to position the stage to better than 100 micrometers. The control of the device is through a PC with a custom LabView interface coupled to simple x-ray beam diagnostics. This configuration allows one to set a variety of scan parameters, including target dose, scan range, scan rates, and dose rate. Results from the prototype system at beamline X-27B are described as well as progress on a production version for the X-14B beamline.

  2. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy from the Einstein Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, P.F.; Canizares, C.R.; Clark, G.W.; Markert, T.H.; Berg, C.; Jernigan, J.G.; Schattenberg, M.L.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1980-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a discussion of some results which we have recently obtained from the fourth of the principal intruments on board the Einstein Observatory: M.I.T.'s Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer (FPCS). We shall begin whith a few general remarks about X-ray spectroscopy, followed by a brief description of the FPCS instrument. The results we present here deal primarily with supernova remnants (SNRs): Puppis A and Cas A in the Galaxy, and N132D and N63A in the Large Magellanic Cloud. In addition we shall briefly discuss a member of the other class of thermal X-ray source under discussion at present; namely, to report our detection of oxygen emission from the vicinity of M87 in the Virgo Cluster. (orig.)

  3. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang-Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Botha, Sabine; Boutet, Sebastien; Caleman, Carl; Doak, R. Bruce; Nanao, Max H.; Nass, Karol; Shoeman, Robert L.; Timneanu, Nicusor; Santra, Robin; Schlichting, Ilme; Chapman, Henry N.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential 'bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. In conclusion, a pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed

  4. High energy X-ray observation of Cyg X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendziorra, E.; Pietsch, W.; Staubert, R.; Truemper, J.

    1975-01-01

    On Feb. 20, 1975 Cyg X-3 was observed in the energy range of 29-70 keV during a 5 hour observation of the Cyg region. An intensity variation consistent with a 4.8 h sinusoidal modulation has been found, in phase with low energy X-ray observations and with a relative amplitude of 0.37 +- 0.19. (orig.) [de

  5. High quality multilayer mirrors for soft X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimmer, H.; Boeni, P.; Breitmeier, U.; Clemens, D.; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Mertins, H.C.; Schaefers, F. [BESSY, Berlin (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    In an effort to develop optical components for X-rays with wavelengths in the water window (2.3 -4.4 nm) multilayer structures have been designed for the following applications: in transmission as phase shifters to change linear into circular polarization, in reflection as mirrors close to normal incidence and as linear polarizers at an angle of incidence of 45{sup o}. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 ref.

  6. High Resolution Adjustable Mirror Control for X-ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    We propose to build and test thin film transistor control circuitry for a new highresolution adjustable X-ray mirror technology. This control circuitry will greatly simplify the wiring scheme to address individual actuator cells. The result will be a transformative improvement for the X-ray Surveyor mission concept: mathematical models, which fit the experimental data quite well, indicate that 0.5 arcsecond imaging is feasible through this technique utilizing thin slumped glass substrates with uncorrected angular resolution of order 5-10 arcseconds. In order to correct for figures errors in a telescope with several square meters of collecting area, millions of actuator cells must be set and held at specific voltages. It is clearly not feasible to do this via millions of wires, each one connected to an actuator. Instead, we propose to develop and test thin-film technology that operates on the same principle as megapixel computer screens. We will develop the technologies needed to build thin film piezoelectric actuators, controlled by thin film ZnO transistors, on flexible polyimide films, and to connect those films to the back surfaces of X-ray mirrors on thin glass substrates without deforming the surface. These technologies represent a promising avenue of the development of mirrors for the X-Ray Surveyor mission concept. Such a telescope will make possible detailed studies of a wide variety of astrophysical sources. One example is the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM), which is thought to account for a large fraction of the normal matter in the universe but which has not been detected unambiguously to date. Another is the growth of supermassive black holes in the early universe. This proposal supports NASA's goals of technical advancement of technologies suitable for future missions, and training of graduate students.

  7. Soft X ray spectrometry at high count rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.; Brouquet, P.; Uhre, N.

    1978-06-01

    Two modifications of the classical method of X-ray spectrometry by a semi-conductor diode permit a count rate of 10 5 c/s with an energy resolution of 350 eV. With a specially constructed pulse height analyzer, this detector can measure four spectra of 5 ms each, in the range of 1-30 keV, during a plasma shot

  8. The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR) high-energy X-ray mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hongjun An

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission was launched on 2012 June 13 and is the first focusing high-energy X-ray telescope in orbit operating above ~10 keV. NuSTAR flies two co-aligned Wolter-I conical approximation X-ray optics, coated with Pt/C and W/Si multilayers...

  9. TH-AB-209-07: High Resolution X-Ray-Induced Acoustic Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, L; Tang, S [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Ahmad, M [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Xing, L [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: X-ray radiographic absorption imaging is an invaluable tool in medical diagnostics, biology and materials science. However, the use of conventional CT is limited by two factors: the detection sensitivity to weak absorption material and the radiation dose from CT scanning. The purpose of this study is to explore X-ray induced acoustic computed tomography (XACT), a new imaging modality, which combines X-ray absorption contrast and high ultrasonic resolution to address these challenges. Methods: First, theoretical models was built to analyze the XACT sensitivity to X-ray absorption and calculate the minimal radiation dose in XACT imaging. Then, an XACT system comprised of an ultrashort X-ray pulse, a low noise ultrasound detector and a signal acquisition system was built to evaluate the X-ray induced acoustic signal generation. A piece of chicken bone and a phantom with two golden fiducial markers were exposed to 270 kVp X-ray source with 60 ns exposure time, and the X-ray induced acoustic signal was received by a 2.25MHz ultrasound transducer in 200 positions. XACT images were reconstructed by a filtered back-projection algorithm. Results: The theoretical analysis shows that X-ray induced acoustic signals have 100% relative sensitivity to X-ray absorption, but not to X-ray scattering. Applying this innovative technology to breast imaging, we can reduce radiation dose by a factor of 50 compared with newly FDA approved breast CT. The reconstructed images of chicken bone and golden fiducial marker phantom reveal that the spatial resolution of the built XACT system is 350µm. Conclusion: In XACT, the imaging sensitivity to X-ray absorption is improved and the imaging dose is dramatically reduced by using ultrashort pulsed X-ray. Taking advantage of the high ultrasonic resolution, we can also perform 3D imaging with a single X-ray pulse. This new modality has the potential to revolutionize x-ray imaging applications in medicine and biology.

  10. Ultra-high vacuum compatible optical chopper system for synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hao, E-mail: hc000211@ohio.edu [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Physics & Astronomy Department, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Cummings, Marvin; Shirato, Nozomi; Stripe, Benjamin; Preissner, Curt; Freeland, John W. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Rosenmann, Daniel [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kersell, Heath; Hla, Saw-Wai [Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Physics & Astronomy Department, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Rose, Volker, E-mail: vrose@anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    High-speed beam choppers are a crucial part of time-resolved x-ray studies as well as a necessary component to enable elemental contrast in synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy (SX-STM). However, many chopper systems are not capable of operation in vacuum, which restricts their application to x-ray studies with high photon energies, where air absorption does not present a significant problem. To overcome this limitation, we present a fully ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible chopper system capable of operating at variable chopping frequencies up to 4 kHz. The lightweight aluminum chopper disk is coated with Ti and Au films to provide the required beam attenuation for soft and hard x-rays with photon energies up to about 12 keV. The chopper is used for lock-in detection of x-ray enhanced signals in SX-STM.

  11. High power X-ray welding of metal-matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Richard A.; Goeppner, George A.; Noonan, John R.; Farrell, William J.; Ma, Qing

    1997-12-01

    A method for joining metal-matrix composites (MMCs) by using high power x-rays as a volumetric heat source is provided. The method involves directing an x-ray to the weld line between two adjacent MMCs materials to create an irradiated region or melt zone. The x-rays have a power density greater than about 10{sup 4} watts/cm{sup 2} and provide the volumetric heat required to join the MMC materials. Importantly, the reinforcing material of the metal-matrix composites remains uniformly distributed in the melt zone, and the strength of the MMCs are not diminished. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys.

  12. Frontiers in X-Ray Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The year 2010 marked the fiftieth anniversary of the optical laser and the first anniversary of the world's first hard x-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC. This exciting, new accelerator-based source of x-rays provides peak brilliances roughly a billion times greater than currently available from synchrotron sources such as the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne, and thus explores a qualitatively different parameter space. This talk will describe the first experiments at the LCLS aimed at understanding the nature of high intensity x-ray interactions, related applications in ultrafast imaging on the atomic scale and sketch nascent plans for the extension of both linac and storage-ring based photon sources.

  13. Penumbral measurements in water for high-energy x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, D.J.; Schroeder, N.J.; Hoya, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Ionization chambers of varying inside diameter have been used to investigate the penumbral region of 60 Co, 6-MV, and 31-MV x-ray beams. Measurements were made in water at varying depths up to 25 cm for a square field of side length 10 cm. The dependence of the penumbral widths on both the inside diameter of the ionization chamber and the depth in water is established along with the asymmetry of the penumbral distributions about the 50% level. A standard correction is indicated to eliminate the dependence of the measured penumbral widths on the inside diameter of the ionization chamber

  14. Scintillator Evaluation for High-Energy X-Ray Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, S. S.; Baker, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents results derived from a digital radiography study performed using x-rays from a 2.3 MeV, rod-pinch diode. Detailed is a parameter study of cerium-doped lutetium ortho-silicate (LSO) scintillator thickness, as it relates to system resolution and detection quantum efficiency (DQE). Additionally, the detection statistics of LSO were compared with that of CsI(Tl). As a result of this study we found the LSO scintillator with a thickness of 3 mm to yield the highest system DQE over the range of spatial frequencies from 0.75 to 2.5 mm -1

  15. X-ray fluorescence in Member States (Italy): Full field X-ray fluorescence imaging with high-energy and high-spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F. P.; Masini, N.; Pappalardo, L., E-mail: romanop@lns.infn.it [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Cosentino, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Rizzo, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    A full field X-ray camera for the X-Ray Fluorescence imaging of materials with high-energy and high-spatial resolution was designed and developed. The system was realized by coupling a pinhole collimator with a positionsensitive CCD detector. X-Ray fluorescence is induced on the samples by irradiation with an external X-ray tube. The characteristic X-ray spectra of the investigated materials are obtained by using a multi-frames acquisition in single-photon counting. The energy resolution measured at the Fe-Kα line was 157 eV. The spatial resolution of the system was determined by the analysis of a sharp-edge at different magnification values; it was estimated to be 90 μm at a magnification value of 3.2x and 190 μm at 0.8x. The present set-up of the system is suited to analyze samples with dimensions up to 5x4 cm{sup 2}. Typical measurement time is in the range between 1h to 4 h. (author)

  16. Project Title: Radiochemical Analysis by High Sensitivity Dual-Optic Micro X-ray Fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havrilla, George J.; Gao, Ning

    2002-01-01

    A novel dual-optic micro X-ray fluorescence instrument will be developed to do radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford. This concept incorporates new X-ray optical elements such as monolithic polycapillaries and double bent crystals, which focus X-rays. The polycapillary optic can be used to focus X-rays emitted by the X-ray tube thereby increasing the X-ray flux on the sample over 1000 times. Polycapillaries will also be used to collect the X-rays from the excitation site and screen the radiation background from the radioactive species in the specimen. This dual-optic approach significantly reduces the background and increases the analyte signal thereby increasing the sensitivity of the analysis. A doubly bent crystal used as the focusing optic produces focused monochromatic X-ray excitation, which eliminates the bremsstrahlung background from the X-ray source. The coupling of the doubly bent crystal for monochromatic excitation with a polycapillary for signal collection can effectively eliminate the noise background and radiation background from the specimen. The integration of these X-ray optics increases the signal-to-noise and thereby increases the sensitivity of the analysis for low-level analytes. This work will address a key need for radiochemical analysis of high-level waste using a non-destructive, multi-element, and rapid method in a radiation environment. There is significant potential that this instrumentation could be capable of on-line analysis for process waste stream characterization at DOE sites

  17. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Hosokawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.

  18. Trial fabrication of a secondary x-ray spectrometer with high energy resolution for use in x-ray resonant inelastic scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwazumi, Toshiaki

    2004-01-01

    An instrument was fabricated for use of x-ray resonant inelastic scattering with high-energy resolution in expectation of finding new physical phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems. In the scattering x-ray spectrometer, an asymmetric Johanson crystal spectrometer, which was deployed in an asymmetric Rowland configuration, was designed, fabricated and assessed. The performance expected theoretically for the Johanson spectrometer was recognized from experiments by use of synchrotron radiation. (Y. Kazumata)

  19. High resolution, monochromatic x-ray topography capability at CHESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, K. D., E-mail: kdf1@cornell.edu; Pauling, A.; Brown, Z. [CHESS, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Jones, R. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Tarun, A.; Misra, D. S. [IIa Technologies (Singapore); Jupitz, S. [St. Mary’s College of Maryland, St. Mary’s City, MD (United States); Sagan, D. C. [CLASSE, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2016-07-27

    CHESS has a monochromatic x-ray topography capability serving continually expanding user interest. The setup consists of a beam expanding monochromator, 6-circle diffactometer, and CHESS designed CMOS camera with real time sample-alignment capability. This provides rocking curve mapping with angle resolution as small as 2 µradians, spatial resolution to 3 microns, and field of view up to 7mm. Thus far the capability has been applied for: improving CVD-diamond growth, evaluating perfection of ultra-thin diamond membranes, correlating performance of diamond-based electronics with crystal defect structure, and defect analysis of single crystal silicon carbide. This paper describes our topography system, explains its capabilities, and presents experimental results from several applications.

  20. High resolution, monochromatic x-ray topography capability at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, K. D.; Pauling, A.; Brown, Z.; Jones, R.; Tarun, A.; Misra, D. S.; Jupitz, S.; Sagan, D. C.

    2016-01-01

    CHESS has a monochromatic x-ray topography capability serving continually expanding user interest. The setup consists of a beam expanding monochromator, 6-circle diffactometer, and CHESS designed CMOS camera with real time sample-alignment capability. This provides rocking curve mapping with angle resolution as small as 2 µradians, spatial resolution to 3 microns, and field of view up to 7mm. Thus far the capability has been applied for: improving CVD-diamond growth, evaluating perfection of ultra-thin diamond membranes, correlating performance of diamond-based electronics with crystal defect structure, and defect analysis of single crystal silicon carbide. This paper describes our topography system, explains its capabilities, and presents experimental results from several applications.

  1. Very high resolution UV and X-ray spectroscopy and imagery of solar active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, M.; Brown, W. A.; Haisch, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    A scientific investigation of the physics of the solar atmosphere, which uses the techniques of high resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy and high resolution UV imagery, is described. The experiments were conducted during a series of three sounding rocket flights. All three flights yielded excellent images in the UV range, showing unprecedented spatial resolution. The second flight recorded the X-ray spectrum of a solar flare, and the third that of an active region. A normal incidence multi-layer mirror was used during the third flight to make the first astronomical X-ray observations using this new technique.

  2. Exploratory X-ray monitoring of luminous radio-quiet quasars at high redshift: Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Stein, Matthew S. [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Paolillo, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università Federico II di Napoli, via Cinthia 6, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Kaspi, Shai [School of Physics and Astronomy and the Wise Observatory, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Vignali, Cristian [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università degli studi di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Lira, Paulina [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Santiago (Chile); Gibson, Robert R., E-mail: ohad@unt.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We present initial results from an exploratory X-ray monitoring project of two groups of comparably luminous radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). The first consists of four sources at 4.10 ≤ z ≤ 4.35, monitored by Chandra, and the second is a comparison sample of three sources at 1.33 ≤ z ≤ 2.74, monitored by Swift. Together with archival X-ray data, the total rest-frame temporal baseline spans ∼2-4 yr and ∼5-13 yr for the first and second group, respectively. Six of these sources show significant X-ray variability over rest-frame timescales of ∼10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} days; three of these also show significant X-ray variability on rest-frame timescales of ∼1-10 days. The X-ray variability properties of our variable sources are similar to those exhibited by nearby and far less luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). While we do not directly detect a trend of increasing X-ray variability with redshift, we do confirm previous reports of luminous AGNs exhibiting X-ray variability above that expected from their luminosities, based on simplistic extrapolation from lower luminosity sources. This result may be attributed to luminous sources at the highest redshifts having relatively high accretion rates. Complementary UV-optical monitoring of our sources shows that variations in their optical-X-ray spectral energy distribution are dominated by the X-ray variations. We confirm previous reports of X-ray spectral variations in one of our sources, HS 1700+6416, but do not detect such variations in any of our other sources in spite of X-ray flux variations of up to a factor of ∼4. This project is designed to provide a basic assessment of the X-ray variability properties of RQQs at the highest accessible redshifts that will serve as a benchmark for more systematic monitoring of such sources with future X-ray missions.

  3. X-Rays from NGC 3256: High-Energy Emission in Starburst Galaxies and Their Contribution to the Cosmic X-Ray Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, Edward C.; Lehnert, Matthew D.; Helfand, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The infrared-luminous galaxy NGC 3256 is a classic example of a merger-induced nuclear starburst system. We find here that it is the most X-ray-luminous star-forming galaxy yet detected (L 0.5-10keV =1.6x10 42 ergs s-1). Long-slit optical spectroscopy and a deep, high-resolution ROSAT X-ray image show that the starburst is driving a ''superwind'' which accounts for ∼20% of the observed soft X-ray emission. Analysis of X-ray spectral data from ASCA indicates this gas has a characteristic temperature of kT≅0.3 keV. Our model for the broadband X-ray emission of NGC 3256 contains two additional components: a warm thermal plasma (kT≅0.8 keV) associated with the central starburst, and a hard power-law component with an energy index of α X ≅0.7. We discuss the energy budget for the two thermal plasmas and find that the input of mechanical energy from the starburst is more than sufficient to sustain the observed level of emission. We also examine possible origins for the power-law component, concluding that neither a buried AGN nor the expected population of high-mass X-ray binaries can account for this emission. Inverse Compton scattering, involving the galaxy's copious flux of infrared photons and the relativistic electrons produced by supernovae, is likely to make a substantial contribution to the hard X-ray flux. Such a model is consistent with the observed radio and IR fluxes and the radio and X-ray spectral indices. We explore the role of X-ray-luminous starbursts in the production of the cosmic X-ray background radiation. The number counts and spectral index distribution of the faint radio source population, thought to be dominated by star-forming galaxies, suggest that a significant fraction of the hard X-ray background could arise from starbursts at moderate redshift. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  4. High-energy X-ray diffraction studies of disordered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, Shinji; Suzuya, Kentaro

    2003-01-01

    With the arrival of the latest generation of synchrotron sources and the introduction of advanced insertion devices (wigglers and undulators), the high-energy (E≥50 keV) X-ray diffraction technique has become feasible, leading to new approaches in the quantitative study of the structure of disordered materials. High-energy X-ray diffraction has several advantages: higher resolution in real space due to a wide range of scattering vector Q, smaller correction terms (especially the absorption correction), reduction of truncation errors, the feasibility of running under extreme environments, including high-temperatures and high-pressures, and the ability to make direct comparisons between X-ray and neutron diffraction data. Recently, high-energy X-ray diffraction data have been combined with neutron diffraction data from a pulsed source to provide more detailed and reliable structural information than that hitherto available

  5. First results from the high-brightness x-ray spectroscopy beamline at ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, R.C.C.; Ng, W.; Jones, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a windowless beamline, covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range, designed to achieve the goal of high brightness at the sample for use in the X-ray Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy (XAMS) science, surface and interface science, biology and x-ray optical development programs at ALS. X-ray absorption and time of flight photo emission measurements in 2 - 5 keV photon energy in argon along with the flux, resolution, spot size and stability of the beamline will be discussed. Prospects for future XAMS measurements will also be presented.

  6. High-speed videography combined with an x-ray image intensifier for dynamic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, L.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The Spin Physics SP-2000 high-speed video system can be combined with an x-ray source, a dynamic event having internal (not directly visible) movement and an x-ray image intensifier to perform dynamic radiography. The cesium iodide input fluor and P-20 output fluor of the image intensifier have rapid decay to allow x-ray imaging up to 12,000 pictures per second. Applications of this technique include internal functioning of a compressor, turbulent-water action, and other mechanical actions

  7. Device for high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis. Ustrojstvo dlya vysokotemperaturnogo rentgenostrukturnogo analiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epifanov, V G; Zavilinskij, A V; Pet' kov, V V; Polenur, A V

    1975-01-07

    Device for high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis, containing a vacuum chamber with a window for X-ray transit, in which sample- and standard-holders, heater, thermal shields and means for standard and sample temperature measurement are located, is proposed. In order to increase the working temperature level and the structural change detection accuracy the heater is located between the sample- and standard-holders. The standard-holder is linked with the mechanism of control of its position in relation to the heater. The device is intended for investigating phase transformations by differential thermal analysis method with the simultaneous diffraction pattern detection using X-ray diffractometry method.

  8. Micro controller application as x-ray machine's high voltage controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiranto Budi Santoso; Beny Syawaludin

    2010-01-01

    The micro controller application as x-ray machine's high voltage controller has been carried out. The purpose of this micro controller application is to give an accurate high voltage supply to the x-ray tube so that the x ray machine could produce the result as expected. The micro controller based X-ray machine's high voltage controller receives an input voltage from the keypad. This input value is displayed in the LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen. Then micro controller uses this input data to drive the stepper motor. The stepper motor adjusts the high voltage auto transformer's output according to the input value. The micro controller is programmed using BASCOM-B051 compiler. The test results show that the stepper motor could rotate according to an input value. (author)

  9. A microcontroller application as X-ray machine's high voltage controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiranto Budi Santoso; Beny Syawaludin

    2010-01-01

    A micro controller application as x-ray machine's high voltage controller has been carried out. The purpose of this micro controller application is to give an accurate high voltage supply to the x-ray tube so that the x-ray machine could produce the result as expected. The micro controller based X-ray machine's high voltage controller receives an input voltage from the keypad. This input value is displayed in the LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen. Then micro controller uses this input data to drive a stepper motor. The stepper motor adjusts the high voltage auto transformer's output according to the input value. The micro controller is programmed using BASCOM-8051 compiler. The test results show that the stepper motor could rotate according to an input value (author)

  10. Dual-energy X-ray radiography for automatic high-Z material detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gongyin; Bennett, Gordon; Perticone, David

    2007-01-01

    There is an urgent need for high-Z material detection in cargo. Materials with Z > 74 can indicate the presence of fissile materials or radiation shielding. Dual (high) energy X-ray material discrimination is based on the fact that different materials have different energy dependence in X-ray attenuation coefficients. This paper introduces the basic physics and analyzes the factors that affect dual-energy material discrimination performance. A detection algorithm is also discussed

  11. Apparatus with a cooled X-ray source and a high voltage generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    Apparatus, especially for a dental application, with an X-ray source and a high voltage generator, whereby the X-ray source and a high voltage generator are contained in a housing, which is filled with a coolant medium, characterised by the housing being divided into two chambers, whereby the X-ray source is in the first chamber and the high voltage generator is in the second chamber and between the chambers a dividing wall is placed for the screening of the X-ray irradiation from the first chamber from the second, whereby at least one of the walls of the second chamber is elastic to accommodate the expansion of the coolant medium.

  12. Wire array z-pinch insights for high X-ray power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Marder, B.M.; Desjarlais, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn and Z. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X-ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays

  13. Wire array z-pinch insights for high X-ray power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Marder, B.M.; Desjarlais, M.P. [and others

    1998-12-31

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn and Z. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X-ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays.

  14. Wire array z-pinch insights for high x-ray power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M. [and others

    1997-12-31

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn and Z. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X-ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays.

  15. Wire array z-pinch insights for high x-ray power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Nash, T.J. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X=ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays.

  16. New tubes and techniques for flash X-ray diffraction and high contrast radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonnier, F.M.; Barbour, J.P.; Brewster, J.L.

    High energy electrons are particularly efficient in producing characteristic X-rays and soft polychromatic. A line of wide spectrum beryllium window flash X-ray tubes, ranging from 150 to 600kV, has been developed to exploit this property. Laue and Debye Scherrer flash X-ray diffraction patterns have been obtained using a single 30 ns pulse exposure. X-ray diffraction tests obtained are shown. Extremely high contrast flash radiography of small, low density objects has been obtained using industrial film without screen. Alternatively, particularly at high voltages and for subjects which include a broad range of materials and thicknesses, special film techniques can be used to produce extremely wide latitudes. Equipment, techniques and results are discussed

  17. High-speed X-ray phase tomography with Talbot interferometer and fringe scanning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibayashi, Shunsuke; Harasse, Sébastien; Yashiro, Wataru; Momose, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    High-speed X-ray phase tomography based on the Fourier-transform method has been demonstrated with an X-ray Talbot interferometer using white synchrotron radiation. We report the experimental results of high-speed X-ray phase tomography with fringe-scanning method instead of Fourier-transform method to improve spatial resolution without a considerable increase of scan time. To apply fringe-scanning method to high speed tomography, we tested a scan that is a synchronous combination of one-way continuous movements of the sample rotation and the grating displacement. When this scanning method was combined with X-ray phase tomography, we were able to obtain a scan time of 5 s. A comparison of the image quality derived with the conventional approach and with the proposed approach using the fringe-scanning method showed that the latter had better spatial resolution.

  18. Wire array z-pinch insights for high x-ray power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1998-08-01

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn and Z. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X=ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays

  19. Development of x-ray laser architectural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Da Silva, L.B.; Moreno, J.C.

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes the recent experimental and computational development of short-pulse, enhanced-coherence, and high-brilliance x-ray lasers (XRLs). The authors will describe the development of an XRL cavity by injecting laser photons back into an amplifying XRL plasma. Using a combination of LASNEX/GLF/SPECTRE-BEAM3 codes, they obtained good agreement with experimental results. They will describe the adaptive spatial filtering technique used to design small-aperture shaped XRLs with near diffraction-limited output. Finally they will discuss issues concerning the development of high-brilliance XRL architecture, with emphasis on scaling the XRL aperture. Combining these advances in XRL architectural components allows them to develop a short-pulse, high-brilliance, coherent XRL suitable for applications in areas such as biological holography, plasma interferometry, and nonlinear optics

  20. Laser-powered dielectric-structures for the production of high-brightness electron and x-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travish, Gil; Yoder, Rodney B.

    2011-05-01

    Laser powered accelerators have been under intensive study for the past decade due to their promise of high gradients and leveraging of rapid technological progress in photonics. Of the various acceleration schemes under examination, those based on dielectric structures may enable the production of relativistic electron beams in breadbox sized systems. When combined with undulators having optical-wavelength periods, these systems could produce high brilliance x-rays which find application in, for instance, medical and industrial imaging. These beams also may open the way for table-top atto-second sciences. Development and testing of these dielectric structures faces a number of challenges including complex beam dynamics, new demands on lasers and optical coupling, beam injection schemes, and fabrication. We describe one approach being pursued at UCLA-the Micro Accelerator Platform (MAP). A structure similar to the MAP has also been designed which produces periodic deflections and acts as an undulator for radiation production, and the prospects for this device will be considered. The lessons learned from the multi-year effort to realize these devices will be presented. Challenges remain with acceleration of sub-relativistic beams, focusing, beam phase stability and extension of these devices to higher beam energies. Our progress in addressing these hurdles will be summarized. Finally, the demands on laser technology and optical coupling will be detailed.

  1. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubar, Oleg [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Geloni, Gianluca [European X-ray Free-Electron Laser, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Madsen, Anders [European X-ray Free-Electron Laser, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Shvyd’ko, Yuri, E-mail: shvydko@aps.anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Sutter, John [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-12

    This article explores novel opportunities for ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) at high-repetition-rate self-seeded XFELs. These next-generation light sources are promising a more than three orders of magnitude increase in average spectral flux compared with what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. In combination with the advanced IXS spectrometer described here, this may become a real game-changer for ultra-high-resolution X-ray spectroscopies, and hence for the studies of dynamics in condensed matter systems. Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm{sup −1} spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm{sup −1} are required to close the gap in energy–momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 10{sup 12} photons s{sup −1} in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  2. High-resolution measurements of x rays from ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, A.R.

    1974-01-01

    High resolution measurements of K x-ray spectra produced by ion-atom collisions at MeV energies are presented. These measurements indicate that a distribution of L-shell vacancies accompanies K-shell excitation. The variation of these spectra as a function of incident ion energy and atomic number is discussed. Difficulties in the analysis of these spectra due to rearrangement of vacancies between the time of the collision and the time of x-ray emission are considered. The use of high resolution x-ray measurements to obtain information on projectile ion vacancy configurations is demonstrated by data for Ar ions in KCl. X-ray spectra from Al projectiles in a variety of targets were measured and the effect of target composition on these spectra is discussed

  3. Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, I.; Trebes, J.E.; Brase, J.M.; Yorkey, T.J.; Levesque, R.; Szoke, H.; Anderson, E.H.; Jacobsen, C.

    1992-01-01

    Tomographic x-ray holography may make possible the imaging of biological objects at high resolution in three dimensions. We performed a demonstration experiment with soft x-rays to explore the feasibility of this technique. Coherent 3.2-nm undulator radiation was used to record Fourier transform holograms of a microfabricated test object from various illumination angles. The holograms were numerically reconstructed according to the principles of diffraction tomography, yielding images of the object that are well resolved in three dimensions

  4. Novel X-ray imaging diagnostics of high energy nanosecond pulse accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham W.; Gallegos, Roque Rosauro; Hohlfelder, Robert James; Beutler, David Eric; Dudley, John; Seymour, Calvin L.G.; Bell, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering x-ray imaging has been undertaken on a number of AWE's and Sandia National Laboratories radiation effects x-ray simulators. These simulators typically yield a single very short (<50ns) pulse of high-energy (MeV endpoint energy bremsstrahlung) x-ray radiation with doses in the kilorad (krad(Si)) region. X-ray source targets vary in size from 2 to 25cm diameter, dependent upon the particular simulator. Electronic imaging of the source x-ray emission under dynamic conditions yields valuable information upon how the simulator is performing. The resultant images are of interest to the simulator designer who may configure new x-ray source converter targets and diode designs. The images can provide quantitative information about machine performance during radiation effects testing of components under active conditions. The effects testing program is a valuable interface for validation of high performance computer codes and models for the radiation effects community. A novel high-energy x-ray imaging spectrometer is described whereby the spectral energy (0.1 to 2.5MeV) profile may be discerned from the digitally recorded and viewable images via a pinhole/scintillator/CCD imaging system and knowledge of the filtration parameters. Unique images, analysis and a preliminary evaluation of the capability of the spectrometer are presented. Further, a novel time resolved imaging system is described that captures a sequence of high spatial resolution temporal images, with zero interframe time, in the nanosecond timeframe, of our source x-rays.

  5. Asymmetrically cut crystal pair as x-ray magnifier for imaging at high intensity laser facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, C. I.; Feldman, U. [Artep Inc., 2922 Excelsior Spring Circle, Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Seely, J. F. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Curry, J. J.; Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The potential of an x-ray magnifier prepared from a pair of asymmetrically cut crystals is studied to explore high energy x-ray imaging capabilities at high intensity laser facilities. OMEGA-EP and NIF when irradiating mid and high Z targets can be a source of high-energy x-rays whose production mechanisms and use as backlighters are a subject of active research. This paper studies the properties and potential of existing asymmetric cut crystal pairs from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) built in a new enclosure for imaging x-ray sources. The technique of the x-ray magnifier has been described previously. This new approach is aimed to find a design that could be used at laser facilities by magnifying the x-ray source into a screen far away from the target chamber center, with fixed magnification defined by the crystals' lattice spacing and the asymmetry angles. The magnified image is monochromatic and the imaging wavelength is set by crystal asymmetry and incidence angles. First laboratory results are presented and discussed.

  6. Microbeam high-resolution diffraction and x-ray standing wave methods applied to semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimirov, A; Bilderback, D H; Huang, R; Sirenko, A; Ougazzaden, A

    2004-01-01

    A new approach to conditioning x-ray microbeams for high angular resolution x-ray diffraction and scattering techniques is introduced. We combined focusing optics (one-bounce imaging capillary) and post-focusing collimating optics (miniature Si(004) channel-cut crystal) to generate an x-ray microbeam with a size of 10 μm and ultimate angular resolution of 14 μrad. The microbeam was used to analyse the strain in sub-micron thick InGaAsP epitaxial layers grown on an InP(100) substrate by the selective area growth technique in narrow openings between the oxide stripes. For the structures for which the diffraction peaks from the substrate and the film overlap, the x-ray standing wave technique was applied for precise measurements of the strain with a Δd/d resolution of better than 10 -4 . (rapid communication)

  7. High temperature X-ray topography on silicon and gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    Beginning with a review of the different theories of X-ray scattering on perfect and deformed crystals, results of the dynamic theory relevant specifically for X-ray topography are presented. The reflected intensity recorded in a X-ray topogram is discussed as a function of the angle of incidence, crystal thickness and lateral distribution. These results, together with fundamental relations of the DT which are developed in the annex, give insight into the contrasts induced by defects. Using practical examples Borrmann contrast, contrast produced by point defect agglomerates and dislocations and the Burgers vector method are explained. Thus the whole spectrum of contrast phenomena observed in the experimental part of the paper is presented. The experimental results were achieved with a high-temperature X-ray topography facility constructed for this purpose. The facility is described. (orig./HPOE) [de

  8. ANALYSIS AND MITIGATION OF X-RAY HAZARD GENERATED FROM HIGH INTENSITY LASER-TARGET INTERACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, R.; Liu, J.C.; Prinz, A.A.; Rokni, S.H.; Woods, M.; Xia, Z.; /SLAC

    2011-03-21

    Interaction of a high intensity laser with matter may generate an ionizing radiation hazard. Very limited studies have been made, however, on the laser-induced radiation protection issue. This work reviews available literature on the physics and characteristics of laser-induced X-ray hazards. Important aspects include the laser-to-electron energy conversion efficiency, electron angular distribution, electron energy spectrum and effective temperature, and bremsstrahlung production of X-rays in the target. The possible X-ray dose rates for several femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser systems used at SLAC, including the short pulse laser system for the Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument (peak power 4 TW and peak intensity 2.4 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) were analysed. A graded approach to mitigate the laser-induced X-ray hazard with a combination of engineered and administrative controls is also proposed.

  9. A planar parabolic refractive nickel lens for high-energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrejczuk, Andrzej; Nagamine, Masaru; Sakurai, Yoshiharu; Itou, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    A compound refractive nickel lens focusing 174 keV X-rays to 5 µm with a gain of 4 is presented. A compound refractive lens made of nickel and designed for focusing high-energy synchrotron X-rays is presented. The lens consists of 600 parabolic grooves and focuses X-rays in one plane only (planar lens). The lenses made and investigated by us earlier exhibited low transmission and irregularities in the focused beam profile. Since then, improvements in lens manufacturing technology have been made. The present lens gives an almost Gaussian profile and produces four times higher intensity at its maximum compared with the intensity of primary X-ray beams of 174 keV

  10. DETECTING RELATIVISTIC X-RAY JETS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeough, Kathryn [Department of Statistics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Siemiginowska, Aneta; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lee, N. P.; Harris, D. E.; Schwartz, D. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cheung, C. C. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Stawarz, Łukasz [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244, Kraków (Poland); Stein, Nathan [Department of Statistics, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 400 Jon M. Huntsman Hall, 3730 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6340 (United States); Stampoulis, Vasileios; Dyk, David A. van [Statistics Section, Imperial College London, Huxley Building, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 (United Kingdom); Wardle, J. F. C. [Department of Physics, MS 057, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Donato, Davide [CRESST and Astroparticle Physics Laboratory NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Maraschi, Laura; Tavecchio, Fabrizio, E-mail: kathrynmckeough@g.harvard.edu [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Brera 28, I-20124, Milano (Italy)

    2016-12-10

    We analyze Chandra X-ray images of a sample of 11 quasars that are known to contain kiloparsec scale radio jets. The sample consists of five high-redshift ( z  ≥ 3.6) flat-spectrum radio quasars, and six intermediate redshift (2.1 <  z  < 2.9) quasars. The data set includes four sources with integrated steep radio spectra and seven with flat radio spectra. A total of 25 radio jet features are present in this sample. We apply a Bayesian multi-scale image reconstruction method to detect and measure the X-ray emission from the jets. We compute deviations from a baseline model that does not include the jet, and compare observed X-ray images with those computed with simulated images where no jet features exist. This allows us to compute p -value upper bounds on the significance that an X-ray jet is detected in a pre-determined region of interest. We detected 12 of the features unambiguously, and an additional six marginally. We also find residual emission in the cores of three quasars and in the background of one quasar that suggest the existence of unresolved X-ray jets. The dependence of the X-ray to radio luminosity ratio on redshift is a potential diagnostic of the emission mechanism, since the inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons (IC/CMB) is thought to be redshift dependent, whereas in synchrotron models no clear redshift dependence is expected. We find that the high-redshift jets have X-ray to radio flux ratios that are marginally inconsistent with those from lower redshifts, suggesting that either the X-ray emissions are due to the IC/CMB rather than the synchrotron process, or that high-redshift jets are qualitatively different.

  11. High precision instrumentation for measuring the true exposure time in diagnostic X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Danubia B.; Santos, Marcus A.P.; Barros, Fabio R.; Santos, Luiz A.P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important physical quantities to be evaluated in diagnostic radiology is the radiation exposure time experimented by the patient during the X-ray examination. IAEA and WHO organizations have suggested that any country must create a quality surveillance program to verify if each type of ionizing radiation equipment used in the hospitals and medical clinics are in conformity with the accepted uncertainties following the international standards. The purpose of this work is to present a new high precision methodology for measuring true exposure time in diagnostic X-ray examinations: pulsed, continuous or digital one. An electronic system named CronoX, which will be soon registered at the Brazilian Patent Office (INPI), is the equipment that provides such a high precision measurement. The principle of measurement is based on the electrical signal captured by a sensor that enters in a regeneration amplifier to transform it in a digital signal, which is treated by a microprocessor (uP). The signal treatment results in a two measured times: 1) T rx , the true X-ray exposure time; 2) T nx , the time in which the X-ray machine is repeatedly cut off during the pulsed irradiation and there is no delivery dose to the patient. Conventional Polymat X-ray equipment and dental X-ray machines were used to generate X-ray photons and take the measurements with the electronic systems. The results show that such a high precision instrumentation displays the true exposure time in diagnostic X-ray examinations and indicates a new method to be purposed for the quality surveillance programs in radiology. (author)

  12. High-intensity, subkolovolt x-ray calibration facility using a Cockroft--Walton proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckuck, R.W.; Gaines, J.L.; Ernst, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    Considerable need has arisen for the development of well-calibrated x-ray detectors capable of detecting photons with energies between 100 and 1000 electron-volts. This energy region is of significant interest since the x-ray emission from high-temperature (kT approximately 1.0 keV), laser-produced plasmas is predominantly in this range. A high-intensity, subkilovolt x-ray calibration source was developed which utilizes proton-induced inner-shell atomic fluorescence of low-Z elements. The high photon yields and low bremsstrahlung background associated with this phenomenon are ideally suited to provide an intense, nearly monoenergetic x-ray calibration source for detector development applications. The proton accelerator is a 3 mA, 300 kV Cockroft-Walton using a conventional rf hydrogen ion source. Seven remotely-selectable liquid-cooled targets capable of heat dissipation of 5 kW/cm 2 are used to provide characteristic x-rays with energies between 100 and 1000 eV. Source strengths are of the order of 10 13 to 10 14 photons/sec. A description of the facility is presented. Typical x-ray spectra (B-K, C-K, Ti-L, Fe-L and Cu-L) and flux values will be shown. Problems such as spectral contamination due to carbon buildup on the target and to backscattered particles are discussed

  13. A POPULATION OF X-RAY WEAK QUASARS: PHL 1811 ANALOGS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianfeng; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Hall, Patrick B.; Gibson, Robert R.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Richards, Gordon T.; Shemmer, Ohad; Just, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a sample of 10 type 1 quasars selected to have unusual UV emission-line properties (weak and blueshifted high-ionization lines; strong UV Fe emission) similar to those of PHL 1811, a confirmed intrinsically X-ray weak quasar. These quasars were identified by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at high redshift (z ∼ 2.2); eight are radio quiet while two are radio intermediate. All of the radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs, without exception, are notably X-ray weak by a mean factor of ∼13. These sources lack broad absorption lines and have blue UV/optical continua, supporting the hypothesis that they are intrinsically X-ray weak like PHL 1811 itself. However, their average X-ray spectrum appears to be harder than those of typical quasars, which may indicate the presence of heavy intrinsic X-ray absorption. Our sample of radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs supports a connection between an X-ray weak spectral energy distribution and PHL 1811-like UV emission lines; this connection provides an economical way to identify X-ray weak type 1 quasars. The fraction of radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs in the radio-quiet quasar population is estimated to be ∼< 1.2%. We have investigated correlations between relative X-ray brightness and UV emission-line properties (e.g., C IV equivalent width and blueshift) for a sample combining our radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs, PHL 1811 itself, and typical type 1 quasars. These correlation analyses suggest that PHL 1811 analogs may have extreme wind-dominated broad emission-line regions. Observationally, the radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs appear to be a subset (∼30%) of radio-quiet weak-line quasars (WLQs). The existence of a subset of quasars in which high-ionization 'shielding gas' covers most of the broad emission-line region (BELR), but little more than the BELR, could potentially unify the PHL 1811 analogs and WLQs. The two radio-intermediate PHL 1811 analogs are X-ray bright. X-ray

  14. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, S R; Hilsabeck, T J; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Ayers, M J; Piston, K; Felker, B; Kilkenny, J D; Chung, T; Sammuli, B; Hares, J D; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A K L

    2014-11-01

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2-17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10(17). We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  15. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, S. R., E-mail: nagel7@llnl.gov; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Ayers, M. J.; Piston, K.; Felker, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Chung, T.; Sammuli, B. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2–17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10{sup 17}. We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  16. X-ray diffraction at high pressure and high/low temperatures using synchrotron radiation. Applications in the study of spinel structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerward, L.; Jiang, J.Z.; Olsen, J.S.; Recio, J.M.; Wakowska, A.

    2004-01-01

    High-pressure x-ray diffraction made a quantum leap in the 1960's with the advent of the diamond-anvil cell. This ingenious device, where two opposing diamond faces apply pressure to a tiny sample, made it possible to replicate the pressure near the core of the Earth by turning a thumbscrew. Multianvil cells, such as the Japanese MAX80 press, were developed for combined high-pressure and high-temperature studies. The availability n at about the same time n of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources of hard x-rays was another big step forward. Since then, the white-beam energy-dispersive method has been the workhorse for high pressure, high-temperature x-ray diffraction, although it is now gradually being replaced by high-resolution monochromatic methods based on the image plate, the CCD camera or other electronic area detectors. The first part of the paper is a review of high-pressure x-ray diffraction (HPXRD), covering roughly the last three decades. Physical parameters, such as the bulk modulus, the compressibility and the equation of state, are defined. The diamond-anvil cell, the multianvil press and other high-pressure devices are described, as well as synchrotron radiation sources and recording techniques. Examples are drawn from current experimental and theoretical research on crystal structures of the spinel type. Accurate structural parameters have been determined at ambient conditions and at low temperatures using single-crystal diffraction and four-circle diffractometers. The uniform high-pressure behavior of the oxide spinels has been investigated in detail and compared with the corresponding behavior of selenium-based spinels. The synthesis of advanced novel materials is exemplified in the case of the cubic spinel Si 3 N 4 . This and other nitrogen spinels, which have a bulk modulus of about 300 GPa modulated by the actual cation, are opening a road towards superhard materials. The paper finishes off with an outlook into the future, where new

  17. X-ray microscopy with high resolution zone plates -- Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, G.; Wilhein, T.; Niemann, B.; Guttmann, P.

    1995-01-01

    In order to expand the applications of X-ray microscopy, developments in the fields of zone plate technology, specimen preparation and imaging techniques have been made. A new cross-linked polymer chain electron beam resist allows to record zone plate pattern down to 19 nm outermost zone width. High resolution zone plates in germanium with outermost zone widths down to 19 nm have been developed. In addition, phase zone plates in nickel down to 30 nm zone width have been made by electroplating. In order to enhance the image contrast for weak absorbing objects, the phase contrast method for X-ray microscopy was developed and implemented on the Goettingen X-ray microscope at BESSY. The effects of X-ray absorption on the structure of biological specimen limits the maximum applicable radiation dose and therefore the achievable signal to noise ratio for an artifact-free X-ray image. To improve the stability especially of biological specimen, a cryogenic object chamber has been developed and tested. It turns out that at the operating temperature T ≤ 130 K unfixed biological specimen can be exposed to a radiation dose of 10 9 --10 10 Gy without any observable structural changes. A multiple-angle viewing stage allows to take stereoscopic images with the X-ray microscope, giving a 3D-impression of the object

  18. Diagnostic imaging of gout: comparison of high-resolution US versus conventional X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettenbacher, Thomas; Ennemoser, Sybille; Weirich, Harald [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Ulmer, Hanno [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics, and Health Economics, Innsbruck (Austria); Hartig, Frank; Klotz, Werner; Herold, Manfred [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Internal Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2008-03-15

    The aim was to compare X-ray and ultrasound (US) in diagnosing gout. In a prospective study, 105 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of gout underwent conventional X-ray und high-resolution US in order to help in arriving at a definite diagnosis. X-ray findings suggestive of gout included soft-tissue opacifications with densities between soft tissue and bone, articular and periarticular bone erosions, and osteophytes at the margins of opacifications or erosions. US findings suggestive of gout included bright stippled foci and hyperechoic soft-tissue areas. Fifty-five patients had a definite diagnosis of gout (102 involved sites), 31 patients were diagnosed as having another disease (59 involved sites), and 19 patients were excluded from the study because a definite diagnosis could not be established. X-ray suggested gout with a sensitivity of 31% (32/102) and a specificity of 93% (55/59), whereas US suggested gout with a sensitivity of 96% (98/102) and a specificity of 73% (43/59). US was much more sensitive than conventional X-ray but less specific. Our data show that US often provided additional diagnostic information in patients with clinical suspicion of gout when laboratory findings and X-ray results were negative or inconclusive and should therefore be used in these cases. (orig.)

  19. Diagnostic imaging of gout: comparison of high-resolution US versus conventional X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettenbacher, Thomas; Ennemoser, Sybille; Weirich, Harald; Ulmer, Hanno; Hartig, Frank; Klotz, Werner; Herold, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to compare X-ray and ultrasound (US) in diagnosing gout. In a prospective study, 105 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of gout underwent conventional X-ray und high-resolution US in order to help in arriving at a definite diagnosis. X-ray findings suggestive of gout included soft-tissue opacifications with densities between soft tissue and bone, articular and periarticular bone erosions, and osteophytes at the margins of opacifications or erosions. US findings suggestive of gout included bright stippled foci and hyperechoic soft-tissue areas. Fifty-five patients had a definite diagnosis of gout (102 involved sites), 31 patients were diagnosed as having another disease (59 involved sites), and 19 patients were excluded from the study because a definite diagnosis could not be established. X-ray suggested gout with a sensitivity of 31% (32/102) and a specificity of 93% (55/59), whereas US suggested gout with a sensitivity of 96% (98/102) and a specificity of 73% (43/59). US was much more sensitive than conventional X-ray but less specific. Our data show that US often provided additional diagnostic information in patients with clinical suspicion of gout when laboratory findings and X-ray results were negative or inconclusive and should therefore be used in these cases. (orig.)

  20. A Chandra High-Resolution X-ray Image of Centaurus A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft; Forman; Jones; Kenter; Murray; Aldcroft; Elvis; Evans; Fabbiano; Isobe; Jerius; Karovska; Kim; Prestwich; Primini; Schwartz; Schreier; Vikhlinin

    2000-03-01

    We present first results from a Chandra X-Ray Observatory observation of the radio galaxy Centaurus A with the High-Resolution Camera. All previously reported major sources of X-ray emission including the bright nucleus, the jet, individual point sources, and diffuse emission are resolved or detected. The spatial resolution of this observation is better than 1&arcsec; in the center of the field of view and allows us to resolve X-ray features of this galaxy not previously seen. In particular, we resolve individual knots of emission in the inner jet and diffuse emission between the knots. All of the knots are diffuse at the 1&arcsec; level, and several exhibit complex spatial structure. We find the nucleus to be extended by a few tenths of an arcsecond. Our image also suggests the presence of an X-ray counterjet. Weak X-ray emission from the southwest radio lobe is also seen, and we detect 63 pointlike galactic sources (probably X-ray binaries and supernova remnants) above a luminosity limit of approximately 1.7x1037 ergs s-1.

  1. GALAXI: Gallium anode low-angle x-ray instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Kentzinger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The high brilliance laboratory small angle X-ray scattering instrument GALAXI, which is operated by JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich, permits the investigation of chemical correlations in bulk materials or of structures deposited on a surface at nanometre and mesoscopic length scales. The instrument is capable to perform GISAXS experiments in reflection at grazing incidence as well as SAXS experiments in transmission geometry. The X-ray flux on sample is comparable or higher than the one obtained at a comparable beamline at a second generation synchrotron radiation source.

  2. Soft x-ray photoionization of atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Svante

    2005-01-01

    A review of resonant and non-resonant electron spectroscopy on atoms and molecules at third generation synchrotron radiation facilities is given. The high brilliance of the soft x-ray radiation has made possible new types of experiments giving information on the fundamental behaviour of photoionization. The relevance of Einstein's photoelectric law, and notably the question of when electron energies disperse or do not disperse with the photon energy, is given special attention

  3. Cellulose/inorganic-composite fibers for producing textile fabrics of high X-ray absorption properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Günther, Karoline; Giebing, Christina; Askani, Antonia; Leisegang, Tilmann; Krieg, Marcus; Kyosev, Yordan; Weide, Thomas; Mahltig, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Common textile materials as cotton or polyester do not possess reliable X-ray absorption properties. This is due to their morphology and chemical composition in particular. Common fibers are built up from organic polymers containing mainly the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. These “light” elements only have low X-ray absorption coefficients. In contrast, inorganic materials composed of “heavy” elements with high atomic numbers, e.g. barium or bismuth, exhibit X-ray absorption coefficients higher by up to two orders of magnitude. To obtain a flexible yarn with high X-ray absorption properties both these materials, the organic polymer and the inorganic X-ray absorber, are combined to an inorganic/organic composite fiber material. Hence, as the organic component cellulose from modified Lyocell-process is used as carrier fiber and blended with inorganic absorber particles of low toxicity and high absorption coefficients, as bariumsulphate, bariumtitanate or bismuthoxide. A content of inorganic absorber particles equally distributed in the whole fiber of up to 20% is achieved. The composite fibers are produced as staple or filament fibers and processed to multifilament or staple fiber yarns. The staple fiber yarns are rotor-spinned to increase the comfort of the subsequent textile material. Several woven fabrics, considering multilayer structure and different warp/weft density, are developed. The energy dependent X-ray shielding properties are determined in dependence on the different yarn compositions, yarn types and structural parameters of the woven fabrics. As a result, a production process of textile materials with comfortable and dedicated X-ray absorption properties is established. It offers a promising opportunity for manufacturing of specialized textiles, working clothes or uniforms applicable for medicine, air craft and security personal, mining as well as for innovative composite materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of cellulosic

  4. Cellulose/inorganic-composite fibers for producing textile fabrics of high X-ray absorption properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günther, Karoline; Giebing, Christina; Askani, Antonia [FTB, Hochschule Niederrhein – University of Applied Science, Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, Webschulstr. 31, 41065 Mönchengladbach (Germany); Leisegang, Tilmann [Saxray GmbH, Maria-Reiche-Str. 1, 01109 Dresden (Germany); Krieg, Marcus [TITK, Thüringisches Institut für Textil- und Kunststoff-Forschung e.V., Breitscheidstraße 97, 07407 Rudolstadt (Germany); Kyosev, Yordan; Weide, Thomas [FTB, Hochschule Niederrhein – University of Applied Science, Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, Webschulstr. 31, 41065 Mönchengladbach (Germany); Mahltig, Boris, E-mail: Boris.Mahltig@hs-niederrhein.de [FTB, Hochschule Niederrhein – University of Applied Science, Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, Webschulstr. 31, 41065 Mönchengladbach (Germany)

    2015-11-01

    Common textile materials as cotton or polyester do not possess reliable X-ray absorption properties. This is due to their morphology and chemical composition in particular. Common fibers are built up from organic polymers containing mainly the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. These “light” elements only have low X-ray absorption coefficients. In contrast, inorganic materials composed of “heavy” elements with high atomic numbers, e.g. barium or bismuth, exhibit X-ray absorption coefficients higher by up to two orders of magnitude. To obtain a flexible yarn with high X-ray absorption properties both these materials, the organic polymer and the inorganic X-ray absorber, are combined to an inorganic/organic composite fiber material. Hence, as the organic component cellulose from modified Lyocell-process is used as carrier fiber and blended with inorganic absorber particles of low toxicity and high absorption coefficients, as bariumsulphate, bariumtitanate or bismuthoxide. A content of inorganic absorber particles equally distributed in the whole fiber of up to 20% is achieved. The composite fibers are produced as staple or filament fibers and processed to multifilament or staple fiber yarns. The staple fiber yarns are rotor-spinned to increase the comfort of the subsequent textile material. Several woven fabrics, considering multilayer structure and different warp/weft density, are developed. The energy dependent X-ray shielding properties are determined in dependence on the different yarn compositions, yarn types and structural parameters of the woven fabrics. As a result, a production process of textile materials with comfortable and dedicated X-ray absorption properties is established. It offers a promising opportunity for manufacturing of specialized textiles, working clothes or uniforms applicable for medicine, air craft and security personal, mining as well as for innovative composite materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of cellulosic

  5. Advances in indirect detector systems for ultra high-speed hard X-ray imaging with synchrotron light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbinado, M. P.; Grenzer, J.; Pradel, P.; De Resseguier, T.; Vagovic, P.; Zdora, M.-C.; Guzenko, V. A.; David, C.; Rack, A.

    2018-04-01

    We report on indirect X-ray detector systems for various full-field, ultra high-speed X-ray imaging methodologies, such as X-ray phase-contrast radiography, diffraction topography, grating interferometry and speckle-based imaging performed at the hard X-ray imaging beamline ID19 of the European Synchrotron—ESRF. Our work highlights the versatility of indirect X-ray detectors to multiple goals such as single synchrotron pulse isolation, multiple-frame recording up to millions frames per second, high efficiency, and high spatial resolution. Besides the technical advancements, potential applications are briefly introduced and discussed.

  6. Characterization of metallic nanoparticles by high-resolution X-ray absorption and X-ray emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Timna-Josua

    2012-03-15

    In almost all areas of technology, metallic nanoparticles are of interest due to their special thermal, electronic, magnetic and optical properties. Their special properties are mainly due to their small size which implies the relevance of quantum effects as well as the significance of the surface: For 2 nm nanoparticles, the surface-to-volume ratio is already 1:1. However, the identification of surface-to-volume interactions - that are responsible for the new properties - is a difficult task due to the small size that inhibits a lot of 'standard' techniques to be applicable. Here X-ray absorption/emission spectroscopy (XAS/XES) is a favorable tool for the characterization of nanoparticles, independent on size, degree of crystallinity and shape/condition of the surface. Using XAS, a tempered nanosized Co{sub 3}Pt/C catalyst have been investigated. Its outstanding oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR) properties in a fuel cell could be related to a lowered Pt 5d-band center connected to a tightened Pt-Pt bonding distance, leading to a weakening of the oxygen adsorption strength so that the ORR may proceed faster. One drawback remains, however, as the properties found by (standard) XAS are summed up for different chemical environments of the chosen element. Thus, no distinction can be made between, e.g., the pure metal in a nanoparticles' interior and the ligated metal in the outer shells or surface. Here, high-resolution fluorescence-detected XAS (HRFD-XAS) provides additional opportunities as, due to its chemical sensitivity, it leads to site-selective XAS. For a system of 6 nm sized Co nanoparticles, build up of a metallic core surrounded by a protecting shell, that resulted from the 'smooth oxidation' process, this technique of site-selective XAS was proven to be applicable. For the first time, the interior and outer shell of a metallic nanoparticle could be characterized separately. In particular, the Co-hcp phase could be determined for the

  7. High-Performance X-ray Detection in a New Analytical Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, C. E.; Goldstein, J. I.; Williams, D. B.; Ackland, D. W.; vonHarrach, S.; Nicholls, A. W.; Statham, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray detection by energy-dispersive spectrometry in the analytical electron microscope (AEM) is often limited by low collected X-ray intensity (P), modest peak-to-background (P/B) ratios, and limitations on total counting time (tau) due to specimen drift and contamination. A new AFM has been designed with maximization of P. P/B, and tau as the primary considerations. Maximization of P has been accomplished by employing a field-emission electron gun, X-ray detectors with high collection angles, high-speed beam blanking to allow only one photon into the detector at a time, and simultaneous collection from two detectors. P/B has been maximized by reducing extraneous background signals generated at the specimen holder, the polepieces and the detector collimator. The maximum practical tau has been increased by reducing specimen contamination and employing electronic drift correction. Performance improvments have been measured using the NIST standard Cr thin film. The 0-3 steradian solid angle of X-ray collection is the highest value available. The beam blanking scheme for X-ray detection provides 3-4 times greater throughput of X-rays at high count rates into a recorded spectrum than normal systems employing pulse-pileup rejection circuits. Simultaneous X-ray collection from two detectors allows the highest X-ray intensity yet recorded to be collected from the NIST Cr thin film. The measured P/B of 6300 is the highest level recorded for an AEM. In addition to collected X-ray intensity (cps/nA) and P/B measured on the standard Cr film, the product of these can be used as a figure-of-merit to evaluate instruments. Estimated minimum mass fraction (MMF) for Cr measured on the standard NIST Cr thin film is also proposed as a figure-of-merit for comparing X-ray detection in AEMs. Determinations here of the MMF of Cr detectable show at least a threefold improvement over previous instruments.

  8. Z-pinches as intense x-ray sources for high energy density physics application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzen, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    Fast z-pinch implosions can convert more than 10% of the stored electrical energy in a pulsed-power accelerator into x rays. These x rays are produced when an imploding cylindrical plasma, driven by the magnetic field pressure associated with very large axial currents, stagnates upon the cylindrical axis of symmetry. On the Saturn pulsed-power accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories, for example, currents of 6 to 8 MA with a risetime of less than 50 ns are driven through cylindrically-symmetric loads, producing implosions velocities as high as 100 cm/μs and x-ray energies as high as 500 kJ. The keV component of the resulting x-ray spectrum has been used for many years 8 a radiation source for material response studies. Alternatively, the x-ray output can be thermalized into a near-Planckian x-ray source by containing it within a large cylindrical radiation case. These large volume, long-lived radiation sources have recently been used for ICF-relevant ablator physics experiments as well as astrophysical opacity and radiation-material interaction experiments. Hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and cylindrical load symmetry are critical, limiting factors in determining the assembled plasma densities and temperatures, and thus in the x-ray pulse widths that can be produced on these accelerators. In recent experiments on the Saturn accelerator, these implosion nonuniformities have been minimized by using uniform-fill gas puff loads or by using wire arrays with as many a 192 wires. These techniques produced significant improvements in the pinched plasma quality, Zn reproducibility, and x-ray output power. X-ray pulse widths of less than 5 ns and peak powers of 75±10 TW have been achieved with arrays of 120 tungsten wires. These powers represent greater than a factor of three in power amplification over the electrical power of the Saturn n accelerator, and are a record for x-ray powers in the laboratory

  9. Ultra-High Field Magnets for X-Ray and Neutron Scattering using High Temperature Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, Barry L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Broholm, C. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Bird, M. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Breneman, Bruce C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Coffey, Michael [Cryomagnetics, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cutler, Roy I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duckworth, Robert C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Erwin, R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Hahn, Seungyong [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Hernandez, Yamali [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Herwig, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holland, Leo D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lonergan, Kevin M. [Oxford Instruments, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Melhem, Ziad [Oxford Instruments, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Minter, Stephen J. [Cryomagnetics, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nelson, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Paranthaman, M. Parans [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pierce, Josh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ruff, Jacob [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Shen, Tengming [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherline, Todd E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smeibidl, Peter G. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB), (Germany); Tennant, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); van der Laan, Danko [Advanced Conductor Technologies, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Wahle, Robert J. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB), (Germany); Zhang, Yifei [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2017-01-01

    X-ray and neutron scattering techniques are capable of acquiring information about the structure and dynamics of quantum matter. However, the high-field magnet systems currently available at x-ray and neutron scattering facilities in the United States are limited to fields of 16 tesla (T) at maximum, which precludes applications that require and/or study ultra-high field states of matter. This gap in capability—and the need to address it—is a central conclusion of the 2005 National Academy of Sciences report by the Committee on Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science. To address this gap, we propose a magnet development program that would more than double the field range accessible to scattering experiments. With the development and use of new ultra-high field–magnets, the program would bring into view new worlds of quantum matter with profound impacts on our understanding of advanced electronic materials.

  10. X-ray emission in collisions of highly charged I, Pr, Ho, and Bi ions with a W surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H.; Tona, M.; Ohtani, S.; Sun, J.; Nakamura, N.; Yamada, C.; Yoshiyasu, N.; Sakurai, M.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray emission yields, which are defined as the total number of emitted x-ray photons per incident ion, and dissipated fractions of potential energies through x-ray emission have been measured for slow highly charged ions of I, Pr, Ho, and Bi colliding with a W surface. A larger amount of potential energy was consumed for the x-ray emission with increasing the atomic number and the charge state. The present measurements show that x-ray emission is one of the main decay channels of hollow atoms produced in collisions of very highly charged ions of heavy elements

  11. Calculating the X-Ray Fluorescence from the Planet Mercury Due to High-Energy Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbine, T. H.; Trombka, J. I.; Bergstrom, P. M., Jr.; Christon, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    The least-studied terrestrial planet is Mercury due to its proximity to the Sun, which makes telescopic observations and spacecraft encounters difficult. Our lack of knowledge about Mercury should change in the near future due to the recent launching of MESSENGER, a Mercury orbiter. Another mission (BepiColombo) is currently being planned. The x-ray spectrometer on MESSENGER (and planned for BepiColombo) can characterize the elemental composition of a planetary surface by measuring emitted fluorescent x-rays. If electrons are ejected from an atom s inner shell by interaction with energetic particles such as photons, electrons, or ions, electrons from an outer shell can transfer to the inner shell. Characteristic x-rays are then emitted with energies that are the difference between the binding energy of the ion in its excited state and that of the ion in its ground state. Because each element has a unique set of energy levels, each element emits x-rays at a unique set of energies. Electrons and ions usually do not have the needed flux at high energies to cause significant x-ray fluorescence on most planetary bodies. This is not the case for Mercury where high-energy particles were detected during the Mariner 10 flybys. Mercury has an intrinsic magnetic field that deflects the solar wind, resulting in a bow shock in the solar wind and a magnetospheric cavity. Electrons and ions accelerated in the magnetosphere tend to follow its magnetic field lines and can impact the surface on Mercury s dark side Modeling has been done to determine if x-ray fluorescence resulting from the impact of high-energy electrons accelerated in Mercury's magnetosphere can be detected by MESSENGER. Our goal is to understand how much bulk chemical information can be obtained from x-ray fluorescence measurements on the dark side of Mercury.

  12. High thermal efficiency x-ray energy conversion scheme for advanced fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quimby, D.C.; Taussig, R.T.; Hertzberg, A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reports on a new radiation energy conversion scheme which appears to be capable of producing electricity from the high quality x-ray energy with efficiencies of 60 to 70 percent. This new reactor concept incorporates a novel x-ray radiation boiler and a new thermal conversion device known as an energy exchanger. The low-Z first walls of the radiation boiler are semi-transparent to x-rays, and are kept cool by incoming working fluid, which is subsequently heated to temperatures of 2000 to 3000 0 K in the interior of the boiler by volumetric x-ray absorption. The radiation boiler may be a compact part of the reactor shell since x-rays are readily absorbed in high-Z materials. The energy exchanger transfers the high-temperature working fluid energy to a lower temperature gas which drives a conventional turbine. The overall efficiency of the cycle is characterized by the high temperature of the working fluid. The high thermal efficiencies which appear achievable with this cycle would make an otherwise marginal advanced fusion reactor into an attractive net power producer. The operating principles, initial conceptual design, and engineering problems of the radiation boiler and thermal cycle are presented

  13. Design of a compact high-energy setup for x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttler, Markus; Yaroshenko, Andre; Bech, Martin; Potdevin, Guillaume; Malecki, Andreas; Chabior, Michael; Wolf, Johannes; Tapfer, Arne; Meiser, Jan; Kunka, Danays; Amberger, Maximilian; Mohr, Jürgen; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2014-03-01

    The main shortcoming of conventional biomedical x-ray imaging is the weak soft-tissue contrast caused by the small differences in the absorption coefficients between different materials. This issue can be addressed by x-ray phasesensitive imaging approaches, e.g. x-ray Talbot-Lau grating interferometry. The advantage of the three-grating Talbot-Lau approach is that it allows to acquire x-ray phase-contrast and dark-field images with a conventional lab source. However, through the introduction of the grating interferometer some constraints are imposed on the setup geometry. In general, the grating pitch and the mean x-ray energy determine the setup dimensions. The minimal length of the setup increases linearly with energy and is proportional to p2, where p is the grating pitch. Thus, a high-energy (100 keV) compact grating-based setup for x-ray imaging can be realized only if gratings with aspect-ratio of approximately 300 and a pitch of 1-2 μm were available. However, production challenges limit the availability of such gratings. In this study we consider the use of non-binary phase-gratings as means of designing a more compact grating interferometer for phase-contrast imaging. We present simulation and experimental data for both monochromatic and polychromatic case. The results reveal that phase-gratings with triangular-shaped structures yield visibilities that can be used for imaging purposes at significantly shorter distances than binary gratings. This opens the possibility to design a high-energy compact setup for x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Furthermore, we discuss different techniques to achieve triangular-shaped phase-shifting structures.

  14. Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio nano structures using a nano x-ray shadow mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Seung S

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method for the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio nano structures (HAR-nano structures) using a nano x-ray shadow mask and deep x-ray lithography (DXRL). The nano x-ray shadow mask is fabricated by depositing an x-ray absorber layer (Au, 3 µm) onto the back side of a nano shadow mask. The nano shadow mask is produced with nano-sized apertures whose dimensions are reduced to several tens of nanometers by the accumulation of low-stress silicon nitride (Si x N y ) using the LPCVD process on the shadow mask. A shadow mask containing apertures with a size of 1 µm is fabricated on a bulk micromachined Si x N y membrane. The thickness of an absorber layer must be in the range of several tens of micrometers in order to obtain a contrast of more than 100 for the conventional DXRL process at the Pohang Light Source (PLS). However, a 3 µm thick absorber layer can provide a sufficient contrast if the modified DXRL of the central beam-stop method is used, which blocks high-energy x-rays. A nano shadow mask with 30 nm sized apertures is fabricated and a nano x-ray shadow mask with 250 nm sized apertures is fabricated by depositing a 3 µm thick absorber layer on a nano shadow mask with 500 nm sized apertures. HAR-nano structures (circles with a diameter of 420 nm and lines with a width of 274 nm) with aspect ratios of over 10:1 on a 3.2 µm SU-8 are successfully fabricated by using the nano x-ray shadow mask and the central beam-stop method

  15. High resolution x-ray microtomography of biological samples: Requirements and strategies for satisfying them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, B.W. Jr. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Rothman, S.S. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    High resolution x-ray microscopy has been made possible in recent years primarily by two new technologies: microfabricated diffractive lenses for soft x-rays with about 30-50 nm resolution, and high brightness synchrotron x-ray sources. X-ray microscopy occupies a special niche in the array of biological microscopic imaging methods. It extends the capabilities of existing techniques mainly in two areas: a previously unachievable combination of sub-visible resolution and multi-micrometer sample size, and new contrast mechanisms. Because of the soft x-ray wavelengths used in biological imaging (about 1-4 nm), XM is intermediate in resolution between visible light and electron microscopies. Similarly, the penetration depth of soft x-rays in biological materials is such that the ideal sample thickness for XM falls in the range of 0.25 - 10 {mu}m, between that of VLM and EM. XM is therefore valuable for imaging of intermediate level ultrastructure, requiring sub-visible resolutions, in intact cells and subcellular organelles, without artifacts produced by thin sectioning. Many of the contrast producing and sample preparation techniques developed for VLM and EM also work well with XM. These include, for example, molecule specific staining by antibodies with heavy metal or fluorescent labels attached, and sectioning of both frozen and plastic embedded tissue. However, there is also a contrast mechanism unique to XM that exists naturally because a number of elemental absorption edges lie in the wavelength range used. In particular, between the oxygen and carbon absorption edges (2.3 and 4.4 nm wavelength), organic molecules absorb photons much more strongly than does water, permitting element-specific imaging of cellular structure in aqueous media, with no artifically introduced contrast agents. For three-dimensional imaging applications requiring the capabilities of XM, an obvious extension of the technique would therefore be computerized x-ray microtomography (XMT).

  16. ICF ignition capsule neutron, gamma ray, and high energy x-ray images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P. A.; Wilson, D. C.; Swenson, F. J.; Morgan, G. L.

    2003-03-01

    Post-processed total neutron, RIF neutron, gamma-ray, and x-ray images from 2D LASNEX calculations of burning ignition capsules are presented. The capsules have yields ranging from tens of kilojoules (failures) to over 16 MJ (ignition), and their implosion symmetry ranges from prolate (flattest at the hohlraum equator) to oblate (flattest towards the laser entrance hole). The simulated total neutron images emphasize regions of high DT density and temperature; the reaction-in-flight neutrons emphasize regions of high DT density; the gamma rays emphasize regions of high shell density; and the high energy x rays (>10 keV) emphasize regions of high temperature.

  17. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Witte, Katharina; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  18. Bismuth Passivation Technique for High-Resolution X-Ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James; Hess, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The Athena-plus team requires X-ray sensors with energy resolution of better than one part in 3,000 at 6 keV X-rays. While bismuth is an excellent material for high X-ray stopping power and low heat capacity (for large signal when an X-ray is stopped by the absorber), oxidation of the bismuth surface can lead to electron traps and other effects that degrade the energy resolution. Bismuth oxide reduction and nitride passivation techniques analogous to those used in indium passivation are being applied in a new technique. The technique will enable improved energy resolution and resistance to aging in bismuth-absorber-coupled X-ray sensors. Elemental bismuth is lithographically integrated into X-ray detector circuits. It encounters several steps where the Bi oxidizes. The technology discussed here will remove oxide from the surface of the Bi and replace it with nitridized surface. Removal of the native oxide and passivating to prevent the growth of the oxide will improve detector performance and insulate the detector against future degradation from oxide growth. Placing the Bi coated sensor in a vacuum system, a reduction chemistry in a plasma (nitrogen/hydrogen (N2/H2) + argon) is used to remove the oxide and promote nitridization of the cleaned Bi surface. Once passivated, the Bi will perform as a better X-ray thermalizer since energy will not be trapped in the bismuth oxides on the surface. A simple additional step, which can be added at various stages of the current fabrication process, can then be applied to encapsulate the Bi film. After plasma passivation, the Bi can be capped with a non-diffusive layer of metal or dielectric. A non-superconducting layer is required such as tungsten or tungsten nitride (WNx).

  19. A high time resolution x-ray diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Ami M.; Lee, John David; Almagri, Abdulgadar F.

    2015-07-01

    A new high time resolution x-ray detector has been installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) to make measurements around sawtooth events. The detector system is comprised of a silicon avalanche photodiode, a 20 ns Gaussian shaping amplifier, and a 500 MHz digitizer with 14-bit sampling resolution. The fast shaping time diminishes the need to restrict the amount of x-ray flux reaching the detector, limiting the system dead-time. With a much higher time resolution than systems currently in use in high temperature plasma physics experiments, this new detector has the versatility to be used in a variety of discharges with varying flux and the ability to study dynamics on both slow and fast time scales. This paper discusses the new fast x-ray detector recently installed on MST and the improved time resolution capabilities compared to the existing soft and hard x-ray diagnostics. In addition to the detector hardware, improvements to the detector calibration and x-ray pulse identification software, such as additional fitting parameters and a more sophisticated fitting routine are discussed. Finally, initial data taken in both high confinement and standard reversed-field pinch plasma discharges are compared.

  20. Computerized tomography using high resolution X-ray imaging system with a microfocus source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaprazny, Z.; Korytar, D.; Konopka, P.; Ac, V.; Bielecki, J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there is an effort to image an internal structure of an object by using not only conventional 2D X-ray radiography but also using high resolution 3D tomography which is based on reconstruction of multiple 2D projections at various angular positions of the object. We have previously reported [1] the development and basic parameters of a high resolution x-ray imaging system with a microfocus source. We report the recent progress using this high resolution X-ray laboratory system in this work. These first findings show that our system is particularly suitable for light weight and nonmetallic objects such as biological objects, plastics, wood, paper, etc. where phase contrast helps to increase the visibility of the finest structures of the object. Phase-contrast X-ray Computerized Tomography is of our special interest because it is an emerging imaging technique that can be implemented at third generation synchrotron radiation sources and also in laboratory conditions using a microfocus X-ray tube or beam conditioning optics. (authors)

  1. HIGH ENERGY, HIGH BRIGHTNESS X-RAYS PRODUCED BY COMPTON BACKSCATTERING AT THE LIVERMORE PLEIADES FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremaine, A M; Anderson, S G; Betts, S; Crane, J; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F V; Jacob, J S; Frigola, P; Lim, J; Rosenzweig, J; Travish, G

    2005-01-01

    PLEIADES (Picosecond Laser Electron Interaction for the Dynamic Evaluation of Structures) produces tunable 30-140 keV x-rays with 0.3-5 ps pulse lengths and up to 10 7 photons/pulse by colliding a high brightness electron beam with a high power laser. The electron beam is created by an rf photo-injector system, accelerated by a 120 MeV linac, and focused to 20 (micro)m with novel permanent magnet quadrupoles. To produce Compton back scattered x-rays, the electron bunch is overlapped with a Ti:Sapphire laser that delivers 500 mJ, 100 fs, pulses to the interaction point. K-edge radiography at 115 keV on Uranium has verified the angle correlated energy spectrum inherent in Compton scattering and high-energy tunability of the Livermore source. Current upgrades to the facility will allow laser pumping of targets synchronized to the x-ray source enabling dynamic diffraction and time-resolved studies of high Z materials. Near future plans include extending the radiation energies to >400 keV, allowing for nuclear fluorescence studies of materials

  2. On the limitations and optimisation of high-resolution 3D medical X-ray imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shuang; Brahme, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Based on a quantitative analysis of both attenuation and refractive properties of X-ray propagation in human body tissues and the introduction of a mathematical model for image quality analysis, some limitations and optimisation of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) medical X-ray imaging techniques are studied. A comparison is made of conventional attenuation-based X-ray imaging methods with the phase-contrast X-ray imaging modalities that have been developed recently. The results indicate that it is theoretically possible through optimal design of the X-ray imaging system to achieve high spatial resolution (<100 μm) in 3D medical X-ray imaging of the human body at a clinically acceptable dose level (<10 mGy) by introducing a phase-contrast X-ray imaging technique.

  3. Surface slope metrology of highly curved x-ray optics with an interferometric microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkyan, Gevork S.; Centers, Gary; Polonska, Kateryna S.; Nikitin, Sergey M.; Lacey, Ian; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2017-09-01

    The development of deterministic polishing techniques has given rise to vendors that manufacture high quality threedimensional x-ray optics. The surface metrology on these optics remains a difficult task. For the fabrication, vendors usually use unique surface metrology tools, generally developed on site, that are not available in the optical metrology labs at x-ray facilities. At the Advanced Light Source X-Ray Optics Laboratory, we have developed a rather straightforward interferometric-microscopy-based procedure capable of sub microradian characterization of sagittal slope variation of x-ray optics for two-dimensionally focusing and collimating (such as ellipsoids, paraboloids, etc.). In the paper, we provide the mathematical foundation of the procedure and describe the related instrument calibration. We also present analytical expression describing the ideal surface shape in the sagittal direction of a spheroid specified by the conjugate parameters of the optic's beamline application. The expression is useful when analyzing data obtained with such optics. The high efficiency of the developed measurement and data analysis procedures is demonstrated in results of measurements with a number of x-ray optics with sagittal radius of curvature between 56 mm and 480 mm. We also discuss potential areas of further improvement.

  4. High-energy synchrotron X-ray radiography of shock-compressed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; Collinson, Mark A.; Jones, David R.; Music, Jasmina; Stafford, Samuel J. P.; Tear, Gareth R.; White, Thomas G.; Winters, John B. R.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2015-06-01

    This presentation will discuss the development and application of a high-energy (50 to 250 keV) synchrotron X-ray imaging method to study shock-compressed, high-Z samples at Beamline I12 at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron (Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, UK). Shock waves are driven into materials using a portable, single-stage gas gun designed by the Institute of Shock Physics. Following plate impact, material deformation is probed in-situ by white-beam X-ray radiography and complimentary velocimetry diagnostics. The high energies, large beam size (13 x 13 mm), and appreciable sample volumes (~ 1 cm3) viable for study at Beamline I12 compliment existing in-house pulsed X-ray capabilities and studies at the Dynamic Compression Sector. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ongoing support of Imperial College London, EPSRC, STFC and the Diamond Light Source, and AWE Plc.

  5. High-resolution X-ray spectra from low-temperature, highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1996-09-01

    The electron beam ion traps (EBIT) at Livermore were designed for studying the x-ray emission of highly charged ions produced and excited by a monoenergetic electron beam. The precision with which the x-ray emission can be analyzed has recently been increased markedly when it became possible to decouple the temperature of the ions from the energy of the electron beam by several orders of magnitude. By adjusting the trap parameters, ion temperatures as low as 15.8±4.4 eV for Ti 20+ and 59.4±9.9 eV for Cs 45+ were achieved. These temperatures were more than two orders of magnitude lower than the energy of the multi-keV electron beam used for the production and excitation of the ions. A discussion of the techniques used to produce and study low-temperature highly charged ions is presented in this progress report. The low ion temperatures enabled measurements heretofore impossible. As an example, a direct observation of the natural line width of fast electric dipole allowed x-ray transitions is described. From the observed natural line width and b making use of the time-energy relations of the uncertainty principle we were able to determine a radiative transition rate of 1.65 fs for the 2p-3d resonance transition in neonlike Cs 45+ . A brief discussion of other high-precision measurements enabled by our new technique is also given

  6. X-ray reflectivity measurements of liquid/solid interfaces under high hydrostatic pressure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkert, Florian J; Paulus, Michael; Nase, Julia; Möller, Johannes; Kujawski, Simon; Sternemann, Christian; Tolan, Metin

    2014-01-01

    A high-pressure cell for in situ X-ray reflectivity measurements of liquid/solid interfaces at hydrostatic pressures up to 500 MPa (5 kbar), a pressure regime that is particularly important for the study of protein unfolding, is presented. The original set-up of this hydrostatic high-pressure cell is discussed and its unique properties are demonstrated by the investigation of pressure-induced adsorption of the protein lysozyme onto hydrophobic silicon wafers. The presented results emphasize the enormous potential of X-ray reflectivity studies under high hydrostatic pressure conditions for the in situ investigation of adsorption phenomena in biological systems.

  7. Innovation of High Voltage Supply Adjustment Device on Diagnostic X-Ray Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujatno; Wiranto Budi Santoso

    2010-01-01

    Innovation of high voltage supply adjustment device on diagnostic x-ray machine has been carried out. The innovation is conducted by utilizing an electronic circuit as a high voltage adjustment device. Usually a diagnostic x-ray machine utilizes a transformer or an auto-transformer as a high voltage supply adjustment device. A high power diagnostic x-ray machine needs a high power transformer which has big physical dimension. Therefore a box control where the transformer is located has to have big physical dimension. Besides, the price of the transformer is expensive and hardly found in local markets. In this innovation, the transformer is replaced by an electronic circuit. The main component of the electronic circuit is Triac BTA-40. As adjustment device, the triac is controlled by a variable resistor which is coupled by a stepper motor. A step movement of stepper motor varies a value of resistor. The resistor value determines the triac gate voltage. Furthermore the triac will open according to the value of electrical current flowing to the gate. When the gate is open, electrical voltage and current will flow from cathode to anode of the triac. The value of these electrical voltage and current depend on gate open condition. Then this triac output voltage is feed to diagnostic x-ray machine high voltage supply. Therefore the high voltage value of diagnostic x-ray machine is adjusted by the output voltage of the electronic circuit. By using this electronic circuit, the physical dimension of diagnostic x-ray machine box control and the price of the equipment can be reduced. (author)

  8. Flash X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Generation of quasi-monochromatic X-ray by production of weakly ionized line plasma (flash X-ray), high-speed imaging by the X-ray and high-contrast imaging by the characteristic X-ray absorption are described. The equipment for the X-ray is consisted from the high-voltage power supply and condenser, turbo molecular pump, and plasma X-ray tube. The tube has a long linear anticathode to produce the line plasma and flash X-ray at 20 kA current at maximum. X-ray spectrum is measured by the imaging plate equipped in the computed radiography system after diffracted by a LiF single crystal bender. Cu anticathode generates sharp peaks of K X-ray series. The tissue images are presented for vertebra, rabbit ear and heart, and dog heart by X-ray fluoroscopy with Ce anticathode. Generation of K-orbit characteristic X-ray with extremely low bremsstrahung is to be attempted for medical use. (N.I.)

  9. Sub-Hour X-Ray Variability of High-Energy Peaked BL Lacertae Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidzina Kapanadze

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of multi-wavelength flux variability in BL Lacertae objects is very important to discern unstable processes and emission mechanisms underlying their extreme observational features. While the innermost regions of these objects are not accessible from direct observations, we may draw conclusions about their internal structure via the detection of flux variations on various timescales, based on the light-travel argument. In this paper, we review the sub-hour X-ray variability in high-energy peaked BL Lacertae sources (HBLs that are bright at X-rays and provide us with an effective tool to study the details related to the physics of the emitting particles. The X-ray emission of these sources is widely accepted to be a synchrotron radiation from the highest-energy electrons, and the complex spectral variability observed in this band reflects the injection and radiative evolution of freshly-accelerated particles. The detection of sub-hour X-ray flux variability is very important since it can be related to the small-scale jet turbulent structures or triggered by unstable processes occurring in the vicinity of a central supermassive black hole. We summarize the fastest X-ray variability instances detected in bright HBLs and discuss their physical implications.

  10. High-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray microscopy: Present status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Spanne, P.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    High-energy radiation synchrotron x-ray microscopy is used to characterize materials of importance to the chemical and materials sciences and chemical engineering. The x-ray microscope (XRM) forms images of elemental distributions fluorescent x rays or images of mass distributions by measurement of the linear attenuation coefficient of the material. Distributions of sections through materials are obtained non-destructively using the technique of computed microtomography. The energy range of the x rays used for the XRM ranges from a few keV at the minimum value to more than 100 keV, which is sufficient to excite the K-edge of all naturally occurring elements. The work in progress at the Brookhaven NSLS X26 and X17 XRM is described in order to show the current status of the XRM. While there are many possible approaches to the XRM instrumentation, this instrument gives state-of-the-art performance in most respects and serves as a reasonable example of the present status of the instrumentation in terms of the spatial resolution and minimum detection limits obtainable. The examples of applications cited give an idea of the types of research fields that are currently under investigation. They can be used to illustrate how the field of x-ray microscopy will benefit from the use of bending magnets and insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source. 8 refs., 5 figs

  11. High-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray microscopy: Present status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Spanne, P.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    High-energy radiation synchrotron x-ray microscopy is used to characterize materials of importance to the chemical and materials sciences and chemical engineering. The x-ray microscope (XRM) forms images of elemental distributions fluorescent x rays or images of mass distributions by measurement of the linear attenuation coefficient of the material. Distributions of sections through materials are obtained non-destructively using the technique of computed microtomography (CMT). The energy range of the x rays used for the XRM ranges from a few keV at the minimum value to more than 100 keV, which is sufficient to excite the K-edge of all naturally occurring elements. The work in progress at the Brookhaven NSLS X26 and X17 XRM is described in order to show the current status of the XRM. While there are many possible approaches to the XRM instrumentation, this instrument gives state-of-the-art performance in most respects and serves as a reasonable example of the present status of the instrumentation in terms of the spatial resolution and minimum detection limits (MDLs) obtainable. The examples of applications cited give an idea of the types of research fields that are currently under investigation. They can be used to illustrate how the field of x-ray microscopy will benefit from the use of bending magnets and insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

  12. New techniques provide low-cost X-ray inspection of highly attenuating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupin, D.M.; Mueller, K.H.; Viskoe, D.A.; Howard, B.; Poland, R.W.; Schneberk, D.; Dolan, K.; Thompson, K.; Stoker, G.

    1995-01-01

    As a result of an arms reduction treaty between the United States and the Russian Federation, both countries will each be storing over 40,000 containers of plutonium. To help detect any deterioration of the containers and prevent leakage, the authors are designing a digital radiography and computed tomography system capable of handling this volume reliably, efficiently, and at a lower cost. The materials to be stored have very high x-ray attenuations, and, in the past, were inspected using 1- to 24-MV x-ray sources. This inspection system, however, uses a new scintillating (Lockheed) glass and an integrating CCD camera. Preliminary experiments show that this will permit the use of a 450-kV x-ray source. This low-energy system will cost much less than others designed to use a higher-energy x-ray source because it will require a less expensive source, less shielding, and less floor space. Furthermore, they can achieve a tenfold improvement in spatial resolution by using their knowledge of the point-spread function of the x-ray imaging system and a least-squares fitting technique

  13. The high-energy X-ray spectrum of Centaurus XR-3 observed from OSO 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, J. F.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of the X-ray binary Cen XR-3 in the 20-120 keV energy range by means of OSO 8's high energy X-ray spectrometer, during July 16-19, 1975, and July 5-14 and 28-29, 1978, indicate that the source was in a high luminosity state during 1975 and a low luminosity one in 1978. While mean orbital light curves appear similar in shape in both years, orbit-to-orbit intensity variations are noted. Spectral, luminosity, and the 4.84 sec modulation are characterized. Cen XR-3 may be a system in which mass transfer by Roche lobe overflow, and by accretion from a stellar wind, are both effective in the production of observable X-ray radiation.

  14. X-ray Spectroscopy of High-Z Elements on Nike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Weaver, J. L.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.; Ralchenko, Yu.

    2013-10-01

    Survey X-ray spectrometer covering a spectral range from 0.5 to 19.5 angstroms has been added to the spectroscopic suite of Nike diagnostics. That allows simultaneous observation of both M- and N- spectra of W, Ta and Au with high spectral resolution. Low energy test shots confirmed strong presence of 3-4 transitions of Ni-like W, Ta and Au with X-ray energies as high as 3.5 keV when above mentioned elements were used as the targets. In our continuous effort to support DOE-NNSA's inertial fusion program, the future campaign will cover a wide range of plasma conditions that result in relatively energetic X-ray production. Eventually, absolutely calibrated spectrometers of similar geometry will be fielded at NIF in cooperation with NIF diagnostic group. Work supported by US DOE, Defense Programs.

  15. Phase contrast enhanced high resolution X-ray imaging and tomography of soft tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubek, Jan; Granja, Carlos; Dammer, Jiri; Hanus, Robert; Holy, Tomas; Pospisil, Stanislav; Tykva, Richard; Uher, Josef; Vykydal, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    A tabletop system for digital high resolution and high sensitivity X-ray micro-radiography has been developed for small-animal and soft-tissue imaging. The system is based on a micro-focus X-ray tube and the semiconductor hybrid position sensitive Medipix2 pixel detector. Transmission radiography imaging, conventionally based only on absorption, is enhanced by exploiting phase-shift effects induced in the X-ray beam traversing the sample. Phase contrast imaging is realized by object edge enhancement. DAQ is done by a novel fully integrated USB-based readout with online image generation. Improved signal reconstruction techniques make use of advanced statistical data analysis, enhanced beam hardening correction and direct thickness calibration of individual pixels. 2D and 3D micro-tomography images of several biological samples demonstrate the applicability of the system for biological and medical purposes including in-vivo and time dependent physiological studies in the life sciences

  16. Diamond monochromator for high heat flux synchrotron x-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.; Smither, R.K.; Davey, S.; Purohit, A.

    1992-12-01

    Single crystal silicon has been the material of choice for x-ray monochromators for the past several decades. However, the need for suitable monochromators to handle the high heat load of the next generation synchrotron x-ray beams on the one hand and the rapid and on-going advances in synthetic diamond technology on the other make a compelling case for the consideration of a diamond mollochromator system. In this Paper, we consider various aspects, advantage and disadvantages, and promises and pitfalls of such a system and evaluate the comparative an monochromator subjected to the high heat load of the most powerful x-ray beam that will become available in the next few years. The results of experiments performed to evaluate the diffraction properties of a currently available synthetic single crystal diamond are also presented. Fabrication of diamond-based monochromator is within present technical means

  17. High resolution krypton M/sub 4,5/ x-ray emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, R.C.C.; Hettrick, M.C.; Lindle, D.W.

    1987-10-01

    High resolution M/sub 4,5/ (3d → 4p) x-ray emission spectra from a krypton plasma were measured using a recently developed grazing-incidence reflection-grating monochromator/spectrometer with very high flux rates at extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray wave lengths. The nominal resolving power of the instrument, E/ΔE, is about 300 in this energy range (∼80 eV). Three dipole-allowed 3d → 4p emission lines were observed at 80.98 eV, 80.35 eV and 79.73 eV. A broad peak at about 82.3 eV is tentatively assigned to transitions resulting from Kr 2+ , and effects of excitation energy on M/sub 4,5/ x-ray emission were observed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. OSO-7 observations of high galactic latitude x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, T.H.; Canizares, C.R.; Clark, G.W.; Li, F.K.; Northridge, P.L.; Sprott, G.F.; Wargo, G.F.

    1976-01-01

    Six hundred days of observations by the MIT X-ray detectors aboard OSO-7 have been analyzed. All-sky maps of X-ray intensity have been constructed from these data. A sample map is displayed. Seven sources with galactic latitude vertical-barb/subi//subi/vertical-bar>10degree, discovered during the mapping process, are reported, and upper limits are set on other high-latitude sources. The OSO-7 results are compared with those of Uhuru and an implication of this comparison, that many of the high-latitude sources may be variable, is discussed

  19. Thermal, structural, and fabrication aspects of diamond windows for high power synchrotron x-ray beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.; Phillips, W.

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology have made it possible to produce thin free-standing diamond foils that can be used as the window material in high heat load, synchrotron beamlines. Numerical simulations suggest that these windows can offer an attractive and at times the only altemative to beryllium windows for use in third generation x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines. Utilization, design, and fabrication aspects of diamond windows for high heat load x-ray beamlines are discussed, as are the microstructure characteristics bearing on diamond's performance in this role. Analytic and numerical results are also presented to provide a basis for the design and testing of such windows

  20. X-ray emission in slow highly charged ion-surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H; Abe, T; Fujita, Y; Sun, J; Takahashi, S; Tona, M; Yoshiyasu, N; Nakamura, N; Sakurai, M; Yamada, C; Ohtani, S

    2007-01-01

    X-rays emitted in the collisions of highly charged ions with a surface have been measured to investigate dissipation schemes of their potential energies. While 8.1% of the potential energy was dissipated in the collisions of He-like I ions with a W surface, 29.1% has been dissipated in the case of He-like Bi ions. The x-ray emissions play significant roles in the dissipation of the potential energies in the interaction of highly charged heavy ions with the surface

  1. High efficiency spectro graphs for the EUV and soft x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, W.

    1983-01-01

    A basic need of modern UV and x-ray astronomy is the capability to perform high resolution spectroscopy of faint stars. The use of modern grazing incidence optics can be coupled to high blaze angle reflection gratings used in the conical diffraction mount to offer a versatile, efficient approach to the design problem. The authors discuss two designs of interest: an echelle spectrograph for use longward of 100 A, and an Objective Reflection Grating Spectrograph for use in the soft x-rays. General design considerations and measurements of grating efficiencies are also presented

  2. Digital signal processors for cryogenic high-resolution x-ray detector readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Stephan; Drury, Owen B.; Bechstein, Sylke; Hennig, Wolfgang; Momayezi, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We are developing fast digital signal processors (DSPs) to read out superconducting high-resolution X-ray detectors with on-line pulse processing. For superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector read-out, the DSPs offer online filtering, rise time discrimination and pile-up rejection. Compared to analog pulse processing, DSP readout somewhat degrades the detector resolution, but improves the spectral purity of the detector response. We discuss DSP performance with our 9-channel STJ array for synchrotron-based high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. (author)

  3. X-ray outbursts and high-state episodes of HETE J1900.1-2455

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimon, Vojtěch

    2018-06-01

    HETE J1900.1-2455 is an ultra-compact low-mass X-ray binary that underwent a long-lasting (about 10 yr) active state. The analysis presented here of its activity uses the observations of RXTE/ASM, Swift/BAT, and ISS/MAXI for investigating this active state and the relation of time evolution of fluxes in the hard and medium X-ray bands. We show that the variations of the flux of HETE J1900.1-2455 on the time-scales of days and weeks have the form both of the outbursts and occasional high-state episodes. These outbursts are accompanied by the large changes of the hardness of the spectrum in the surroundings of the peaks of their soft X-ray flux. The very strong peaks of these outbursts occur in the soft X-ray band (2-4 keV) and are accompanied by a large depression in the 15-50 keV band flux. We interpret these events as an occasional occurrence of a thermal-viscous instability of the accretion disc that gives rise to the outbursts similar to those in the soft X-ray transients. On the other hand, the 2-4 and the 15-50 keV band fluxes are mutually correlated in the high-state episodes, much longer than the outbursts. In the interpretation, the episodes of the X-ray high states of HETE J1900.1-2455 during the active state bear some analogy with the standstills in the Z Cam type of cataclysmic variables.

  4. Differential dose albedo for high-energy X-rays on concrete slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    We computed the differential dose albedo (α D ) for high-energy X-rays on a concrete slab when the incident angle, reflection angle, and azimuth angle were changed, by means of Monte Carlo simulation. We found that α D changed with incident, reflection, and azimuth angles to the concrete slab. On the whole, the larger the incident angle, the larger α D tended to become. If the incident angle and reflection angle were the same, the larger the azimuth angle, the smaller α D tended to become. When the incident, reflection, and azimuth angles were the same, the smaller the X-ray energy was, the larger α D became, in the order of 10 MV, 6 MV, and 4 MV X-rays. (author)

  5. A sounding rocket payload for X-ray astronomy employing high-resolution microcalorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCammon, D.; Almy, R.; Deiker, S.; Morgenthaler, J.; Kelley, R.L.; Marshall, F.J.; Moseley, S.H.; Stahle, C.K.; Szymkowiak, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    We have completed a sounding rocket payload that will use a 36 element array of microcalorimeters to obtain a high-resolution spectrum of the diffuse X-ray background between 0.1 and 1 keV. This experiment uses only mechanical collimation of the incoming X-rays, but the cryostat and detector assembly have been designed to be placed at the focus of a conical foil imaging mirror which will be employed on subsequent flights to do spatially resolved spectroscopy of supernova remnants and other extended objects. The detector system is a monolithic array of silicon calorimeters with ion-implanted thermometers and HgTe X-ray absorbers. The 1 mm 2 pixels achieve a resolution of about 8 eV FWHM operating at 60 mK. (orig.)

  6. Fine-pitch glass GEM for high-resolution X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Mitsuya, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a fine-pitch glass gas electron multiplier (G-GEM) for high-resolution X-ray imaging. The fine-pitch G-GEM is made of a 400 μm thick photo-etchable glass substrate with 150 μm pitch holes. It is fabricated using the same wet etching technique as that for the standard G-GEM. In this work, we present the experimental results obtained with a single fine-pitch G-GEM with a 50 × 50 mm 2 effective area. We recorded an energy resolution of 16.2% and gas gain up to 5,500 when the detector was irradiated with 5.9 keV X-rays. We present a 50 × 50 mm 2 X-ray radiograph image acquired with a scintillation gas and optical readout system.

  7. X-ray spectroscopy of highly-charged ions in a storage ring. Invited lecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.F.

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of the present lectures is to carry through the methods and procedures necessary for a meaningful spectroscopy of the heaviest few-electron ions in relation to present theories. Results achieved so far in accelerator-based X-ray experiments are highlighted with emphasis on recent developments on heavy-ion storage rings. Starting with a brief account of the basics of one-electron ions, the motivation for doing X-ray spectroscopy of the simplest atomic systems with a high nuclear charge is given. In section 2 X-ray instrumentation and techniques are discussed including the precautions necessary when dealing with fast-beam sources. Peculiarities of heavy-ion storage rings are investigated in section 3 with regard to their use for spectroscopy. In section 4 are discussed results obtained so far on the measurement of the Lamb shift in very heavy ions. Section 5 gives some perspectives for the near future. (orig.)

  8. Simulation of high-resolution X-ray microscopic images for improved alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xiangxia; Zhang Xiaobo; Liu Gang; Cheng Xianchao; Li Wenjie; Guan Yong; Liu Ying; Xiong Ying; Tian Yangchao

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of precision optical elements to X-ray microscopes necessitates fine realignment to achieve optimal high-resolution imaging. In this paper, we demonstrate a numerical method for simulating image formation that facilitates alignment of the source, condenser, objective lens, and CCD camera. This algorithm, based on ray-tracing and Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory, is applied to simulate the X-ray microscope beamline U7A of National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). The simulations and imaging experiments show that the algorithm is useful for guiding experimental adjustments. Our alignment simulation method is an essential tool for the transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) with optical elements and may also be useful for the alignment of optical components in other modes of microscopy.

  9. Preliminary investigation of changes in x-ray multilayer optics subjected to high radiation flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockaday, M.P.; Blake, R.L.; Grosso, J.S.; Selph, M.M.; Klein, M.M.; Matuska, W. Jr.; Palmer, M.A.; Liefeld, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of metal multilayers was exposed to high x-ray flux using Sandia National Laboratories' PROTO II machine in the gas puff mode. Fluxes incident on the multilayers above 700 MW/cm 2 in total radiation, in nominal 20 ns pulses, were realized. The neon hydrogen- and helium-like resonance lines were used to probe the x-ray reflectivity properties of the multilayers as they underwent change of state during the heating pulse. A fluorescer-fiber optic-streak camera system was used to monitor the changes in x-ray reflectivity as a function of time and irradiance. Preliminary results are presented for a W/C multilayer. Work in progress to model the experiment is discussed. 13 refs., 4 figs

  10. X-ray diffraction patterns of single crystals implanted with high-energy light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns of silicon and gallium arsenide single crystals implanted with high-energy protons and α-particles were studied. A various models of lattice parameter changes were analysed. The agreement between the simulation and experiment proves that the lattice parameter depth-distribution can be assumed to be proportional to vacancy distribution obtained by Monte-Carlo method and from the Biersack-Ziegler theory. Most of the X-ray experiments were performed using synchrotron source of X-ray radiation in particular in the case of back-reflection and transmission section topographic methods. The new method of direct determination of the implanted ion ranges was proposed using synchrotron radiation back-reflection section topography. A number of new interference phenomena was revealed and explained. These interferences are important in the applications of diffraction theory in studying of the real structure of implanted layers. (author)

  11. High Pressure X-Ray Diffraction Studies on Nanocrystalline Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosz, B.; Stelmakh, S.; Grzanka, E.; Gierlotka, S.; Pielaszek, R.; Bismayer, U.; Werner, S.; Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Application of in situ high pressure powder diffraction technique for examination of specific structural properties of nanocrystals based on the experimental data of SiC nanocrystalline powders of 2 to 30 nrn diameter in diameter is presented. Limitations and capabilities of the experimental techniques themselves and methods of diffraction data elaboration applied to nanocrystals with very small dimensions (nanoparticles of different grain size.

  12. The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR) high-energy X-ray mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Fiona A.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission, launched on 2012 June 13, is the first focusing high-energy X-ray telescope in orbit. NuSTAR operates in the band from 3 to 79 keV, extending the sensitivity of focusing far beyond the ~10 keV high-energy cutoff achieved by all previous X...

  13. High pressure X-ray preionized TEMA-CO2 laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnie, R.J.M.; Witteman, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The construction of a high-pressure (up to 20 atm) transversely excited CO2 laser using transverse X-ray preionization is described. High pressure operation was found to be greatly improved in comparison to UV-preionized systems. Homogeneous discharges have been achieved in the pressure range 5–20

  14. Plastic nuclear track detectors as high x-ray and gamma dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong Chon Sing

    1995-01-01

    A brief review of recent studies on the effects of high doses of x-ray and gamma ray on the track registration properties of several plastic track detectors is presented. The bulk etching rates and the etched track sizes have been found to increase with the dose in the range up to 100 Mrad. These results suggest that the changes in track registration characteristics can be employed as an index of the radiation dose in the megarad region. In particular, recent results on the effect of X-ray irradiation on two types of cellulose nitrate track detectors obtained in our laboratory are reported in this paper. (author)

  15. X-Ray diffraction studies of silicon implanted with high energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.; Wierzchowski, W.; Graeff, W.

    1998-01-01

    The character of lattice deformation in silicon implanted with high energy alpha-particles and protons was studied using a number of X-ray methods. The experiments included double-crystal spectrometer method as well as single crystal section and projection topography realised both with conventional and synchrotron X-ray sources. All observed diffraction patterns were reasonably explainable assuming the lattice parameter distribution proportional to the vacancy-interstitial distribution coming from the Biersack-ziegler theory. The theoretical rocking curves and distribution in back-reflection double-crystal and section topographs well corresponding to the experimental results were calculated using numerical integration of the takagi-taupin equations

  16. Development of the super high angular resolution principle for X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chen; Zhang Shuangnan

    2011-01-01

    Development of the Super High Angular Resolution Principle (SHARP) for coded-mask X-ray imaging is presented. We prove that SHARP can be considered as a generalized coded mask imaging method with a coding pattern comprised of diffraction-interference fringes in the mask pattern. The angular resolution of SHARP can be improved by detecting the fringes more precisely than the mask's element size, i.e. by using a detector with a pixel size smaller than the mask's element size. The proposed mission SHARP-X for solar X-ray observations is also briefly discussed. (research papers)

  17. Development of high-resolution x-ray CT system using parallel beam geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Akio, E-mail: akio.yoneyama.bu@hitachi.com; Baba, Rika [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama (Japan); Hyodo, Kazuyuki [Institute of Materials Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru [School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Nakano, Haruhisa; Maki, Koutaro [Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry Showa University, Ota-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Sumitani, Kazushi; Hirai, Yasuharu [Kyushu Synchrotron Light Research Center, Tosu, Saga (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    For fine three-dimensional observations of large biomedical and organic material samples, we developed a high-resolution X-ray CT system. The system consists of a sample positioner, a 5-μm scintillator, microscopy lenses, and a water-cooled sCMOS detector. Parallel beam geometry was adopted to attain a field of view of a few mm square. A fine three-dimensional image of birch branch was obtained using a 9-keV X-ray at BL16XU of SPring-8 in Japan. The spatial resolution estimated from the line profile of a sectional image was about 3 μm.

  18. A high-resolution multiwire area detector for X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faruqi, A R; Andrews, H [Medical Research Council, Cambridge (UK). Lab. of Molecular Biology

    1989-11-10

    A high-resolution multiwire area detector has been developed for recording X-ray scattering from biological specimens. The detector is 100x100 mm{sup 2} and, under the present operating conditions, has a spatial resolution of about 250 {mu}m in both directions. The detector is set up on a double-mirror focusing camera on a rotating anode X-ray generator and has been used in a number of small-angle experiments, two of which are described in this paper. (orig.).

  19. Study of x-ray emission enhancement via high contrast femtosecond laser interacting with solid foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liming; Kando, Masaki; Bulanov, S.V.; Koga, James K.; Tajima, Toshiki; Xu M.H.; Yuan X.H.; Li Y.T.; Dong Q.L.; Zhang J.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the hard x-ray emission and the Kα x-ray conversion efficiency (η K ) produced by 60 fs high contrast frequency doubled Ti: sapphire laser pulse focused on Cu foil target. Cu Kα photon emission obtained with second harmonic laser pulse is more intense than the case of fundamental laser pulse. The Cu η K shows strong dependence on laser nonlinearly skewed pulse shape and reaches the maximum value 4x10 -4 with 100 fs negatively skewed pulse. It shows the electron spectrum shaping contribute to the increase of η K . (author)

  20. High energy X-ray CT system using a linear accelerator for automobile parts inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, T.; Sukita, T.

    1995-01-01

    A high energy X-ray CT system (maximum photon energy: 0.95 MeV) has been developed for industrial use. This system employs a linear accelerator as an X-ray source. It is able to image the cross section of automobile parts and can be applied to a solidification analysis study of the cylinder head in an automobile. This paper describes the features of the system and application results which can be related to solidification analysis of the cylinder head when fabricated from an aluminum casting. Some cross-sectional images are also presented as evidence for nondestructive inspection of automobile parts. (orig.)

  1. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of Kα and Kβ emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS

  2. Propagation and scattering of high-intensity X-ray pulses in dense atomic gases and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weninger, Clemens

    2015-10-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy in the X-ray domain is a promising technique to explore the dynamics of elementary excitations in matter. X-rays provide an element specificity that allows them to target individual chemical elements, making them a great tool to study complex molecules. The recent advancement of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) allows to investigate non-linear processes in the X-ray domain for the first time. XFELs provide short femtosecond X-ray pulses with peak powers that exceed previous generation synchrotron X-ray sources by more than nine orders of magnitude. This thesis focuses on the theoretical description of stimulated emission processes in the X-ray regime in atomic gases. These processes form the basis for more complex schemes in molecules and provide a proof of principle for nonlinear X-ray spectroscopy. The thesis also includes results from two experimental campaigns at the Linac Coherent Light Source and presents the first experimental demonstration of stimulated X-ray Raman scattering. Focusing an X-ray free electron laser beam into an elongated neon gas target generates an intense stimulated X-ray emission beam in forward direction. If the incoming X-rays have a photon energy above the neon K edge, they can efficiently photo-ionize 1s electrons and generate short-lived core excited states. The core-excited states decay mostly via Auger decay but have a small probability to emit a spontaneous X-ray photon. The spontaneous emission emitted in forward direction can stimulate X-ray emission along the medium and generate a highly directional and intense X-ray laser pulse. If the photon energy of the incoming X-rays however is below the ionization edge in the region of the pre-edge resonance the incoming X-rays can be inelastically scattered. This spontaneous X-ray Raman scattering process has a very low probability, but the spontaneously scattered photons in the beginning of the medium can stimulate Raman scattering along the medium. The

  3. Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    Except in the very early stage of the development of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) by Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers, the excitation sources for XPS studies have predominantly been the Al Kα and Mg Kα emission lines. The advent of synchrotron radiation sources opened up the possibility of tuning the excitation photon energy with much higher throughputs for photoemission spectroscopy, however the excitation energy range was limited to the vacuum ultra violet and soft X-ray regions. Over the past 5-6 years, bulk-sensitive hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy using high-brilliance high-flux X-rays from third generation synchrotron radiation facilities has been developed. This article reviews the history of HXPES covering the period from Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers' pioneering works to the present, and describes the fundamental aspects, instrumentation, applications to solid state physics, applied physics, materials science, and industrial applications of HXPES. Finally, several challenging new developments which have been conducted at SPring-8 by collaborations among several groups are introduced.

  4. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper concentrates on reviewing highlights of the Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer (FPCS) results on thermal plasmas, particularly supernova remnants (SNRs) and clusters of galaxies from the Einstein observatory. During Einstein's short but happy life, we made over 400 observations with the FPCS of 40 different objects. Three quarters of these were objects in which the emission was primarily from optically thin thermal plasma, primarily supernova remnants (SNRs) and clusters of galaxies. Thermal plasmas provide an excellent illustration of how spectral data, particularly high resolution spectral data, can be an important tool for probing the physical properties of astrophysical objects. (author)

  5. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy in light antiprotonic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Borchert, G L; Augsburger, M A; Castelli, C M; Chatellard, D; Egger, J P; El-Khoury, P; Elble, M; Gorke, H; Gotta, D; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Nelms, N; Rashid, K; Schult, O W B; Siems, T; Simons, L M

    2000-01-01

    At the LEAR facility, CERN, antiprotonic L alpha transitions in light elements have been investigated with a focussing crystal spectrometer. The high resolution of the experiment allowed for the first time to resolve in pH/pH the 2/sup 3/P/sub 0/ state from the close-lying states 2/sup 3/P/sub 2/, 2/sup 1/P/sub 1/, and 2/sup 3/P /sub 1/. In pD the corresponding transitions were found to be more than an order of magnitude broader. To a large extent the results for pH support the meson exchange model. (15 refs).

  6. High resolution X-ray tomography for stationary multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, D.; Reinecke, N.; Petritsch, G.; Mewes, D.

    1998-01-01

    The high resolution which can be obtained by computer assisted tomography is used to investigate the liquid distribution and void fraction in random and structured packing. With a spatial resolution of 0.4x0.4mm 2 it is possible even to detect thin liquid films on structured packings. The experimental set-up consists of a custom-built second generation tomograph. The imaged object consists of a column filled with either a random ceramic packing of spheres or a structured metal packing. The liquid and void fraction distribution in random and structured packings with a quiescent gaseous phase is visualized. The water/air system is used. The liquid distributor consists of a perforated plate. The experimental hold-up values averaged over the column cross-section are in good agreement with empirical equations. (author)

  7. High resolution x-ray CMT: Reconstruction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.K.

    1997-02-01

    This paper qualitatively discusses the primary characteristics of methods for reconstructing tomographic images from a set of projections. These reconstruction methods can be categorized as either {open_quotes}analytic{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}iterative{close_quotes} techniques. Analytic algorithms are derived from the formal inversion of equations describing the imaging process, while iterative algorithms incorporate a model of the imaging process and provide a mechanism to iteratively improve image estimates. Analytic reconstruction algorithms are typically computationally more efficient than iterative methods; however, analytic algorithms are available for a relatively limited set of imaging geometries and situations. Thus, the framework of iterative reconstruction methods is better suited for high accuracy, tomographic reconstruction codes.

  8. X-ray transitions in highly charged neonlike ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; von Gjoeler, S.; Bitter, M.

    1987-11-01

    Wavelength measurements of n=3 to n=2 transitions in neonlike Xe 44+ , La 47+ , Nd 50+ , and Eu 53+ have been made using a high-resolution Bragg-crystal spectrometer on the Princeton Large Torus tokamak. The measurements cover the wavelength regions 2.00 to 3.00 (angstrom) and include the electric dipole, and the electric and magnetic quadrupole transitions. The measured wavelengths are compared to energy levels obtained from a multiconfigurational Dirac-Fock calculation. Systematic differences between the experimental and theoretical values are found, which vary smoothly with atomic number. The magnitude of the differences depends on the particular type of transition and ranges from -2.8 eV to +2.2 eV. Inclusion of electron correlation corrections due to ground state correlations and (super) Coster-Kronig type fluctuations in the theoretical energies is shown to reduce the differences for some but not all types of transitions

  9. High-pressure X-ray diffraction studies of potassium chlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pravica, Michael; Bai, Ligang; Bhattacharya, Neelanjan (UNLV)

    2012-03-15

    Two static high-pressure X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of potassium chlorate have been performed at pressures of up to {approx}14.3 GPa in a diamond anvil cell at ambient temperature using the 16 ID-B undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source for the X-ray source. The first experiment was conducted to ascertain decomposition rates of potassium chlorate as a function of pressure. Below 2 GPa, the sample was observed to decompose rapidly in the presence of the X-ray beam and release oxygen. Above 2 GPa (near the phase I phase II transition), the decomposition rate dramatically slowed so that good quality XRD patterns could be acquired. This suggests a phase-dependent decomposition rate. In the second study, X-ray diffraction spectra were collected at pressures from 2 to 14.3 GPa by aligning virgin portions of the sample into the focused X-ray beam at each pressure. The results suggest the co-existence of mixed monoclinic (I) and rhombohedral (II) phases of potassium chlorate near 2 GPa. At pressures beyond 4 GPa, the XRD patterns show a very good fit to KClO{sub 3} in the rhombohedral phase with space group R3m, in agreement with earlier studies. No further phase transitions were observed with pressure. Decompression of the sample to ambient pressure indicated mixed phases I and II coupled with a small amount of synchrotron X-ray-induced decomposition product. The equation of state within this pressure regime has been determined.

  10. Affordable and Lightweight High-Resolution X-ray Optics for Astronomical Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W. W.; Biskach, M. P.; Bly, V. T.; Carter, J. M.; Chan, K. W.; Gaskin, J. A.; Hong, M.; Hohl, B. R.; Jones, W. D.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Future x-ray astronomical missions require x-ray mirror assemblies that provide both high angular resolution and large photon collecting area. In addition, as x-ray astronomy undertakes more sensitive sky surveys, a large field of view is becoming increasingly important as well. Since implementation of these requirements must be carried out in broad political and economical contexts, any technology that meets these performance requirements must also be financially affordable and can be implemented on a reasonable schedule. In this paper we report on progress of an x-ray optics development program that has been designed to address all of these requirements. The program adopts the segmented optical design, thereby is capable of making both small and large mirror assemblies for missions of any size. This program has five technical elements: (1) fabrication of mirror substrates, (2) coating, (3) alignment, (4) bonding, and (5) mirror module systems engineering and testing. In the past year we have made progress in each of these five areas, advancing the angular resolution of mirror modules from 10.8 arc-seconds half-power diameter reported (HPD) a year ago to 8.3 arc-seconds now. These mirror modules have been subjected to and passed all environmental tests, including vibration, acoustic, and thermal vacuum. As such this technology is ready for implementing a mission that requires a 10-arc-second mirror assembly. Further development in the next two years would make it ready for a mission requiring a 5-arc-second mirror assembly. We expect that, by the end of this decade, this technology would enable the x-ray astrophysical community to compete effectively for a major x-ray mission in the 2020s that would require one or more 1-arc-second mirror assemblies for imaging, spectroscopic, timing, and survey studies.

  11. Short-time X-ray diffraction with an efficient-optimized, high repetition-rate laser-plasma X-ray-source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaehle, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the production and application of ultrashort X-ray pulses. In the beginning different possibilities for the production of X-ray pulses with pulse durations of below one picosecond are presented, whereby the main topic lies on the so called laser-plasma X-ray sources with high repetition rate. In this case ultrashort laser pulses are focused on a metal, so that in the focus intensities of above 10 16 W/cm 2 dominate. In the ideal case in such way ultrafast electrons are produced, which are responsible for line radiation. In these experiments titanium K α radiation is produced, thes photons possess an energy of 4.51 keV. For the efficient production of line radiation here the Ti:Sa laser is optimized in view of the laser energy and the pulse shape and the influence of the different parameters on the K α production systematically studied. The influences of laser intensity, system-conditioned pre-pulses and of phase modulation are checked. It turns out that beside the increasement of the K α radiation by a suited laser intensity a reduction of the X-ray background radiation is of deciding importance for the obtaining of clear diffraction images. This background radiation is mainly composed of bremsstrahlung. It can be suppressed by the avoidance of intrinsic pre-pulses and by means of 2nd-order phase modulation. By means of optical excitation and X-ray exploration experiments the production of acoustic waves after ultrashort optical excitation in a 150 nm thick Ge(111) film on Si(111) is studied. These acoustic waves are driven by thermal (in this time scale time-independent) and electronic (time dependent) pressure amounts. As essential results it turns out that the relative amount of the electronic pressure increases with decreasing excitation density [de

  12. X-ray spectroscopic study of high-temperature plasmas by curved crystal spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Shigeru.

    1983-07-01

    Extensive studies have been carried out on the structure of X-ray spectra from the highly stripped ions of first transition elements and their behavior in high temperature plasma, using a high resolution crystal spectrometer. Calculation was made on the design and the use of a curved crystal spectrometer for plasma diagnostics. A Johann type crystal spectrometer for measuring X-ray lines was constructed on the basis of the calculation. The characteristics of curved crystals of LiF, Ge and quartz used for the measurement of Kα lines from first transition elements were investigated. Vacuum sparks have been formed for producing high temperature plasma which emits X-ray lines from highly stripped ions. Two different structures of vacuum spark plasma were shown, that is, thermalized point plasma and extended plasma associated with non-thermal electrons. The X-ray lines from the extended plasma, those associated with the K shell from the point plasma and the Kα lines of Ti through Zn from the point plasma have been observed. (Kako, I.)

  13. Bayesian Multiscale Analysis of X-Ray Jet Features in High Redshift Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeough, Kathryn; Siemiginowska, A.; Kashyap, V.; Stein, N.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray emission of powerful quasar jets may be a result of the inverse Compton (IC) process in which the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons gain energy by interactions with the jet’s relativistic electrons. However, there is no definite evidence that IC/CMB process is responsible for the observed X-ray emission of large scale jets. A step toward understanding the X-ray emission process is to study the Radio and X-ray morphologies of the jet. We implement a sophisticated Bayesian image analysis program, Low-count Image Reconstruction and Analysis (LIRA) (Esch et al. 2004; Conners & van Dyk 2007), to analyze jet features in 11 Chandra images of high redshift quasars (z ~ 2 - 4.8). Out of the 36 regions where knots are visible in the radio jets, nine showed detectable X-ray emission. We measured the ratios of the X-ray and radio luminosities of the detected features and found that they are consistent with the CMB radiation relationship. We derived a range of the bulk lorentz factor (Γ) for detected jet features under the CMB jet emission model. There is no discernible trend of Γ with redshift within the sample. The efficiency of the X-ray emission between the detected jet feature and the corresponding quasar also shows no correlation with redshift. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation REU and the Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no.1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution, and by NASA Contract NAS8-39073 to the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). This research has made use of data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive and Chandra Source Catalog, and software provided by the CXC in the application packages CIAO, ChIPS, and Sherpa. We thank Teddy Cheung for providing the VLA radio images. Connors, A., & van Dyk, D. A. 2007, Statistical Challenges in Modern Astronomy IV, 371, 101 Esch, D. N., Connors, A., Karovska, M., & van Dyk, D. A. 2004, ApJ, 610, 1213

  14. High Resolution, Non-Dispersive X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers on EBITs and Orbiting Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Frederick S.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopy is the primary tool for performing atomic physics with Electron beam ion trap (EBITs). X-ray instruments have generally fallen into two general categories, 1) dispersive instruments with very high spectral resolving powers but limited spectral range, limited count rates, and require an entrance slit, generally, for EBITs, defined by the electron beam itself, and 2) non-dispersive solid-state detectors with much lower spectral resolving powers but that have a broad dynamic range, high count rate ability and do not require a slit. Both of these approaches have compromises that limit the type and efficiency of measurements that can be performed. In 1984 NASA initiated a program to produce a non-dispersive instrument with high spectral resolving power for x-ray astrophysics based on the cryogenic x-ray calorimeter. This program produced the XRS non-dispersive spectrometers on the Astro-E, Astro-E2 (Suzaku) orbiting observatories, the SXS instrument on the Astro-H observatory, and the planned XMS instrument on the International X-ray Observatory. Complimenting these spaceflight programs, a permanent high-resolution x-ray calorimeter spectrometer, the XRS/EBIT, was installed on the LLNL EBIT in 2000. This unique instrument was upgraded to a spectral resolving power of 1000 at 6 keV in 2003 and replaced by a nearly autonomous production-class spectrometer, the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), in 2007. The ECS spectrometer has a simultaneous bandpass from 0.07 to over 100 keV with a spectral resolving power of 1300 at 6 keV with unit quantum efficiency, and 1900 at 60 keV with a quantum efficiency of 30%. X-ray calorimeters are event based, single photon spectrometers with event time tagging to better than 10 us. We are currently developing a follow-on instrument based on a newer generation of x-ray calorimeters with a spectral resolving power of 3000 at 6 keV, and improved timing and measurement cadence. The unique capabilities of the x-ray

  15. In-situ high-P, T X-ray microtomographic imaging during large deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Y; Lesher, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We have examined the microstructural evolution of a two-phase composite (olivine + Fe-Ni-S) during large shear deformation, using a newly developed high-pressure X-ray tomography microscope. Two samples were examined: a load-bearing framework–type texture, where the alloy phase (Fe-Ni-S) was pres...

  16. Solid State High Voltage Supply for EB and X-Ray Generators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zobač, Martin; Vlček, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, 5-6 (2009), s. 73-75 ISSN 0861-4717 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : high voltage supply * electron beam generator * x-ray generator Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  17. Generation of plasma X-ray sources via high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguckis, Artūras; Plukis, Artūras; Reklaitis, Jonas; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Giniūnas, Linas; Vengris, Mikas

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we present the development and characterization of Cu plasma X-ray source driven by 20 W average power high repetition rate femtosecond laser in ambient atmosphere environment. The peak Cu- Kα photon flux of 2.3 × 109 photons/s into full solid angle is demonstrated (with a process conversion efficiency of 10-7), using pulses with peak intensity of 4.65 × 1014 W/cm2. Such Cu- Kα flux is significantly larger than others found in comparable experiments, performed in air environment. The effects of resonance plasma absorption process, when optimized, are shown to increase measured flux by the factor of 2-3. The relationship between X-ray photon flux and plasma-driving pulse repetition rate is quasi-linear, suggesting that fluxes could further be increased to 1010 photons/s using even higher average powers of driving radiation. These results suggest that to fully utilize the potential of high repetition rate laser sources, novel target material delivery systems (for example, jet-based ones) are required. On the other hand, this study demonstrates that high energy lasers currently used for plasma X-ray sources can be conveniently and efficiently replaced by high average power and repetition rate laser radiation, as a way to increase the brightness of the generated X-rays.

  18. A structural view of Pd model catalysts : high-pressure surface X-Ray diffraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, Richard van

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a combined high-pressure/ultrahigh-vacuum flow reactor for the study of model catalysts by means of surface x-ray diffraction and grazing incidence small angle scattering. The system was used to measure a stability diagram for the different oxide phases

  19. X-ray spectroscopy of highly-ionized atoms in an electron beam ion trap (EBIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrs, R.E.; Bennett, C.; Chen, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being used to produce and trap very-highly-charged-ions (q /le/ 70+) for x-ray spectroscopy measurements. Recent measurements of dielectronic recombination, electron impact excitation and transition energies are presented. 15 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  20. Correlation between X-ray and high energy gamma-ray emission form Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, T.C.; Danaher, S.; Fegan, D.J.; Porter, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    In May-June 1980, the 4.8 hour modulated X-ray flux from Cygnus X-3 underwent a significant change in the shape of the light curve; this change correlates with the peak in the high-energy (E > 2 x 10 12 eV) gamma ray emission at the same epoch. (orig.)

  1. Constraining omega from X-ray properties of clusters of galaxies at high redshifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadat, R.; Blanchard, A.; Oukbir, J.

    1997-01-01

    Properties of high redshift clusters are a fundamental source of information for cosmology. It has been shown by Oukbir and Blanchard (1997) that the combined knowledge of the redshift distribution of X-ray clusters of galaxies and the luminosity-temperature correlation, L-X - T-X, provides a pow...

  2. Short Pulse High Brightness X-ray Production with the PLEIADES Thomson Scattering Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.G.; Barty, C.P.J.; Betts, S.M.; Brown, W.J.; Crane, J.K.; Cross, R.R.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Gibson, D.J.; Hartemann, F.V.; Kuba, J.; LaSage, G.P.; Rosenzweig, J.B.; Slaughter, D.R.; Springer, P.T.; Tremaine, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe PLEIADES, a compact, tunable, high-brightness, ultra-short pulse, Thomson x-ray source. The peak brightness of the source is expected to exceed 10 20 photons/s/0.1% bandwidth/mm 2 /mrad 2 . Initial results are reported and compared to theoretical calculations

  3. High Pressure X-ray Absorption Studies on Correlated-Electron Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelius, Andrew L.

    2016-01-01

    This project used high pressure to alter the electron-electron and electron-lattice interactions in rare earth and actinide compounds. Knowledge of these properties is the starting points for a first-principles understanding of electronic and electronically related macroscopic properties. The research focused on a systematic study of x-ray absorption measurements on rare earth and actinide compounds.

  4. Evaluation of high packing density powder X-ray screens by Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaparinos, P.; Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.; Kalivas, N.; Delis, H.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphor materials are employed in intensifying screens of both digital and conventional X-ray imaging detectors. High packing density powder screens have been developed (e.g. screens in ceramic form) exhibiting high-resolution and light emission properties, and thus contributing to improved image transfer characteristics and higher radiation to light conversion efficiency. For the present study, a custom Monte Carlo simulation program was used in order to examine the performance of ceramic powder screens, under various radiographic conditions. The model was developed using Mie scattering theory for the description of light interactions, based on the physical characteristics (e.g. complex refractive index, light wavelength) of the phosphor material. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out assuming: (a) X-ray photon energy ranging from 18 up to 49 keV, (b) Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb phosphor material with packing density of 70% and grain size of 7 μm and (c) phosphor thickness ranging between 30 and 70 mg/cm 2 . The variation of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and the Luminescence Efficiency (LE) with respect to the X-ray energy and the phosphor thickness was evaluated. Both aforementioned imaging characteristics were shown to take high values at 49 keV X-ray energy and 70 mg/cm 2 phosphor thickness. It was found that high packing density screens may be appropriate for use in medical radiographic systems

  5. High-brightness beamline for x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, R.C.C.; Jones, G. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Lindle, D.W. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a windowless beamline, covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range, designed to achieve the goals of high energy resolution, high flux, and high brightness at the sample. When completed later this year, it will be the first ALS monochromatic hard x-ray beamline, and its brightness will be an order of magnitude higher than presently available in this energy range. In addition, it will provide flux and resolution comparable to any other beamline now in operation. To achieve these goals, two technical improvements, relative to existing x-ray beamlines, were incorporated. First, a somewhat novel optical design for x-rays, in which matched toroidal mirrors are positioned before and after the double-crystal monochromator, was adopted. This configuration allows for high resolution by passing a collimated beam through the monochromator, and for high brightness by focusing the ALS source on the sample with unit magnification. Second, a new {open_quotes}Cowan type{close_quotes} double-crystal monochromator based on the design used at NSLS beamline X-24A was developed. The measured mechanical precision of this new monochromator shows significant improvement over existing designs, without using positional feedback available with piezoelectric devices. Such precision is essential because of the high brightness of the radiation and the long distance (12 m) from the source (sample) to the collimating (focusing) mirror. This combination of features will provide a bright, high resolution, and stable x-ray beam for use in the x-ray spectroscopy program at the ALS.

  6. A hard x-ray spectrometer for high angular resolution observations of cosmic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hailey, C.J.; Ziock, K.P.; Harrison, F.; Kahn, S.M.; Liedahl, D.; Lubin, P.M.; Seiffert, M.

    1988-01-01

    LAXRIS (large area x-ray imaging spectrometer) is an experimental, balloon-borne, hard x-ray telescope that consists of a coaligned array of x-ray imaging spectrometer modules capable of obtaining high angular resolution (1--3 arcminutes) with moderate energy resolution in the 20- to 300-keV region. Each spectrometer module consists of a CsI(Na) crystal coupled to a position-sensitive phototube with a crossed-wire, resistive readout. Imaging is provided by a coded aperture mask with a 4-m focal length. The high angular resolution is coupled with rather large area (/approximately/800 cm 2 ) to provide good sensitivity. Results are presented on performance and overall design. Sensitivity estimates are derived from a Monte-Carlo code developed to model the LAXRIS response to background encountered at balloon altitudes. We discuss a variety of observations made feasible by high angular resolution. For instance, spatially resolving the nonthermal x-ray emission from clusters of galaxies is suggested as an ideal program for LAXRIS. 15 refs., 5 figs

  7. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (TXRF) using the high flux SAXS camera

    CERN Document Server

    Wobrauschek, P; Pepponi, G; Bergmann, A; Glatter, O

    2002-01-01

    Combining the high photon flux from a rotating anode X-ray tube with an X-ray optical component to focus and monochromatize the X-ray beam is the most promising instrumentation for best detection limits in the modern XRF laboratory. This is realized by using the design of a high flux SAXS camera in combination with a 4 kW high brilliant rotating Cu anode X-ray tube with a graded elliptically bent multilayer and including a new designed module for excitation in total reflection geometry within the beam path. The system can be evacuated thus reducing absorption and scattering of air and removing the argon peak in the spectra. Another novelty is the use of a Peltier cooled drift detector with an energy resolution of 148 eV at 5.9 keV and 5 mm sup 2 area. For Co detection limits of about 300 fg determined by a single element standard have been achieved. Testing a real sample NIST 1643d led to detection limits in the range of 300 ng/l for the medium Z.

  8. The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Perez-Hernandez, Jose A.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Tarazkar, Maryam; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.; Gaffney, Jim A.; Foord, Mark; Libby, Stephen B.; Jaron-Becker, Agnieskzka; Becker, Andreas; Plaja, Luis; Muranane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Popmintchev, Tenio

    2015-01-01

    High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching - the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms - favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidt-limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds

  9. Development of X-ray CCD camera system with high readout rate using ASIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Daisuke; Anabuki, Naohisa; Miyata, Emi; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Doty, John P.; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Katayama, Haruyoshi

    2009-01-01

    We report on the development of an X-ray charge-coupled device (CCD) camera system with high readout rate using application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and Camera Link standard. The distinctive ΔΣ type analog-to-digital converter is introduced into the chip to achieve effective noise shaping and to obtain a high resolution with relatively simple circuits. The unit test proved moderately low equivalent input noise of 70μV with a high readout pixel rate of 625 kHz, while the entire chip consumes only 100 mW. The Camera Link standard was applied for the connectivity between the camera system and frame grabbers. In the initial test of the whole system, we adopted a P-channel CCD with a thick depletion layer developed for X-ray CCD camera onboard the next Japanese X-ray astronomical satellite. The characteristic X-rays from 109 Cd were successfully read out resulting in the energy resolution of 379(±7)eV (FWHM) at 22.1 keV, that is, ΔE/E=1.7% with a readout rate of 44 kHz.

  10. Soft X-ray radiation damage in EM-CCDs used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, D.; Soman, M.; Holland, A.; Keelan, J.; Hall, D.; Holland, K.; Colebrook, D.

    2018-02-01

    Advancement in synchrotron and free electron laser facilities means that X-ray beams with higher intensity than ever before are being created. The high brilliance of the X-ray beam, as well as the ability to use a range of X-ray energies, means that they can be used in a wide range of applications. One such application is Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). RIXS uses the intense and tuneable X-ray beams in order to investigate the electronic structure of materials. The photons are focused onto a sample material and the scattered X-ray beam is diffracted off a high resolution grating to disperse the X-ray energies onto a position sensitive detector. Whilst several factors affect the total system energy resolution, the performance of RIXS experiments can be limited by the spatial resolution of the detector used. Electron-Multiplying CCDs (EM-CCDs) at high gain in combination with centroiding of the photon charge cloud across several detector pixels can lead to sub-pixel spatial resolution of 2-3 μm. X-ray radiation can cause damage to CCDs through ionisation damage resulting in increases in dark current and/or a shift in flat band voltage. Understanding the effect of radiation damage on EM-CCDs is important in order to predict lifetime as well as the change in performance over time. Two CCD-97s were taken to PTB at BESSY II and irradiated with large doses of soft X-rays in order to probe the front and back surfaces of the device. The dark current was shown to decay over time with two different exponential components to it. This paper will discuss the use of EM-CCDs for readout of RIXS spectrometers, and limitations on spatial resolution, together with any limitations on instrument use which may arise from X-ray-induced radiation damage.

  11. Empirical electro-optical and x-ray performance evaluation of CMOS active pixels sensor for low dose, high resolution x-ray medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvanitis, C. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.; Royle, G.; Blue, A.; Liang, H. X.; Clark, A.; Prydderch, M.; Turchetta, R.; Speller, R.

    2007-01-01

    Monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors with high performance have gained attention in the last few years in many scientific and space applications. In order to evaluate the increasing capabilities of this technology, in particular where low dose high resolution x-ray medical imaging is required, critical electro-optical and physical x-ray performance evaluation was determined. The electro-optical performance includes read noise, full well capacity, interacting quantum efficiency, and pixels cross talk. The x-ray performance, including x-ray sensitivity, modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detection quantum efficiency, has been evaluated in the mammographic energy range. The sensor is a 525x525 standard three transistor CMOS active pixel sensor array with more than 75% fill factor and 25x25 μm pixel pitch. Reading at 10 f/s, it is found that the sensor has 114 electrons total additive noise, 10 5 electrons full well capacity with shot noise limited operation, and 34% interacting quantum efficiency at 530 nm. Two different structured CsI:Tl phosphors with thickness 95 and 115 μm, respectively, have been optically coupled via a fiber optic plate to the array resulting in two different system configurations. The sensitivity of the two different system configurations was 43 and 47 electrons per x-ray incident on the sensor. The MTF at 10% of the two different system configurations was 9.5 and 9 cycles/mm with detective quantum efficiency of 0.45 and 0.48, respectively, close to zero frequency at ∼0.44 μC/kg (1.72 mR) detector entrance exposure. The detector was quantum limited at low spatial frequencies and its performance was comparable with high resolution a:Si and charge coupled device based x-ray imagers. The detector also demonstrates almost an order of magnitude lower noise than active matrix flat panel imagers. The results suggest that CMOS active pixel sensors when coupled to structured CsI:Tl can

  12. Focusing polycapillary to reduce parasitic scattering for inelastic x-ray measurements at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, P.; Xiao, Y. M.; Rod, E.; Bai, L. G.; Shen, G. Y.; Sinogeikin, S.; Gao, N.; Ding, Y.; Mao, H.-K.

    2015-01-01

    The double-differential scattering cross-section for the inelastic scattering of x-ray photons from electrons is typically orders of magnitude smaller than that of elastic scattering. With samples 10-100 μm size in a diamond anvil cell at high pressure, the inelastic x-ray scattering signals from samples are obscured by scattering from the cell gasket and diamonds. One major experimental challenge is to measure a clean inelastic signal from the sample in a diamond anvil cell. Among the many strategies for doing this, we have used a focusing polycapillary as a post-sample optic, which allows essentially only scattered photons within its input field of view to be refocused and transmitted to the backscattering energy analyzer of the spectrometer. We describe the modified inelastic x-ray spectrometer and its alignment. With a focused incident beam which matches the sample size and the field of view of polycapillary, at relatively large scattering angles, the polycapillary effectively reduces parasitic scattering from the diamond anvil cell gasket and diamonds. Raw data collected from the helium exciton measured by x-ray inelastic scattering at high pressure using the polycapillary method are compared with those using conventional post-sample slit collimation

  13. X-ray CT high-density artefact suppression in cryosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jikun; Sandison, George A; Chen Laigao; Liang Yun; Xu, Lisa X

    2002-01-01

    Advantages of x-ray CT for imaging guidance of cryosurgery include 3D visualization of frozen and unfrozen tissue and calibration of temperature in the tissue water-ice interface (0-10 deg. C) to Hounsfield units. However, use of x-ray CT images and their thermal calibration can be compromised by the cryoprobes generating high-density streak artefacts. A new subtraction technique for artefact suppression is proposed and tested in prostate cryosurgery simulations. By subtracting the measured CT x-ray projection profile without cryoprobes from the profile with cryoprobes plus iceballs, one obtains the combined profile of the cryoprobes and a low value background. Polynomial interpolation to obtain the background profile allows its addition to the original profile without probes. The result may then be fed to a conventional filtered back-projection routine to reconstruct the probe-free image. Finally the cryoprobe pixels in the originally constructed image with probes and iceballs are added back to the probe-free image to get the final artefact-suppressed image. The major advantage of this subtraction technique is that it can successfully suppress the high-density artefacts in bone-abundant body regions such as the pelvis. X-ray CT images of cryoprobe arrays in a homogeneous gelatin phantom and the pelvic region of an anthropomorphic Rando phantom containing a human skeleton were generated. After suppression, cryoprobe metal artefact streaks are reduced and visualization of the positions and dimensions of the cryoprobes are well preserved. (note)

  14. High-Resolution X-Ray Spectra of the Symbiotic Star SS73 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, R. N. C.; Luna, G. J. M.; Smith, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    SS73 17 was an innocuous Mira-type symbiotic star until the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory and Swift discovered its bright hard X-ray emission, adding it to the small class of "hard X-ray emitting symbiotics." Suzaku observations in 2006 then showed it emits three bright iron lines as well, with little to no emission in the 0.3-2.0 keV bandpass. We present here follow-up observations with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating and Suzaku that confirm the earlier detection of strong emission lines of Fe K(alpha) fluorescence, Fe XXV and Fe XXVI but also show significantly more soft X-ray emission. The high-resolution spectrum also shows emission lines of other highly ionized ions as Si xiv and possibly S XVI. In addition, a re-analysis of the 2006 Suzaku data using the latest calibration shows that the hard (15-50 keV) X-ray emission is brighter than previously thought and remains constant in both the 2006 and 2008 data. The G ratio calculated from the Fe xxv lines shows that these lines are thermal, not photoionized, in origin.With the exception of the hard X-ray emission, the spectra from both epochs can be fit using thermal radiation assuming a differential emission measure based on a cooling-flow model combined with a full and partial absorber. We show that acceptable fits can be obtained for all the data in the 1-10 keV band varying only the partial absorber. Based on the temperature and accretion rate, the thermal emission appears to be arising from the boundary layer between the accreting white dwarf and the accretion disk.

  15. HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAY SPECTRA OF THE SYMBIOTIC STAR SS73 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, R. N. C.; Luna, G. J. M.; Smith, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    SS73 17 was an innocuous Mira-type symbiotic star until the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory and Swift discovered its bright hard X-ray emission, adding it to the small class of 'hard X-ray emitting symbiotics'. Suzaku observations in 2006 then showed it emits three bright iron lines as well, with little to no emission in the 0.3-2.0 keV bandpass. We present here follow-up observations with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating and Suzaku that confirm the earlier detection of strong emission lines of Fe Kα fluorescence, Fe XXV and Fe XXVI but also show significantly more soft X-ray emission. The high-resolution spectrum also shows emission lines of other highly ionized ions as Si XIV and possibly S XVI. In addition, a re-analysis of the 2006 Suzaku data using the latest calibration shows that the hard (15-50 keV) X-ray emission is brighter than previously thought and remains constant in both the 2006 and 2008 data. The G ratio calculated from the Fe XXV lines shows that these lines are thermal, not photoionized, in origin. With the exception of the hard X-ray emission, the spectra from both epochs can be fit using thermal radiation assuming a differential emission measure based on a cooling-flow model combined with a full and partial absorber. We show that acceptable fits can be obtained for all the data in the 1-10 keV band varying only the partial absorber. Based on the temperature and accretion rate, the thermal emission appears to be arising from the boundary layer between the accreting white dwarf and the accretion disk.

  16. High-speed X-ray imaging pixel array detector for synchrotron bunch isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Hugh T; Tate, Mark W; Purohit, Prafull; Shanks, Katherine S; Weiss, Joel T; Gruner, Sol M

    2016-03-01

    A wide-dynamic-range imaging X-ray detector designed for recording successive frames at rates up to 10 MHz is described. X-ray imaging with frame rates of up to 6.5 MHz have been experimentally verified. The pixel design allows for up to 8-12 frames to be stored internally at high speed before readout, which occurs at a 1 kHz frame rate. An additional mode of operation allows the integration capacitors to be re-addressed repeatedly before readout which can enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of cyclical processes. This detector, along with modern storage ring sources which provide short (10-100 ps) and intense X-ray pulses at megahertz rates, opens new avenues for the study of rapid structural changes in materials. The detector consists of hybridized modules, each of which is comprised of a 500 µm-thick silicon X-ray sensor solder bump-bonded, pixel by pixel, to an application-specific integrated circuit. The format of each module is 128 × 128 pixels with a pixel pitch of 150 µm. In the prototype detector described here, the three-side buttable modules are tiled in a 3 × 2 array with a full format of 256 × 384 pixels. The characteristics, operation, testing and application of the detector are detailed.

  17. High resolution hard x-ray microscope on a second generation synchrotron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yangchao; Li Wenjie; Chen Jie; Liu Longhua; Liu Gang; Tian Jinping; Xiong Ying; Tkachuk, Andrei; Gelb, Jeff; Hsu, George; Yun Wenbing

    2008-01-01

    A full-field, transmission x-ray microscope (TXM) operating in the energy range of 7-11 keV has been installed at the U7A beamline at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, a second generation synchrotron source operating at 0.8 GeV. Although the photon flux at sample position in the operating energy range is significantly low due to its relatively large emittance, the TXM can get high quality x-ray images with a spatial resolution down to 50 nm with acceptable exposure time. This TXM operates in either absorption or Zernike phase contrast mode with similar resolution. This TXM is a powerful analytical tool for a wide range of scientific areas, especially studies on nanoscale phenomena and structural imaging in biology, materials science, and environmental science. We present here the property of the x-ray source, beamline design, and the operation and key optical components of the x-ray TXM. Plans to improve the throughput of the TXM will be discussed.

  18. High-energy Neutrino Flares from X-Ray Bright and Dark Tidal Disruption Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senno, Nicholas; Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    X-ray and γ-ray observations by the Swift satellite revealed that a fraction of tidal disruption events (TDEs) have relativistic jets. Jetted TDEs have been considered to be potential sources of very-high-energy cosmic-rays and neutrinos. In this work, using semi-analytical methods, we calculate neutrino spectra of X-ray bright TDEs with powerful jets and dark TDEs with possible choked jets, respectively. We estimate their neutrino fluxes and find that non-detection would give us an upper limit on the baryon loading of the jet luminosity contained in cosmic-rays ξ {sub cr} ≲ 20–50 for Sw J1644+57. We show that X-ray bright TDEs make a sub-dominant (≲5%–10%) contribution to IceCube’s diffuse neutrino flux, and study possible contributions of X-ray dark TDEs given that particles are accelerated in choked jets or disk winds. We discuss future prospects for multi-messenger searches of the brightest TDEs.

  19. High resolution x-ray lensless imaging by differential holographic encoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, D.; Guizar-Sicairos, M.; Wu, B.; Scherz, A.; Acremann, Y.; Tylisczcak, T.; Fischer, P.; Friedenberger, N.; Ollefs, K.; Farle, M.; Fienup, J. R.; Stohr, J.

    2009-11-02

    X-ray free electron lasers (X-FEL{sub s}) will soon offer femtosecond pulses of laterally coherent x-rays with sufficient intensity to record single-shot coherent scattering patterns for nanoscale imaging. Pulse trains created by splitand-delay techniques even open the door for cinematography on unprecedented nanometer length and femtosecond time scales. A key to real space ultrafast motion pictures is fast and reliable inversion of the recorded reciprocal space scattering patterns. Here we for the first time demonstrate in the x-ray regime the power of a novel technique for lensless high resolution imaging, previously suggested by Guizar-Sicairos and Fienup termed holography with extended reference by autocorrelation linear differential operation, HERALD0. We have achieved superior resolution over conventional x-ray Fourier transform holography (FTH) without sacrifices in SNR or significant increase in algorithmic complexity. By combining images obtained from individual sharp features on an extended reference, we further show that the resolution can be even extended beyond the reference fabrication limits. Direct comparison to iterative phase retrieval image reconstruction and images recorded with stateof- the-art zone plate microscopes is presented. Our results demonstrate the power of HERALDO as a favorable candidate for robust inversion of single-shot coherent scattering patterns.

  20. High-Resolution X-Ray Lensless Imaging by Differential Holographic Encoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Diling [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Inst. for Material and Energy Science; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Inst. of Optics; Wu, Benny [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Inst. for Material and Energy Science; Scherz, Andreas [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Inst. for Material and Energy Science; Acremann, Yves [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Photon Ultrafast Laser Science and Engineering Inst. (PULSE); Tyliszczak, Tolek [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS); Fischer, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Center for X-ray Optics; Friedenberger, Nina [Universitat Duisburg-Essen (Germany). Dept. of Physics and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE); Ollefs, Katharina [Universitat Duisburg-Essen (Germany). Dept. of Physics and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE); Farle, Michael [Universitat Duisburg-Essen (Germany). Dept. of Physics and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE); Fienup, James R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Inst. of Optics; Stöhr, Joachim [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

    2010-07-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (X-FELs) will soon offer femtosecond pulses of laterally coherent x-rays with sufficient intensity to record single-shot coherent scattering patterns for nanoscale imaging. Pulse trains created by split and- delay techniques even open the door for cinematography on unprecedented nanometer length and femtosecond time scales. A key to real space ultrafast motion pictures is fast and reliable inversion of the recorded reciprocal space scattering patterns. Here we for the first time demonstrate in the x-ray regime the power of a novel technique for lensless high resolution imaging, previously suggested by Guizar-Sicairos and Fienup termed holography with extended reference by autocorrelation linear differential operation, HERALD0. We have achieved superior resolution over conventional x-ray Fourier transform holography (FTH) without sacrifices in SNR or significant increase in algorithmic complexity. By combining images obtained from individual sharp features on an extended reference, we further show that the resolution can be even extended beyond the reference fabrication limits. Direct comparison to iterative phase retrieval image reconstruction and images recorded with state of-the-art zone plate microscopes is presented. Our results demonstrate the power of HERALDO as a favorable candidate for robust inversion of single-shot coherent scattering patterns.

  1. Precision mechanical structure of an ultra-high-resolution spectrometer for inelastic X-ray scattering instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Shvydko, Yuri; Stoupin, Stanislav A.; Khachatryan, Ruben; Goetze, Kurt A.; Roberts, Timothy

    2015-04-14

    A method and an ultrahigh-resolution spectrometer including a precision mechanical structure for positioning inelastic X-ray scattering optics are provided. The spectrometer includes an X-ray monochromator and an X-ray analyzer, each including X-ray optics of a collimating (C) crystal, a pair of dispersing (D) element crystals, anomalous transmission filter (F) and a wavelength (W) selector crystal. A respective precision mechanical structure is provided with the X-ray monochromator and the X-ray analyzer. The precision mechanical structure includes a base plate, such as an aluminum base plate; positioning stages for D-crystal alignment; positioning stages with an incline sensor for C/F/W-crystal alignment, and the positioning stages including flexure-based high-stiffness structure.

  2. BioSAXS Sample Changer: a robotic sample changer for rapid and reliable high-throughput X-ray solution scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, Adam, E-mail: around@embl.fr; Felisaz, Franck [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Fodinger, Lukas; Gobbo, Alexandre [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Huet, Julien [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Villard, Cyril [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Blanchet, Clement E., E-mail: around@embl.fr [EMBL c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Pernot, Petra; McSweeney, Sean [ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France); Roessle, Manfred; Svergun, Dmitri I. [EMBL c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Cipriani, Florent, E-mail: around@embl.fr [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2015-01-01

    A robotic sample changer for solution X-ray scattering experiments optimized for speed and to use the minimum amount of material has been developed. This system is now in routine use at three high-brilliance European synchrotron sites, each capable of several hundred measurements per day. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of macromolecules in solution is in increasing demand by an ever more diverse research community, both academic and industrial. To better serve user needs, and to allow automated and high-throughput operation, a sample changer (BioSAXS Sample Changer) that is able to perform unattended measurements of up to several hundred samples per day has been developed. The Sample Changer is able to handle and expose sample volumes of down to 5 µl with a measurement/cleaning cycle of under 1 min. The samples are stored in standard 96-well plates and the data are collected in a vacuum-mounted capillary with automated positioning of the solution in the X-ray beam. Fast and efficient capillary cleaning avoids cross-contamination and ensures reproducibility of the measurements. Independent temperature control for the well storage and for the measurement capillary allows the samples to be kept cool while still collecting data at physiological temperatures. The Sample Changer has been installed at three major third-generation synchrotrons: on the BM29 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the P12 beamline at the PETRA-III synchrotron (EMBL@PETRA-III) and the I22/B21 beamlines at Diamond Light Source, with the latter being the first commercial unit supplied by Bruker ASC.

  3. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) High-Energy X-ray Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Fiona A.; Craig, Willliam W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Zhang, William W.; Boggs, Steven E.; Stern, Daniel; Cook, W. Rick; Forster, Karl; Giommi, Paolo; hide

    2013-01-01

    High-energy X-ray telescope in orbit. NuSTAR operates in the band from 3 to 79 keV, extending the sensitivity of focusing far beyond the 10 keV high-energy cutoff achieved by all previous X-ray satellites. The inherently low background associated with concentrating the X-ray light enables NuSTAR to probe the hard X-ray sky with a more than 100-fold improvement in sensitivity over the collimated or coded mask instruments that have operated in this bandpass. Using its unprecedented combination of sensitivity and spatial and spectral resolution, NuSTAR will pursue five primary scientific objectives: (1) probe obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity out to thepeak epoch of galaxy assembly in the universe (at z 2) by surveying selected regions of the sky; (2) study the population of hard X-ray-emitting compact objects in the Galaxy by mapping the central regions of the Milky Way; (3) study the non-thermal radiation in young supernova remnants, both the hard X-ray continuum and the emission from the radioactive element 44Ti; (4) observe blazars contemporaneously with ground-based radio, optical, and TeV telescopes, as well as with Fermi and Swift, to constrain the structure of AGN jets; and (5) observe line and continuum emission from core-collapse supernovae in the Local Group, and from nearby Type Ia events, to constrain explosion models. During its baseline two-year mission, NuSTAR will also undertake a broad program of targeted observations. The observatory consists of two co-aligned grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes pointed at celestial targets by a three-axis stabilized spacecraft. Deployed into a 600 km, near-circular, 6 inclination orbit, the observatory has now completed commissioning, and is performing consistent with pre-launch expectations. NuSTAR is now executing its primary science mission, and with an expected orbit lifetime of 10 yr, we anticipate proposing a guest investigator program, to begin in late 2014.

  4. Molybdenum cell for x-ray diffraction measurements of fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Kazuhiro; Tamura, Kozaburo; Katoh, Masahiro; Inui, Masanori

    2004-03-01

    We have developed a sample cell for x-ray diffraction measurements of fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and high pressures. All parts of the cell are made of molybdenum which is resistant to the chemical corrosion of alkali metals. Single crystalline molybdenum disks electrolytically thinned down to 40 μm were used as the walls of the cell through which x rays pass. The crystal orientation of the disks was controlled in order to reduce the background from the cell. All parts of the cell were assembled and brazed together using a high-temperature Ru-Mo alloy. Energy dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements have been successfully carried out for fluid rubidium up to 1973 K and 16.2 MPa. The obtained S(Q) demonstrates the applicability of the molybdenum cell to x-ray diffraction measurements of fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and high pressures.

  5. Design of high voltage power supply of miniature X-ray tube based on resonant Royer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiyao; Zeng Guoqiang; Tan Chengjun; Luo Qun; Gong Chunhui; Huang Rui

    2013-01-01

    Background: In recent years, X rays are widely used in various fields. With the rapid development of national economy, the demand of high quality, high reliability, and high stability miniature X-ray tube has grown rapidly. As an important core component of miniature X-ray tube, high voltage power supply has attracted wide attention. Purpose: To match miniature, the high voltage power supply should be small, lightweight, good quality, etc. Based on the basic performance requirements of existing micro-X-ray tube high voltage power supply, this paper designs an output from 0 to -30 kV adjustable miniature X-ray tube voltage DC power supply. Compared to half-bridge and full-bridge switching-mode power supply, its driving circuit is simple. With working on the linear condition, it has no switching noise. Methods: The main circuit makes use of DC power supply to provide the energy. The resonant Royer circuit supplies sine wave which drives to the high frequency transformer's primary winding with resultant sine-like high voltage appearing across the secondary winding. Then, the voltage doubling rectifying circuit would achieve further boost. In the regulator circuit, a feedback control resonant transistor base current is adopted. In order to insulate air, a silicone rubber is used for high pressure part packaging, and the output voltage is measured by the dividing voltage below -5 kV. Results: The stability of circuit is better than 0.2%/6 h and the percent of the output ripple voltage is less than 0.3%. Keeping the output voltage constant, the output current can reach 57 μA by changing the size of load resistor. This high voltage power supply based on resonant Royer can meet the requirement of miniature X-ray tube. Conclusions: The circuit can satisfy low noise, low ripple, low power and high voltage regulator power supply design. However, its efficiency is not high enough because of the linear condition. In the next design, to further reduce power consumption, we

  6. Pulsed x-ray imaging of high-density objects using a ten picosecond high-intensity laser driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, D. R.; Brenner, C. M.; Armstrong, C.; Wilson, L. A.; Clarke, R.; Alejo, A.; Ahmed, H.; Butler, N. M. H.; Haddock, D.; Higginson, A.; McClymont, A.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; Murphy, C.; Notley, M.; Oliver, P.; Allott, R.; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Kar, S.; McKenna, P.; Neely, D.

    2016-10-01

    Point-like sources of X-rays that are pulsed (sub nanosecond), high energy (up to several MeV) and bright are very promising for industrial and security applications where imaging through large and dense objects is required. Highly penetrating X-rays can be produced by electrons that have been accelerated by a high intensity laser pulse incident onto a thin solid target. We have used a pulse length of 10ps to accelerate electrons to create a bright x-ray source. The bremsstrahlung temperature was measured for a laser intensity from 8.5-12×1018 W/cm2. These x-rays have sequentially been used to image high density materials using image plate and a pixelated scintillator system.

  7. Nondestructive strain depth profiling with high energy X-ray diffraction: System capabilities and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan; Wendt, Scott; Cosentino, Nicholas; Bond, Leonard J.

    2018-04-01

    Limited by photon energy, and penetration capability, traditional X-ray diffraction (XRD) strain measurements are only capable of achieving a few microns depth due to the use of copper (Cu Kα1) or molybdenum (Mo Kα1) characteristic radiation. For deeper strain depth profiling, destructive methods are commonly necessary to access layers of interest by removing material. To investigate deeper depth profiles nondestructively, a laboratory bench-top high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD) system was previously developed. This HEXRD method uses an industrial 320 kVp X-Ray tube and the Kα1 characteristic peak of tungsten, to produces a higher intensity X-ray beam which enables depth profiling measurement of lattice strain. An aluminum sample was investigated with deformation/load provided using a bending rig. It was shown that the HEXRD method is capable of strain depth profiling to 2.5 mm. The method was validated using an aluminum sample where both the HEXRD method and the traditional X-ray diffraction method gave data compared with that obtained using destructive etching layer removal, performed by a commercial provider. The results demonstrate comparable accuracy up to 0.8 mm depth. Nevertheless, higher attenuation capabilities in heavier metals limit the applications in other materials. Simulations predict that HEXRD works for steel and nickel in material up to 200 µm, but experiment results indicate that the HEXRD strain profile is not practical for steel and nickel material, and the measured diffraction signals are undetectable when compared to the noise.

  8. X-ray conversion efficiency of high-Z hohlraum wall materials for indirect drive ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewald, E. L.; Rosen, M.; Glenzer, S. H.; Suter, L. J.; Neumayer, P.; Landen, O. L.; Girard, F.; Jadaud, J. P.; Wagon, F.; Huser, G.; Schein, J.; Constantin, C.

    2008-01-01

    The conversion efficiency of 351 nm laser light to soft x rays (0.1-5 keV) was measured for Au, U, and high Z mixture ''cocktails'' used as hohlraum wall materials in indirect drive fusion experiments. For the spherical targets in a direct drive geometry, flattop laser pulses and laser smoothing with phase plates are employed to achieve constant and uniform laser intensities of 10 14 and 10 15 W/cm 2 over the target surface that are relevant for the future ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)]. The absolute time and spectrally resolved radiation flux is measured with a multichannel soft x-ray power diagnostic. The conversion efficiency is then calculated by dividing the measured x-ray power by the incident laser power from which the measured laser backscattering losses are subtracted. After ∼0.5 ns, the time resolved x-ray conversion efficiency reaches a slowly increasing plateau of 95% at 10 14 W/cm 2 laser intensity and of 80% at 10 15 W/cm 2 . The M-band flux (2-5 keV) is negligible at 10 14 W/cm 2 reaching ∼1% of the total x-ray flux for all target materials. In contrast, the M-band flux is significant and depends on the target material at 10 15 W/cm 2 laser intensity, reaching values between 10% of the total flux for U and 27% for Au. LASNEX simulations [G. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Comm. Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 2, 51 (1975)] show good agreement in conversion efficiency and radiated spectra with data when using XSN atomic physics model and a flux limiter of 0.15, but they underestimate the generated M-band flux.

  9. X-ray Conversion Efficiency of high-Z hohlraum wall materials for indirect drive ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewald, E.; Rosen, M.; Glenzer, S.H.; Suter, L.J.; Girard, F.; Jadaud, J.P.; Schein, J.; Constantin, C.G.; Neumayer, P.; Landen, O.

    2008-01-01

    We measure the conversion efficiency of 351 nm laser light to soft x-rays (0.1-5 keV) for Au, U and high Z mixtures 'cocktails' used for hohlraum wall materials in indirect drive ICF. We use spherical targets in a direct drive geometry, flattop laser pulses and laser smoothing with phase plates to achieve constant and uniform laser intensities of 10 14 and 10 15 W/cm 2 over the target surface that are relevant for the future ignition experiments on NIF. The absolute time and spectrally-resolved radiation flux is measured with a multichannel soft x-ray power diagnostic. The conversion efficiency is then calculated by dividing the measured x-ray power by the incident laser power from which the measured laser backscattering losses is subtracted. After ∼0.5 ns, the time resolved x-ray conversion efficiency reaches a slowly increasing plateau of 95% at 10 14 W/cm 2 laser intensity and of 80% at 10 15 W/cm 2 . The M-band flux (2-5 keV) is negligible at 10 14 W/cm 2 reaching ∼1% of the total x-ray flux for all target materials. In contrast, the M-band flux is significant and depends on the target material at 10 15 W/cm 2 laser intensity, reaching values between 10% of the total flux for U and 27% for Au. Our LASNEX simulations show good agreement in conversion efficiency and radiated spectra with data when using XSN atomic physics model and a flux limiter of 0.15, but they underestimate the generated M-band flux

  10. Novel opportunities for sub-meV inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubar, Oleg [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source II; Geloni, Gianluca; Madsen, Anders [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Shvyd' ko, Yuri [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source; Sutter, John [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm{sup -1} spectral and momentum transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm{sup -1} are required to close the gap in energy-momentum space between high and low frequency probes. We show that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a hundred-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than possible with storage-ring based radiation sources. Wave-optics propagation shows that about 7 x 10{sup 12} ph/s in a 90-μeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  11. Novel opportunities for sub-meV inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubar, Oleg; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2015-08-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm -1 spectral and momentum transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm -1 are required to close the gap in energy-momentum space between high and low frequency probes. We show that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a hundred-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than possible with storage-ring based radiation sources. Wave-optics propagation shows that about 7 x 10 12 ph/s in a 90-μeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  12. Observation of material, thickness, and bremsstrahlung x-ray intensity dependent effects in moderate and high Z targets in a gamma and x-ray LIDAR experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xzhang39@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, TN 37996 (United States); Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen; Laubach, Mitchell A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, TN 37996 (United States); Hayward, Jason P. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, TN 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A high energy gamma and x-ray LIDAR system consisting of a fast pulse (~50 ps, FWHM) LINAC and a Cherenkov detection system was used to investigate response differences among materials, their thicknesses, and bremsstrahlung x-ray intensities. The energies and pulse width of electrons used to produce bremsstrahlung x-rays were set at 20 or 40 MeV and 50 ps FWHM duration, respectively. The Cherenkov detector was built with a fused silica glass optically coupled to a 51 mm fast timing photomultiplier tube, which has an intrinsic energy threshold of 340.7 keV for Compton backscattered gammas. Such a fast detection system yields a coincidence resolving time of 93 ps FWHM, which is equivalent to a depth resolving capability of about 3 cm FWHM. The thicknesses of iron and lead targets were varied from 1 in. to 7 in. with a step of 1 in., and the thicknesses of DU were varied from 1/3 in. to 1 in. with a step of 1/3 in. The experimental results show that iron targets tend to produce a factor of five less observed x-rays and gammas, with less energetic photoelectron frequency distributions, compared with DU and lead targets for the same beam intensity and target thicknesses. Additionally, the self-shielding effect causes the lead to yield more gammas than the DU considering the experimental observation point. For the setup used in this study, a charge per pulse in the range of 1–2.5 nC yields the best resolving capability between the DU and lead targets.

  13. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  14. Carbon Condensation during High Explosive Detonation with Time Resolved Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammons, Joshua; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Nielsen, Michael; Lauderbach, Lisa; Hodgin, Ralph; Bastea, Sorin; Fried, Larry; May, Chadd; Sinclair, Nicholas; Jensen, Brian; Gustavsen, Rick; Dattelbaum, Dana; Watkins, Erik; Firestone, Millicent; Ilavsky, Jan; van Buuren, Tony; Willey, Trevor; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Collaboration; Los Alamos National Laboratory Collaboration; Washington State University/Advanced Photon Source Team

    Carbon condensation during high-energy detonations occurs under extreme conditions and on very short time scales. Understanding and manipulating soot formation, particularly detonation nanodiamond, has attracted the attention of military, academic and industrial research. An in-situ characterization of these nanoscale phases, during detonation, is highly sought after and presents a formidable challenge even with today's instruments. Using the high flux available with synchrotron X-rays, pink beam small angle X-ray scattering is able to observe the carbon phases during detonation. This experimental approach, though powerful, requires careful consideration and support from other techniques, such as post-mortem TEM, EELS and USAXS. We present a comparative survey of carbon condensation from different CHNO high explosives. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Production of High Harmonic X-Ray Radiation from Non-linear Thomson at LLNL PLEIADES

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Jae; Betts, Shawn; Crane, John; Doyuran, Adnan; Frigola, Pedro; Gibson, David J; Hartemann, Fred V; Rosenzweig, James E; Travish, Gil; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    We describe an experiment for production of high harmonic x-ray radiation from Thomson backscattering of an ultra-short high power density laser by a relativistic electron beam at the PLEIADES facility at LLNL. In this scenario, electrons execute a “figure-8” motion under the influence of the high-intensity laser field, where the constant characterizing the field strength is expected to exceed unity: $aL=e*EL/m*c*ωL ≥ 1$. With large $aL$ this motion produces high harmonic x-ray radiation and significant broadening of the spectral peaks. This paper is intended to give a layout of the PLEIADES experiment, along with progress towards experimental goals.

  16. High-resolution nonresonant x-ray Raman scattering study on rare earth phosphate nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huotari, Simo; Suljoti, Edlira; Sahle, Christoph J.; Raedel, Stephanie; Monaco, Giulio; de Groot, Frank M. F.

    2015-01-01

    We report high-resolution x-ray Raman scattering studies of high-order multipole spectra of rare earth 4d -> 4f excitations (the N-4,N-5 absorption edge) in nanoparticles of the phosphates LaPO4, CePO4, PrPO4, and NdPO4. We also present corresponding data for La 5p -> 5d excitations (the O-2,O-3

  17. High Resolution Higher Energy X-ray Microscope for Mesoscopic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snigireva, I; Snigirev, A

    2013-01-01

    We developed a novel X-ray microscopy technique to study mesoscopically structured materials, employing compound refractive lenses. The easily seen advantage of lens-based methodology is the possibility to retrieve high resolution diffraction pattern and real-space images in the same experimental setup. Methodologically the proposed approach is similar to the studies of crystals by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The proposed microscope was applied for studying of mesoscopic materials such as natural and synthetic opals, inverted photonic crystals

  18. Sub-Hour X-Ray Variability of High-Energy Peaked BL Lacertae Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Bidzina Kapanadze

    2018-01-01

    The study of multi-wavelength flux variability in BL Lacertae objects is very important to discern unstable processes and emission mechanisms underlying their extreme observational features. While the innermost regions of these objects are not accessible from direct observations, we may draw conclusions about their internal structure via the detection of flux variations on various timescales, based on the light-travel argument. In this paper, we review the sub-hour X-ray variability in high-e...

  19. High pressure X-ray preionized TEMA-CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnie, R. J. M.; Witteman, W. J.

    1987-09-01

    The construction of a high-pressure (up to 20 atm) transversely excited CO2 laser using transverse X-ray preionization is described. High pressure operation was found to be greatly improved in comparison to UV-preionized systems. Homogeneous discharges have been achieved in the pressure range 5-20 atm, yielding a specific laser output in the order of 35 J/l.

  20. High-pressure powder x-ray diffraction experiments on Zn at low temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Takemura, K; Fujihisa, H; Kikegawa, T

    2002-01-01

    High-pressure powder x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on Zn with a He-pressure medium at low temperature. When the sample was compressed in the He medium at low temperature, large nonhydrostaticity developed, yielding erroneous lattice parameters. On the other hand, when the pressure was changed at high temperatures, good hydrostaticity was maintained. No anomaly in the volume dependence of the c/a axial ratio has been found.

  1. Innovative diffraction gratings for high-resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronov, D.L.; Warwick, T.; Gullikson, E. M.; Salmassi, F.; Padmore, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) requires diffraction gratings with very exacting characteristics. The gratings should provide both very high dispersion and high efficiency which are conflicting requirements and extremely challenging to satisfy in the soft x-ray region for a traditional grazing incidence geometry. To achieve high dispersion one should increase the groove density of a grating; this however results in a diffraction angle beyond the critical angle range and results in drastic efficiency loss. The problem can be solved by use of multilayer coated blazed gratings (MBG). In this work we have investigated the diffraction characteristics of MBGs via numerical simulations and have developed a procedure for optimization of grating design for a multiplexed high resolution imaging spectrometer for RIXS spectroscopy to be built in sector 6 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). We found that highest diffraction efficiency can be achieved for gratings optimized for 4"t"h or 5"t"h order operation. Fabrication of such gratings is an extremely challenging technological problem. We present a first experimental prototype of these gratings and report its performance. High order and high line density gratings have the potential to be a revolutionary new optical element that should have great impact in the area of soft x-ray RIXS.

  2. Hard X-ray quantum optics in thin films nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, Johann Friedrich Albert

    2017-05-01

    This thesis describes quantum optical experiments with X-rays with the aim of reaching the strong-coupling regime of light and matter. We make use of the interaction which arises between resonant matter and X-rays in specially designed thin-film nanostructures which form X-ray cavities. Here, the resonant matter are Tantalum atoms and the Iron isotope "5"7Fe. Both limit the number of modes available to the resonant atoms for interaction, and enhances the interaction strength. Thus we have managed to observe a number of phenomena well-known in quantum optics, which are the building blocks for sophisticated applications in e.g. metrology. Among these are the strong coupling of light and matter and the concurrent exchange of virtual photons, often called Rabi oscillations. Furthermore we have designed and tested a type of cavity hitherto unused in X-ray optics. Finally, we develop a new method for synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy, which not only promises to yield high-resolution spectra, but also enables the retrieval of the phase of the scattered light. The results open new avenues for quantum optical experiments with X-rays, particularly with regards to the ongoing development of high-brilliance X-ray free-electron lasers.

  3. Hard X-ray quantum optics in thin films nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Johann Friedrich Albert

    2017-05-15

    This thesis describes quantum optical experiments with X-rays with the aim of reaching the strong-coupling regime of light and matter. We make use of the interaction which arises between resonant matter and X-rays in specially designed thin-film nanostructures which form X-ray cavities. Here, the resonant matter are Tantalum atoms and the Iron isotope {sup 57}Fe. Both limit the number of modes available to the resonant atoms for interaction, and enhances the interaction strength. Thus we have managed to observe a number of phenomena well-known in quantum optics, which are the building blocks for sophisticated applications in e.g. metrology. Among these are the strong coupling of light and matter and the concurrent exchange of virtual photons, often called Rabi oscillations. Furthermore we have designed and tested a type of cavity hitherto unused in X-ray optics. Finally, we develop a new method for synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy, which not only promises to yield high-resolution spectra, but also enables the retrieval of the phase of the scattered light. The results open new avenues for quantum optical experiments with X-rays, particularly with regards to the ongoing development of high-brilliance X-ray free-electron lasers.

  4. Comparison of neutron and high-energy X-ray dual-beam radiography for air cargo inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Dual-beam radiography techniques utilising various combinations of high-energy X-rays and neutrons are attractive for screening bulk cargo for contraband such as narcotics and explosives. Dual-beam radiography is an important enhancement to conventional single-beam X-ray radiography systems in that it provides additional information on the composition of the object being imaged. By comparing the attenuations of transmitted dual high-energy beams, it is possible to build a 2D image, colour coded to indicate material. Only high-energy X-rays, gamma-rays and neutrons have the required penetration to screen cargo containers. This paper reviews recent developments and applications of dual-beam radiography for air cargo inspection. These developments include dual high-energy X-ray techniques as well as fast neutron and gamma-ray (or X-ray) radiography systems. High-energy X-ray systems have the advantage of generally better penetration than neutron systems, depending on the material being interrogated. However, neutron systems have the advantage of much better sensitivity to material composition compared to dual high-energy X-ray techniques. In particular, fast neutron radiography offers the potential to discriminate between various classes of organic material, unlike dual energy X-ray techniques that realistically only offer the ability to discriminate between organic and metal objects

  5. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicholas J; Gauthe, Beatrice L L E; Terrill, Nick J; Rogers, Sarah E; Templer, Richard H; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M

    2010-06-01

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  6. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Terrill, Nick J. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rogers, Sarah E. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  7. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M.; Terrill, Nick J.; Rogers, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  8. X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of high-temperature dense plasmas created in different gaseous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skobelev, I.Y.; Dyakin, V.M.; Faenov, A.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The investigations of emission x-ray spectra of multicharged ions of some chemical elements (S, F, Ar, Fr, O) have been carried out. These atoms are contained in gases and consequently can be used as diagnostic elements in a dense plasma focus experiments. The investigations were done in the dense high-temperature plasma (N e ∼ 10 21 cm -3 , T e ∼ 500 eV) created by laser heating of high-pressure gas puff targets, and X-ray spectrographs with a spherically bent mica crystals were used for spectra observations. Some new spectroscopic results (line identifications, high-precision wavelength measurements) have been obtained and have been applied to determine a spatial distribution of plasma parameters. It is shown that spectroscopic techniques used is a very suitable tool for studies of a plasma with complicated spatial structure

  9. A high resolution, high counting rate bidimensional, MWPC imaging detector for small angle X-ray diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.; Sawyer, E.C.; Stephenson, R.

    1981-07-01

    The performance is reported of a 200 mm x 200 mm X-ray imaging MWPC aimed at applications in small angle X-ray diffraction and scattering. With quantum energies of approximately 8 keV high spatial resolution (+- 0.5 mm x +- 0.14 mm) with a capability for data taking at >approximately 350 kHz is reported. The detection efficiency is approximately 75% and the detector operates as a sealed unit with a long lifetime. (author)

  10. Advanced ceramic matrix composites for high energy x-ray generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Amir Azam; Labbe, Jean Claude

    2011-01-01

    High energy x-ray targets are the anodes used in high performance tubes, designed to work for long operating times and at high power. Such tubes are used in computed tomography (CT) scan machines. Usually the tubes used in CT scanners have to continuously work at high temperatures and for longer scan durations in order to get maximum information during a single scan. These anodes are composed of a refractory substrate which supports a refractory metallic coating. The present work is a review of the development of a ceramic metal composite based on aluminium nitride (AlN) and molybdenum for potential application as the substrate. This composite is surface engineered by coating with tungsten, the most popular material for high energy x-ray targets. To spray metallic coatings on the surface of ceramic matrix composites dc blown arc plasma is employed. The objective is to increase the performance and the life of an x-ray tube. Aluminium nitride-molybdenum ceramic matrix composites were produced by uniaxial hotpressing mixtures of AlN and Mo powders. These composites were characterized for their mechanical, thermal, electrical and micro-structural properties. An optimized composition was selected which contained 25 vol.% of metallic phase dispersed in the AlN matrix. These composites were produced in the actual size of an anode and coated with tungsten through dc blown arc plasma spraying. The results have shown that sintering of large size anodes is possible through uniaxial pressing, using a modified sintering cycle

  11. Strongly correlated electrons at high pressure: an approach by inelastic X-Ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueff, J.P.

    2007-06-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and associated methods has turn out to be a powerful alternative for high-pressure physics. It is an all-photon technique fully compatible with high-pressure environments and applicable to a vast range of materials. Standard focalization of X-ray in the range of 100 microns is typical of the sample size in the pressure cell. Our main aim is to provide an overview of experimental results obtained by IXS under high pressure in 2 classes of materials which have been at the origin of the renewal of condensed matter physics: strongly correlated transition metal oxides and rare-earth compounds. Under pressure, d and f-electron materials show behaviors far more complex that what would be expected from a simplistic band picture of electron delocalization. These spectroscopic studies have revealed unusual phenomena in the electronic degrees of freedom, brought up by the increased density, the changes in the charge-carrier concentration, the over-lapping between orbitals, and hybridization under high pressure conditions. Particularly we discuss about pressure induced magnetic collapse and metal-insulator transitions in 3d compounds and valence fluctuations phenomena in 4f and 5f compounds. Thanks to its superior penetration depth, chemical selectivity and resonant enhancement, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering has appeared extremely well suited to high pressure physics in strongly correlated materials. (A.C.)

  12. High energy X-ray photon counting imaging using linear accelerator and silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Y., E-mail: cycjty@sophie.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Bioengineering, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimazoe, K.; Yan, X. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ueda, O.; Ishikura, T. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Fuji, Hino, Tokyo 191-8502 (Japan); Fujiwara, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Uesaka, M.; Ohno, M. [Nuclear Professional School, the University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Tomita, H. [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yoshihara, Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Department of Bioengineering, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-09-11

    A photon counting imaging detector system for high energy X-rays is developed for on-site non-destructive testing of thick objects. One-dimensional silicon strip (1 mm pitch) detectors are stacked to form a two-dimensional edge-on module. Each detector is connected to a 48-channel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The threshold-triggered events are recorded by a field programmable gate array based counter in each channel. The detector prototype is tested using 950 kV linear accelerator X-rays. The fast CR shaper (300 ns pulse width) of the ASIC makes it possible to deal with the high instant count rate during the 2 μs beam pulse. The preliminary imaging results of several metal and concrete samples are demonstrated.

  13. Diagnosing high density, fast-evolving plasmas using x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauble, R.; Da Silva, L.B.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    As x-ray laser (XRL) research has matured, it has become possible to reliably utilize XRLs for applications in the laboratory. Laser coherence, high brightness and short pulse duration all make the XRL a unique tool for the diagnosis of laboratory plasmas. The high brightness of XRLs makes them well-suited for imaging and for interferometry when used in conjunction with multilayer mirrors and beamsplitters. We have utilized a soft x-ray laser in such an imaging system to examine laser-produced plasmas using radiography, moire deflectometry, and interferometry. Radiography experiments yield 100-200 ps snapshots of laser driven foils at a resolution of 1-2 μm. Moire deflectometry with an XRL has been used to probe plasmas at higher density than by optical means. Interferograms, which allow direct measurement of electron density in laser plasmas, have been obtained with this system

  14. High energy X-ray photon counting imaging using linear accelerator and silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y.; Shimazoe, K.; Yan, X.; Ueda, O.; Ishikura, T.; Fujiwara, T.; Uesaka, M.; Ohno, M.; Tomita, H.; Yoshihara, Y.; Takahashi, H.

    2016-01-01

    A photon counting imaging detector system for high energy X-rays is developed for on-site non-destructive testing of thick objects. One-dimensional silicon strip (1 mm pitch) detectors are stacked to form a two-dimensional edge-on module. Each detector is connected to a 48-channel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The threshold-triggered events are recorded by a field programmable gate array based counter in each channel. The detector prototype is tested using 950 kV linear accelerator X-rays. The fast CR shaper (300 ns pulse width) of the ASIC makes it possible to deal with the high instant count rate during the 2 μs beam pulse. The preliminary imaging results of several metal and concrete samples are demonstrated.

  15. Method and apparatus for digitally based high speed x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, W.K.; Hubbard, B.

    1997-01-01

    A high speed, digitally based, signal processing system which accepts input data from a detector-preamplifier and produces a spectral analysis of the x-rays illuminating the detector. The system achieves high throughputs at low cost by dividing the required digital processing steps between a ''hardwired'' processor implemented in combinatorial digital logic, which detects the presence of the x-ray signals in the digitized data stream and extracts filtered estimates of their amplitudes, and a programmable digital signal processing computer, which refines the filtered amplitude estimates and bins them to produce the desired spectral analysis. One set of algorithms allow this hybrid system to match the resolution of analog systems while operating at much higher data rates. A second set of algorithms implemented in the processor allow the system to be self calibrating as well. The same processor also handles the interface to an external control computer. 19 figs

  16. High brightness--multiple beamlets source for patterned X-ray production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo [Hercules, CA; Ji, Qing [Albany, CA; Barletta, William A [Oakland, CA; Jiang, Ximan [El Cerrito, CA; Ji, Lili [Albany, CA

    2009-10-27

    Techniques for controllably directing beamlets to a target substrate are disclosed. The beamlets may be either positive ions or electrons. It has been shown that beamlets may be produced with a diameter of 1 .mu.m, with inter-aperture spacings of 12 .mu.m. An array of such beamlets, may be used for maskless lithography. By step-wise movement of the beamlets relative to the target substrate, individual devices may be directly e-beam written. Ion beams may be directly written as well. Due to the high brightness of the beamlets from extraction from a multicusp source, exposure times for lithographic exposure are thought to be minimized. Alternatively, the beamlets may be electrons striking a high Z material for X-ray production, thereafter collimated to provide patterned X-ray exposures such as those used in CAT scans. Such a device may be used for remote detection of explosives.

  17. High-energy x-ray CT and its application for digital engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, H.; Sadaoka, N.

    2005-01-01

    A high-energy x-ray computed tomography system and x-ray CT data handling software have been developed for digital engineering; internal dimension measurement, density analysis, actual and designed shape comparison, STL file generation, and support for reverse engineering and rapid prototyping. The system is designed to collect accurate images in short scanning time (10 s per section) using a MeV-energy electron linear accelerator and highly sensitive semiconductor detectors in order to scan large objects made of aluminum and/or iron. An excellent environment in digital engineering is provided by the software products; 'StereoCooker' for 3D bitmap CAD (rendering, feature extraction, dimensional measurement, and shape comparison, etc.), 'FeatureMaker' for translating bitmap CT data to CAD data including feature information, and 'Wingware' for realizing an Windows PC cluster system 'WINGluster' to apply CT data analysis. (author)

  18. Design of scanning motion control system for high-energy X-ray industrial CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Liming

    2008-01-01

    A scanning motion control system was developed for the high-energy X-ray industrial computerized tomography (CT). The system consists of an industrial control computer, a counter card, a control card, servo drivers, servo motors, working platforms, gratings and control software. Based on windows driver model(WDM) mode, the composition of the driver pro- gram for the system was studied. Took the motor control card as an example, the method to develop the driver program was researched, and the intercourse process between the device driver program and the user-program was analyzed. The real-time control of the system was implemented using the WDM driver. The real-time performance and reliability of the system can satisfy the requirement of high-energy X-ray industrial CT. (authors)

  19. Development of confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy at the Cornell high energy synchrotron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woll, A.R.; Huang, R.; Mass, J.; Bisulca, C.; Bilderback, D.H.; Gruner, S.; Gao, N.

    2006-01-01

    A confocal X-ray fluorescence microscope was built at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) to obtain compositional depth profiles of historic paintings. The microscope consists of a single-bounce, borosilicate monocapillary optic to focus the incident beam onto the painting and a commercial borosilicate polycapillary lens to collect the fluorescent X-rays. The resolution of the microscope was measured by scanning a variety of thin metal films through this confocal volume while monitoring the fluorescence signal. The capabilities of the technique were then probed using test paint microstructures with up to four distinct layers, each having a thickness in the range of 10-80 microns. Results from confocal XRF were compared with those from stand-alone XRF and visible light microscopy of the paint cross-sections. A large area, high-resolution scanner is currently being built to perform 3D scans on moderately sized paintings. (orig.)

  20. Demonstration of a transient high gain nickel-like xenon ion x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Peixiang; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kishimoto, Maki

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a high gain nickel-like xenon ion x-ray laser using a picosecond-laser-irradiated gas puff target. The elongated x-ray laser plasma column was produced by irradiating the gas puff target with line-focused double picosecond laser pulses with a total energy of 18 J in a travelling-wave excitation scheme. Strong lasing at 9.98 nm was observed, and a high gain coefficient of 17.4 cm -1 was measured on the transient collisionally excited 4d-4p, J=0-1 transition for nickel-like xenon ion with target lengths up to 0.45 cm. A weak nickel-like lasing line at a shorter wavelength of 9.64 nm was also observed with a gain coefficient of 5.9 cm -1 . (author)

  1. Nanosecond X-ray detector based on high resistivity ZnO single crystal semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaolong; He, Yongning, E-mail: yongning@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Peng, Wenbo; Huang, Zhiyong; Qi, Xiaomeng; Pan, Zijian; Zhang, Wenting [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Chen, Liang; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Zhongbing; Ouyang, Xiaoping [Radiation Detection Research Center, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China)

    2016-04-25

    The pulse radiation detectors are sorely needed in the fields of nuclear reaction monitoring, material analysis, astronomy study, spacecraft navigation, and space communication. In this work, we demonstrate a nanosecond X-ray detector based on ZnO single crystal semiconductor, which emerges as a promising compound-semiconductor radiation detection material for its high radiation tolerance and advanced large-size bulk crystal growth technique. The resistivity of the ZnO single crystal is as high as 10{sup 13} Ω cm due to the compensation of the donor defects (V{sub O}) and acceptor defects (V{sub Zn} and O{sub i}) after high temperature annealing in oxygen. The photoconductive X-ray detector was fabricated using the high resistivity ZnO single crystal. The rise time and fall time of the detector to a 10 ps pulse electron beam are 0.8 ns and 3.3 ns, respectively, indicating great potential for ultrafast X-ray detection applications.

  2. High-energy x-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography of human anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Florian; Hauke, Christian; Lachner, Sebastian; Ludwig, Veronika; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Schuster, Max; Seifert, Maria; Wandner, Johannes; Wolf, Andreas; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

    2016-03-01

    X-ray grating-based phase-contrast Talbot-Lau interferometry is a promising imaging technology that has the potential to raise soft tissue contrast in comparison to conventional attenuation-based imaging. Additionally, it is sensitive to attenuation, refraction and scattering of the radiation and thus provides complementary and otherwise inaccessible information due to the dark-field image, which shows the sub-pixel size granularity of the measured object. Until recent progress the method has been mainly limited to photon energies below 40 keV. Scaling the method to photon energies that are sufficient to pass large and spacious objects represents a challenging task. This is caused by increasing demands regarding the fabrication process of the gratings and the broad spectra that come along with the use of polychromatic X-ray sources operated at high acceleration voltages. We designed a setup that is capable to reach high visibilities in the range from 50 to 120 kV. Therefore, spacious and dense parts of the human body with high attenuation can be measured, such as a human knee. The authors will show investigations on the resulting attenuation, differential phase-contrast and dark-field images. The images experimentally show that X-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography is feasible with highly absorbing parts of the human body containing massive bones.

  3. High count-rate study of two TES x-ray microcalorimeters with different transition temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Jun; Adams, Joseph S.; Bandler, Simon R.; Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele L.; Chervenak, James A.; Eckart, Megan E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Sadleir, John E.; Smith, Stephen J.; Wassell, Edward J.

    2017-10-01

    We have developed transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays with high count-rate capability and high energy resolution to carry out x-ray imaging spectroscopy observations of various astronomical sources and the Sun. We have studied the dependence of the energy resolution and throughput (fraction of processed pulses) on the count rate for such microcalorimeters with two different transition temperatures (T c). Devices with both transition temperatures were fabricated within a single microcalorimeter array directly on top of a solid substrate where the thermal conductance of the microcalorimeter is dependent upon the thermal boundary resistance between the TES sensor and the dielectric substrate beneath. Because the thermal boundary resistance is highly temperature dependent, the two types of device with different T cs had very different thermal decay times, approximately one order of magnitude different. In our earlier report, we achieved energy resolutions of 1.6 and 2.3 eV at 6 keV from lower and higher T c devices, respectively, using a standard analysis method based on optimal filtering in the low flux limit. We have now measured the same devices at elevated x-ray fluxes ranging from 50 Hz to 1000 Hz per pixel. In the high flux limit, however, the standard optimal filtering scheme nearly breaks down because of x-ray pile-up. To achieve the highest possible energy resolution for a fixed throughput, we have developed an analysis scheme based on the so-called event grade method. Using the new analysis scheme, we achieved 5.0 eV FWHM with 96% throughput for 6 keV x-rays of 1025 Hz per pixel with the higher T c (faster) device, and 5.8 eV FWHM with 97% throughput with the lower T c (slower) device at 722 Hz.

  4. Theoretical x-ray absorption investigation of high pressure ice and compressed graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Dawn M; Tse, John S

    2007-01-01

    The x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of high pressure ices II, VIII, and IX have been computed with the Car-Parrinello plane wave pseudopotential method. XAS for the intermediate structures obtained from uniaxial compression of hexagonal graphite along the c-axis are also studied. Whenever possible, comparisons to available experimental results are made. The reliability of the computational methods for the XAS for these structures is discussed

  5. Studies of a Linac Driver for a High Repetition Rate X-Ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, M.; Corlett, J.; Doolittle, L.; Filippetto, D.; Papadopoulos, C.; Penn, G.; Prosnitz, D.; Qiang, J.; Reinsch, M.; Ryne, R.; Sannibale, F.; Staples, J.; Wells, R.; Wurtele, J.; Zolotorev, M.; Zholents, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report on on-going studies of a superconducting CW linac driver intended to support a high repetition rate FEL operating in the soft x-rays spectrum. We present a pointdesign for a 1.8 GeV machine tuned for 300 pC bunches and delivering low-emittance, low-energy spread beams as needed for the SASE and seeded beamlines.

  6. High-sensitive portable ASE-2 X-ray analyzer of sulfur in mineral oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anchugov, I.S.; Goganov, A.D.; Plotnikov, R.I.

    2007-01-01

    The high-sensitivity ASE-2 analyzer of sulfur on the basis of existing ASE-I device is designed. ASE-2 analyzer realizes a standard method of energy dispersion X-ray fluorescent determinations of a sulfur mass fraction in mineral oil and allows to carry out the quantitative determination of sulfur in hydrocarbonic raw material and fuel in a 0.002-5 mass.% range [ru

  7. High temperature monitoring of silicon carbide ceramics by confocal energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • X-ray scattering was used for monitoring oxidation situation of SiC ceramics. • A calibration curve was obtained. • The confocal X-ray scattering technology was based on polycapillary X-ray optics. • The variations of contents of components of SiC ceramics were obtained. - Abstract: In the present work, we presented an alternative method for monitoring of the oxidation situation of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics at various high temperatures in air by measuring the Compton-to-Rayleigh intensity ratios (I{sub Co}/I{sub Ra}) and effective atomic numbers (Z{sub eff}) of SiC ceramics with the confocal energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer. A calibration curve of the relationship between I{sub Co}/I{sub Ra} and Z{sub eff} was established by using a set of 8 SiC calibration samples. The sensitivity of this approach is so high that it can be easily distinguished samples of Z{sub eff} differing from each other by only 0.01. The linear relationship between the variation of Z{sub eff} and the variations of contents of C, Si and O of SiC ceramics were found, and the corresponding calculation model of the relationship between the ΔZ and the ΔC{sub C}, ΔC{sub Si}, and ΔC{sub O} were established. The variation of contents of components of the tested SiC ceramics after oxidation at high temperature was quantitatively calculated based on the model. It was shown that the results of contents of carbon, silicon and oxygen obtained by this method were in good agreement with the results obtained by XPS, giving values of relative deviation less than 1%. It was concluded that the practicality of this proposed method for monitoring of the oxidation situation of SiC ceramics at high temperatures was acceptable.

  8. X ray and EUV spectroscopic measurements of highly charged tungsten ions relevant to fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, R; Biedermann, C; Mandelbaum, P; Schwob, J L

    2007-01-01

    Using high-resolution x ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometry, the line emission of W 28+ - W 50+ ions was measured at the Berlin Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT). Our study encompasses a wide range of wavelengths (5-800 A) and includes the observation of electric and magnetic dipole lines. The results of our measurements are compared with predicted transition wavelengths from ab initioatomic structure calculations

  9. Prospects for compact high-intensity laser synchrotron x-ray and gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1996-11-01

    A laser interacting with a relativistic electron beam behaves like a virtual wiggler of an extremely short period equal to half of the laser wavelength. This approach opens a route to relatively compact, high-brightness x-ray sources alternative or complementary to conventional synchrotron light sources. Although not new, the laser synchrotron source (LSS) concept is still waiting for a convincing demonstration. Available at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a high-brightness electron beam and the high-power CO 2 laser may be used as prototype LSS brick stones. In a feasible demonstration experiment, 10-GW, 100-ps CO 2 laser beam will be brought to a head-on collision with a 10-ps, 0.5-nC, 50 MeV electron bunch. Flashes of collimated 4.7 keV (2.6 angstrom) x-rays of 10-ps pulse duration, with a flux of ∼ 10 19 photons/sec, will be produced via linear Compton backscattering. The x-ray spectrum is tunable proportionally to the e-beam energy. A rational short-term extension of the proposed experiment would be further enhancement of the x-ray flux to the 10 22 photons/sec level, after the ongoing ATF CO 2 laser upgrade to 5 TW peak power and electron bunch shortening to 3 ps is realized. In the future, exploiting the promising approach of a high-gradient laser wake field accelerator, a compact ''table-top'' LSS of monochromatic gamma radiation may become feasible

  10. Prospects for compact high-intensity laser synchrotron x-ray and gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1997-01-01

    A laser interacting with a relativistic electron beam behaves like a virtual wiggler of an extremely short period equal to half of the laser wavelength. This approach opens a route to relatively compact, high- brightness x-ray sources alternative or complementary to conventional synchrotron light sources. Although not new, the laser synchrotron source (LSS) concept is still waiting for a convincing demonstration. Available at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a high- brightness electron beam and the high-power C0 2 laser may be used as prototype LSS brick stones. In a feasible demonstration experiment, 10 GW, 100 ps C0 2 laser beam will be brought to a head-on collision with a 10 ps, 0.5 nC, 50 MeV electron bunch. Flashes of collimated 4.7 keV (2.6 A) x-rays of 10-ps pulse duration, with a flux of ∼10 19 photons/sec, will be produced via linear Compton backscattering. The x-ray spectra is tunable proportionally to the e- beam energy. A rational short-term extension of the proposed experiment would be further enhancement of the x-ray flux to the 10 22 photon/sec level, after the ongoing ATF C0 2 laser upgrade to 5 TW peak power and electron bunch shortening to 3 ps is realized. In the future, exploiting the promising approach of a high-gradient laser wake field accelerator, a compact ''table- top'' LSS of monochromatic gamma radiation may become feasible

  11. Specification for high voltage cable plug and socket connections for medical X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Under the direction of the Light Engineering Standards Committee, a British Standard Specification has been prepared for three-conductor and four-conductor high-voltage cable plug and socket connections for medical X-ray equipment. The standard deals with the essential dimensions to ensure mechanical interchangeability, the recommended dimensions, the wiring connections to contacts of plug and socket and the marking of contacts of plug and socket. (U.K.)

  12. High energy x-ray scattering studies of strongly correlated oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, Peter D; Wilkins, S B; Spencer, P D; Zimmermann, M v; D'Almeida, T

    2003-01-01

    Many transition metal oxides display strongly correlated charge, spin, or orbital ordering resulting in varied phenomena such as colossal magnetoresistance, high temperature superconductivity, metal-insulator transitions etc. X-ray scattering is one of the principle techniques for probing the structural response to such effects. In this paper, we discuss and review the use of synchrotron radiation high energy x-rays (50-200 keV) for the study of transition metal oxides such as nickelates (La 2-x Sr x NiO 4 ) and manganites (La 2-2x Sr 1+2x Mn 2 O 7 ). High energy x-rays have sufficient penetration to allow us to study large flux-grown single crystals. The huge increase in sample scattering volume means that extremely weak peaks can be observed. This allows us to study very weak charge ordering. Measurements of the intensity, width and position of the charge ordering satellites as a function of temperature provide us with quantitative measures of the charge amplitude, inverse correlation length and wavevector of the charge ordering

  13. Automatic X-ray television rig for high-speed radiography of polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezbakh, V.D.; Garasim, Yu.A.; Oshkaderov, S.P.; Pet'kov, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    The high-speed radiography method is used for studying the phase and structural transformation in metals and alloys during rapid changes in temperature. In order to improve the effectiveness of this method the Institute of Metal Physics, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, has developed an automatic rig for high-speed radiography of polycrystalline materials using a television method for recording the x-ray diffraction patterns. The rig, described here, consists of an x-ray block, a vacuum chamber, a device for programmed electro-contact heating of specimens, a system for imaging and scanning x-ray diffraction patterns, and a system for collecting and analyzing the data. Focusing is carried out by the Zeeman-Bolin method. The new rig helps to significantly reduce the recording time and ensures adequate quality and reliability of the recorded diffraction image over a wide range of temperatures. Data using the rig is presented for high-speed radiography for cooling a specimen of G20 steel. 4 refs., 4 figs

  14. Workshop on cooling of x-ray monochromators on high power beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, T.; Ishikawa, T.

    1989-03-01

    This report is a Workshop on Cooling of X-ray Monochromators on High Power Beamlines held on August 31, 1988 at the Photon Factory during the Third International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (SRI88). On high power beamlines, especially on insertion device beamlines, heating of crystal monochromators is becoming a serious problem: Researchers observe that the intensity of the X-ray beam on the sample is not proportional to the source intensity because of thermal distortion of the monochromator crystal. This problem will be even more serious on beamlines for the next generation X-ray rings. In the very tight program of the SRI88 conference, only 2 speakers were able to give invited talks closely related to this problem in the session of OPTICAL COMPONENTS FOR HIGH POWER BEAMLINES on Wednesday morning of August 31, 1988. We held this workshop in the afternoon of the same day with the intention of offering further opportunities to exchange information on efforts underway at various laboratories and to discuss ideas how to solve this problem. We also intended that the workshop would be a 'follow-up' to the X-ray optics workshop held at ESRF, Grenoble in September 1987, where the importance of crystal cooling was strongly pointed out. There were 32 participants from 7 countries. 12 people represented their experiences and ideas for reducing thermal distortion of crystal monochromators. Following those presentations, there were discussions on collaborations for solving this important problem. The attendees agreed that exchange of information should be continued by holding such meetings at reasonable intervals. (J.P.N.)

  15. A high rate, low noise, x-ray silicon strip detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewigt, B.; Jaklevic, J.; Kipnis, I.; Rossington, C.; Spieler, H.

    1993-11-01

    An x-ray detector system, based on a silicon strip detector wire-bonded to a low noise charge-senstive amplifier integrated circuit, has been developed for synchrotron radiation experiments which require very high count rates and good energy resolution. Noise measurements and x-ray spectra were taken using a 6 mm long, 55 μm pitch strip detector in conjunction with a prototype 16-channel charge-sensitive preamplifier, both fabricated using standard 1.2 μm CMOS technology. The detector system currently achieves an energy resolution of 350 eV FWHM at 5.9 key, 2 μs peaking time, when cooled to -5 degree C

  16. Structured photocathodes for improved high-energy x-ray efficiency in streak cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opachich, Y. P., E-mail: opachiyp@nv.doe.gov; Huffman, E.; Koch, J. A. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Hatch, B.; Landen, O. L.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nagel, S. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Chen, N.; Gopal, A.; Udin, S. [Nanoshift LLC, Emeryville, California 94608 (United States); Feng, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We have designed and fabricated a structured streak camera photocathode to provide enhanced efficiency for high energy X-rays (1–12 keV). This gold coated photocathode was tested in a streak camera and compared side by side against a conventional flat thin film photocathode. Results show that the measured electron yield enhancement at energies ranging from 1 to 10 keV scales well with predictions, and that the total enhancement can be more than 3×. The spatial resolution of the streak camera does not show degradation in the structured region. We predict that the temporal resolution of the detector will also not be affected as it is currently dominated by the slit width. This demonstration with Au motivates exploration of comparable enhancements with CsI and may revolutionize X-ray streak camera photocathode design.

  17. A Soft X-ray Spectrometer using a Highly Dispersive Multilayer Grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard; Voronov, Dmitriy; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for higher resolution spectrometers as a tool for inelastic x-ray scattering. Currently, resolving power around R = 10,000 is advertised. Measured RIXS spectra are often limited by this instrumental resolution and higher resolution spectrometers using conventional gratings would be prohibitively large. We are engaged in a development program to build blazed multilayer grating structures for diffracting soft x-rays in high order. This leads to spectrometers with dispersion much higher than is possible using metal coated-gratings. The higher dispersion then provides higher resolution and the multilayer gratings are capable of operating away from grazing incidence as required. A spectrometer design is presented with a total length 3.8 m and capable of 10 5 resolving power.

  18. Towards shorter wavelength x-ray lasers using a high power, short pulse pump laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Valeo, E.; Suckewer, S.

    1991-05-01

    A near-terawatt, KrF* laser system, focussable to power densities >10 18 W/cm 2 has been constructed for use as a pump laser in various schemes aimed at the development of x-ray lasing below 5nm. The laser system along with output characteristics such as the pulse duration, the focal spot size, and the percentage of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) emitted along with the laser pulse will be presented. Schemes intended to lead to shorter wavelength x-ray emission will be described. The resultant requirements on the pump laser characteristics and the target design will be outlined. Results from recent solid target experiments and two-laser experiments, showing the interaction of a high-power, short pulse laser with a preformed plasma, will be presented. 13 refs., 5 figs

  19. Changes of soft X-ray emission spectra of oxygen and copper in high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Sei; Gohshi, Yohichi; Kohiki, Shigemi; Saitoh, Naoki

    1989-01-01

    X-ray induced soft X-ray emission spectroscopy is one of the bulk analysis methods used to characterize high-Tc superconductor. In this report, some observations on the changes in O Kα and Cu L spectra of thin layer LnBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (Ln=Er,Gd) samples are presented. From the measurement of O Kα, no discernible difference was found between those of Gd compounds which were composed single phase or not. It may be said that the electronic structure of p state localized on the O is not sensitive to the change of Tc or zero-resistance temperature. From the measurement of Cu L spectra, it was found that Cu Lα of only Gd containing compounds has a low energy shoulder

  20. X-ray diffraction studies of silicon implanted with high energy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieteska, K [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk, (Poland); Wierzchowski, W [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw, (Poland); Graeff, W [Hasylab at Desy, Hamburg, (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The character of lattice deformation in silicon in implanted with high energy {alpha} particles and protons was studied with a number of X-ray methods. The experiments included double crystal spectrometer method as well as single crystal section and projection topography realised both with conventional and synchrotron X-ray sources. All observed diffraction patterns were reasonably explainable assuming the lattice parameter depth distribution proportional to the vacancy-interstitial distribution coming from the Biersack-Ziegler theory. The theoretical rocking curves and density distribution in back-reflection double-crystal and section topography well corresponding to experimental results were calculated using numerical integration of the Takagi-Taupin equations. 9 figs.

  1. Microstructures for high-energy x-ray and particle-imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglio, N.M.; Stone, G.F.; Hawryluk, A.M.

    1981-05-01

    Coded imaging techniques using thick, micro-Fresnel zone plates as coded apertures have been used to image x-ray emissions (2-20 keV) and 3.5 MeV Alpha particle emissions from laser driven micro-implosions. Image resolution in these experiments was 3-8 μm. Extension of this coded imaging capability to higher energy x-rays (approx. 100 keV) and more penetrating charged particles (e.g. approx. 15 MeV protons) requires the fabrication of very thick (50-200 μm), high aspect ratio (10:1), gold Fresnel zone plates with narrow linewidths (5-25 μm) for use as coded aperatures. A reactive ion etch technique in oxygen has been used to produce thick zone plate patterns in polymer films. The polymer patterns serve as electroplating molds for the subsequent fabrication of the free-standing gold zone plate structures

  2. Lightweight and High-Resolution Single Crystal Silicon Optics for X-ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William W.; Biskach, Michael P.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Mazzarella, James R.; McClelland, Ryan S.; Riveros, Raul E.; Saha, Timo T.; Solly, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    We describe an approach to building mirror assemblies for next generation X-ray telescopes. It incorporates knowledge and lessons learned from building existing telescopes, including Chandra, XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and NuSTAR, as well as from our direct experience of the last 15 years developing mirror technology for the Constellation-X and International X-ray Observatory mission concepts. This approach combines single crystal silicon and precision polishing, thus has the potential of achieving the highest possible angular resolution with the least possible mass. Moreover, it is simple, consisting of several technical elements that can be developed independently in parallel. Lastly, it is highly amenable to mass production, therefore enabling the making of telescopes of very large photon collecting areas.

  3. A Soft X-ray Spectrometer using a Highly Dispersive Multilayer Grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard; Voronov, Dmitriy; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for higher resolution spectrometers as a tool for inelastic x-ray scattering. Currently, resolving power around R = 10,000 is advertised. Measured RIXS spectra are often limited by this instrumental resolution and higher resolution spectrometers using conventional gratings would be prohibitively large. We are engaged in a development program to build blazed multilayer grating structures for diffracting soft x-rays in high order. This leads to spectrometers with dispersion much higher than is possible using metal coated-gratings. The higher dispersion then provides higher resolution and the multilayer gratings are capable of operating away from grazing incidence as required. A spectrometer design is presented with a total length 3.8m and capable of 10 5 resolving power.

  4. Pollen structure visualization using high-resolution laboratory-based hard X-ray tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Gluch, Jürgen; Krüger, Peter; Gall, Martin; Neinhuis, Christoph; Zschech, Ehrenfried

    2016-10-14

    A laboratory-based X-ray microscope is used to investigate the 3D structure of unstained whole pollen grains. For the first time, high-resolution laboratory-based hard X-ray microscopy is applied to study pollen grains. Based on the efficient acquisition of statistically relevant information-rich images using Zernike phase contrast, both surface- and internal structures of pine pollen - including exine, intine and cellular structures - are clearly visualized. The specific volumes of these structures are calculated from the tomographic data. The systematic three-dimensional study of pollen grains provides morphological and structural information about taxonomic characters that are essential in palynology. Such studies have a direct impact on disciplines such as forestry, agriculture, horticulture, plant breeding and biodiversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High power, short pulses ultraviolet laser for the development of a new x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meixler, L.; Nam, C.H.; Robinson, J.; Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Suckewer, S.; Goldhar, J.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.

    1989-04-01

    A high power, short pulse ultraviolet laser system (Powerful Picosecond-Laser) has been developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) as part of experiments designed to generate shorter wavelength x-ray lasers. With the addition of pulse compression and a final KrF amplifier the laser output is expected to have reached 1/3-1/2 TW (10 12 watts) levels. The laser system, particularly the final amplifier, is described along with some initial soft x-ray spectra from laser-target experiments. The front end of the PP-Laser provides an output of 20--30 GW (10 9 watts) and can be focussed to intensities of /approximately/10 16 W/cm 2 . Experiments using this output to examine the effects of a prepulse on laser-target interaction are described. 19 refs., 14 figs

  6. A microprogrammable high-speed data collection system for position sensitive X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, H.

    1984-01-01

    A high-speed data acquisition system has been designed which collects digital data from one- and two-dimensional position sensitive X-ray detectors at a maximum average data rate of 1 MHz. The system consists of two separate fast buffer memories, a 64 K word by 20-bit main storage, two timers, a display controller, a computer interface and a keyboard, controlled by a specially designed microprogrammable microprocessor. Data collection is performed by executing a microprogram stored in the control storage; data coming from a detector are first accumulated in a small but fast buffer memory by hardware and transferred to the main storage under control of the microprogram. This design not only permits time-resolved data collections but also provides maximum speed, flexibility and cost-effectiveness simultaneously. The system also accepts data from integrated detectors such as TV cameras. The system has been designed for use in experiments at conventional and synchrotron X-ray sources. (orig.)

  7. A novel probe of intrinsic electronic structure: hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Nishino, Y.; Miwa, D.; Yabashi, M.; Ikenaga, E.; Horiba, K.; Arita, M.; Shimada, K.; Namatame, H.; Nohira, H.; Hattori, T.; Soedergren, S.; Wannberg, B.; Taniguchi, M.; Shin, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    We have realized hard X-ray (HX) photoemission spectroscopy (PES) with high throughput and high-energy resolution for core level and valence band studies using high-energy and high-brilliance synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. This is a brand new method because large escape depth of high-energy photoelectrons enables us to probe intrinsic bulk states free from surface condition. By use of a newly developed electron energy analyzer and well-focused X-rays, high-energy resolution of 75 meV (E/ΔE 79,000) was realized for 5.95 keV photoelectrons

  8. HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY REVEALS THE SPECIAL NATURE OF WOLF-RAYET STAR WINDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oskinova, L. M.; Hamann, W.-R. [Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Gayley, K. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52245 (United States); Huenemoerder, D. P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar St., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ignace, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37663 (United States); Pollock, A. M. T., E-mail: lida@astro.physik.uni-potsdam.de [European Space Agency XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Apartado 78, Villanueva de la Canada, 28691 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-03-10

    We present the first high-resolution X-ray spectrum of a putatively single Wolf-Rayet (WR) star. 400 ks observations of WR 6 by the XMM-Newton telescope resulted in a superb quality high-resolution X-ray spectrum. Spectral analysis reveals that the X-rays originate far out in the stellar wind, more than 30 stellar radii from the photosphere, and thus outside the wind acceleration zone where the line-driving instability (LDI) could create shocks. The X-ray emitting plasma reaches temperatures up to 50 MK and is embedded within the unshocked, 'cool' stellar wind as revealed by characteristic spectral signatures. We detect a fluorescent Fe line at Almost-Equal-To 6.4 keV. The presence of fluorescence is consistent with a two-component medium, where the cool wind is permeated with the hot X-ray emitting plasma. The wind must have a very porous structure to allow the observed amount of X-rays to escape. We find that neither the LDI nor any alternative binary scenario can explain the data. We suggest a scenario where X-rays are produced when the fast wind rams into slow 'sticky clumps' that resist acceleration. Our new data show that the X-rays in single WR star are generated by some special mechanism different from the one operating in the O-star winds.

  9. High-resolution x-ray computed tomography to understand ruminant phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costeur, Loic; Schulz, Georg; Müller, Bert

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution X-ray computed tomography has become a vital technique to study fossils down to the true micrometer level. Paleontological research requires the non-destructive analysis of internal structures of fossil specimens. We show how X-ray computed tomography enables us to visualize the inner ear of extinct and extant ruminants without skull destruction. The inner ear, a sensory organ for hearing and balance has a rather complex three-dimensional morphology and thus provides relevant phylogenetical information what has been to date essentially shown in primates. We made visible the inner ears of a set of living and fossil ruminants using the phoenix x-ray nanotom®m (GE Sensing and Inspection Technologies GmbH). Because of the high absorbing objects a tungsten target was used and the experiments were performed with maximum accelerating voltage of 180 kV and a beam current of 30 μA. Possible stem ruminants of the living families are known in the fossil record but extreme morphological convergences in external structures such as teeth is a strong limitation to our understanding of the evolutionary history of this economically important group of animals. We thus investigate the inner ear to assess its phylogenetical potential for ruminants and our first results show strong family-level morphological differences.

  10. Highly multiplexible thermal kinetic inductance detectors for x-ray imaging spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbricht, Gerhard; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Szypryt, Paul; Walter, Alex B.; Bockstiegel, Clint; Bumble, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    For X-ray imaging spectroscopy, high spatial resolution over a large field of view is often as important as high energy resolution, but current X-ray detectors do not provide both in the same device. Thermal Kinetic Inductance Detectors (TKIDs) are being developed as they offer a feasible way to combine the energy resolution of transition edge sensors with pixel counts approaching CCDs and thus promise significant improvements for many X-ray spectroscopy applications. TKIDs are a variation of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) and share their multiplexibility: working MKID arrays with 2024 pixels have recently been demonstrated and much bigger arrays are under development. In this work, we present a TKID prototype, which is able to achieve an energy resolution of 75 eV at 5.9 keV, even though its general design still has to be optimized. We further describe TKID fabrication, characterization, multiplexing, and working principle and demonstrate the necessity of a data fitting algorithm in order to extract photon energies. With further design optimizations, we expect to be able to improve our TKID energy resolution to less than 10 eV at 5.9 keV

  11. Highly multiplexible thermal kinetic inductance detectors for x-ray imaging spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbricht, Gerhard, E-mail: ulbricht@physics.ucsb.edu; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Szypryt, Paul; Walter, Alex B.; Bockstiegel, Clint [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Bumble, Bruce [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-06-22

    For X-ray imaging spectroscopy, high spatial resolution over a large field of view is often as important as high energy resolution, but current X-ray detectors do not provide both in the same device. Thermal Kinetic Inductance Detectors (TKIDs) are being developed as they offer a feasible way to combine the energy resolution of transition edge sensors with pixel counts approaching CCDs and thus promise significant improvements for many X-ray spectroscopy applications. TKIDs are a variation of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) and share their multiplexibility: working MKID arrays with 2024 pixels have recently been demonstrated and much bigger arrays are under development. In this work, we present a TKID prototype, which is able to achieve an energy resolution of 75 eV at 5.9 keV, even though its general design still has to be optimized. We further describe TKID fabrication, characterization, multiplexing, and working principle and demonstrate the necessity of a data fitting algorithm in order to extract photon energies. With further design optimizations, we expect to be able to improve our TKID energy resolution to less than 10 eV at 5.9 keV.

  12. High-Frequency X-ray Variability Detection in A Black Hole Transient with USA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabad, Gayane

    2000-10-16

    Studies of high-frequency variability (above {approx}100 Hz) in X-ray binaries provide a unique opportunity to explore the fundamental physics of spacetime and matter, since the orbital timescale on the order of several milliseconds is a timescale of the motion of matter through the region located in close proximity to a compact stellar object. The detection of weak high-frequency signals in X-ray binaries depends on how well we understand the level of Poisson noise due to the photon counting statistics, i.e. how well we can understand and model the detector deadtime and other instrumental systematic effects. We describe the preflight timing calibration work performed on the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) X-ray detector to study deadtime and timing issues. We developed a Monte Carlo deadtime model and deadtime correction methods for the USA experiment. The instrumental noise power spectrum can be estimated within {approx}0.1% accuracy in the case when no energy-dependent instrumental effect is present. We also developed correction techniques to account for an energy-dependent instrumental effect. The developed methods were successfully tested on USA Cas A and Cygnus X-1 data. This work allowed us to make a detection of a weak signal in a black hole candidate (BHC) transient.

  13. Rotation of the Mass Donors in High-mass X-ray Binaries and Symbiotic Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Stoyanov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to investigate the tidal interaction in High-mass X-ray Binaries and Symbiotic stars in order to determine in which objects the rotation of the mass donors is synchronized or pseudosynchronized with the orbital motion of the compact companion. We find that the Be/X-ray binaries are not synchronized and the orbital periods of the systems are greater than the rotational periods of the mass donors. The giant and supergiant High-mass X-ray binaries and symbiotic stars are close to synchronization. We compare the rotation of mass donors in symbiotics with the projected rotational velocities of field giants and find that the M giants in S-type symbiotics rotate on average 1.5 times faster than the field M giants. We find that the projected rotational velocity of the red giant in symbiotic star MWC 560 is v sin i= 8.2±1.5 km.s−1, and estimate its rotational period to be Prot<>/sub = 144 - 306 days. Using the theoretical predictions of tidal interaction and pseudosynchronization, we estimate the orbital eccentricity e = 0.68 − 0.82.

  14. X-ray spectroscopy for high energy-density X pinch density and temperature measurements (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikuz, S.A.; Shelkovenko, T.A.; Chandler, K.M.; Mitchell, M.D.; Hammer, D.A.; Skobelev, I.Y.; Shlyaptseva, A.S.; Hansen, S.B.

    2004-01-01

    X pinch plasmas produced from fine metal wires can reach near solid densities and temperatures of 1 keV or even more. Plasma conditions change on time scales as short as 5-10 ps as determined using an x-ray streak camera viewing a focusing crystal spectrograph or directly viewing the plasma through multiple filters on a single test. As a result, it is possible to determine plasma conditions from spectra with ∼10 ps time resolution. Experiments and theory are now coming together to give a consistent picture of the dynamics and kinetics of these high energy density plasmas with very high temporal and spatial precision. A set of diagnostic techniques used in experiments for spectrally, temporally, and spatially resolved measurements of X pinch plasmas is described. Results of plasma parameter determination from these measurements are presented. X ray backlighting of one x-pinch by another with ∼30 ps x-ray pulses enables the dynamics and kinetics to be correlated in time

  15. Direct electron acceleration in plasma waveguides for compact high-repetition-rate x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M-W; Jovanovic, I

    2014-01-01

    Numerous applications in fundamental and applied research, security, and industry require robust, compact sources of x-rays, with a particular recent interest in monochromatic, spatially coherent, and ultrafast x-ray pulses in well-collimated beams. Such x-ray sources usually require production of high-quality electron beams from compact accelerators. Guiding a radially polarized laser pulse in a plasma waveguide has been proposed for realizing direct laser acceleration (DLA), where the electrons are accelerated by the axial electric field of a co-propagating laser pulse (Serafim et al 2000 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28 1190). A moderate laser peak power is required for DLA when compared to laser wakefield acceleration, thus offering the prospect for high repetition rate operation. By using a density-modulated plasma waveguide for DLA, the acceleration distance can be extended with pulse guiding, while the density-modulation with proper axial structure can realize the quasi-phase matching between the laser pulses and electrons for a net gain accumulation (York et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 195001; York et al 2008 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 B137; Palastro et al 2008 Phys. Rev. E 77 036405). We describe the development and application of a test particle model and particle-in-cell model for DLA. Experimental setups designed for fabrication of optically tailored plasma waveguides via the ignitor-heater scheme, and for generation and characterization of radially polarized short pulses used to drive DLA, are presented. (paper)

  16. Apparatus development for high-pressure X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, L.G.; Orlando, M.T.D.; Rossi, J.L.; Passamai Junior, J.L.; Melo, F.C.L.; Ferreira, F.F.

    2006-01-01

    Some phenomena in the field of condensed matter physics can be studied when the matter is submitted to extreme conditions of pressure, magnetic fields or temperatures. Once submitted to these conditions it is generally necessary to measure the properties of the matter in situ. The existence of a synchrotron light laboratory in Brazil opens up the chance of studying materials in extreme conditions by techniques like X-ray diffraction and absorption. However, when compared to high-energy synchrotrons accelerators, the Brazilian source offers a narrower energy range and lower flux. These facts impose limitation to perform diffraction experiments by energy dispersion and, consequently, the use of pressure cells with denser anvils like diamond. However, for a lower-pressure range, preliminary studies showed the viability of measurements in an angular dispersion configuration. This allows the use of silicon carbide anvils B 4C . In this work it is described the development of a hydrostatic pressure cell suitable for X-rays diffraction measurements in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory using materials and technologies developed by the institutions and researchers involved in this project (IPEN, UFES, CTA and LNLS). This development can provide the scientific community with the possibility of performing X-ray diffraction measurements under hydrostatic pressure, initially up to 2 GPa, with possibilities of increasing the maximum pressure to higher values, with or without application of magnetic fields and high or low temperatures. (author)

  17. TRACING THE LOWEST PROPELLER LINE IN MAGELLANIC HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Laycock, Silas G. T.; Yang, Jun; Fingerman, Samuel, E-mail: dimitris_christodoulou@uml.edu, E-mail: silas_laycock@uml.edu, E-mail: jun_yang@uml.edu, E-mail: fingerman.samuel@gmail.com [Lowell Center for Space Science and Technology, 600 Suffolk Street, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    We have combined the published observations of high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) pulsars in the Magellanic Clouds with a new processing of the complete archival data sets from the XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories in an attempt to trace the lowest propeller line below which accretion to polar caps is inhibited by the centrifugal force and the pulsations from the most weakly magnetized pulsars cease. Previously published data reveal that some of the faster-spinning pulsars with spin periods of P {sub S} < 12 s, detected at relatively low X-ray luminosities L {sub X} , appear to define such a line in the P {sub S} – L {sub X} diagram, characterized by a magnetic moment of μ = 3 × 10{sup 29} G cm{sup 3}. This value implies the presence of surface magnetic fields of B ≥ 3 × 10{sup 11} G in the compact objects of this class. Only a few quiescent HMXBs are found below the propeller line: LXP4.40 and SXP4.78, for which XMM-Newton and Chandra null detections respectively placed firm upper limits on their X-ray fluxes in deep quiescence; and A0538-66, for which many sub-Eddington detections have never measured any pulsations. On the other hand, the data from the XMM-Newton and Chandra archives show clearly that, during routine observation cycles, several sources have been detected below the propeller line in extremely faint, nonpulsating states that can be understood as the result of weak magnetospheric emission when accretion to the poles is centrifugally stalled or severely diminished. We also pay attention to the anomalous X-ray pulsar CXOU J010043.1-721134 that was reported in HMXB surveys. Its pulsations and locations near and above the propeller line indicate that this pulsar could be accreting from a fossil disk.

  18. Obtaining high degree of circular polarization at X-ray FELs via a reverse undulator taper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2013-08-15

    Baseline design of a typical X-ray FEL undulator assumes a planar configuration which results in a linear polarization of the FEL radiation. However, many experiments at X-ray FEL user facilities would profit from using a circularly polarized radiation. As a cheap upgrade one can consider an installation of a short helical (or cross-planar) afterburner, but then one should have an efficient method to suppress powerful linearly polarized background from the main undulator. In this paper we propose a new method for such a suppression: an application of the reverse taper in the main undulator. We discover that in a certain range of the taper strength, the density modulation (bunching) at saturation is practically the same as in the case of non-tapered undulator while the power of linearly polarized radiation is suppressed by orders of magnitude. Then strongly modulated electron beam radiates at full power in the afterburner. Considering SASE3 undulator of the European XFEL as a practical example, we demonstrate that soft X-ray radiation pulses with peak power in excess of 100 GW and an ultimately high degree of circular polarization can be produced. The proposed method is rather universal, i.e. it can be used at SASE FELs and seeded (self-seeded) FELs, with any wavelength of interest, in a wide range of electron beam parameters, and with any repetition rate. It can be used at different X-ray FEL facilities, in particular at LCLS after installation of the helical afterburner in the near future.

  19. Effects of contrast improvement on high voltage rectification type of x-ray diagnostic apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hoo Min; Yoon, Joon [Dept. of Radiological technology, Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Ju [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital Buchen, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect on the selectivity on of high-voltage rectification device that measured the performance of the grid, and the contrast improvement ability (K factor) by measuring the scattered radiation content of the transmitted X-rays. The scattered radiation generated when the X-ray flux comes from the diagnostic X-ray generator that passes through an object. Targeting four different rectifications of X-ray generators, the mean value of the tube voltage and the tube current was measured in order to maximize the accuracy of the generating power dose within the same exposure condition. Using fluorescence meter, the content of the scattered rays that are transmitted through the acrylic was measured depending on the grid usage. When grid is not used, the content of the scattered rays was the lowest (34.158%) with the single-phase rectifier, was increased with the inverter rectifier (37.043%) and the three-phase 24-peak rectification method (37.447%). The difference of the scattered radiation content of each device was significant from the lowest 0.404% to the highest 3.289% while using 8:1 grid, the content of the scattered ray was the lowest with the single content of the scattered ray was the lowest with the single-phase rectifier (18.258%), was increased with the rectifier (25.502%) and the 24-peaks rectification (24.217%). Furthermore, there was difference up to content 7.244% to the lowest content 1.285% within three-phase 24-peaks rectification, inverter rectifications, and single-phase rectifier depending on the selectivity of the grid. Drawn from the statistical analysis, there was a similar relationship between the contrast improvement factor and the K factor. As a result, the grid selectivity and the contrast were increased within the single-phase rectifier rather than the constant voltage rectifier.

  20. Effects of contrast improvement on high voltage rectification type of x-ray diagnostic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hoo Min; Yoon, Joon; Kim, Hyun Ju

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect on the selectivity on of high-voltage rectification device that measured the performance of the grid, and the contrast improvement ability (K factor) by measuring the scattered radiation content of the transmitted X-rays. The scattered radiation generated when the X-ray flux comes from the diagnostic X-ray generator that passes through an object. Targeting four different rectifications of X-ray generators, the mean value of the tube voltage and the tube current was measured in order to maximize the accuracy of the generating power dose within the same exposure condition. Using fluorescence meter, the content of the scattered rays that are transmitted through the acrylic was measured depending on the grid usage. When grid is not used, the content of the scattered rays was the lowest (34.158%) with the single-phase rectifier, was increased with the inverter rectifier (37.043%) and the three-phase 24-peak rectification method (37.447%). The difference of the scattered radiation content of each device was significant from the lowest 0.404% to the highest 3.289% while using 8:1 grid, the content of the scattered ray was the lowest with the single content of the scattered ray was the lowest with the single-phase rectifier (18.258%), was increased with the rectifier (25.502%) and the 24-peaks rectification (24.217%). Furthermore, there was difference up to content 7.244% to the lowest content 1.285% within three-phase 24-peaks rectification, inverter rectifications, and single-phase rectifier depending on the selectivity of the grid. Drawn from the statistical analysis, there was a similar relationship between the contrast improvement factor and the K factor. As a result, the grid selectivity and the contrast were increased within the single-phase rectifier rather than the constant voltage rectifier

  1. Radio and X-ray observations of a multiple impulsive solar burst with high time resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosugi, T.

    1981-01-01

    A well-developed multiple impulsive microwave burst occurred on February 17, 1979 simultaneously with a hard X-ray burst and a large group of type III bursts at metric wavelengths. The whole event is composed of serveral subgroups of elementary spike bursts. Detailed comparisons between these three classes of emissions with high time resolution of approx. equal to0.5 s reveal that individual type III bursts coincide in time with corresponding elementary X-ray and microwave spike bursts. It suggests that a non-thermal electron pulse generating a type III spike burst is produced simultaneously with those responsible for the corresponding hard X-ray and microwave spike bursts. The rise and decay characteristic time scales of the elementary spike burst are << 1 s, and approx. equal to1 s and approx. equal to3 s for type III, hard X-ray and microwave emissions respectively. Radio interferometric observations made at 17 GHz reveal that the spatial structure varies from one subgroup to others while it remains unchanged in a subgroup. Spectral evolution of the microwave burst seems to be closely related to the spatial evolution. The spatial evolution together with the spectral evolution suggests that the electron-accelerating region shifts to a different location after it stays at one location for several tens of seconds, duration of a subgroup of elementary spike bursts. We discuss several requirements for a model of the impulsive burst which come out from these observational results, and propose a migrating double-source model. (orig.)

  2. Extracting chemical information from high-resolution Kβ X-ray emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limandri, S.; Robledo, J.; Tirao, G.

    2018-06-01

    High-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy allows studying the chemical environment of a wide variety of materials. Chemical information can be obtained by fitting the X-ray spectra and observing the behavior of some spectral features. Spectral changes can also be quantified by means of statistical parameters calculated by considering the spectrum as a probability distribution. Another possibility is to perform statistical multivariate analysis, such as principal component analysis. In this work the performance of these procedures for extracting chemical information in X-ray emission spectroscopy spectra for mixtures of Mn2+ and Mn4+ oxides are studied. A detail analysis of the parameters obtained, as well as the associated uncertainties is shown. The methodologies are also applied for Mn oxidation state characterization of double perovskite oxides Ba1+xLa1-xMnSbO6 (with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.7). The results show that statistical parameters and multivariate analysis are the most suitable for the analysis of this kind of spectra.

  3. Fast plasma discharge capillary design as a high power throughput soft x-ray emission source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyndham, E S; Favre, M; Valdivia, M P; Valenzuela, J C; Chuaqui, H; Bhuyan, H

    2010-09-01

    We present the experimental details and results from a low energy but high repetition rate compact plasma capillary source for extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray research and applications. Two lengths of capillary are mounted in two versions of a closely related design. The discharge operates in 1.6 and 3.2 mm inner diameter alumina capillaries of lengths 21 and 36 mm. The use of water both as dielectric and as coolant simplifies the compact low inductance design with nanosecond discharge periods. The stored electrical energy of the discharge is approximately 0.5 J and is provided by directly charging the capacitor plates from an inexpensive insulated-gate bipolar transistor in 1 μs or less. We present characteristic argon spectra from plasma between 30 and 300 Å as well as temporally resolved x-ray energy fluence in discrete bands on axis. The spectra also allow the level of ablated wall material to be gauged and associated with useful capillary lifetime according to the chosen configuration and energy storage. The connection between the electron beams associated with the transient hollow cathode mechanism, soft x-ray output, capillary geometry, and capillary lifetime is reported. The role of these e-beams and the plasma as measured on-axis is discussed. The relation of the electron temperature and the ionization stages observed is discussed in the context of some model results of ionization in a non-Maxwellian plasma.

  4. Quantum electrodynamics tests and X-rays standards using pionic atoms and highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino, Trassinelli

    2005-12-01

    The object of this thesis is to present a new measurement of the pion mass using pionic nitrogen X-ray spectroscopy and results on helium-like argon and sulphur spectroscopy. The new pion mass has been measured with an accuracy of 1.7 ppm, 30% better that the present world average value, and it is obtained from Bragg spectroscopy of 5 ->4 pionic nitrogen transitions using the theoretical predictions provided by quantum electrodynamics. We have got: m(π - ) = (139.571042 ± 0.000210 ± 0.000110) where the first error is due to the statistics and the second is the systematic error. I present the calculation of the hyperfine structure and recoil corrections for pionic atoms using a new perturbation method for the Klein-Gordon equation. The spectrometer used for this measurement has been characterized with the relativistic M1 transitions from helium-like ions produced with a new device, the Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion Trap. High statistics spectra from these ions have enabled us to measure transition energies with an accuracy of some ppm which has allowed us to compare theoretical predictions with experiment data. X-ray emission from pionic atoms and multicharged ions can be used to define new types of X-ray standards for energies of a few keV

  5. Probing the clumpy winds of giant stars with high mass X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Victoria; Hell, Natalie; Hirsch, Maria; Garcia, Javier; Huenemoerder, David; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Nowak, Michael; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schulz, Norbert S.; Sundqvists, Jon O.; Townsend, Richard D.; Wilms, Joern

    2016-04-01

    Line-driven winds from early type stars are structured, with small, overdense clumps embedded in tenuous hot gas. High mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), systems where a neutron star or a black hole accretes from the line-driven stellar wind of an O/B-type companion, are ideal for studying such winds: the wind drives the accretion onto the compact object and thus the X-ray production. The radiation from close to the compact object is quasi-pointlike and effectively X-rays the wind.We used RXTE and Chandra-HETG observations of two of the brightest HMXBs, Cyg X-1 and Vela X-1, to decipher their wind structure. In Cyg X-1, we show that the orbital variability of absorption can be only explained by a clumpy wind model and constrain the porosity of the wind as well as the onion-like structure of the clumps. In Vela X-1 we show, using the newest reference energies for low ionization Si-lines obtained with LLNL’s EBIT-I, that the ionized phase of the circumstellar medium and the cold clumps have different velocities.

  6. Highly ionized copper contribution to the soft X-ray emission in a plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoita, V; Patran, A [Inst. of Physics and Technology of Radiation Devices, Bucharest (Romania); Larour, J [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1997-12-31

    In order to discriminate between the contributions of the gas plasma and of the anode (solid or plasma) to the soft X-ray emission in a plasma focus device, a series of experiments was carried out using the following combinations of experimental conditions: various gases, different absorption filters and viewing different regions in front of the centre electrode. The experiments were performed on the IPF-2/20 plasma focus device using the following working gases: helium, neon and helium-argon mixtures. The diagnostics used: magnetic probe for current derivative, PIN diode for the minimum pinch radius detection, PIN diodes for the soft X-ray emission, scintillator-photomultiplier detector for the hard X-ray emission. From the analysis of the various diagnostics data recorded with very good time correlation, it followed that the soft K-ray signals had a strong contribution from optical transitions of the highly ionised Cu (Cu XX to XXII) emitting in the range 0.8-1.3 nm. (author). 7 figs., 9 refs.

  7. Heat transfer issues in high-heat-load synchrotron x-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.; Mills, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, a short description of the synchrotron radiation x-ray sources and the associated power loads is given, followed by a brief description of typical synchrotron components and their heat load. It is emphasized that the design goals for most of these components is to limit (a) temperature, (b) stresses, or (c) strains in the system. Each design calls for a different geometry, material selection, and cooling scheme. Cooling schemes that have been utilized so far are primarily single phase and include simple macrochannel cooling, microchannel cooling, contact cooling, pin-post cooling, porous-flow cooling, jet cooling, etc. Water, liquid metals, and various cryogenic coolants have been used. Because the trend in x-ray beam development is towards brighter (i.e., more powerful) beams and assuming that no radical changes in the design of x-ray generating machines occurs in the next few years, it is fair to state that the utilization of various effective cooling schemes and, in particular, two-phase flow (e.g., subcooled boiling) warrants further investigation. This, however, requires a thorough examination of stability and reliability of two-phase flows for high-heat-flux components operating in ultrahigh vacuum with stringent reliability requirements

  8. Large area, low capacitance Si(Li) detectors for high rate x-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossington, C.S.; Fine, P.M.; Madden, N.W.

    1992-10-01

    Large area, single-element Si(Li) detectors have been fabricated using a novel geometry which yields detectors with reduced capacitance and hence reduced noise at short amplifier pulse-processing times. A typical device employing the new geometry with a thickness of 6 mm and an active area of 175 mm 2 has a capacitance of only 0.5 pf, compared to 2.9 pf for a conventional planar device with equivalent dimensions. These new low capacitance detectors, used in conjunction with low capacitance field effect transistors, will result in x-ray spectrometers capable of operating at very high count rates while still maintaining excellent energy resolution. The spectral response of the low capacitance detectors to a wide range of x-ray energies at 80 K is comparable to typical state-of-the-art conventional Si(Li) devices. In addition to their low capacitance, the new devices offer other advantages over conventional detectors. Detector fabrication procedures, I-V and C-V characteristics, noise performance, and spectral response to 2-60 keV x-rays are described

  9. Monte Carlo simulation on hard X-ray dose produced in interaction between high intensity laser and solid target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Qiu Rui; Li Junli; Zhang Hui

    2014-01-01

    The X-ray dose produced in the interaction between high intensity laser and solid target was studied by simulation using Monte Carlo code. Compared with experimental results, the calculation model was verified. The calculation model was used to study the effect on X-ray dose with different electron temperatures, target materials (including Au, Cu and PE) and thicknesses. The results indicate that the X-ray dose is mainly determined by the electron temperature, and will be affected by the target parameters. X-ray dose of Au is about 1.2 times that of Cu, and is about 5 times that of PE (polyethylene). In addition, compared with other target thickness, when target thickness is the mean range of electron in the target, X-ray dose is relatively large. These results will provide references on evaluating the ionizing radiation dose for laser devices. (authors)

  10. High-resolution imaging of coronary calcifications by intense low-energy fluoroscopic X-ray obtained from synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, S.; Sugishita, Y.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Tada, J.; Hyodo, K.; Ando, M. [Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Cardiology

    2000-07-01

    In order to obtain an intense monochromatic low-energy X-ray from synchrotron radiation (SR) and apply it to detect coronary calcifications, the SR beam was reflected with a silicon crystal to be expanded (150 mm in height and 80 mm in width) and to be monochromatized at an energy level of 37 keV. The X-ray was intermittently irradiated to obtain dynamic imaging of 30 images/s. Images were recorded by a digital fluorography system. The low-energy X-ray from SR sharply visualized calcification of coronary arteries, while conventional X-ray could not visualize coronary calcification. The intense monochromatic low-energy X-ray from SR is sensitive, has high-resolution for imaging coronary calcification and may serve as a screening method for coronary artery disease.

  11. The high energy X-ray spectrum of 4U 0900-40 observed from OSO 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, J. F.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.; Ellison, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    The X-ray source 4U 0900-40 (= Vela XR-1) was observed with the high-energy X-ray spectrometer on OSO 8 for one week in 1976 and three weeks in 1978. Spectra of the source are presented above 16 keV. No systematic difference exists between the X-ray eclipse centers and the eclipse centers predicted from optical ephermerides. Short period intrinsic variability in the system's X-ray intensity may be related to changes in the Compton scattering optical depth in the system and does not require sporadic mass transfer via Roche lobe overflow. The 282 s modulation in the source's X-ray flux above 21 keV consists of two essentially similar pulses per period, most easily interpreted as arising from the two different magnetic poles of a rotating neutron star. The secondary appears to be a spherically accreting, magnetic neutron star.

  12. X-ray imaging for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures using Paris-Edinburgh press

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Park, Changyong; Shen, Guoyin; Shibazaki, Yuki; Wang, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    Several X-ray techniques for studying structure, elastic properties, viscosity, and immiscibility of liquids at high pressures have been integrated using a Paris-Edinburgh press at the 16-BM-B beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. Here, we report the development of X-ray imaging techniques suitable for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures. White X-ray radiography allows for imaging phase separation and immiscibility of melts at high pressures, identified not only by density contrast but also by phase contrast imaging in particular for low density contrast liquids such as silicate and carbonate melts. In addition, ultrafast X-ray imaging, at frame rates up to ∼10 5 frames/second (fps) in air and up to ∼10 4 fps in Paris-Edinburgh press, enables us to investigate dynamics of liquids at high pressures. Very low viscosities of melts similar to that of water can be reliably measured. These high-pressure X-ray imaging techniques provide useful tools for understanding behavior of liquids or melts at high pressures and high temperatures

  13. X-ray imaging for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures using Paris-Edinburgh press

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Park, Changyong; Shen, Guoyin [HPCAT, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Shibazaki, Yuki [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramaki aza Aoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Wang, Yanbin [GeoSoilEnviroCARS, Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Several X-ray techniques for studying structure, elastic properties, viscosity, and immiscibility of liquids at high pressures have been integrated using a Paris-Edinburgh press at the 16-BM-B beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. Here, we report the development of X-ray imaging techniques suitable for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures. White X-ray radiography allows for imaging phase separation and immiscibility of melts at high pressures, identified not only by density contrast but also by phase contrast imaging in particular for low density contrast liquids such as silicate and carbonate melts. In addition, ultrafast X-ray imaging, at frame rates up to ∼10{sup 5} frames/second (fps) in air and up to ∼10{sup 4} fps in Paris-Edinburgh press, enables us to investigate dynamics of liquids at high pressures. Very low viscosities of melts similar to that of water can be reliably measured. These high-pressure X-ray imaging techniques provide useful tools for understanding behavior of liquids or melts at high pressures and high temperatures.

  14. Time-resolved materials science opportunities using synchrotron x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.C.; Tischler, J.Z.

    1995-06-01

    The high brightness, high intensity, and pulsed time-structure of synchrotron sources provide new opportunities for time-resolved x-ray diffraction investigations. With third generation synchrotron sources coming on line, high brilliance and high brightness are now available in x-ray beams with the highest flux. In addition to the high average flux, the instantaneous flux available in synchrotron beams is greatly enhanced by the pulsed time structure, which consists of short bursts of x-rays that are separated by ∼tens to hundreds of nanoseconds. Time-resolved one- and two-dimensional position sensitive detection techniques that take advantage of synchrotron radiation for materials science x-ray diffraction investigations are presented, and time resolved materials science applications are discussed in terms of recent diffraction and spectroscopy results and materials research opportunities

  15. Structural studies of disordered materials using high-energy x-ray diffraction from ambient to extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, Shinji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Itou, Masayoshi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Suzuya, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (J-PARC/JAEA), Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Inamura, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (J-PARC/JAEA), Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sakurai, Yoshiharu [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ohishi, Yasuo [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Takata, Masaki [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2007-12-19

    High-energy x-rays from a synchrotron radiation source allow us to obtain high-quality diffraction data for disordered materials from ambient to extreme conditions, which is necessary for revealing the detailed structures of glass, liquid and amorphous materials. We introduced high-energy x-ray diffraction beamlines and a dedicated diffractometer for glass, liquid and amorphous materials at SPring-8 and report the recent developments of ancillary equipment. Furthermore, the structures of liquid and amorphous materials determined from the high-energy x-ray diffraction data obtained at SPring-8 are discussed.

  16. Non-Deforming, High-Reflectance X-ray Coatings for Lynx and Other Future Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, David

    The overarching challenge addressed by this proposal is the development of highreflectance, high-resolution X-ray mirrors, to be used for the construction of lightweight X-ray telescopes for future NASA astronomy missions such as Lynx and others. The proposal's two specific aims are: 1) the development of optimized iridium-based interference coatings for the 0.1–10 keV band; and 2) the development of methods to mitigate coating-stress-induced substrate deformations in thin-shell glass and Si mirror segments. These goals will be achieved by building on established film deposition techniques and metrology infrastructure for X-ray optics that have been developed and advanced by the PI through APRA funding since 1999. Specific Aim #1: Interference Coatings for the 0.1–10 keV Energy Band Telescope effective area can be maximized by using Ir-based reflective coatings that exploit optical interference to provide higher reflectance than Ir alone. However, only preliminary investigations of such coatings have been conducted thus far; more research is required to fully optimize these coatings for maximum performance, to experimentally determine the coating designs that are feasible, and to determine the achievable X-ray reflectance, film stress, surface roughness, and thermal and temporal stability. The first specific aim of this proposal is to reach these very goals through a comprehensive research program. Demonstration of the achievable reflectance, stress, and roughness in stable, optimized coatings will in turn facilitate global telescope design optimization, by identifying the best coating for each mirror shell based on incidence angle, and on telescope effective-area and field-of-view requirements. The research has the potential to greatly increase the effective area of future X-ray telescopes. Specific Aim #2: Mitigation of Coating-Stress-Induced Substrate Deformations High-quality films of Ir and other candidate materials (e.g., B4C) to be investigated for the 0

  17. Laser micromachining of cadmium tungstate scintillator for high energy X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Sion Andreas

    Pulsed laser ablation has been investigated as a method for the creation of thick segmented scintillator arrays for high-energy X-ray radiography. Thick scintillators are needed to improve the X-ray absorption at high energies, while segmentation is required for spatial resolution. Monte-Carlo simulations predicted that reflections at the inter-segment walls were the greatest source of loss of scintillation photons. As a result of this, fine pitched arrays would be inefficient as the number of reflections would be significantly higher than in large pitch arrays. Nanosecond and femtosecond pulsed laser ablation was investigated as a method to segment cadmium tungstate (CdWO_4). The effect of laser parameters on the ablation mechanisms, laser induced material changes and debris produced were investigated using optical and electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for both types of lasers. It was determined that nanosecond ablation was unsuitable due to the large amount of cracking and a heat affected zone created during the ablation process. Femtosecond pulsed laser ablation was found to induce less damage. The optimised laser parameters for a 1028 nm laser was found to be a pulse energy of 54 μJ corresponding to a fluence of 5.3 J cm. -2 a pulse duration of 190 fs, a repetition rate of 78.3 kHz and a laser scan speed of 707 mm s. -1 achieving a normalised pulse overlap of 0.8. A serpentine scan pattern was found to minimise damage caused by anisotropic thermal expansion. Femtosecond pulsed ablation was also found to create a layer of tungsten and cadmium sub-oxides on the surface of the crystals. The CdWO_4 could be cleaned by immersing the CdWO_4 in ammonium hydroxide at 45°C for 15 minutes. However, XPS indicated that the ammonium hydroxide formed a thin layer of CdCO_3 and Cd(OH)_2 on the surface. Prototype arrays were shown to be able to resolve features as small as 0.5 mm using keV energy X-rays. The most

  18. High-Resolution Detector for At-Wavelength Metrology of X-Ray Optics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since the launch of the first X-ray focusing telescope in 1963, the development of grazing incidence X-ray optics has been crucial to the development of the field of...

  19. High-Resolution Detector for At-Wavelength Metrology of X-Ray Optics, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since the launch of the first X-ray focusing telescope in 1963, the development of grazing incidence X-ray optics has been crucial to the development of the field of...

  20. High Brightness, Laser-Driven X-ray Source for Nanoscale Metrology and Femtosecond Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siders, C W; Crane, J K; Semenov, V; Betts, S; Kozioziemski, B; Wharton, K; Wilks, S; Barbee, T; Stuart, B; Kim, D E; An, J; Barty, C

    2007-02-26

    This project developed and demonstrated a new, bright, ultrafast x-ray source based upon laser-driven K-alpha generation, which can produce an x-ray flux 10 to 100 times greater than current microfocus x-ray tubes. The short-pulse (sub-picosecond) duration of this x-ray source also makes it ideal for observing time-resolved dynamics of atomic motion in solids and thin films.

  1. Radiation effects for high-energy protons and X-ray in integrated circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, M.A.G.; Santos, R.B.B. [Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Medina, N.H.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Lima, J.A. de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Cirne, K.H. [Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Electronic circuits are strongly influenced by ionizing radiation. The necessity to develop integrated circuits (IC's) featuring radiation hardness is largely growing to meet the stringent environment in space electronics [1]. This work aims to development a test platform to qualify electronic devices under the influence of high radiation dose, for aerospace applications. To understand the physical phenomena responsible for changes in devices exposed to ionizing radiation several kinds of radiation should then be considered, among them heavy ions, alpha particles, protons, gamma and X-rays. Radiation effects on the ICs are usually divided into three categories: Total Ionizing Dose (TID), a cumulative dose that shifts the threshold voltage and increases transistor's off-state current; Single Events Effects (SEE), a transient effect which can deposit charge directly into the device and disturb the properties of electronic circuits and Displacement Damage (DD) which can change the arrangement of the atoms in the lattice [2]. In this study we are investigating the radiation effects in rectangular-gate and circular-gate MOSFETs, manufactured with standard CMOS fabrication process, using particle beams produced in electrostatic tandem accelerators and X-rays. Initial tests for TID effects were performed using the 1.7 MV 5SDH tandem Pelletron accelerator of the Instituto de Fisica da USP with a proton beam of 2.6 MeV. The devices were exposed to different doses, varying the beam current, and irradiation time with the accumulated dose reaching up to Grad. To study the effect of X-rays on the electronic devices, an XRD-7000 (Shimadzu) X-ray setup was used as a primary X-ray source. The devices were irradiated with a total dose from krad to Grad using different dose rates. The results indicate that changes of the I-V characteristic curve are strongly dependents on the geometry of the devices. [1] Duzellier, S., Aerospace Science and Technology 9, p. 93

  2. Topics in High-Energy Astrophysics: X-ray Time Lags and Gamma-ray Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, John J.

    2016-03-01

    The Universe is host to a wide variety of high-energy processes that convert gravitational potential energy or rest-mass energy into non-thermal radiation such as bremsstrahlung and synchrotron. Prevailing models of X-ray emission from accreting Black Hole Binaries (BHBs) struggle to simultaneously fit the quiescent X-ray spectrum and the transients which result in the phenomenon known as X-ray time lags. And similarly, classical models of diffusive shock acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae fail to explain the extreme particle acceleration in very short timescales as is inferred from recent gamma-ray flares from the Crab nebula. In this dissertation, I develop new exact analytic models to shed light on these intriguing processes. I take a fresh look at the formation of X-ray time lags in compact sources using a new mathematical approach in which I obtain the exact Green's function solution. The resulting Green's function allows one to explore a variety of injection scenarios, including both monochromatic and broadband (bremsstrahlung) seed photon injection. I obtain the exact solution for the dependence of the time lags on the Fourier frequency, for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous clouds. The model can successfully reproduce both the observed time lags and the quiescent X-ray spectrum using a single set of coronal parameters. I show that the implied coronal radii in the new model are significantly smaller than those obtained in the Monte Carlo simulations, hence greatly reducing the coronal heating problem. Recent bright gamma-ray flares from the Crab nebula observed by AGILE and Fermi reaching GeV energies and lasting several days challenge the contemporary model for particle acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae, specifically the diffusive shock acceleration model. Simulations indicate electron/positron pairs in the Crab nebula pulsar wind must be accelerated up to PeV energies in the presence of ambient magnetic fields with strength B ~100 microG. No

  3. A highly sensitive x-ray imaging modality for hepatocellular carcinoma detection in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Danielle; Walsh, Edward G.; Derdak, Zoltan; Wands, Jack R.; Rose-Petruck, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Innovations that improve sensitivity and reduce cost are of paramount importance in diagnostic imaging. The novel x-ray imaging modality called spatial frequency heterodyne imaging (SFHI) is based on a linear arrangement of x-ray source, tissue, and x-ray detector, much like that of a conventional x-ray imaging apparatus. However, SFHI rests on a complete paradigm reversal compared to conventional x-ray absorption-based radiology: while scattered x-rays are carefully rejected in absorption-based x-ray radiology to enhance the image contrast, SFHI forms images exclusively from x-rays scattered by the tissue. In this study we use numerical processing to produce x-ray scatter images of hepatocellular carcinoma labeled with a nanoparticle contrast agent. We subsequently compare the sensitivity of SFHI in this application to that of both conventional x-ray imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although SFHI is still in the early stages of its development, our results show that the sensitivity of SFHI is an order of magnitude greater than that of absorption-based x-ray imaging and approximately equal to that of MRI. As x-ray imaging modalities typically have lower installation and service costs compared to MRI, SFHI could become a cost effective alternative to MRI, particularly in areas of the world with inadequate availability of MRI facilities.

  4. Very high resolution UV and x-ray spectroscopy and imagery of solar active regions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, M.; Brown, W.A.; Haisch, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    A scientific investigation of the physics of the solar atmosphere, which uses the techniques of high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy and high resolution UV imagery, is described. The experiments were conducted during a series of three sounding rocket flights. All three flights yielded excellent images in the UV range, showing unprecedented spatial resolution. The second flight recorded the x-ray spectrum of a solar flare, and the third that of an active region. A normal incidence multi-layer mirror was used during the third flight to make the first astronomical x-ray observations using this new technique

  5. Storage of laser pulses in a Fabry-Perot optical cavity for high flux x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezawa, K.; Honda, Y.; Sasao, N.; Araki, S.; Higashi, Y.; Taniguchi, T.; Urakawa, J.; Nomura, M.; Sakai, H.

    2004-01-01

    We have a plan to produce a high flux x-ray for medical use by using a Fabry-Perot optical cavity in which the lower pulses from a mode-locked laser are stored and enhanced. In this plan, the X-ray is produced from the Compton scattering of electrons in a storage ring with the laser light in the optical cavity. In order to increase X-ray flux, high power laser light is necessary. We show the enhancement of the laser power from the model locked laser with a Fabry-Perot optical cavity. (author)

  6. A high-transparency, micro-patternable chip for X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals under native growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Thomas D. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Lyubimov, Artem Y. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ogata, Craig M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Vo, Huy [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Brunger, Axel T., E-mail: brunger@stanford.edu [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Berger, James M., E-mail: brunger@stanford.edu [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-09-26

    A highly X-ray-transparent, silicon nitride-based device has been designed and fabricated to harvest protein microcrystals for high-resolution X-ray diffraction data collection using microfocus beamlines and XFELs. Microcrystals present a significant impediment to the determination of macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods. Although microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from microcrystals, there is a need for efficient methods of harvesting small volumes (<2 µl) of microcrystals grown under common laboratory formats and delivering them to an X-ray beam source under native growth conditions. One approach that shows promise in overcoming the challenges intrinsic to microcrystal analysis is to pair so-called ‘fixed-target’ sample-delivery devices with microbeam-based X-ray diffraction methods. However, to record weak diffraction patterns it is necessary to fabricate devices from X-ray-transparent materials that minimize background scattering. Presented here is the design of a new micro-diffraction device consisting of three layers fabricated from silicon nitride, photoresist and polyimide film. The chip features low X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption properties, and uses a customizable blend of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface patterns to help localize microcrystals to defined regions. Microcrystals in their native growth conditions can be loaded into the chips with a standard pipette, allowing data collection at room temperature. Diffraction data collected from hen egg-white lysozyme microcrystals (10–15 µm) loaded into the chips yielded a complete, high-resolution (<1.6 Å) data set sufficient to determine a high-quality structure by molecular replacement. The features of the chip allow the rapid and user-friendly analysis of microcrystals grown under virtually any laboratory format at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and XFELs.

  7. A high-transparency, micro-patternable chip for X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals under native growth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Thomas D.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Ogata, Craig M.; Vo, Huy; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-01-01

    A highly X-ray-transparent, silicon nitride-based device has been designed and fabricated to harvest protein microcrystals for high-resolution X-ray diffraction data collection using microfocus beamlines and XFELs. Microcrystals present a significant impediment to the determination of macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods. Although microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from microcrystals, there is a need for efficient methods of harvesting small volumes (<2 µl) of microcrystals grown under common laboratory formats and delivering them to an X-ray beam source under native growth conditions. One approach that shows promise in overcoming the challenges intrinsic to microcrystal analysis is to pair so-called ‘fixed-target’ sample-delivery devices with microbeam-based X-ray diffraction methods. However, to record weak diffraction patterns it is necessary to fabricate devices from X-ray-transparent materials that minimize background scattering. Presented here is the design of a new micro-diffraction device consisting of three layers fabricated from silicon nitride, photoresist and polyimide film. The chip features low X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption properties, and uses a customizable blend of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface patterns to help localize microcrystals to defined regions. Microcrystals in their native growth conditions can be loaded into the chips with a standard pipette, allowing data collection at room temperature. Diffraction data collected from hen egg-white lysozyme microcrystals (10–15 µm) loaded into the chips yielded a complete, high-resolution (<1.6 Å) data set sufficient to determine a high-quality structure by molecular replacement. The features of the chip allow the rapid and user-friendly analysis of microcrystals grown under virtually any laboratory format at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and XFELs

  8. High precision wavelength measurements of X-ray lines emitted from TS-Tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platz, P. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Cornille, M.; Dubau, J. [Observatoire de Paris, 92 - Meudon (France)

    1996-01-01

    X-ray line spectra from highly charged impurity ions have been taken with a high-resolution Bragg-crystal spectrometer on the Tore Supra (TS) tokamak. By cross-checking the wavelengths of reference lines from the heliumlike ions Ti20 + (2.6 Angstroms) and Ar16 + (3.95 Angstroms) we first demonstrate that it is possible to measure wavelengths with a precision, {lambda}/{delta}{lambda}, of better than 50000. We than determine the wavelengths of n=3 to n=2 transitions of neonlike Ag37+ in the 4 Angstroms spectral range. (authors). 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Development and features of an X-ray detector with high spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, H.

    1979-09-01

    A laboratory model of an X-ray detector with high spatial resolution was developed and constructed. It has no spectral resolution, but a local resolution of 20 μm which is about ten times as high as that of position-sensitive proportional counters and satisfies the requirements of the very best Wolter telescopes with regard to spatial resolution. The detector will be used for laboratory tests of the 80 cm Wolter telescope which is being developed for Spacelab flights. The theory of the wire grid detector and the physics of the photoelectric effect has been developed, and model calculations and numerical calculations have been carried out. (orig./WB) [de

  10. Scanning three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy using a high-energy microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Seno, Y.

    2016-01-01

    A scanning three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscope apparatus with a high-energy microbeam was installed at the BL33XU Toyota beamline at SPring-8. The size of the 50 keV beam focused using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors was 1.3 μm wide and 1.6 μm high in full width at half maximum. The scanning 3DXRD method was tested for a cold-rolled carbon steel sheet sample. A three-dimensional orientation map with 37 "3 voxels was obtained.

  11. Scanning three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy using a high-energy microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Y., E-mail: y-hayashi@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Hirose, Y.; Seno, Y. [Toyota Central R& D Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Nagakute Aichi 480-1192 Japan (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    A scanning three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscope apparatus with a high-energy microbeam was installed at the BL33XU Toyota beamline at SPring-8. The size of the 50 keV beam focused using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors was 1.3 μm wide and 1.6 μm high in full width at half maximum. The scanning 3DXRD method was tested for a cold-rolled carbon steel sheet sample. A three-dimensional orientation map with 37 {sup 3} voxels was obtained.

  12. A high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for near edge absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanoff, V.; Hamalainen, K.; Siddons, D.P.; Hastings, J.B.; Berman, L.E.; Cramer, S.; Smith, G.

    1991-01-01

    A high resolution fluorescence spectrometer using a Johann geometry in a back scattering arrangement was developed. The spectrometer, with a resolution of 0.3 eV at 6.5 keV, combined with an incident beam, with a resolution of 0.7 eV, form the basis of a high resolution instrument for measuring x-ray absorption spectra. The advantages of the instrument are illustrated with the near edge absorption spectrum of dysprosium nitrate. 10 refs., 4 figs

  13. Pulse repetition frequency effects in a high average power x-ray preionized excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, B.; Forestier, B.; Delaporte, P.; Canarelli, P.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental study of waves damping in a high repetition rate excimer laser is undertaken. Excitation of laser active medium in a subsonic loop is achieved by means of a classical discharge, through transfer capacitors. The discharge stability is controlled by a wire ion plasma (w.i.p.) X-rays gun. The strong acoustic waves induced by the active medium excitation may lead to a decrease, at high PRF, of the energy per pulse. First results of the influence of a damping of induced density perturbations between two successive pulses are presented

  14. High-resolution x-ray scattering studies of charge ordering in highly correlated electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazi, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Many important properties of transition metal oxides such as, copper oxide high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) in manganites are due to strong electron-electron interactions, and hence these systems are called highly correlated systems. These materials are characterised by the coexistence of different kinds of order, including charge, orbital, and magnetic moment. This thesis contains high-resolution X-ray scattering studies of charge ordering in such systems namely the high-T C copper oxides isostructural system, La 2-x Sr x NiO 4 with various Sr concentrations (x = 0.33 - 0.2), and the CMR manganite system, Nd 1/2 Sr 1/2 MnO 3 . It also includes a review of charge ordering in a large variety of transition metal oxides, such as ferrates, vanadates, cobaltates, nickelates, manganites, and cuprates systems, which have been reported to date in the scientific literature. Using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray scattering, it has been demonstrated that the charge stripes exist in a series of single crystals of La 2-x Sr x NiO 4 with Sr concentrations (x = 0.33 - 0.2) at low temperatures. Satellite reflections due to the charge ordering were found with the wavevector (2ε, 0, 1) below the charge ordering transition temperature, T CO , where 2ε is the amount of separation from the corresponding Bragg peak. The charge stripes are shown to be two-dimensional in nature both by measurements of their correlation lengths and by measurement of the critical exponents of the charge stripe melting transition with an anomaly at x = 0.25. The results show by decreasing the hole concentration from the x = 0.33 to 0.2, the well-correlated charge stripes change to a glassy state at x = 0.25. The electronic transition into the charge stripe phase is second-order without any corresponding structural transition. Above the second-order transition critical scattering was observed due to fluctuations into the charge stripe phase. In a single-crystal of Nd

  15. Design and image-quality performance of high resolution CMOS-based X-ray imaging detectors for digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, B. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Yun, S.; Cho, G.; Kim, H. K.; Seo, C.-W.; Jeon, S.; Huh, Y.

    2012-04-01

    In digital X-ray imaging systems, X-ray imaging detectors based on scintillating screens with electronic devices such as charge-coupled devices (CCDs), thin-film transistors (TFT), complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) flat panel imagers have been introduced for general radiography, dental, mammography and non-destructive testing (NDT) applications. Recently, a large-area CMOS active-pixel sensor (APS) in combination with scintillation films has been widely used in a variety of digital X-ray imaging applications. We employed a scintillator-based CMOS APS image sensor for high-resolution mammography. In this work, both powder-type Gd2O2S:Tb and a columnar structured CsI:Tl scintillation screens with various thicknesses were fabricated and used as materials to convert X-ray into visible light. These scintillating screens were directly coupled to a CMOS flat panel imager with a 25 × 50 mm2 active area and a 48 μm pixel pitch for high spatial resolution acquisition. We used a W/Al mammographic X-ray source with a 30 kVp energy condition. The imaging characterization of the X-ray detector was measured and analyzed in terms of linearity in incident X-ray dose, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE).

  16. High-pressure pair distribution function (PDF) measurement using high-energy focused x-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Xinguo, E-mail: xhong@bnl.gov; Weidner, Donald J. [Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Ehm, Lars [Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Zhong, Zhong; Ghose, Sanjit [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Duffy, Thomas S. [Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    In this paper, we report recent development of the high-pressure pair distribution function (HP-PDF) measurement technique using a focused high-energy X-ray beam coupled with a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The focusing optics consist of a sagittally bent Laue monochromator and Kirkpatrick-Baez (K–B) mirrors. This combination provides a clean high-energy X-ray beam suitable for HP-PDF research. Demonstration of the HP-PDF technique for nanocrystalline platinum under quasi-hydrostatic condition above 30 GPa is presented.

  17. High-intensity X-rays interaction with matter processes in plasmas, clusters, molecules and solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P

    2012-01-01

    Filling the need for a book bridging the effect of matter on X-ray radiation and the interaction of x-rays with plasmas, this monograph provides comprehensive coverage of the topic. As such, it presents and explains such powerful new X-ray sources as X-ray free-electron lasers, as well as short pulse interactions with solids, clusters, molecules, and plasmas, and X-ray matter interactions as a diagnostic tool. Equally useful for researchers and practitioners working in the field.

  18. High-resolution 3D X-ray imaging of intracranial nitinol stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snoeren, Rudolph M.; With, Peter H.N. de; Soederman, Michael; Kroon, Johannes N.; Roijers, Ruben B.; Babic, Drazenko

    2012-01-01

    To assess an optimized 3D imaging protocol for intracranial nitinol stents in 3D C-arm flat detector imaging. For this purpose, an image quality simulation and an in vitro study was carried out. Nitinol stents of various brands were placed inside an anthropomorphic head phantom, using iodine contrast. Experiments with objects were preceded by image quality and dose simulations. We varied X-ray imaging parameters in a commercially interventional X-ray system to set 3D image quality in the contrast-noise-sharpness space. Beam quality was varied to evaluate contrast of the stents while keeping absorbed dose below recommended values. Two detector formats were used, paired with an appropriate pixel size and X-ray focus size. Zoomed reconstructions were carried out and snapshot images acquired. High contrast spatial resolution was assessed with a CT phantom. We found an optimal protocol for imaging intracranial nitinol stents. Contrast resolution was optimized for nickel-titanium-containing stents. A high spatial resolution larger than 2.1 lp/mm allows struts to be visualized. We obtained images of stents of various brands and a representative set of images is shown. Independent of the make, struts can be imaged with virtually continuous strokes. Measured absorbed doses are shown to be lower than 50 mGy Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). By balancing the modulation transfer of the imaging components and tuning the high-contrast imaging capabilities, we have shown that thin nitinol stent wires can be reconstructed with high contrast-to-noise ratio and good detail, while keeping radiation doses within recommended values. Experimental results compare well with imaging simulations. (orig.)

  19. Three-Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction Technique for Metals Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Fan, Guohua

    2017-01-01

    The three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) is a new, advanced technique for materials characterization. This technique utilizes high-energy synchrotron X-rays to characterize the 3D crystallographic structure and strain/stress state of bulk materials. As the measurement is non......-destructive, the microstructural evolution as a function of time can be followed, i.e. it allows 4D (x, y, z characterizations, t). The high brilliance of synchrotron X-rays ensures that diffraction signals from volumes of micrometer scale can be quickly detected and distinguished from the background noise, i.e. its spatial...... implemented in several large synchrotron facilities, e.g. the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in USA and the Spring-8 in Japan. Another family of 3DXRD technique that utilizes white beam synchrotron X-rays has also been developed in parallel in cooperation between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and APS...

  20. A water-cooled x-ray monochromator for using off-axis undulator beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.; Maser, J.

    2000-01-01

    Undulator beamlines at third-generation synchrotrons x-ray sources are designed to use the high-brilliance radiation that is contained in the central cone of the generated x-ray beams. The rest of the x-ray beam is often unused. Moreover, in some cases, such as in the zone-plate-based microfocusing beamlines, only a small part of the central radiation cone around the optical axis is used. In this paper, a side-station branch line at the Advanced Photon Source that takes advantage of some of the unused off-axis photons in a microfocusing x-ray beamline is described. Detailed information on the design and analysis of a high-heat-load water-cooled monochromator developed for this beamline is provided

  1. Dispersive XAS on a High Brilliance Source: Highlights and Future Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascarelli, S.; Aquilanti, G.; Guilera, G.; Mathon, O.; Newton, M. A.; Trapananti, A.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Munoz, M.; Pasquale, M.

    2007-01-01

    Energy Dispersive X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy is a now a well-established method which has been applied to a broad range of applications. Ten years from the construction of beamline ID24 at the ESRF, the first dispersive XAS spectrometer using undulator radiation on a third generation source, we report an overview of recent results in very diverse fields of research, ranging from automotive catalysts to magnetism at extreme conditions. We also illustrate how pushing the instrument to its limits has opened new opportunities, such as an enhanced sensitivity to detection of tiny atomic displacements and the potential for micro-probe redox and speciation imaging

  2. Extending the process limits of laser polymer welding with high-brilliance beam sources (recent status and prospects of POLYBRIGHT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowinsky, A.; Boglea, A.

    2011-03-01

    Plastics play an important role in almost every facet of our lives and constitute a wide variety of products, from everyday products such as food and beverage packaging, over furniture and building materials to high tech products in the automotive, electronics, aerospace, white goods, medical and other sectors [1]. The objective of PolyBright, the European Research project on laser polymer welding, is to provide high speed and flexible laser manufacturing technology and expand the limits of current plastic part assembly. New laser polymer joining processes for optimized thermal management in combination with adapted wavelengths will provide higher quality, high processing speed up to 1 m/s and robust manufacturing processes at lower costs. Key innovations of the PolyBright project are fibre lasers with high powers up to 500 W, high speed scanning and flexible beam manipulation systems for simultaneous welding and high-resolution welding, such as dynamic masks and multi kHz scanning heads. With this initial step, PolyBright will break new paths in processing of advanced plastic products overcoming the quality and speed limitations of conventional plastic part assembly. Completely new concepts for high speed processing, flexibility and quality need to be established in combination with high brilliance lasers and related equipment. PolyBright will thus open new markets for laser systems with a short term potential of over several 100 laser installations per year and a future much larger market share in the still growing plastic market. PolyBright will hence establish a comprehensive and sustainable development activity on new high brilliance lasers that will strengthen the laser system industry.

  3. A compact x-ray free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.; Attac, M.; Cline, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    We present a design concept and simulation of the performance of a compact x-ray, free electron laser driven by ultra-high gradient rf-linacs. The accelerator design is based on recent advances in high gradient technology by a LLNL/SLAC/LBL collaboration and on the development of bright, high current electron sources by BNL and LANL. The GeV electron beams generated with such accelerators can be concerted to soft x-rays in the range from 2--10 nm by passage through short period, high fields strength wigglers as are being designed at Rocketdyne. Linear light sources of this type can produce trains of picosecond (or shorter) pulses of extremely high spectral brilliance suitable for flash holography of biological specimens in vivo and for studies of fast chemical reactions. 12 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Modern Progress and Modern Problems in High Resolution X-ray Absorption from the Cold Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Lia; Li, Haochuan; Heinz, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    With accurate cross-sections and higher signal-to-noise, X-ray spectroscopy can directly measure Milky Way gas and dust-phase metal abundances with few underlying assumptions. The X-ray energy band is sensitive to absorption by all abundant interstellar metals — carbon, oxygen, neon, silicon, magnesium, and iron — whether they are in gas or dust form. High resolution X-ray spectra from Galactic X-ray point sources can be used to directly measure metal abundances from all phases of the interstellar medium (ISM) along singular sight lines. We show our progress for measuring the depth of photoelectric absorption edges from neutral ISM metals, using all the observations of bright Galactic X-ray binaries available in the Chandra HETG archive. The cross-sections we use take into account both the absorption and scattering effects by interstellar dust grains on the iron and silicate spectral features. However, there are many open problems for reconciling X-ray absorption spectroscopy with ISM observations in other wavelengths. We will review the state of the field, lab measurements needed, and ways in which the next generation of X-ray telescopes will contribute.

  5. X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seres, Enikoe; Seres, Jozsef; Spielmann, Christian

    2006-01-01

    By irradiating He and Ne atoms with 3 mJ, 12 fs, near infrared laser pulses from a tabletop laser system, the authors generated spatially and temporally coherent x rays up to a photon energy of 3.5 keV. With this source it is possible to use high-harmonic radiation for x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range. They were able to clearly resolve the L absorption edges of titanium and copper and the K edges of aluminum and silicon. From the fine structure of the x-ray absorption they estimated the interatomic distances

  6. A digital miniature x-ray tube with a high-density triode carbon nanotube field emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kang, Jun-Tae; Choi, Sungyoul; Kim, Jae-Woo; Song, Yoon-Ho; Ahn, Seungjoon

    2013-01-01

    We have fabricated a digital miniature x-ray tube (6 mm in diameter and 32 mm in length) with a high-density triode carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitter for special x-ray applications. The triode CNT emitter was densely formed within a diameter of below 4 mm with the focusing-functional gate. The brazing process enables us to obtain and maintain a desired vacuum level for the reliable electron emission from the CNT emitters after the vacuum packaging. The miniature x-ray tube exhibited a stable and reliable operation over 250 h in a pulse mode at an anode voltage of above 25 kV.

  7. High Energy Laboratory Astrophysics using an X-Ray Microcalorimeter with an Electron Beam Ion Trap Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "Since the summer of 2000 we have successfully deployed a high resolution x-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer, based on the spaceflight XRS instrument, at the...

  8. High-temperature cuprate superconductors studied by x-ray Compton scattering and positron annihilation spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbiellini, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    The bulk Fermi surface in an overdoped (x = 0.3) single crystal of La 2−x Sr x CuO 4 has been observed by using x-ray Compton scattering. This momentum density technique also provides a powerful tool for directly seeing what the dopant Sr atoms are doing to the electronic structure of La 2 CuO 4 . Because of wave function effects, positron annihilation spectroscopy does not yield a strong signature of the Fermi surface in extended momentum space, but it can be used to explore the role of oxygen defects in the reservoir layers for promoting high temperature superconductivity.

  9. High-temperature cuprate superconductors studied by x-ray Compton scattering and positron annihilation spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiellini, Bernardo

    2013-06-01

    The bulk Fermi surface in an overdoped (x = 0.3) single crystal of La2-xSrxCuO4 has been observed by using x-ray Compton scattering. This momentum density technique also provides a powerful tool for directly seeing what the dopant Sr atoms are doing to the electronic structure of La2CuO4. Because of wave function effects, positron annihilation spectroscopy does not yield a strong signature of the Fermi surface in extended momentum space, but it can be used to explore the role of oxygen defects in the reservoir layers for promoting high temperature superconductivity.

  10. DEM L241, A SUPERNOVA REMNANT CONTAINING A HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seward, F. D.; Charles, P. A.; Foster, D. L.; Dickel, J. R.; Romero, P. S.; Edwards, Z. I.; Perry, M.; Williams, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    A Chandra observation of the Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant DEM L241 reveals an interior unresolved source which is probably an accretion-powered binary. The optical counterpart is an O5III(f) star making this a high-mass X-ray binary with an orbital period likely to be of the order of tens of days. Emission from the remnant interior is thermal and spectral information is used to derive density and mass of the hot material. Elongation of the remnant is unusual and possible causes of this are discussed. The precursor star probably had mass >25 M ☉

  11. DEM L241, A SUPERNOVA REMNANT CONTAINING A HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seward, F. D. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Charles, P. A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Foster, D. L. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Dickel, J. R.; Romero, P. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, 1919 Lomas Boulevard NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Edwards, Z. I.; Perry, M.; Williams, R. M. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Columbus State University, Coca Cola Space Science Center, 701 Front Avenue, Columbus, GA 31901 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    A Chandra observation of the Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant DEM L241 reveals an interior unresolved source which is probably an accretion-powered binary. The optical counterpart is an O5III(f) star making this a high-mass X-ray binary with an orbital period likely to be of the order of tens of days. Emission from the remnant interior is thermal and spectral information is used to derive density and mass of the hot material. Elongation of the remnant is unusual and possible causes of this are discussed. The precursor star probably had mass >25 M {sub Sun}.

  12. Comparative investigations of high resolution scanning systems for digitising X-ray films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessel, H.; Rose, P.

    1992-01-01

    The visual or computer-aided evaluation of digitised X-ray films in non-destructive material testing requires highly sensitive scanning systems. They must be able to resolve differences in blackening and convert them into digital data without loss, if possible. Only in this way is the detection of the finest cracks in weld seams or contraction in areas of great sudden changes in blackening of cast parts guaranteed. In the context of this work, measurements were carried out which describe the reproduction properties of different scanning systems. After a short explanation of the different scanning systems, the results of the measurements are shown and evaluated. (orig.) [de

  13. X-ray powder diffraction camera for high-field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, K; Mitsui, Y; Takahashi, K; Watanabe, K

    2009-01-01

    We have designed a high-field X-ray diffraction (HF-XRD) camera which will be inserted into an experimental room temperature bore (100 mm) of a conventional solenoid-type cryocooled superconducting magnet (10T-CSM). Using the prototype camera that is same size of the HF-XRD camera, a XRD pattern of Si is taken at room temperature in a zero magnetic field. From the obtained results, the expected ability of the designed HF-XRD camera is presented.

  14. The supersoft X-ray source in V5116 Sagittarii. I. The high resolution spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, G.; Ness, J. U.; Hernanz, M.; Greiner, J.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Classical nova explosions occur on the surface of an accreting white dwarf in a binary system. After ejection of a fraction of the envelope and when the expanding shell becomes optically thin to X-rays, a bright source of supersoft X-rays arises, powered by residual H burning on the surface of the white dwarf. While the general picture of the nova event is well established, the details and balance of accretion and ejection processes in classical novae are still full of unknowns. The long-term balance of accreted matter is of special interest for massive accreting white dwarfs, which may be promising supernova Ia progenitor candidates. Nova V5116 Sgr 2005b was observed as a bright and variable supersoft X-ray source by XMM-Newton in March 2007, 610 days after outburst. The light curve showed a periodicity consistent with the orbital period. During one third of the orbit the luminosity was a factor of seven brighter than during the other two thirds of the orbital period. Aims: In the present work we aim to disentangle the X-ray spectral components of V5116 Sgr and their variability. Methods: We present the high resolution spectra obtained with XMM-Newton RGS and Chandra LETGS/HRC-S in March and August 2007. Results: The grating spectrum during the periods of high-flux shows a typical hot white dwarf atmosphere dominated by absorption lines of N VI and N VII. During the low-flux periods, the spectrum is dominated by an atmosphere with the same temperature as during the high-flux period, but with several emission features superimposed. Some of the emission lines are well modeled with an optically thin plasma in collisional equilibrium, rich in C and N, which also explains some excess in the spectra of the high-flux period. No velocity shifts are observed in the absorption lines, with an upper limit set by the spectral resolution of 500 km s-1, consistent with the expectation of a non-expanding atmosphere so late in the evolution of the post-nova. Based on

  15. High-reliability, 4. pi. -scan, leakage-x-ray dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, T; Iida, H; Yoshida, T; Sugimoto, H [Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co. Ltd., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Tamagawa Works

    1978-04-01

    A world-wide movement is growing for the protection of living bodies against leakage radiations. In Japan, detailed regulations have been established for the enforcement of the law in regard to this problem. The substances of the measurement provided in the regulations are extremely diversified, much affecting the reliability and the economic efficiency of the equipment. Now a new 4..pi..-scan X-ray dosimeter with high reliability has been developed and proved to effect qualitative improvement of measurement as well as elevation of productivity.

  16. X-ray spectroscopy of highly ionised atoms of Ti through Zn in a dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Shiguro; Fujita, Junji

    1985-01-01

    X-ray spectra for several elements have been observed from a high-temperature plasma produced in a vacuum spark using a curved-crystal spectrometer. The transition wavelengths of the He-like resonance lines for Ti through Zn are determined for the first time under careful experimental treatments. The result is compared with theoretical predictions. The transition wavelengths of the Fe He-like resonance series lines up to 1s6p-1s 2 and the Kβ transition energies of Ti partially M-shell-ionised ions (Ti VI-XIII) are also determined. As a result, several satelite lines are found. (orig.)

  17. Highly efficient angularly resolving x-ray spectrometer optimized for absorption measurements with collimated sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Michal; Gonzalez, I.G.; Ekerfelt, H.; Svensson, J.B.; Hansson, M.; Wood, I. C.; Persson, A.; Mangles, S.P.D.; Lundh, O.; Falk, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 6 (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 063102. ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 654148 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : acceleration * measurments * x ray * high energy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2016

  18. Extension to Low Energies (<7keV) of High Pressure X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itie, J.-P.; Flank, A.-M.; Lagarde, P.; Idir, M.; Polian, A.; Couzinet, B.

    2007-01-01

    High pressure x-ray absorption has been performed down to 3.6 keV, thanks to the new LUCIA beamline (SLS, PSI) and to the use of perforated diamonds or Be gasket. Various experimental geometries are proposed, depending on the energy of the edge and on the concentration of the studied element. A few examples will be presented: BaTiO3 at the titanium K edge, Zn0.95 Mn0.05O at the manganese K edge, KCl at the potassium K edge

  19. High resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy: An advanced tool for actinide research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitova, T.; Brendebach, B.; Dardenne, K.; Denecke, M. A.; Lebid, A.; Löble, M.; Rothe, J.; Batuk, O. N.; Hormes, J.; Liu, D.; Breher, F.; Geckeis, H.

    2010-03-01

    High resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy (HRXES) is becoming increasingly important for our understanding of electronic and coordination structures. The combination of such information with development of quantum theoretical tools will advance our capability for predicting reactivity and physical behavior especially of 5f elements. HRXES can be used to remove lifetime broadening by registering the partial fluorescence yield emitted by the sample (i.e., recording a windowed signal from the energy dispersed fluorescence emission while varying incident photon energy), thereby yielding highly resolved X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra. Such spectra often display resonant features not observed in conventional XAFS. The spectrometer set-up can also be used for a wide range of other experiments, for example, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS), where bulk electron configuration information in solids, liquids and gases is obtained. Valence-selective XAFS studies, where the local structure of a selected element's valence state present in a mixture of valence states can be obtained, as well as site-selective XAFS studies, where the coordination structure of a metal bound to selected elements can be differentiated from that of all the other ligating atoms. A HRXES spectrometer has been constructed and is presently being commissioned for use at the INE-Beamline for actinide research at the synchrotron source ANKA at FZK. We present the spectrometer's compact, modular design, optimized for attaining a wide range of energies, and first test measurement results. Examples from HRXES studies of lanthanides, actinides counter parts, are also shown.

  20. SOFT X-RAY FEL BY CASCADING STAGES OF HIGH GAIN HARMONIC GENERATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    YU,L.H.

    2003-04-17

    Short wavelength Free-Electron Lasers are perceived as the next generation of synchrotron light sources. In the past decade, significant advances have been made in the theory and technology of high brightness electron beams and single pass FELs. These developments facilitate the construction of practical VUV FELs and make x-ray FELs possible. Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) and High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG)[17-19] are the two leading candidates for x-ray FELs. The first lasing of HGHG proof-of-principle experiment succeeded in August, 1999 in Brookhaven National Laboratory. The experimental results agree with the theory prediction. Compared with SASE FEL, the following advantages of HGHG FEL were confirmed; (1) Better longitudinal coherence, and hence, much narrower bandwidth than SASE. (2) More stable central wavelength, (3) More stable output energy. In this introduction, we will first briefly describe the principle of HGHG in Section A. Then in Section B, we give a general description about how to produce soft x-ray by cascading HGHG scheme. In section 2, we give a detailed description of the system design. Then, in section 3, we give a description of an analytical estimate for the HGHG process, and the calculation of the parameters of different parts of the system. The estimate is found to agree with simulation within about a factor 2 for most cases we studied. The stability issue, the sensitivity to parameter variation, the harmonic contents of the final output, and the noise degradation issue of such HGHG scheme are discussed in Section 4. The results are presented in Section 4. Finally, in Section 5, we will give some discussion of the challenges in development of the system. The conclusion is given in Section 6.

  1. High-resolution X-ray crystal structure of bovine H-protein using the high-pressure cryocooling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiura, Akifumi; Ohta, Kazunori; Masaki, Mika; Sato, Masaru; Inaka, Koji; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Using the high-pressure cryocooling method, the high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of bovine H-protein was determined at 0.86 Å resolution. This is the first ultra-high-resolution structure obtained from a high-pressure cryocooled crystal. Recently, many technical improvements in macromolecular X-ray crystallography have increased the number of structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank and improved the resolution limit of protein structures. Almost all high-resolution structures have been determined using a synchrotron radiation source in conjunction with cryocooling techniques, which are required in order to minimize radiation damage. However, optimization of cryoprotectant conditions is a time-consuming and difficult step. To overcome this problem, the high-pressure cryocooling method was developed (Kim et al., 2005 ▶) and successfully applied to many protein-structure analyses. In this report, using the high-pressure cryocooling method, the X-ray crystal structure of bovine H-protein was determined at 0.86 Å resolution. Structural comparisons between high- and ambient-pressure cryocooled crystals at ultra-high resolution illustrate the versatility of this technique. This is the first ultra-high-resolution X-ray structure obtained using the high-pressure cryocooling method

  2. A final report to the Laboratory Directed Research and Development committee on Project 93-ERP-075: ''X-ray laser propagation and coherence: Diagnosing fast-evolving, high-density laser plasmas using X-ray lasers''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Cauble, R.; Da Silva, L.B.; Libby, S.B.; Moreno, J.C.

    1996-02-01

    This report summarizes the major accomplishments of this three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Exploratory Research Project (ERP) entitled ''X-ray Laser Propagation and Coherence: Diagnosing Fast-evolving, High-density Laser Plasmas Using X-ray Lasers,'' tracking code 93-ERP-075. The most significant accomplishment of this project is the demonstration of a new laser plasma diagnostic: a soft x-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometer using a neonlike yttrium x-ray laser at 155 angstrom as the probe source. Detailed comparisons of absolute two-dimensional electron density profiles obtained from soft x-ray laser interferograms and profiles obtained from radiation hydrodynamics codes, such as LASNEX, will allow us to validate and benchmark complex numerical models used to study the physics of laser-plasma interactions. Thus the development of soft x-ray interferometry technique provides a mechanism to probe the deficiencies of the numerical models and is an important tool for, the high-energy density physics and science-based stockpile stewardship programs. The authors have used the soft x-ray interferometer to study a number of high-density, fast evolving, laser-produced plasmas, such as the dynamics of exploding foils and colliding plasmas. They are pursuing the application of the soft x-ray interferometer to study ICF-relevant plasmas, such as capsules and hohlraums, on the Nova 10-beam facility. They have also studied the development of enhanced-coherence, shorter-pulse-duration, and high-brightness x-ray lasers. The utilization of improved x-ray laser sources can ultimately enable them to obtain three-dimensional holographic images of laser-produced plasmas

  3. Thin Mirror Shaping Technology for High-Throughput X-ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattenburg, Mark

    This proposal is submitted to the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences program (ROSES-2012) in response to NASA Research Announcement NNH12ZDA001N- APRA. It is targeted to the Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Analysis (APRA) program element under the Supporting Technology category. Powerful x-ray telescope mirrors are critical components of a raft of small-to-large mission concepts under consideration by NASA. The science questions addressed by these missions have certainly never been more compelling and the need to fulfill NASA s core missions of exploring the universe and strengthening our nation s technology base has never been greater. Unfortunately, budgetary constraints are driving NASA to consider the cost/benefit and risk factors of new missions more carefully than ever. New technology for producing x-ray telescopes with increased resolution and collecting area, while holding down cost, are key to meeting these goals and sustaining a thriving high-energy astrophysics enterprise in the US. We propose to develop advanced technology which will lead to thin-shell x-ray telescope mirrors rivaling the Chandra x-ray telescope in spatial resolution but with 10-100X larger area all at significantly reduced weight, risk and cost. The proposed effort builds on previous research at MIT and complements NASA-supported research at other institutions. We are currently pursuing two thin-mirror technology development tracks which we propose to extend and accelerate with NASA support. The first research track utilizes rapidly-maturing thermal glass slumping technology which uses porous ceramic air-bearing mandrels to shape glass mirrors without touching, thus avoiding surface-induced mid-range spatial frequency ripples. A second research track seeks to remove any remaining mid- to long-range errors in mirrors by using scanning ion-beam implant to impart small, highly deterministic and very stable amounts of stress into thin glass, utilizing local

  4. Progress in target materials for high-efficiency X-ray backlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Ai; Zhou Bin; Li Longxiang; Zhu Xiurong; Li Yu'nong; Shen Jun; Gao Guohua; Zhang Zhihua; Wu Guangming

    2012-01-01

    The composition, microstructure and density of the target materials are the key parameters to determinate the photon energy and intensity of the laser-induced X-ray backlight. Thus the classification of backlight targets, the preparation of target materials and the interaction between targets and high power laser were introduced in this paper. Underdense targets were more competitive than traditional dense targets among the backlight targets. Nano-structured foam targets, which could be classified into nanofiber targets and aerogel targets, were regarded as novel high-efficiency underdense targets. Nanofiber, which was commonly prepared via electro spinning and thermal treatment, exhibited good formability and high concentration of emission atoms; while aerogel, which was prepared via sol-gel processes and supercritical fluid drying, possesses the advantages of homogeneous microstructure and theoretically high conversion efficiency, but accompanied with the disadvantages of complex synthetic processes and low concentration of emission atoms. To prepare monolithic aerogels with low density and high concentration of emission atoms via combined sol-gel theories may be the better design for the development of the laser-induced X-ray backlight. (authors)

  5. High resolution hard X-ray photoemission using synchrotron radiation as an essential tool for characterization of thin solid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.; Ikenaga, E.; Kobata, M.; Takeuchi, A.; Awaji, M.; Makino, H.; Chen, P.P.; Yamamoto, A.; Matsuoka, T.; Miwa, D.; Nishino, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Yao, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy using undulator X-rays at SPring-8 is quite feasible with both high resolution and high throughput. Here we report an application of hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy to the characterization of electronic and chemical states of thin solid films, for which conventional PES is not applicable. As a typical example, we focus on the problem of the scatter in the reported band-gap values for InN. We show that oxygen incorporation into the InN film strongly modifies the valence and plays a crucial role in the band gap problem. The present results demonstrate the powerful applicability of high resolution photoemission spectroscopy with hard X-rays from a synchrotron source

  6. X-ray optics developments at the APS for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1996-09-01

    High brilliance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources simultaneously provide both a need and an opportunity for the development of new x-ray optical components. The high power and power densities of the x-ray beams produced by insertion devices have forced researchers to consider novel, and what may seem like exotic, approaches to the mitigation of thermal distortions that can dilute the beam brilliance delivered to the experiment or next optical component. Once the power has been filtered by such high heat load optical elements, specialized components can be employed that take advantage of the high degree of brilliance. This presentation reviews the performance of optical components that have been designed, fabricated, and tested at the Advanced Photon Source, starting with high heat load components and followed by examples of several specialized devices such as a milli-eV resolution (in-line) monochromator, a high energy x-ray phase retarder, and a phase zone plate with submicron focusing capability

  7. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Stagg, L.; Lambert, T.W.; Griswa, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A patient support system for X-ray equipment in arteriographic studies of the heart is described in detail. The support system has been designed to overcome many of the practical problems encountered in using previous types of arteriographic X-ray equipment. The support system is capable of horizontal movement and, by a series of shafts attached to the main support system, the X-ray source and image intensifier or detector may be rotated through the same angle. The system is highly flexible and details are given of several possible operational modes. (U.K.)

  8. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of x-ray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes. 8 figures

  9. A novel monochromator for high heat-load synchrotron x-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The high heat load associated with the powerful and concentrated x-ray beams generated by the insertion devices at a number of present and many of the future (planned or under construction) synchrotron radiation facilities pose a formidable engineering challenge in the designer of the monochromators and other optical devices. For example, the Undulator A source on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) ring (being constructed at the Argonne National Laboratory) will generate as much as 10 kW of heat deposited on a small area (about 1 cm 2 ) of the first optics located some 24 m from the source. The peak normal incident heat flux can be as high as 500 W/mm 2 . Successful utilization of the intense x-ray beams from insertion devices critically depends on the development, design, and availability of optical elements that provide acceptable performance under high heat load. Present monochromators can handle, at best, heat load levels that are an order of magnitude lower than those generated by such sources. The monochromator described here and referred to as the open-quote inclinedclose quotes monochromator can provide a solution to high heat-load problems

  10. A high resolution small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) with x-ray tomographic guidance capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, John; Armour, Elwood; Kazanzides, Peter; Iordachita, Iulian; Tryggestad, Erik; Deng, Hua; Matinfar, Mohammad; Kennedy, Christopher; Liu, Zejian; Chan, Timothy; Gray, Owen; Verhaegen, Frank; McNutt, Todd; Ford, Eric; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the CT imaging, conformal irradiation and treatment planning capabilities of a small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). Methods The SARRP employs a dual-focal spot, constant voltage x-ray source mounted on a gantry with a source-to-isocenter distance of 35 cm. Gantry rotation is limited to 120° from vertical. Eighty to 100 kVp x-rays from the smaller 0.4 mm focal spot are used for imaging. Both 0.4 mm and 3.0 mm focal spots operate at 225 kVp for irradiation. Robotic translate/rotate stages are used to position the animal. Cone-beam (CB) CT imaging is achieved by rotating the horizontal animal between the stationary x-ray source and a flat-panel detector. Radiation beams range from 0.5 mm in diameter to (60 × 60) mm2. Dosimetry is measured with radio-chromic films. Monte Carlo dose calculations are employed for treatment planning. The combination of gantry and robotic stage motions facilitate conformal irradiation. Results The SARRP spans 3 ft × 4 ft × 6 ft (WxLxH). Depending on filtration, the isocenter dose outputs at 1 cm depth in water range from 22 to 375 cGy/min from the smallest to the largest radiation fields. The 20% to 80% dose fall-off spans 0.16 mm. CBCT with (0.6 × 0.6 × 0.6) mm3 voxel resolution is acquired with less than 1 cGy. Treatment planning is performed at sub-mm resolution. Conclusions The capability of the SARRP to deliver highly focal beams to multiple animal model systems provides new research opportunities that more realistically bridge laboratory research and clinical translation. PMID:18640502

  11. Hard x-ray monochromator with milli-electron volt bandwidth for high-resolution diffraction studies of diamond crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Shvyd' ko, Yuri; Shu Deming; Khachatryan, Ruben; Xiao, Xianghui; DeCarlo, Francesco; Goetze, Kurt; Roberts, Timothy; Roehrig, Christian; Deriy, Alexey [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    We report on design and performance of a high-resolution x-ray monochromator with a spectral bandwidth of {Delta}E{sub X}{approx_equal} 1.5 meV, which operates at x-ray energies in the vicinity of the backscattering (Bragg) energy E{sub H} = 13.903 keV of the (008) reflection in diamond. The monochromator is utilized for high-energy-resolution diffraction characterization of diamond crystals as elements of advanced x-ray crystal optics for synchrotrons and x-ray free-electron lasers. The monochromator and the related controls are made portable such that they can be installed and operated at any appropriate synchrotron beamline equipped with a pre-monochromator.

  12. A high-resolution x-ray spectrometer for a kaon mass measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, Kevin, E-mail: kevin.phelan@oeaw.ac.at [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of The Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Suzuki, Ken; Zmeskal, Johann [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of The Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Tortorella, Daniele [Payr Engineering GmbH, Wiederschwing 25, A-9564 Patergassen (Austria); Bühler, Matthias; Hertrich, Theo [Low Temperature Solutions UG, Bahnhofstraße 21, D-85737 Ismaning (Germany)

    2017-02-11

    The ASPECT consortium (Adaptable Spectrometer Enabled by Cryogenic Technology) is currently constructing a generalised cryogenic platform for cryogenic detector work which will be able to accommodate a wide range of sensors. The cryogenics system is based on a small mechanical cooler with a further adiabatic demagnetisation stage and will work with cryogenic detectors at sub-Kelvin temperatures. The commercial aim of the consortium is to produce a compact, user-friendly device with an emphasis on reliability and portability which can easily be transported for specialised on-site work, such as beam-lines or telescope facilities. The cryogenic detector platform will accommodate a specially developed cryogenic sensor, either a metallic magnetic calorimeter or a magnetic penetration-depth thermometer. The detectors will be designed to work in various temperatures regions with an emphasis on optimising the various detector resolutions for specific temperatures. One resolution target is of about 10 eV at the energies range typically created in kaonic atoms experiments (soft x-ray energies). A following step will see the introduction of continuous, high-power, sub-Kelvin cooling which will bring the cryogenic basis for a high resolution spectrometer system to the market. The scientific goal of the project will produce an experimental set-up optimised for kaon-mass measurements performing high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy on a beam-line provided foreseeably by the J-PARC (Tokai, Japan) or DAΦNE (Frascati, Italy) facilities.

  13. High pressure x-ray diffraction studies on U-Al systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, P.Ch.; Chandra Shekar, N.V.; Subramanian, N.; Yousuf, Mohammad; Govinda Rajan, K.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, high pressure x-ray diffraction studies of the three U-Al compounds, namely, UAl 2 , UAl 3 and UAl 4 are presented. The experiments are carried out using a unique diamond anvil high pressure x-ray diffraction system in the Guinier geometry up to a maximum pressure of ∼ 35 GPa. The compressibility behaviour of UAl 2 is consistent with its itinerant 5f states, whereas that of UAl 3 and UAl 4 indicate more towards their localized nature. Among these three compounds, a structural phase transition in UAl 2 has been observed at ∼ 11 GPa and the structure of the high pressure phase has been identified to be of MgNi 2 type with space group P6 3 /mmc. The structure of UAl 2 at NTP is of MgCu 2 type with space group Fd3m. From the electron to atom ratio (e/α) consideration, another structural phase transition, namely, MgNi 2 -MgCu 2 at a higher pressure is proposed. Further, on a similar consideration, a new pressure induced structural sequence, namely, MgCu 2 -MgNi 2 (or MgZn 2 -MgCu 2 ) in the AB 2 type compounds of the f electron based systems is suggested. (author)

  14. High resolution X-ray detector for synchrotron-based microtomography

    CERN Document Server

    Stampanoni, M; Wyss, P; Abela, R; Patterson, B; Hunt, S; Vermeulen, D; Rueegsegger, P

    2002-01-01

    Synchrotron-based microtomographic devices are powerful, non-destructive, high-resolution research tools. Highly brilliant and coherent X-rays extend the traditional absorption imaging techniques and enable edge-enhanced and phase-sensitive measurements. At the Materials Science Beamline MS of the Swiss Light Source (SLS), the X-ray microtomographic device is now operative. A high performance detector based on a scintillating screen optically coupled to a CCD camera has been developed and tested. Different configurations are available, covering a field of view ranging from 715x715 mu m sup 2 to 7.15x7.15 mm sup 2 with magnifications from 4x to 40x. With the highest magnification 480 lp/mm had been achieved at 10% modulation transfer function which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 1.04 mu m. A low-noise fast-readout CCD camera transfers 2048x2048 pixels within 100-250 ms at a dynamic range of 12-14 bit to the file server. A user-friendly graphical interface gives access to the main parameters needed for ...

  15. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  16. High pressure study of nanostructured Cu2Sb by X-ray Diffraction, Extended X-ray Absorption fine structure and Raman measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Sergio Michielon de; Triches, Daniela Menegon; Lima, Joao Cardoso de; Polian, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Nanostructured tetragonal Cu 2 Sb was prepared by mechanical alloying and its stability was studied as a function of pressure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and Raman spectroscopy. The high pressure XRD data were collected at 0.6, 1.1, 2.2, 3.4, 5.0, 7.1, 8.0, 9.9, 14.8, 18.7, 23.2, 29.3 and 40.6 GPa in the ELETTRA synchrotron (Italy) with λ = 0.68881 Å. The high pressure EXAFS measurements were carried out in the Soleil synchrotron (France) in 0.6, 1.8, 3.0, 4.5, 6.1, 8.0, 10.3, 12.7, 15.5, 18.0, 19.0, 20.0, 22.1, 23.9, 26.3 and 29.4 GPa and the high pressure Raman spectroscopy in the Institut de Mineralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condenses (France) collected at 0.1, 1.6, 3.7, 6.7, 11.2, 15.1, 19.4, 24.5, 30.8, 36.3, 41.3 and 44.5 GPa. The results show high structural and optical phase stability. The moduli bulk and its derivatives were obtained by using the Birch-Murnaghan equation of states to the XRD and EXAFS results. The evolution of the Raman modes and the bulk moduli were used to obtain the Grueneisen parameters. (author)

  17. CARNAÚBA: The Coherent X-Ray Nanoprobe Beamline for the Brazilian Synchrotron SIRIUS/LNLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolentino, Hélio C. N.; Soares, Márcio M.; Perez, Carlos A.; Vicentin, Flávio C.; Abdala, Dalton B.; Galante, Douglas; Teixeira, Verônica de C.; de Araújo, Douglas H. C.; Westfahl, Harry, Jr.

    2017-06-01

    The CARNAÚBA beamline is the tender-to-hard X-ray (2 - 15 keV) scanning nanoprobe planned for the 4th generation storage ring SIRIUS at the LNLS. CARNAÚBA uses an undulator source with vertical linear polarization in a low-beta straight section and grazing incidence-focusing mirrors to create a nanoprobe at 143 m from the source. The beamline optic is based on KB mirrors and provides high brilliance at an achromatic focal spot down to the diffraction limit diameter of ˜30 nm with a working distance of ˜6 cm. These characteristics are crucial for studying nanometric samples in experiments involving complex stages and environments. The CARNAÚBA beamline aims to perform raster scans using x-ray fluorescence, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and coherent x-ray imaging techniques. Computed tomography will extend these methods to three dimensions.

  18. Unsteady void measurements within debris beds using high speed X-ray tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurien, E., E-mail: Laurien@ike.uni-stuttgart.de; Stürzel, T., E-mail: thilo.stuerzel@stihl.de; Zhou, M., E-mail: mi.zhou@ike.uni-stuttgart.de

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A high speed X-ray tomography facility has been built for the investigation on two-phase flow. • The two-phase flow through beds of packed plastic spheres has been investigated in the facility. • 3D-reconstructions from the measurements show the fluxes in the two-phase flow. • The gas fraction has been calculated from the reconstruction and used for validation of the modeling. • A new bed with closest regular spheres arrangement has been manufactured by 3D-plotter and used in the measurement. - Abstract: Two-phase flow and boiling within debris beds representing a destroyed reactor core after a severe accident with core fragmentation can be simulated by using the porous media approach. In this approach, a local pressure drop and the heat transfer between the solid debris particles and the two-phase flow is modelled with the help flow-pattern maps, in which the boundaries between bubbly, slug, and annular flow are assumed. In order to support further understanding of these flows we have developed a very fast X-ray measurement device to visualize the 3D-void distribution within particle beds or porous media, which are otherwise un-accessible internally. The experimental setup uses a scanned electron beam directed in circles on a tungsten target to generate the X-rays. The particle bed, which has a diameter of 70 mm, is located between this target and a field of 256 X-ray detectors, which are arranged on a circle concentric to the target. The void distribution is reconstructed numerically from the attenuation of signals, which penetrates the particle bed and the two-phase flow inside. A 3D frame rate of up to 1000 Hz can be reached. The spatial resolution is such that bubbles with a diameter > 1.7 mm can be detected. We have investigated two-phase flows air/water through beds of packed plastic spheres (diameter between 3 and 15 mm) as well as through plastic beds, which were manufactured using a ‘3D-plotter’. Flow patterns can be

  19. X-ray grazing incidence studies of the 2D crystallization of monolayers of 1-alcohols at the air water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legrand, J.F.; Renault, A.; Konovalov, O.

    1994-01-01

    A new undulator producing an X-ray beam of high brilliance has been used at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF, Beamline-9, Troika) for investigating the structure of two-dimensional crystals of 1-tetradecanol, 1-dodecanol, 1-decanol and 1-nonanol. These fatty alcohols with relativ...

  20. Semiconductor-based narrow-line and high-brilliance 193-nm laser system for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalevs, D.; Scholz, M.; Stuhler, J.; Gilfert, C.; Liu, L. J.; Wang, X. Y.; Vetter, A.; Kirner, R.; Scharf, T.; Noell, W.; Rockstuhl, C.; Li, R. K.; Chen, C. T.; Voelkel, R.; Leisching, P.

    2018-02-01

    We present a novel industrial-grade prototype version of a continuous-wave 193 nm laser system entirely based on solid state pump laser technology. Deep-ultraviolet emission is realized by frequency-quadrupling an amplified diode laser and up to 20 mW of optical power were generated using the nonlinear crystal KBBF. We demonstrate the lifetime of the laser system for different output power levels and environmental conditions. The high stability of our setup was proven in > 500 h measurements on a single spot, a crystal shifter multiplies the lifetime to match industrial requirements. This laser improves the relative intensity noise, brilliance, wall-plug efficiency and maintenance cost significantly. We discuss first lithographic experiments making use of this improvement in photon efficiency.

  1. Differential effects of x-rays and high-energy 56Fe ions on human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpinski, Kyle; Jang, Deok-Jin; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Rydberg, Bjorn; Chu, Julia; So, Joanna; Wyrobek, Andy; Li, Song; Wang, Daojing

    2009-03-01

    Stem cells hold great potential for regenerative medicine, but they have also been implicated in cancer and aging. How different kinds of ionizing radiation affect stem cell biology remains unexplored. This study was designed to compare the biological effects of X-rays and of high-linear energy transfer (LET) (56)Fe ions on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). A multi-functional comparison was carried out to investigate the differential effects of X-rays and (56)Fe ions on hMSC. The end points included modulation of key markers such as p53, cell cycle progression, osteogenic differentiation, and pathway and networks through transcriptomic profiling and bioinformatics analysis. X-rays and (56)Fe ions differentially inhibited the cell cycle progression of hMSC in a p53-dependent manner without impairing their in vitro osteogenic differentiation process. Pathway and network analyses revealed that cytoskeleton and receptor signaling were uniquely enriched for low-dose (0.1 Gy) X-rays. In contrast, DNA/RNA metabolism and cell cycle regulation were enriched for high-dose (1 Gy) X-rays and (56)Fe ions, with more significant effects from (56)Fe ions. Specifically, DNA replication, DNA strand elongation, and DNA binding/transferase activity were perturbed more severely by 1 Gy (56)Fe ions than by 1 Gy X-rays, consistent with the significant G2/M arrest for the former while not for the latter. (56)Fe ions exert more significant effects on hMSC than X-rays. Since hMSC are the progenitors of osteoblasts in vivo, this study provides new mechanistic understandings of the relative health risks associated with low- and high-dose X-rays and high-LET space radiation.

  2. Differential Effects of X-Rays and High-Energy 56Fe Ions on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpinski, Kyle; Jang, Deok-Jin; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Rydberg, Bjorn; Chu, Julia; So, Joanna; Wyrobek, Andy; Li Song; Wang Daojing

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Stem cells hold great potential for regenerative medicine, but they have also been implicated in cancer and aging. How different kinds of ionizing radiation affect stem cell biology remains unexplored. This study was designed to compare the biological effects of X-rays and of high-linear energy transfer (LET) 56 Fe ions on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Methods and Materials: A multi-functional comparison was carried out to investigate the differential effects of X-rays and 56 Fe ions on hMSC. The end points included modulation of key markers such as p53, cell cycle progression, osteogenic differentiation, and pathway and networks through transcriptomic profiling and bioinformatics analysis. Results: X-rays and 56 Fe ions differentially inhibited the cell cycle progression of hMSC in a p53-dependent manner without impairing their in vitro osteogenic differentiation process. Pathway and network analyses revealed that cytoskeleton and receptor signaling were uniquely enriched for low-dose (0.1 Gy) X-rays. In contrast, DNA/RNA metabolism and cell cycle regulation were enriched for high-dose (1 Gy) X-rays and 56 Fe ions, with more significant effects from 56 Fe ions. Specifically, DNA replication, DNA strand elongation, and DNA binding/transferase activity were perturbed more severely by 1 Gy 56 Fe ions than by 1 Gy X-rays, consistent with the significant G2/M arrest for the former while not for the latter. Conclusions: 56 Fe ions exert more significant effects on hMSC than X-rays. Since hMSC are the progenitors of osteoblasts in vivo, this study provides new mechanistic understandings of the relative health risks associated with low- and high-dose X-rays and high-LET space radiation

  3. A HIGH REPETITION RATE VUV-SOFT X-RAY FEL CONCEPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.; Byrd, J.; Fawley, W.M.; Gullans, M.; Li, D.; Lidia, S.M.; Padmore, H.; Penn, G.; Pogorelov, I.; Qiang, J.; Robin, D.; Sannibale, F.; Staples, J.W.; Steier, C.; Venturini, M.; Virostek, S.; Wan, W.; Wells, R.; Wilcox, R.; Wurtele, J.; Zholents, A.

    2007-01-01

    We report on design studies for a seeded FEL light source that is responsive to the scientific needs of the future. The FEL process increases radiation flux by several orders of magnitude above existing incoherent sources, and offers the additional enhancements attainable by optical manipulations of the electron beam: control of the temporal duration and bandwidth of the coherent output, reduced gain length in the FEL, utilization of harmonics to attain shorter wavelengths, and precise synchronization of the x-ray pulse with seed laser systems. We describe an FEL facility concept based on a high repetition rate RF photocathode gun, that would allow simultaneous operation of multiple independent FEL's, each producing high average brightness, tunable over the VUV-soft x-ray range, and each with individual performance characteristics determined by the configuration of the FEL. SASE, enhanced-SASE (ESASE), seeded, harmonic generation, and other configurations making use of optical manipulations of the electron beam may be employed, providing a wide range of photon beam properties to meet varied user demands

  4. Development of a dual MCP framing camera for high energy x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, N., E-mail: izumi2@llnl.gov; Hall, G. N.; Carpenter, A. C.; Allen, F. V.; Cruz, J. G.; Felker, B.; Hargrove, D.; Holder, J.; Lumbard, A.; Montesanti, R.; Palmer, N. E.; Piston, K.; Stone, G.; Thao, M.; Vern, R.; Zacharias, R.; Landen, O. L.; Tommasini, R.; Bradley, D. K.; Bell, P. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2014-11-15

    Recently developed diagnostic techniques at LLNL require recording backlit images of extremely dense imploded plasmas using hard x-rays, and demand the detector to be sensitive to photons with energies higher than 50 keV [R. Tommasini et al., Phys. Phys. Plasmas 18, 056309 (2011); G. N. Hall et al., “AXIS: An instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using ARC on the NIF,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (these proceedings)]. To increase the sensitivity in the high energy region, we propose to use a combination of two MCPs. The first MCP is operated in a low gain regime and works as a thick photocathode, and the second MCP works as a high gain electron multiplier. We tested the concept of this dual MCP configuration and succeeded in obtaining a detective quantum efficiency of 4.5% for 59 keV x-rays, 3 times larger than with a single plate of the thickness typically used in NIF framing cameras.

  5. Time Integrated Soft X-ray Imaging in High Intensity Laser Experiments (thesis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafford, David [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    2009 marks a significant achievement and the dawn of a new era in high intensity laser research with the final commissioning of all 192 beams at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). NIF is a department of energy (DOE) funded project more than 10 years in the making located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The following research was done as one of many preliminary experiments done to prepare for these historic events. The primary focus of the experimental campaign this paper addresses is to test and develop a thermal x-radiation source using a short pulse laser. This data is hoped to provide information about the thermal transport mechanisms important in the development of prediction models in High Energy Density (HED) science. One of several diagnostics fielded was a soft x-ray imager (SXRI) which is detailed in this paper. The SXRI will be used to measure the relative size of the heated region and also the relative level of specific x-ray emissions among several shot and target configurations. The laser system used was the Titan laser located in the Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Titan uses the JLF Janus Nd:glass laser west frontend system with a Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification (OPCPA) in place of the nanosecond oscillator. The system is capable of producing laser intensities of over a petawatt with several tens of joules delivered in the beam.

  6. Characteristics of high-energy X-rays using computed radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Mori, Yoshinobu

    1993-01-01

    A computed radiography (CR) with storage phosphor technology has advanced remarkably. Its application has been also discussed regarding the field of radiotherapy and studies have been made to shift from the film/screen system to the portal film using the CR system. The authors started to research CR portal imaging with high energy X-ray (10MV) on a regular scale in 1989. This paper deals with characteristics of high energy X-rays using the CR system. The digital characteristic curve corresponded with calculated value for dynamic range (L-value). The monitor unit (MU) counts at pixel (digital) value saturation point were L-value 0.5:28 MU, L-value 1.0:50 MU, L-value 2.0:167 MU, L-value 3.0:450 MU, L-value 4.0:1614 MU. The image contrast with the Mix-Dp phantom was L-value 0.5: about a 300 pixel value and L-value 4.0: about a 30 pixel value by a phantom 10 to 18 cm in thickness. Optimum L-value was 0.5, and tone-scale was the straight type of CR portal imaging using the graphy count mode. Optimum L-value was 4.0, and tone-scale was a rectangular wave type of CR portal imaging using therapeutic doses, and those were also described by the histogram analysis. (author)

  7. Development of low temperature and high magnetic field X-ray diffraction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahee, Aga; Sharma, Shivani; Singh, K.; Lalla, N. P., E-mail: nplallaiuc82@gmail.com; Chaddah, P. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University campus, Khandwa Road, Indore-452001 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The current progress of materials science regarding multifunctional materials (MFM) has put forward the challenges to understand the microscopic origin of their properties. Most of such MFMs have magneto-elastic correlations. To investigate the underlying mechanism it is therefore essential to investigate the structural properties in the presence of magnetic field. Keeping this in view low temperature and high magnetic field (LTHM) powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), a unique state-of-art facility in the country has been developed at CSR Indore. This setup works on symmetric Bragg Brentano geometry using a parallel incident x-ray beam from a rotating anode source working at 17 kW. Using this one can do structural studies at non-ambient conditions i.e. at low- temperatures (2-300 K) and high magnetic field (+8 to −8 T). The available scattering angle ranges from 5° to 115° 2θ with a resolution better than 0.1°. The proper functioning of the setup has been checked using Si sample. The effect of magnetic field on the structural properties has been demonstrated on Pr{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} sample. Clear effect of field induced phase transition has been observed. Moreover, the effect of zero field cooled and field cooled conditions is also observed.

  8. Time-dependent nonequilibrium soft x-ray response during a spin crossover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2018-03-01

    The rapid development of high-brilliance pulsed X-ray sources with femtosecond time resolution has created a need for a better theoretical understanding of the time-dependent soft-X-ray response of dissipative many-body quantum systems. It is demonstrated how soft-X-ray spectroscopies, such as X-ray absorption and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at transition-metal L-edges, can provide insight into intersystem crossings, such as a spin crossover. The photoinduced doublet-to-quartet spin crossover on cobalt in Fe-Co Prussian blue analogues is used as an example to demonstrate how the X-ray response is affected by the dissipative nonequilibrium dynamics. The time-dependent soft-X-ray spectra provide a wealth of information that reflect the changes in the nonequilibrium initial state via continuously changing spectral lineshapes that cannot be decomposed into initial photoexcited and final metastable spectra, strong broadenings, a collapse of clear selection rules during the intersystem crossing, strong fluctuations in the isotropic branching ratio in X-ray absorption, and crystal-field collapse/oscillations and strongly time-dependent anti-Stokes processes in RIXS.

  9. Quantitative x-ray absorption imaging with a broadband source: application to high-intensity discharge lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J J [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8422 (United States)], E-mail: jjcurry@nist.gov

    2008-07-21

    The case of x-ray absorption imaging in which the x-ray source is broadband and the detector does not provide spectral resolution is analysed. The specific motivation is observation of the Hg vapour distribution in high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps. When absorption by the vapour is small, the problem can be couched accurately in terms of a mean absorption cross section averaged over the x-ray spectral distribution, weighted by the energy-dependent response of the detector. The method is tested against a Au foil standard and then applied to Hg. The mean absorption cross section for Hg is calculated for a Ag-anode x-ray tube at accelerating voltages of 25, 30 and 35 kV, and for HIDs in fused silica or polycrystalline alumina arc tubes.

  10. High energy X-ray observations of COS-B gamma-ray sources from OSO-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, J. F.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.; Caraveo, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    During the three years between satellite launch in June 1975 and turn-off in October 1978, the high energy X-ray spectrometer on board OSO-8 observed nearly all of the COS-B gamma-ray source positions given in the 2CG catalog (Swanenburg et al., 1981). An X-ray source was detected at energies above 20 keV at the 6-sigma level of significance in the gamma-ray error box containing 2CG342 - 02 and at the 3-sigma level of significance in the error boxes containing 2CG065 + 00, 2CG195 + 04, and 2CG311 - 01. No definite association between the X-ray and gamma-ray sources can be made from these data alone. Upper limits are given for the 2CG sources from which no X-ray flux was detected above 20 keV.

  11. Differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors by high frequency molybdenum-target X-ray photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Yuanqi; Wang Maosheng; Huang Jian; Cui Guoru; Liang Zhicong; Lu Yingying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the X-ray Image of benign and malignant breast lesions (tumors) in order to improve their differcatial diagnostic level. Methods: X-ray image changes of 63 malignant breast neoplasms were described by the mammography and in comparision with those of 43 benign masses. Results: The accordance percentages between the X-ray and histological examinations for the benign and malignant neoplasms were shown as 85% and 90.6% respectively. Spiculated mass, calcification granules in clusters and other images were found to be indication of benign or malignant breast lesion. Conclusion: The High Frequency Molybdenum-target X-ray Photography can provide effective imaging data for diagnosis and distinguish between the benign and malignant breast lesions. (authors)

  12. The source of X-rays and high-charged ions based on moderate power vacuum discharge with laser triggering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhimova Mariya A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The source of X-ray radiation with the energy of quanta that may vary in the range hν = 1÷12 keV was developed for studies in X-ray interaction with matter and modification of solid surfaces. It was based on a vacuum spark discharge with the laser triggering. It was shown in our experiments that there is a possibility to adjust X-ray radiation spectrum by changing the configuration of the electrode system when the energy stored in the capacitor is varied within the range of 1÷17 J. A comprehensive study of X-ray imaging and quanta energy was carried out. These experiments were carried out for the case of both direct and reverse polarity of the voltage on the electrodes. Additionally, ion composition of plasma created in a laser-triggered vacuum discharge was analyzed. Highly charged ions Zn(+21, Cu(+20 and Fe(+18 were observed.

  13. Design and performance of a soft-x-ray interferometer for ultra-high-resolution fourier transform spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J.; Hussain, Z.; Duarte, R.M.; Howells, M.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    A Fourier Transform Soft X-ray spectrometer (FT-SX) has been designed and is under construction for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a branch of beamline 9.3.2. The spectrometer is a novel soft x-ray interferometer designed for ultra-high resolution (theoretical resolving power E/{delta}E{approximately}10{sup 6}) spectroscopy in the photon energy region of 60-120 eV. This instrument is expected to provide experimental results which sensitively test models of correlated electron processes in atomic and molecular physics. The design criteria and consequent technical challenges posed by the short wavelengths of x-rays and desired resolving power are discussed. The fundamental and practical aspects of soft x-ray interferometry are also explored.

  14. Detection of X-ray due to gun arcing of high power klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, Vladimir; Matsumoto, Shuji

    2004-01-01

    X-ray due to a klystron gun arching was monitored by a detector consists of a plastic scintillation fiber and a photo-multiplier. Observation of the X-ray was done during the processing run of an X-band klystron. A clear signal of X-ray burst is observed when the gun arcing occurs. Possibility of the fast protection for a pulse modulator from the gun arcing is discussed. (author)

  15. SSD effects on high energy x-ray surface and build up dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Butson, M.J.; Cancer Services, Wollongong, NSW

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Dose in the build up region for high energy x-rays produced by a medical linear accelerator is affected by the x-ray source to patient surface distance (SSD). The use of isocentric treatments whereby the tumour is positions 100cm from the source means that depending of the depth of the tumour and the size of the patient, the SSD can vary from distances of 80cm to 100cm. To achieve larger field sizes, the SSD can also be extended out to 120cm at times. Results have shown that open fields are not significantly affected by SSD changes with deviations in percentage dose being less than 4% of maximum dose for SSD's from 80cm to 120cm SSD. With the introduction of beam modifying devices such as Perspex blocking trays, the effects are significant with a deviation of up to 22% measured at 6MV energy with a 6mm Perspex tray for SSD's from 80cm to 120cm. These variations are largest at the skin surface and reduce with depth. The use of a multi leaf collimator for blocking removes extra skin dose caused by the Perspex block trays with decreasing SSD. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  16. A VXI-based high speed x-ray CCD detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qiang; Hopf, R.; Rodricks, B.

    1993-01-01

    For time-resolved x-ray scattering, one ideally wants a high speed detector that also is capable of giving position sensitive information. Charge Coupled Devices (CCDS) have been used successfully as x-ray detectors. Unfortunately, they are inherently slow because of the serial readout EEV has developed a CCD that has eight channels of parallel readout, thus increasing the speed eight fold. Using state-of-the-art VXI electronics, we have developed a readout system that could read the entire array in 2.5 ms using a 20-MHz readout clock. For testing and characterization the device was clocked at a significantly slower speed of 30 kHz. The data is preamplified and all eight channels of output are simultaneously digitized to 12 bits and stored in buffer memory. The system is controlled by a 486-based PC through an MXI bus and VXI controller using commercially available software. The system is also capable of real-time image display and manipulation

  17. THE AGES OF HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN NGC 2403 AND NGC 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Binder, Breanna A.; Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16803 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew, E-mail: ben@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: bbinder@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: mce@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com [Raytheon Company, Tucson, AZ 85734 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We have examined resolved stellar photometry from HST imaging surrounding 18 high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) candidates in NGC 300 and NGC 2403 as determined from combined Chandra/HST analysis. We have fit the color-magnitude distribution of the surrounding stars with stellar evolution models. All but one region in NGC 300 and two in NGC 2403 contain a population with an age between 20 and 70 Myr. One of the candidates is the ultraluminous X-ray source in NGC 2403, which we associate with a 60 {+-} 5 Myr old population. These age distributions provide additional evidence that 16 of these 18 candidates are HMXBs. Furthermore, our results suggest that the most common HMXB age in these galaxies is 40-55 Myr. This preferred age is similar to observations of HMXBs in the Small Magellanic Cloud, providing new evidence of this formation timescale, but in higher metallicity populations. We suggest that this preferred HMXB age is the result of the fortuitous combination of two physical effects. First, this is the age of a population when the greatest rate of core-collapse events should be occurring, maximizing neutron star production. Second, this is the age when B stars are most likely to be actively losing mass. We also discuss our results in the context of HMXB feedback in galaxies, confirming HMXBs as a potentially important source of energy for the interstellar medium in low-mass galaxies.

  18. High heat flux x-ray monochromators: What are the limits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.S.

    1997-06-01

    First optical elements at third-generation, hard x-ray synchrotrons, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS), are subjected to immense heat fluxes. The optical elements include crystal monochromators, multilayers and mirrors. This paper presents a mathematical model of the thermal strain of a three-layer (faceplate, heat exchanger, and baseplate), cylindrical optic subjected to narrow beam of uniform heat flux. This model is used to calculate the strain gradient of a liquid-gallium-cooled x-ray monochromator previously tested on an undulator at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). The resulting thermally broadened rocking curves are calculated and compared to experimental data. The calculated rocking curve widths agree to within a few percent of the measured values over the entire current range tested (0 to 60 mA). The thermal strain gradient under the beam footprint varies linearly with the heat flux and the ratio of the thermal expansion coefficient to the thermal conductivity. The strain gradient is insensitive to the heat exchanger properties and the optic geometry. This formulation provides direct insight into the governing parameters, greatly reduces the analysis time, and provides a measure of the ultimate performance of a given monochromator

  19. A new high quality X-ray source for Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Philippe; Variola, Alessandro; Zomer, Fabian; Jaquet, Marie; Loulergue, Alexandre

    2009-09-01

    Compton based photon sources have generated much interest since the rapid advance in laser and accelerator technologies has allowed envisaging their utilisation for ultra-compact radiation sources. These should provide X-ray short pulses with a relatively high average flux. Moreover, the univocal dependence between the scattered photon energy and its angle gives the possibility of obtaining a quasi-monochromatic beam with a simple diaphragm system. For the most ambitious projects the expected performance takes into account a rate of 10-10 photons/s, with an angular divergence of few mrad, an X-ray energy cut-off of few tens of keV and a bandwidth ΔE/E˜1-10%. Even if the integrated rate cannot compete with synchrotron radiation sources, the cost and the compactness of these Compton based machines make them attractive for a wide spectrum of applications. We explore here the interest of these systems for Cultural Heritage preservation. To cite this article: P. Walter et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  20. Active interlock system for high power insertion devices in the x-ray ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In modern synchrotron radiation rings photon beams generated by high power insertion devices (IDs) may be sufficiently intense to cause severe thermal damage to the machine vacuum chamber if mis-steered. Thus when operating a storage ring with the IDs, great care must be exercised to prevent mis-steering of the electron beam orbit. At present, the X-ray ring operates with three IDs, namely two hybrid wigglers (HBW) at X-21 and X-25,a nd a 5-Tesla superconducting wiggler at X-17. All wigglers are located in low-beta straight sections. In the straight sections. In the straight sections, beam orbit may be deflected by as much as ±8 mrad without scraping the chamber wall. For various reasons it was not possible to design the X-ray ring vacuum chamber to be safe under all possible operating conditions, however, the chamber is safe for i < 7 mA, all horizontal beam deflection angles and for vertical angles < ± 2.5 mrad. To protect the machine vacuum chamber from damage due to mis-steered beams, and interlock system has been developed and installed. This system utilizes active beam position detectors which continuously monitor beam motion in each of the ID straight sections and logic circuitry which interrupts the RF and dumps the stored beam in the case of a fault

  1. Development of a high resolution x-ray spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K W; Bitter, M; Delgado-Aparicio, L; Efthimion, P C; Ellis, R; Gao, L; Maddox, J; Pablant, N A; Schneider, M B; Chen, H; Ayers, S; Kauffman, R L; MacPhee, A G; Beiersdorfer, P; Bettencourt, R; Ma, T; Nora, R C; Scott, H A; Thorn, D B; Kilkenny, J D; Nelson, D; Shoup, M; Maron, Y

    2016-11-01

    A high resolution (E/ΔE = 1200-1800) Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer is being developed to measure plasma parameters in National Ignition Facility experiments. The instrument will be a diagnostic instrument manipulator positioned cassette designed mainly to infer electron density in compressed capsules from Stark broadening of the helium-β (1s 2 -1s3p) lines of krypton and electron temperature from the relative intensities of dielectronic satellites. Two conically shaped crystals will diffract and focus (1) the Kr Heβ complex and (2) the Heα (1s 2 -1s2p) and Lyα (1s-2p) complexes onto a streak camera photocathode for time resolved measurement, and a third cylindrical or conical crystal will focus the full Heα to Heβ spectral range onto an image plate to provide a time integrated calibration spectrum. Calculations of source x-ray intensity, spectrometer throughput, and spectral resolution are presented. Details of the conical-crystal focusing properties as well as the status of the instrumental design are also presented.

  2. A new high quality X-ray source for Cultural Heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Ph.; Variola, A.; Zomer, F.; Jaquet, M.

    2009-01-01

    Compton based photon sources have generated much interest since the rapid advance in laser and accelerator technologies has allowed envisaging their utilisation for ultra-compact radiation sources. These should provide X-ray short pulses with a relatively high average flux. Moreover, the univocal dependence between the scattered photon energy and its angle gives the possibility of obtaining a quasi-monochromatic beam with a simple diaphragm system. For the most ambitious projects the expected performance takes into account a rate of 10 12 - 10 13 photons/s, with an angular divergence of few mrad, an X-ray energy cut-off of few tens of keV and a bandwidth ΔE/E ∼ 1-10 %. Even if the integrated rate cannot compete with synchrotron radiation sources, the cost and the compactness of these Compton based machines make them attractive for a wide spectrum of applications. We explore here the interest of these systems for Cultural Heritage preservation. (authors)

  3. Synthesis and characterization of Bi2S3 composite nanoparticles with high X-ray absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Huan-Huan; Chen, Jun; Meng, Yuan-Zheng; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Zhang, Ming-Zhen; Yu, Yong; Ma, Zhi-Ya; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Uniform Bi 2 S 3 nanorods were prepared via a hot injection method. • Bi 2 S 3 nanorods were coated with TEOS and PEG for surface modification. • CT images of Bi 2 S 3 @SiO 2 -PEG are much higher than clinical iobitridol when they have the same concentration. • Cellular toxicity of Bi 2 S 3 @SiO 2 -PEG is low when the probes were directly in contact with tissue fluid. - Abstract: Owing to the high X-ray absorption, Bi 2 S 3 nanocrystals are widely used as CT contrast agents. Here, we prepared uniform Bi 2 S 3 nanorods via a hot injection method using bismuth (III) chloride, sulfur and oleyl amine. The resulting nanocrystals were coated with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and 2-[methoxy(polyethyleneoxy)propyl]yrimethoxysilane (PEG-silane) for the biological utility. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that the Bi 2 S 3 nanorods had an orthorhombic structure with the length of 14 nm and the diameter of 7 nm, respectively. Composite nanoparticles (0.0226 M) gave a CT number at 550 (HU), which was higher than that of the commercial available iobitridol CT contrast agent. Furthermore, cell experiments revealed that Bi 2 S 3 composite nanoparticles had a low cytotoxicity with a concentration up to 0.01 M of Bi for 24 h

  4. Windowless microfluidic platform based on capillary burst valves for high intensity x-ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vig, Asger Laurberg; Enevoldsen, Nikolaj; Thilsted, Anil Haraksingh; Eriksen, Johan; Kristensen, Anders; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Nielsen, Martin Meedom

    2009-01-01

    We propose and describe a microfluidic system for high intensity x-ray measurements. The required open access to a microfluidic channel is provided by an out-of-plane capillary burst valve (CBV). The functionality of the out-of-plane CBV is characterized with respect to the diameter of the windowless access hole, ranging from 10 to 130 μm. Maximum driving pressures from 22 to 280 mbar corresponding to refresh rates of the exposed sample from 300 Hz to 54 kHz is demonstrated. The microfluidic system is tested at beamline ID09b at the ESRF synchrotron radiation facility in Grenoble, and x-ray scattering measurements are shown to be feasible and to require only very limited amounts of sample, <1 ml/h of measurements without recapturing of sample. With small adjustments of the present chip design, scattering angles up to 30 deg. can be achieved without shadowing effects and integration on-chip mixing and spectroscopy appears straightforward.

  5. Low temperature X-ray imaging of magnetic flux patterns in high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Claudia; Ruoß, Stephen; Weigand, Markus; Bechtel, Michael; Schütz, Gisela; Albrecht, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    We present X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) microscopy results obtained at liquid nitrogen temperatures on the high-Tc superconductor YBCO (YBa2Cu3O7-δ). The magnetic flux distribution arising from electric currents in the superconductor is detected and visualized using soft-magnetic Co40Fe40B20 (CoFeB) as sensor layer and XMCD as contrast mechanism. It has been shown that the XMCD contrast in the sensor layer directly corresponds to magnetic flux distribution of the superconductor and hence can be used to image magnetic structures in superconductors [Stahl et al., Phys. Rev. B 90, 104515 (2014)]. The existing scanning UHV X-ray microscopy setup MAXYMUS at the synchrotron BESSY II in Berlin has been upgraded for that purpose: we use a nitrogen based MMR Micro Miniature Joule-Thompson Cryostat with temperature range from 75 K to 580 K. The capability of the method is demonstrated on two different superconducting samples, an optimally doped thin film and a melt-textured block.

  6. OBSERVATIONS OF THE HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY A 0535+26 IN QUIESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothschild, Richard; Markowitz, Alex; Hemphill, Paul; Caballero, Isabel; Pottschmidt, Katja; Kühnel, Matthias; Wilms, Jörn; Fürst, Felix; Doroshenko, Victor; Camero-Arranz, Ascension

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed three observations of the high-mass X-ray binary A 0535+26 performed by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) three, five, and six months after the last outburst in 2011 February. We detect pulsations only in the second observation. The 3-20 keV spectra can be fit equally well with either an absorbed power law or absorbed thermal bremsstrahlung model. Reanalysis of two earlier RXTE observations made 4 yr after the 1994 outburst, original BeppoSAX observations 2 yr later, reanalysis of four EXOSAT observations made 2 yr after the last 1984 outburst, and a recent XMM-Newton observation in 2012 reveal a stacked, quiescent flux level decreasing from ∼2 to –11 erg cm –2 s –1 over 6.5 yr after outburst. The detection of pulsations during half of the quiescent observations would imply that accretion onto the magnetic poles of the neutron star continues despite the fact that the circumstellar disk may no longer be present. The accretion could come from material built up at the corotation radius or from an isotropic stellar wind.

  7. OBSERVATIONS OF THE HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY A 0535+26 IN QUIESCENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothschild, Richard; Markowitz, Alex; Hemphill, Paul [University of California, San Diego, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Caballero, Isabel [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp -UMR AIM (7158) CNRS/CEA/Universite P. Diderot, Orme des Merisiers, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pottschmidt, Katja [CRESST, UMBC, and NASA GSFC, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kuehnel, Matthias; Wilms, Joern [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Sternwartstr. 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany); Fuerst, Felix [Space Radiation Lab, MC 290-17 Cahill, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Doroshenko, Victor [Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Sand 1, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Camero-Arranz, Ascension, E-mail: rrothschild@ucsd.edu [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Fac. de Ciencies, Torre C5, parell, 2a planta, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-06-10

    We have analyzed three observations of the high-mass X-ray binary A 0535+26 performed by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) three, five, and six months after the last outburst in 2011 February. We detect pulsations only in the second observation. The 3-20 keV spectra can be fit equally well with either an absorbed power law or absorbed thermal bremsstrahlung model. Reanalysis of two earlier RXTE observations made 4 yr after the 1994 outburst, original BeppoSAX observations 2 yr later, reanalysis of four EXOSAT observations made 2 yr after the last 1984 outburst, and a recent XMM-Newton observation in 2012 reveal a stacked, quiescent flux level decreasing from {approx}2 to <1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} over 6.5 yr after outburst. The detection of pulsations during half of the quiescent observations would imply that accretion onto the magnetic poles of the neutron star continues despite the fact that the circumstellar disk may no longer be present. The accretion could come from material built up at the corotation radius or from an isotropic stellar wind.

  8. Rotational and X-ray luminosity evolution of high-B radio pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benli, Onur; Ertan, Ünal

    2018-05-01

    In continuation of our earlier work on the long-term evolution of the so-called high-B radio pulsars (HBRPs) with measured braking indices, we have investigated the long-term evolution of the remaining five HBRPs for which braking indices have not been measured yet. This completes our source-by-source analyses of HBRPs in the fallback disc model that was also applied earlier to anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs), soft gamma repeaters (SGRs), and dim isolated neutron stars (XDINs). Our results show that the X-ray luminosities and the rotational properties of these rather different neutron star populations can be acquired by neutron stars with fallback discs as a result of differences in their initial conditions, namely the initial disc mass, initial period and the dipole field strength. For the five HBRPs, unlike for AXPs, SGRs and XDINs, our results do not constrain the dipole field strengths of the sources. We obtain evolutionary paths leading to the properties of HBRPs in the propeller phase with dipole fields sufficiently strong to produce pulsed radio emission.

  9. X-ray phase-contrast tomography for high-spatial-resolution zebrafish muscle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vågberg, William; Larsson, Daniel H.; Li, Mei; Arner, Anders; Hertz, Hans M.

    2015-11-01

    Imaging of muscular structure with cellular or subcellular detail in whole-body animal models is of key importance for understanding muscular disease and assessing interventions. Classical histological methods for high-resolution imaging methods require excision, fixation and staining. Here we show that the three-dimensional muscular structure of unstained whole zebrafish can be imaged with sub-5 μm detail with X-ray phase-contrast tomography. Our method relies on a laboratory propagation-based phase-contrast system tailored for detection of low-contrast 4-6 μm subcellular myofibrils. The method is demonstrated on 20 days post fertilization zebrafish larvae and comparative histology confirms that we resolve individual myofibrils in the whole-body animal. X-ray imaging of healthy zebrafish show the expected structured muscle pattern while specimen with a dystrophin deficiency (sapje) displays an unstructured pattern, typical of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The method opens up for whole-body imaging with sub-cellular detail also of other types of soft tissue and in different animal models.

  10. Developments in time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction using rapid compression and decompression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Lin, Chuanlong; Rod, Eric; Bai, Ligang; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-01-01

    Complementary advances in high pressure research apparatus and techniques make it possible to carry out time-resolved high pressure research using what would customarily be considered static high pressure apparatus. This work specifically explores time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction with rapid compression and/or decompression of a sample in a diamond anvil cell. Key aspects of the synchrotron beamline and ancillary equipment are presented, including source considerations, rapid (de)compression apparatus, high frequency imaging detectors, and software suitable for processing large volumes of data. A number of examples are presented, including fast equation of state measurements, compression rate dependent synthesis of metastable states in silicon and germanium, and ultrahigh compression rates using a piezoelectric driven diamond anvil cell

  11. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Ions using X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorn, Daniel Bristol [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2008-11-19

    Spectroscopy of K-shell transitions in highly charged heavy ions, like hydrogen-like uranium, has the potential to yield information about quantum electrodynamics (QED) in extremely strong nuclear fields as well as tests of the standard model, specifically parity violation in atomic systems. These measurements would represent the 'holy grail' in high-Z atomic spectroscopy. However, the current state-of-the-art detection schemes used for recording the K-shell spectra from highly charged heavy ions does not yet have the resolving power to be able to attain this goal. As such, to push the field of high-Z spectroscopy forward, new detectors must be found. Recently, x-ray calorimeter spectrometers have been developed that promise to make such measurements. In an effort to make the first steps towards attaining the 'holy grail', measurements have been performed with two x-ray calorimeter spectrometers (the XRS/EBIT and the ECS) designed and built at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The calorimeter spectrometers have been used to record the K-shell spectra of highly charged ions produced in the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. Measurements performed with the XRS/EBIT calorimeter array found that the theoretical description of well-above threshold electron-impact excitation cross sections for hydrogen-like iron and nickel ions are correct. Furthermore, the first high-resolution spectrum of hydrogen-like through carbon-like praseodymium ions was recorded with a calorimeter. In addition, the new high-energy array on the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) was used to resolve the K-shell x-ray emission spectrum of highly charged xenon ions, where a 40 ppm measurement of the energy of the K-shell resonance transition in helium-like xenon was achieved. This is the highest precision result, ever, for an element with such high atomic number. In addition, a first-of-its-kind measurement of

  12. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Ions using X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorn, D. B.

    2008-01-01

    Spectroscopy of K-shell transitions in highly charged heavy ions, like hydrogen-like uranium, has the potential to yield information about quantum electrodynamics (QED) in extremely strong nuclear fields as well as tests of the standard model, specifically parity violation in atomic systems. These measurements would represent the 'holy grail' in high-Z atomic spectroscopy. However, the current state-of-the-art detection schemes used for recording the K-shell spectra from highly charged heavy ions does not yet have the resolving power to be able to attain this goal. As such, to push the field of high-Z spectroscopy forward, new detectors must be found. Recently, x-ray calorimeter spectrometers have been developed that promise to make such measurements. In an effort to make the first steps towards attaining the 'holy grail', measurements have been performed with two x-ray calorimeter spectrometers (the XRS/EBIT and the ECS) designed and built at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The calorimeter spectrometers have been used to record the K-shell spectra of highly charged ions produced in the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. Measurements performed with the XRS/EBIT calorimeter array found that the theoretical description of well-above threshold electron-impact excitation cross sections for hydrogen-like iron and nickel ions are correct. Furthermore, the first high-resolution spectrum of hydrogen-like through carbon-like praseodymium ions was recorded with a calorimeter. In addition, the new high-energy array on the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) was used to resolve the K-shell x-ray emission spectrum of highly charged xenon ions, where a 40 ppm measurement of the energy of the K-shell resonance transition in helium-like xenon was achieved. This is the highest precision result, ever, for an element with such high atomic number. In addition, a first-of-its-kind measurement of the effect of the

  13. X-ray emission from a high-atomic-number z-pinch plasma created from compact wire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mosher, D.; De Groot, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal and nonthermal x-ray emission from the implosion of compact tungsten wire arrays in 5-MA Saturn discharges is reported. The timing of multiple implosions and the thermal x-ray spectra (1 to 10 keV) agree with 2D radiation-hydrocode simulations. Nonthermal x-ray emission (10 to 100 keV) correlates with pinch spots distributed along the z-axis. The similarities of the measured nonthermal spectrum, yield, and pinch-spot emission with those of 0.8-MA, single-exploded-wire discharges on Gamble-II suggest a common nonthermal-production mechanism. Nonthermal x-ray yields are lower than expected from current scaling of Gamble II results, suggesting that implosion geometries are not as efficient as single-wire geometries for nonthermal x-ray production. The instabilities, azimuthal asymmetries, and inferred multiple implosions that accompany the implosion geometry lead to larger, more irregular pinch spots, a likely reason for reduced nonthermal efficiency. A model for nonthermal-electron acceleration across magnetic fields in highly-collisional, high-atomic-number plasmas combined with 1D hydrocode simulations of Saturn compact loads predicts weak nonthermal x-ray emission. (author). 3 figs., 10 refs

  14. X-ray emission from a high-atomic-number z-pinch plasma created from compact wire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mosher, D.; De Groot, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal and nonthermal x-ray emission from the implosion of compact tungsten wire arrays in 5-MA Saturn discharges is reported. The timing of multiple implosions and the thermal x-ray spectra (1 to 10 keV) agree with 2D radiation-hydrocode simulations. Nonthermal x-ray emission (10 to 100 keV) correlates with pinch spots distributed along the z-axis. The similarities of the measured nonthermal spectrum, yield, and pinch-spot emission with those of 0.8-MA, single- exploded-wire discharges on Gamble-II suggest a common nonthermal- production mechanism. Nonthermal x-ray yields are lower than expected from current scaling of Gamble II results, suggesting that implosion geometries are not as efficient as single-wire geometries for nonthermal x-ray production. The instabilities, azimuthal asymmetries, and inferred multiple implosions that accompany the implosion geometry lead to larger, more irregular pinch spots, a likely reason for reduced nonthermal efficiency. A model for nonthermal-electron acceleration across magnetic fields in highly- collisional, high-atomic-number plasmas combined with 1D hydrocode simulations of Saturn compact loads predicts weak nonthermal x-ray emission

  15. X-Ray Observations of High-Energy Pulsars: PSR B1951+32 and Geminga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng

    Observations at frequencies across a wide range of electromagnetic spectra are key to the understanding of the origin and mechanisms of high-energy emissions from pulsars. We propose to observe the high-energy pulsars PSR B1951+32 and Geminga with XTE. These two sources emit X-rays at low enough count rate that we can acquire high resolution timing and spectral data, allowing us to perform detailed analysis on the ground. Staring integration of 10 ksec for each source is requested. Data obtained in these observations, together with those from ROSAT, GRO and a planned project for optical counterpart study at Los Alamos, will provide crucial information to advance high-energy pulsar research.

  16. The First Non-Dispersive High-Resolution Spectroscopy of an X-ray-bright Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Hitomi Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    The Hitomi X-ray Observatory was equipped with the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS), an X-ray microcalorimeter that achieved an energy resolution of 5 eV (@0.5-10 keV) for extended objects. This offered an unprecedented benchmark of atomic modeling and database for hot collisional plasmas, revealing both successes and challenges in the current atomic codes that are widely used by the X-ray astronomy community. I will review the Hitomi observations of the brightest part of the Perseus Cluster, whose X-ray spectrum is dominated by thermal emission from the intra-cluster medium (ICM). The SXS successfully measured the turbulent velocities and metal abundances of the ICM, which radically altered our understanding of the dynamics and chemical enrichment in this object. At the same time, the high-resolution X-ray data led to significant improvement in the atomic models, such as AtomDB and SPEX -- I will briefly overview how this improvement was made. Nevertheless, there are still significant discrepancies among the public atomic models, causing systematic uncertainties in measurements of the temperature, abundance, and degree of the resonance scattering. Requirements for future improvements will be summarized in this context.

  17. High-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy with transition-edge sensors: present performance and future potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlig, J.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J. W.; Swetz, D. S.; Jaye, C.; Fischer, D. A.; Reintsema, C. D.; Bennett, D. A.; Vale, L. R.; Mandal, U.; O' Neil, G. C.; Miaja-Avila, L.; Joe, Y. I.; El Nahhas, A.; Fullagar, W.; Parnefjord Gustafsson, F.; Sundström, V.; Kurunthu, D.; Hilton, G. C.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-04-21

    X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) is a powerful element-selective tool to analyze the oxidation states of atoms in complex compounds, determine their electronic configuration, and identify unknown compounds in challenging environments. Until now the low efficiency of wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometer technology has limited the use of XES, especially in combination with weaker laboratory X-ray sources. More efficient energy-dispersive detectors have either insufficient energy resolution because of the statistical limits described by Fano or too low counting rates to be of practical use. This paper updates an approach to high-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy that uses a microcalorimeter detector array of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs). TES arrays are discussed and compared with conventional methods, and shown under which circumstances they are superior. It is also shown that a TES array can be integrated into a table-top time-resolved X-ray source and a soft X-ray synchrotron beamline to perform emission spectroscopy with good chemical sensitivity over a very wide range of energies.

  18. High-pressure x-ray diffraction study on lithium borohydride using a synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, S.; Nakayama, A.; Kikegawa, T.

    2008-07-01

    Lithium borohydride (LiBH4) was compressed up to 10 GPa using a diamond-anvil-cell to investigate its high-pressure structure. In-situ x-ray diffraction profiles indicated a pressure-induced transformation at 1.1 GPa, which was consistent with the previous experimental observation such as Raman scattering spectroscopy. The high-pressure phase was indexed on a tetragonal symmetry of P42/mmc, which was not corresponding some structural models proposed by previous calculation studies. An unknown substance (presumably another Li-B-H compound), which was contained in the starting material, also transformed into its high-pressure phase at 0.6 GPa without any relation to the transformation of LiBH4.

  19. High-pressure x-ray diffraction study on lithium borohydride using a synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, S [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Nakayama, A [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Meijo University, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan); Kikegawa, T [Photon Factory (PF), Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)], E-mail: NAKANO.Satoshi@nims.go.jp

    2008-07-15

    Lithium borohydride (LiBH{sub 4}) was compressed up to 10 GPa using a diamond-anvil-cell to investigate its high-pressure structure. In-situ x-ray diffraction profiles indicated a pressure-induced transformation at 1.1 GPa, which was consistent with the previous experimental observation such as Raman scattering spectroscopy. The high-pressure phase was indexed on a tetragonal symmetry of P4{sub 2}/mmc, which was not corresponding some structural models proposed by previous calculation studies. An unknown substance (presumably another Li-B-H compound), which was contained in the starting material, also transformed into its high-pressure phase at 0.6 GPa without any relation to the transformation of LiBH{sub 4}.

  20. The XM-1 high resolution x-ray microscope at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Ilse, W.; Johnson, L.E.; Bates, W.; Lucero, A.; Anderson, E.H.; Denbeaux, G.

    2000-01-01

    The XM-1 x-ray microscope was built to obtain a high throughput of high-resolution transmission images with a wide variety of thick (< 10 micron) samples. Modeled after a 'conventional' full-field microscope, the XM-1 makes use of zone plates (ZP) for the condenser and objective elements. We present an overview of the recent activities at XM-1. Over the past year many enhancements have taken place such as the use of more efficient zone plates and the development of a cryogenic sample stage. Moreover, we have been developing the spectromicroscopy capabilities of the microscope to distinguish different element and chemical states within a sample while obtaining high spatial resolution images. We report on these and other advances. Additionally, the microscope has been actively used in many fields including biology, environmental and material science. Some of these recent achievements will be highlighted as well