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Sample records for high brightness led

  1. Progress in extremely high brightness LED-based light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelen, Christoph; Antonis, Piet; de Boer, Dick; Koole, Rolf; Kadijk, Simon; Li, Yun; Vanbroekhoven, Vincent; Van De Voorde, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Although the maximum brightness of LEDs has been increasing continuously during the past decade, their luminance is still far from what is required for multiple applications that still rely on the high brightness of discharge lamps. In particular for high brightness applications with limited étendue, e.g. front projection, only very modest luminance values in the beam can be achieved with LEDs compared to systems based on discharge lamps or lasers. With dedicated architectures, phosphor-converted green LEDs for projection may achieve luminance values up to 200-300 Mnit. In this paper we report on the progress made in the development of light engines based on an elongated luminescent concentrator pumped by blue LEDs. This concept has recently been introduced to the market as ColorSpark High Lumen Density LED technology. These sources outperform the maximum brightness of LEDs by multiple factors. In LED front projection, green LEDs are the main limiting factor. With our green modules, we now have achieved peak luminance values of 2 Gnit, enabling LED-based projection systems with over 4000 ANSI lm. Extension of this concept to yellow and red light sources is presented. The light source efficiency has been increased considerably, reaching 45-60 lm/W for green under practical application conditions. The module architecture, beam shaping, and performance characteristics are reviewed, as well as system aspects. The performance increase, spectral range extensions, beam-shaping flexibility, and cost reductions realized with the new module architecture enable a breakthrough in LED-based projection systems and in a wide variety of other high brightness applications.

  2. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

    2012-06-30

    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  3. Controlling excitons. Concepts for phosphorescent organic LEDs at high brightness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reineke, Sebastian

    2009-11-15

    This work focusses on the high brightness performance of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The use of phosphorescent emitter molecules in OLEDs is essential to realize internal electron-photon conversion efficiencies of 100 %. However, due to their molecular nature, the excited triplet states have orders of magnitude longer time constants compared to their fluorescent counterparts which, in turn, strongly increases the probability of bimolecular annihilation. As a consequence, the efficiencies of phosphorescent OLEDs decline at high brightness - an effect known as efficiency roll-off, for which it has been shown to be dominated by triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA). In this work, TTA of the archetype phosphorescent emitter Ir(ppy){sub 3} is investigated in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments. For the widely used mixed system CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}, host-guest TTA - an additional unwanted TTA channel - is experimentally observed at high excitation levels. By using matrix materials with higher triplet energies, this effect is efficiently suppressed, however further studies show that the efficiency roll-off of Ir(ppy)3 is much more pronounced than predicted by a model based on Foerster-type energy transfer, which marks the intrinsic limit for TTA. These results suggest that the emitter molecules show a strong tendency to form aggregates in the mixed film as the origin for enhanced TTA. Transmission electron microscopy images of Ir(ppy){sub 3} doped mixed films give direct proof of emitter aggregates. Based on these results, two concepts are developed that improve the high brightness performance of OLEDs. In a first approach, thin intrinsic matrix interlayers are incorporated in the emission layer leading to a one-dimensional exciton confinement that suppresses exciton migration and, consequently, TTA. The second concept reduces the efficiency roll-off by using an emitter molecule with slightly different chemical structure, i.e. Ir(ppy){sub 2

  4. Improved power quality based high brightness LED lamp driver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    consists of a PFC Cuk DC-DC converter which operates in continuous conduction mode (CCM) to improve the ... In proposed LED driver as shown in Figure 1, a Cuk buck boost AC-DC converter ... Design and Analysis of Proposed LED Driver.

  5. Testing high brightness LEDs relative to application environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jeffrey; Mangum, Scott; Lundberg, John

    2006-08-01

    Application of light emitting diodes is expanding as the luminous output and efficiencies of these devices improve. At the same time, the number of LED package types is increasing, making it challenging to determine the appropriate device for use in lighting product designs. A range of factors should be considered when selecting a LED for an application including color coordinates, luminous efficacy, cost, lumen maintenance, application life, packaging and manufacturability. Additional complexities can be introduced as LED packages become obsolete and replacement parts must be selected. The replacement LED characteristics must be understood and assessed against the parameters of the original device, in order to determine if the change will be relatively simple or will force other end-product changes. While some characteristics are readily measured and compared, other factors, such as lumen maintenance, are difficult to verify. This paper will discuss the characteristics of a LED that should be considered during the design process as well as methods to validate these characteristics, particularly those which are not typically on data sheets or, are critical to the design and warrant additional validation. Particular attention will be given to LED lumen maintenance. While published manufacturer data typically provides temperature versus performance curves, the data may not be useful depending upon the application's operating environment. Models must be created to estimate the LED's junction temperature and degradation curve at the applied temperature in order to develop a more precise life estimate. This paper presents one approach to a LED device life and performance study designed with application environments in mind.

  6. Application of high-brightness LEDs in aircraft position lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machi, Nicolo; Mangum, Scott; Singer, Jeffrey M.

    2004-10-01

    Solid state lighting devices have made their way into a number of niche markets and continue to make inroads into other markets as their price / performance ratios improve. One of these markets is aviation lighting. Although this paper will focus on the use of LEDs for aircraft position lights, much of the discussion is applicable to other installations on the interior and exterior of the aircraft. The color, light distribution and intensity levels for a position light are all closely regulated through Code of Federal Regulation (CFR; formerly Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR)) documents. These lighting requirements, along with harsh thermal and environmental requirements, drive the design. In this paper, we will look at these requirements and discuss what is required in order to use LEDs for this type of application. We will explore the optical, thermal and electrical issues associated with the use of LEDs for position lights and examine the specific case study of the Astreon forward position lights. Finally, we will discuss some of the challenges that we see with solid state lighting in current and future aircraft applications.

  7. InGaN micro-LED-pillar as the building block for high brightness emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Cha, Dong Kyu; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Yang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    In summary, we confirmed the improved electrical and optical characteristics, with reduced efficiency droop in InGaN μLED-pillars when these devices were scaled down in size. We demonstrated that strain relief contributed to further improvement in EQE characteristics in small InGaN μLED-pillars (D < 50 μm), apart from the current spreading effect. The μLED-pillar can be deployed as the building block for large effective-area, high brightness emitter. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Design of a Multi-Color Lamp Using High Brightness RGB LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, S.B.; Kang, S.H.; Yeo, I.S. [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea)

    2003-02-01

    This paper proposes the design of a multi-color lamp using high brightness RGB LEDs for color variation. Appropriate number of RGB LEDs is so chosen according to the color mixing theory that the overall LEDs represent a color temperature of 6500K. Also, the chosen RGB LEDs are suitably arranged by using an optical design program. The lamp has an internal controller circuit, so it can be directly connected to the existing incandescent lamp socket. It's main body is comprised of two PCB layers. The upper layer contains 44 LEDs and the lower one has a simple microcontroller-based PWM control circuit. The lamp has functions of both ON/OFF control and PWM control, and enables color variation of over 100,000 colors and of more than 10 patterns. (author). 7 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Strain relief InGaN/GaN MQW micro-pillars for high brightness LEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Micro-structured group-III-nitrides are considered as promising strain relief structures for high efficiency solid state lighting. In this work, the strain field in InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) micro-pillars is investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and the design of micro-pillars were studied experimentally. We distinguished the strained and strain-relieved signatures of the GaN layer from the E2 phonon peak split from the Raman scattering signatures at 572 cm-1 and 568 cm-1, respectively. The extent of strain relief is examined considering the height and size of micro-pillars fabricated using focused ion beam (FIB) micro-machining technique. A significant strain relief can be achieved when one micro-machined through the entire epi-layers, 3 μm in our study. The dependence of strain relief on micro-pillar diameter (D) suggested that micro-pillar with D < 3 μm showed high degree of strain relief. Our results shed new insights into designing strain-relieved InGaN/GaN microstructures for high brightness light emitting diode arrays. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. Temperature dependence of Ce:YAG single-crystal phosphors for high-brightness white LEDs/LDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjoca, Stelian; Víllora, Encarnación G.; Inomata, Daisuke; Aoki, Kazuo; Sugahara, Yoshiyuki; Shimamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-05-01

    The growth of Ce:Y3Al5O12(Ce:YAG) single-crystal phosphors (SCPs) by the Czochralski technique is analyzed in terms of segregation coefficient, solubility and absorption cross-section. The emission characteristics of these SCPs are investigated in a wide temperature range, from liquid He temperature up to 500 °C. The internal quantum efficiency of SCPs achieves its maximum at about 250 °C. Thermal quenching of SCPs at high temperature is attributed to the Mott-Seitz mechanism. In the case of ceramic powder phosphors, a continuous droop is observed with the temperature due to defect-related non-radiative recombination paths. It is shown that (Ce:YAG SCPs + blue LEDs/LDs) can cover a wide range of color temperatures 5500-7000 K, with color rendering indices around 70. In conclusion, it is shown that Ce:YAG SCPs are the most efficient and temperature stable converters to fabricate high-brightness white light sources with high-power blue LEDs and LDs.

  11. LED-technologies for bright light therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhta, M. S.; Sidorenko, E. V.; Simutkin, G. G.; Khomushku, O. M.; Glushkov, G. S.

    2018-05-01

    The significance of the LED-based medical equipment design is caused by the need to make up for the sunshine shortfall in many areas of Russia (Siberia, the Far East, the Extreme North) that will allow reducing dramatically the risk of seasonal affective disorders. The sunshine is the essential synchronizer of the human biological rhythms, the abnormality of which plays an important role in the seasonal affective disorder nature. The study allows proving the object database development able to meet the human demand for a comfortable and high-quality placemaking as well as the health potential recoverability.

  12. High Brightness OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC; Kondakova, Marina [OLEDWorks LLC; Boroson, Michael [OLEDWorks LLC; Hamer, John [OLEDWorks LLC

    2016-05-25

    In this work we describe the technology developments behind our current and future generations of high brightness OLED lighting panels. We have developed white and amber OLEDs with excellent performance based on the stacking approach. Current products achieve 40-60 lm/W, while future developments focus on achieving 80 lm/W or higher.

  13. High brightness ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfus, R.W.; Hodgson, R.T.

    1975-01-01

    A high brightness ion beam is obtainable by using lasers to excite atoms or molecules from the ground state to an ionized state in increments, rather than in one step. The spectroscopic resonances of the atom or molecule are used so that relatively long wavelength, low power lasers can be used to obtain such ion beam

  14. Bright infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng; Choi, Joshua J.; Stachnik, David; Bartnik, Adam C.; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Malliaras, George G.; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, Frank W.

    2013-01-01

    Record-brightness infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots have been achieved through control of the spacing between adjacent quantum-dots. By tuning the size of quantum-dots, the emission wavelengths can be tuned between 900nm and 1650nm. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  15. High brightness electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.; Carlsten, B.E.; Young, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of accelerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electrons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electrons as the electrons enter the first cavity. 5 figs

  16. Kiloamp high-brightness beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    Brightness preservation of high-current relativistic electron beams under two different types of transport is discussed. Recent progress in improving the brightness of laser-guided beams in the Advanced Test Accelerator is reviewed. A strategy for the preservation of the brightness of space-charge-dominated beams in a solenoidal transport system is presented

  17. Teradiode's high brightness semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Lochman, Bryan; Zhou, Wang; Cruz, Mike; Cook, Rob; Dugmore, Dan; Shattuck, Jeff; Tayebati, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    TeraDiode is manufacturing multi-kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers for industrial applications. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 4,680 W from a 100 μm core diameter, BPP) of 3.5 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP multi-kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 4-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers. We have also demonstrated novel high peak power lasers and high brightness Mid-Infrared Lasers.

  18. Transient voltage suppressor diode designed for the protection of high-brightness GaN-based LEDs from various electrostatic discharge shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouangeune, Daoheung; Lee, Yeji; Cho, Jaehee; Shim, Kyuhwan; Choi, Cheljong; Choi, Sangsik; Cho, Deokho

    2014-01-01

    Transient voltage suppressor (TVS) diodes were fabricated using low-temperature epitaxy technology and were employed to improve the electrostatic discharge (ESD) strength of GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs). The ESD performance and the protection capability of the TVS diodes were investigated using various ESD simulators of the human body model (HBM), the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) 61000-4-2 (IEC), and a transmission line pulse (TLP) analysis. According to the IEC, the manufactured TVS diode could withstand in excess of ±30 kV without any degradation in the I-V characteristics; meanwhile, the GaN LED itself exhibited catastrophic degradation caused by weak ESD power. The GaN LED assembled with the TVS diode had improved ESD robustness from ±3.8 kV to ±8 kV according to the HBM, from ±1.2 kV to > ±30 kV according to the IEC, and from 4.3 A to > ±30 A according to the TLP analysis. Furthermore, its performance was maintained perfect I-V manner with negligible changes in radiant power, leakage current and breakdown voltage up to the limit of the ESD simulators. Namely, the manufactured TVS diodes were effective in the protection of sensitive GaN LEDs from very strong ESD shocks.

  19. Transient voltage suppressor diode designed for the protection of high-brightness GaN-based LEDs from various electrostatic discharge shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouangeune, Daoheung; Lee, Yeji; Cho, Jaehee; Shim, Kyuhwan; Choi, Cheljong [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sangsik; Cho, Deokho [Sigetronics, Inc., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Transient voltage suppressor (TVS) diodes were fabricated using low-temperature epitaxy technology and were employed to improve the electrostatic discharge (ESD) strength of GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs). The ESD performance and the protection capability of the TVS diodes were investigated using various ESD simulators of the human body model (HBM), the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) 61000-4-2 (IEC), and a transmission line pulse (TLP) analysis. According to the IEC, the manufactured TVS diode could withstand in excess of ±30 kV without any degradation in the I-V characteristics; meanwhile, the GaN LED itself exhibited catastrophic degradation caused by weak ESD power. The GaN LED assembled with the TVS diode had improved ESD robustness from ±3.8 kV to ±8 kV according to the HBM, from ±1.2 kV to > ±30 kV according to the IEC, and from 4.3 A to > ±30 A according to the TLP analysis. Furthermore, its performance was maintained perfect I-V manner with negligible changes in radiant power, leakage current and breakdown voltage up to the limit of the ESD simulators. Namely, the manufactured TVS diodes were effective in the protection of sensitive GaN LEDs from very strong ESD shocks.

  20. High-brightness injector modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    There are many aspects to the successful conception, design, fabrication, and operation of high-brightness electron beam sources. Accurate and efficient modeling of the injector are critical to all phases of the process, from evaluating initial ideas to successful diagnosis of problems during routine operation. The basic modeling tasks will vary from design to design, according to the basic nature of the injector (dc, rf, hybrid, etc.), the type of cathode used (thermionic, photo, field emitter, etc.), and 'macro' factors such as average beam current and duty factor, as well as the usual list of desired beam properties. The injector designer must be at least aware of, if not proficient at addressing, the multitude of issues that arise from these considerations; and, as high-brightness injectors continue to move out of the laboratory, the number of such issues will continue to expand.

  1. High-brightness electron injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators and synchrotron light sources require pulse trains of high peak brightness and, in some applications, high-average power. Recent developments in the technology of photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for electron-linac injector applications offer promising advances over conventional electron injectors. Reduced emittance growth in high peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by using high field strengths and by linearizing the radial component of the cavity electric field at the expense of lower shunt impedance

  2. High brightness semiconductor lasers with reduced filamentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter.; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.

    1999-01-01

    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in spectroscopy, fiber lasers, manufacturing and materials processing, medicine and free space communication or energy transfer. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that, because of COD, high power requires a large aperture...

  3. Multiple Primary LED Lamp Colour Controller with Inherent Brightness Limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barcena, R.; Ackermann, B.

    2007-01-01

    There is a strong interest in using LEDs for general illumination due to the potential they offer for energy saving, environmental friendliness, new opportunities in lighting design, and control of the intensity, colour, and spatial distribution of light. General illumination requires primarily

  4. High-brightness rf linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The issue of high brightness and its ramifications in linacs driven by radio-frequency fields is discussed. A history of the RF linacs is reviewed briefly. Some current applications are then examined that are driving progress in RF linacs. The physics affecting the brightness of RF linacs is then discussed, followed by the economic feasibility of higher brightness machines

  5. High brightness beams and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the present research on attaining intense bright electron beams. Thermionic systems are briefly covered. Recent and past results from the photoinjector programs are given. The performance advantages and difficulties presently faced by researchers using photoinjectors is discussed. The progress that has been made in photocathode materials, both in lifetime and quantum efficiency, is covered. Finally, a discussion of emittance measurements of photoinjector systems and how the measurement is complicated by the non-thermal nature of the electron beam is presented

  6. High power blue LED development using different growth modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong S.; Florescu, Doru I.; Ramer, Jeff C.; Merai, Vinod; Parekh, Aniruddh; Begarney, Michael J.; Armour, Eric A. [Veeco TurboDisc Operations, 394 Elizabeth Avenue, Somerset, NJ 08873 (United States); Lu Dong [Veeco TurboDisc Operations, 394 Elizabeth Avenue, Somerset, NJ 08873 (United States); School of Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Blue high brightness light emitting diodes (HB-LEDs) have been developed using different growth modes in the active layers. Piezoelectric field engineering improves the optical output power in multiple quantum well (MQW) LEDs by inserting an optimized transitional superlattice (TSL) before the active MQW layers. Within single quantum well (SQW) LEDs, quasi-Quantum Dot (QD) growth for Indium localization has been realized. The SQW LED output power exceeds the strain engineered MQW LEDs. The experimental data indicates that Indium localization enhances overall quantum efficiency and results in increased output power for HB-LEDs. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Diagnostics for high-brightness beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Special techniques are required for beam diagnostics on high-brightness particle beams. Examples of high-brightness beams include low-emittance proton linacs (either pulsed or CW), electron linacs suitable for free-electron-laser applications, and future linear colliders. Non-interceptive and minimally-interceptive techniques for measuring beam current, position, profile, and transverse and longitudinal emittance will be reviewed. Included will be stripline, wire scanner, laser neutralization, beam-beam scattering, interceptive microgratings, spontaneous emission, optical transition radiation, and other techniques. 24 refs

  8. The Eindhoven High-Brightness Electron Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, G.J.H.; Wiel, van der M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Eindhoven High-Brightness programme is aimed at producing ultra-short intense electron bunches from compact accelerators. The RF electron gun is capable of producing 100 fs electron bunches at 7.5 MeV and 10 pC bunch charge. The DC/RF hybrid gun under development will produce bunches <75 fs at

  9. Discussion of high brightness rf linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamental aspects of high-brightness rf linacs are outlined, showing the breadth and complexity of the technology and indicating that synergism with advancements in other areas is important. Areas of technology reviewed include ion sources, injectors, rf accelerator structures, beam dynamics, rf power, and automatic control

  10. High-brightness H/sup -/ accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Neutral particle beam (NPB) devices based on high-brightness H/sup -/ accelerators are an important component of proposed strategic defense systems. The basic rational and R and D program are outlined and examples given of the underlying technology thrusts toward advanced systems. Much of the research accomplished in the past year is applicable to accelerator systems in general; some of these activities are discussed

  11. Considerations for high-brightness electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Particle accelerators are now used in many areas of physics research and in industrial and medical applications. New uses are being studied to address major societal needs in energy production, materials research, generation of intense beams of radiation at optical and suboptical wavelengths, treatment of various kinds of waste, and so on. Many of these modern applications require a high intensity beam at the desired energy, along with a very good beam quality in terms of the beam confinement, aiming, or focusing. Considerations for ion and electron accelerators are often different, but there are also many commonalties, and in fact, techniques derived for one should perhaps more often be considered for the other as well. We discuss some aspects of high-brightness electron sources here from that point of view. 6 refs

  12. Very-High-Brightness Picosecond Electron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluem, H.

    2003-01-01

    Bright, RF photocathode electron guns are the source of choice for most high-performance research accelerator applications. Some of these applications are pushing the performance boundaries of the present state-of-the-art guns. Advanced Energy Systems is developing a novel photocathode RF gun that shows excellent promise for extending gun performance. Initial gun simulations with only a short booster accelerator easily break the benchmark emittance of one micron for 1 nC of bunch charge. The pulse length in these simulations is less than 2 ps. It is expected that with more detailed optimization studies, the performance can be further improved. The performance details of the gun will be presented. In addition, we will discuss the present design concept along with the status of the project

  13. The Los Alamos high-brightness photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    For a number of years Los Alamos National Laboratory has been developing photocathode RF guns for high-brightness electron beam applications such as free-electron lasers (FELs). Previously thermionic high-voltage guns have been the source of choice for the electron accelerators used to drive FELs. The performance of such FELs is severely limited by the emittance growth produced by the subharmonic bunching process and also by the low peak current of the source. In a photoinjector, a laser driven photocathode is placed directly in a high-gradient RF accelerating cavity. A photocathode allows unsurpassed control over the current, and the spatial and temporal profile of the beam. In addition the electrodeless emission'' avoids many of the difficulties associated with multi-electrode guns, i.e. the electrons are accelerated very rapidly to relativistic energies, and there are no electrodes to distort the accelerating fields. For the past two years we have been integrating a photocathode into our existing FEL facility by replacing our thermionic gun and subharmonic bunchers with a high-gradient 1.3 GHz photoinjector. The photoinjector, which is approximately 0.6 m in length, produces 6 MeV, 300 A, 15 ps linac, and accelerated to a final energy of 40 MeV. We have recently begun lasing at wavelengths near 3 {mu}m. 16 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  15. An ultra-bright white LED based non-contact skin cancer imaging system with polarization control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, A.; Basu, C.; Roth, B.; Meinhardt-Wollweber, M.

    2013-06-01

    Early detection and excision of melanoma skin cancer is crucial for a successful therapy. Dermoscopy in direct contact with the skin is routinely used for inspection, but screening is time consuming for high-risk patients with a large number of nevi. Features like symmetry, border, color and most importantly changes like growth or depigmentation of a nevus may indicate malignancy. We present a non-contact remote imaging system for human melanocytic nevi with homogenous illumination by an ultra-bright white LED. The advantage compared to established dermoscopy systems requiring direct skin contact is that deformation of raised nevi is avoided and full-body scans of the patients may time-efficiently be obtained while they are in a lying, comfortable position. This will ultimately allow for automated screening in the future. In addition, calibration of true color rendering, which is essential for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions and to ensure reproducibility and comparison between individual check-ups in order to follow nevi evolution is implemented as well as suppression of specular highlights on the skin surface by integration of polarizing filters. Important features of the system which will be crucial for future integration into automated systems are the possibility to record images without artifacts in combination with short exposure times which both reduce image blurring caused by patient motion.

  16. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Zheng; Stough, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a high efficiency phosphor converting (white) Light Emitting Diode (pcLED) 1-Watt package through an increase in package extraction efficiency. A transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor is proposed to replace the powdered phosphor to reduce the scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is proposed between blue LED die and phosphor layer to recover inward yellow emission. At the end of the project we expect to recycle approximately 50% of the unrecovered backward light in current package construction, and develop a pcLED device with 80 lm/W e using our technology improvements and commercially available chip/package source. The success of the project will benefit luminous efficacy of white LEDs by increasing package extraction efficiency. In most phosphor-converting white LEDs, the white color is obtained by combining a blue LED die (or chip) with a powdered phosphor layer. The phosphor partially absorbs the blue light from the LED die and converts it into a broad green-yellow emission. The mixture of the transmitted blue light and green-yellow light emerging gives white light. There are two major drawbacks for current pcLEDs in terms of package extraction efficiency. The first is light scattering caused by phosphor particles. When the blue photons from the chip strike the phosphor particles, some blue light will be scattered by phosphor particles. Converted yellow emission photons are also scattered. A portion of scattered light is in the backward direction toward the die. The amount of this backward light varies and depends in part on the particle size of phosphors. The other drawback is that yellow emission from phosphor powders is isotropic. Although some backward light can be recovered by the reflector in current LED packages, there is still a portion of backward light that will be absorbed inside the package and further converted to heat. Heat generated

  17. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  18. Sliding Mode Pulsed Averaging IC Drivers for High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Anatoly Shteynberg, PhD

    2006-08-17

    This project developed new Light Emitting Diode (LED) driver ICs associated with specific (uniquely operated) switching power supplies that optimize performance for High Brightness LEDs (HB-LEDs). The drivers utilize a digital control core with a newly developed nonlinear, hysteretic/sliding mode controller with mixed-signal processing. The drivers are flexible enough to allow both traditional microprocessor interface as well as other options such as “on the fly” adjustment of color and brightness. Some other unique features of the newly developed drivers include • AC Power Factor Correction; • High power efficiency; • Substantially fewer external components should be required, leading to substantial reduction of Bill of Materials (BOM). Thus, the LED drivers developed in this research : optimize LED performance by increasing power efficiency and power factor. Perhaps more remarkably, the LED drivers provide this improved performance at substantially reduced costs compared to the present LED power electronic driver circuits. Since one of the barriers to market penetration for HB-LEDs (in particular “white” light LEDs) is cost/lumen, this research makes important contributions in helping the advancement of SSL consumer acceptance and usage.

  19. Monolayer graphene dispersion and radiative cooling for high power LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Tun-Jen; Eyassu, Tsehaye; Henderson, Kimberly; Kim, Taesam; Lin, Chhiu-Tsu

    2013-10-01

    Molecular fan, a radiative cooling by thin film, has been developed and its application for compact electronic devices has been evaluated. The enhanced surface emissivity and heat dissipation efficiency of the molecular fan coating are shown to correlate with the quantization of lattice modes in active nanomaterials. The highly quantized G and 2D bands in graphene are achieved by our dispersion technique, and then incorporated in an organic-inorganic acrylate emulsion to form a coating assembly on heat sinks (for LED and CPU). This water-based dielectric layer coating has been formulated and applied on metal core printed circuit boards. The heat dissipation efficiency and breakdown voltage are evaluated by a temperature-monitoring system and a high-voltage breakdown tester. The molecular fan coating on heat dissipation units is able to decrease the equilibrium junction temperature by 29.1 ° C, while functioning as a dielectric layer with a high breakdown voltage (>5 kV). The heat dissipation performance of the molecular fan coating applied on LED devices shows that the coated 50 W LED gives an enhanced cooling of 20% at constant light brightness. The schematics of monolayer graphene dispersion, undispersed graphene platelet, and continuous graphene sheet are illustrated and discussed to explain the mechanisms of radiative cooling, radiative/non-radiative, and non-radiative heat re-accumulation.

  20. Monolayer graphene dispersion and radiative cooling for high power LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, Tun-Jen; Eyassu, Tsehaye; Henderson, Kimberly; Kim, Taesam; Lin, Chhiu-Tsu

    2013-01-01

    Molecular fan, a radiative cooling by thin film, has been developed and its application for compact electronic devices has been evaluated. The enhanced surface emissivity and heat dissipation efficiency of the molecular fan coating are shown to correlate with the quantization of lattice modes in active nanomaterials. The highly quantized G and 2D bands in graphene are achieved by our dispersion technique, and then incorporated in an organic-inorganic acrylate emulsion to form a coating assembly on heat sinks (for LED and CPU). This water-based dielectric layer coating has been formulated and applied on metal core printed circuit boards. The heat dissipation efficiency and breakdown voltage are evaluated by a temperature-monitoring system and a high-voltage breakdown tester. The molecular fan coating on heat dissipation units is able to decrease the equilibrium junction temperature by 29.1 ° C, while functioning as a dielectric layer with a high breakdown voltage (>5 kV). The heat dissipation performance of the molecular fan coating applied on LED devices shows that the coated 50 W LED gives an enhanced cooling of 20% at constant light brightness. The schematics of monolayer graphene dispersion, undispersed graphene platelet, and continuous graphene sheet are illustrated and discussed to explain the mechanisms of radiative cooling, radiative/non-radiative, and non-radiative heat re-accumulation. (paper)

  1. Quantum Entanglement and High Brightness Laser Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our focus is on demonstrating high precision (sub-micron) laser ranging for Navigation using a unique high-sensitivity optical correlation receiver with both...

  2. A high brightness probe of polymer nanoparticles for biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sirong; Zhu, Jiarong; Li, Yaping; Feng, Liheng

    2018-03-01

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) with high brightness in long wavelength region were prepared by the nano-precipitation method. Based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism, the high brightness property of the CPNs was realized by four different emission polymers. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed that the CPNs possessed a spherical structure and an average diameter of 75 nm. Analysis assays showed that the CPNs had excellent biocompatibility, good photostability and low cytotoxicity. The CPNs were bio-modified with a cell penetrating peptide (Tat, a targeted element) through covalent link. Based on the entire wave fluorescence emission, the functionalized CPNs1-4 can meet multichannel and high throughput assays in cell and organ imaging. The contribution of the work lies in not only providing a new way to obtain a high brightness imaging probe in long wavelength region, but also using targeted cell and organ imaging.

  3. Latest advances in high brightness disk lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Vincent; Gottwald, Tina; Stolzenburg, Christian; Schad, Sven-Silvius; Killi, Alexander; Ryba, Tracey

    2015-02-01

    In the last decade diode pumped solid state lasers have become an important tool for many industrial materials processing applications. They combine ease of operation with efficiency, robustness and low cost. This paper will give insight in latest progress in disk laser technology ranging from kW-class CW-Lasers over frequency converted lasers to ultra-short pulsed lasers. The disk laser enables high beam quality at high average power and at high peak power at the same time. The power from a single disk was scaled from 1 kW around the year 2000 up to more than 10 kW nowadays. Recently was demonstrated more than 4 kW of average power from a single disk close to fundamental mode beam quality (M²=1.38). Coupling of multiple disks in a common resonator results in even higher power. As an example we show 20 kW extracted from two disks of a common resonator. The disk also reduces optical nonlinearities making it ideally suited for short and ultrashort pulsed lasers. In a joint project between TRUMPF and IFSW Stuttgart more than 1.3 kW of average power at ps pulse duration and exceptionally good beam quality was recently demonstrated. The extremely low saturated gain makes the disk laser ideal for internal frequency conversion. We show >1 kW average power and >6 kW peak power in multi ms pulsed regime from an internally frequency doubled disk laser emitting at 515 nm (green). Also external frequency conversion can be done efficiently with ns pulses. >500 W of average UV power was demonstrated.

  4. Physical, thermal, structural and optical properties of Dy3+ doped lithium alumino-borate glasses for bright W-LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, P.P.; Munishwar, S.R.; Gautam, S.; Gedam, R.S.

    2017-01-01

    Rare earth (RE) doped glasses have potential applications due to their emission efficiencies of 4f–4 f and 4f–5d electronic transitions. Among all the rare earths, Dy 3+ doped glasses have drawn much interest among the researchers for their intense emission in the visible region from 470 to 500 nm and around 570 to 600 nm. The physical, thermal, structural and optical properties of Dy 3+ doped lithium alumino-borate glasses (LABD glasses) have been studied for white LED (W-LED) application. The glasses were synthesized by conventional melt quench technique. X-ray diffraction spectra revealed the amorphous nature of the glass sample. An FTIR spectrum was carried out to study the glass structure and various functional groups present in the LABD glasses. Optical absorption spectra were recorded by UV–vis-NIR spectrometer. Allowed direct and indirect band gaps were obtained by Tauc's plot. Thermal parameters like glass thermal stability (∆T), Hruby's parameter (K gl ), etc. were calculated by DTA graph. Photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra's were measured at room temperature. The emission spectra shows two intense emission bands at around 482 nm (blue) and 574 nm (yellow) corresponds to the 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 15/2 and 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 13/2 transitions respectively along with one feeble band at 662 nm (red) corresponds to 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 11/2 transition. The CIE chromaticity co-ordinates were calculated for all glass samples. CIE chromaticity diagram shows glass LABD-4 containing 0.5 mol% Dy 2 O 3 with colour co-ordinates X = 0.34 and Y = 0.38 have highest emission intensity. These glasses having emission in the white region and thus can be used for bright white LED.

  5. High-brightness fiber-coupled pump laser development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kirk; Karlsen, Scott; Leisher, Paul; Martinsen, Robert

    2010-02-01

    We report on the continued development of high brightness laser diode modules at nLIGHT Photonics. These modules, based on nLIGHT's PearlTM product platform, demonstrate excellence in output power, brightness, wavelength stabilization, and long wavelength performance. This system, based on 14 single emitters, is designed to couple diode laser light into a 105 μm fiber at an excitation NA of under 0.14. We demonstrate over 100W of optical power at 9xx nm with a diode brightness exceeding 20 MW/cm2-str with an operating efficiency of approximately 50%. Additional results show over 70W of optical coupled at 8xx nm. Record brilliance at wavelengths 14xx nm and longer will also be demonstrated, with over 15 W of optical power with a beam quality of 7.5 mm-mrad. These results of high brightness, high efficiency, and wavelength stabilization demonstrate the pump technology required for next generation solid state and fiber lasers.

  6. Recent advances in high-brightness electron guns at AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluem, H.; Todd, A.M.M.; Cole, M.D.; Rathke, J.; Schultheiss, T.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a number of active Advanced Energy Systems projects pertaining to the development of advanced, high-brightness electron guns for various applications. These projects include a fully superconducting, CW RF gun, nearing test, that utilizes the niobium surface as the photocathode material. An integrated 100 mA, low emittance DC/SRF gun, ideal as an injector for ERL-type light sources and intended as the injector for a 100 kW FEL, is in late design stage. A parallel high-power, CW, normal-conducting L-band RF gun project has just begun. The early performance analysis for this gun also shows good promise as an injector for ERL-type light sources. Lastly, a fully axisymmetric RF gun, operating in X-band, is being studied as a source of extremely bright electron bunches

  7. The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Luigi; Rosenzweig, J.; Serafini, Luca

    2007-09-01

    Plenary sessions. RF deflector based sub-Ps beam diagnostics: application to FEL and advanced accelerators / D. Alesini. Production of fermtosecond pulses and micron beam spots for high brightness electron beam applications / S.G. Anderson ... [et al.]. Wakefields of sub-picosecond electron bunches / K.L.F. Bane. Diamond secondary emitter / I. Ben-Zvi ... [et al.]. Parametric optimization for an X-ray free electron laser with a laser wiggler / R. Bonifacio, N. Piovella and M.M. Cola. Needle cathodes for high-brightness beams / C.H. Boulware ... [et al.]. Non linear evolution of short pulses in FEL cascaded undulators and the FEL harmonic cascade / L. Giannessi and P. Musumeci. High brightness laser induced multi-meV electron/proton sources / D. Giulietti ... [et al.]. Emittance limitation of a conditioned beam in a strong focusing FEL undulator / Z. Huang, G. Stupakov and S. Reiche. Scaled models: space-charge dominated electron storage rings / R.A. Kishek ... [et al.]. High brightness beam applications: energy recovered linacs / G.A. Krafft. Maximizing brightness in photoinjectors / C. Limborg-Deprey and H. Tomizawa. Ultracold electron sources / O.J. Luiten ... [et al.]. Scaling laws of structure-based optical accelerators / A. Mizrahi, V. Karagodsky and L. Schächter. High brightness beams-applications to free-electron lasers / S. Reiche. Conception of photo-injectors for the CTF3 experiment / R. Roux. Superconducting RF photoinjectors: an overview / J. Sekutowicz. Status and perspectives of photo injector developments for high brightness beams / F. Stephan. Results from the UCLA/FNLP underdense plasma lens experiment / M.C. Thompson ... [et al.]. Medical application of multi-beam compton scattering monochromatic tunable hard X-ray source / M. Uesaka ... [et al.]. Design of a 2 kA, 30 fs RF-photoinjector for waterbag compression / S.B. Van Der Geer, O.J. Luiten and M.J. De Loos. Proposal for a high-brightness pulsed electron source / M. Zolotorev ... [et al

  8. Generation of high brightness ion beam from insulated anode PED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Yoshinobu

    1988-01-01

    Generation and focusing of a high density ion beam with high brightness from a organic center part of anode of a PED was reported previously. Mass, charge and energy distribution of this beam were analyzed. Three kind of anode were tried. Many highly ionized medium mass ions (up to C 4+ , O 6+ ) accelarated to several times of voltage difference between anode and cathode were observed. In the case of all insulator anode the current carried by the medium mass ions is about half of that carried by protons. (author)

  9. High-Brightness Blue Light-Emitting Diodes Enabled by a Directly Grown Graphene Buffer Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaolong; Zhang, Xiang; Dou, Zhipeng; Wei, Tongbo; Liu, Zhiqiang; Qi, Yue; Ci, Haina; Wang, Yunyu; Li, Yang; Chang, Hongliang; Yan, Jianchang; Yang, Shenyuan; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Junxi; Gao, Peng; Li, Jinmin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2018-06-08

    Single-crystalline GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with high efficiency and long lifetime are the most promising solid-state lighting source compared with conventional incandescent and fluorescent lamps. However, the lattice and thermal mismatch between GaN and sapphire substrate always induces high stress and high density of dislocations and thus degrades the performance of LEDs. Here, the growth of high-quality GaN with low stress and a low density of dislocations on graphene (Gr) buffered sapphire substrate is reported for high-brightness blue LEDs. Gr films are directly grown on sapphire substrate to avoid the tedious transfer process and GaN is grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The introduced Gr buffer layer greatly releases biaxial stress and reduces the density of dislocations in GaN film and In x Ga 1- x N/GaN multiple quantum well structures. The as-fabricated LED devices therefore deliver much higher light output power compared to that on a bare sapphire substrate, which even outperforms the mature process derived counterpart. The GaN growth on Gr buffered sapphire only requires one-step growth, which largely shortens the MOCVD growth time. This facile strategy may pave a new way for applications of Gr films and bring several disruptive technologies for epitaxial growth of GaN film and its applications in high-brightness LEDs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Technological Challenges for High-Brightness Photo-Injectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Suberlucq, Guy

    2004-01-01

    Many applications, from linear colliders to free-electron lasers, passing through light sources and many other electron sources, require high brightness electron beams, usually produced by photo-injectors. Because certain parameters of these applications differ by several orders of magnitude, various solutions were implemented for the design and construction of the three main parts of the photo-injectors: lasers, photocathodes and guns. This paper summarizes the different requirements, how they lead to technological challenges and how R&D programs try to overcome these challenges. Some examples of state-of-the-art parts are presented.

  11. High-brightness electron source driven by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Kui; Geng Rongli; Wang Lifang

    1996-01-01

    A DC high-brightness laser driven by photo emissive electron gun is being developed at Beijing University, in order to produce 50∼100 ps electron bunches of high quality. The gun consists of a photocathode preparation chamber and a DC acceleration cavity. Different ways of fabricating photocathode, such as chemical vapor deposition, ion beam implantation and ion beam enhanced deposition, can be adopted. The acceleration gap is designed with the aid of simulation codes EGUN and POISSON. 100 kV DC high voltage is fed to the anode through a careful designed ceramic insulator. The laser system is a mode locked Nd-YAG oscillator proceeded by an amplifier at 10 Hz repetition rate, which can deliver three different wavelength (1064/532/266 nm). The combination of a superconducting cavity with the photocathode preparation chamber is discussed

  12. ROLE OF DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTERS IN HIGH BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the possibility of using diamond secondary emitter in a high average current electron injector to amplify the current from the photocathode and to isolate the cathode and the injector from each other to increase the life time of the cathode and preserve the performance of the injector. Secondary electron yield of 225 and current density of 0.8 a/cm 2 have been measured in the transmission mode from type 2 a natural diamond. Although the diamond will be heated during normal operation in the injector, calculations indicate that by cryogenically cooling the diamond, the temperature gradient along the diamond can be maintained within the acceptable range. The electron energy and temporal distributions are expected to be narrow from this device resulting in high brightness beams. Plans are underway to measure the SEY in emission mode, fabricate photocathode-diamond capsule and test diamond and capsule in superconducting RF injector

  13. High Brightness Injectors Based On Photocathode DC Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Yunn

    2001-01-01

    Sample results of new injector design method based on a photocathode dc gun are presented, based on other work analytically proving the validity of the emittance compensation scheme for the case even when beam bunching is involved. We have designed several new injectors appropriate for different bunch charge ranges accordingly. Excellent beam quality produced by these injectors clearly shows that a photocathode dc gun can compete with a rf gun on an equal footing as the source of an electron beam for the bunch charge ranging up to 2 nano Coulomb (nC). This work therefore elevates a dc gun based injector to the preferred choice for many ongoing high brightness accelerator projects considering the proven operational stability and high average power capability of the dc gun

  14. High Output LED-Based Profile Lighting Fixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in power light emitting diode (LED) industry have made LEDs suitable for being efficiently used in high intensity lighting fixtures instead of the commonly used high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. A high output LEDbased profile-light fixture is presented in this paper...

  15. High Efficiency Driving Electronics for General Illumination LED Luminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Anand

    2012-10-31

    New generation of standalone LED driver platforms developed, which are more efficient These LED Drivers are more efficient (≥90%), smaller in size ( 0.15 in3/watt), lower in cost ( 12 cents/watt in high volumes in millions of units). And these products are very reliable having an operating life of over 50,000 hours. This technology will enable growth of LED light sources in the use. This will also help in energy saving and reducing total life cycle cost of LED units. Two topologies selected for next generation of LED drivers: 1) Value engineered single stage Flyback topology. This is suitable for low powered LED drivers up to 50W power. 2) Two stage boost power factor correction (PFC) plus LLC half bridge platform for higher powers. This topology is suitable for 40W to 300W LED drivers. Three new product platforms were developed to cover a wide range of LED drivers: 1) 120V 40W LED driver, 2) Intellivolt 75W LED driver, & 3) Intellivolt 150W LED driver. These are standalone LED drivers for rugged outdoor lighting applications. Based on these platforms number of products are developed and successfully introduced in the market place meeting key performance, size and cost goals.

  16. Criteria for emittance compensation in high-brightness photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-xi Wang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A critical process in high-brightness photoinjectors is emittance compensation, which brings under control the correlated transverse emittance growth due to the linear space-charge force. Although emittance compensation has been used and studied for almost two decades, the exact criteria to achieve emittance compensation is not as clear as it should be. In this paper, a perturbative analysis of slice envelopes and emittance evolution close to any reference envelope is developed, via which space-charge and chromatic effects are investigated. A new criterion for emittance compensation is found, which is complementary to the well-known matching condition for the invariant envelope and agrees very well with simulations.

  17. Beam position monitors for the high brightness lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, T.

    1985-06-01

    Engineering developments associated with the high brightness lattice and the projected change in machine operating parameters will inherently affect the diagnostics systems and devices installed at present in the storage ring. This is particularly true of the beam position monitoring (BPI) system. The new sixteen unit cell lattice with its higher betatron tune values and the limited space available in the redesigned machine straights for fitting standard BPI vessels forces a fundamental re-evaluation of the beam position monitor system. The design aims for the new system are based on accepting the space limitations imposed while still providing the monitor points required to give good radial and vertical closed orbit plots. The locations of BPI's in the redesigned machine straights is illustrated. A description of the new BPI assemblies and their calibration is given. The BPI's use capacitance button type pick-ups; their response is described. (U.K.)

  18. Slow-mode degradation mechanism and its control in new bright and long-lived ZnSe white LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Masahiro [Venture Business Laboratory, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan); Ando, Koshi; Abe, Tomoki; Inoue, Noboru; Urata, Akihiro; Tsutsumi, Sueyuki; Hashimoto, Yutaka; Kasada, Hirofumi [Electrical and Electronic Department, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan); Katayama, Koji; Nakamura, Takao [Semiconductor Technologies R and D Laboratories, Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., 1-1-1 Koyakita, Itami, Hyogo, 665-0016 (Japan)

    2006-03-15

    This paper presents slow-mode degradation mechanism of ZnSe-based white LEDs. A systematic study has been made from a viewpoint of microscopic point defect reaction such as generation and migration in both device active layer (ZnCdSe/ZnSe MQW) and p-type ZnMgSSe cladding layer utilizing DLTS/ ICTS, SSRM (scanning spreading resistance microscope), and EL (electroluminescence)-imaging techniques, coupled with device aging experiments. We have found two different degradation stages (1st and 2nd stages) in the slow-mode degradation, which are caused by quite different microscopic point defect species. The 1st stage is induced by the long-diffusion of H0-center (nitrogen-complex deep hole trap in p-cladding layer), forming high-density dark-spots in the MQW active layer. This active center is generated only in the stress-stimulated condition such as thermal or device fabrication process. After controlling the initial concentration of the H0 center, we have observed no detectable new dark-spots during device operation, leading to fairly long device-lifetime ({proportional_to}1000 h). This 2nd stage has appeared as a carrier (hole) reduction in the p-type cladding layer. This final degradation stage is found to take place by an increase of shallow compensating donor-like centers in p-type cladding layer (ZnMgSSe). Based on these insights on the microscopic point defect reaction, we have developed (new) double cladding i-ZnMgBeSe/p-ZnMgSSe white-LEDs, which has exhibited long device lifetime of over 10000 h. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Proceedings of the third ICFA mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1997-01-01

    The third mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on May 7-9, 1997 and had about 30 participants. The workshop focussed on rf and longitudinal dynamics issues relevant to intense and/or bright hadron synchrotrons. A plenary session was followed by four sessions on particular topics. This document contains copies of the viewgraphs used as well as summaries written by the session chairs

  20. State-Of High Brightness RF Photo-Injector Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Massimo; Clendenin, Jym; Palmer, Dennis; Rosenzweig, James; Serafini, Luca

    2000-04-01

    The art of designing optimized high brightness electron RF Photo-Injectors has moved in the last decade from a cut and try procedure, guided by experimental experience and time consuming particle tracking simulations, up to a fast parameter space scanning, guided by recent analytical results and a fast running semi-analytical code, so to reach the optimum operating point which corresponds to maximum beam brightness. Scaling laws and the theory of invariant envelope provide to the designers excellent tools for a first parameters choice and the code HOMDYN, based on a multi-slice envelope description of the beam dynamics, is tailored to describe the space charge dominated dynamics of laminar beams in presence of time dependent space charge forces, giving rise to a very fast modeling capability for photo-injectors design. We report in this talk the results of a recent beam dynamics study, motivated by the need to redesign the LCLS photoinjector. During this work a new effective working point for a split RF photoinjector has been discovered by means of the previous mentioned approach. By a proper choice of rf gun and solenoid parameters, the emittance evolution shows a double minimum behavior in the drifting region. If the booster is located where the relative emittance maximum and the envelope waist occur, the second emittance minimum can be shifted at the booster exit and frozen at a very low level (0.3 mm-mrad for a 1 nC flat top bunch), to the extent that the invariant envelope matching conditions are satisfied.

  1. High Brightness Neutron Source for Radiography. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, J.T.; Piestrup, Melvin A.; Gary, Charles K.; Harris, Jack L.; Williams, David J.; Jones, Glenn E.; Vainionpaa, J.H.; Fuller, Michael J.; Rothbart, George H.; Kwan, J.W.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Gough, R.A.; Reijonen, Jani; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-01-01

    This research and development program was designed to improve nondestructive evaluation of large mechanical objects by providing both fast and thermal neutron sources for radiography. Neutron radiography permits inspection inside objects that x-rays cannot penetrate and permits imaging of corrosion and cracks in low-density materials. Discovering of fatigue cracks and corrosion in piping without the necessity of insulation removal is possible. Neutron radiography sources can provide for the nondestructive testing interests of commercial and military aircraft, public utilities and petrochemical organizations. Three neutron prototype neutron generators were designed and fabricated based on original research done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The research and development of these generators was successfully continued by LBNL and Adelphi Technology Inc. under this STTR. The original design goals of high neutron yield and generator robustness have been achieved, using new technology developed under this grant. In one prototype generator, the fast neutron yield and brightness was roughly 10 times larger than previously marketed neutron generators using the same deuterium-deuterium reaction. In another generator, we integrate a moderator with a fast neutron source, resulting in a high brightness thermal neutron generator. The moderator acts as both conventional moderator and mechanical and electrical support structure for the generator and effectively mimics a nuclear reactor. In addition to the new prototype generators, an entirely new plasma ion source for neutron production was developed. First developed by LBNL, this source uses a spiral antenna to more efficiently couple the RF radiation into the plasma, reducing the required gas pressure so that the generator head can be completely sealed, permitting the possible use of tritium gas. This also permits the generator to use the deuterium-tritium reaction to produce 14-MeV neutrons with increases

  2. Fuselage mounted anti-collision lights utilizing high power LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, John; Machi, Nicolo; Mangum, Scott; Singer, Jeffrey

    2005-09-01

    As LEDs continue to improve in efficacy and total light output, they are increasingly finding their way in to new applications in the aviation industry as well as adjacent markets. One function that is particularly challenging and may reap substantial benefits from this new technology is the fuselage mounted anti-collision light. Anti-collision lights provide conspicuity for the aircraft by periodically emitting bright flashes of light. The color, light distribution and intensity levels for these lights are all closely regulated through Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) documents. These lighting requirements, along with thermal, environmental and aerodynamic requirements, drive the overall design. In this paper, we will discuss the existing technologies used in anti-collision lights and the advantages and challenges associated with an LED solution. Particular attention will be given to the optical, thermal, electrical and aerodynamic aspects associated with an LED approach. A specific case study will be presented along with some of the challenges that have arisen during the design process. These challenges include the addition of an integrated covert anti-collision lighting.

  3. Development of high-performance solar LED lighting system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Wu, M.S.; Hsu, P.C.; Chen, J.W.; Chen, K.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The present study developed a high-performance charge/discharge controller for stand-alone solar LED lighting system by incorporating an nMPPO system design, a PWM battery charge control, and a PWM battery discharge control to directly drive the LED. The MPPT controller can then be removed from the stand-alone solar system and the charged capacity of the battery increases 9.7%. For LED driven by PWM current directly from battery, a reliability test for the light decay of LED lamps was performed continuously for 13,200 h. It has shown that the light decay of PWM-driven LED is the same as that of constant-current driven LED. The switching energy loss of the MOSFET in the PWM battery discharge control is less than 1%. Three solar-powered LED lighting systems (18 W, 100 W and 150 W LED) were designed and built. The long-term outdoor field test results have shown that the system performance is satisfactory with the control system developed in the present study. The loss of load probability for the 18 W solar LED system is 14.1% in winter and zero in summer. For the 100 W solar LED system, the loss of load probability is 3.6% in spring. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of high-performance solar LED lighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, B.J.; Wu, M.S.; Hsu, P.C.; Chen, J.W.; Chen, K.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The present study developed a high-performance charge/discharge controller for stand-alone solar LED lighting system by incorporating an nMPPO system design, a PWM battery charge control, and a PWM battery discharge control to directly drive the LED. The MPPT controller can then be removed from the stand-alone solar system and the charged capacity of the battery increases 9.7%. For LED driven by PWM current directly from battery, a reliability test for the light decay of LED lamps was performed continuously for 13,200 h. It has shown that the light decay of PWM-driven LED is the same as that of constant-current driven LED. The switching energy loss of the MOSFET in the PWM battery discharge control is less than 1%. Three solar-powered LED lighting systems (18 W, 100 W and 150 W LED) were designed and built. The long-term outdoor field test results have shown that the system performance is satisfactory with the control system developed in the present study. The loss of load probability for the 18 W solar LED system is 14.1% in winter and zero in summer. For the 100 W solar LED system, the loss of load probability is 3.6% in spring.

  5. Development of high-performance solar LED lighting system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-08-01

    The present study developed a high-performance charge/discharge controller for stand-alone solar LED lighting system by incorporating an nMPPO system design, a PWM battery charge control, and a PWM battery discharge control to directly drive the LED. The MPPT controller can then be removed from the stand-alone solar system and the charged capacity of the battery increases 9.7%. For LED driven by PWM current directly from battery, a reliability test for the light decay of LED lamps was performed continuously for 13,200 h. It has shown that the light decay of PWM-driven LED is the same as that of constant-current driven LED. The switching energy loss of the MOSFET in the PWM battery discharge control is less than 1%. Three solar-powered LED lighting systems (18 W, 100 W and 150 W LED) were designed and built. The long-term outdoor field test results have shown that the system performance is satisfactory with the control system developed in the present study. The loss of load probability for the 18 W solar LED system is 14.1% in winter and zero in summer. For the 100 W solar LED system, the loss of load probability is 3.6% in spring. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High Brightness HDR Projection Using Dynamic Freeform Lensing

    KAUST Repository

    Damberg, Gerwin

    2016-05-03

    Cinema projectors need to compete with home theater displays in terms of image quality. High frame rate and spatial resolution as well as stereoscopic 3D are common features today, but even the most advanced cinema projectors lack in-scene contrast and, more important, high peak luminance, both of which are essential perceptual attributes of images appearing realistic. At the same time, HDR image statistics suggest that the average image intensity in a controlled ambient viewing environment such as the cinema can be as low as 1% for cinematic HDR content and not often higher than 18%, middle gray in photography. Traditional projection systems form images and colors by blocking the source light from a lamp, therefore attenuating between 99% and 82% of light, on average. This inefficient use of light poses significant challenges for achieving higher peak brightness levels. In this work, we propose a new projector architecture built around commercially available components, in which light can be steered to form images. The gain in system efficiency significantly reduces the total cost of ownership of a projector (fewer components and lower operating cost), and at the same time increases peak luminance and improves black level beyond what is practically achievable with incumbent projector technologies. At the heart of this computational display technology is a new projector hardware design using phase modulation in combination with a new optimization algorithm that is capable of on-the-fly computation of freeform lens surfaces. © 2016 ACM.

  7. Advanced laser technologies for high-brightness photocathode electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomizawa, Hiromitsu

    2012-01-01

    A laser-excited photocathode RF gun is one of the most reliable high-brightness electron beam sources for XFELs. Several 3D laser shaping methods have been developed as ideal photocathode illumination sources at SPring-8 since 2001. To suppress the emittance growth caused by nonlinear space-charge forces, the 3D cylindrical UV-pulse was optimized spatially as a flattop and temporally as squarely stacked chirped pulses. This shaping system is a serial combination of a deformable mirror that adaptively shapes the spatial profile with a genetic algorithm and a UV-pulse stacker that consists of four birefringent α-BBO crystal rods for temporal shaping. Using this 3D-shaped pulse, a normalized emittance of 1.4 πmm mrad was obtained in 2006. Utilizing laser's Z-polarization, Schottky-effect-gated photocathode gun was proposed in 2006. The cathode work functions are reduced by a laser-induced Schottky effect. As a result of focusing a radially polarized laser pulse with a hollow lens in vacuum, the Z-field (Z-polarization) is generated at the cathode. (author)

  8. Advanced Laser Technologies for High-brightness Photocathode Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Hiromitsu

    A laser-excited photocathode RF gun is one of the most reliable high-brightness electron beam sources for XFELs. Several 3D laser shaping methods have been developed as ideal photocathode illumination sources at SPring-8 since 2001. To suppress the emittance growth caused by nonlinear space-charge forces, the 3D cylindrical UV-pulse was optimized spatially as a flattop and temporally as squarely stacked chirped pulses. This shaping system is a serial combination of a deformable mirror that adaptively shapes the spatial profile with a genetic algorithm and a UV-pulse stacker that consists of four birefringent α-BBO crystal rods for temporal shaping. Using this 3D-shaped pulse, a normalized emittance of 1.4 π mm mrad was obtained in 2006. Utilizing laser's Z-polarization, Schottky-effect-gated photocathode gun was proposed in 2006. The cathode work functions are reduced by a laser-induced Schottky effect. As a result of focusing a radially polarized laser pulse with a hollow lens in vacuum, the Z-field (Z-polarization) is generated at the cathode.

  9. Velocity bunching of high-brightness electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Anderson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Velocity bunching has been recently proposed as a tool for compressing electron beam pulses in modern high brightness photoinjector sources. This tool is familiar from earlier schemes implemented for bunching dc electron sources, but presents peculiar challenges when applied to high current, low emittance beams from photoinjectors. The main difficulty foreseen is control of emittance oscillations in the beam in this scheme, which can be naturally considered as an extension of the emittance compensation process at moderate energies. This paper presents two scenarios in which velocity bunching, combined with emittance control, is to play a role in nascent projects. The first is termed ballistic bunching, where the changing of relative particle velocities and positions occur in distinct regions, a short high gradient linac, and a drift length. This scenario is discussed in the context of the proposed ORION photoinjector. Simulations are used to explore the relationship between the degree of bunching, and the emittance compensation process. Experimental measurements performed at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory of the surprisingly robust bunching process, as well as accompanying deleterious transverse effects, are presented. An unanticipated mechanism for emittance growth in bends for highly momentum chirped beam was identified and studied in these experiments. The second scenario may be designated as phase space rotation, and corresponds closely to the recent proposal of Ferrario and Serafini. Its implementation for the compression of the electron beam pulse length in the PLEIADES inverse Compton scattering (ICS experiment at LLNL is discussed. It is shown in simulations that optimum compression may be obtained by manipulation of the phases in low gradient traveling wave accelerator sections. Measurements of the bunching and emittance control achieved in such an implementation at PLEIADES, as well as aspects of the use of velocity-bunched beam directly

  10. Record high-average current from a high-brightness photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Bruce; Barley, John; Bartnik, Adam; Bazarov, Ivan; Cultrera, Luca; Dobbins, John; Hoffstaetter, Georg; Johnson, Brent; Kaplan, Roger; Karkare, Siddharth; Kostroun, Vaclav; Li Yulin; Liepe, Matthias; Liu Xianghong; Loehl, Florian; Maxson, Jared; Quigley, Peter; Reilly, John; Rice, David; Sabol, Daniel [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); and others

    2013-01-21

    High-power, high-brightness electron beams are of interest for many applications, especially as drivers for free electron lasers and energy recovery linac light sources. For these particular applications, photoemission injectors are used in most cases, and the initial beam brightness from the injector sets a limit on the quality of the light generated at the end of the accelerator. At Cornell University, we have built such a high-power injector using a DC photoemission gun followed by a superconducting accelerating module. Recent results will be presented demonstrating record setting performance up to 65 mA average current with beam energies of 4-5 MeV.

  11. Design of High Efficiency Illumination for LED Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Nong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high efficiency illumination for LED street lighting is proposed. For energy saving, this paper uses Class-E resonant inverter as main electric circuit to improve efficiency. In addition, single dimming control has the best efficiency, simplest control scheme and lowest circuit cost among other types of dimming techniques. Multiple serial-connected transformers used to drive the LED strings as they can provide galvanic isolation and have the advantage of good current distribution against device difference. Finally, a prototype circuit for driving 112 W LEDs in total was built and tested to verify the theoretical analysis.

  12. Signal processing for LED lighting systems : illumination rendering and sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H.

    2010-01-01

    Solid state lighting, employing high brightness light emitting diodes (LEDs), is becoming increasingly widely used. The advantages of LEDs include high radiative efficiency, long lifetime, limited heat generation and superior tolerance to humidity. Another important advantage of LED lighting systems

  13. High brightness diode lasers controlled by volume Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebov, Leonid

    2017-02-01

    Volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) recorded in photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass are holographic optical elements that are effective spectral and angular filters withstanding high power laser radiation. Reflecting VBGs are narrow-band spectral filters while transmitting VBGs are narrow-band angular filters. The use of these optical elements in external resonators of semiconductor lasers enables extremely resonant feedback that provides dramatic spectral and angular narrowing of laser diodes radiation without significant power and efficiency penalty. Spectral narrowing of laser diodes by reflecting VBGs demonstrated in wide spectral region from near UV to 3 μm. Commercially available VBGs have spectral width ranged from few nanometers to few tens of picometers. Efficient spectral locking was demonstrated for edge emitters (single diodes, bars, modules, and stacks), vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), grating coupled surface emitting lasers (GCSELs), and interband cascade lasers (ICLs). The use of multiplexed VBGs provides multiwavelength emission from a single emitter. Spectrally locked semiconductor lasers demonstrated CW power from milliwatts to a kilowatt. Angular narrowing by transmitting VBGs enables single transverse mode emission from wide aperture diode lasers having resonators with great Fresnel numbers. This feature provides close to diffraction limit divergence along a slow axis of wide stripe edge emitters. Radiation exchange between lasers by means of spatially profiled or multiplexed VBGs enables coherent combining of diode lasers. Sequence of VBGs or multiplexed VBGs enable spectral combining of spectrally narrowed diode lasers or laser modules. Thus the use of VBGs for diode lasers beam control provides dramatic increase of brightness.

  14. A high-brightness thermionic microwave electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borland, M.

    1991-02-01

    In a collaborative effort by SSRL, AET Associates, and Varian Associates, a high-brightness microwave electron gun using a thermionic cathode has been designed, built, tested, and installed for use with the SSRL 150 MeV linear accelerator. This thesis discusses the physics behind the design and operation of the gun and associated systems, presenting predictions and experimental tests of the gun's performance. The microwave gun concept is of increasing interest due to its promise of providing higher-current, lower-emittance electron beams than possible from conventional, DC gun technology. In a DC guns, accelerating gradients are less than 8 MV/m, while those in a microwave gun can exceed 100 MV/m, providing much more rapid initial acceleration, thereby reducing the deleterious effects of space-charge. Microwave guns produce higher momentum beams than DC guns, thus lessening space-charge effects during subsequent beam transport. Typical DC guns produce kinetic energies of 80--400 KeV, compared to 2--3 MeV for the SSRL microwave gun. ''State-of-the-art'' microwave gun designs employ laser-driven photocathodes, providing excellent performance but with greater complexity and monetary costs. A thermionic microwave gun with a magnetic bunching system is comparable in cost and complexity to a conventional system, but provides performance that is orders of magnitude better. Simulations of the SSRL microwave gun predict a normalized RMS emittance at the gun exist of e c · μm for a beam consisting of approximately 50% of the particles emitted from the gun, and having a momentum spread ±10%. These emittances are for up to 5 x 10 9 e - per bunch. Chromatic aberrations in the transport line between the gun and linear accelerator increase this to typically e · μm

  15. A high-brightness thermionic microwave electron gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, Michael [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1991-02-01

    In a collaborative effort by SSRL, AET Associates, and Varian Associates, a high-brightness microwave electron gun using a thermionic cathode has been designed, built, tested, and installed for use with the SSRL 150 MeV linear accelerator. This thesis discusses the physics behind the design and operation of the gun and associated systems, presenting predictions and experimental tests of the gun`s performance. The microwave gun concept is of increasing interest due to its promise of providing higher-current, lower-emittance electron beams than possible from conventional, DC gun technology. In a DC guns, accelerating gradients are less than 8 MV/m, while those in a microwave gun can exceed 100 MV/m, providing much more rapid initial acceleration, thereby reducing the deleterious effects of space-charge. Microwave guns produce higher momentum beams than DC guns, thus lessening space-charge effects during subsequent beam transport. Typical DC guns produce kinetic energies of 80--400 KeV, compared to 2--3 MeV for the SSRL microwave gun. ``State-of-the-art`` microwave gun designs employ laser-driven photocathodes, providing excellent performance but with greater complexity and monetary costs. A thermionic microwave gun with a magnetic bunching system is comparable in cost and complexity to a conventional system, but provides performance that is orders of magnitude better. Simulations of the SSRL microwave gun predict a normalized RMS emittance at the gun exist of < 10 π • mec • μm for a beam consisting of approximately 50% of the particles emitted from the gun, and having a momentum spread ±10%. These emittances are for up to 5 x 109e- per bunch. Chromatic aberrations in the transport line between the gun and linear accelerator increase this to typically < 30 π • me • μm.

  16. Design of High Efficiency Illumination for LED Lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yong-Nong; Cheng, Hung-Liang; Kuo, Chih-Ming

    2013-01-01

    A high efficiency illumination for LED street lighting is proposed. For energy saving, this paper uses Class-E resonant inverter as main electric circuit to improve efficiency. In addition, single dimming control has the best efficiency, simplest control scheme and lowest circuit cost among other types of dimming techniques. Multiple serial-connected transformers used to drive the LED strings as they can provide galvanic isolation and have the advantage of good current distribution against de...

  17. High-brightness tapered laser diodes with photonic crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Du, Weichuan; Kun, Zhou; Gao, Songxin; Ma, Yi; Tang, Chun

    2018-02-01

    Beam quality of tapered laser diodes is limited by higher order lateral mode. On purpose of optimizing the brightness of tapered laser diodes, we developed a novel design of tapered diodes. This devices based on InGaAs/AlGaAs asymmetry epitaxial structure, containing higher order lateral mode filtering schemes especially photonic crystal structures, which fabricated cost effectively by using standard photolithography and dry etch processes. Meanwhile, the effects of photonic crystal structures on mode control are also investigated theoretically by FDBPM (Finite-Difference Beam Propagation Method) calculation. We achieved a CW optical output power of 6.9W at 940nm for a single emitter with 4 mm cavity length. A nearly diffraction limited beam of M2 ≍1.9 @ 0.5W has been demonstrated, and a highest brightness of β =75MW/(cm2 ·sr) was reached.

  18. High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Jinping; Cheng Ya; Xu Zhizhan [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zeng Bin; Li Guihua; Chu Wei; Ni Jielei; Zhang Haisu [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xu Huailiang [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Chin, See Leang [Center for Optics, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    We demonstrate a harmonic-seeded switchable multiwavelength laser in air driven by intense midinfrared femtosecond laser pulses, in which population inversion occurs at an ultrafast time scale (i.e., less than {approx}200 fs) owing to direct formation of excited molecular nitrogen ions by strong-field ionization of inner-valence electrons. The bright multiwavelength laser in air opens the perspective for remote detection of multiple pollutants based on nonlinear optical spectroscopy.

  19. Materials and Designs for High-Efficacy LED Light Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibbetson, James [Cree, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Gresback, Ryan [Cree, Inc., Durham, NC (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Cree, Inc. conducted a narrow-band downconverter (NBD) materials development and implementation program which will lead to warm-white LED light engines with enhanced efficacy via improved spectral efficiency with respect to the human eye response. New red (600-630nm) NBD materials could result in as much as a 20% improvement in warm-white efficacy at high color quality relative to conventional phosphor-based light sources. Key program innovations included: high quantum yield; narrow peak width; minimized component-level losses due to “cross-talk” and light scattering among red and yellow-green downconverters; and improved reliability to reach parity with conventional phosphors. NBD-enabled downconversion efficiency gains relative to conventional phosphors yielded an end-of-project LED light engine efficacy of >160 lm/W at room temperature and 35 A/cm2, with a correlated color temperature (CCT) of ~3500K and >90 CRI (Color Rending Index). NBD-LED light engines exhibited equivalent luminous flux and color point maintenance at >1,000 hrs. of highly accelerated reliability testing as conventional phosphor LEDs. A demonstration luminaire utilizing an NBD-based LED light engine had a steady-state system efficacy of >150 lm/W at ~3500K and >90 CRI, which exceeded the 2014 DOE R&D Plan luminaire milestone for FY17 of >150 lm/W at just 80 CRI.

  20. Short Pulse High Brightness X-ray Production with the PLEIADES Thomson Scattering Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.G.; Barty, C.P.J.; Betts, S.M.; Brown, W.J.; Crane, J.K.; Cross, R.R.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Gibson, D.J.; Hartemann, F.V.; Kuba, J.; LaSage, G.P.; Rosenzweig, J.B.; Slaughter, D.R.; Springer, P.T.; Tremaine, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe PLEIADES, a compact, tunable, high-brightness, ultra-short pulse, Thomson x-ray source. The peak brightness of the source is expected to exceed 10 20 photons/s/0.1% bandwidth/mm 2 /mrad 2 . Initial results are reported and compared to theoretical calculations

  1. A thermosyphon heat pipe cooler for high power LEDs cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Tian, Wenkai; Lv, Lucang

    2016-08-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) cooling is facing the challenge of high heat flux more seriously with the increase of input power and diode density. The proposed unique thermosyphon heat pipe heat sink is particularly suitable for cooling of high power density LED chips and other electronics, which has a heat dissipation potential of up to 280 W within an area of 20 mm × 22 mm (>60 W/cm2) under natural air convection. Meanwhile, a thorough visualization investigation was carried out to explore the two phase flow characteristics in the proposed thermosyphon heat pipe. Implementing this novel thermosyphon heat pipe heat sink in the cooling of a commercial 100 W LED integrated chip, a very low apparent thermal resistance of 0.34 K/W was obtained under natural air convection with the aid of the enhanced boiling heat transfer at the evaporation side and the enhanced natural air convection at the condensation side.

  2. High cortisol awakening response is associated with an impairment of the effect of bright light therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus Per Juul; Lunde, Marianne Anita; Undén, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the predictive validity of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in patients with non-seasonal major depression. METHOD: Patients were treated with sertraline in combination with bright or dim light therapy for a 5-week period. Saliva cortisol levels were measured in 63...... patients, as an awakening profile, before medication and light therapy started. The CAR was calculated by using three time-points: awakening and 20 and 60 min after awakening. RESULTS: Patients with low CAR had a very substantial effect of bright light therapy compared with dim light therapy, whereas...... patients with a high CAR had no effect of bright light therapy compared with dim light therapy. CONCLUSION: High CAR was associated with an impairment of the effect of bright light therapy. This result raises the question of whether bright light acts through a mechanism different from...

  3. Two phase interleaved buck converter for driving high power LEDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate an interleaved buck topology for driving high current light-emitting diodes. Low output capacitor value allows the use of non-electrolytic capacitors extending the lifetime of the converter. Converter is operated as a constant, regulated current source which...... increases luminous efficacy of LED compared to PWM dimmed system. Because of the low dynamic resistance of LEDs the duty cycle of the converter does not change greatly with controlled current. By setting the input voltage of the buck converter to around twice the voltage of diode strings, converter can...

  4. High-Voltage LED Light Engine with Integrated Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soer, Wouter [Lumileds LLC, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    LED luminaires have seen dramatic changes in cost breakdown over the past few years. The LED component cost, which until recently was the dominant portion of luminaire cost, has fallen to a level of the same order as the other luminaire components, such as the driver, housing, optics etc. With the current state of the technology, further luminaire performance improvement and cost reduction is realized most effectively by optimization of the whole system, rather than a single component. This project focuses on improving the integration between LEDs and drivers. Lumileds has developed a light engine platform based on low-cost high-power LEDs and driver topologies optimized for integration with these LEDs on a single substrate. The integration of driver and LEDs enables an estimated luminaire cost reduction of about 25% for targeted applications, mostly due to significant reductions in driver and housing cost. The high-power LEDs are based on Lumileds’ patterned sapphire substrate flip-chip (PSS-FC) technology, affording reduced die fabrication and packaging cost compared to existing technology. Two general versions of PSS-FC die were developed in order to create the desired voltage and flux increments for driver integration: (i) small single-junction die (0.5 mm2), optimal for distributed lighting applications, and (ii) larger multi-junction die (2 mm2 and 4 mm2) for high-power directional applications. Two driver topologies were developed: a tapped linear driver topology and a single-stage switch-mode topology, taking advantage of the flexible voltage configurations of the new PSS-FC die and the simplification opportunities enabled by integration of LEDs and driver on the same board. A prototype light engine was developed for an outdoor “core module” application based on the multi-junction PSS-FC die and the single-stage switch-mode driver. The light engine meets the project efficacy target of 128 lm/W at a luminous flux

  5. LED-Based High-Voltage Lines Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldar MUSA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LED-based system, running with the current of high-voltage lines and converting the current flowing through the line into the light by using a toroid transformer, has been developed. The transformer’s primary winding is constituted by the high voltage power line. Toroidal core consists of two equal parts and the secondary windings are evenly placed on these two parts. The system is mounted on the high-voltage lines as a clamp. The secondary winding ends are connected in series by the connector on the clamp. LEDs are supplied by the voltage at the ends of secondary. Current flowing through highvoltage transmission lines is converted to voltage by the toroidal transformer and the light emitting LEDs are supplied with this voltage. The theory of the conversion of the current flowing through the line into the light is given. The system, running with the current of the line and converting the current into the light, has been developed. System has many application areas such as warning high voltage lines (warning winches to not hinder the high-voltage lines when working under the lines, warning planes to not touch the high-voltage lines, remote measurement of high-voltage line currents, and local illumination of the line area

  6. The High Luminosity Challenge: potential and limitations of High Intensity High Brightness in the LHC and its injectors

    CERN Document Server

    De Maria, R; Banfi, D; Barranco, J; Bartosik, H; Benedetto, E; Bruce, R; Brüning, O; Calaga, R; Cerutti, F; Damerau, H; Esposito, L; Fartoukh, S; Fitterer, M; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Giovannozzi, M; Goddard, B; Gorini, B; Hanke, K; Iadarola, G; Lamont, M; Meddahi, M; Métral, E; Mikulec, B; Mounet, N; Papaphilippou, Y; Pieloni, T; Redaelli, S; Rossi, L; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Sterbini, G; Todesco, E; Tomás, R; Zimmermann, F; Valishev, A

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity and high-brightness beams are key ingredients to maximize the LHC integrated luminosity and to exploit its full potential. This contribution describes the optimization of beam and machine parameters to maximize the integrated luminosity as seen by the LHC experiments, by taking into account the expected intensity and brightness reach of LHC itself and its injector chain as well as the capabilities of the detectors for next run and foreseen upgrade scenarios.

  7. Design of a high-power, high-brightness Nd:YAG solar laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana; Garcia, Dário

    2014-03-20

    A simple high-power, high-brightness Nd:YAG solar laser pumping approach is presented in this paper. The incoming solar radiation is both collected and concentrated by four Fresnel lenses and redirected toward a Nd:YAG laser head by four plane-folding mirrors. A fused-silica secondary concentrator is used to compress the highly concentrated solar radiation to a laser rod. Optimum pumping conditions and laser resonator parameters are found through ZEMAX and LASCAD numerical analysis. Solar laser power of 96 W is numerically calculated, corresponding to the collection efficiency of 24  W/m². A record-high solar laser beam brightness figure of merit of 9.6 W is numerically achieved.

  8. Nanopatterned yttrium aluminum garnet phosphor incorporated film for high-brightness GaN-based white light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Joong-yeon; Park, Sang-Jun; Ahn, Jinho; Lee, Heon

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated high-brightness white light emitting diodes (LEDs) by developing a nanopatterned yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) phosphor-incorporated film. White light can be obtained by mixing blue light from a GaN-based LED and yellow light of the YAG phosphor-incorporated film. If white light sources can be fabricated by exciting proper yellow phosphor using blue light, then these sources can be used instead of the conventional fluorescent lamps with a UV source, for backlighting of displays. In this work, a moth-eye structure was formed on the YAG phosphor-incorporated film by direct spin-on glass (SOG) printing. The moth-eye structures have been investigated to improve light transmittance in various optoelectronic devices, including photovoltaic solar cells, light emitting diodes, and displays, because of their anti-reflection property. Direct SOG printing, which is a simple, easy, and relatively inexpensive process, can be used to fabricate nanoscale structures. After direct SOG printing, the moth-eye structure with a diameter of 220 nm was formed uniformly on the YAG phosphor-incorporated film. As a result of moth-eye patterning on the YAG phosphor-incorporated film, the light output power of a white LED with a patterned YAG phosphor-incorporated film increased to up to 13% higher than that of a white LED with a non-patterned film. - Highlights: • GaN-based high-brightness white LED was prepared using patterned YAG phosphor-incorporated films. • Direct hydrogen silsesquioxane printing was used to form moth-eye patterns on the YAG films. • The electroluminescence intensity of the white LED was enhanced by up to 14.9%

  9. Nanopatterned yttrium aluminum garnet phosphor incorporated film for high-brightness GaN-based white light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Joong-yeon; Park, Sang-Jun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jinho, E-mail: jhahn@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heon, E-mail: heonlee@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-03

    In this study, we fabricated high-brightness white light emitting diodes (LEDs) by developing a nanopatterned yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) phosphor-incorporated film. White light can be obtained by mixing blue light from a GaN-based LED and yellow light of the YAG phosphor-incorporated film. If white light sources can be fabricated by exciting proper yellow phosphor using blue light, then these sources can be used instead of the conventional fluorescent lamps with a UV source, for backlighting of displays. In this work, a moth-eye structure was formed on the YAG phosphor-incorporated film by direct spin-on glass (SOG) printing. The moth-eye structures have been investigated to improve light transmittance in various optoelectronic devices, including photovoltaic solar cells, light emitting diodes, and displays, because of their anti-reflection property. Direct SOG printing, which is a simple, easy, and relatively inexpensive process, can be used to fabricate nanoscale structures. After direct SOG printing, the moth-eye structure with a diameter of 220 nm was formed uniformly on the YAG phosphor-incorporated film. As a result of moth-eye patterning on the YAG phosphor-incorporated film, the light output power of a white LED with a patterned YAG phosphor-incorporated film increased to up to 13% higher than that of a white LED with a non-patterned film. - Highlights: • GaN-based high-brightness white LED was prepared using patterned YAG phosphor-incorporated films. • Direct hydrogen silsesquioxane printing was used to form moth-eye patterns on the YAG films. • The electroluminescence intensity of the white LED was enhanced by up to 14.9%.

  10. Numerical simulations of novel high-power high-brightness diode laser structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucke, Konstantin; Rogg, Joseph; Kelemen, Marc T.; Poprawe, Reinhart; Weimann, Guenter

    2001-07-01

    One of the key topics in today's semiconductor laser development activities is to increase the brightness of high-power diode lasers. Although structures showing an increased brightness have been developed specific draw-backs of these structures lead to a still strong demand for investigation of alternative concepts. Especially for the investigation of basically novel structures easy-to-use and fast simulation tools are essential to avoid unnecessary, cost and time consuming experiments. A diode laser simulation tool based on finite difference representations of the Helmholtz equation in 'wide-angle' approximation and the carrier diffusion equation has been developed. An optimized numerical algorithm leads to short execution times of a few seconds per resonator round-trip on a standard PC. After each round-trip characteristics like optical output power, beam profile and beam parameters are calculated. A graphical user interface allows online monitoring of the simulation results. The simulation tool is used to investigate a novel high-power, high-brightness diode laser structure, the so-called 'Z-Structure'. In this structure an increased brightness is achieved by reducing the divergency angle of the beam by angular filtering: The round trip path of the beam is two times folded using internal total reflection at surfaces defined by a small index step in the semiconductor material, forming a stretched 'Z'. The sharp decrease of the reflectivity for angles of incidence above the angle of total reflection leads to a narrowing of the angular spectrum of the beam. The simulations of the 'Z-Structure' indicate an increase of the beam quality by a factor of five to ten compared to standard broad-area lasers.

  11. Micro-structure Engineering of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells for High Brightness Light Emitting Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2013-05-01

    With experimental realization of micro-structures, the feasibility of achieving high brightness, low efficiency droop blue LED was implemented based on InGaN/GaN micro-LED-pillar design. A significantly high current density of 492 A/cm2 in a 20 μm diameter (D) micro-LED-pillar was achieved, compared to that of a 200 μm diameter LED (20 A/cm2), both at 10 V bias voltage. In addition, an increase in sustained quantum efficiency from 70.2% to 83.7% at high injection current density (200 A/cm2) was observed in micro-LED-pillars in conjunction with size reduction from 80 μm to 20 μm. A correlation between the strain relief and the electrical performance improvement was established for micro-LED-pillars with D < 50 μm, apart from current spreading effect. The degree of strain relief and its distribution were further studied in micro-LED-pillars with D ranging from 1 μm to 15 μm. Significant wavenumbers down-shifts for E2 and A1 Raman peaks, together with the blue shifted PL peak emission, were observed in as-prepared pillars, reflecting the degree of strain relief. A sharp transition from strained to relaxed epitaxy region was discernible from the competing E2 phonon peaks at 572 cm-1 and 568 cm-1, which were attributed to strain residue and strain relief, respectively. A uniform strain relief at the center of micro-pillars was achieved, i.e. merging of the competing phonon peaks, after Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) at 950℃ for 20 seconds, phenomenon of which was observed for the first time. The transition from maximum strain relief to a uniform strain relief was found along the narrow circumference (< 2.5 μm) of the pillars from the line-map of Raman spectroscopy. The extent of strain relief is also examined considering the height (L) of micro-LED-pillars fabricated using FIB micro-machining technique. The significant strain relief of up to 70% (from -1.4 GPa to -0.37 GPa), with a 71 meV PL peak blue shift, suggested that micro-LED-pillar with D < 3 μm and L

  12. Analysis of technology and seminar on economic trends about High-intensity LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This is divided into two parts. Contents of this report in the first part are technical trends on high-intensity LED which reports introduction of LED as compound semiconductor, white LED? patent issues, review on technology of High-intensity LED and Reliability of High-intensity LED. The second part deals with economic tends about High-intensity LED. This seminar was held to report analysis and economical trends about High-intensity LED by Korea Industrial Education Institute in 2003.

  13. High voltage high brightness electron accelerators with MITL voltage adder coupled to foilless diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Frost, C.A.; Shope, S.L.; Halbleib, J.A.; Turman, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    During the last ten years the authors have extensively studied the physics and operation of magnetically-immersed electron foilless diodes. Most of these sources were utilized as injectors to high current, high energy linear induction accelerators such as those of the RADLAC family. Recently they have experimentally and theoretically demonstrated that foilless diodes can be successfully coupled to self-magnetically insulated transmission line voltage adders to produce very small high brightness, high definition (no halo) electron beams. The RADLAC/SMILE experience opened the path to a new approach in high brightness, high energy induction accelerators. There is no beam drifting through the device. The voltage addition occurs in a center conductor, and the beam is created at the high voltage end in an applied magnetic field diode. This work was motivated by the remarkable success of the HERMES-III accelerator and the need to produce small radius, high energy, high current electron beams for air propagation studies and flash x-ray radiography. In this paper they present experimental results compared with analytical and numerical simulations in addition to design examples of devices that can produce multikiloamp electron beams of as high as 100 MV energies and radii as small as 1 mm

  14. LED-based high-speed visible light communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Nan; Shi, Meng; Zhao, Yiheng; Wang, Fumin; Shi, Jianyang; Zhou, Yingjun; Lu, Xingyu; Qiao, Liang

    2018-01-01

    We are seeing a growing use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) in a range of applications including lighting, TV and backlight board screen, display etc. In comparison with the traditional incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs, LEDs offer long life-space, much higher energy efficiency, high performance cost ratio and above all very fast switching capability. LED based Visible Light Communications (VLC) is an emerging field of optical communications that focuses on the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that humans can see. Depending on the transmission distance, we can divide the whole optical network into two categories, long haul and short haul. Visible light communication can be a promising candidate for short haul applications. In this paper, we outline the configuration of VLC, its unique benefits, and describe the state of the art research contributions consisting of advanced modulation formats including adaptive bit loading OFDM, carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP), pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and single carrier Nyquist, linear equalization and nonlinear distortion mitigation based on machine learning, quasi-balanced coding and phase-shifted Manchester coding. These enabling technologies can support VLC up to 10Gb/s class free space transmission.

  15. High brightness photonic band crystal semiconductor lasers in the passive mode locking regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, R.; Kalosha, V. P.; Miah, M. J.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Posilović, K. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); PBC Lasers GmbH, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Pohl, J.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2014-10-20

    High brightness photonic band crystal lasers in the passive mode locking regime are presented. Optical pulses with peak power of 3 W and peak brightness of about 180 MW cm{sup −2} sr{sup −1} are obtained on a 5 GHz device exhibiting 15 ps pulses and a very low beam divergence in both the vertical and horizontal directions.

  16. High brightness photonic band crystal semiconductor lasers in the passive mode locking regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, R.; Kalosha, V. P.; Miah, M. J.; Bimberg, D.; Posilović, K.; Pohl, J.; Weyers, M.

    2014-01-01

    High brightness photonic band crystal lasers in the passive mode locking regime are presented. Optical pulses with peak power of 3 W and peak brightness of about 180 MW cm −2  sr −1 are obtained on a 5 GHz device exhibiting 15 ps pulses and a very low beam divergence in both the vertical and horizontal directions.

  17. High-brightness high-order harmonic generation at 13 nm with a long gas jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Taek; Kim, I Jong; Lee, Dong Gun; Park, Jong Ju; Hong, Kyung Han; Nam, Chang Hee

    2002-01-01

    The generation of high-order harmonics is well-known method producing coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation with pulse duration in the femtosecond regime. High-order harmonics have attracted much attention due to their unique features such as coherence, ultrashort pulse duration, and table-top scale system. Due to these unique properties, high-order harmonics have many applications of atomic and molecular spectroscopy, plasma diagnostics and solid-state physics. Bright generation of high-order harmonics is important for actual applications. Especially, the generation of strong well-collimated harmonics at 13 nm can be useful for the metrology of EUV lithography optics because of the high reflectivity of Mo-Si mirrors at this wavelength. The generation of bright high-order harmonics is rather difficult in the wavelength region below 15nm. Though argon and xenon gases have large conversion efficiency, harmonic generation from these gases is restricted to wavelengths over 20 nm due to low ionization potential. Hence, we choose neon for the harmonic generation around 13 nm; it has larger conversion efficiency than helium and higher ionization potential than argon. In this experiment, we have observed enhanced harmonic generation efficiency and low beam divergence of high-order harmonics from a elongated neon gas jet by the enhancement of laser propagation in an elongated gas jet. A uniform plasma column was produced when the gas jet was exposed to converging laser pulses.

  18. Physical, thermal, structural and optical properties of Dy{sup 3+} doped lithium alumino-borate glasses for bright W-LED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawar, P.P.; Munishwar, S.R.; Gautam, S.; Gedam, R.S., E-mail: rupesh_gedam@rediffmail.com

    2017-03-15

    Rare earth (RE) doped glasses have potential applications due to their emission efficiencies of 4f–4 f and 4f–5d electronic transitions. Among all the rare earths, Dy{sup 3+} doped glasses have drawn much interest among the researchers for their intense emission in the visible region from 470 to 500 nm and around 570 to 600 nm. The physical, thermal, structural and optical properties of Dy{sup 3+} doped lithium alumino-borate glasses (LABD glasses) have been studied for white LED (W-LED) application. The glasses were synthesized by conventional melt quench technique. X-ray diffraction spectra revealed the amorphous nature of the glass sample. An FTIR spectrum was carried out to study the glass structure and various functional groups present in the LABD glasses. Optical absorption spectra were recorded by UV–vis-NIR spectrometer. Allowed direct and indirect band gaps were obtained by Tauc's plot. Thermal parameters like glass thermal stability (∆T), Hruby's parameter (K{sub gl}), etc. were calculated by DTA graph. Photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra's were measured at room temperature. The emission spectra shows two intense emission bands at around 482 nm (blue) and 574 nm (yellow) corresponds to the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} transitions respectively along with one feeble band at 662 nm (red) corresponds to {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 11/2} transition. The CIE chromaticity co-ordinates were calculated for all glass samples. CIE chromaticity diagram shows glass LABD-4 containing 0.5 mol% Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} with colour co-ordinates X = 0.34 and Y = 0.38 have highest emission intensity. These glasses having emission in the white region and thus can be used for bright white LED.

  19. Proceedings of the 2016 Workshop on the Physics and Applications of High Brightness Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianchi, Alessandro; Ferrario, Massimo; Musumeci, Pietro; Rosenzweig, James

    2017-09-01

    We are proud to present the proceedings of the latest in the series of International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA)-endorsed workshops on the Physics and Applications of High Brightness Beams, which has been held at the Hotel Nacional in Havana, Cuba between March 28 and April 1, 2016. In total, 135 participants coming from 14 different countries attended this historic conference. In recognition of its pioneering role in the significant blossoming of relations between Cuba and the larger scientific community, this workshop also received the endorsement of UNESCO. The workshop organization was headed by co-chairs Massimo Ferrario (INFN-LNF) and James Rosenzweig (UCLA), with the essential and energetic contributions of local organizing committee chair Fidel Antonio Castro Smirnov (InSTEC, Havana). The workshop scientific agenda was developed under the care of program committee co-chairs Pietro Musumeci (UCLA) and Luca Serafini (INFN-Milano). The publication of the proceedings we present here was led by Alessandro Cianchi (Tor Vergata). Tangible contributions to the workshop infrastructure were received from UCLA, INFN-LNF, InSTEC, EuroNNAC2, and the US National Science Foundation. The workshop web site, which contains detailed information on the scientific agenda of the meeting, is found at https://conferences.pa.ucla.edu/hbb/.

  20. Characterizing the Motion of Solar Magnetic Bright Points at High Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kooten, Samuel J.; Cranmer, Steven R.

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic bright points in the solar photosphere, visible in both continuum and G-band images, indicate footpoints of kilogauss magnetic flux tubes extending to the corona. The power spectrum of bright-point motion is thus also the power spectrum of Alfvén wave excitation, transporting energy up flux tubes into the corona. This spectrum is a key input in coronal and heliospheric models. We produce a power spectrum of bright-point motion using radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations, exploiting spatial resolution higher than can be obtained in present-day observations, while using automated tracking to produce large data quantities. We find slightly higher amounts of power at all frequencies compared to observation-based spectra, while confirming the spectrum shape of recent observations. This also provides a prediction for observations of bright points with DKIST, which will achieve similar resolution and high sensitivity. We also find a granule size distribution in support of an observed two-population distribution, and we present results from tracking passive tracers, which show a similar power spectrum to that of bright points. Finally, we introduce a simplified, laminar model of granulation, with which we explore the roles of turbulence and of the properties of the granulation pattern in determining bright-point motion.

  1. High voltage high brightness electron accelerator with MITL voltage adder coupled to foilless diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poulkey, J.W.; Rovang, D.

    1995-01-01

    The design and analysis of a high brightness electron beam experiment under construction at Sandia National Laboratory is presented. The beam energy is 12 MeV, the current 35-40 kA, the rms radius 0.5 mm, and the pulse duration FWHM 40 ns. The accelerator is SABRE a pulsed inductive voltage adder, and the electron source is a magnetically immersed foilless diode. This experiment has as its goal to stretch the technology to the edge and produce the highest possible electron current in a submillimeter radius beam

  2. Development of a high brightness, high current SRF photo-electron source for ERL applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Axel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (Germany); Collaboration: bERLinPro Team

    2016-07-01

    Energy recovery linacs (ERL) offer the potential to combine major beam properties of the two main domains of particle accelerators: The low emittance of linear accelerators and the high average beam current of storage rings, while also allowing to compress to short bunches below the ps regime. This makes among other applications ERLs an ideal candidate for future light sources. The beam properties of the ERL are given by the performance of the injection section and hence of the beam source. Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin is currently designing and building a high average current all superconducting CW driven ERL as a prototype to demonstrate low normalized beam emittance of 1 mm*mrad at 100 mA and short pulses of about 2 ps. In this contribution we discuss the development of this class of a high brightness, high current SRF photo-electron source and present recent commissioning results. Also, alternative approaches at other laboratories are shortly reviewed.

  3. Planned High-brightness Channeling Radiation Experiment at Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomberg, Ben [NICADD, DeKalb; Mihalcea, Daniel [NICADD, DeKalb; Panuganti, Harsha [NICADD, DeKalb; Piot, Philippe [Fermilab; Brau, Charles [Vanderbilt U.; Choi, Bo [Vanderbilt U.; Gabella, William [Vanderbilt U.; Ivanov, Borislav [Vanderbilt U.; Mendenhall, Marcus [Vanderbilt U.; Lynn, Christopher [Swarthmore Coll.; Sen, Tanaji [Fermilab; Wagner, Wolfgang [Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf

    2014-07-01

    In this contribution we describe the technical details and experimental setup of our study aimed at producing high-brightness channeling radiation (CR) at Fermilab’s new user facility the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA). In the ASTA photoinjector area electrons are accelerated up to 40-MeV and focused to a sub-micron spot on a ~40 micron thick carbon diamond, the electrons channel through the crystal and emit CR up to 80-KeV. Our study utilizes ASTA’s long pulse train capabilities and ability to preserve ultra-low emittance, to produce the desired high average brightness.

  4. Studies on a laser driven photoemissive high-brightness electron source and novel photocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Rongli; Song Jinhu; Yu Jin

    1997-01-01

    A laser driven photoemissive high-brightness electron source at Beijing University is reported. Through a DC accelerating gap of 100 kV voltage, the device is capable of delivering high-brightness electron beam of 35-100 ps pulse duration when irradiated with a mode-locked YAG laser. The geometry of the gun is optimized with the aid of simulation codes EGUN and POISSON. The results of experimental studies on ion implanted photocathode and cesium telluride photocathode are given. The proposed laser driven superconducting RF gun is also discussed

  5. High-brightness electron beams for production of high intensity, coherent radiation for scientific and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.-J.

    1999-01-01

    Relativistic electron beams with high six-dimensional phase space densities, i.e., high-brightness beams, are the basis for efficient generation of intense and coherent radiation beams for advanced scientific and industrial applications. The remarkable progress in synchrotrons radiation facilities from the first generation to the current, third-generation capability illustrates this point. With the recent development of the high-brightness electron gun based on laser-driven rf photocathodes, linacs have become another important option for high-brightness electron beams. With linacs of about 100 MeV, megawatt-class infrared free-electron lasers can be designed for industrial applications such as power beaming. With linacs of about 10 GeV, 1- angstrom x-ray beams with brightness and time resolution exceeding by several orders of magnitude the current synchrotrons radiation sources can be generated based on self-amplified spontaneous emission. Scattering of a high-brightness electron beam by high power laser beams is emerging as a compact method of generating short-pulse, bright x-rays. In the high-energy frontier, photons of TeV quantum energy could be generated by scattering laser beams with TeV electron beams in future linear colliders

  6. High power, high brightness electron beam generation in a pulse-line driven pseudospark discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destler, W.W.; Segalov, Z.; Rodgers, J.; Ramaswamy, K.; Reiser, M.

    1993-01-01

    High brightness (∼10 10 A/m 2 rad 2 ), high power density (∼10 10 W/cm 2 ) electron beams have been generated by the mating of a hollow-cathode discharge device operating in the pseudospark regime to the output of a high power pulse line accelerator. Very small diameter (∼1 mm) electron beams with currents in the range 500--1000 A and energies in the range 150--300 keV have been generated with effective emittances estimated to be at or below 170 mm mrad. Such emittances are comparable to those achieved in conventional electron beam sources at current densities several orders of magnitude lower than those observed in these experiments

  7. Silicon nanowire based high brightness, pulsed relativistic electron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Sarkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that silicon nanowire arrays efficiently emit relativistic electron pulses under irradiation by a high-intensity, femtosecond, and near-infrared laser (∼1018 W/cm2, 25 fs, 800 nm. The nanowire array yields fluxes and charge per bunch that are 40 times higher than those emitted by an optically flat surface, in the energy range of 0.2–0.5 MeV. The flux and charge yields for the nanowires are observed to be directional in nature unlike that for planar silicon. Particle-in-cell simulations establish that such large emission is caused by the enhancement of the local electric fields around a nanowire, which consequently leads to an enhanced absorption of laser energy. We show that the high-intensity contrast (ratio of picosecond pedestal to femtosecond peak of the laser pulse (10−9 is crucial to this large yield. We extend the notion of surface local-field enhancement, normally invoked in low-order nonlinear optical processes like second harmonic generation, optical limiting, etc., to ultrahigh laser intensities. These electron pulses, expectedly femtosecond in duration, have potential application in imaging, material modification, ultrafast dynamics, terahertz generation, and fast ion sources.

  8. Toward high brightness, multi-kilowatt solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, L.E.; Manes, K.R.

    1990-11-01

    High average power (HAP) solid state laser output with improved beam quality has introduced new capabilities in materials processing. At the 500 W level and with a beam quality of a ''few'' times the diffraction limit, the General Electric NY slab is able to drill 5 cm of stainless steel in a few seconds. We expect that 2--3 kW of near infrared laser output in a low order spatial mode would enable metal working now unknown to industry. The HAP output of slab lasers is limited by the size of the available laser crystals and the pump power. Core free, six cm diameter NY boules have been grown on an experimental basis. High optical quality NG can be obtained up to 10 cm in diameter. We present the results of our modeling based on these crystals pumped by advanced arc-lamps or laser diode arrays. We project HAP laser outputs of 1.6 kW from an existing Vortek pumped NG oscillator and about 2 kW from diode pumped NY device. Several kW of laser output can be expected from two such slabs in a MOPA configuration before optical damage limits are reached. The three dimensional stress-optic code which we used to optimize our designs, was normalized to available experimental data obtained with the above NG slab at the 500 W level and a 40 W diode pumped NY test bed. Our calculations indicate the essential parameters for attainment of high beam quality. Cooling uniformity across the pumped faces of the slab is critical and the location of the transition between pumped and un-pumped regions towards the slab tips is very important. A flat pumping profile was found to be desirable and predicted one wave of distortion which should be correctable over about 75% of the aperture however, an even better wavefront was predicted over 90% of the aperture when the regions near the edges of the slab were slightly over-pumped relative to the central regions and the regions near to the ends were tapered to compensate for transition effects

  9. High brightness photonic lantern kW-class amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Juan; Hwang, Chris; Aleshire, Chris; Reed, Patricia; Martz, Dale; Riley, Mike; Trainor, Michael; Belley, Catherine; Shaw, Scot; Fan, T. Y.; Ripin, Dan

    2018-02-01

    Pump-limited kW-class operation in a multimode fiber amplifier using adaptive mode control was achieved. A photonic lantern front end was used to inject an arbitrary superposition of modes on the input to a kW-class fiber amplifier to achieve a nearly diffraction-limited output. We report on the adaptive spatial mode control architecture which allows for compensating transverse-mode disturbances at high power. We also describe the advantages of adaptive spatial mode control for optical phased array systems. In particular, we show that the additional degrees of freedom allow for broader steering and improved atmospheric turbulence compensation relative to piston-only optical phased arrays.

  10. High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhuang; Mhibik, Oussama; Nafa, Malik; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.forget@univ-paris13.fr [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France); CNRS, UMR 7538, LPL, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France)

    2015-02-02

    High-power, diffraction-limited organic solid-state laser operation has been achieved in a vertical external cavity surface-emitting organic laser (VECSOL), pumped by a low-cost compact blue laser diode. The diode-pumped VECSOLs were demonstrated with various dyes in a polymer matrix, leading to laser emissions from 540 nm to 660 nm. Optimization of both the pump pulse duration and output coupling leads to a pump slope efficiency of 11% for a DCM based VECSOLs. We report output pulse energy up to 280 nJ with 100 ns long pump pulses, leading to a peak power of 3.5 W in a circularly symmetric, diffraction-limited beam.

  11. Emittance measurement for high-brightness electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Kurihara, T.; Sato, I.; Asami, A.; Yamazaki, Y.; Otani, S.; Ishizawa, Y.

    1992-01-01

    An emittance measurement system based on a high-precision pepper-pot technique has been developed for electron guns with low emittance of around πmm-mrad. Electron guns with a 1 mmφ cathode, the material of which is impregnated tungsten or single-crystal lanthanum hexaboride (La 1-x Ce x )B 6 , have been developed. The performance has been evaluated by putting stress on cathode roughness, which gives rise to an angular divergence, according to the precise emittance measurement system. A new type of cathode holder, which is a modified version of the so called Vogel type, was developed and the beam uniformity has been improved. (Author) 5 figs., tab., 9 refs

  12. Reliability test and failure analysis of high power LED packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhaohui; Zhang Qin; Wang Kai; Luo Xiaobing; Liu Sheng

    2011-01-01

    A new type application specific light emitting diode (LED) package (ASLP) with freeform polycarbonate lens for street lighting is developed, whose manufacturing processes are compatible with a typical LED packaging process. The reliability test methods and failure criterions from different vendors are reviewed and compared. It is found that test methods and failure criterions are quite different. The rapid reliability assessment standards are urgently needed for the LED industry. 85 0 C/85 RH with 700 mA is used to test our LED modules with three other vendors for 1000 h, showing no visible degradation in optical performance for our modules, with two other vendors showing significant degradation. Some failure analysis methods such as C-SAM, Nano X-ray CT and optical microscope are used for LED packages. Some failure mechanisms such as delaminations and cracks are detected in the LED packages after the accelerated reliability testing. The finite element simulation method is helpful for the failure analysis and design of the reliability of the LED packaging. One example is used to show one currently used module in industry is vulnerable and may not easily pass the harsh thermal cycle testing. (semiconductor devices)

  13. High-brightness beamline for x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, R.C.C.; Jones, G. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Lindle, D.W. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a windowless beamline, covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range, designed to achieve the goals of high energy resolution, high flux, and high brightness at the sample. When completed later this year, it will be the first ALS monochromatic hard x-ray beamline, and its brightness will be an order of magnitude higher than presently available in this energy range. In addition, it will provide flux and resolution comparable to any other beamline now in operation. To achieve these goals, two technical improvements, relative to existing x-ray beamlines, were incorporated. First, a somewhat novel optical design for x-rays, in which matched toroidal mirrors are positioned before and after the double-crystal monochromator, was adopted. This configuration allows for high resolution by passing a collimated beam through the monochromator, and for high brightness by focusing the ALS source on the sample with unit magnification. Second, a new {open_quotes}Cowan type{close_quotes} double-crystal monochromator based on the design used at NSLS beamline X-24A was developed. The measured mechanical precision of this new monochromator shows significant improvement over existing designs, without using positional feedback available with piezoelectric devices. Such precision is essential because of the high brightness of the radiation and the long distance (12 m) from the source (sample) to the collimating (focusing) mirror. This combination of features will provide a bright, high resolution, and stable x-ray beam for use in the x-ray spectroscopy program at the ALS.

  14. Impact of the ADT on the beam quality with high brightness beams in collision (MD2155)

    CERN Document Server

    Buffat, Xavier; Kostoglou, Sofia; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Papadopoulou, Parthena Stefania; Ponce, Laurette; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Suykerbuyk, Ronaldus; Valuch, Daniel; Walsh, David John; Barranco Garcia, Javier; Pieloni, Tatiana; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    The results of an experiment aiming at determining indirectly the noise level in the LHC, isolating the contribution of the transverse damper, through their impact on the emittance of colliding high brightness bunches at 6.5 TeV in the LHC are presented.

  15. Simulations of Beam Optics and Bremsstrahlung for High Intensity and Brightness Channeling Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, J. [Sokendai, Tsukuba; Piot, P. [NIU, DeKalb; Sen, T. [Fermilab

    2018-04-12

    This paper presents X-ray spectra of channeling radiation expected at the FAST (Fermi Accelerator Science and Technology) facility in Fermilab. Our purpose is to produce high brightness quasi-monochromatic X-rays in an energy range from 40 keV to 110 keV. We will use a diamond crystal and low emittance electrons with an energy of around 43 MeV. The quality of emitted X-rays depends on parameters of the electron beam at the crystal. We present simulations of the beam optics for high brightness and high yield operations for a range of bunch charges. We estimate the X-ray spectra including bremsstrahlung background. We discuss how the electron beam distributions after the diamond crystal are affected by channeling. We discuss an X-ray detector system to avoid pile-up effects during high charge operations.

  16. High efficiency nitride based phosphores for white LEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yuan Qiang; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this overview paper, novel rare-earth doped silicon nitride based phosphors for white LEDs applications have been demonstrated. The luminescence properties of orange-red-emitting phosphors (M2Si5N8:Eu2+) and green-to-yellow emitting phosphors (MSi2N2O2:Eu2+, M = Ca, Sr, Ba) are discussed in

  17. High power deep UV-LEDs for analytical optical instrumentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, Y.; Dvořák, Miloš; Nesterenko, P. N.; Nuchtavorn, N.; Macka, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 255, č. 2 (2018), s. 1238-1243 ISSN 0925-4005 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : deep UV Light emitting diodes (LEDs) * optical detection * portable analytical instrumentation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 5.401, year: 2016

  18. HIGH ENERGY, HIGH BRIGHTNESS X-RAYS PRODUCED BY COMPTON BACKSCATTERING AT THE LIVERMORE PLEIADES FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremaine, A M; Anderson, S G; Betts, S; Crane, J; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F V; Jacob, J S; Frigola, P; Lim, J; Rosenzweig, J; Travish, G

    2005-01-01

    PLEIADES (Picosecond Laser Electron Interaction for the Dynamic Evaluation of Structures) produces tunable 30-140 keV x-rays with 0.3-5 ps pulse lengths and up to 10 7 photons/pulse by colliding a high brightness electron beam with a high power laser. The electron beam is created by an rf photo-injector system, accelerated by a 120 MeV linac, and focused to 20 (micro)m with novel permanent magnet quadrupoles. To produce Compton back scattered x-rays, the electron bunch is overlapped with a Ti:Sapphire laser that delivers 500 mJ, 100 fs, pulses to the interaction point. K-edge radiography at 115 keV on Uranium has verified the angle correlated energy spectrum inherent in Compton scattering and high-energy tunability of the Livermore source. Current upgrades to the facility will allow laser pumping of targets synchronized to the x-ray source enabling dynamic diffraction and time-resolved studies of high Z materials. Near future plans include extending the radiation energies to >400 keV, allowing for nuclear fluorescence studies of materials

  19. Fabrication of high-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes via thermal nanoimprinting of ZnO-nanoparticle-dispersed resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byeon, Kyeong-Jae; Cho, Joong-Yeon; Jo, Han-Byeol; Lee, Heon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A various high-refractive-index ZnO patterns were formed on LED using imprinting. • Mechanism of light extraction enhancement was demonstrated by simulation and EL. • Light output power of patterned LED was improved up 19.6% by light waveguide effect. - Abstract: We fabricated high-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with highly refractive patterned structures by using a thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL). A highly refractive ZnO-nanoparticle-dispersed resin (ZNDR) was used in NIL, and a submicron hole, a submicron high-aspect-ratio pillar, and microconvex arrays were fabricated on the indium tin oxide (ITO) top electrode of GaN-based LED devices. We analyzed the light extraction mechanism for each of the three types of patterns by using a finite element method simulation, and found that the high-aspect-ratio pillar had a great ability to improve light extraction owing to its waveguide effect and prominent scattering effect. As a result, the light output power, which was measured in an integrating sphere, of the LED device was enhanced by up to 19.6% when the high-aspect-ratio pillar array was formed on the top ITO electrode of the device. Further, the electrical properties of none of the patterned LED devices fabricated using ZNDR degraded in comparison to those of bare LED devices

  20. Variations in energy, flux, and brightness of pulsating aurora measured at high time resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dahlgren

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution multispectral optical and incoherent scatter radar data are used to study the variability of pulsating aurora. Two events have been analysed, and the data combined with electron transport and ion chemistry modelling provide estimates of the energy and energy flux during both the ON and OFF periods of the pulsations. Both the energy and energy flux are found to be reduced during each OFF period compared with the ON period, and the estimates indicate that it is the number flux of foremost higher-energy electrons that is reduced. The energies are found never to drop below a few kilo-electronvolts during the OFF periods for these events. The high-resolution optical data show the occurrence of dips in brightness below the diffuse background level immediately after the ON period has ended. Each dip lasts for about a second, with a reduction in brightness of up to 70 % before the intensity increases to a steady background level again. A different kind of variation is also detected in the OFF period emissions during the second event, where a slower decrease in the background diffuse emission is seen with its brightness minimum just before the ON period, for a series of pulsations. Since the dips in the emission level during OFF are dependent on the switching between ON and OFF, this could indicate a common mechanism for the precipitation during the ON and OFF phases. A statistical analysis of brightness rise, fall, and ON times for the pulsations is also performed. It is found that the pulsations are often asymmetric, with either a slower increase of brightness or a slower fall.

  1. Design of LED lamps | Ashryatov | Journal of Fundamental and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design of LED lamps. ... In this paper, we study the effect of LED high brightness on the brightness of a luminaire. The nomenclature of diffusers used in the production of ... The variant of the lighting system energy efficiency increase with luminaires and linear fluorescent lamps is considered. In the proposed variant, the ...

  2. Analysis of a high brightness photo electron beam with self field and wake field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-01-01

    High brightness sources are the basic ingredients in the new accelerator developments such as Free-Electron Laser experiments. The effects of the interactions between the highly charged particles and the fields in the accelerating structure, e.g. R.F., Space charge and Wake fields can be detrimental to the beam and the experiments. We present and discuss the formulation used, some simulation and results for the Brookhaven National Laboratory high brightness beam that illustrates effects of the accelerating field, space charge forces (e.g. due to self field of the bunch), and the wake field (e.g. arising from the interaction of the cavity surface and the self field of the bunch)

  3. High-performance LED luminaire for sports hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xuan-Hao; Yang, Jin-Tsung; Chien, Wei-Ting; Chang, Jung-Hsuan; Lo, Yi-Chien; Lin, Che-Chu; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we present a luminaire design with anti-glare and energy-saving effects for sports hall. Compared with traditional lamps using in a badminton court, the average illuminance on the ground of the proposed LED luminaire is enhanced about 300%. Besides, the uniformity is obviously enhanced and improved. The switch-on speed of lighting in sports hall is greatly reduced from 5-10 minutes to 1 second. The simulation analysis and the corresponding experiment results are demonstrated.

  4. High Efficacy Green LEDs by Polarization Controlled MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Christian [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2013-03-31

    Amazing performance in GaInN/GaN based LEDs has become possible by advanced epitaxial growth on a wide variety of substrates over the last decade. An immediate push towards product development and worldwide competition for market share have effectively reduced production cost and generated substantial primary energy savings on a worldwide scale. At all times of the development, this economic pressure forced very fundamental decisions that would shape huge industrial investment. One of those major aspects is the choice of epitaxial growth substrate. The natural questions are to what extend a decision for a certain substrate will limit the ultimate performance and to what extent, the choice of a currently more expensive substrate such as native GaN could overcome any of the remaining performance limitations. Therefore, this project has set out to explore what performance characteristic could be achieved under the utilization of bulk GaN substrate. Our work was guided by the hypotheses that line defects such as threading dislocations in the active region should be avoided and the huge piezoelectric polarization needs to be attenuated – if not turned off – for higher performing LEDs, particularly in the longer wavelength green and deep green portions of the visible spectrum. At their relatively lower performance level, deep green LEDs are a stronger indicator of relative performance improvements and seem particular sensitive to the challenges at hand.

  5. 980 nm high brightness external cavity broad area diode laser bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate of-axis spectral beam combining applied to a 980 nm high power broad area diode laser bar. The experiments yielded 9 W of optical power at 30 A of operating current and the measured M2 values of the combined beam from 12 emitters were 1.9 and 6.4 for the fast and the slow axis......, respectively. The slow axis beam quality was 5-6 times better than the value obtained from a single emitter in free running mode. A high brightness of 79 MW/cm2-str was achieved using this configuration. To our knowledge, this is the highest brightness level ever achieved from a broad area diode laser bar....

  6. Initial observations of high-charge, low-emittance electron beams at HIBAF (High Brightness Accelerator FEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Feldman, R.B.; Carsten, B.E.; Feldman, D.W.; Sheffield, R.L.; Stein, W.E.; Johnson, W.J.; Thode, L.E.; Bender, S.C.; Busch, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    We report our initial measurements of bright (high-charge, low-emittance) electron beams generated at the Los Alamos High Brightness Accelerator FEL (HIBAF) Facility. Normalized emittance values of less than 50 {pi} mm-mrad for charges ranging from 0.7 to 8.7 nC were obtained for single micropulses at a y-waist and at an energy of 14.7 MeV. These measurements were part of the commissioning campaign on the HIBAF photoelectric injector. Macropulse measurements have also been performed and are compared with PARMELA simulations. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Space charge and wake field analysis for a high brightness electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the formalism used, and some simulation results for transverse and longitudinal motion of a bunch of particles moving through a cavity (e.g., the Brookhaven National Laboratory high brightness photocathode gun), including effects of the accelerating field, space charge forces (e.g., arising from the interaction of the cavity surface and the self field of the bunch). 3 refs., 12 figs

  8. Heat Transfer Characteristics in High Power LED Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hung Chung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the T3Ster transient thermal resistance measuring device to investigate the effects to heat transfer performances from different LED crystal grains, packaging methods and heat-sink substrates through the experimental method. The experimental parameters are six different types of LED modules that are made alternatively with the crystal grain structure, the die attach method and the carrying substrate. The crystal grain structure includes the lateral type, flip chip type and vertical type. The die attach method includes silver paste and the eutectic structure. The carrying substrates are aluminum oxide (Alumina and aluminum nitride (AIN ceramic substrates and metal core PCB (MCPCB. The experimental results show that, under the conditions of the same crystal grain and die attach method, the thermal resistance values for the AIN substrate and the Alumina substrate are 2.1K/W and 5.1K/W, respectively and the total thermal resistance values are 7.3K/W and 10.8K/W. Compared to the Alumina substrate, the AIN substrate can effectively lower the total thermal resistance value by 32.4%. This is because the heat transfer coefficient of the AIN substrate is higher than that of the Alumina substrate, thus effectively increasing its thermal conductivity. In addition, under the conditions of the same crystal grain and the same substrate, the packaging methods are using silver paste and the eutectic structure for die attach. Their thermal resistance values are 5.7K/W and 2.7K/W, respectively, with a variance of 3K/W. Comparisons of the crystal grain structure show that the thermal resistance for the flip chip type is lower than that of the traditional lateral type by 0.9K/W. This is because the light emitting layer of the flip chip crystal grain is closer to the heat-sink substrate, shortening the heat dissipation route, and thus lowering the thermal resistance value. For the total thermal resistance, the crystal grain structure has a lesser

  9. Highly modular high-brightness diode laser system design for a wide application range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Haro; Kruschke, Bastian; Koch, Ralf; Ferrario, Fabio; Kern, Holger; Pahl, Ullrich; Ehm, Einar; Pflueger, Silke; Grohe, Andreas; Gries, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    For an economic production it is important to serve as many applications as possible while keeping the product variations minimal. We present our modular laser design, which is based on single emitters and various combining technics. In a first step we accept a reduction of the very high brightness of the single emitters by vertical stacking. Those emitters can be wavelength stabilized by an external resonator, providing the very same feedback to each of those laser diodes which leads to an output power of about 100W with BPP of BPP. These "500W building blocks" are consequently designed in a way that without any system change new wavelengths can be implemented by only exchanging parts but without change of the production process. This design principal offers the option to adapt the wavelength of those blocks to any applications, from UV, visible into the far IR. From laser pumping and scientific applications to materials processing such as cutting and welding of copper aluminum or steel and also medical application. Operating at wavelengths between 900 nm and 1100 nm, these systems are mainly used in cutting and welding, but the technology can also be adapted to other wavelength ranges, such as 793 nm and 1530 nm. Around 1.5 μm the diodes are already successfully used for resonant pumping of Erbium lasers.[1] Furthermore, the fully integrated electronic concept allows addressing further applications, as it is capable of very short μs pulses up to cw mode operation by simple software commands.

  10. Much Ado about Microbunching: Coherent Bunching in High Brightness Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, Daniel [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The push to provide ever brighter coherent radiation sources has led to the creation of correspondingly bright electron beams. With billions of electrons packed into normalized emittances (phase space) below one micron, collective effects may dominate both the preservation and use of such ultra-bright beams. An important class of collective effects is due to density modulations within the bunch, or microbunching. Microbunching may be deleterious, as in the case of the Microbunching Instability (MBI), or it may drive radiation sources of unprecedented intensity, as in the case of Free Electron Lasers (FELs). In this work we begin by describing models of microbunching due to inherent beam shot noise, which sparks both the MBI as well as SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source, the world's first hard X-ray laser. We first use this model to propose a mechanism for reducing the inherent beam shot noise as well as for predicting MBI effects. We then describe experimental measurements of the resulting microbunching at LCLS, including optical radiation from the MBI, as well as the first gain length and harmonic measurements from a hard X-ray FEL. In the final chapters, we describe schemes that use external laser modulations to microbunch light sources of the future. In these sections we describe coherent light source schemes for both both linacs and storage rings.

  11. Extremely high-brightness kW-class fiber coupled diode lasers with wavelength stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Glenn, John D.

    2011-06-01

    TeraDiode has produced ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 1,040 W from a 200 μm core diameter, 0.18 numerical aperture (NA) output fiber at a single center wavelength was demonstrated. This was achieved with a novel beam combining and shaping technique using COTS diode lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 18 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. The laser has been used to demonstrate laser cutting and welding of steel sheet metal up to 6.65 mm thick. Higher brightness fiber-coupled diode lasers, including a module with 418 W of power coupled to a 100 μm, 0.15 NA fiber, have also been demonstrated.

  12. Advanced high brightness ion rf accelerator applications in the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The capability of modern rf linear accelerators to provide intense high quality beams of protons, deuterons, or heavier ions is opening new possibilities for transmuting existing nuclear wastes, for generating electricity from readily available fuels with minimal residual wastes, for building intense neutron sources for materials research, for inertial confinement fusion using heavy ions, and for other new applications. These are briefly described, couched in a perspective of the advances in the understanding of the high brightness beams that has enabled these new programs. 32 refs., 2 figs

  13. Development of low emittance high brightness electron beams and rf accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, C.

    1991-01-01

    The main goals of this project were the construction of an S-band RF photoinjector for the production of a high brightness electron beam, and the development of a new type of RF accelerator structure; the Plane wave transformer. By the end of October 1991 the photoinjector had been built, its RF characteristics had been measured at low power, and an initial test of the gun at high RF power had been done. The Plane Wave Transformer had also been built and tested at lower power. In both cases the results obtained are mostly in agreement with the expected and calculated behavior

  14. "Physics Stories": How the Early Technologies of High Voltage and High Vacuum Led to "Modern Physics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2018-05-01

    Some of you may remember the 1979 television series "Connections" that was written and narrated by James Burke, a British science writer. Burke's technique was to choose a number of seemingly unrelated ideas and show how they led to developments in science and technology. This is an enjoyable business, even if some of the connections seem to be stretched at times, and led to a book by Burke. In a number of talks that I have given over the years, I have made somewhat less fanciful connections that suggest how the technologies of high vacuum and high voltage led to what used to be called "modern physics." Today we might limit the "modern" era to the years from 1890 to 1920 that gave the first workable theories of small-scale physics.

  15. Generation of a high-brightness pulsed positron beam for the Munich scanning positron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piochacz, Christian

    2009-11-20

    Within the present work the prerequisites for the operation of the Munich scanning positron microscope (SPM) at the high intense neutron induced positron source Munich (NEPOMUC) were established. This was accomplished in two steps: Firstly, a re-moderation device was installed at the positron beam facility NEPOMUC, which enhances the brightness of the positron beam for all connected experiments. The second step was the design, set up and initial operation of the SPM interface for the high efficient conversion of the continuous beam into a bunched beam. The in-pile positron source NEPOMUC creates a positron beam with a diameter of typically 7 mm, a kinetic energy of 1 keV and an energy spread of 50 eV. The NEPOMUC re-moderator generates from this beam a low energy positron beam (20 - 200 eV) with a diameter of less than 2 mm and an energy spread well below 2.5 eV. This was achieved with an excellent total efficiency of 6.55{+-}0.25 %. The re-moderator was not only the rst step to implement the SPM at NEPOMUc, it enables also the operation of the pulsed low energy positron beam system (PLEPS). Within the present work, at this spectrometer rst positron lifetime measurements were performed, which revealed the defect types of an ion irradiated uranium molybdenum alloy. Moreover, the instruments which were already connected to the positron beam facility bene ts considerably of the high brightness enhancement. In the new SPM interface an additional re-moderation stage enhances the brightness of the beam even more and will enable positron lifetime measurements at the SPM with a lateral resolution below 1 {mu}m. The efficiency of the re-moderation process in this second stage was 24.5{+-}4.5 %. In order to convert high efficiently the continuous positron beam into a pulsed beam with a repetition rate of 50 MHz and a pulse duration of less than 50 ps, a sub-harmonic pre-bucher was combined with two sine wave bunchers. Furthermore, the additional re-moderation stage of the

  16. Generation of a high-brightness pulsed positron beam for the Munich scanning positron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piochacz, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Within the present work the prerequisites for the operation of the Munich scanning positron microscope (SPM) at the high intense neutron induced positron source Munich (NEPOMUC) were established. This was accomplished in two steps: Firstly, a re-moderation device was installed at the positron beam facility NEPOMUC, which enhances the brightness of the positron beam for all connected experiments. The second step was the design, set up and initial operation of the SPM interface for the high efficient conversion of the continuous beam into a bunched beam. The in-pile positron source NEPOMUC creates a positron beam with a diameter of typically 7 mm, a kinetic energy of 1 keV and an energy spread of 50 eV. The NEPOMUC re-moderator generates from this beam a low energy positron beam (20 - 200 eV) with a diameter of less than 2 mm and an energy spread well below 2.5 eV. This was achieved with an excellent total efficiency of 6.55±0.25 %. The re-moderator was not only the rst step to implement the SPM at NEPOMUc, it enables also the operation of the pulsed low energy positron beam system (PLEPS). Within the present work, at this spectrometer rst positron lifetime measurements were performed, which revealed the defect types of an ion irradiated uranium molybdenum alloy. Moreover, the instruments which were already connected to the positron beam facility bene ts considerably of the high brightness enhancement. In the new SPM interface an additional re-moderation stage enhances the brightness of the beam even more and will enable positron lifetime measurements at the SPM with a lateral resolution below 1 μm. The efficiency of the re-moderation process in this second stage was 24.5±4.5 %. In order to convert high efficiently the continuous positron beam into a pulsed beam with a repetition rate of 50 MHz and a pulse duration of less than 50 ps, a sub-harmonic pre-bucher was combined with two sine wave bunchers. Furthermore, the additional re-moderation stage of the SPM

  17. Integrated Automotive High-Power LED-Lighting Systems in 3D-MID Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, W.

    2014-01-01

    The growing energy consumption of lighting as well as rising luminous efficacies and -fluxes of high-power Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) have contributed to the widespread use of LEDs in modern lighting systems. One of the most prominent users of the LED-technology is automotive (exterior) lighting.

  18. A high brightness source for nano-probe secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, N.S. [Oregon Physics LLC, 2704 SE 39th Loop, Suite 109, Hillsboro, OR 97123 (United States)], E-mail: n.smith@oregon-physics.com; Tesch, P.P.; Martin, N.P.; Kinion, D.E. [Oregon Physics LLC, 2704 SE 39th Loop, Suite 109, Hillsboro, OR 97123 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    The two most prevalent ion source technologies in the field of surface analysis and surface machining are the Duoplasmatron and the liquid metal ion source (LMIS). There have been many efforts in this area of research to develop an alternative source [; N.S. Smith, W.P. Skoczylas, S.M. Kellogg, D.E. Kinion, P.P. Tesch, O. Sutherland, A. Aanesland, R.W. Boswell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24 (6) (2006) 2902-2906] with the brightness of a LMIS and yet the ability to produce secondary ion yield enhancing species such as oxygen. However, to date a viable alternative has not been realized. The high brightness and small virtual source size of the LMIS are advantageous for forming high resolution probes but a significant disadvantage when beam currents in excess of 100 nA are required, due to the effects of spherical aberration from the optical column. At these higher currents a source with a high angular intensity is optimal and in fact the relatively moderate brightness of today's plasma ion sources prevail in this operating regime. Both the LMIS and Duoplasmatron suffer from a large axial energy spread resulting in further limitations when forming focused beams at the chromatic limit where the figure-of-merit is inversely proportional to the square of the energy spread. Also, both of these ion sources operate with a very limited range of ion species. This article reviews some of the latest developments and some future potential in this area of instrument development. Here we present an approach to source development that could lead to oxygen ion beam SIMS imaging with 10 nm resolution, using a 'broad area' RF gas phase ion source.

  19. Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry using Pulsed, High Power LED Volume Illumination

    OpenAIRE

    Buchmann, N. A.; Willert, C.; Soria, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of high-power light emitting diode (LED) illumination in Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) as an alternative to traditional laser-based illumination. The solid-state LED devices can provide averaged radiant power in excess of 10W and by operating the LEDs with short current pulses, considerably higher than in continuous operation, light pulses of sufficient energy suitable for imaging micron-sized particles can be generated. The feasibility of this LED-based ill...

  20. First results from the high-brightness x-ray spectroscopy beamline at ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, R.C.C.; Ng, W.; Jones, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a windowless beamline, covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range, designed to achieve the goal of high brightness at the sample for use in the X-ray Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy (XAMS) science, surface and interface science, biology and x-ray optical development programs at ALS. X-ray absorption and time of flight photo emission measurements in 2 - 5 keV photon energy in argon along with the flux, resolution, spot size and stability of the beamline will be discussed. Prospects for future XAMS measurements will also be presented.

  1. Working group II report: Production and dynamics of high brightness beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the main discussions of the Working Group on the Production and Dynamics of High Brightness Beams. The following topics are covered in this paper. Proposed new electron sources and needed research on existing sources is covered. The discussions on issues relating to the description of phase space on non-thermalized electron beam distributions and the theoretical modeling on non-thermalized electron beam distributions is presented. Finally, the present status of the theoretical modeling of beam transport in bends is given

  2. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF THE HIGH SURFACE BRIGHTNESS HOT SPOT IN PKS 1421-490

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, L. E. H.; Bicknell, G. V.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Jauncey, D. L.; Gelbord, J.; Schwartz, D. A.; Birkinshaw, M.; Worrall, D. M.; Marshall, H. L.; Georganopoulos, M.; Perlman, E. S.; Murphy, D. W.

    2009-01-01

    Long Baseline Array imaging of the z = 0.663 broadline radio galaxy PKS 1421-490 reveals a 400 pc diameter high surface brightness hot spot at a projected distance of ∼40 kpc from the active galactic nucleus. The isotropic X-ray luminosity of the hot spot, L 2-10keV = 3 x 10 44 ergs s -1 , is comparable to the isotropic X-ray luminosity of the entire X-ray jet of PKS 0637-752, and the peak radio surface brightness is hundreds of times greater than that of the brightest hot spot in Cygnus A. We model the radio to X-ray spectral energy distribution using a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model with a near equipartition magnetic field strength of 3 mG. There is a strong brightness asymmetry between the approaching and receding hotspots and the hot spot spectrum remains flat (α ∼ 0.5) well beyond the predicted cooling break for a 3 mG magnetic field, indicating that the hotspot emission may be Doppler beamed. A high plasma velocity beyond the terminal jet shock could be the result of a dynamically important magnetic field in the jet. There is a change in the slope of the hotspot radio spectrum at GHz frequencies, which we model by incorporating a cutoff in the electron energy distribution at γ min ∼ 650, with higher values implied if the hotspot emission is Doppler beamed. We show that a sharp decrease in the electron number density below a Lorentz factor of 650 would arise from the dissipation of bulk kinetic energy in an electron/proton jet with a Lorentz factor Γ jet ∼> 5.

  3. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J; Mancuso, Christopher A; Hogle, Craig W; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L; Dorney, Kevin M; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M; Milošević, Dejan B; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2015-11-17

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform.

  4. A review of passive thermal management of LED module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.; Sau, K.; Zeijl, H. van; Gielen, A.W.J.; Zhang, G.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the high-brightness LEDs have begun to be designed for illumination application. The increased electrical currents used to drive LEDs lead to thermal issues. Thermal management for LED module is a key design parameter as high operation temperature directly affects their maximum light

  5. Simple, compact, high brightness source for x-ray lithography and x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, compact, high brightness x-ray source has recently been built. This source utilizes a commercially available, cylindrical geometry electron beam evaporator, which has been modified to enhance the thermal cooling to the anode. Cooling is accomplished by using standard, low-conductivity laboratory water, with an inlet pressure of less than 50 psi, and a flow rate of approx.0.3 gal/min. The anode is an inverted cone geometry for efficient cooling. The x-ray source has a measured sub-millimeter spot size (FWHM). The anode has been operated at 1 KW e-beam power (10 KV, 100 ma). Higher operating levels will be investigated. A variety of different x-ray lines can be obtained by the simple interchange of anodes of different materials. Typical anodes are made from easily machined metals, or materials which are vacuum deposited onto a copper anode. Typically, a few microns of material is sufficient to stop 10 KV electrons without significantly decreasing the thermal conductivity through the anode. The small size and high brightness of this source make it useful for step and repeat exposures over several square centimeter areas, especially in a research laboratory environment. For an aluminum anode, the estimated Al-K x-ray flux at 10 cms from the source is 70 μW/cm 2

  6. High brightness potassium ion gun for the HIF neutralized transport experiment (NTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.

    2003-01-01

    The NTX experiment at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final focus systems for high perveance heavy ion beams. To focus a high intensity beam to a small spot requires a high brightness beam. In the NTX experiment, a potassium ion beam of up to 400 keV and 80 mA is generated in a Pierce type diode. At the diode exit, an aperture with variable size provides the capability to vary the beam perveance and to significantly reduce the beam emittance. We shall report on the gun characterization including current density profile, phase space distributions and the control of electrons generated by the beam scraping at the aperture. Comparison with particle simulations using the EGUN code will be presented

  7. Ultra-bright and highly efficient inorganic based perovskite light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liuqi; Yang, Xiaolei; Jiang, Qi; Wang, Pengyang; Yin, Zhigang; Zhang, Xingwang; Tan, Hairen; Yang, Yang (Michael); Wei, Mingyang; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Sargent, Edward H.; You, Jingbi

    2017-06-01

    Inorganic perovskites such as CsPbX3 (X=Cl, Br, I) have attracted attention due to their excellent thermal stability and high photoluminescence quantum efficiency. However, the electroluminescence quantum efficiency of their light-emitting diodes was CsPbBr3 lattice and by depositing a hydrophilic and insulating polyvinyl pyrrolidine polymer atop the ZnO electron-injection layer to overcome these issues. As a result, we obtained light-emitting diodes exhibiting a high brightness of 91,000 cd m-2 and a high external quantum efficiency of 10.4% using a mixed-cation perovskite Cs0.87MA0.13PbBr3 as the emitting layer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the brightest and most-efficient green perovskite light-emitting diodes reported to date.

  8. High-energy Neutrino Flares from X-Ray Bright and Dark Tidal Disruption Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senno, Nicholas; Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    X-ray and γ-ray observations by the Swift satellite revealed that a fraction of tidal disruption events (TDEs) have relativistic jets. Jetted TDEs have been considered to be potential sources of very-high-energy cosmic-rays and neutrinos. In this work, using semi-analytical methods, we calculate neutrino spectra of X-ray bright TDEs with powerful jets and dark TDEs with possible choked jets, respectively. We estimate their neutrino fluxes and find that non-detection would give us an upper limit on the baryon loading of the jet luminosity contained in cosmic-rays ξ {sub cr} ≲ 20–50 for Sw J1644+57. We show that X-ray bright TDEs make a sub-dominant (≲5%–10%) contribution to IceCube’s diffuse neutrino flux, and study possible contributions of X-ray dark TDEs given that particles are accelerated in choked jets or disk winds. We discuss future prospects for multi-messenger searches of the brightest TDEs.

  9. Design and construction of a DC high-brightness laser driven electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, K.; Geng, R. L.; Wang, L. F.; Zhang, B. C.; Yu, J.; Wang, T.; Wu, G. F.; Song, J. H.; Chen, J. E.

    1996-02-01

    A DC high-brightness laser driven photoemissive electron gun is being developed at Peking University, in order to produce 50-100 ps electron bunches of high quality. The gun consists of a photocathode preparation chamber and a DC acceleration cavity. Different ways of fabricating photocathodes, such as chemical vapor deposition, ion beam implantation and ion beam enhanced deposition, can be adopted. The acceleration gap is designed with the aid of simulation codes EGUN and POISSON. The laser system is a mode-locked Nd-YAG oscillator proceeded by an amplifier at 10 Hz repetition rate, which can deliver three different wavelengths (1064/532/266 nm). The combination of a superconducting cavity with the photocathode preparation chamber is also discussed in this paper.

  10. High brightness--multiple beamlets source for patterned X-ray production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo [Hercules, CA; Ji, Qing [Albany, CA; Barletta, William A [Oakland, CA; Jiang, Ximan [El Cerrito, CA; Ji, Lili [Albany, CA

    2009-10-27

    Techniques for controllably directing beamlets to a target substrate are disclosed. The beamlets may be either positive ions or electrons. It has been shown that beamlets may be produced with a diameter of 1 .mu.m, with inter-aperture spacings of 12 .mu.m. An array of such beamlets, may be used for maskless lithography. By step-wise movement of the beamlets relative to the target substrate, individual devices may be directly e-beam written. Ion beams may be directly written as well. Due to the high brightness of the beamlets from extraction from a multicusp source, exposure times for lithographic exposure are thought to be minimized. Alternatively, the beamlets may be electrons striking a high Z material for X-ray production, thereafter collimated to provide patterned X-ray exposures such as those used in CAT scans. Such a device may be used for remote detection of explosives.

  11. Modeling of Diamond Field-Emitter-Arrays for high brightness photocathode applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Thomas; Huang, Chengkun; Piryatinski, Andrei; Lewellen, John; Nichols, Kimberly; Choi, Bo; Pavlenko, Vitaly; Shchegolkov, Dmitry; Nguyen, Dinh; Andrews, Heather; Simakov, Evgenya

    2017-10-01

    We propose to employ Diamond Field-Emitter-Arrays (DFEAs) as high-current-density ultra-low-emittance photocathodes for compact laser-driven dielectric accelerators capable of generating ultra-high brightness electron beams for advanced applications. We develop a semi-classical Monte-Carlo photoemission model for DFEAs that includes carriers' transport to the emitter surface and tunneling through the surface under external fields. The model accounts for the electronic structure size quantization affecting the transport and tunneling process within the sharp diamond tips. We compare this first principle model with other field emission models, such as the Child-Langmuir and Murphy-Good models. By further including effects of carrier photoexcitation, we perform simulations of the DFEAs' photoemission quantum yield and the emitted electron beam. Details of the theoretical model and validation against preliminary experimental data will be presented. Work ssupported by LDRD program at LANL.

  12. A high-performance stand-alone solar PV power system for LED lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.

    2010-06-01

    The present study developed a high-performance solar PV power technology for the LED lighting of a solar home system. The nMPPO (near-Maximum-Power- Point- Operation) design is employed in system design to eliminate MPPT. A feedback control system using pulse width modulation (PWM) technique was developed for battery charging control which can increase the charging capacity by 78%. For high-efficiency lighting, the LED is directly driven by battery using a PWM discharge control to eliminate a DC/DC converter. Two solar-powered LED lighting systems (50W and 100W LED) were built. The long-term outdoor tests have shown that the loss of load probability for full-night lighting requirement is zero for 50W LED and 3.6% for 100W LED. © 2010 IEEE.

  13. Design of high-brightness TEM00-mode solar-pumped laser for renewable material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D.; Almeida, J.

    2014-08-01

    The conversion of sunlight into laser light by direct solar pumping is of ever-increasing importance because broadband, temporally constant, sunlight is converted into laser light, which can be a source of narrowband, collimated, rapidly pulsed, radiation with the possibility of obtaining extremely high brightness and intensity. Nonlinear processes, such as harmonic generation, might be used to obtain broad wavelength coverage, including the ultraviolet wavelengths, where the solar flux is very weak. The direct excitation of large lasers by sunlight offers the prospect of a drastic reduction in the cost of coherent optical radiation for high average power materials processing. This renewable laser has a large potential for many applications such as high-temperature materials processing, renewable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle and so on. We propose here a scalable TEM00 mode solar laser pumping scheme, which is composed of four firststage 1.13 m diameter Fresnel lenses with its respective folding mirrors mounted on a two-axis automatic solar tracker. Concentrated solar power at the four focal spots of these Fresnel lenses are focused individually along a common 3.5 mm diameter, 70 mm length Nd:YAG rod via four pairs of second-stage fused-silica spherical lenses and third-stage 2D-CPCs (Compound Parabolic Concentrator), sitting just above the laser rod which is also double-pass pumped by four V-shaped pumping cavities. Distilled water cools both the rod and the concentrators. 15.4 W TEM00 solar laser power is numerically calculated, corresponding to 6.7 times enhancement in laser beam brightness.

  14. Development of a high brightness ion source for IFMIF and preliminary test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iga, Takashi; Okumura, Yoshikazu; Kashiwagi, Mieko

    2001-05-01

    Development of a high brightness ion source for the 40MeV/250mA deuteron beam accelerator, IFMIF, is in progress at JAERI. A prototype ion source using hot filament cathodes has been developed. This ion source consists of a multi-cusp plasma generator and a two-stage accelerator. Beam optics has been investigated at the energy of up to 60keV. Experimental results of the beam optics agreed well with the simulation by assuming that the equivalent ion mass is 2.38. Ion beam of 60keV/100mA H+, which corresponds to ion beam of 100keV/220mA D+, was obtained with optimum perveance (minimum divergence). This result indicates that the current requirement for the IFMIF ion source would be satisfied with this ion source. (author)

  15. Continued advances in high brightness fiber-coupled laser modules for efficient pumping of fiber and solid-state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, M.; Chen, Z.; Urbanek, W.; Dawson, D.; Bao, L.; Kanskar, M.; DeVito, M.; Martinsen, R.

    2018-02-01

    Both the fibber laser and diode-pumped solid-state laser market continue to drive advances in pump diode module brightness. We report on the continued progress by nLIGHT to develop and deliver the highest brightness diode-laser pumps using single-emitter technology. Continued advances in multimode laser diode technology [13] and fiber-coupling techniques have enabled higher emitter counts in the element packages, enabling us to demonstrate 305 W into 105 μm - 0.16 NA. This brightness improvement is achieved by leveraging our prior-reported package re-optimization, allowing an increase in the emitter count from two rows of nine emitters to two rows of twelve emitters. Leveraging the two rows off twelve emitter architecture,, product development has commenced on a 400 W into 200 μm - 00.16 NA package. Additionally, the advances in pump technology intended for CW Yb-doped fiber laser pumping has been leveraged to develop the highest brightness 793 nm pump modules for 2 μm Thulium fiber laser pumping, generating 150 W into 200 μm - 0.18 NA and 100 W into 105 μm - 0.15 NA. Lastly, renewed interest in direct diode materials processing led us to experiment with wavelength multiplexing our existing state of the art 200 W, 105 μm - 00.15 NA package into a combined output of 395 WW into 105 μm - 0.16 NA.

  16. LED; Zum Thema LED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This collection of articles on the subject of light emitting diodes (LED) provides technical information on LED technology, examines latest developments and provides examples of LED use in practice. An 'ABC' of LED technology is presented and fifteen common LED mistakes are noted. The chances and risks of LED use are discussed as is the retrofitting of lighting installations with LEDs. The use of LEDs in street lighting is examined. The journal also includes interviews with architects and a lighting designer. Practical examples of the use of LEDs include the refurbished parliamentary library in Berne, their use in the bird sanctuary headquarters in Sempach, Switzerland, as well as LED use in sales outlets. Also, the use of LED lighting in a spa gazebo in Lucerne is examined.

  17. Peer-led versus teacher-led AIDS education for female high-school students in Yazd, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghianimoghadam, M H; Forghani, H; Zolghadr, R; Rahaei, Z; Khani, P

    2012-04-01

    Peer-led programmes on AIDS prevention have shown a good level of effectiveness when tested among high-risk populations. This study compared peer-led and teacher-led methods of education about HIV/AIDS among female high-school students in Yazd city, Islamic Republic of Iran. In 2009 students in 3 high schools were trained by their classmates (peer-led), by the research team (teacher-led) or had no education (controls); 180 students completed a specially designed questionnaire based on the health belief model, before and after the intervention. Post-intervention mean knowledge scores increased 2-fold in the peer-led group, and this was significantly higher than the increase in the teacher-led group scores (1.5-fold). Control group scores were unchanged. In the peer-led programme all of the components of the model were significantly improved whereas in the teacher-led programme, only perceived severity and perceived barriers scored significantly higher after the intervention.

  18. High spatial resolution and high brightness ion beam probe for in-situ elemental and isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tao; Clement, Stephen W. J.; Bao, Zemin; Wang, Peizhi; Tian, Di; Liu, Dunyi

    2018-03-01

    A high spatial resolution and high brightness ion beam from a cold cathode duoplasmatron source and primary ion optics are presented and applied to in-situ analysis of micro-scale geological material with complex structural and chemical features. The magnetic field in the source as well as the influence of relative permeability of magnetic materials on source performance was simulated using COMSOL to confirm the magnetic field strength of the source. Based on SIMION simulation, a high brightness and high spatial resolution negative ion optical system has been developed to achieve Critical (Gaussian) illumination mode. The ion source and primary column are installed on a new Time-of-Flight secondary ion mass spectrometer for analysis of geological samples. The diameter of the ion beam was measured by the knife-edge method and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results show that an O2- beam of ca. 5 μm diameter with a beam intensity of ∼5 nA and an O- beam of ca. 5 μm diameter with a beam intensity of ∼50 nA were obtained, respectively. This design will open new possibilities for in-situ elemental and isotopic analysis in geological studies.

  19. Monolithic blue LED series arrays for high-voltage AC operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ao, Jin-Ping [Satellite Venture Business Laboratory, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Sato, Hisao; Mizobuchi, Takashi; Morioka, Kenji; Kawano, Shunsuke; Muramoto, Yoshihiko; Sato, Daisuke; Sakai, Shiro [Nitride Semiconductor Co. Ltd., Naruto, Tokushima 771-0360 (Japan); Lee, Young-Bae; Ohno, Yasuo [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan)

    2002-12-16

    Design and fabrication of monolithic blue LED series arrays that can be operated under high ac voltage are described. Several LEDs, such as 3, 7, and 20, are connected in series and in parallel to meet ac operation. The chip size of a single device is 150 {mu}m x 120 {mu}m and the total size is 1.1 mm x 1 mm for a 40(20+20) LED array. Deep dry etching was performed as device isolation. Two-layer interconnection and air bridge are utilized to connect the devices in an array. The monolithic series array exhibit the expected operation function under dc and ac bias. The output power and forward voltage are almost proportional to LED numbers connected in series. On-wafer measurement shows that the output power is 40 mW for 40(20+20) LED array under ac 72 V. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Automated system for the determination of patterns of high-intensity LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baly, L.; Bolaño, L.; Arteche, R.; Broco, Y.; Quesada, I.; Rodríguez, E.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of high-intensity LEDs lighting patterns is an important step for the simulation and planning of arrays of these devices configurations. Currently there are systems based on CCD cameras able to efficiently solve this problem, however the high cost of these is a limiting factor for use. Another limitation of CCD cameras, is that they are designed for light levels much lower than those produced by a high-intensity LED. In this paper we present an automated system for the determination of the intensity of LEDs based on the scan point to point patterns. The results of the analysis of a type of LED based on arrays of bars with built-in optical system is presented.

  1. A time-dependent search for high-energy neutrinos from bright GRBs with ANTARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celli Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrophysical point-like neutrino sources, like Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs, are one of the main targets for neutrino telescopes, since they are among the best candidates for Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR acceleration. From the interaction between the accelerated protons and the intense radiation fields of the source jet, charged mesons are produced, which then decay into neutrinos. The methods and the results of a search for high-energy neutrinos in spatial and temporal correlation with the detected gamma-ray emission are presented for four bright GRBs observed between 2008 and 2013: a time-dependent analysis, optimised for each flare of the selected bursts, is performed to predict detailed neutrino spectra. The internal shock scenario of the fireball model is investigated, relying on the neutrino spectra computed through the numerical code NeuCosmA. The analysis is optimized on a per burst basis, through the maximization of the signal discovery probability. Since no events in ANTARES data passed the optimised cuts, 90% C.L. upper limits are derived on the expected neutrino fluences.

  2. THE STATISTICS OF RADIO ASTRONOMICAL POLARIMETRY: BRIGHT SOURCES AND HIGH TIME RESOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Straten, W.

    2009-01-01

    A four-dimensional statistical description of electromagnetic radiation is developed and applied to the analysis of radio pulsar polarization. The new formalism provides an elementary statistical explanation of the modal-broadening phenomenon in single-pulse observations. It is also used to argue that the degree of polarization of giant pulses has been poorly defined in past studies. Single- and giant-pulse polarimetry typically involves sources with large flux-densities and observations with high time-resolution, factors that necessitate consideration of source-intrinsic noise and small-number statistics. Self-noise is shown to fully explain the excess polarization dispersion previously noted in single-pulse observations of bright pulsars, obviating the need for additional randomly polarized radiation. Rather, these observations are more simply interpreted as an incoherent sum of covariant, orthogonal, partially polarized modes. Based on this premise, the four-dimensional covariance matrix of the Stokes parameters may be used to derive mode-separated pulse profiles without any assumptions about the intrinsic degrees of mode polarization. Finally, utilizing the small-number statistics of the Stokes parameters, it is established that the degree of polarization of an unresolved pulse is fundamentally undefined; therefore, previous claims of highly polarized giant pulses are unsubstantiated.

  3. Time-resolved energy spectrum of a pseudospark-produced high-brightness electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T.J.; Ding, B.N.; Rhee, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    The pseudospark, a fast low-pressure gas discharge between a hollow cathode and a planar anode, is found to be an interesting high-brightness electron beam source. Typically, all electron beam produced in the pseudospark has the peak current of ∼1 kA, pulse duration of ∼50 ns, and effective emittance of ∼100 mm-mrad. The energy information of this electron beam, however, is least understood due to the difficulty of measuring a high-current-density beam that is partially space-charge neutralized by the background ions produced in the gas. In this paper, an experimental study of the time-resolved energy spectrum is presented. The pseudospark produced electron beam is injected into a vacuum through a small pinhole so that the electrons without background ions follow single particle motion; the beam is sent through a negative biased electrode and the only portion of beam whose energy is greater than the bias voltage can pass through the electrode and the current is measured by a Faraday cup. The Faraday cup signals with various bias voltage are recorded in a digital oscilloscope. The recorded waveforms are then numerically analyzed to construct a time-resolved energy spectrum. Preliminary results are presented

  4. High Brightness Electron Guns for Next-Generation Light Sources and Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Bluem; M.D. Cole; J. Rathke; T. Schultheiss; A.M.M. Todd; I. Ben-Zvi; T. Srinivasan-Rao; P. Colestock; D.C. Nguyen; R.L. Wood; L. Young; D. Janssen; J. Lewellen; G. Neil; H.L. Phillips; J.P. Preble

    2004-01-01

    Advanced Energy Systems continues to develop advanced electron gun and injector concepts. Several of these projects have been previously described, but the progress and status of each will be updated. The project closest to completion is an all superconducting RF (SRF) gun, being developed in collaboration with the Brookhaven National Laboratory, that uses the niobium of the cavity wall itself as the photocathode material. This gun has been fabricated and will shortly be tested with beam. The cavity string for a closely-coupled DC gun and SRF cavity injector that is expected to provide beam quality sufficient for proposed ERL light sources and FELs will be assembled at the Jefferson Laboratory later this year. We are also collaboration with Los Alamos on a prototype CW normal-conducting RF gun with similar performance, that will undergo thermal testing in late 2004. Another CW SRF gun project that uses a high quantum efficiency photocathode, similar to the FZ-Rossendorf approach, has just begun. Finally, we will present the RF design and cold test results for a fully axisymmetric, ultra-high-brightness x-band RF gun

  5. ADVANCED X-BAND TEST ACCELERATOR FOR HIGH BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON AND GAMMA RAY BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Barty, C P; Chu, T S; Ebbers, C A; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F V; Adolphsen, C; Jongewaard, E N; Raubenheimer, T; Tantawi, S G; Vlieks, A E; Wang, J W

    2010-05-12

    In support of Compton scattering gamma-ray source efforts at LLNL, a multi-bunch test stand is being developed to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades. This test stand will enable work to explore the science and technology paths required to boost the current 10 Hz monoenergetic gamma-ray (MEGa-Ray) technology to an effective repetition rate exceeding 1 kHz, potentially increasing the average gamma-ray brightness by two orders of magnitude. Multiple bunches must be of exceedingly high quality to produce narrow-bandwidth gamma-rays. Modeling efforts will be presented, along with plans for a multi-bunch test stand at LLNL. The test stand will consist of a 5.5 cell X-band rf photoinjector, single accelerator section, and beam diagnostics. The photoinjector will be a high gradient standing wave structure, featuring a dual feed racetrack coupler. The accelerator will increase the electron energy so that the emittance can be measured using quadrupole scanning techniques. Multi-bunch diagnostics will be developed so that the beam quality can be measured and compared with theory. Design will be presented with modeling simulations, and layout plans.

  6. Longitudinal profile diagnostic scheme with subfemtosecond resolution for high-brightness electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Andonian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution measurement of the longitudinal profile of a relativistic electron beam is of utmost importance for linac based free-electron lasers and other advanced accelerator facilities that employ ultrashort bunches. In this paper, we investigate a novel scheme to measure ultrashort bunches (subpicosecond with exceptional temporal resolution (hundreds of attoseconds and dynamic range. The scheme employs two orthogonally oriented deflecting sections. The first imparts a short-wavelength (fast temporal resolution horizontal angular modulation on the beam, while the second imparts a long-wavelength (slow angular kick in the vertical dimension. Both modulations are observable on a standard downstream screen in the form of a streaked sinusoidal beam structure. We demonstrate, using scaled variables in a quasi-1D approximation, an expression for the temporal resolution of the scheme and apply it to a proof-of-concept experiment at the UCLA Neptune high-brightness injector facility. The scheme is also investigated for application at the SLAC NLCTA facility, where we show that the subfemtosecond resolution is sufficient to resolve the temporal structure of the beam used in the echo-enabled free-electron laser. We employ beam simulations to verify the effect for typical Neptune and NLCTA parameter sets and demonstrate the feasibility of the concept.

  7. High-efficient and brightness white organic light-emitting diodes operated at low bias voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yu, Junsheng; Yuan, Kai; Jian, Yadong

    2010-10-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) used for display application and lighting need to possess high efficiency, high brightness, and low driving voltage. In this work, white OLEDs consisted of ambipolar 9,10-bis 2-naphthyl anthracene (ADN) as a host of blue light-emitting layer (EML) doped with tetrabutyleperlene (TBPe) and a thin codoped layer consisted of N, N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) as a host of yellow light-emitting layer doped with 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) were investigated. With appropriate tuning in the film thickness, position, and dopant concentration of the co-doped layer, a white OLED with a luminance yield of 10.02 cd/A with the CIE coordinates of (0.29, 0.33) has been achieved at a bias voltage of 9 V and a luminance level of over 10,000 cd/m2. By introducing the PIN structure with both HIL and bis(10- hydroxybenzo-quinolinato)-beryllium (BeBq2) ETL, the power efficiency of white OLED was improved.

  8. High-power UV-LED degradation: Continuous and cycled working condition influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arques-Orobon, F. J.; Nuñez, N.; Vazquez, M.; Segura-Antunez, C.; González-Posadas, V.

    2015-09-01

    High-power (HP) UV-LEDs can replace UV lamps for real-time fluoro-sensing applications by allowing portable and autonomous systems. However, HP UV-LEDs are not a mature technology, and there are still open issues regarding their performance evolution over time. This paper presents a reliability study of 3 W UV-LEDs, with special focus on LED degradation for two working conditions: continuous and cycled (30 s ON and 30 s OFF). Accelerated life tests are developed to evaluate the influence of temperature and electrical working conditions in high-power LEDs degradation, being the predominant failure mechanism the degradation of the package. An analysis that includes dynamic thermal and optical HP UV-LED measurements has been performed. Static thermal and stress simulation analysis with the finite element method (FEM) identifies the causes of package degradation. Accelerated life test results prove that HP UV-LEDs working in cycled condition have a better performance than those working in continuous condition.

  9. Experimental results in superconducting niobium resonators for high-brightness ion beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Roche, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    Two niobium resonant cavities for high-brightness ion beam acceleration have been constructed and tested. The first was based on a coaxial quarter-wave geometry and was optimized for phase velocity β O = O.15. This cavity, which resonates at 400 MHz in the fundamental mode, operated at an average (wall-to-wall) accelerating gradient of 12.9 MV/m under continuous-wave (cw) fields. At this gradient, a cavity Q of 1.4x10 8 was measured. The second was based on a coaxial half-wave geometry and was optimized for β O = 0.12. This cavity, which resonates at 355 MHz in the fundamental mode, operated at an average accelerating gradient of 18.0 MV/m under cw fields. This is the highest average accelerating gradient achieved to date in low-velocity structures designed for cw operation. At this gradient, a cavity Q of 1.2 x 10 8 was measured

  10. Production of quasi ellipsoidal laser pulses for next generation high brightness photoinjectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rublack, T., E-mail: Tino.Rublack@desy.de [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Good, J.; Khojoyan, M.; Krasilnikov, M.; Stephan, F. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Hartl, I.; Schreiber, S. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Andrianov, A.; Gacheva, E.; Khazanov, E.; Mironov, S.; Potemkin, A.; Zelenogorskii, V.V. [IAP/RAS, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Syresin, E. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-01

    The use of high brightness electron beams in Free Electron Laser (FEL) applications is of increasing importance. One of the most promising methods to generate such beams is the usage of shaped photocathode laser pulses. It has already demonstrated that temporal and transverse flat-top laser pulses can produce very low emittance beams [1]. Nevertheless, based on beam simulations further improvements can be achieved using quasi-ellipsoidal laser pulses, e.g. 30% reduction in transverse projected emittance at 1 nC bunch charge. In a collaboration between DESY, the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Science (IAP RAS) in Nizhny Novgorod and the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna such a laser system capable of producing trains of laser pulses with a quasi-ellipsoidal distribution, has been developed. The prototype of the system was installed at the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ) and is currently in the commissioning phase. In the following, the laser system will be introduced, the procedure of pulse shaping will be described and the last experimental results will be shown.

  11. Efficient temporal shaping of electron distributions for high-brightness photoemission electron guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Bazarov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the lowest emittance electron bunches from photoemission electron guns, it is essential to limit the uncorrelated emittance growth due to space charge forces acting on the bunch in the vicinity of the photocathode through appropriate temporal shaping of the optical pulses illuminating the photocathode. We present measurements of the temporal profile of electron bunches from a bulk crystal GaAs photocathode illuminated with 520 nm wavelength pulses from a frequency-doubled Yb-fiber laser. A transverse deflecting rf cavity was used to make these measurements. The measured laser pulse temporal profile and the corresponding electron beam temporal profile have about 30 ps FWHM duration, with rise and fall times of a few ps. GaAs illuminated by 520 nm optical pulses is a prompt emitter within our measurement uncertainty of ∼1  ps rms. Combined with the low thermal emittance of negative electron affinity photocathodes, GaAs is a very suitable photocathode for high-brightness photoinjectors. We also report measurements of the photoemission response time for GaAsP, which show a strong dependence on the quantum efficiency of the photocathode.

  12. High-brightness electron guns for linac-based light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Most proposed linac-based light sources, such as single-pass free-electron lasers and energy-recovery-linacs, require very high-brightness electron beams in order to achieve their design performance. These beam requirements must be achieved not on an occasional basis, but rather must be met by every bunch produced by the source over extended periods of time. It is widely assumed that the beam source will be a photocathode electron gun; the selection of accelerator technique (e.g., dc or rf) for the gun is more dependent on the application.The current state of the art of electron beam production is adequate but not ideal for the first generation of linac-based light sources, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free-electron laser (X-FEL). For the next generation of linac-based light sources, an order of magnitude reduction in the transverse electron beam emittance is required to significantly reduce the cost of the facility. This is beyond the present state of the art, given the other beam properties that must be maintained. The requirements for current and future linac-based light source beam sources are presented here, along with a review of the present state of the art. A discussion of potential paths towards meeting future needs is presented at the conclusion.

  13. Bright electroluminescence from a chelate phosphine oxide Eu{sup III} complex with high thermal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Hui [School of Chemistry and Materials, Heilongjiang University, 74 Xuefu Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150080, Heilongjiang Province (China); Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 66 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 21003, Jiangsu Province (China); Yin Kun; Wang Lianhui [Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 66 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 21003, Jiangsu Province (China); Huang Wei [Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: wei-huang@njupt.edu.cn

    2008-10-01

    The chelate phosphine oxide ligand 1,8-bis(diphenylphosphino)naphthalene oxide (NaPO) was used to prepare complex 1 tris(2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)(1,8-bis(diphenylphosphino)naphthalene oxide)europium(III). The rigid structure of NaPO makes 1 have more compact structure resulting in a temperature of glass transition as high as 147 deg. C, which is the highest in luminescent Eu{sup III} complexes, and a higher decomposition temperature of 349 deg. C. The improvement of carrier transfer ability of NaPO was proved by Gaussian simulation. The multi-layered electroluminescent device based on 1 had a low turn-on voltage of 6.0 V, the maximum brightness of 601 cd m{sup -2} at 21.5 V and 481.4 mA cm{sup -2}, and the excellent voltage-independent spectral stability. These properties demonstrated NaPO cannot only be favorable to form the rigid and compact complex structure, and increase the thermal and morphological stability of the complex, but also reduce the formation of the exciplex.

  14. Transverse Laser Beam Shaping in High Brightness Electron Gun at ATF

    CERN Document Server

    Roychowdhury, S

    2005-01-01

    The brightness of electron beams from a photo injector is influenced by the transverse and longitudinal distribution of the laser beam illuminating the cathode. Previous studies at Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility have shown that formation of an ideal e-beam with lowest transverse emittance requires uniform circular distribution of the emitted electrons. The use of the uniformly distributed power of the laser beam may not lead to that of the emitted electrons because of the non-uniform quantum efficiency. A proper shaping of the laser beam can compensate for this non-uniformity. In this paper we describe the use of digital light processing (DLP) technique based on digital mirror device (DMD) for spatial modulation of the laser beam, for measurements of the quantum efficiency map, and for creating the desirable e-beam density profiles. A DMD is aμelectronic mechanical system (MEMS) comprising of millions of highly reflectiveμmirrors controlled by underlying electronics. We present exper...

  15. Study of system dynamics model and control of a high-power LED lighting luminaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, B.-J.; Hsu, P.-C.; Wu, M.-S.; Tang, C.-W.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to design a current control system which is robust to the system dynamics uncertainty and the disturbance of ambient temperature to assure a stable optical output property of LED. The system dynamics model of the LED lighting system was first derived. A 96 W high-power LED luminaire was designed and built in the present study. The linearly perturbed system dynamics model for the LED luminaire is derived experimentally. The dynamics model of LED lighting system is of a multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) system with two inputs (applied voltage and ambient temperature) and two outputs (forward current and heat conducting body temperature). A step response test method was employed to the 96 W LED luminaire to identify the system dynamics model. It is found that the current model is just a constant gain (resistance) and the disturbance model is of first order, both changing with operating conditions (voltage and ambient temperature). A feedback control system using PI algorithm was designed using the results of the system dynamics model. The control system was implemented on a PIC microprocessor. Experimental results show that the control system can stably and accurately control the LED current to a constant value at the variation of ambient temperature up to 40 o C. The control system is shown to have a robust property with respect to the plant uncertainty and the ambient temperature disturbance

  16. High-Power 365 nm UV LED Mercury Arc Lamp Replacement for Photochemistry and Chemical Photolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölz, K; Lietard, J; Somoza, M M

    2017-01-03

    Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have become widespread in chemical research as highly efficient light sources for photochemistry and photopolymerization. However, in more complex experimental setups requiring highly concentrated light and highly spatially resolved patterning of the light, high-pressure mercury arc lamps are still widely used because they emit intense UV light from a compact arc volume that can be efficiently coupled into optical systems. Advances in the deposition and p -type doping of gallium nitride have recently permitted the manufacture of UV LEDs capable of replacing mercury arc lamps also in these applications. These UV LEDs exceed the spectral radiance of mercury lamps even at the intense I-line at 365 nm. Here we present the successful exchange of a high-pressure mercury arc lamp for a new generation UV LED as a light source in photolithographic chemistry and its use in the fabrication of high-density DNA microarrays. We show that the improved light radiance and efficiency of these LEDs offer substantial practical, economic and ecological advantages, including faster synthesis, lower hardware costs, very long lifetime, an >85-fold reduction in electricity consumption and the elimination of mercury waste and contamination.

  17. Injection molding of high precision optics for LED applications made of liquid silicone rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopmann, Christian; Röbig, Malte [Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV), RWTH Aachen University, Pontstraße 49, 52062 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-03-09

    Light Emitting Diodes (LED) conquer the growing global market of lighting technologies. Due to their advantages, they are increasingly used in consumer products, in lighting applications in the home and in the mobility sector as well as in industrial applications. Particularly, with regard to the increasing use of high-power LED (HP-LED) the materials in the surrounding area of the light emitting semiconductor chip are of utmost importance. While the materials behind the semiconductor chip are optimized for maximum heat dissipation, the materials currently used for the encapsulation of the semiconductor chip (primary optics) and the secondary optics encounter their limits due to the high temperatures. In addition certain amounts of blue UV radiation degrade the currently used materials such as epoxy resins or polyurethanes for primary optics. In the context of an ongoing joint research project with various partners from the industry, an innovative manufacturing method for high precision optics for LED applications made of liquid silicone rubber (LSR) is analyzed at the Institut of Plastics Processing (IKV), Aachen. The aim of this project is to utilize the material-specific advantages of high transparent LSR, especially the excellent high temperature resistance and the great freedom in design. Therefore, a high integrated injection molding process is developed. For the production of combined LED primary and secondary optics a LED board is placed in an injection mold and overmolded with LSR. Due to the integrated process and the reduction of subcomponents like the secondary optics the economics of the production process can be improved significantly. Furthermore combined LED optics offer an improved effectiveness, because there are no losses of the light power at the transition of the primary and secondary optics.

  18. Experimental investigation of a PCM-HP heat sink on its thermal performance and anti-thermal-shock capacity for high-power LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yuxuan; Tang, Yong; Li, Zongtao; Ding, Xinrui; Yuan, Wei; Zhao, Xuezhi; Yu, Binhai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A phase-change material (PCM) base heat pipe heat sink (PCM-HP heat sink) is designed. • The PCM-HP heat sink can significantly lower the LED heating rate and temperature. • The PCM-HP heat sink achieves a best anti-thermal-shock capacity in LED cyclic working modes. - Abstract: High-power LEDs demonstrate a number of benefits compared with conventional incandescent lamps and fluorescent lamps, including a longer lifetime, higher brightness and lower power consumption. However, owing to their severe high heat flux, it is difficult to develop effective thermal management of high-power LEDs, especially under cyclic working modes, which cause serious periodic thermal stress and limit further development. Focusing on the above problem, this paper designed a phase-change material (PCM) base heat pipe heat sink (PCM-HP heat sink) that consists of a PCM base, adapter plate, heat pipe and finned radiator. Different parameters, such as three types of interior materials to fill the heat sink, three LED power inputs and eight LED cyclic working modes, were separately studied to investigate the thermal performance and anti-thermal-shock capacity of the PCM-HP heat sink. The results show that the PCM-HP heat sink possesses remarkable thermal performance owing to the reduction of the LED heating rate and peak temperature. More importantly, an excellent anti-thermal-shock capacity of the PCM-HP heat sink is also demonstrated when applied in LED cyclic working modes, and this capacity demonstrates the best range.

  19. The High-efficiency LED Driver for Visible Light Communication Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lee, Yu-Chen; Lai, Jyun-Liang; Yu, Chueh-Hao; Huang, Li Ren; Yang, Chia-Yen

    2016-08-08

    This paper presents a LED driver for VLC. The main purpose is to solve the low data rate problem used to be in switching type LED driver. The GaN power device is proposed to replace the traditional silicon power device of switching LED driver for the purpose of increasing switching frequency of converter, thereby increasing the bandwidth of data transmission. To achieve high efficiency, the diode-connected GaN power transistor is utilized to replace the traditional ultrafast recovery diode used to be in switching type LED driver. This work has been experimentally evaluated on 350-mA output current. The results demonstrate that it supports the data of PWM dimming level encoded in the PPM scheme for VLC application. The experimental results also show that system's efficiency of 80.8% can be achieved at 1-Mb/s data rate.

  20. Highly sensitive time resolved singlet oxygen luminescence detection using LEDs as the excitation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackbarth, S; Schlothauer, J; Preuss, A; Röder, B

    2013-01-01

    For the first time singlet oxygen luminescence kinetics in living cells were detected at high precision using LED light for excitation. As LED technology evolves, the light intensity emitted by standard LEDs allows photosensitized singlet oxygen luminescence detection in solution and cell suspensions. We present measurements superior to those of most actual laser powered setups regarding precision of singlet oxygen kinetics in solutions and cell suspensions. Data presented here show that LED based setups allow the determination of the photosensitizer triplet and singlet oxygen decay times in vitro with an accuracy of 0.1 μs. This enables monitoring of the photosensitizer efficiency and interaction with the cellular components using illumination doses small enough not to cause cell death. (letter)

  1. Testing a high-power LED based light source for hyperspectral imaging microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomkaew, Phiwat; Mayes, Sam A.; Rich, Thomas C.; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2017-02-01

    Our lab has worked to develop high-speed hyperspectral imaging systems that scan the fluorescence excitation spectrum for biomedical imaging applications. Hyperspectral imaging can be used in remote sensing, medical imaging, reaction analysis, and other applications. Here, we describe the development of a hyperspectral imaging system that comprised an inverted Nikon Eclipse microscope, sCMOS camera, and a custom light source that utilized a series of high-power LEDs. LED selection was performed to achieve wavelengths of 350-590 nm. To reduce scattering, LEDs with low viewing angles were selected. LEDs were surface-mount soldered and powered by an RCD. We utilized 3D printed mounting brackets to assemble all circuit components. Spectraradiometric calibration was performed using a spectrometer (QE65000, Ocean Optics) and integrating sphere (FOIS-1, Ocean Optics). Optical output and LED driving current were measured over a range of illumination intensities. A normalization algorithm was used to calibrate and optimize the intensity of the light source. The highest illumination power was at 375 nm (3300 mW/cm2), while the lowest illumination power was at 515, 525, and 590 nm (5200 mW/cm2). Comparing the intensities supplied by each LED to the intensities measured at the microscope stage, we found there was a great loss in power output. Future work will focus on using two of the same LEDs to double the power and finding more LED and/or laser diodes and chips around the range. This custom hyperspectral imaging system could be used for the detection of cancer and the identification of biomolecules.

  2. Color design model of high color rendering index white-light LED module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Shang-Ping; Fu, Han-Kuei; Hsieh, Hsin-Hsin; Hsieh, Kun-Yang

    2017-05-10

    The traditional white-light light-emitting diode (LED) is packaged with a single chip and a single phosphor but has a poor color rendering index (CRI). The next-generation package comprises two chips and a single phosphor, has a high CRI, and retains high luminous efficacy. This study employs two chips and two phosphors to improve the diode's color tunability with various proportions of two phosphors and various densities of phosphor in the silicone used. A color design model is established for color fine-tuning of the white-light LED module. The maximum difference between the measured and color-design-model simulated CIE 1931 color coordinates is approximately 0.0063 around a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2500 K. This study provides a rapid method to obtain the color fine-tuning of a white-light LED module with a high CRI and luminous efficacy.

  3. Prognostics-based qualification of high-power white LEDs using Lévy process approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Kam-Chuen; Sun, Bo; Jiang, Xiaopeng

    2017-01-01

    Due to their versatility in a variety of applications and the growing market demand, high-power white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted considerable attention. Reliability qualification testing is an essential part of the product development process to ensure the reliability of a new LED product before its release. However, the widely used IES-TM-21 method does not provide comprehensive reliability information. For more accurate and effective qualification, this paper presents a novel method based on prognostics techniques. Prognostics is an engineering technology predicting the future reliability or determining the remaining useful lifetime (RUL) of a product by assessing the extent of deviation or degradation from its expected normal operating conditions. A Lévy subordinator of a mixed Gamma and compound Poisson process is used to describe the actual degradation process of LEDs characterized by random sporadic small jumps of degradation degree, and the reliability function is derived for qualification with different distribution forms of jump sizes. The IES LM-80 test results reported by different LED vendors are used to develop and validate the qualification methodology. This study will be helpful for LED manufacturers to reduce the total test time and cost required to qualify the reliability of an LED product.

  4. High-Power 365 nm UV LED Mercury Arc Lamp Replacement for Photochemistry and Chemical Photolithography

    OpenAIRE

    H?lz, K.; Lietard, J.; Somoza, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have become widespread in chemical research as highly efficient light sources for photochemistry and photopolymerization. However, in more complex experimental setups requiring highly concentrated light and highly spatially resolved patterning of the light, high-pressure mercury arc lamps are still widely used because they emit intense UV light from a compact arc volume that can be efficiently coupled into optical systems. Advances in the deposition...

  5. High-brightness electron beam evolution following laser-based cleaning of a photocathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zhou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Laser-based techniques have been widely used for cleaning metal photocathodes to increase quantum efficiency (QE. However, the impact of laser cleaning on cathode uniformity and thereby on electron beam quality are less understood. We are evaluating whether this technique can be applied to revive photocathodes used for high-brightness electron sources in advanced x-ray free-electron laser (FEL facilities, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The laser-based cleaning was applied to two separate areas of the current LCLS photocathode on July 4 and July 26, 2011, respectively. The QE was increased by 8–10 times upon the laser cleaning. Since the cleaning, routine operation has exhibited a slow evolution of the QE improvement and comparatively rapid improvement of transverse emittance, with a factor of 3 QE enhancement over five months, and a significant emittance improvement over the initial 2–3 weeks following the cleaning. Currently, the QE of the LCLS photocathode is holding constant at about 1.2×10^{-4}, with a normalized injector emittance of about 0.3  μm for a 150-pC bunch charge. With the proper procedures, the laser-cleaning technique appears to be a viable tool to revive the LCLS photocathode. We present observations and analyses for the QE and emittance evolution in time following the laser-based cleaning of the LCLS photocathode, and comparison to the previous studies, the measured thermal emittance versus the QE and comparison to the theoretical model.

  6. Employing a youth-led adult-guided framework: "Why Drive High?" social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Terry-Lynne; Watt, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    The "Drugged Driving Kills project: Why Drive High?" social marketing campaign was developed and implemented by youth leaders and adult facilitators from public and community health to increase youth awareness of the adverse effects of marijuana on driving. The youth-led adult-guided project was founded on the Holden's youth empowerment conceptual model. This article reports on the results of the focus group evaluation, conducted to determine to what extent the tailored youth-led adult-guided framework for the "Why Drive High?" social marketing campaign provided an environment for youth leadership development.

  7. Search for high-energy neutrinos from bright GRBs with ANTARES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Mathieu, A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzocca, A.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are thought to be sites of hadronic acceleration, thus neutrinos are expected from the decay of charged particles, produced in pγ interactions. The methods and results of a search for muon neutrinos in the data of the ANTARES neutrino telescope from four bright GRBs (GRB 080916C,

  8. High cortisol awakening response is associated with an impairment of the effect of bright light therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus Per Juul; Lunde, Marianne Anita; Undén, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the predictive validity of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in patients with non-seasonal major depression. METHOD: Patients were treated with sertraline in combination with bright or dim light therapy for a 5-week period. Saliva cortisol levels were measured in 63...

  9. Design, conditioning, and performance of a high voltage, high brightness dc photoelectron gun with variable gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxson, Jared; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Dobbins, John; Liu, Xianghong; Smolenski, Karl [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    A new high voltage photoemission gun has been constructed at Cornell University which features a segmented insulator and a movable anode, allowing the cathode-anode gap to be adjusted. In this work, we describe the gun's overall mechanical and high voltage design, the surface preparation of components, as well as the clean construction methods. We present high voltage conditioning data using a 50 mm cathode-anode gap, in which the conditioning voltage exceeds 500 kV, as well as at smaller gaps. Finally, we present simulated emittance results obtained from a genetic optimization scheme using voltage values based on the conditioning data. These results indicate that for charges up to 100 pC, a 30 mm gap at 400 kV has equal or smaller 100% emittance than a 50 mm gap at 450 kV, and also a smaller core emittance, when placed as the source for the Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector with bunch length constrained to be <3 ps rms. For 100 pC up to 0.5 nC charges, the 50 mm gap has larger core emittance than the 30 mm gap, but conversely smaller 100% emittance.

  10. Analyzing Thermal Module Developments and Trends in High-Power LED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid-state light emitting diode (SSLED has been verified as consumer-electronic products and attracts attention to indoor and outdoor lighting lamp, which has a great benefit in saving energy and environmental protection. However, LED junction temperature will influence the luminous efficiency, spectral color, life cycle, and stability. This study utilizes thermal performance experiments with the illumination-analysis method and window program (vapour chamber thermal module, VCTM V1.0 to investigate and analyze the high-power LED (Hi-LED lighting thermal module, in order to achieve the best solution of the fin parameters under the natural convection. The computing core of the VCTM program employs the theoretical thermal resistance analytical approach with iterative convergence stated in this study to obtain a numerical solution. Results showed that the best geometry of thermal module is 4.4 mm fin thickness, 9.4 mm fin pitch, and 37 mm fin height with the LED junction temperature of 58.8°C. And the experimental thermal resistances are in good agreement with the theoretical thermal resistances; calculating error between measured data and simulation results is no more than ±7%. Thus, the Hi-LED illumination lamp has high life cycle and reliability.

  11. Single-Layer Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes with Sub-Band Gap Turn-On Voltage and High Brightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junqiang; Shan, Xin; Bade, Sri Ganesh R; Geske, Thomas; Jiang, Qinglong; Yang, Xin; Yu, Zhibin

    2016-10-03

    Charge-carrier injection into an emissive semiconductor thin film can result in electroluminescence and is generally achieved by using a multilayer device structure, which requires an electron-injection layer (EIL) between the cathode and the emissive layer and a hole-injection layer (HIL) between the anode and the emissive layer. The recent advancement of halide perovskite semiconductors opens up a new path to electroluminescent devices with a greatly simplified device structure. We report cesium lead tribromide light-emitting diodes (LEDs) without the aid of an EIL or HIL. These so-called single-layer LEDs have exhibited a sub-band gap turn-on voltage. The devices obtained a brightness of 591 197 cd m -2 at 4.8 V, with an external quantum efficiency of 5.7% and a power efficiency of 14.1 lm W -1 . Such an advancement demonstrates that very high efficiency of electron and hole injection can be obtained in perovskite LEDs even without using an EIL or HIL.

  12. The Grumman/Brookhaven high-brightness, high-duty factor RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehrman, I.S.; Birnbaum, I.A.; Cole, M.; Fixler, S.Z.; Heuer, R.L.; Siddiqi, S.; Sheedy, E.; Waren, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    Under a joint collaboration between Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Grumman Corporation, a high-duty (>1%) photocathode RF gun is under construction for use at the ATF facility at BNL. The gun will be capable of producing short ( 300 A (after compression) and a total bunch charge in excess of 3 nC. The gun consists of 3-1/2 cells constructed from GlidCop, an alumina dispersion strengthened copper alloy. Two individually phased waveguides are used to power the first two and final two cells. (Author) 10 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Recent developments in the application of rf superconductivity to high-brightness and high-gradient ion beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Kennedy, W.L.; Nichols, G.L.; Roche, C.T.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1991-01-01

    A development program is underway to apply rf superconductivity to the design of continuous-wave (cw) linear accelerators for high- brightness ion beams. Since the last workshop, considerable progress has been made both experimentally and theoretically toward this application. Recent tests of niobium resonators for ion acceleration have yielded average accelerating gradients as high as 18 MV/m. In an experiment with a radio-frequency quadrupole geometry, niobium was found to sustain cw peak surface electric fields as high as 128 MV/m over large (10 cm 2 ) surface areas. Theoretical studies of beam impingement and cumulative beam breakup have also yielded encouraging results. Consequently, a section of superconducting resonators and focusing elements has been designed for tests with high-current deuteron beams. In addition, considerable data pertaining to the rf properties of high-T c superconductors has been collected at rf-field amplitudes and frequencies of interest in connection with accelerator operation. This paper summarizes the recent progress and identifies current and future work in the areas of accelerator technology and superconducting materials which will build upon it

  14. A high-performance stand-alone solar PV power system for LED lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.; Hsu, P. C.; Wu, M. S.; Chen, K.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The present study developed a high-performance solar PV power technology for the LED lighting of a solar home system. The nMPPO (near-Maximum-Power- Point- Operation) design is employed in system design to eliminate MPPT. A feedback control system

  15. Inhibition of enteric pathogens using integrated high intensity 405 nm LED on the surface of almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The disinfecting properties of 405 nm light were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and their non-pathogenic surrogates inoculated onto the surface of almonds. High intensity monochromatic light was generated from an array of narrow-band 405 nm light emitting diodes (LED). Al...

  16. Design of a high-brightness, high-duty factor photocathode electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehrman, I.S.; Birnbaum, I.A.; Fixler, S.Z.; Heuer, R.L.; Siddiqi, S.; Sheedy, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Batchelor, K.; Gallardo, J.C.; Kirk, H.G.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Warren, G.D.

    1991-09-01

    The proposed UV-FEL user's facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory will require a photocathode gun capable of producing short (< 6 psec) bunches of electrons in high repetition rates (5 kHz), low energy spread (< 1.5.%), a peak current of 300 A (after compression) and a total bunch charge of up to 2 nC. At the highest charge the normalized transverse emittance should be less than 7 π mm-mrad. We are presently designing a gun that is expected to exceed these requirements. This gun will consist of 3 1/2 cells, constructed of GlidCop-15, an aluminum oxide dispersion strengthened copper alloy. The gun will be capable of operating at duty factors in excess of 1%. Extensive beam dynamics studies of the gun were used to determine the effect of varying the length of the first cell, shaping the apertures between cells, and increasing the number of cells. In addition, a detailed thermal and mechanical study of the gun was performed to ensure that the thermal stresses were well within the allowable limits and that copper erosion of the water channels would not occur

  17. High-efficiency, 154  W CW, diode-pumped Raman fiber laser with brightness enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Yaakov; Fromzel, Viktor; Zhang, Jun; Ter-Gabrielyan, Nikolay; Dubinskii, Mark

    2017-01-20

    We demonstrate a high-power, high-efficiency Raman fiber laser pumped directly by laser diode modules at 978 nm. 154 W of CW power were obtained at a wavelength of 1023 nm with an optical to optical efficiency of 65%. A commercial graded-index (GRIN) core fiber acts as the Raman fiber in a power oscillator configuration, which includes spectral selection to prevent generation of the second Stokes. In addition, brightness enhancement of the pump beam by a factor of 8.4 is attained due to the Raman gain distribution profile in the GRIN fiber. To the best of our knowledge this is the highest power and highest efficiency Raman fiber laser demonstrated in any configuration allowing brightness enhancement (i.e., in either cladding-pumped configuration or with GRIN fibers, excluding step-index core pumped), regardless of pumping scheme (i.e., either diode pumped or fiber laser pumped).

  18. The high brightness temperature of B0529+483 revealed by RadioAstron and implications for interstellar scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, S. V.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Andrianov, A. S.; Bach, U.; Buttaccio, S.; Cassaro, P.; Cimò, G.; Edwards, P. G.; Gawroński, M. P.; Gurvits, L. I.; Hovatta, T.; Jauncey, D. L.; Johnson, M. D.; Kovalev, Yu A.; Kutkin, A. M.; Lisakov, M. M.; Melnikov, A. E.; Orlati, A.; Rudnitskiy, A. G.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Stanghellini, C.; de Vicente, P.; Voitsik, P. A.; Wolak, P.; Zhekanis, G. V.

    2018-03-01

    The high brightness temperatures, Tb ≳ 1013 K, detected in several active galactic nuclei by RadioAstron space VLBI observations challenge theoretical limits. Refractive scattering by the interstellar medium may affect such measurements. We quantify the scattering properties and the sub-mas scale source parameters for the quasar B0529+483. Using RadioAstron correlated flux density measurements at 1.7, 4.8, and 22 GHz on projected baselines up to 240 000 km we find two characteristic angular scales in the quasar core, about 100 and 10 μas. Some indications of scattering substructure are found. Very high brightness temperatures, Tb ≥ 1013 K, are estimated at 4.8 and 22 GHz even taking into account the refractive scattering. Our findings suggest a clear dominance of the particle energy density over the magnetic field energy density in the core of this quasar.

  19. Side-emitting high-power LEDs and their application in illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert S.

    2002-11-01

    Due to the rapid increase in flux performance from High Power LED's, illumination is an exciting growth market for solid state lighting. Today a white LED is 100+ Lm per device. This is approximately an order of magnitude below the kLm metric used for illumination applications. The radiation pattern from the LED is key in increasing the usable flux resulting in improved systems optical performance. This advancement in radiation pattern will allow new market opportunities, which were not yet feasible. In the future this effect of usable lumens will become more important as the flux per package increases. The radiation pattern of the LEDs can be controlled to optimize performance, appearance, and shape of the secondary optics. This advantage is unique to LEDs and can greatly improve system performance, control, and cosmetic appeal for the application. This paper will review the side emitting lens design, the integrated performance of this technology to secondary optics and how the Luxeon side emitter enables improved performance by creating more useable lumens.

  20. Thermo-mechanical model optimization of HB-LED packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Erinc, M.; Gielen, A.W.J.; Waal, A. van der; Driel, W. van; Zhang, K.

    2011-01-01

    Lighting is an advancing phenomenon both on the technology and on the market level due to the rapid development of the solid state lighting technology. The efforts in improving the efficacy of high brightness LED's (HB-LED) have concentrated on the packaging architecture. Packaging plays a

  1. Design and implementation of a high dimming ratio LED drive controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaoru; Wu Xiaobo; Zhao Menglian; Yan Xiaolang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a high dimming ratio light emitting diode (LED) drive controller chip with digital mode dimming (DMD). The chip is composed of a boost power converter and a dimming control block. A novel constant on time (COT) control strategy is proposed for boost converter to achieve high dimming ratio. In addition, a fast enough load transient response of the converter power stage ensures its high dimming ratio. The COT control circuit operates mainly based on two current-capacitor timers and a finite state machine (FSM). The LED drive controller chip is designed and fabricated in 1.5 μm bipolar CMOS-DMOS (BCD) process with a die area of 1.31 x 1.43 mm 2 . Experimental results show that the proposed LED drive system works well. And, as expected, the minimum LED dimming on time of 1.0 μs and the corresponding dimming ratio of 1000:1 at 1 kHz dimming frequency are successfully achieved.

  2. High Brightness, Laser-Driven X-ray Source for Nanoscale Metrology and Femtosecond Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siders, C W; Crane, J K; Semenov, V; Betts, S; Kozioziemski, B; Wharton, K; Wilks, S; Barbee, T; Stuart, B; Kim, D E; An, J; Barty, C

    2007-02-26

    This project developed and demonstrated a new, bright, ultrafast x-ray source based upon laser-driven K-alpha generation, which can produce an x-ray flux 10 to 100 times greater than current microfocus x-ray tubes. The short-pulse (sub-picosecond) duration of this x-ray source also makes it ideal for observing time-resolved dynamics of atomic motion in solids and thin films.

  3. High brightness fiber laser pump sources based on single emitters and multiple single emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Torsten; Wagner, Lars; Wolf, Jürgen; Bonati, Guido; Dörfel, Falk; Gabler, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Driven by the potential of the fiber laser market, the development of high brightness pump sources has been pushed during the last years. The main approaches to reach the targets of this market had been the direct coupling of single emitters (SE) on the one hand and the beam shaping of bars and stacks on the other hand, which often causes higher cost per watt. Meanwhile the power of single emitters with 100μm emitter size for direct coupling increased dramatically, which also pushed a new generation of wide stripe emitters or multi emitters (ME) of up to 1000μm emitter size respectively "minibars" with apertures of 3 to 5mm. The advantage of this emitter type compared to traditional bars is it's scalability to power levels of 40W to 60W combined with a small aperture which gives advantages when coupling into a fiber. We show concepts using this multiple single emitters for fiber coupled systems of 25W up to 40W out of a 100μm fiber NA 0.22 with a reasonable optical efficiency. Taking into account a further efficiency optimization and an increase in power of these devices in the near future, the EUR/W ratio pushed by the fiber laser manufacturer will further decrease. Results will be shown as well for higher power pump sources. Additional state of the art tapered fiber bundles for photonic crystal fibers are used to combine 7 (19) pump sources to output powers of 100W (370W) out of a 130μm (250μm) fiber NA 0.6 with nominal 20W per port. Improving those TFB's in the near future and utilizing 40W per pump leg, an output power of even 750W out of 250μm fiber NA 0.6 will be possible. Combined Counter- and Co-Propagated pumping of the fiber will then lead to the first 1kW fiber laser oscillator.

  4. Advancements in high-power high-brightness laser bars and single emitters for pumping and direct diode application

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Haiyan; Jiang, Ching-Long J.; Xiong, Yihan; Zhang, Qiang; Inyang, Aloysius; Felder, Jason; Lewin, Alexander; Roff, Robert; Heinemann, Stefan; Schmidt, Berthold; Treusch, Georg

    2015-03-01

    We have continuously optimized high fill factor bar and packaging design to increase power and efficiency for thin disc laser system pump application. On the other hand, low fill factor bars packaged on the same direct copper bonded (DCB) cooling platform are used to build multi-kilowatt direct diode laser systems. We have also optimized the single emitter designs for fiber laser pump applications. In this paper, we will give an overview of our recent advances in high power high brightness laser bars and single emitters for pumping and direct diode application. We will present 300W bar development results for our next generation thin disk laser pump source. We will also show recent improvements on slow axis beam quality of low fill factor bar and its application on performance improvement of 4-5 kW TruDiode laser system with BPP of 30 mm*mrad from a 600 μm fiber. Performance and reliability results of single emitter for multiemitter fiber laser pump source will be presented as well.

  5. "Physics Stories": How the Early Technologies of High Voltage and High Vacuum Led to "Modern Physics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    Some of you may remember the 1979 television series "Connections" that was written and narrated by James Burke, a British science writer. Burke's technique was to choose a number of seemingly unrelated ideas and show how they led to developments in science and technology. This is an enjoyable business, even if some of the connections…

  6. Generating a high brightness multi-kilowatt laser by dense spectral combination of VBG stabilized single emitter laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, H.; Koch, Ralf; Krusche, B.; Ferrario, F.; Grohe, Andreas; Pflueger, S.; Gries, W.

    2014-05-01

    Generating high power laser radiation with diode lasers is commonly realized by geometrical stacking of diode bars, which results in high output power but poor beam parameter product (BPP). The accessible brightness in this approach is limited by the fill factor, both in slow and fast axis. By using a geometry that accesses the BPP of the individual diodes, generating a multi kilowatt diode laser with a BPP comparable to fiber lasers is possible. We will demonstrate such a modular approach for generating multi kilowatt lasers by combining single emitter diode lasers. Single emitter diodes have advantages over bars, mainly a simplified cooling, better reliability and a higher brightness per emitter. Additionally, because single emitters can be arranged in many different geometries, they allow building laser modules where the brightness of the single emitters is preserved. In order to maintain the high brightness of the single emitter we developed a modular laser design which uses single emitters in a staircase arrangement, then coupling two of those bases with polarization combination which is our basic module. Those modules generate up to 160 W with a BPP better than 7.5 mm*mrad. For further power scaling wavelength stabilization is crucial. The wavelength is stabilized with only one Volume Bragg Grating (VBG) in front of a base providing the very same feedback to all of the laser diodes. This results in a bandwidth of BPP better than 7.5 mm*mrad, which can easily coupled into a 100 μm fiber and 0.15 NA.

  7. Micro-structure Engineering of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells for High Brightness Light Emitting Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2013-01-01

    diameter (D) micro-LED-pillar was achieved, compared to that of a 200 μm diameter LED (20 A/cm2), both at 10 V bias voltage. In addition, an increase in sustained quantum efficiency from 70.2% to 83.7% at high injection current density (200 A/cm2

  8. Untangling the contributions of image charge and laser profile for optimal photoemission of high-brightness electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portman, J.; Zhang, H.; Makino, K.; Ruan, C. Y.; Berz, M.; Duxbury, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Using our model for the simulation of photoemission of high brightness electron beams, we investigate the virtual cathode physics and the limits to spatio-temporal and spectroscopic resolution originating from the image charge on the surface and from the profile of the exciting laser pulse. By contrasting the effect of varying surface properties (leading to expanding or pinned image charge), laser profiles (Gaussian, uniform, and elliptical), and aspect ratios (pancake- and cigar-like) under different extraction field strengths and numbers of generated electrons, we quantify the effect of these experimental parameters on macroscopic pulse properties such as emittance, brightness (4D and 6D), coherence length, and energy spread. Based on our results, we outline optimal conditions of pulse generation for ultrafast electron microscope systems that take into account constraints on the number of generated electrons and on the required time resolution.

  9. Application of a transverse phase-space measurement technique for high-brightness, H- beams to the GTA H- beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.F.; Garcia, R.C.; Rusthoi, D.P.; Sander, O.R.; Sandoval, D.P.; Shinas, M.A.; Smith, M.; Yuan, V.W.; Connolly, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) had the objective Of Producing a high-brightness, high-current H-beam. The major components were a 35 keV injector, a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), an intertank matching section (IMS), and a drift tube linac (DTL), consisting of 10 modules. A technique for measuring the transverse phase-space of high-power density beams has been developed and tested. This diagnostic has been applied to the GTA H-beam. Experimental results are compared to the slit and collector technique for transverse phase-space measurements and to simulations

  10. The improvement of photocatalytic processes: Design of a photoreactor using high-power LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Khademalrasool

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to survey the benefits of a well-designed photoreactor containing just 6 ultraviolet (UV high power light emitting diodes (HPLEDs; the power and wavelength of each UV HPLED are 1 W and 365 nm, respectively, the latter being an efficient source for photocatalytic studies. Although the experiment with the 365-nm LEDs is reported here, other LEDs were predicted for conducting similar experiments including green photocatalytic ones. We installed diodes with respect to the luminescence intensity distribution curves (LIDCs or intensity patterns. Then, in order to compare the efficiency of the UV-HPLEDs of the HP-LED photoreactor (HPLED-PhR with that of traditional UV lamps which are extensively used in photocatalytic processes, a set of UV HPLEDs was designed and made up. Next, the performance of HPLED-PhR was compared with that of a traditional fluorescent lamp photoreactor (FL-PhR. As a typical photocatalytic experiment, Zinc Oxide (ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized via co-precipitation method and used as photocatalyst for purification of water polluted with the reactive blue dye (RB, under UV irradiation in two photoreactors. The results showed that the rate of photocatalytic reaction under the UV-LEDs was two times greater than the rate under the traditional fluorescent UV lamps, while both electrical power consumption and manufacturing cost of the HPLED-PhR were less than a quarter of them for the FL-PhR.

  11. Selection of high-brightness, laser-driven cathodes for electron accelerators and FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oettinger, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    Very intense, low emittance pulsed beams of electrons can be generated from laser-driven cathodes either by thermionic- or photo-emission. Several hundreds of amperes of electrons per square centimeter were observed for pulse lengths up to 50 ns. A normalized beam brightness of 10 7 A/cm 2 /rad 2 has been measured. These beams can be emission-gated at the cathode surface by modulating the laser-beam. Such beam bunching will generate picosecond-to-microsecond-long pulses at the source. A variety of cathodes are described, and a method of selection for specific applications is presented

  12. Beam dynamics in an initial part of a high Brightness electron linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ayzatsky, M I; Dovbnya-Kushnir, V A

    2001-01-01

    The paper is focused on problems of obtained a bright electron beam in a system that includes a grid-controlled electron gun,a klystron type type subharmonical buncher, a standing wave fundamental buncher with increasing accelerating field and a short travelling wave accelerating section. Beam focusing is provided by a longitudinal solenoidal magnetic field.It was shown that the proposed system can provide electron bunches with a peak current more than 100 A and normalized r.m.s. emittance no more than phi centre dot mm centre dot mrad.

  13. Smart light random memory sprays Retinex: a fast Retinex implementation for high-quality brightness adjustment and color correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banić, Nikola; Lončarić, Sven

    2015-11-01

    Removing the influence of illumination on image colors and adjusting the brightness across the scene are important image enhancement problems. This is achieved by applying adequate color constancy and brightness adjustment methods. One of the earliest models to deal with both of these problems was the Retinex theory. Some of the Retinex implementations tend to give high-quality results by performing local operations, but they are computationally relatively slow. One of the recent Retinex implementations is light random sprays Retinex (LRSR). In this paper, a new method is proposed for brightness adjustment and color correction that overcomes the main disadvantages of LRSR. There are three main contributions of this paper. First, a concept of memory sprays is proposed to reduce the number of LRSR's per-pixel operations to a constant regardless of the parameter values, thereby enabling a fast Retinex-based local image enhancement. Second, an effective remapping of image intensities is proposed that results in significantly higher quality. Third, the problem of LRSR's halo effect is significantly reduced by using an alternative illumination processing method. The proposed method enables a fast Retinex-based image enhancement by processing Retinex paths in a constant number of steps regardless of the path size. Due to the halo effect removal and remapping of the resulting intensities, the method outperforms many of the well-known image enhancement methods in terms of resulting image quality. The results are presented and discussed. It is shown that the proposed method outperforms most of the tested methods in terms of image brightness adjustment, color correction, and computational speed.

  14. Highly efficient and reliable high power LEDs with patterned sapphire substrate and strip-shaped distributed current blocking layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengjun [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yuan, Shu; Liu, Yingce [Quantum Wafer Inc., Foshan 528251 (China); Guo, L. Jay [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Liu, Sheng, E-mail: victor_liu63@126.com [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Ding, Han [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TEM is used to characterize threading dislocation existing in GaN epitaxial layer. • Effect of threading dislocation on optical and electrical of LEDs is discussed. • Strip-shaped SiO{sub 2} DCBL is designed to improve current spreading performance of LEDs. - Abstract: We demonstrated that the improvement in optical and electrical performance of high power LEDs was achieved using cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) and strip-shaped SiO{sub 2} distributed current blocking layer (DCBL). We found through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation that densities of both the screw dislocation and edge dislocation existing in GaN epitaxial layer grown on PSS were much less than that of GaN epitaxial layer grown on flat sapphire substrate (FSS). Compared to LED grown on FSS, LED grown on PSS showed higher sub-threshold forward-bias voltage and lower reverse leakage current, resulting in an enhancement in device reliability. We also designed a strip-shaped SiO{sub 2} DCBL beneath a strip-shaped p-electrode, which prevents the current from being concentrated on regions immediately adjacent the strip-shaped p-electrode, thereby facilitating uniform current spreading into the active region. By implementing strip-shaped SiO{sub 2} DCBL, light output power of high power PSS-LED chip could be further increased by 13%.

  15. Surface-plasmon resonance-enhanced multiphoton emission of high-brightness electron beams from a nanostructured copper cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R K; To, H; Andonian, G; Feng, J; Polyakov, A; Scoby, C M; Thompson, K; Wan, W; Padmore, H A; Musumeci, P

    2013-02-15

    We experimentally investigate surface-plasmon assisted photoemission to enhance the efficiency of metallic photocathodes for high-brightness electron sources. A nanohole array-based copper surface was designed to exhibit a plasmonic response at 800 nm, fabricated using the focused ion beam milling technique, optically characterized and tested as a photocathode in a high power radio frequency photoinjector. Because of the larger absorption and localization of the optical field intensity, the charge yield observed under ultrashort laser pulse illumination is increased by more than 100 times compared to a flat surface. We also present the first beam characterization results (intrinsic emittance and bunch length) from a nanostructured photocathode.

  16. Numerical simulation and experimental research of the integrated high-power LED radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, J. H.; Zhang, C. L.; Gan, Z. J.; Zhou, C.; Chen, C. G.; Chen, S.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal management has become an urgent problem to be solved with the increasing power and the improving integration of the LED (light emitting diode) chip. In order to eliminate the contact resistance of the radiator, this paper presented an integrated high-power LED radiator based on phase-change heat transfer, which realized the seamless connection between the vapor chamber and the cooling fins. The radiator was optimized by combining the numerical simulation and the experimental research. The effects of the chamber diameter and the parameters of fin on the heat dissipation performance were analyzed. The numerical simulation results were compared with the measured values by experiment. The results showed that the fin thickness, the fin number, the fin height and the chamber diameter were the factors which affected the performance of radiator from primary to secondary.

  17. Label-free detection of cellular drug responses by high-throughput bright-field imaging and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Lei, Cheng; Wu, Yi; Mao, Ailin; Jiang, Yiyue; Guo, Baoshan; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2017-09-29

    In the last decade, high-content screening based on multivariate single-cell imaging has been proven effective in drug discovery to evaluate drug-induced phenotypic variations. Unfortunately, this method inherently requires fluorescent labeling which has several drawbacks. Here we present a label-free method for evaluating cellular drug responses only by high-throughput bright-field imaging with the aid of machine learning algorithms. Specifically, we performed high-throughput bright-field imaging of numerous drug-treated and -untreated cells (N = ~240,000) by optofluidic time-stretch microscopy with high throughput up to 10,000 cells/s and applied machine learning to the cell images to identify their morphological variations which are too subtle for human eyes to detect. Consequently, we achieved a high accuracy of 92% in distinguishing drug-treated and -untreated cells without the need for labeling. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that dose-dependent, drug-induced morphological change from different experiments can be inferred from the classification accuracy of a single classification model. Our work lays the groundwork for label-free drug screening in pharmaceutical science and industry.

  18. Advanced chip designs and novel cooling techniques for brightness scaling of industrial, high power diode laser bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, S.; McDougall, S. D.; Ryu, G.; Zhao, L.; Liu, X.; Holy, C.; Jiang, C.-L.; Modak, P.; Xiong, Y.; Vethake, T.; Strohmaier, S. G.; Schmidt, B.; Zimer, H.

    2018-02-01

    The advance of high power semiconductor diode laser technology is driven by the rapidly growing industrial laser market, with such high power solid state laser systems requiring ever more reliable diode sources with higher brightness and efficiency at lower cost. In this paper we report simulation and experimental data demonstrating most recent progress in high brightness semiconductor laser bars for industrial applications. The advancements are in three principle areas: vertical laser chip epitaxy design, lateral laser chip current injection control, and chip cooling technology. With such improvements, we demonstrate disk laser pump laser bars with output power over 250W with 60% efficiency at the operating current. Ion implantation was investigated for improved current confinement. Initial lifetime tests show excellent reliability. For direct diode applications 96% polarization are additional requirements. Double sided cooling deploying hard solder and optimized laser design enable single emitter performance also for high fill factor bars and allow further power scaling to more than 350W with 65% peak efficiency with less than 8 degrees slow axis divergence and high polarization.

  19. Ultra-high brightness wavelength-stabilized kW-class fiber coupled diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Glenn, John D.

    2011-03-01

    TeraDiode has produced a fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 1,040 W from a 200 μm core diameter, 0.18 numerical aperture (NA) output fiber at a single center wavelength. This was achieved with a novel beam combining and shaping technique using COTS diode lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 18 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. The laser has been used to demonstrate laser cutting and welding of steel sheet metal up to 6.65 mm thick. Further advances of these ultra-bright lasers are also projected.

  20. THROUGH THE LOOKING GLASS: BRIGHT, HIGHLY MAGNIFIED GALAXY CANDIDATES AT z {approx} 7 BEHIND A1703

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, L. D.; Coe, D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bouwens, R. J.; Smit, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Postbus 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Zitrin, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Ford, H. C.; Zheng, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Illingworth, G. D. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Benitez, N. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huetor 24, Granada 18008 (Spain); Broadhurst, T. J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU, Leioa (Spain)

    2012-03-01

    We report the discovery of seven strongly lensed Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z {approx} 7 detected in Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging of A1703. The brightest candidate, called A1703-zD1, has an observed (lensed) magnitude of 24.0 AB (26{sigma}) in the WFC3/IR F160W band, making it 0.2 mag brighter than the z{sub 850}-dropout candidate recently reported behind the Bullet Cluster and 0.7 mag brighter than the previously brightest known z {approx} 7.6 galaxy, A1689-zD1. With a cluster magnification of {approx}9, this source has an intrinsic magnitude of H{sub 160} = 26.4 AB, a strong z{sub 850} - J{sub 125} break of 1.7 mag, and a photometric redshift of z {approx} 6.7. Additionally, we find six other bright LBG candidates with H{sub 160}-band magnitudes of 24.9-26.4, photometric redshifts z {approx} 6.4 - 8.8, and magnifications {mu} {approx} 3-40. Stellar population fits to the Advanced Camera for Surveys, WFC3/IR, and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera data for A1703-zD1 and A1703-zD4 yield stellar masses (0.7 - 3.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, stellar ages 5-180 Myr, and star formation rates {approx}7.8 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and low reddening with A{sub V} {<=} 0.7. The source-plane reconstruction of the exceptionally bright candidate A1703-zD1 exhibits an extended structure, spanning {approx}4 kpc in the z {approx} 6.7 source plane, and shows three resolved star-forming knots of radius r {approx} 0.4 kpc.

  1. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Intersatellite Calibrated Clear-Sky High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) Channel 12 Brightness Temperature Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) of intersatellite calibrated channel 12 brightness temperature (TB) product is a gridded global monthly time...

  2. Nonlinear Dynamics of High-Brightness Electron Beams and Beam-Plasma Interactions: Theories, Simulations, and Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, C.L.; Piot, P.; Erdelyi, B.

    2008-01-01

    According to its original Statement of Work (SOW), the overarching objective of this project is: 'To enhance substantially the understanding of the fundamental dynamics of nonequilibrium high-brightness beams with space charge.' Our work and results over the past three and half years have been both intense and fruitful. Inasmuch as this project is inextricably linked to a larger, growing research program - that of the Beam Physics and Astrophysics Group (BPAG) - the progress that it has made possible cannot easily be separated from the global picture. Thus, this summary report includes major sections on 'global' developments and on those that can be regarded as specific to this project.

  3. Galaxy Size Evolution at High Redshift and Surface Brightness Selection Effects: Constraints from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Franx, M.

    2004-08-01

    We use the exceptional depth of the Ultra Deep Field (UDF) and UDF-parallel Advanced Camera for Surveys fields to study the sizes of high-redshift (z~2-6) galaxies and address long-standing questions about possible biases in the cosmic star formation rate due to surface brightness dimming. Contrasting B-, V-, and i-dropout samples culled from the deeper data with those obtained from the shallower Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey fields, we demonstrate that the shallower data are essentially complete at bright magnitudes to z~0.4", >~3 kpc) low surface brightness galaxies are rare. A simple comparison of the half-light radii of the Hubble Deep Field-North + Hubble Deep Field-South U-dropouts with B-, V-, and i-dropouts from the UDF shows that the sizes follow a (1+z)-1.05+/-0.21 scaling toward high redshift. A more rigorous measurement compares different scalings of our U-dropout sample with the mean profiles for a set of intermediate-magnitude (26.0dropouts from the UDF. The best fit is found with a (1+z)-0.94+0.19-0.25 size scaling (for fixed luminosity). This result is then verified by repeating this experiment with different size measures, low-redshift samples, and magnitude ranges. Very similar scalings are found for all comparisons. A robust measurement of size evolution is thereby demonstrated for galaxies from z~6 to 2.5 using data from the UDF. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  4. Design of multisegmented freeform lens for LED fishing/working lamp with high efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Min-Feng; Anh, Nguyen Doan Quoc; Gao, Jia-Zhi; Ma, Hsin-Yi; Lee, Hsiao-Yi

    2015-10-01

    A novel LED fishing/working light is proposed to enhance the lighting efficiency of a fishing boat. The study is focused on the freeform secondary lens design so as to create a lamp that attracts fish and sheds light on the deck for the crew's work. The experimental results show that the proposed multisegmented freeform lens can deliver the proposed aim, giving 3 times as much illuminating power as the traditional high-intensity discharge fishing lamp does with the same input of electrical power.

  5. Carrier capture efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs: Role of high temperature annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinattieri, A.; Batignani, F.; Bogani, F.; Meneghini, M.; Meneghesso, G.; Zanoni, E.; Zhu, D.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2014-02-01

    By means of time integrated (TI), time-resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation spectra, we investigate the role of an high temperature post-growth thermal annealing (TA) on a set of InGaN/GaN LED structures with different dislocation densities. We provide evidence of the nature of the radiative recombination from a wide distribution of non-interacting localised states and we show the beneficial effect of thermal annealing in reducing the contribution of non-radiative recombination in the well region.

  6. Carrier capture efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs: Role of high temperature annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinattieri, A.; Batignani, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, LENS, CNISM, Università di Firenze (Italy); Bogani, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Firenze (Italy); Meneghini, M.; Meneghesso, G.; Zanoni, E. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Università di Padova (Italy); Zhu, D.; Humphreys, C. J. [Department Materials Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-21

    By means of time integrated (TI), time-resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation spectra, we investigate the role of an high temperature post-growth thermal annealing (TA) on a set of InGaN/GaN LED structures with different dislocation densities. We provide evidence of the nature of the radiative recombination from a wide distribution of non-interacting localised states and we show the beneficial effect of thermal annealing in reducing the contribution of non-radiative recombination in the well region.

  7. Very High Frequency Resonant DC/DC Converters for LED Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a very high frequency DC/DC converter for LED lighting. Several resonant topologies are compared and their usability discussed. At the end the resonant SEPIC converter is chosen based on the achievable power density and total bill of material. Simulations of a 51 MHz converter...... with 40 V input and 15 V output are made. The simulation shows possibility of achieving efficiency up to 87 % even with a HEXFET Power MOSFET. Three prototypes of the simulated converter are implemented showing good correlation with simulations. The prototypes have efficiencies up to 84 % and power...

  8. Photocathodes inside superconducting cavities. Studies on the feasibility of a superconducting photoelectron source of high brightness. External report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalke, A.

    1992-01-01

    We have done studies and experiments to explore the feasibility of a photoemission RF gun with a superconducting accelerator cavity. This concept promises to provide an electron beam of high brightness in continuous operation. It is thus of strong interest for a free-electron-laser or a linear collider based on a superconducting accelerator. In a first step we studied possible technical solutions for its components, especially the material of the photocathode and the geometrical shape of the cavity. Based on these considerations, we developed the complete design for a prototype electron source. The cathode material was chosen to be alkali antimonide. In spite of its sensitivity, it seems to be the best choice for a gun with high average current due to its high quantum efficiency. The cavity shape was at first a reentrant-type single cell of 500 MHz. It is now replaced by a more regular two-and-half cell shape, an independent half cell added for emittance correction. Its beam dynamics properties are investigated by numerical simulations; we estimated a beam brightness of about 5x10 11 A/(m.rad) 2 . But the mutual interactions between alkali antimonide photocathode and superconducting cavity must be investigated experimentally, because they are completely unkown. (orig.)

  9. High-power, high-brightness pseudospark-produced electron beam driven by improved pulse line accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junbino Zhu; Mingchang Wang; Zhijiang Wang

    1995-01-01

    A high power (200KV), intense current density, low emittance (71mmmrad), high brightness (8x10 10 A/m rad) electron beam was generated in the 10cm long, high-voltage-resistive multi-gap hollow cathode pseudospark chamber filled with 15pa nitrogen and driven by an improved pulse line accelerator. The beam was ejected with the 1mm diameter, the 2.2KA beam current, and the 400ns pulse length, and could propagated 20cm in the drift tube. At a distance of 5cm from the anode it penetrated consecutively an acid-sensitive discoloring film and a 0.05mm-thick copper foil both stuck closely, left 0.6mm and 0.3mm holes on them, respectively. That 10 shots on an acid-sensitive film produced a hole of 1.6mm at 7cm downstream of anode showed its good repeatability. After 60 shots the pseudospark discharge chamber was disassembled and observed that almost no destructive damage traces left on the surfaces of its various electrodes and insulators. But on almost all the surfaces of changeable central hole parts installed on intermediate electrodes there are traces of electron emission from the sides facing the anode and of bombardment on the sides facing the cathode, in contrast with which on the front- and back-surfaces of hollow cathode no visible traces of electron emission from then was observed. In addition, there were different tints, strip-like regions on the side of anode facing the cathode. Another interesting phenomenon was that there were a set of concentric circular or elliptical ring pattern on the acid-sensitive discoloring film got at 5cm from the anode and observed tinder a metallograph. It seems that the pseudospark electron beam is Laminar beam i.e, being possessed of a multi-layer structure, at least in the case of multi-gap pseudospark discharge chamber. It was found experimentally that the quality of pseudospark electron beam is much better than that of the cold-cathode electron beam

  10. Changes in the Mg profile and in dislocations induced by high temperature annealing of blue LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, M.; Trivellin, N.; Berti, M.; Cesca, T.; Gasparotto, A.; Vinattieri, A.; Bogani, F.; Zhu, D.; Humphreys, C. J.; Meneghesso, G.; Zanoni, E.

    2013-03-01

    The efficiency of the injection and recombination processes in InGaN/GaN LEDs is governed by the properties of the active region of the devices, which strongly depend on the conditions used for the growth of the epitaxial material. To improve device quality, it is very important to understand how the high temperatures used during the growth process can modify the quality of the epitaxial material. With this paper we present a study of the modifications in the properties of InGaN/GaN LED structures induced by high temperature annealing: thermal stress tests were carried out at 900 °C, in nitrogen atmosphere, on selected samples. The efficiency and the recombination dynamics were evaluated by photoluminescence measurements (both integrated and time-resolved), while the properties of the epitaxial material were studied by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) channeling measurements. Results indicate that exposure to high temperatures may lead to: (i) a significant increase in the photoluminescence efficiency of the devices; (ii) a decrease in the parasitic emission bands located between 380 nm and 400 nm; (iii) an increase in carrier lifetime, as detected by time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. The increase in device efficiency is tentatively ascribed to an improvement in the crystallographic quality of the samples.

  11. Performance of the high brightness linac for the Advanced Free Electron Laser Initiative at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.; Austin, R.H.; Chan, K.D.C.; Gierman, S.M.; Kinross-Wright, J.M.; Kong, S.H.; Nguyen, D.C.; Russell, S.J.; Timmer, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    The AFEL accelerator has produced beams of greater than 2 x 10 12 A/m 2 at 1 nC (brightness = 2*I/var-epsilon 2 , with I greater than 100 A and var-epsilon of than 2 π mm-mrad normalized ms emittance). The 1300 MHz standing-wave accelerator uses on-axis coupling cells. The electron source is a photoinjector with a CsK 2 Sb photocathode. The photoinjector is an integral part of a single 11-cell accelerator structure. The accelerator operates between 12 and 18 MeV. The beam emittance growth in the accelerator is minimized by using a photoinjector, a focusing solenoid to correct the emittance growth due to space charge, and a special design of the coupling slots between accelerator cavities to minimize quadrupole effects. This paper describes the experimental results and compares those results with PARMELA simulation. The simulation code PARMELA was modified for this effort. This modified version uses SUPERFISH files for the accelerator cavity fields, MAFIA files for the fields due to the coupling slots in the accelerator cells, and POISSON files for the solenoid field in the gun region

  12. Experience with a high-brightness storage ring: the NSLS 750 MeV vuv ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galayda, J.

    1984-01-01

    The NSLS vuv ring is the first implementation of the proposals of R. Chasman and G.K. Green for a synchrotron radiation source with enhanced brightness: its lattice is a series of achromatic bends with two zero-gradient dipoles each, giving small damped emittance; and these bends are connected by straight sections with zero dispersion to accommodate wigglers and undulators without degrading the radiation damping properties of the ring. The virtues of the Chasman-Green lattice, its small betatron and synchrotron emittances, may be understood with some generality; e.g. the electron γm 0 c 2 energy and the number of achromatic bends M sets a lower limit on the betatron emittance of e/sub x/ > 7.7 x 10 -13 γ 2 /M meter-radians. There is strong interest in extrapolation of this type of lattice to 6 GeV and to 32 achromatic bends. The subject of this report is the progress toward achieving performance in the vuv ring limited by the radiation damping parameters optimized in its design. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Through the Looking Glass: Bright, Highly Magnified Galaxy Candidates at z ~ 7 behind A1703

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, L. D.; Bouwens, R. J.; Zitrin, A.; Smit, R.; Coe, D.; Ford, H. C.; Zheng, W.; Illingworth, G. D.; Benítez, N.; Broadhurst, T. J.

    2012-03-01

    We report the discovery of seven strongly lensed Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z ~ 7 detected in Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging of A1703. The brightest candidate, called A1703-zD1, has an observed (lensed) magnitude of 24.0 AB (26σ) in the WFC3/IR F160W band, making it 0.2 mag brighter than the z 850-dropout candidate recently reported behind the Bullet Cluster and 0.7 mag brighter than the previously brightest known z ~ 7.6 galaxy, A1689-zD1. With a cluster magnification of ~9, this source has an intrinsic magnitude of H 160 = 26.4 AB, a strong z 850 - J 125 break of 1.7 mag, and a photometric redshift of z ~ 6.7. Additionally, we find six other bright LBG candidates with H 160-band magnitudes of 24.9-26.4, photometric redshifts z ~ 6.4 - 8.8, and magnifications μ ~ 3-40. Stellar population fits to the Advanced Camera for Surveys, WFC3/IR, and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera data for A1703-zD1 and A1703-zD4 yield stellar masses (0.7 - 3.0) × 109 M ⊙, stellar ages 5-180 Myr, and star formation rates ~7.8 M ⊙ yr-1, and low reddening with AV Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407.

  14. Application of Inkjet Printing in High-Density Pixelated RGB Quantum Dot-Hybrid LEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Haverinen, Hanna

    2012-05-23

    Recently, an intriguing solution to obtain better color purity has been to introduce inorganic emissive quantum dots (QDs) into an otherwise OLED structure. The emphasis of this chapter is to present a simple discussion of the first attempts to fabricate high-density, pixelated (quarter video graphics array (QVGA) format), monochromatic and RGB quantum dots light-emitting diodes (QDLEDs), where inkjet printing is used to deposit the light-emitting layer of QDs. It shows some of the factors that have to be considered in order to achieve the desired accuracy and printing quality. The successful operation of the RGB printed devices indicates the potential of the inkjet printing approach in the fabrication of full-color QDLEDs for display application. However, further optimization of print quality is still needed in order to eliminate the formation of pinholes, thus maximizing energy transfer from organic layers to the QDs and in turn increasing the performance of the devices. Controlled Vocabulary Terms: ink jet printing; LED displays; LED lamps; organic light emitting diodes; quantum dots

  15. High-speed photoacoustic imaging using an LED-based photoacoustic imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Naoto; Kuniyil Ajith Singh, Mithun; Shigeta, Yusuke; Hanaoka, Takamitsu; Agano, Toshitaka

    2018-02-01

    Recently we developed a multispectral LED-based photoacoustic/ultrasound imaging system (AcousticX) and have been continuously working on its technical/functional improvements. AcousticX is a linear array ultrasound transducer (128 elements, 10 MHz)-based system in which LED arrays (selectable wavelengths, pulse repetition frequency: 4 kHz, pulse width: tunable from 40 - 100 ns) are fixed on both sides of the transducer to illuminate the tissue for photoacoustic imaging. The ultrasound/photoacoustic data from all 128 elements can be simultaneously acquired, processed and displayed. We already demonstrated our system's capability to perform photoacoustic/ultrasound imaging for dynamic imaging of the tissue at a frame rate of 10 Hz (for example to visualize the pulsation of arteries in vivo in human subjects). In this work, we present the development of a new high-speed imaging mode in AcousticX. In this mode, instead of toggling between ultrasound and photoacoustic measurements, it is possible to continuously acquire only photoacoustic data for 1.5 seconds with a time interval of 1 ms. With this improvement, we can record photoacoustic signals from the whole aperture (38 mm) at fast rate and can be reviewed later at different speeds for analyzing dynamic changes in the photoacoustic signals. We believe that AcousticX with this new high-speed mode opens up a feasible technical path for multiple dynamic studies, for example one which focus on imaging the response of voltage sensitive dyes. We envisage to improve the acquisition speed further in future for exploring ultra-high-speed applications.

  16. The Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey (ELQS) in SDSS and the high-z bright-end Quasar Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Jan-Torge; Fan, Xiaohui; McGreer, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Studies of the most luminous quasars at high redshift directly probe the evolution of the most massive black holes in the early Universe and their connection to massive galaxy formation. Unfortunately, extremely luminous quasars at high redshift are very rare objects. Only wide area surveys have a chance to constrain their population. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) nd the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) have so far provided the most widely adopted measurements of the type I quasar luminosity function (QLF) at z>3. However, a careful re-examination of the SDSS quasar sample revealed that the SDSS quasar selection is in fact missing a significant fraction of $z~3$ quasars at the brightest end.We have identified the purely optical color selection of SDSS, where quasars at these redshifts are strongly contaminated by late-type dwarfs, and the spectroscopic incompleteness of the SDSS footprint as the main reasons. Therefore we have designed the Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey (ELQS), based on a novel near-infrared JKW2 color cut using WISE AllWISE and 2MASS all-sky photometry, to yield high completeness for very bright (i < 18.0) quasars in the redshift range of 2.8<= z<=5.0. It effectively uses Random Forest machine-learning algorithms on SDSS and WISE photometry for quasar-star classification and photometric redshift estimation.The ELQS is spectroscopically following up ~230 new quasar candidates in an area of ~12000 deg2 in the SDSS footprint, to obtain a well-defined and complete quasar sample for an accurate measurement of the bright-end quasar luminosity function (QLF) at 2.8<= z<=5.0. So far the ELQS has identified 75 bright new quasars in this redshift range and observations of the fall sky will continue until the end of the year. At the AAS winter meeting we will present the full spectroscopic results of the survey, including a re-estimation and extension of the high-z QLF toward higher luminosities.

  17. Operation of the high-brightness linac for the advanced free-electron laser initiative at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.; Austin, R.H.; Chan, K.C.D.; Gierman, S.M.; Kinross-Wright, J.M.; Kong, S.H.; Nguyen, D.C.; Russell, S.J.; Timmer, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Free-electron lasers and high-energy physics accelerators have increased the demand for very high-brightness beam sources. This paper describes the design of an accelerator which has produced beams of 2.1 π mm-mrad at 1 nC and emittances of 3.7 and 6.5 π mm-mrad for 2 and 3 nC, respectively. The accelerator has been operated between 10 and 18 MeV. The beam emittance growth in the accelerator is minimized by using a photoinjector electron source integrated into the design of the linac, a focusing solenoid to correct the emittance growth caused by space charge, and a special design of the coupling slots between accelerator cavities to minimize quadrupole effects. The FEL has recently operated at 5 microns

  18. Status of the C-band RF System for the SPARC-LAB high brightness photo-injector

    CERN Document Server

    Boni, R.; Bellaveglia, M.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Gallo, A.; Spataro, B.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.

    2013-01-01

    The high brightness photo-injector in operation at the SPARC-LAB facility of the INFN-LNF, Italy, consists of a 150 MeV S-band electron accelerator aiming to explore the physics of low emittance high peak current electron beams and the related technology. Velocity bunching techniques, SASE and Seeded FEL experiments have been carried out successfully. To increase the beam energy so improving the performances of the experiments, it was decided to replace one S-band travelling wave accelerating cavity, with two C-band cavities that allow to reach higher energy gain per meter. The new C-band system is in advanced development phase and will be in operation early in 2013. The main technical issues of the C-band system and the R&D activities carried out till now are illustrated in detail in this paper.

  19. Operation of the high brightness linac for the advanced free-electron laser initiative at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.; Austin, R.H.; Chan, K.C.D.; Gierman, S.M.; Kinross-Wright, J.M.; Kong, S.H.; Nguyen, D.C.; Russell, S.J.; Timmer, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Free-electron lasers and high energy physics accelerators have increased the demand for very high-brightness beam sources. This paper describes the design of an accelerator which has produce beams of less than 2.1 π mm-mrad at 1 nC and emittances of 3.7 and 6.5 π mm-mrad for 2 and 3 nC, respectively. The accelerator has been operated between 10 and 18 MeV.The beam emittance growth in the accelerator is minimized by using a photoinjector electron source integrated into the design of the linac, a focusing solenoid to correct the emittance growth caused by space charge, and a special design of the coupling slots between accelerator cavities to minimize quadrupole effects

  20. High-resolution SMA imaging of bright submillimetre sources from the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryley; Chapman, Scott C.; Scott, Douglas; Petitpas, Glen; Smail, Ian; Chapin, Edward L.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Perry, Ryan; Blain, Andrew W.; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Dunlop, James S.; Farrah, Duncan; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Geach, James E.; Howson, Paul; Ivison, R. J.; Lacaille, Kevin; Michałowski, Michał J.; Simpson, James M.; Swinbank, A. M.; van der Werf, Paul P.; Wilner, David J.

    2018-06-01

    We have used the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 860 μm to observe the brightest sources in the Submillimeter Common User Bolometer Array-2 (SCUBA-2) Cosmology Legacy Survey (S2CLS). The goal of this survey is to exploit the large field of the S2CLS along with the resolution and sensitivity of the SMA to construct a large sample of these rare sources and to study their statistical properties. We have targeted 70 of the brightest single-dish SCUBA-2 850 μm sources down to S850 ≈ 8 mJy, achieving an average synthesized beam of 2.4 arcsec and an average rms of σ860 = 1.5 mJy beam-1 in our primary beam-corrected maps. We searched our SMA maps for 4σ peaks, corresponding to S860 ≳ 6 mJy sources, and detected 62, galaxies, including three pairs. We include in our study 35 archival observations, bringing our sample size to 105 bright single-dish submillimetre sources with interferometric follow-up. We compute the cumulative and differential number counts, finding them to overlap with previous single-dish survey number counts within the uncertainties, although our cumulative number count is systematically lower than the parent S2CLS cumulative number count by 14 ± 6 per cent between 11 and 15 mJy. We estimate the probability that a ≳10 mJy single-dish submillimetre source resolves into two or more galaxies with similar flux densities to be less than 15 per cent. Assuming the remaining 85 per cent of the targets are ultraluminous starburst galaxies between z = 2 and 3, we find a likely volume density of ≳400 M⊙ yr-1 sources to be {˜ } 3^{+0.7}_{-0.6} {× } 10^{-7} Mpc-3. We show that the descendants of these galaxies could be ≳4 × 1011 M⊙ local quiescent galaxies, and that about 10 per cent of their total stellar mass would have formed during these short bursts of star formation.

  1. Ultra High Brightness/Low Cost Fiber Coupled Packaging, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High peak power, high efficiency, high reliability lightweight, low cost QCW laser diode pump modules with up to 1000W of QCW output become possible with nLight's...

  2. High performance 1.3 μm buried crescent lasers and LEDs for fiber optic links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, R.J.; Chan, E.Y.; Hong, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Self-aligned buried crescent heterostructure (BCH) semiconductor lasers and LEDs have been successfully developed as superb light sources for fiber optic communications. The fabrication and performance characteristics of these InGaAsP/InP lasers and LEDs are described. For lasers, the threshold currents as low as 10 mA and differential quantum efficiencies as high as 50% are achieved. For LEDs, the output powers at 150 mA are higher than 1 mW. Good far field patterns are obtained in both the LEDs and lasers. Measured I-V, L-I, spectrum and far field patterns are presented

  3. Basic numerical study on gap influence of residual stress and distortion during high-brightness laser butt welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serizawa, Hisashi; Mori, Daiki; Murakawa, Hidekazu

    2013-01-01

    High-brightness laser such as fiber laser or disk laser is expected to minimize the total heat input energy in welding due to its high beam quality, and the welding residual stress and distortion also seem to be reduced as a result. However, the diameter of high-brightness laser beam is less than 0.6 mm and it is difficult to set the beam position to contact face between two parts because in general there would be a gap due to quality of parts. In this study, in order to reveal the effect of gap on the residual stress and the welding distortion during fiber laser welding, the butt welding of two plates were examined through the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with a new gap element. From the result of thermal analyses, it was found that the homogeneous ellipsoid body could be applicable to model the shape of heat source for the fiber laser and the gap width would not influence the penetration shape when the gap width was changed from 0.1 to 0.25 mm. In addition, the elastic-plastic analyses indicated that the transverse shrinkage slightly increased with increasing the gap width, while this shrinkage without gap was much smaller than that with gap. Also, it was revealed that the welding speed largely affects both the welding residual stress and distortion. Moreover, it was found that the residual stress was almost independent of the jig position, while the position of fixtures slightly affected the transverse shrinkage. (author)

  4. High-energy emission from bright gamma-ray bursts using Fermi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissaldi, Elisabetta

    2010-05-25

    mainly based on the brightest bursts detected by GBM inside the LAT field-of-view. The determination of a consistent sample for upper-limit calculations can be established by selecting those bursts which have a strong signal in the GBM BGO detectors. The structure of this thesis can be summarized as follows: The first chapter introduces the basic concepts and scientific background of GRB physics. Afterwards, instrumental details about the Fermi instruments LAT and GBM, as well as LAT performance and capabilities for GRB science are presented in chapter 2. Chapter 3 focuses on the detector-level calibration of the GBM instrument, and in particular on the analysis methods and results, which crucially support the development of a consistent GBM instrument response. The main GBM scientific results collected during the first year of operation are then presented in chapter 4. Particular emphasis is given to the description of joint GBM-LAT and GBM-Swift observations and analysis results. The last chapter presents the selection methodology and detailed spectral analysis of a sample of well-defined BGO-bright bursts detected by GBM during its first year. Using these results, correlations among spectral parameters are finally discussed. (orig.)

  5. High-energy emission from bright gamma-ray bursts using Fermi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissaldi, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    on the brightest bursts detected by GBM inside the LAT field-of-view. The determination of a consistent sample for upper-limit calculations can be established by selecting those bursts which have a strong signal in the GBM BGO detectors. The structure of this thesis can be summarized as follows: The first chapter introduces the basic concepts and scientific background of GRB physics. Afterwards, instrumental details about the Fermi instruments LAT and GBM, as well as LAT performance and capabilities for GRB science are presented in chapter 2. Chapter 3 focuses on the detector-level calibration of the GBM instrument, and in particular on the analysis methods and results, which crucially support the development of a consistent GBM instrument response. The main GBM scientific results collected during the first year of operation are then presented in chapter 4. Particular emphasis is given to the description of joint GBM-LAT and GBM-Swift observations and analysis results. The last chapter presents the selection methodology and detailed spectral analysis of a sample of well-defined BGO-bright bursts detected by GBM during its first year. Using these results, correlations among spectral parameters are finally discussed. (orig.)

  6. On the Feasibility of Very-Low-Density Pure Metal Foams as Bright High-Energy X-ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Jeffrey; Felter, Thomas

    2003-10-01

    We have used the Busquet approximation (M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B 5(11), 4191 (1993)) to explore calculationally what the possible x-ray conversion efficiencies into the K-band would be from irradiating very-low-density pure metal foams with tens of kilojoules of 1/3-micron laser light. We will discuss the advantages of pure metal foams as bright high-energy x-ray sources, and some results of this calculational study. We will also present our ideas for how to fabricate pure metal foams with densities of a few milligrams per cubic centimeter. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  7. Sensitivity of Support Vector Machine Predictions of Passive Microwave Brightness Temperature Over Snow-covered Terrain in High Mountain Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, J. A.; Forman, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    High Mountain Asia (HMA) serves as a water supply source for over 1.3 billion people, primarily in south-east Asia. Most of this water originates as snow (or ice) that melts during the summer months and contributes to the run-off downstream. In spite of its critical role, there is still considerable uncertainty regarding the total amount of snow in HMA and its spatial and temporal variation. In this study, the NASA Land Information Systems (LIS) is used to model the hydrologic cycle over the Indus basin. In addition, the ability of support vector machines (SVM), a machine learning technique, to predict passive microwave brightness temperatures at a specific frequency and polarization as a function of LIS-derived land surface model output is explored in a sensitivity analysis. Multi-frequency, multi-polarization passive microwave brightness temperatures as measured by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) over the Indus basin are used as training targets during the SVM training process. Normalized sensitivity coefficients (NSC) are then computed to assess the sensitivity of a well-trained SVM to each LIS-derived state variable. Preliminary results conform with the known first-order physics. For example, input states directly linked to physical temperature like snow temperature, air temperature, and vegetation temperature have positive NSC's whereas input states that increase volume scattering such as snow water equivalent or snow density yield negative NSC's. Air temperature exhibits the largest sensitivity coefficients due to its inherent, high-frequency variability. Adherence of this machine learning algorithm to the first-order physics bodes well for its potential use in LIS as the observation operator within a radiance data assimilation system aimed at improving regional- and continental-scale snow estimates.

  8. Generation of Bright Phase-matched Circularly-polarized Extreme Ultraviolet High Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-08

    1995). 42. Eichmann , H. et al. Polarization-dependent high-order two-color mixing. Phys. Rev. A 51, R3414–R3417 (1995). 43. Fleischer, A., Kfir, O...calculations of polarization-dependent two- color high-harmonic generation. Phys. Rev. A 52, 2262–2278 (1995). 10. Eichmann , H. et al. polarization

  9. Brightness and coherence of synchrotron radiation and high-gain free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.

    1986-10-01

    The characteristics of synchrotron radiation are reviewed with particular attention to its phase-space properties and coherence. The transition of the simple undulator radiation to more intense, more coherent high-gain free electron lasers, is discussed

  10. Development of a High-Brightness VHF Electron Source at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, Steven M.; Sannibale, Fernando; Staples, John W.; Virostek, Steve P.; Wells, Russell P.

    2007-01-01

    Currently proposed ERL and high average power FEL projects require electron beam sources that can generate ∼1nC bunch charges at high repetition rates. Many proposed sources are based around either high voltage DC or microwave RF guns, each with its particular set of technological limits and system complications. We propose a novel solution that greatly diminishes high voltage breakdown issues while also decreasing peak RF power requirements in a warm copper device, and that has the benefit of mapping the rf oscillation period much more closely to the required beam repetition rate. We present the initial RF and mechanical design for a 750kV electron source and beam injection system utilizing a gun resonant in the VHF band. Beam dynamics simulations demonstrate excellent beam quality preservation and transport

  11. High-quality electron beam generation and bright betatron radiation from a cascaded laser wakefield accelerator (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiansheng; Wang, Wentao; Li, Wentao; Qi, Rong; Zhang, Zhijun; Yu, Changhai; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jiaqi; Qing, Zhiyong; Ming, Fang; Xu, Yi; Leng, Yuxin; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2017-05-01

    One of the major goals of developing laser wakefiled accelerators (LWFAs) is to produce compact high-energy electron beam (e-beam) sources, which are expected to be applied in developing compact x-ray free-electron lasers and monoenergetic gamma-ray sources. Although LWFAs have been demonstrated to generate multi-GeV e-beams, to date they are still failed to produce high quality e beams with several essential properties (narrow energy spread, small transverse emittance and high beam charge) achieved simultaneously. Here we report on the demonstration of a high-quality cascaded LWFA experimentally via manipulating electron injection, seeding in different periods of the wakefield, as well as controlling energy chirp for the compression of energy spread. The cascaded LWFA was powered by a 1-Hz 200-TW femtosecond laser facility at SIOM. High-brightness e beams with peak energies in the range of 200-600 MeV, 0.4-1.2% rms energy spread, 10-80 pC charge, and 0.2 mrad rms divergence are experimentally obtained. Unprecedentedly high 6-dimensional (6-D) brightness B6D,n in units of A/m2/0.1% was estimated at the level of 1015-16, which is very close to the typical brightness of e beams from state-of-the-art linac drivers and several-fold higher than those of previously reported LWFAs. Furthermore, we propose a scheme to minimize the energy spread of an e beam in a cascaded LWFA to the one-thousandth-level by inserting a stage to compress its longitudinal spatial distribution via velocity bunching. In this scheme, three-segment plasma stages are designed for electron injection, e-beam length compression, and e-beam acceleration, respectively. A one-dimensional theory and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations have demonstrated this scheme and an e beam with 0.2% rms energy spread and low transverse emittance could be generated without loss of charge. Based on the high-quality e beams generated in the LWFA, we have experimentally realized a new scheme to enhance the

  12. Brightness and coherence of radiation from undulators and high-gain free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang-Je.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the radiation characteristics of undulators and high-gain free electron lasers (FELs). The topics covered are: a phase-space method in wave optics and synchrotron radiation, coherence from the phase-space point of view, discussions of undulator performances in next-generation synchrotron radiation facility and the characteristics of the high-gain FELs and their performances

  13. Die attach dimension and material on thermal conductivity study for high power COB LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarukunaselan, K.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Mahmed, N.; Kirtsaeng, S.; Sakuntasathien, S.; Suppiah, S.; Alcain, J. B.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    High power LED began to gain popularity in the semiconductor market due to its efficiency and luminance. Nonetheless, along with the increased in efficiency, there was an increased in the junction temperature too. The alleviating junction temperature is undesirable since the performances and lifetime will be degraded over time. Therefore, it is crucial to solve this thermal problem by maximizing the heat dissipation to the ambience. Improvising the die attach (DA) layer would be the best option because this layer is sandwiched between the chip (heat source) and the substrate (channel to the ambient). In this paper, the impact of thickness and thermal conductivity onto the junction temperature and Von Mises stress is analyzed. Results obtained showed that the junction temperature is directly proportional to the thickness but the stress was inversely proportional to the thickness of the DA. The thermal conductivity of the materials did affect the junction temperature as there was not much changes once the thermal conductivity reached 20W/mK. However, no significant changes were observed on the Von Mises stress caused by the thermal conductivity. Material with the second highest thermal conductivity had the lowest stress, whereas the highest conductivity material had the highest stress value at 20 µm. Overall, silver sinter provided the best thermal dissipation compared to the other materials.

  14. Big Data Meets Physics Education Research: From MOOCs to University-Led High School Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) movement has catalyzed discussions of digital learning on campuses around the world and highlighted the increasingly large, complex datasets related to learning. Physics Education Research can and should play a key role in measuring outcomes of this most recent wave of digital education. In this talk, I will discuss big data and learning analytics through multiple modes of teaching and learning enabled by the open-source edX platform: open-online, flipped, and blended. Open-Online learning will be described through analysis of MOOC offerings from Harvard and MIT, where 2.5 million unique users have led to 9 million enrollments across nearly 300 courses. Flipped instruction will be discussed through an Advanced Placement program at Davidson College that empowers high school teachers to use AP aligned, MOOC content directly in their classrooms with only their students. Analysis of this program will be highlighted, including results from a pilot study showing a positive correlation between content usage and externally validated AP exam scores. Lastly, blended learning will be discussed through specific residential use cases at Davidson College and MIT, highlighting unique course models that blend open-online and residential experiences. My hope for this talk is that listeners will better understand the current wave of digital education and the opportunities it provides for data-driven teaching and learning.

  15. Production of hollow atoms by high brightness x-ray sources and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moribayashi, Kengo

    2004-01-01

    We study x-ray emissions from the (multi-)inner-shell states and hollow atoms of Si ions excited by high intensity x-ray sources. It is found that the x-ray number from multi-inner-shell excited states (1s 2 2s 2 2p k 3s 2 3p 2 , k=1-4) and hollow atoms (1s 2 2s 2 3p 2 ) is affected greatly by the high intensity short-pulse x-rays and little by weak intensity post-long pulse x-rays. The ratio of the x-ray intensities from hollow atoms to those from the multi-inner-shell excited states becomes almost independent of the pulses and dependent on the intensities of x-ray sources. This ratio may be used for the measurement of intensities of high intensity short pulse x-ray sources. (author)

  16. Bright high-repetition-rate source of narrowband extreme-ultraviolet harmonics beyond 22 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, He [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Xu, Yiming [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Ulonska, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Robinson, Joseph S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Ranitovic, Predrag [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Kaindl, Robert A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division

    2015-06-11

    Novel table-top sources of extreme-ultraviolet light based on high-harmonic generation yield unique insight into the fundamental properties of molecules, nanomaterials or correlated solids, and enable advanced applications in imaging or metrology. Extending high-harmonic generation to high repetition rates portends great experimental benefits, yet efficient extreme-ultraviolet conversion of correspondingly weak driving pulses is challenging. In this article, we demonstrate a highly-efficient source of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses at 50-kHz repetition rate, utilizing the ultraviolet second-harmonic focused tightly into Kr gas. In this cascaded scheme, a photon flux beyond ≈3 × 1013 s-1 is generated at 22.3 eV, with 5 × 10-5 conversion efficiency that surpasses similar harmonics directly driven by the fundamental by two orders-of-magnitude. The enhancement arises from both wavelength scaling of the atomic dipole and improved spatio-temporal phase matching, confirmed by simulations. Finally, spectral isolation of a single 72-meV-wide harmonic renders this bright, 50-kHz extreme-ultraviolet source a powerful tool for ultrafast photoemission, nanoscale imaging and other applications.

  17. Atomic physics with high-brightness synchrotron x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.

    1985-11-01

    A description of atomic physics experiments that we intend to carry out at the National Synchrotron Light Source is given. Emphasis is given to work that investigates the properties of multiply charged ions. The use of a synchrotron storage ring for highly charged heavy ions is proposed as a way to produce high current beams which will make possible experiments to study the photoexcitation and ionization of multiply charged ions for the first time. Experiments along the same lines which are feasible at the proposed Advanced Light Source are considered briefly. 7 refs., 2 figs

  18. Effect of high current density to defect generation of blue LED and its characterization with transmission electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, R.; Sugiarti, E.; Isnaeni; Purawiardi, R. I.; Widodo, H.; Muslimin, A. N.; Yuliasari; Ronaldus, C. E.; Prastomo, N.; Hastuty, S.

    2018-03-01

    The optical, electrical and structural characteristics of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were investigated to identify the degradation of LED before and after current injection. The sample was injected by high current of 200 A/cm2 for 5 and 20 minutes. It was observed that injection of current shifts light intensity and wavelength characteristics that indicated defect generation. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) characterization was carried out in order to clarify the structure degradation caused by defect in active layer which consisted of 14 quantum well with thickness of about 5 nm and confined with barrier layer with thickness of about 12 nm. TEM results showed pre-existing defect in LED before injection with high current. Furthermore, discontinue and edge defect was found in dark spot region of LED after injection with high current.

  19. High brightness K+ ion source for heavy ion fusion linear induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.; Rutkowski, H.

    1992-01-01

    Low emittance, high current, singly charged potassium thermionic ion sources are being developed for the Induction Linac System Experiment injector, ILSE. The ILSE, now in study at LBL, will address the physics issues of particle beams in a heavy ion fusion driver scenario. The K + ion beam considered is emitted thermionically into a diode gap from alumino-silicate layers (zeolite) coated on a porous tungsten cup. The Single Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE) 120keV cesium source was redesigned and modified with the aid of an ion optics and gun design program (EGUN) to enable the evaluation of the K + source performance at high extraction currents of about 80mA from a one inch diameter source. The authors report on the source fabrication technique and performance, including total current and current density profile measurements using Faraday cups, phase space distributions using the double slit scanning technique, and source emitting surface temperature dependence on heating power using a wire pyrometer

  20. Coherent combining of high brightness tapered lasers in master oscillator power amplifier configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrodt, P.; Hanna, M.; Moron, F.; Decker, J.; Winterfeldt, M.; Blume, G.; Erbert, G.; Crump, P.; Georges, P.; Lucas-Leclin, G.

    2018-02-01

    Improved diode laser beam combining techniques are in strong demand for applications in material processing. Coherent beam combining (CBC) is the only combining approach that has the potential to maintain or even improve all laser properties, and thus has high potential for future systems. As part of our ongoing studies into CBC of diode lasers, we present recent progress in the coherent superposition of high-power single-pass tapered laser amplifiers. The amplifiers are seeded by a DFB laser at λ = 976 nm, where the seed is injected into a laterally single-mode ridge-waveguide input section. The phase pistons on each beam are actively controlled by varying the current in the ridge section of each amplifier, using a sequential hill-climbing algorithm, resulting in a combined beam with power fluctuations of below 1%. The currents into the tapered sections of the amplifiers are separately controlled, and remain constant. In contrast to our previous studies, we favour a limited number of individual high-power amplifiers, in order to preserve a high extracted power per emitter in a simple, low-loss coupling arrangement. Specifically, a multi-arm interferometer architecture with only three devices is used, constructed using 6 mm-long tapered amplifiers, mounted junction up on C-mounts, to allow separate contact to single mode and amplifier sections. A maximum coherently combined power of 12.9 W is demonstrated in a nearly diffraction-limited beam, corresponding to a 65% combining efficiency, with power mainly limited by the intrinsic beam quality of the amplifiers. Further increased combined power is currently sought.

  1. Bright upconversion luminescence and increased Tc in CaBi2Ta2O9:Er high temperature piezoelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Dengfeng; Wang Xusheng; Yao Xi; Xu Chaonan; Lin Jian; Sun Tiantuo

    2012-01-01

    Er 3+ doped CaBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 (CBT) bismuth layered-structure high temperature piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by the traditional solid state method. The upconversion (UC) emission properties of Er 3+ doped CBT ceramics were investigated as a function of Er 3+ concentration and incident pump power. A bright green upconverted emission was obtained under excitation 980 nm at room temperature. The observed strong green and weak red emission bands corresponded to the transitions from 4 S 3/2 and 4 F 9/2 to 4 I 15/2 , respectively. The dependence of UC emission intensity on pumping power indicated that a three-photon process was involved in UC emissions. Studies of dielectric with temperature have also been carried out. Introduction of Er increased the Curie temperature of CBT, thus, making this ceramic suitable for sensor applications at higher temperatures. Because of its strong up-converted emission and increased Tc, the multifunctional high temperature piezoelectric ceramic may be useful in high temperature sensor, fluorescence thermometry, and optical-electro integration applications.

  2. Testing Snow Melt Algorithms in High Relief Topography Using Calibrated Enhanced-Resolution Brightness Temperatures, Hunza River Basin, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage, J. M.; Brodzik, M. J.; Hardman, M.; Troy, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Snow is a vital part of the terrestrial hydrological cycle, a crucial resource for people and ecosystems. In mountainous regions snow is extensive, variable, and challenging to document. Snow melt timing and duration are important factors affecting the transfer of snow mass to soil moisture and runoff. Passive microwave brightness temperature (Tb) changes at 36 and 18 GHz are a sensitive way to detect snow melt onset due to their sensitivity to the abrupt change in emissivity. They are widely used on large icefields and high latitude watersheds. The coarse resolution ( 25 km) of historically available data has precluded effective use in high relief, heterogeneous regions, and gaps between swaths also create temporal data gaps at lower latitudes. New enhanced resolution data products generated from a scatterometer image reconstruction for radiometer (rSIR) technique are available at the original frequencies. We use these Calibrated Enhanced-resolution Brightness (CETB) Temperatures Earth System Data Records (ESDR) to evaluate existing snow melt detection algorithms that have been used in other environments, including the cross polarized gradient ratio (XPGR) and the diurnal amplitude variations (DAV) approaches. We use the 36/37 GHz (3.125 km resolution) and 18/19 GHz (6.25 km resolution) vertically and horizontally polarized datasets from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and Advanced Microwave Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) and evaluate them for use in this high relief environment. The new data are used to assess glacier and snow melt records in the Hunza River Basin [area 13,000 sq. km, located at 36N, 74E], a tributary to the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan. We compare the melt timing results visually and quantitatively to the corresponding EASE-Grid 2.0 25-km dataset, SRTM topography, and surface temperatures from station and reanalysis data. The new dataset is coarser than the topography, but is able to differentiate signals of melt/refreeze timing for

  3. Energy-Saving Tunnel Illumination System Based on LED's Intelligent Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Shanshan; Wu Lan; Gu Hanting; Jiang Shuixiu

    2011-01-01

    At present there is a lot of electric energy wastage in tunnel illumination, whose design is based on the maximum brightness outside and the maximum vehicle speed all year round. LED's energy consumption is low, and the control of its brightness is simple and effective. It can be quickly adjusted between 0-100% of its maximum brightness, and will not affect the service life. Therefore, using LED as tunnel's illumination source, we can achieve a good energy saving effect. According to real-time data acquisition of vehicle speed, traffic flow and brightness outside the tunnel, the auto real-time control of tunnel illumination can be achieved. And the system regulated the LED luminance by means of combination of LED power module and intelligent control module. The tunnel information was detected by inspection equipments, which included luminometer, vehicle detector, and received by RTU(Remote Terminal Unit), then synchronously transmitted to PC. After data processing, RTU emitted the dimming signal to the LED driver to adjust the brightness of LED. Despite the relatively high cost of high-power LED lights, the enormous energy-saving effect and the well-behaved controllability is beyond compare to other lighting devices.

  4. Physical conditions of the interstellar medium in high-redshift submillimetre bright galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chentao

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of a population of high- redshift dust-obscured submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) from ground-based submm cameras has revolutionised our understanding of galaxy evolution and star formation in extreme conditions. They are the strongest starbursts in the Universe approaching the Eddington limit and are believed to be the progenitors of the most massive galaxies today. However, theoretical models of galaxy evolution have even been challenged by a large number of detections of high-redshift SMGs. A very few among them are gravitationally lensed by an intervening galaxy. Recent wide-area extragalactic surveys have discovered hundreds of such strongly lensed SMGs, opening new exciting opportunities for observing the interstellar medium in these exceptional objects. We have thus carefully selected a sample of strongly gravitational lensed SMGs based on the submillimeter flux limit from the Herschel-ATLAS sample. Using IRAM telescopes, we have built a rich H2O-line-detected sample of 16 SMGs. We found a close-to-linear tight correlation between the H2O line and total infrared luminosity. This indicates the importance of far-IR pumping to the excitation of the H2O lines. Using a far-IR pumping model, we have derived the physical properties of the H2O gas and the dust. We showed that H2O lines trace a warm dense gas that may be closely related to the active star formation. Along with the H2O lines, several H2O+ lines have also been detected in three of our SMGs. We also find a tight correlation between the luminosity of the lines of H2O and H2O+ from local ULIRGs to high-redshift SMGs. The flux ratio between H2O+ and H2O suggests that cosmic rays from strong star forming activities are possibly driving the related oxygen chemistry. Another important common molecular gas tracer is the CO line. We have observed multiple transitions of the CO lines in each of our SMGs with IRAM 30m telescope. By analysing the CO line profile, we discovered a significant differential

  5. Instruments and techniques for analysing the time-resolved transverse phase space distribution of high-brightness electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, Jeniffa

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with the instruments and techniques used to characterise the transverse phase space distribution of high-brightness electron beams. In particular, methods are considered allowing to measure the emittance as a function of the longitudinal coordinate within the bunch (slice emittance) with a resolution in the ps to sub-ps range. The main objective of this work is the analysis of techniques applicable for the time-resolved phase space characterisation for future high-brightness electron beam sources and single-pass accelerators based on these. The competence built up by understanding and comparing different techniques is to be used for the design and operation of slice diagnostic systems for the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project (BERLinPro). In the framework of the thesis, two methods applicable for slice emittance measurements are considered, namely the zero-phasing technique and the use of a transverse deflector. These methods combine the conventional quadrupole scan technique with a transfer of the longitudinal distribution into a transverse distribution. Measurements were performed within different collaborative projects. The experimental setup, the measurement itself and the data analysis are discussed as well as measurement results and simulations. In addition, the phase space tomography technique is introduced. In contrast to quadrupole scan-based techniques, tomography is model-independent and can reconstruct the phase space distribution from simple projected measurements. The developed image reconstruction routine based on the Maximum Entropy algorithm is introduced. The quality of the reconstruction is tested using different model distributions, simulated data and measurement data. The results of the tests are presented. The adequacy of the investigated techniques, the experimental procedures as well as the developed data analysis tools could be verified. The experimental and practical experience gathered during this work, the

  6. LED surgical lighting system with multiple free-form surfaces for highly sterile operating theater application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yaqin; Zheng, Zhenrong; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Xu

    2014-06-01

    Although the ventilation system is widely employed in the operating theater, a strictly sterile surgical environment still cannot be ensured because of laminar disturbance, which is mainly caused by the surgical lighting system. Abandoning traditional products, we propose an LED surgical lighting system, which can alleviate the laminar disturbance and provide an appropriate lighting condition for surgery. It contains a certain amount of LED lens units, which are embedded in the ceiling and arranged around the air supply smallpox. The LED lens unit integrated with an LED light source and a free-form lens is required to produce a uniform circular illumination with a large tolerance to the change of lighting distance. To achieve such a dedicated lens, two free-form refractive surfaces, which are converted into two ordinary differential equations by the design method presented in this paper, are used to deflect the rays. The results show that the LED surgical lighting system can provide an excellent illumination environment for surgery, and, apparently, the laminar disturbance also can be relieved.

  7. The Bright and Dark Sides of High-redshift Starburst Galaxies from Herschel and Subaru Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puglisi, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Mancini, C.; Franceschini, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Daddi, E.; Valentino, F.; Calabrò, A.; Jin, S. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Renzini, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio, 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Silverman, J. D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Kashino, D. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Mainieri, V.; Man, A. [ESO, Karl-Schwarschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Darvish, B. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Maier, C. [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Kartaltepe, J. S. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Sanders, D. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present rest-frame optical spectra from the FMOS-COSMOS survey of 12 z ∼ 1.6 Herschel starburst galaxies, with star formation rate (SFR) elevated by ×8, on average, above the star-forming main sequence (MS). Comparing the H α to IR luminosity ratio and the Balmer decrement, we find that the optically thin regions of the sources contain on average only ∼10% of the total SFR, whereas ∼90% come from an extremely obscured component that is revealed only by far-IR observations and is optically thick even in H α . We measure the [N ii]{sub 6583}/H α ratio, suggesting that the less obscured regions have a metal content similar to that of the MS population at the same stellar masses and redshifts. However, our objects appear to be metal-rich outliers from the metallicity–SFR anticorrelation observed at fixed stellar mass for the MS population. The [S ii]{sub 6732}/[S ii]{sub 6717} ratio from the average spectrum indicates an electron density n {sub e} ∼ 1100 cm{sup −3} , larger than what was estimated for MS galaxies but only at the 1.5 σ level. Our results provide supporting evidence that high- z MS outliers are analogous of local ULIRGs and are consistent with a major-merger origin for the starburst event.

  8. Astigmatism-free high-brightness 1060 nm edge-emitting lasers with narrow circular beam profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Md Jarez; Kalosha, Vladimir P; Bimberg, Dieter; Pohl, Johannes; Weyers, Markus

    2016-12-26

    1060 nm high-brightness vertical broad-area edge-emitting lasers providing anastigmatic high optical power into a narrow circular beam profile are demonstrated. Ridge-waveguide (RW) lasers yield record 2.2 W single-transverse mode power in the 1060-nm wavelength range under continuous-wave (cw) operation at room temperature with excellent beam quality factor M2 ≤ 2. Independent of operating current the astigmatism is only 2.5 µm. 3 mm long broad-area (BA) lasers produce a θvert as narrow as 9° full width at half maximum, which agrees well with our simulation results, being insensitive to drive current. 5 mm long BA lasers deliver highest ever reported cw 12 W multimode output power among lasers showing θvert <10° in the 1060-nm wavelength range. The emitted laser beams from both RW and BA lasers show a perfect circular shape with ≤10° divergence angle at record 2.1 W and 4.2 W cw-mode output power, respectively.

  9. High-aggregate-capacity visible light communication links using stacked multimode polymer waveguides and micro-pixelated LED arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiedakis, N.; McKendry, J. J. D.; Xie, E.; Gu, E.; Dawson, M. D.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, light emitting diodes (LEDs) have gained renewed interest for use in visible light communication links (VLC) owing to their potential use as both high-quality power-efficient illumination sources as well as low-cost optical transmitters in free-space and guided-wave links. Applications that can benefit from their use include optical wireless systems (LiFi and Internet of Things), in-home and automotive networks, optical USBs and short-reach low-cost optical interconnects. However, VLC links suffer from the limited LED bandwidth (typically 100 MHz). As a result, a combination of novel LED devices, advanced modulation formats and multiplexing methods are employed to overcome this limitation and achieve high-speed (>1 Gb/s) data transmission over such links. In this work, we present recent advances in the formation of high-aggregate-capacity low cost guided wave VLC links using stacked polymer multimode waveguides and matching micro-pixelated LEDLED) arrays. μLEDs have been shown to exhibit larger bandwidths (>200 MHz) than conventional broad-area LEDs and can be formed in large array configurations, while multimode polymer waveguides enable the formation of low-cost optical links onto standard PCBs. Here, three- and four-layered stacks of multimode waveguides, as well as matching GaN μLED arrays, are fabricated in order to generate high-density yet low-cost optical interconnects. Different waveguide topologies are implemented and are investigated in terms of loss and crosstalk performance. The initial results presented herein demonstrate good intrinsic crosstalk performance and indicate the potential to achieve >= 0.5 Tb/s/mm2 aggregate interconnection capacity using this low-cost technology.

  10. GALEX FAR-ULTRAVIOLET COLOR SELECTION OF UV-BRIGHT HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worseck, Gabor; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We study the small population of high-redshift (z em >2.7) quasars detected by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer(GALEX), whose far-UV emission is not extinguished by intervening H I Lyman limit systems. These quasars are of particular importance to detect intergalactic He II absorption along their sight lines. We correlate almost all verified z em >2.7 quasars to the GALEX GR4 source catalog covering ∼ 25,000 deg 2 , yielding 304 sources detected at signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) >3. However, ∼50% of these are only detected in the GALEX NUV band, signaling the truncation of the FUV flux by low-redshift optically thick Lyman limit systems. We exploit the GALEX UV color m FUV - m NUV to cull the most promising targets for follow-up studies, with blue (red) GALEX colors indicating transparent (opaque) sight lines. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations indicate an He II detection rate of ∼60% for quasars with m FUV - m NUV ∼ em ∼ 3 to be most promising for Hubble Space Telescope follow-up, with an additional 114 quasars if we consider S/N >2 detections in the FUV. Combining the statistical properties of H I absorbers with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar luminosity function, we predict a large all-sky population of ∼200 quasars with z em >2.7 and i ∼ 304 em ∼ em ∼ em ∼< 3.5 quasars have likely underestimated their space density by selecting intergalactic medium sight lines with an excess of strong H I absorbers.

  11. Structural optimization of a microjet based cooling system for high power LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Liu; Zhiyin Gan [Institute for Microsystems, School of Mechanical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Wuhan National Lab of Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Jianghui Yang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Xiaobing Luo [Wuhan National Lab of Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2008-08-15

    Based on the previous experiments and simulations reported by the present authors, it was found the cooling system could be optimized to obtain better performance. In this paper, the microjet cooling systems with three different microjet structures were numerically investigated. The numerical model was proven by the experiments. The optimization results demonstrate that the microjet structure with one single inlet but two outlets can achieve better cooling performance. The simulation results show that the maximum temperature of the LED substrate cooled by the optimized microjet cooling device was 23 K lower than that of the LED substrate cooled by the present experimental cooling system. (author)

  12. Spacing optimization of high power LED arrays for solid state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Y. Sing; Lee, S. W. Ricky, E-mail: rickylee@ust.hk [Electronic Packaging Laboratory, Center for Advanced Microsystems Packaging, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)

    2011-01-15

    This paper provides an analytical approach to determine the optimum pitch by utilizing a thermal resistance network, under the assumption of constant luminous efficiency. This work allows an LED array design which is mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB) attached with a heat sink subject to the natural convection cooling. Being validated by finite element (FE) models, the current approach can be shown as an effective method for the determination of optimal component spacing in an LED array assembly for SSL. (semiconductor devices)

  13. Wireless high-speed data transmission with phosphorescent white-light LEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubor, J.; Lee, S.C.J.; Langer, K-D.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Walewski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Wireless transmission exceeding 100 Mbit/s is demonstrated using a phosphorescent white-light LED in a lighting-like scenario. The data rate was achieved by detecting the blue part of the optical spectrum and applying discrete multi-tone modulation.

  14. Stable high brightness radio frequency driven micro-discharge lamps at 193 (ArF*) and 157 nm ( F2*)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvermoser, M; Murnick, D E

    2004-01-01

    A stable discharge between two pin electrodes separated by several hundred micrometres in a high pressure rare gas (∼900 mbar) halogen (∼1 mbar) mixture is shown to yield continuous wave (CW) ultra violet (UV) and vacuum UV light sources. Lamps operating at 193 (ArF*) and 157 nm F 2 *) have been demonstrated. Total CW output power in the UV was measured to be 30 for ArF* and 20 mW for F 2 *. The brightness of the light sources is estimated to be of the order of several W cm -2 sr -1 . With direct current excitation, electrode lifetimes are limited to a few minutes due to fluorine salt deposits. However, using a radio frequency (RF) field to drive the discharge, the lifetime of the lamps increased to hundreds of hours. A one-dimensional model of the RF micro-discharge explaining the increase in electrode lifetime is presented. The technology described can be adapted to many other wavelengths and promises even higher powers in future

  15. Numerical simulation of a high-brightness lithium ion gun for a Zeeman polarimetry on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Atsushi; Kamiya, Kensaku; Fujita, Takaaki; Kamada, Yutaka; Iguchi, Harukazu

    2007-01-01

    A lithium ion gun is under construction for a lithium beam Zeeman polarimetry on JT-60U. The performance of the prototype ion gun has been estimated by the numerical simulation taking the space charge effects into account. The target values of the ion gun are the beam energy of 30 keV, the beam current of 10 mA and the beam divergence angle within 0.13 degrees. The low divergence of 0.13 degrees is required for the geometry of the Zeeman polarimetry on JT-60U where the observation area is 6.5 m away from the neutralizer. The numerical simulation needs to be carried out for the design study because the requirement of the divergence angle is severe for the development of the high-brightness ion gun. The simulation results show the beam loss of 50% caused by the clash to the electrode such as the cathode and the neutralizer. Moreover, the beam transport efficiency from the neutralizer to the observation area is low due to the broadening of the divergence angle. The total beam efficiency is about 5%. Extracted beam profile affects the beam focusing and the efficiency. The peaked profile achieves better efficiency than the hollow one. As a result, beam current of 1 mA is obtained at the observation area by the simulation for the prototype ion gun. (author)

  16. Photoluminescence, energy transfer and tunable color of Ce(3+), Tb(3+) and Eu(2+) activated oxynitride phosphors with high brightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Wei; Huo, Jiansheng; Feng, Yang; Zhao, Shuang; You, Hongpeng

    2016-06-21

    New tuneable light-emitting Ca3Al8Si4O17N4:Ce(3+)/Tb(3+)/Eu(2+) oxynitride phosphors with high brightness have been prepared. When doped with trivalent cerium or divalent europium they present blue luminescence under UV excitation. The energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Tb(3+) and Ce(3+) to Eu(2+) ions is deduced from the spectral overlap between Ce(3+) emission and Tb(3+)/Eu(2+) excitation spectra. The energy-transfer efficiencies and corresponding mechanisms are discussed in detail, and the mechanisms of energy transfer from the Ce(3+) to Tb(3+) and Ce(3+) to Eu(2+) ions are demonstrated to be a dipole-quadrupole and dipole-dipole mechanism, respectively, by the Inokuti-Hirayama model. The International Commission on Illumination value of color tuneable emission as well as luminescence quantum yield (23.8-80.6%) can be tuned by controlling the content of Ce(3+), Tb(3+) and Eu(2+). All results suggest that they are suitable for UV light-emitting diode excitation.

  17. Transverse emittance-preserving arc compressor for high-brightness electron beam-based light sources and colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mitri, S.; Cornacchia, M.

    2015-03-01

    Bunch length magnetic compression is used in high-brightness linacs driving free-electron lasers (FELs) and particle colliders to increase the peak current of the injected beam. To date, it is performed in dedicated insertions made of few degrees bending magnets and the compression factor is limited by the degradation of the beam transverse emittance owing to emission of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). We reformulate the known concept of CSR-driven optics balance for the general case of varying bunch length and demonstrate, through analytical and numerical results, that a 500 pC charge beam can be time-compressed in a periodic 180 deg arc at 2.4 GeV beam energy and lower, by a factor of up to 45, reaching peak currents of up to 2 kA and with a normalized emittance growth at the 0.1 μ \\text{m} rad level. The proposed solution offers new schemes of beam longitudinal gymnastics; an application to an energy recovery linac driving FEL is discussed.

  18. Structural Control of InP/ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots Enables High-quality White LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Kumar, Baskaran; Sadeghi, Sadra; Melikov, Rustamzhon; Mohammadi Aria, Mohammed; Bahmani Jalali, Houman; Ow-Yang, Cleva; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2018-05-30

    Herein, we demonstrate that the structural and optical control of InP-based quantum dots can lead to high-performance LEDs. Zinc sulphide (ZnS) shells passivate the InP quantum dot core and increase the quantum yield in green-emitting quantum dots by 13-fold and red-emitting quantum dots by 8-fold. The optimised quantum dots are integrated in the liquid-state to eliminate aggregation induced emission quenching and we fabricated white LEDs with warm, neutral, and cool white appearance by the down-conversion mechanism. The quantum dot-functionalized white LEDs achieve luminous efficiency up to 14.7 lm/W and colour-rendering index up to 80. The structural and optical control of InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots enable 23-fold enhancement in luminous efficiency of white LEDs compared to ones containing only QDs of InP core. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Differential responses to high- and low-dose ultraviolet-B stress in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shinya; Kojo, Kei H.; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Endo, Masaki; Toki, Seiichi; Isoda, Hiroko; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation leads to DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, growth inhibition, and cell death. To evaluate the UV-B stress–induced changes in plant cells, we developed a model system based on tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells. Both low-dose UV-B (low UV-B: 740 J m−2) and high-dose UV-B (high UV-B: 2960 J m−2) inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death; these effects were more pronounced at high UV-B. Flow cytometry showed cell cycle arrest within 1 day after UV-B irradiation; neither low- nor high-UV-B–irradiated cells entered mitosis within 12 h. Cell cycle progression was gradually restored in low-UV-B–irradiated cells but not in high-UV-B–irradiated cells. UV-A irradiation, which activates cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyase, reduced inhibition of cell proliferation by low but not high UV-B and suppressed high-UV-B–induced cell death. UV-B induced CPD formation in a dose-dependent manner. The amounts of CPDs decreased gradually within 3 days in low-UV-B–irradiated cells, but remained elevated after 3 days in high-UV-B–irradiated cells. Low UV-B slightly increased the number of DNA single-strand breaks detected by the comet assay at 1 day after irradiation, and then decreased at 2 and 3 days after irradiation. High UV-B increased DNA fragmentation detected by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay 1 and 3 days after irradiation. Caffeine, an inhibitor of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) checkpoint kinases, reduced the rate of cell death in high-UV-B–irradiated cells. Our data suggest that low-UV-B–induced CPDs and/or DNA strand-breaks inhibit DNA replication and proliferation of BY-2 cells, whereas larger contents of high-UV-B–induced CPDs and/or DNA strand-breaks lead to cell death. PMID:25954287

  20. A Single-Stage High-Power-Factor Light-Emitting Diode (LED Driver with Coupled Inductors for Streetlight Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-An Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and implements a single-stage high-power-factor light-emitting diode (LED driver with coupled inductors, suitable for streetlight applications. The presented LED driver integrates an interleaved buck-boost power factor correction (PFC converter with coupled inductors and a half-bridge-type series-resonant converter cascaded with a full-bridge rectifier into a single-stage power conversion circuit. Coupled inductors inside the interleaved buck-boost PFC converter sub-circuit are designed to operate in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM for achieving input-current shaping, and the half-bridge-type series resonant converter cascaded with a full-bridge rectifier is designed for obtaining zero-voltage switching (ZVS on two power switches to reduce their switching losses. Analysis of operational modes and design equations for the presented LED driver are described and included. In addition, the presented driver features a high power factor, low total harmonic distortion (THD of input current, and soft switching. Finally, a prototype driver is developed and implemented to supply a 165-W-rated LED streetlight module with utility-line input voltages ranging from 210 to 230 V. Experimental results demonstrate that high power factor (>0.99, low utility-line current THD (<7%, low-output voltage ripples (<1%, low-output current ripples (<10%, and high circuit efficiency (>90% are obtained in the presented single-stage driver for LED streetlight applications.

  1. Development of a High Irradiance LED Configuration for Small Field of View Motion Estimation of Fertilizer Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Cool

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Better characterization of the fertilizer spreading process, especially the fertilizer pattern distribution on the ground, requires an accurate measurement of individual particle properties and dynamics. Both 2D and 3D high speed imaging techniques have been developed for this purpose. To maximize the accuracy of the predictions, a specific illumination level is required. This paper describes the development of a high irradiance LED system for high speed motion estimation of fertilizer particles. A spectral sensitivity factor was used to select the optimal LED in relation to the used camera from a range of commercially available high power LEDs. A multiple objective genetic algorithm was used to find the optimal configuration of LEDs resulting in the most homogeneous irradiance in the target area. Simulations were carried out for different lenses and number of LEDs. The chosen configuration resulted in an average irradiance level of 452 W/m2 with coefficient of variation less than 2%. The algorithm proved superior and more flexible to other approaches reported in the literature and can be used for various other applications.

  2. Ultrabroad linewidth orange-emitting nanowires LED for high CRI laser-based white lighting and gigahertz communications

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal; Ng, Tien Khee; Zhao, Chao; Oubei, Hassan M.; Shen, Chao; Prabaswara, Aditya; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Alhamoud, Abdullah Ali; Alatawi, Abdullah Awaad; Albadri, Abdulrahman M.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    intensity- and bandwidth-tunable for high color-quality remained unexplored. In this paper, we present for the first time, the proof-of-concept of the generation of high-quality white light using an InGaN-based orange nanowires (NWs) LED grown on silicon

  3. Does low surface brightness mean low density?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBlok, WJG; McGaugh, SS

    1996-01-01

    We compare the dynamical properties of two galaxies at identical positions on the Tully-Fisher relation, but with different surface brightnesses. We find that the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 128 has a higher mass-to-light ratio, and yet has lower mass densities than the high surface brightness

  4. Using rare earth doped thiosilicate phosphors in white light emitting LEDs: Towards low colour temperature and high colour rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smet, P.F.; Korthout, K.; Haecke, J.E. van; Poelman, D.

    2008-01-01

    Rare earth doped thiosilicates are promising materials for use in phosphor converted light emitting diodes (pcLEDs). These phosphors (including the hosts Ca 2 SiS 4 , BaSi 2 S 5 and Ba 2 SiS 4 in combination with Ce 3+ and/or Eu 2+ doping) cover the entire visible part of the spectrum, as the emission colour can be changed from deep blue to red. The photoluminescence emission spectrum and the overlap of the excitation spectrum with the emission of pumping LEDs is evaluated. The trade-off between high colour rendering and high electrical-to-optical power efficiency is discussed by simulation with both blue and UV emitting LEDs. Finally, a phosphor combination with low colour temperature (3000 K) and high colour rendering (CRI = 93) is proposed

  5. Semi-polar GaN materials technology for high IQE green LEDs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koleske, Daniel; Lee, Stephen Roger; Crawford, Mary H; Coltrin, Michael Elliott; Fini, Paul

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this NETL funded program was to improve the IQE in green (and longer wavelength) nitride- based LEDs structures by using semi-polar GaN planar orientations for InGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) growth. These semi-polar orientations have the advantage of significantly reducing the piezoelectric fields that distort the QW band structure and decrease electron-hole overlap. In addition, semipolar surfaces potentially provide a more open surface bonding environment for indium incorporation, thus enabling higher indium concentrations in the InGaN MQW. The goal of the proposed work was to select the optimal semi-polar orientation and explore wafer miscuts around this orientation that produced the highest quantum efficiency LEDs. At the end of this program we had hoped to have MQWs active regions at 540 nm with an IQE of 50% and an EQE of 40%, which would be approximately twice the estimated current state-of-the-art.

  6. High brightness InP micropillars grown on silicon with Fermi level splitting larger than 1 eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thai-Truong D; Sun, Hao; Ng, Kar Wei; Ren, Fan; Li, Kun; Lu, Fanglu; Yablonovitch, Eli; Chang-Hasnain, Constance J

    2014-06-11

    The growth of III-V nanowires on silicon is a promising approach for low-cost, large-scale III-V photovoltaics. However, performances of III-V nanowire solar cells have not yet been as good as their bulk counterparts, as nanostructured light absorbers are fundamentally challenged by enhanced minority carriers surface recombination rates. The resulting nonradiative losses lead to significant reductions in the external spontaneous emission quantum yield, which, in turn, manifest as penalties in the open-circuit voltage. In this work, calibrated photoluminescence measurements are utilized to construct equivalent voltage-current characteristics relating illumination intensities to Fermi level splitting ΔF inside InP microillars. Under 1 sun, we show that splitting can exceed ΔF ∼ 0.90 eV in undoped pillars. This value can be increased to values of ΔF ∼ 0.95 eV by cleaning pillar surfaces in acidic etchants. Pillars with nanotextured surfaces can yield splitting of ΔF ∼ 0.90 eV, even though they exhibit high densities of stacking faults. Finally, by introducing n-dopants, ΔF of 1.07 eV can be achieved due to a wider bandgap energy in n-doped wurzite InP, the higher brightness of doped materials, and the extraordinarily low surface recombination velocity of InP. This is the highest reported value for InP materials grown on a silicon substrate. These results provide further evidence that InP micropillars on silicon could be a promising material for low-cost, large-scale solar cells with high efficiency.

  7. Mechanical design and fabrication of the VHF-gun, the Berkeley normal-conducting continuous-wave high-brightness electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R. P.; Ghiorso, W.; Staples, J.; Huang, T. M.; Sannibale, F.; Kramasz, T. D.

    2016-02-01

    A high repetition rate, MHz-class, high-brightness electron source is a key element in future high-repetition-rate x-ray free electron laser-based light sources. The VHF-gun, a novel low frequency radio-frequency gun, is the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) response to that need. The gun design is based on a normal conducting, single cell cavity resonating at 186 MHz in the VHF band and capable of continuous wave operation while still delivering the high accelerating fields at the cathode required for the high brightness performance. The VHF-gun was fabricated and successfully commissioned in the framework of the Advanced Photo-injector EXperiment, an injector built at LBNL to demonstrate the capability of the gun to deliver the required beam quality. The basis for the selection of the VHF-gun technology, novel design features, and fabrication techniques are described.

  8. Impulsive and long duration high-energy gamma-ray emission from the very bright 2012 March 7 solar flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Charles, E. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, and Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bonamente, E.; Cecchi, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica " M. Merlin" dell' Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Caraveo, P. A., E-mail: nicola.omodei@stanford.edu, E-mail: vahep@stanford.edu, E-mail: melissa.pesce.rollins@pi.infn.it [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, I-20133 Milano (Italy); and others

    2014-07-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) detected gamma-rays up to 4 GeV from two bright X-class solar flares on 2012 March 7, showing both an impulsive and temporally extended emission phases. The gamma-rays appear to originate from the same active region as the X-rays associated with these flares. The >100 MeV gamma-ray flux decreases monotonically during the first hour (impulsive phase) followed by a slower decrease for the next 20 hr. A power law with a high-energy exponential cutoff can adequately describe the photon spectrum. Assuming that the gamma rays result from the decay of pions produced by accelerated protons and ions with a power-law spectrum, we find that the index of that spectrum is ∼3, with minor variations during the impulsive phase. During the extended phase the photon spectrum softens monotonically, requiring the proton index varying from ∼4 to >5. The >30 MeV proton flux observed by the GOES satellites also shows a flux decrease and spectral softening, but with a harder spectrum (index ∼2-3). Based on these observations, we explore the relative merits of prompt or continuous acceleration scenarios, hadronic or leptonic emission processes, and acceleration at the solar corona or by the fast coronal mass ejections. We conclude that the most likely scenario is continuous acceleration of protons in the solar corona that penetrate the lower solar atmosphere and produce pions that decay into gamma rays. However, acceleration in the downstream of the shock cannot be definitely ruled out.

  9. Color and emotion: effects of hue, saturation, and brightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Lisa; Oberfeld, Daniel

    2017-06-13

    Previous studies on emotional effects of color often failed to control all the three perceptual dimensions of color: hue, saturation, and brightness. Here, we presented a three-dimensional space of chromatic colors by independently varying hue (blue, green, red), saturation (low, medium, high), and brightness (dark, medium, bright) in a factorial design. The 27 chromatic colors, plus 3 brightness-matched achromatic colors, were presented via an LED display. Participants (N = 62) viewed each color for 30 s and then rated their current emotional state (valence and arousal). Skin conductance and heart rate were measured continuously. The emotion ratings showed that saturated and bright colors were associated with higher arousal. The hue also had a significant effect on arousal, which increased from blue and green to red. The ratings of valence were the highest for saturated and bright colors, and also depended on the hue. Several interaction effects of the three color dimensions were observed for both arousal and valence. For instance, the valence ratings were higher for blue than for the remaining hues, but only for highly saturated colors. Saturated and bright colors caused significantly stronger skin conductance responses. Achromatic colors resulted in a short-term deceleration in the heart rate, while chromatic colors caused an acceleration. The results confirm that color stimuli have effects on the emotional state of the observer. These effects are not only determined by the hue of a color, as is often assumed, but by all the three color dimensions as well as their interactions.

  10. High-power LED light sources for optical measurement systems operated in continuous and overdriven pulsed modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasicki, Bolesław; Schröder, Andreas; Boden, Fritz; Ludwikowski, Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    The rapid progress of light emitting diode (LED) technology has recently resulted in the availability of high power devices with unprecedented light emission intensities comparable to those of visible laser light sources. On this basis two versatile devices have been developed, constructed and tested. The first one is a high-power, single-LED illuminator equipped with exchangeable projection lenses providing a homogenous light spot of defined diameter. The second device is a multi-LED illuminator array consisting of a number of high-power LEDs, each integrated with a separate collimating lens. These devices can emit R, G, CG, B, UV or white light and can be operated in pulsed or continuous wave (CW) mode. Using an external trigger signal they can be easily synchronized with cameras or other devices. The mode of operation and all parameters can be controlled by software. Various experiments have shown that these devices have become a versatile and competitive alternative to laser and xenon lamp based light sources. The principle, design, achieved performances and application examples are given in this paper.

  11. TH-CD-207B-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): Development of High Brightness Multiple-Pixel X-Ray Source Using Oxide Coated Cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandlakunta, P; Pham, R; Zhang, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and characterize a high brightness multiple-pixel thermionic emission x-ray (MPTEX) source. Methods: Multiple-pixel x-ray sources allow for designs of novel x-ray imaging techniques, such as fixed gantry CT, digital tomosynthesis, tetrahedron beam computed tomography, etc. We are developing a high-brightness multiple-pixel thermionic emission x-ray (MPTEX) source based on oxide coated cathodes. Oxide cathode is chosen as the electron source due to its high emission current density and low operating temperature. A MPTEX prototype has been developed which may contain up to 41 micro-rectangular oxide cathodes in 4 mm pixel spacing. Electronics hardware was developed for source control and switching. The cathode emission current was evaluated and x-ray measurements were performed to estimate the focal spot size. Results: The oxide cathodes were able to produce ∼110 mA cathode current in pulse mode which corresponds to an emission current density of 0.55 A/cm 2 . The maximum kVp of the MPTEX prototype currently is limited to 100 kV due to the rating of high voltage feedthrough. Preliminary x-ray measurements estimated the focal spot size as 1.5 × 1.3 mm 2 . Conclusion: A MPTEX source was developed with thermionic oxide coated cathodes and preliminary source characterization was successfully performed. The MPTEX source is able to produce an array of high brightness x-ray beams with a fast switching speed.

  12. High-sensitivity detection of cardiac troponin I with UV LED excitation for use in point-of-care immunoassay

    OpenAIRE

    Rodenko, Olga; Eriksson, Susann; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Troldborg, Carl Peder; Fodgaard, Henrik; van Os, Sylvana; Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assay development enables determination of biological variation in healthy populations, more accurate interpretation of clinical results and points towards earlier diagnosis and rule-out of acute myocardial infarction. In this paper, we report on preliminary tests of an immunoassay analyzer employing an optimized LED excitation to measure on a standard troponin I and a novel research high-sensitivity troponin I assay. The limit of detection is improved by fac...

  13. Building block diode laser concept for high brightness laser output in the kW range and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Fabio; Fritsche, Haro; Grohe, Andreas; Hagen, Thomas; Kern, Holger; Koch, Ralf; Kruschke, Bastian; Reich, Axel; Sanftleben, Dennis; Steger, Ronny; Wallendorf, Till; Gries, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    The modular concept of DirectPhotonics laser systems is a big advantage regarding its manufacturability, serviceability as well as reproducibility. By sticking to identical base components an economic production allows to serve as many applications as possible while keeping the product variations minimal. The modular laser design is based on single emitters and various combining technics. In a first step we accept a reduction of the very high brightness of the single emitters by vertical stacking several diodes in fast axis. This can be theoretically done until the combined fast axis beam quality is on a comparable level as the individual diodes slow axis beam quality without loosing overall beam performance after fiber coupling. Those stacked individual emitters can be wavelength stabilized by an external resonator, providing the very same feedback to each of those laser diodes which leads to an output power of about 100 W with BPP of BPP. The 500 W building blocks are consequently designed in a way that they feature a high flexibility with regard to their emitting wavelength bandwidth. Therefore, new wavelengths can be implemented by only exchanging parts and without any additional change of the production process. This design principal theoretically offers the option to adapt the wavelength of those blocks to any applications, from UV, visible into the far IR as long as there are any diodes commercially available. This opens numerous additional applications like laser pumping, scientific applications, materials processing such as cutting and welding of copper aluminum or steel and also medical application. Typical operating at wavelengths in the 9XX nm range, these systems are designed for and mainly used in cutting and welding applications, but adapted wavelength ranges such as 793 nm and 1530 nm are also offered. Around 15XX nm the diodes are already successfully used for resonant pumping of Erbium lasers [1]. Furthermore, the fully integrated electronic

  14. Generation of Bright, Spatially Coherent Soft X-Ray High Harmonics in a Hollow Waveguide Using Two-Color Synthesized Laser Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Stein, Gregory J; Hong, Kyung-Han; Lin, C D

    2015-07-24

    We investigate the efficient generation of low-divergence high-order harmonics driven by waveform-optimized laser pulses in a gas-filled hollow waveguide. The drive waveform is obtained by synthesizing two-color laser pulses, optimized such that highest harmonic yields are emitted from each atom. Optimization of the gas pressure and waveguide configuration has enabled us to produce bright and spatially coherent harmonics extending from the extreme ultraviolet to soft x rays. Our study on the interplay among waveguide mode, atomic dispersion, and plasma effect uncovers how dynamic phase matching is accomplished and how an optimized waveform is maintained when optimal waveguide parameters (radius and length) and gas pressure are identified. Our analysis should help laboratory development in the generation of high-flux bright coherent soft x rays as tabletop light sources for applications.

  15. Knoop hardness of ten resin composites irradiated with high-power LED and quartz-tungsten-halogen lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Richard B T; Felix, Corey A; Andreou, Pantelis

    2005-05-01

    This study compared a high-power light-emitting-diode (LED) curing light (FreeLight 2, 3M ESPE) with a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) light (TriLight, 3M ESPE) to determine which was the better at photo-polymerising 10 resin composites. Class I preparations were prepared 4-mm deep into human teeth and filled with 10 different composites. The composites were irradiated for 50% or 100% of their recommended times using the LED light, and for 100% of their recommended times with the QTH light on either the high or medium power setting. Fifteen minutes later, the Knoop hardness of the composites was measured to a depth of 3.5 mm from the surface. When irradiated by the LED light for their recommended curing times, the Knoop hardness of all 10 composites stayed above 80% of the maximum hardness of the composite to a depth of at least 1.5 mm; three composites maintained a Knoop hardness that was more than 80% of their maximum hardness to a depth of 3.5 mm. Repeated measurements analysis of variance indicated that all the two-way and three-way interactions between the curing light, depth, and composite were significant (p hardness values. The LED light, used for the composite manufacturer's recommended time, was ranked the best at curing the composites to a depth of 3mm (p power setting.

  16. Plasma conditions generated by interaction of a high brightness, prepulse free Raman amplified KrF laser pulse with solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, D.; Gizzi, L.A.; Khattak, F.Y.; Mackinnon, A.J.; Viana, S.M.; Willi, O.

    1992-01-01

    A high brightness, Raman amplified KrF laser has been used to irradiate solid targets with 12 ps laser pulses at intensities above 10 15 W/cm 2 without the presence of a preformed plasma caused by low level amplified spontaneous emission prepulse. Time-resolved x-ray spectroscopy of the K-shell emission from aluminum was used to infer electron densities in excess of 10 23 cm -3 at temperatures of several hundred electronvolts

  17. Development of a high brightness ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscope based on a laser-driven cold field emission source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdellier, F; Caruso, G M; Weber, S; Kociak, M; Arbouet, A

    2018-03-01

    We report on the development of an ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscope based on a cold field emission source which can operate in either DC or ultrafast mode. Electron emission from a tungsten nanotip is triggered by femtosecond laser pulses which are tightly focused by optical components integrated inside a cold field emission source close to the cathode. The properties of the electron probe (brightness, angular current density, stability) are quantitatively determined. The measured brightness is the largest reported so far for UTEMs. Examples of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy using ultrashort electron pulses are given. Finally, the potential of this instrument is illustrated by performing electron holography in the off-axis configuration using ultrashort electron pulses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Photodynamic therapy efficient using high power LED's to eliminate breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo Millan, J.; Gardunno Medina, J. A.; Ramon Gallegos, E.; De la Rosa, J.; Moreno Garcia, E.

    2009-01-01

    The photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a therapeutic modality that requires light, a photo sensitizer and oxygen. In poor countries, a problem for his application is the laser cost for irradiate, due to this, a light source was constructed with LED's that emit to 625 nm and his efficiency to eliminate breast cancer cells was measured. Two lines of breast cancer (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) and not cancerous cells (HaCat) were exposed to 40 and 80 μg/mL of ALA concentrations during 24h to induce the photo sensitizer PpIX, and were radiated to 120 and 240 J/cm 2 , 24 h later on the cellular death was measured by Alamar blue method. The PDT elimination efficiency, when were used the doses of light of 120 and 240 J/cm 2 , was 61 and 71 % for MDA, 46 and 49.2 % for MCF-7 and 87.2 and 94.1 % for HaCaT respectively. The constructed light source showed to be efficient in the elimination of the cancerous cells. (Author)

  19. Multi-kW high-brightness fiber coupled diode laser based on two dimensional stacked tailored diode bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Andreas; Unger, Andreas; Köhler, Bernd; Küster, Matthias; Dürsch, Sascha; Kissel, Heiko; Irwin, David A.; Bodem, Christian; Plappert, Nora; Kersten, Maik; Biesenbach, Jens

    2016-03-01

    The demand for high brightness fiber coupled diode laser devices in the multi kW power region is mainly driven by industrial applications for materials processing, like brazing, cladding and metal welding, which require a beam quality better than 30 mm x mrad and power levels above 3kW. Reliability, modularity, and cost effectiveness are key factors for success in the market. We have developed a scalable and modular diode laser architecture that fulfills these requirements through use of a simple beam shaping concept based on two dimensional stacking of tailored diode bars mounted on specially designed, tap water cooled heat sinks. The base element of the concept is a tailored diode laser bar with an epitaxial and lateral structure designed such that the desired beam quality in slow-axis direction can be realized without using sophisticated beam shaping optics. The optical design concept is based on fast-axis collimator (FAC) and slow-axis collimator (SAC) lenses followed by only one additional focusing optic for efficient coupling into a 400 μm fiber with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.12. To fulfill the requirements of scalability and modularity, four tailored bars are populated on a reduced size, tap water cooled heat sink. The diodes on these building blocks are collimated simply via FAC and SAC. The building blocks can be stacked vertically resulting in a two-dimensional diode stack, which enables a compact design of the laser source with minimum beam path length. For a single wavelength, up to eight of these building blocks, implying a total of 32 tailored bars, can be stacked into a submodule, polarization multiplexed, and coupled into a 400 μm, 0.12NA fiber. Scalability into the multi kW region is realized by wavelength combining of replaceable submodules in the spectral range from 900 - 1100 nm. We present results of a laser source based on this architecture with an output power of more than 4 kW and a beam quality of 25 mm x mrad.

  20. A nurse-led model at public academic hospitals maintains high adherence to colorectal cancer surveillance guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Erin L; Simpson, Kalindra; Coats, Michelle; Chaplin, Angela; Saxty, Karen; Sandford, Jayne; Young Am, Graeme P; Cock, Charles; Fraser, Robert; Bampton, Peter A

    2018-06-18

    To examine the compliance of colorectal cancer surveillance decisions for individuals at greater risk with current evidence-based guidelines and to determine whether compliance differs between surveillance models. Prospective auditing of compliance of surveillance decisions with evidence-based guidelines (NHMRC) in two decision-making models: nurse coordinator-led decision making in public academic hospitals and physician-led decision making in private non-academic hospitals. Selected South Australian hospitals participating in the Southern Co-operative Program for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer (SCOOP). Proportions of recall recommendations that matched NHMRC guideline recommendations (March-May 2015); numbers of surveillance colonoscopies undertaken more than 6 months ahead of schedule (January-December 2015); proportions of significant neoplasia findings during the 15 years of SCOOP operation (2000-2015). For the nurse-led/public academic hospital model, the recall interval recommendation following 398 of 410 colonoscopies (97%) with findings covered by NHMRC guidelines corresponded to the guideline recommendations; for the physician-led/private non-academic hospital model, this applied to 257 of 310 colonoscopies (83%) (P < 0.001). During 2015, 27% of colonoscopies in public academic hospitals (mean, 27 months; SD, 13 months) and 20% of those in private non-academic hospitals (mean, 23 months; SD, 12 months) were performed more than 6 months earlier than scheduled, in most cases because of patient-related factors (symptoms, faecal occult blood test results). The ratio of the numbers of high risk adenomas to cancers increased from 6.6:1 during 2001-2005 to 16:1 during 2011-2015. The nurse-led/public academic hospital model for decisions about colorectal cancer surveillance intervals achieves a high degree of compliance with guideline recommendations, which should relieve burdening of colonoscopy resources.

  1. Dark current studies on a normal-conducting high-brightness very-high-frequency electron gun operating in continuous wave mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on measurements and analysis of a field-emitted electron current in the very-high-frequency (VHF gun, a room temperature rf gun operating at high field and continuous wave (CW mode at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. The VHF gun is the core of the Advanced Photo-injector Experiment (APEX at LBNL, geared toward the development of an injector for driving the next generation of high average power x-ray free electron lasers. High accelerating fields at the cathode are necessary for the high-brightness performance of an electron gun. When coupled with CW operation, such fields can generate a significant amount of field-emitted electrons that can be transported downstream the accelerator forming the so-called “dark current.” Elevated levels of a dark current can cause radiation damage, increase the heat load in the downstream cryogenic systems, and ultimately limit the overall performance and reliability of the facility. We performed systematic measurements that allowed us to characterize the field emission from the VHF gun, determine the location of the main emitters, and define an effective strategy to reduce and control the level of dark current at APEX. Furthermore, the energy spectra of isolated sources have been measured. A simple model for energy data analysis was developed that allows one to extract information on the emitter from a single energy distribution measurement.

  2. Ultrabroad linewidth orange-emitting nanowires LED for high CRI laser-based white lighting and gigahertz communications

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal

    2016-08-10

    Group-III-nitride laser diode (LD)-based solid-state lighting device has been demonstrated to be droop-free compared to light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and highly energy-efficient compared to that of the traditional incandescent and fluorescent white light systems. The YAG:Ce3+ phosphor used in LD-based solid-state lighting, however, is associated with rapid degradation issue. An alternate phosphor/LD architecture, which is capable of sustaining high temperature, high power density, while still intensity- and bandwidth-tunable for high color-quality remained unexplored. In this paper, we present for the first time, the proof-of-concept of the generation of high-quality white light using an InGaN-based orange nanowires (NWs) LED grown on silicon, in conjunction with a blue LD, and in place of the compound-phosphor. By changing the relative intensities of the ultrabroad linewidth orange and narrow-linewidth blue components, our LED/LD device architecture achieved correlated color temperature (CCT) ranging from 3000 K to above 6000K with color rendering index (CRI) values reaching 83.1, a value unsurpassed by the YAG-phosphor/blue-LD counterpart. The white-light wireless communications was implemented using the blue LD through on-off keying (OOK) modulation to obtain a data rate of 1.06 Gbps. We therefore achieved the best of both worlds when orange-emitting NWs LED are utilized as “active-phosphor”, while blue LD is used for both color mixing and optical wireless communications.

  3. 1.9 W yellow, CW, high-brightness light from a high efficiency semiconductor laser-based system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. K.; Christensen, M.; Noordegraaf, D.; Heist, P.; Papastathopoulos, E.; Loyo-Maldonado, V.; Jensen, O. B.; Stock, M. L.; Skovgaard, P. M. W.

    2017-02-01

    Semiconductor lasers are ideal sources for efficient electrical-to-optical power conversion and for many applications where their small size and potential for low cost are required to meet market demands. Yellow lasers find use in a variety of bio-related applications, such as photocoagulation, imaging, flow cytometry, and cancer treatment. However, direct generation of yellow light from semiconductors with sufficient beam quality and power has so far eluded researchers. Meanwhile, tapered semiconductor lasers at near-infrared wavelengths have recently become able to provide neardiffraction- limited, single frequency operation with output powers up to 8 W near 1120 nm. We present a 1.9 W single frequency laser system at 562 nm, based on single pass cascaded frequency doubling of such a tapered laser diode. The laser diode is a monolithic device consisting of two sections: a ridge waveguide with a distributed Bragg reflector, and a tapered amplifier. Using single-pass cascaded frequency doubling in two periodically poled lithium niobate crystals, 1.93 W of diffraction-limited light at 562 nm is generated from 5.8 W continuous-wave infrared light. When turned on from cold, the laser system reaches full power in just 60 seconds. An advantage of using a single pass configuration, rather than an external cavity configuration, is increased stability towards external perturbations. For example, stability to fluctuating case temperature over a 30 K temperature span has been demonstrated. The combination of high stability, compactness and watt-level power range means this technology is of great interest for a wide range of biological and biomedical applications.

  4. A multi-scale and model approach to estimate future tidal high water statistics in the southern German Bright

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, H.; Mai, S.; Mayer, B.; Pohlmann, T.; Barjenbruch, U.

    2012-04-01

    The interactions of tides, external surges, storm surges and waves with an additional role of the coastal bathymetry define the probability of extreme water levels at the coast. Probabilistic analysis and also process based numerical models allow the estimation of future states. From the physical point of view both, deterministic processes and stochastic residuals are the fundamentals of high water statistics. This study uses a so called model chain to reproduce historic statistics of tidal high water levels (Thw) as well as the prediction of future statistics high water levels. The results of the numerical models are post-processed by a stochastic analysis. Recent studies show, that for future extrapolation of extreme Thw nonstationary parametric approaches are required. With the presented methods a better prediction of time depended parameter sets seems possible. The investigation region of this study is the southern German Bright. The model-chain is the representation of a downscaling process, which starts with an emissions scenario. Regional atmospheric and ocean models refine the results of global climate models. The concept of downscaling was chosen to resolve coastal topography sufficiently. The North Sea and estuaries are modeled with the three-dimensional model HAMburg Shelf Ocean Model. The running time includes 150 years (1950 - 2100). Results of four different hindcast runs and also of one future prediction run are validated. Based on multi-scale analysis and the theory of entropy we analyze whether any significant periodicities are represented numerically. Results show that also hindcasting the climate of Thw with a model chain for the last 60 years is a challenging task. For example, an additional modeling activity must be the inclusion of tides into regional climate ocean models. It is found that the statistics of climate variables derived from model results differs from the statistics derived from measurements. E.g. there are considerable shifts in

  5. Study on the Thermal Resistance of Multi-chip Module High Power LED Packaging Heat Dissipation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailin Pan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal resistance is a key technical index which indicates the thermal management of multi-chip module high power LED (MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system. In this paper, the prototype structure of MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system is proposed to study the reliable thermal resistance calculation method. In order to analyze the total thermal resistance of the MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system, three kinds of thermal resistance calculation method including theoretical calculation, experimental testing and finite element simulation are developed respectively. Firstly, based on the thermal resistance network model and the principle of steady state heat transfer, the theoretical value of total thermal resistance is 6.111 K/W through sum of the thermal resistance of every material layer in the major direction of heat flow. Secondly, the thermal resistance experiment is carried out by T3Ster to obtain the experimental result of total thermal resistance, and the value is 6.729 K/W. Thirdly, a three-dimensional finite element model of MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system is established, and the junction temperature experiment is also performed to calculated the finite element simulated result of total thermal resistance, the value is 6.99 K/W. Finally, by comparing the error of all the three kinds of result, the error of total thermal resistance between the theoretical value and experimental result is 9.2 %, and the error of total thermal resistance between the experimental result and finite element simulation is only about -3.9 %, meanwhile, the main reason of each error is discussed respectively.

  6. A Peer-Led High School Transition Program Increases Graduation Rates Among Latino Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Valerie L; Simon, Patricia; Mun, Eun-Young

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of a manualized high school transition program, the Peer Group Connection (PGC) program, on the graduation rate at a low-income, Mid-Atlantic high school. The program utilized twelfth grade student peer leaders to create a supportive environment for incoming ninth grade students. Results of a randomized control trial demonstrated that male students who participated in the program during ninth grade were significantly more likely to graduate from high school within four years than male students in the control group (81% versus 63%). Findings suggest that peers can be effective in delivering a school-based, social emotional learning intervention and that it is possible to intervene in the ninth grade to influence the probability of high school graduation.

  7. The First Non-Dispersive High-Resolution Spectroscopy of an X-ray-bright Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Hitomi Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    The Hitomi X-ray Observatory was equipped with the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS), an X-ray microcalorimeter that achieved an energy resolution of 5 eV (@0.5-10 keV) for extended objects. This offered an unprecedented benchmark of atomic modeling and database for hot collisional plasmas, revealing both successes and challenges in the current atomic codes that are widely used by the X-ray astronomy community. I will review the Hitomi observations of the brightest part of the Perseus Cluster, whose X-ray spectrum is dominated by thermal emission from the intra-cluster medium (ICM). The SXS successfully measured the turbulent velocities and metal abundances of the ICM, which radically altered our understanding of the dynamics and chemical enrichment in this object. At the same time, the high-resolution X-ray data led to significant improvement in the atomic models, such as AtomDB and SPEX -- I will briefly overview how this improvement was made. Nevertheless, there are still significant discrepancies among the public atomic models, causing systematic uncertainties in measurements of the temperature, abundance, and degree of the resonance scattering. Requirements for future improvements will be summarized in this context.

  8. Application of Inkjet Printing in High-Density Pixelated RGB Quantum Dot-Hybrid LEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Haverinen, Hanna; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2012-01-01

    to fabricate high-density, pixelated (quarter video graphics array (QVGA) format), monochromatic and RGB quantum dots light-emitting diodes (QDLEDs), where inkjet printing is used to deposit the light-emitting layer of QDs. It shows some of the factors

  9. The Effectiveness of Peer-Led FAS/FAE Prevention Presentations in Middle and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulter, Lyn

    2007-01-01

    Pregnant women and women who might become pregnant, including middle school- and high school-age adolescents, continue to consume alcohol, placing themselves at risk of having a child with the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. However, most prevention programs that attempt to increase public awareness and knowledge of FAS and related disorders…

  10. Student-Led Project Teams: Significance of Regulation Strategies in High- and Low-Performing Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Judith

    2016-01-01

    We studied group and individual co-regulatory and self-regulatory strategies of self-managed student project teams using data from intragroup peer evaluations and a postproject survey. We found that high team performers shared their research and knowledge with others, collaborated to advise and give constructive criticism, and demonstrated moral…

  11. Experimental study on the thermal management of high-power LED headlight cooling device integrated with thermoelectric cooler package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhao, Xin-Jie; Cai, Yi-Xi; Zhang, Chun; Bao, Wei-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel TEC cooling system for multi-chip LED module was successfully developed. • Influences of liquid velocity on the system thermal performance were investigated. • TEC system is more sensitive to the input current than that of the mere air cooling. • The junction temperature can be maintained below 61.8 °C (liquid cooling & TEC). - Abstract: In view of the characteristics of high power light-emitting diodes (LEDs), such as strict junction temperature (T j ) control, the enhanced cooling models based on the thermoelectric cooler (TEC) were presented to meet the thermal demand of high-power LED headlight. The cooling performance of different devices (air cooling & TEC, liquid cooling & TEC) was evaluated and compared by measuring the LED case temperature. Details of the heat transfer performance, particularly, the start-up performances of the TEC cooler, as well as the influence of the fan rotate speed or liquid velocity on the system thermal performance were obtained. It was found that the thermal performance had been elevated dramatically due to the reduction of the hot side temperature, and the thermoelectric cooler was more sensitive to the external fan speed or liquid velocity than purely air cooling or liquid cooling. In addition, the optimal current for air cooling & TEC was 3A, and 5A for liquid cooling + TEC. Investigations of the simulated ambient temperature on junction temperature, forward voltage, and output light were conducted. Results indicated that the case temperature changed linear basically with the increase in heating power or the simulated ambient temperature. When the ambient temperature was within its severe level (60–65 °C), the junction temperature could be calculated to 59.5 °C, and the corresponding output light was 1607.3 lm

  12. High-sensitivity detection of cardiac troponin I with UV LED excitation for use in point-of-care immunoassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenko, Olga; Eriksson, Susann; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    of an immunoassay analyzer employing an optimized LED excitation to measure on a standard troponin I and a novel research high-sensitivity troponin I assay. The limit of detection is improved by factor of 5 for standard troponin I and by factor of 3 for a research high-sensitivity troponin I assay, compared...... to the flash lamp excitation. The obtained limit of detection was 0.22 ng/L measured on plasma with the research highsensitivity troponin I assay and 1.9 ng/L measured on tris-saline-azide buffer containing bovine serum albumin with the standard troponin I assay. We discuss the optimization of time...

  13. Bright point study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.; Harvey, K.; Bruner, M.; Kent, B.; Antonucci, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transition region and coronal observations of bright points by instruments aboard the Solar Maximum Mission and high resolution photospheric magnetograph observations on September 11, 1980 are presented. A total of 31 bipolar ephemeral regions were found in the photosphere from birth in 9.3 hours of combined magnetograph observations from three observatories. Two of the three ephemeral regions present in the field of view of the Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Polarimeter were observed in the C IV 1548 line. The unobserved ephemeral region was determined to be the shortest-lived (2.5 hr) and lowest in magnetic flux density (13G) of the three regions. The Flat Crystal Spectrometer observed only low level signals in the O VIII 18.969 A line, which were not statistically significant to be positively identified with any of the 16 ephemeral regions detected in the photosphere. In addition, the data indicate that at any given time there lacked a one-to-one correspondence between observable bright points and photospheric ephemeral regions, while more ephemeral regions were observed than their counterparts in the transition region and the corona

  14. TH-CD-207B-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): Development of High Brightness Multiple-Pixel X-Ray Source Using Oxide Coated Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandlakunta, P; Pham, R; Zhang, T [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and characterize a high brightness multiple-pixel thermionic emission x-ray (MPTEX) source. Methods: Multiple-pixel x-ray sources allow for designs of novel x-ray imaging techniques, such as fixed gantry CT, digital tomosynthesis, tetrahedron beam computed tomography, etc. We are developing a high-brightness multiple-pixel thermionic emission x-ray (MPTEX) source based on oxide coated cathodes. Oxide cathode is chosen as the electron source due to its high emission current density and low operating temperature. A MPTEX prototype has been developed which may contain up to 41 micro-rectangular oxide cathodes in 4 mm pixel spacing. Electronics hardware was developed for source control and switching. The cathode emission current was evaluated and x-ray measurements were performed to estimate the focal spot size. Results: The oxide cathodes were able to produce ∼110 mA cathode current in pulse mode which corresponds to an emission current density of 0.55 A/cm{sup 2}. The maximum kVp of the MPTEX prototype currently is limited to 100 kV due to the rating of high voltage feedthrough. Preliminary x-ray measurements estimated the focal spot size as 1.5 × 1.3 mm{sup 2}. Conclusion: A MPTEX source was developed with thermionic oxide coated cathodes and preliminary source characterization was successfully performed. The MPTEX source is able to produce an array of high brightness x-ray beams with a fast switching speed.

  15. Progressive current degradation and breakdown behavior in GaN LEDs under high reverse bias stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Linna; Yu Peihong; Yan Dawei; Zhou Hao; Wu Jinbo; Cui Zhiqiang; Gu Xiaofeng; Guo Zixiang; Sun Huarui

    2017-01-01

    The progressive current degradation and breakdown behaviors of GaN-based light emitting diodes under high reverse-bias stress are studied by combining the electrical, optical, and surface morphology characterizations. The current features a typical “soft breakdown” behavior, which is linearly correlated to an increase of the accumulative number of electroluminescence spots. The time-to-failure for each failure site approximately obeys a Weibull distribution with slopes of about 0.67 and 4.09 at the infant and wear-out periods, respectively. After breakdown, visible craters can be observed at the device surface as a result of transient electrostatic discharge. By performing focused ion beam cuts coupled with scan electron microscope, we observed a local current shunt path in the surface layer, caused by the rapid microstructure deterioration due to significant current heating effect, consistent well with the optical beam induced resistance change observations. (paper)

  16. Developing a bright 17 keV x-ray source for probing high-energy-density states of matter at high spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S.; Maddox, B. R.; Barrios, M. A.; Benedetti, R.; Braun, D. G.; Landen, O. L.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, 94551 (United States); Hohenberger, M.; Regan, S. P. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    A set of experiments were performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to develop and optimize a bright, 17 keV x-ray backlighter probe using laser-irradiated Nb foils. High-resolution one-dimensional imaging was achieved using a 15 μm wide slit in a Ta substrate to aperture the Nb He{sub α} x-rays onto an open-aperture, time integrated camera. To optimize the x-ray source for imaging applications, the effect of laser pulse shape and spatial profile on the target was investigated. Two laser pulse shapes were used—a “prepulse” shape that included a 3 ns, low-intensity laser foot preceding the high-energy 2 ns square main laser drive, and a pulse without the laser foot. The laser spatial profile was varied by the use of continuous phase plates (CPPs) on a pair of shots compared to beams at best focus, without CPPs. A comprehensive set of common diagnostics allowed for a direct comparison of imaging resolution, total x-ray conversion efficiency, and x-ray spectrum between shots. The use of CPPs was seen to reduce the high-energy tail of the x-ray spectrum, whereas the laser pulse shape had little effect on the high-energy tail. The measured imaging resolution was comparably high for all combinations of laser parameters, but a higher x-ray flux was achieved without phase plates. This increased flux was the result of smaller laser spot sizes, which allowed us to arrange the laser focal spots from multiple beams and produce an x-ray source which was more localized behind the slit aperture. Our experiments are a first demonstration of point-projection geometry imaging at NIF at the energies (>10 keV) necessary for imaging denser, higher-Z targets than have previously been investigated.

  17. Biaxial Flexural Strength of High-Viscosity Glass-Ionomer Cements Heat-Cured with an LED Lamp during Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fabián Molina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding heat to glass ionomers during setting might improve mechanical properties. The aim was to compare the biaxial flexural strength (BFS between and within four glass ionomers, by time of exposure to a high-intensity LED light-curing unit. Materials and methods. Samples of Fuji 9 Gold Label, Ketac Molar Easymix, ChemFil Rock, and the EQUIA system were divided into three treatment groups (n=30: without heating (Group 1, heated with LED lamp of 1400 mW/cm2 for 30 s while setting (Group 2, and heated with LED lamp of 1400 mW/cm2 for 60 s while setting (Group 3. Samples were stored for 48 hours in distilled water at 37°C until tested. BFS was tested, using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed, using ANOVA test with the Bonferroni correction (α=0.05. Heating the glass-ionomer cements with an LED curing light of 1400 mW/cm2 during setting for 30 s increased the BFS value of all GICs. No statistically significant difference in mean BFS scores was found between the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock at 30 s and 60 s. The mean BFS value was statistically significantly higher for the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock than for Fuji 9 Gold Label and Ketac Molar Easymix at all exposure times.

  18. Highly efficient low color temperature organic LED using blend carrier modulation layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Ching; Chen, Szu-Hao; Shen, Shih-Ming; Wang, Ching-Chiun; Chen, Chien-Chih; Jou, Jwo-Huei

    2012-10-01

    Color temperature (CT) of light has great effect on human physiology and psychology, and low CT light, minimizing melatonin suppression and decreasing the risk of breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer. We demonstrates the incorporation of a blend carrier modulation interlayer (CML) between emissive layers to improve the device performance of low CT organic light emitting diodes, which exhibits an external quantum efficiency of 22.7% and 36 lm W-1 (54 cd A-1) with 1880 K at 100 cd m-2, or 20.8% and 29 lm W-1 (50 cd A-1) with 1940 K at 1000 cd m-2. The result shows a CT much lower than that of incandescent bulbs, which is 2500 K with 15 lmW-1 efficiency, and even as low as that of candles, which is 2000 K with 0.1 lmW-1. The high efficiency of the proposed device may be attributed to its CML, which helps effectively distribute the entering carriers into the available recombination zones.

  19. Increasing the Brightness of Light Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Ling

    2006-01-01

    In modern illumination systems, compact size and high brightness are important features. Light recycling allows an increase of the spectral radiance (brightness) emitted by a light source for the price of reducing the total radiant power. Light recycling means returning part of the emitted light to the source where part of it will escape absorption. As a result, the output brightness can be increased in a restricted phase space, ...

  20. Report on the investigational study on the technical trend of temperature control materials for high efficiency LED lighting use; Kokoritsu LED shomeiyo no ondo seigyo zairyo no gijutsu doko ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of the innovative conservation of lighting use energy, a project is being promoted with the aim of developing light emitted diode (LED) and commercializing lighting use light source substituting for fluorescent light. In this study, the following were conducted: literature survey on Peltier materials as temperature control materials for high efficiency LED lighting and the making of them as elements, extraction of technical subjects in the commercialization of LED cooling use Peltier element materials, market surveys/analyses were made of the fields of application including the LED cooling use field. As a result, for the commercialization of temperature control use Peltier elements of lighting use LED, the desirable performance index is 5x10{sup -5}/K or more. Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} elements which are now commercially available as Peltier elements are not good in performance and have the toxicity problem. As a candidate of temperature control use materials of lighting use LED, Mg{sub 2} (Sn, Si) or clathrate system are regarded, but the point, etc. were pointed out that it is necessary to improve thermoelectric characteristics. (NEDO)

  1. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  2. Infrared LED Enhanced Spectroscopic CdZnTe Detector Working under High Fluxes of X-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Pekárek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an application of infrared light-induced de-polarization applied on a polarized CdZnTe detector working under high radiation fluxes. We newly demonstrate the influence of a high flux of X-rays and simultaneous 1200-nm LED illumination on the spectroscopic properties of a CdZnTe detector. CdZnTe detectors operating under high radiation fluxes usually suffer from the polarization effect, which occurs due to a screening of the internal electric field by a positive space charge caused by photogenerated holes trapped at a deep level. Polarization results in the degradation of detector charge collection efficiency. We studied the spectroscopic behavior of CdZnTe under various X-ray fluxes ranging between 5 × 10 5 and 8 × 10 6 photons per mm 2 per second. It was observed that polarization occurs at an X-ray flux higher than 3 × 10 6 mm − 2 ·s − 1 . Using simultaneous illumination of the detector by a de-polarizing LED at 1200 nm, it was possible to recover X-ray spectra originally deformed by the polarization effect.

  3. First measurements of electron-beam transit times and micropulse elongation in a photoelectric injector at the High-Brightness Accelerator FEL (HIBAF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Carlsten, B.E.; Feldman, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Key aspects of the dynamics of a photoelectric injector (PEI) on the Los Alamos High-Brightness Accelerator FEL (HIBAF) facility have been investigated using a synchroscan streak camera. By phase-locking the streak camera sweep to the reference 108.3 MHz rf signal, the variations of micropulse temporal elongations (30 to 80% over the drive-laser pulse length) and of transit times (25 ps for a 16{degree}-phase change) were observed for the first time. These results were in good agreement with PARMELA simulations. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Efficient Disinfection of Tap and Surface Water with Single High Power 285 nm LED and Square Quartz Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hessling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A small water disinfection system based on the combination of a strong single 25 mW LED with a wavelength of 285 nm and a short quartz tube with an outer rectangular cross section is presented. For the disinfection tests clear tap water and slightly turbid and yellow pond water are contaminated with high concentrations of Escherichia coli bacteria. These water samples are exposed to the germicidal 285 nm LED radiation while they flow through the quartz tube. The portion of surviving germs is determined by membrane filtration for different water qualities and flow rates. For clear tap water the bacteria concentration can be reduced by at least three orders of magnitude up to flow rates of about 20 L/h. In pond water the maximum flow rate for such a reduction is less than 3 L/h. These high disinfection capabilities and the small size of this system, allow its integration in medical systems for point of use disinfection or even its application in the Third World for decentralized water disinfection powered by small solar cells, because this disinfection capacity should be sufficient for small groups or families.

  5. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About BrightFocus Foundation Featured Content BrightFocus: Investing in Science to Save Mind and Sight We're here to help. Explore ... recognition is very important. Monday, November 6, 2017 New Diagnosis? Managing a mind and sight disease is a journey. And you’ ...

  6. Broadband radiometric LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-09-01

    At present, broadband radiometric LED measurements with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  7. Effect of reduced exposure times on the cytotoxicity of resin luting cements cured by high-power led

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulfem Ergun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Applications of resin luting agents and high-power light-emitting diodes (LED light-curing units (LCUs have increased considerably over the last few years. However, it is not clear whether the effect of reduced exposure time on cytotoxicity of such products have adequate biocompatibility to meet clinical success. This study aimed at assessing the effect of reduced curing time of five resin luting cements (RLCs polymerized by high-power LED curing unit on the viability of a cell of L-929 fibroblast cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Disc-shaped samples were prepared in polytetrafluoroethylene moulds with cylindrical cavities. The samples were irradiated from the top through the ceramic discs and acetate strips using LED LCU for 20 s (50% of the manufacturer's recommended exposure time and 40 s (100% exposure time. After curing, the samples were transferred into a culture medium for 24 h. The eluates were obtained and pipetted onto L-929 fibroblast cultures (3x10(4 per well and incubated for evaluating after 24 h. Measurements were performed by dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium assay. Statistical significance was determined by two-way ANOVA and two independent samples were compared by t-test. RESULTS: Results showed that eluates of most of the materials polymerized for 20 s (except Rely X Unicem and Illusion reduced to a higher extent cell viability compared to samples of the same materials polymerized for 40 s. Illusion exhibited the least cytotoxicity for 20 s exposure time compared to the control (culture without samples followed by Rely X Unicem and Rely X ARC (90.81%, 88.90%, and 83.11%, respectively. For Rely X ARC, Duolink and Lute-It 40 s exposure time was better (t=-1.262 p=0,276; t=-9.399 p=0.001; and t=-20.418 p<0.001, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that reduction of curing time significantly enhances the cytotoxicity of the studied resin cement materials, therefore compromising their clinical

  8. High-sensitivity detection of cardiac troponin I with UV LED excitation for use in point-of-care immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenko, Olga; Eriksson, Susann; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Troldborg, Carl Peder; Fodgaard, Henrik; van Os, Sylvana; Pedersen, Christian

    2017-08-01

    High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assay development enables determination of biological variation in healthy populations, more accurate interpretation of clinical results and points towards earlier diagnosis and rule-out of acute myocardial infarction. In this paper, we report on preliminary tests of an immunoassay analyzer employing an optimized LED excitation to measure on a standard troponin I and a novel research high-sensitivity troponin I assay. The limit of detection is improved by factor of 5 for standard troponin I and by factor of 3 for a research high-sensitivity troponin I assay, compared to the flash lamp excitation. The obtained limit of detection was 0.22 ng/L measured on plasma with the research high-sensitivity troponin I assay and 1.9 ng/L measured on tris-saline-azide buffer containing bovine serum albumin with the standard troponin I assay. We discuss the optimization of time-resolved detection of lanthanide fluorescence based on the time constants of the system and analyze the background and noise sources in a heterogeneous fluoroimmunoassay. We determine the limiting factors and their impact on the measurement performance. The suggested model can be generally applied to fluoroimmunoassays employing the dry-cup concept.

  9. Two-step design method for highly compact three-dimensional freeform optical system for LED surface light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xianglong; Li, Hongtao; Han, Yanjun; Luo, Yi

    2014-10-20

    Designing an illumination system for a surface light source with a strict compactness requirement is quite challenging, especially for the general three-dimensional (3D) case. In accordance with the two key features of an expected illumination distribution, i.e., a well-controlled boundary and a precise illumination pattern, a two-step design method is proposed in this paper for highly compact 3D freeform illumination systems. In the first step, a target shape scaling strategy is combined with an iterative feedback modification algorithm to generate an optimized freeform optical system with a well-controlled boundary of the target distribution. In the second step, a set of selected radii of the system obtained in the first step are optimized to further improve the illuminating quality within the target region. The method is quite flexible and effective to design highly compact optical systems with almost no restriction on the shape of the desired target field. As examples, three highly compact freeform lenses with ratio of center height h of the lens and the maximum dimension D of the source ≤ 2.5:1 are designed for LED surface light sources to form a uniform illumination distribution on a rectangular, a cross-shaped and a complex cross pierced target plane respectively. High light control efficiency of η > 0.7 as well as low relative standard illumination deviation of RSD < 0.07 is obtained simultaneously for all the three design examples.

  10. High power light emitting diode (LED) arrays versus halogen light polymerization of oral biomaterials: Barcol hardness, compressive strength and radiometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Robin W; Uhl, Alexander; Blackwell, Gordon B; Jandt, Klaus D

    2002-07-01

    The clinical performance of light polymerized dental composites is greatly influenced by the quality of the light curing unit (LCU) used. Commonly used halogen LCUs have some specific drawbacks such as decreasing light output with time. This may result in a low degree of monomer conversion of the composites with negative clinical implications. Previous studies have shown that blue light emitting diode (LED) LCUs have the potential to polymerize dental composites without having the drawbacks of halogen LCUs. Since these studies were carried out LED technology has advanced significantly and commercial LED LCUs are now becoming available. This study investigates the Barcol hardness as a function of depth, and the compressive strength of dental composites that had been polymerized for 40 or 20s with two high power LED LCU prototypes, a commercial LED LCU, and a commercial halogen LCU. In addition the radiometric properties of the LCUs were characterized. The two high power prototype LED LCUs and the halogen LCU showed a satisfactory and similar hardness-depth performance whereas the hardness of the materials polymerized with the commercial LED LCU rapidly decreased with sample depth and reduced polymerization time (20 s). There were statistically significant differences in the overall compressive strengths of composites polymerized with different LCUs at the 95% significance level (p = 0.0016) with the two high power LED LCU prototypes and the halogen LCU forming a statistically homogenous group. In conclusion, LED LCU polymerization technology can reach the performance level of halogen LCUs. One of the first commercial LED LCUs however lacked the power reserves of the high power LED LCU prototypes.

  11. Color homogeneity in LED spotlights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Color variation in the light output of white LEDs is a common problem in LED lighting. We aim to design LED spotlights with a uniform color output while keeping the cost of the system low and the energy efficiency high. Therefore we design a special optic to eliminate the color variation of the LED.

  12. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies: Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus

    1988-01-01

    Using measurements from IRAS correlations are found between optical surface brightness and both infrared-to-optical flux ratio and infrared colour temperature, in the sense that galaxies with high surface brightness have higher FIR emission and higher temperatures. (author)

  13. Stunningly bright optical emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinke, Craig O.

    2017-12-01

    The detection of bright, rapid optical pulsations from pulsar PSR J1023+0038 have provided a surprise for researchers working on neutron stars. This discovery poses more questions than it answers and will spur on future work and instrumentation.

  14. Color adjustable LED driver design based on PWM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiying; Yu, Caideng; Que, Longcheng; Zhou, Yun; Lv, Jian

    2012-10-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) is a liquid cold source light source that rapidly develops in recent years. The merits of high brightness efficiency, long duration, high credibility and no pollution make it satisfy our demands for consumption and natural life, and gradually replace the traditional lamp-house-incandescent light and fluorescent light. However, because of the high cost and unstable drive circuit, the application range is restricted. To popularize the applications of the LED, we focus on improving the LED driver circuit to change this phenomenon. Basing on the traditional LED drive circuit, we adopt pre-setup constant current model and introduce pulse width modulation (PWM) control method to realize adjustable 256 level-grays display. In this paper, basing on human visual characteristics and the traditional PWM control method, we propose a new PWM control timing clock to alter the duty cycle of PWM signal to realize the simple gamma correction. Consequently, the brightness can accord with our visual characteristics.

  15. Increasing the brightness of light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ling

    2006-11-16

    In this work the principle of light recycling is applied to artificial light sources in order to achieve brightness enhancement. Firstly, the feasibilities of increasing the brightness of light sources via light recycling are examined theoretically, based on the fundamental laws of thermodynamics including Kirchhoff's law on radiation, Planck's law, Lambert-Beer's law, the etendue conservation and the brightness theorem. From an experimental viewpoint, the radiation properties of three different kinds of light sources including short-arc lamps, incandescent lamps and LEDs characterized by their light-generating mechanisms are investigated. These three types of sources are used in light recycling experiments, for the purpose of 1. validating the intrinsic light recycling effect in light sources, e. g. the intrinsic light recycling effect in incandescent lamps stemming from the coiled filament structure. 2. acquiring the required parameters for establishing physical models, e.g. the emissivity/absorptivity of the short-arc lamps, the intrinsic reflectivity and the external quantum efficiency of LEDs. 3. laying the foundations for designing optics aimed at brightness enhancement according to the characteristics of the sources and applications. Based on the fundamental laws and experiments, two physical models for simulating the radiance distribution of light sources are established, one for thermal filament lamps, the other for luminescent sources, LEDs. As validation of the theoretical and experimental investigation of the light recycling effect, an optical device, the Carambola, is designed for achieving deterministic and multiple light recycling. The Carambola has the function of a concentrator. In order to achieve the maximum possible brightness enhancement with the Carambola, several combinations of sources and Carambolas are modelled in ray-tracing simulations. Sources with different light-emitting mechanisms and different radiation properties

  16. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo, E-mail: b.cervantes@irya.unam.mx, E-mail: o.sanchez@irya.unam.mx [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, A.P. 3-72, C.P. 58089 Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-09-20

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  17. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  18. Suppressed speckle contrast of blue light emission out of white lamp with phosphors excited by blue laser diodes for high-brightness lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Junichi; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Takeda, Yuji; Ueno, Misaki; Kawasaki, Yoji; Matsuba, Yoshiaki; Heike, Atsushi

    2012-11-01

    The speckle contrast of blue light emission out of high-brightness white lamps using phosphors excited by InGaN/GaN blue laser diodes is evaluated as a measure of coherence. As a result, speckle contrast of as low as 1.7%, the same level as a blue light emitting diode, is obtained. This implies that the original blue laser light can be converted into incoherent light through lamp structures without any dynamic mechanisms. This unique speckle-free performance is considered to be realized by multiple scattering inside the lamp structure, the multi-longitudinal mode operation of the blue laser diodes, and the use of multiple laser diodes. Such almost-incoherent white lamps can be applied for general lighting without any nuisance of speckle noise and should be categorized as lamps rather than lasers in terms of laser safety regulation.

  19. High-brightness semipolar (2021¯) blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent diodes for droop-free solid-state lighting and visible-light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2016-05-25

    A high-brightness, droop-free, and speckle-free InGaN/GaN quantum well blue superluminescent diode (SLD) was demonstrated on a semipolar (2021) GaN substrate. The 447-nm emitting SLD has a broad spectral linewidth of 6.3 nm at an optical power of 123 mW. A peak optical power of 256 mW was achieved at 700 mA CW injection current. By combining YAG:Ce phosphor, SLD-generated white light shows a color-rendering index (CRI) of 68.9 and a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4340 K. The measured frequency response of the SLD revealed a -3 dB bandwidth of 560 MHz, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the device for both solid-state lighting (SSL) and visible-light communication (VLC) applications. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

  20. High-brightness semipolar (2021¯) blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent diodes for droop-free solid-state lighting and visible-light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Leonard, John T.; Pourhashemi, Arash; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; El-desouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    A high-brightness, droop-free, and speckle-free InGaN/GaN quantum well blue superluminescent diode (SLD) was demonstrated on a semipolar (2021) GaN substrate. The 447-nm emitting SLD has a broad spectral linewidth of 6.3 nm at an optical power of 123 mW. A peak optical power of 256 mW was achieved at 700 mA CW injection current. By combining YAG:Ce phosphor, SLD-generated white light shows a color-rendering index (CRI) of 68.9 and a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4340 K. The measured frequency response of the SLD revealed a -3 dB bandwidth of 560 MHz, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the device for both solid-state lighting (SSL) and visible-light communication (VLC) applications. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

  1. Generating high-brightness and coherent soft x-ray pulses in the water window with a seeded free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaishang Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new scheme to generate high-brightness and temporal coherent soft x-ray radiation in a seeded free-electron laser. The proposed scheme is based on the coherent harmonic generation (CHG and superradiant principles. A CHG scheme is first used to generate a coherent signal at ultrahigh harmonics of the seed. This coherent signal is then amplified by a series of chicane-undulator modules via the fresh bunch and superradiant processes in the following radiator. Using a representative of a realistic set of parameters, three-dimensional simulations have been carried out and the simulations results demonstrated that 10 GW-level ultrashort (∼20  fs coherent radiation pulses in the water window can be achieved by using a 1.6 GeV electron beam based on the proposed technique.

  2. BInGaN alloys nearly lattice-matched to GaN for high-power high-efficiency visible LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Logan; Kioupakis, Emmanouil

    2017-11-01

    InGaN-based visible light-emitting diodes (LEDs) find commercial applications for solid-state lighting and displays, but lattice mismatch limits the thickness of InGaN quantum wells that can be grown on GaN with high crystalline quality. Since narrower wells operate at a higher carrier density for a given current density, they increase the fraction of carriers lost to Auger recombination and lower the efficiency. The incorporation of boron, a smaller group-III element, into InGaN alloys is a promising method to eliminate the lattice mismatch and realize high-power, high-efficiency visible LEDs with thick active regions. In this work, we apply predictive calculations based on hybrid density functional theory to investigate the thermodynamic, structural, and electronic properties of BInGaN alloys. Our results show that BInGaN alloys with a B:In ratio of 2:3 are better lattice matched to GaN compared to InGaN and, for indium fractions less than 0.2, nearly lattice matched. Deviations from Vegard's law appear as bowing of the in-plane lattice constant with respect to composition. Our thermodynamics calculations demonstrate that the solubility of boron is higher in InGaN than in pure GaN. Varying the Ga mole fraction while keeping the B:In ratio constant enables the adjustment of the (direct) gap in the 1.75-3.39 eV range, which covers the entire visible spectrum. Holes are strongly localized in non-bonded N 2p states caused by local bond planarization near boron atoms. Our results indicate that BInGaN alloys are promising for fabricating nitride heterostructures with thick active regions for high-power, high-efficiency LEDs.

  3. Optical characterization of ultrabright LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, Juan Manuel; Webb, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrabright light emitting diodes (LEDs) are a new light source for visual psychophysics and microscopy. The new LEDs are intended primarily for room and exterior illumination, and the manufacturers' specifications are adequate for that. However, we use them as light sources in situations where a more complete characterization may be useful. For one set of LEDs we have measured the radiometric intensity and its distribution in space and wavelength, and we have tested for interactions of these variables and their dependence on driver configuration. We describe techniques for making these measurements and give a link to a simple calculator for converting among radiometric and photometric measures, as well as an evaluation of the safety considerations these very bright sources demand

  4. The impact of LED transfer function nonlinearity on high-speed optical wireless communications based on discrete-multitone modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inan, B.; Lee, S.C.J.; Randel, S.; Neokosmidis, L.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Walewski, J.

    2009-01-01

    The nonlinear dependence of the optical power from white LEDs on the applied driving current and its impact on discrete-multitone modulation was investigated by use of numerical simulations for the case of optical wireless communications.

  5. Teacher-led relaxation response curriculum in an urban high school: impact on student behavioral health and classroom environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H Kent; Scult, Matthew; Wilcher, Marilyn; Chudnofsky, Rana; Malloy, Laura; Drewel, Emily; Riklin, Eric; Saul, Southey; Fricchione, Gregory L; Benson, Herbert; Denninger, John W

    2015-01-01

    Recent data suggest that severe stress during the adolescent period is becoming a problem of epidemic proportions. Elicitation of the relaxation response (RR) has been shown to be effective in treating anxiety, reducing stress, and increasing positive health behaviors. The research team's objective was to assess the impact of an RR-based curriculum, led by teachers, on the psychological status and health management behaviors of high-school students and to determine whether a train-the-trainer model would be feasible in a high-school setting. The research team designed a pilot study. The setting was a Horace Mann charter school within Boston's public school system. Participants were teachers and students at the charter school. The team taught teachers a curriculum that included (1) relaxation strategies, such as breathing and imagery; (2) psychoeducation regarding mind-body pathways; and (3) positive psychology. Teachers implemented this curriculum with students. The research team assessed changes in student outcomes (eg, stress, anxiety, and stress management behaviors) using preintervention/postintervention surveys, including the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Form Y (STAI-Y), the stress management subscale of the Health-promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Locus of Control (LOC) questionnaire, and the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOTR). Classroom observations using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS)-Secondary were also completed to assess changes in classroom environment. Using a Bonferroni correction (P management behaviors at that point. Using a Bonferroni correction (P management behaviors (P classroom productivity (eg, increased time spent on activities and instruction from pre- to postintervention). This study showed that teachers can lead an RR curriculum with fidelity and suggests that such a curriculum has positive benefits on student emotional and behavioral

  6. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alka; Kantharia, Nimisha G.; Das, Mousumi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present radio observations of the giant low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies made using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). LSB galaxies are generally large, dark matter dominated spirals that have low star formation efficiencies and large HI gas disks. Their properties suggest that they are less evolved compared to high surface brightness galaxies. We present GMRT emission maps of LSB galaxies with an optically-identified active nucleus. Using our radio data and archival near-infrared (2MASS) and near-ultraviolet (GALEX) data, we studied morphology and star formation efficiencies in these galaxies. All the galaxies show radio continuum emission mostly associated with the centre of the galaxy.

  7. Driving Down HB-LED Costs. Implementation of Process Simulation Tools and Temperature Control Methods of High Yield MOCVD Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, William [Veeco Process Equipment, Inc., Plainview, NY (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The overall objective of this multi-faceted program is to develop epitaxial growth systems that meet a goal of 75% (4X) cost reduction in the epitaxy phase of HB-LED manufacture. A 75% reduction in yielded epitaxy cost is necessary in order to achieve the cost goals for widespread penetration of HB-LED's into back-lighting units (BLU) for LCD panels and ultimately for solid-state lighting (SSL). To do this, the program will address significant improvements in overall equipment Cost of Ownership, or CoO. CoO is a model that includes all costs associated with the epitaxy portion of production. These aspects include cost of yield, capital cost, operational costs, and maintenance costs. We divide the program into three phases where later phases will incorporate the gains of prior phases. Phase one activities are enabling technologies. In collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories we develop a Fluent-compatible chemistry predictive model and a set of mid-infrared and near-ultraviolet pyrometer monitoring tools. Where previously the modeling of the reactor dynamics were studied within FLUENT alone, here, FLUENT and Chemkin are integrated into a comprehensive model of fluid dynamics and the most advanced transport equations developed for Chemkin. Specifically, the Chemkin model offered the key reaction terms for gas-phase nucleation, a key consideration in the optimization of the MOCVD process. This new predictive model is used to design new MOCVD reactors with optimized growth conditions and the newly developed pyrometers are used monitor and control the MOCVD process temperature to within 0.5°C run-to-run and within each wafer. This portion of the grant is in collaboration with partners at Sandia National Laboratories. Phase two activities are continuous improvement projects which extend the current reactor platform along the lines of improved operational efficiency, improved systems control for throughput, and carrier modifications for increased yield

  8. Spectral design flexibility of LED brings better life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Haiyan; Corell, Dennis; Ou, Yiyu; Poulsen, Peter B.; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Petersen, Paul-Michael

    2012-03-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are penetrating into the huge market of general lighting because they are energy saving and environmentally friendly. The big advantage of LED light sources, compared to traditional incandescent lamps and fluorescent light tubes, is the flexible spectral design to make white light using different color mixing schemes. The spectral design flexibility of white LED light sources will promote them for novel applications to improve the life quality of human beings. As an initial exploration to make use of the spectral design flexibility, we present an example: 'no blue' white LED light source for sufferers of disease Porphyria. An LED light source prototype, made of high brightness commercial LEDs applying an optical filter, was tested by a patient suffering from Porphyria. Preliminary results have shown that the sufferer could withstand the light source for much longer time than the standard light source. At last future perspectives on spectral design flexibility of LED light sources improving human being's life will be discussed, with focus on the light and health. The good health is ensured by the spectrum optimized so that vital hormones (melatonin and serotonin) are produced during times when they support human daily rhythm.

  9. High efficiency GaN-based LEDs using plasma selective treatment of p-GaN surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Bae; Naoi, Yoshiki; Sakai, Shiro [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Takaki, Ryohei; Sato, Hisao [Nitride Semiconductor Co., Ltd., 115-7 Itayajima, Akinokami, Seto-cho, Naruto, Tokushima 771-0360 (Japan)

    2003-11-01

    We have studied a new method of increasing the extraction efficiency of a GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) using a plasma surface treatment. In this method, prior to the evaporation of a semitransparent p-metal, the surface of a p-GaN located beneath a p-pad is selectively exposed to a nitrogen plasma in a reactive ion etching (RIE) chamber. The electrical characteristics of the plasma treated p-GaN remarkably changes its resistivity into semi-insulator without any parasitic damage. Since the LEDs with a new method have no light absorption in a p-pad region, a higher optical power can be extracted compared to a conventional LEDs without plasma selective treatment on the p-GaN surface. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Effects of melatonin and green-wavelength LED light on the physiological stress and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to high water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Ji Yong; Choi, Young-Ung; Heo, Youn Seong; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of increasing water temperature (22-30 °C) on the physiological stress response and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the ability of green light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation or melatonin injections to mitigate this temperature-induced stress. To evaluate the effects of either green-wavelength LED light or melatonin on stress in goldfish, we measured plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mRNA expression; plasma cortisol and glucose; and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and lysozyme mRNA expression. The thyroid hormone activities, TR mRNA expression, and plasma cortisol and glucose were higher in goldfish exposed to high-temperature water, but were lower after exposure to melatonin or green-wavelength LED light. Lysozyme mRNA expression and plasma IgM activity and protein expression were lower after exposure to high water temperatures and higher after melatonin or green-wavelength LED light treatments. Therefore, high water temperature induced stress and decreased immunity; however, green-wavelength LED light and melatonin treatments mitigated the effects of stress and enhanced immunity. The benefits of melatonin decreased with time, whereas those of green-wavelength LED treatment did not.

  11. Bright upconversion luminescence and increased Tc in CaBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9}:Er high temperature piezoelectric ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Dengfeng [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Kyushu, 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Wang Xusheng; Yao Xi [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xu Chaonan [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Kyushu, 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Lin Jian; Sun Tiantuo [College of Material Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao' an Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2012-05-15

    Er{sup 3+} doped CaBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (CBT) bismuth layered-structure high temperature piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by the traditional solid state method. The upconversion (UC) emission properties of Er{sup 3+} doped CBT ceramics were investigated as a function of Er{sup 3+} concentration and incident pump power. A bright green upconverted emission was obtained under excitation 980 nm at room temperature. The observed strong green and weak red emission bands corresponded to the transitions from {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} to {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, respectively. The dependence of UC emission intensity on pumping power indicated that a three-photon process was involved in UC emissions. Studies of dielectric with temperature have also been carried out. Introduction of Er increased the Curie temperature of CBT, thus, making this ceramic suitable for sensor applications at higher temperatures. Because of its strong up-converted emission and increased Tc, the multifunctional high temperature piezoelectric ceramic may be useful in high temperature sensor, fluorescence thermometry, and optical-electro integration applications.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of high-brightness light emitting diodes based on n-ZnO nanorods grown by a low-temperature chemical method on p-4H-SiC and p-GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvi, N H; Riaz, M; Tzamalis, G; Nur, O; Willander, M

    2010-01-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on n-ZnO nanorods (NRs)/p-4H-SiC and n-ZnO (NRs)/p-GaN were fabricated and characterized. For the two LEDs the ZnO NRs were grown using a low temperature (<100 °C) aqueous chemical growth (ACG) technique. Both LEDs showed very bright nearly white light electroluminescence (EL) emission. The observed luminescence was a result of the combination of three emission lines composed of violet-blue, green and orange-red peaks observed from the two LEDs. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) was also measured and consistency with EL was observed. It was found that the green and violet-blue peaks are red-shifted while the orange peak is blue-shifted in the EL measurement. It was also found that due to the effect of the GaN substrate the violet-blue peak in the EL measurement is more red-shifted in n-ZnO (NRs)/p-GaN LEDs as compared to n-ZnO (NRs)/p-4H-SiC LEDs

  13. Laser-powered dielectric-structures for the production of high-brightness electron and x-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travish, Gil; Yoder, Rodney B.

    2011-05-01

    Laser powered accelerators have been under intensive study for the past decade due to their promise of high gradients and leveraging of rapid technological progress in photonics. Of the various acceleration schemes under examination, those based on dielectric structures may enable the production of relativistic electron beams in breadbox sized systems. When combined with undulators having optical-wavelength periods, these systems could produce high brilliance x-rays which find application in, for instance, medical and industrial imaging. These beams also may open the way for table-top atto-second sciences. Development and testing of these dielectric structures faces a number of challenges including complex beam dynamics, new demands on lasers and optical coupling, beam injection schemes, and fabrication. We describe one approach being pursued at UCLA-the Micro Accelerator Platform (MAP). A structure similar to the MAP has also been designed which produces periodic deflections and acts as an undulator for radiation production, and the prospects for this device will be considered. The lessons learned from the multi-year effort to realize these devices will be presented. Challenges remain with acceleration of sub-relativistic beams, focusing, beam phase stability and extension of these devices to higher beam energies. Our progress in addressing these hurdles will be summarized. Finally, the demands on laser technology and optical coupling will be detailed.

  14. Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Nanosheets with Bright, Tunable Photoluminescence and High Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuang; Niu, Wenxin; Wang, An-Liang; Fan, Zhanxi; Chen, Bo; Tan, Chaoliang; Lu, Qipeng; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-03

    Two-dimensional (2D) organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanosheets (NSs) are attracting increasing research interest due to their unique properties and promising applications. Here, for the first time, we report the facile synthesis of single- and few-layer free-standing phenylethylammonium lead halide perovskite NSs, that is, (PEA) 2 PbX 4 (PEA=C 8 H 9 NH 3 , X=Cl, Br, I). Importantly, their lateral size can be tuned by changing solvents. Moreover, these ultrathin 2D perovskite NSs exhibit highly efficient and tunable photoluminescence, as well as superior stability. Our study provides a simple and general method for the controlled synthesis of 2D perovskite NSs, which may offer a new avenue for their fundamental studies and optoelectronic applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Bright is the New Black - Multi-Year Performance of Generic High-Albedo Roofs in an Urban Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffin, S. R.; Imhoff, M.; Rosenzweig, C.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Pasqualini, A.; Kong, A. Y. Y.; Grillo, D.; Freed, A.; Hillel, D.; Hartung, E.

    2012-01-01

    High-albedo white and cool roofing membranes are recognized as a fundamental strategy that dense urban areas can deploy on a large scale, at low cost, to mitigate the urban heat island effect. We are monitoring three generic white membranes within New York City that represent a cross-section of the dominant white membrane options for U.S. flat roofs: (1) an ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber membrane; (2) a thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) membrane and; (3) an asphaltic multi-ply built-up membrane coated with white elastomeric acrylic paint. The paint product is being used by New York City s government for the first major urban albedo enhancement program in its history. We report on the temperature and related albedo performance of these three membranes at three different sites over a multi-year period. The results indicate that the professionally installed white membranes are maintaining their temperature control effectively and are meeting the Energy Star Cool Roofing performance standards requiring a three-year aged albedo above 0.50. The EPDM membrane however shows evidence of low emissivity. The painted asphaltic surface shows high emissivity but lost about half of its initial albedo within two years after installation. Given that the acrylic approach is an important "do-it-yourself," low-cost, retrofit technique, and, as such, offers the most rapid technique for increasing urban albedo, further product performance research is recommended to identify conditions that optimize its long-term albedo control. Even so, its current multi-year performance still represents a significant albedo enhancement for urban heat island mitigation.

  16. Measuring brightness temperature distributions of plasma bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirko, V.I.; Stadnichenko, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of restoration of brightness temperature distribution along plasma jet on the base of a simple ultra high- speed photography and subsequent photometric treatment is shown. The developed technique has been applied for finding spectral radiation intensity and brightness temperature of plasma jets of a tubular gas-cumulative charge and explosive plasma compressor. The problem of shock wave front has been successfully solved and thus distribution of above parameters beginning from the region preceeding the shock wave has been obtained [ru

  17. Design studies of an electrostatic quadrupole channel for transport of a high-brightness H- beam and comparison with gas focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.R.; Horowitz, E.; Reiser, M.

    1989-01-01

    Transport of low-energy, high-brightness H - beams from the ion source to the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator requires the solution of several physics and engineering problems to avoid particle losses and emittance growth. The authors developed a conceptual design of an electrostatic quadrupole channel for transport of a 120 keV, 120 mA, H - beam into a 425 MHz RFQ with low emittance growth and high transmission efficiency. This design satisfies several constraints imposed by voltage breakdown and beam optics considerations. The system will consist entirely of electrostatic lenses which prevent plasma build-up and eliminate possible emittance growth from plasma fluctuations. Pertinent design features a worst case non-linear analysis for the electrostatic quadrupole channel, and first results of a particle simulation code used to study beam loss and emittance growth are reported. As an alternative to the electrostatic quadrupole concept, gas focusing is being investigated for transporting low-energy H - beams. Recent results from the numerical simulations of such a gas focussing channel are presented

  18. The brightness of colour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corney

    Full Text Available The perception of brightness depends on spatial context: the same stimulus can appear light or dark depending on what surrounds it. A less well-known but equally important contextual phenomenon is that the colour of a stimulus can also alter its brightness. Specifically, stimuli that are more saturated (i.e. purer in colour appear brighter than stimuli that are less saturated at the same luminance. Similarly, stimuli that are red or blue appear brighter than equiluminant yellow and green stimuli. This non-linear relationship between stimulus intensity and brightness, called the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (HK effect, was first described in the nineteenth century but has never been explained. Here, we take advantage of the relative simplicity of this 'illusion' to explain it and contextual effects more generally, by using a simple Bayesian ideal observer model of the human visual ecology. We also use fMRI brain scans to identify the neural correlates of brightness without changing the spatial context of the stimulus, which has complicated the interpretation of related fMRI studies.Rather than modelling human vision directly, we use a Bayesian ideal observer to model human visual ecology. We show that the HK effect is a result of encoding the non-linear statistical relationship between retinal images and natural scenes that would have been experienced by the human visual system in the past. We further show that the complexity of this relationship is due to the response functions of the cone photoreceptors, which themselves are thought to represent an efficient solution to encoding the statistics of images. Finally, we show that the locus of the response to the relationship between images and scenes lies in the primary visual cortex (V1, if not earlier in the visual system, since the brightness of colours (as opposed to their luminance accords with activity in V1 as measured with fMRI.The data suggest that perceptions of brightness represent a robust

  19. Plasmodium falciparum transfected with ultra bright NanoLuc luciferase offers high sensitivity detection for the screening of growth and cellular trafficking inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro F Azevedo

    Full Text Available Drug discovery is a key part of malaria control and eradication strategies, and could benefit from sensitive and affordable assays to quantify parasite growth and to help identify the targets of potential anti-malarial compounds. Bioluminescence, achieved through expression of exogenous luciferases, is a powerful tool that has been applied in studies of several aspects of parasite biology and high throughput growth assays. We have expressed the new reporter NanoLuc (Nluc luciferase in Plasmodium falciparum and showed it is at least 100 times brighter than the commonly used firefly luciferase. Nluc brightness was explored as a means to achieve a growth assay with higher sensitivity and lower cost. In addition we attempted to develop other screening assays that may help interrogate libraries of inhibitory compounds for their mechanism of action. To this end parasites were engineered to express Nluc in the cytoplasm, the parasitophorous vacuole that surrounds the intraerythrocytic parasite or exported to the red blood cell cytosol. As proof-of-concept, these parasites were used to develop functional screening assays for quantifying the effects of Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of protein secretion, and Furosemide, an inhibitor of new permeation pathways used by parasites to acquire plasma nutrients.

  20. Beam extraction dynamics at the space-charge-limit of the high brightness E-XFEL electron source at DESY-PITZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ye; Gjonaj, Erion; Weiland, Thomas [TEMF, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The physics of the photoemission, as one of the key issues for successful operation of linac based free-electron lasers like the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (E-XFEL) and the Free-electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), is playing an increasingly important role in the high brightness DESY-PITZ electron source. We study photoemission physics and discuss full three-dimensional numerical modeling of the electron bunch emission. The beam extraction dynamics at the photocathode has been investigated through the 3D fully electromagnetic (EM) Particle-in-Cell (PIC) solver of CST Particle Studio under the assumption of the photoemission source operating at or close to its space charge limit. PIC simulation results have shown good agreements with measurements on total emitted bunch charge for distinct experimental parameters. Further comparisons showed a general failure for the conventional Poisson solver based tracking algorithm to correctly predict the beam dynamics at the space charge limit. It is furthermore found, that fully EM PIC simulations are also consistent with a simple emission model based on the multidimensional Child-Langmuir law.

  1. The Bright Universe Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdin, M.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that viewed from the 'outside', our universe is a black hole. Hence the 'inside' cosmology considered is termed as the Bright Universe Cosmology. The model proposed avoids the singularities of cosmologies of the Big Bang variety, it gives a good account of the redshifts, the cosmic background radiation, the number counts; it also gives a satisfactory explanation of the 'large numbers coincidence' and of the variation in time of fundamental constants. (Auth.)

  2. Controlled High Filler Loading of Functionalized Al2O3-Filled Epoxy Composites for LED Thermal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permal, Anithambigai; Devarajan, Mutharasu; Hung, Huong Ling; Zahner, Thomas; Lacey, David; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi

    2018-03-01

    Thermal management in light-emitting diode (LED) has been extensively researched recently. This study is intended to develop an effective thermally conductive epoxy composite as thermal interface material (TIM) for headlamp LEDs. Silane-functionalized aluminum oxide (Al2O3) powder of different average particle sizes (44 and 10 µm) was studied for its feasibility as filler at its maximum loading. A detailed comparison of three different methods of particle dispersions, hand-mix, speed-mix and calendaring process (3-roll mill), has been reported. The dispersion of Al2O3 particles, the thermal conductivity and thermal degradation characteristics of the composites were investigated and explained in detail. At 75 wt.% filler loading, 10 and 44 µm Al2O3 achieved composite thermal conductivities of 1.13 and 2.08 W/mK, respectively, which is approximately 528 and 1055% of enhancement with respect to neat epoxy. The package-level thermal performance of the LED employing the Al2O3-filled TIMs was carried out using thermal transient analysis. The experimental junction-to-ambient thermal resistances ( R thJ-A) achieved were 6.65, 7.24, and 8.63 K/W for Al2O3_44µm, Al2O3_10µm and neat epoxy, respectively. The results revealed that the Al2O3_44µm fillers-filled composite performed better in both material-level and package-level thermal characteristics.

  3. Tunable High Brightness Semiconductor Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    red). The reflectance of the G-SAM as a function of irradiance (I) can be expressed as: R(I) = exp [ −ξ ( α◦ 1 + ξI/ Isat ) + ξβeffI)2L ] , (31) 58...resonant structures. where I is the on-axis intensity, α◦ is the linear absorption coefficient, Isat is the saturation intensity, βeff is the nonlinear...α(ξI) = α◦ 1 + ξI/ Isat + ξβeffI (32) The nonlinear reflectance of a G-SAM and dependance on the nonlinear components is shown in Figure 43 (a). The

  4. Selection effects in the bivariate brightness distribution for spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1986-01-01

    The joint distribution of total luminosity and characteristic surface brightness (the bivariate brightness distribution) is investigated for a complete sample of spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster. The influence of selection and physical limits of various kinds on the apparent distribution are detailed. While the distribution of surface brightness for bright galaxies may be genuinely fairly narrow, faint galaxies exist right across the (quite small) range of accessible surface brightnesses so no statement can be made about the true extent of the distribution. The lack of high surface brightness bright galaxies in the Virgo sample relative to an overall RC2 sample (mostly field galaxies) supports the contention that the star-formation rate is reduced in the inner region of the cluster for environmental reasons. (author)

  5. EFFECT OF HIGH INTENSITY LED LIGHT ON THE GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF BROCCOLI SEEDLINGS (BRASSICA OLERACEA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Paniagua-Pardo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dado su alto valor nutricional y los beneficios a la salud por los compuestos anticancerígenos que posee, el brócoli (Brassica oleraceaL. se ha convertido en un cultivo de importancia dentro de las hortalizas, por lo que es necesario incrementar su consumo y producción por la sociedad mexicana. Esta investigación planteó como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la luz LED de alta intensidad de distinta longitud de onda (rojo, azul y verde, en germinación y crecimiento de plántulas de brócoli, evaluando las variables velocidad de germinación (VG, porcentaje de germinación (PGF, longitud media de hipocótilo (LMH, peso fresco (PF y seco (PS de las plántulas, en busca de alternativas de iluminación para la producción en ambiente controlado. Los tiempos de exposición con luz roja, azul y verde, proveniente de LEDs de alta intensidad fueron de 12, seis y tres horas, con un complemento de tiempo para los últimos dos tratamientos con luz LED blanca. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente al azar, con cuatro repeticiones de 30 semillas por unidad experimental. Se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre los tratamientos de las variables evaluadas. Los tratamientos con luz roja presentaron los mayores valores de VG, donde el rojo por 12 horas fue el mejor con incrementos del 25% contra el control. La variable LMH en el tratamiento verde por 12 horas tuvo incremento del 39% respecto al control, convirtiéndose en el mejor. Por otro lado, en la variable PF, el mayor peso se presentó en el tratamiento verde por 12 horas con un incremento contra el control del 16%. Finalmente en la variable PS, el mayor peso se presentó en el tratamiento rojo por 12 horas con un incremento contra el control del 6%. Estos resultados mostraron que las respuestas fisiológicas producidas por la exposición a distintas longitudes de onda de luz LED de alta intensidad en semilla de brócoli variaron de acuerdo con el tiempo de exposición y

  6. High colour purity single-phased full colour emitting white LED phosphor Sr2V2O7:Eu3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhi; Zhou Nan; He Zhangxing; Liu Suqin; Liu Younian; Tian Ziwei; Wang Nanfang; Mao Zhiyong; Hintzen, H T

    2013-01-01

    Single-phased white-light-emitting phosphor Sr 2 V 2 O 7 :Eu 3+ was successfully synthesized by the solid-state method. The result of x-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the obtained phosphor has the same crystal structure as that of Sr 2 V 2 O 7 . The synthesized Sr 2 V 2 O 7 :Eu 3+ was combined with near-UV light (365 nm) chips and then assembled into ligtht-emitting diodes (LED) devices, which generated white light with colour coordinates of (0.324, 0.317). The white light was generated from yellow-green and red emissions, which should be attributed to the host Sr 2 V 2 O 7 and dopant Eu ions, respectively. The effects of the concentration of Eu ions and charge compensation on the emission intensity were carefully investigated. The results show that the energy migrates from the host to the dopant and also that Li 2 CO 3 should be the best charge compensator for this single-phased phosphor. In addition, the colour rendering index and luminescence efficiency of the fabricated LED devices with Sr 1.90 V 2 O 7 :0.10Eu 3+ phosphor were 91 and 32 lm W -1 , respectively, suggesting that Sr 1.90 V 2 O 7 :0.10Eu 3+ phosphor is a potential candidate for the phosphor-converted white-light-emitting diodes with near-UV chips.

  7. Design of the control system for full-color LED display based on MSP430 MCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Xu, Hui-juan; Qin, Ling-ling; Zheng, Long-jiang

    2013-08-01

    The LED display incorporate the micro electronic technique, computer technology and information processing as a whole, it becomes the most preponderant of a new generation of display media with the advantages of bright in color, high dynamic range, high brightness and long operating life, etc. The LED display has been widely used in the bank, securities trading, highway signs, airport and advertising, etc. According to the display color, the LED display screen is divided into monochrome screen, double color display and full color display. With the diversification of the LED display's color and the ceaseless rise of the display demands, the LED display's drive circuit and control technology also get the corresponding progress and development. The earliest monochrome screen just displaying Chinese characters, simple character or digital, so the requirements of the controller are relatively low. With the widely used of the double color LED display, the performance of its controller will also increase. In recent years, the full color LED display with three primary colors of red, green, blue and grayscale display effect has been highly attention with its rich and colorful display effect. Every true color pixel includes three son pixels of red, green, blue, using the space colour mixture to realize the multicolor. The dynamic scanning control system of LED full-color display is designed based on MSP430 microcontroller technology of the low power consumption. The gray control technology of this system used the new method of pulse width modulation (PWM) and 19 games show principle are combining. This method in meet 256 level grayscale display conditions, improves the efficiency of the LED light device, and enhances the administrative levels feels of the image. Drive circuit used 1/8 scanning constant current drive mode, and make full use of the single chip microcomputer I/O mouth resources to complete the control. The system supports text, pictures display of 256 grayscale

  8. The possible ocular hazards of LED dental illumination applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatacos, Catherine; Harrison, Janet L

    2013-01-01

    The use of high-intensity illumination via Light-Emitting Diode (LED) headlamps is gaining in popularity with dentists and student dentists. Practitioners are using LED headlamps together with magnifying loupes, overhead LED illumination and fiber-optic dental handpieces for long periods of time. Although most manufacturers of these LED illuminators advertise that their devices emit "white" light, these still consist of two spectral bands--the blue spectral band, with its peak at 445 nm, and the green with its peak at 555 nm. While manufacturers suggest that their devices emit "white" light, spectral components of LED lights from different companies are significantly different. Dental headlamp manufacturers strive to create a white LED, and they advertise that this type of light emitted from their product offers bright white-light illumination. However, the manufacturing of a white LED light is done through selection of a white LED-type based on the peak blue strength in combination with the green peak strength and thus creating a beam-forming optic, which determines the beam quality. Some LED illuminators have a strong blue-light component versus the green-light component. Blue-light is highly energized and is close in the color spectrum to ultraviolet-light. The hazards of retinal damage with the use of high-intensity blue-lights has been well-documented. There is limited research regarding the possible ocular hazards of usage of high-intensity illuminating LED devices. Furthermore, the authors have found little research, standards, or guidelines examining the possible safety issues regarding the unique dental practice setting consisting of the combined use of LED illumination systems. Another unexamined component is the effect of high-intensity light reflective glare and magnification back to the practitioner's eyes due to the use of water during dental procedures. Based on the result of Dr. Janet Harrison's observations of beginning dental students in a

  9. White emitting CdS quantum dot nanoluminophores hybridized on near-ultraviolet LEDs for high-quality white light generation and tuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizamoglu, Sedat; Mutlugun, Evren; Akyuz, Ozgun; Perkgoz, Nihan Kosku; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Liebscher, Lydia; Sapra, Sameer; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmueller, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    To generate white light using semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) quantum dots integrated on light emitting diodes (LEDs), multiple hybrid device parameters (emission wavelengths of the NCs and the excitation platform, order of the NCs with different sizes, amount of the different types of NCs, etc) need to be carefully designed and properly implemented. In this study, we introduce and demonstrate white LEDs based on simple device hybridization using only a single type of white emitting CdS quantum dot nanoluminophores on near-ultraviolet LEDs. Here we present their design, synthesis-growth, fabrication and characterization. With these hybrid devices, we achieve high color rendering index (>70), despite using only a single NC type. Furthermore, we conveniently tune their photometric properties including the chromaticity coordinates, correlated color temperature, and color rendering index with the number of hybridized nanoluminophores in a controlled manner

  10. 高显色指数LED合成白光光源的研究%Study on LEDs Synthesized High Color Rendering Index White Light Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡奕彬; 庄其仁; 刘士伟; 赖传杜

    2016-01-01

    -green LEDs can lead to low color temperature white light (3500 K~4500 K) whose color rendering index Ra ranges between 95.0 and 97.8.The synthesis with cold white LEDs and red,green and bluishgreen LEDs can lead to high color temperature white light (8200 K~ 13000 K) whose color rendering index Ra ranges between 90.9 and 98.4.An actual fabrication is conducted following the calculated LED amount to produce an LED module with 7803 K color temperature and 97.29 color rendering index.Actual measurement shows that the produced LED module has a color temperature of 7992 K and a color rendering index of 97.1,which is well matched the theoretical results.

  11. Quantitative analysis of inclusions in high-strength steels by x-ray computed tomography using ultra-bright synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, Daiki; Nakai, Yoshikazu; Morikage, Yasushi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Okado, Hideki; Miyashita, Takuya

    2006-01-01

    The observation of internal microstructures in materials is important to elucidate the mechanisms of ultra-long life fatigue of high-strength steels, and to ensure the integrity of structures. By conventional techniques, such as laboratory X-ray and ultrasonic imaging, the size and shape of subsurface non-metallic inclusions and cracks, those are smaller than 100 μm, cannot be measured. Then, in the present study, the ultra-bright synchrotron radiation X-ray was applied to the imaging of subsurface inclusion. To obtain basic data for the measurement, the penetration depth of synchrotron radiation wave in a free-cutting steel was examined. It was found that the depths where the transmitted wave cannot be observed are 100 μm for 15 keV, 200 μm for 20 keV, 600 μm for 25 keV, and 800 μm for 30 keV. For the measurement of size and shape of inclusion, synchrotron radiation computed tomography method (SR-CT) was employed. Metallographic structures can be observed in a free-cutting steel, and the diameter of these structures is about 7 - 10 μm. They are considered to be inclusions, which mainly contain manganese sulfide (MnS) or pearlitic phase. To investigate the possibility of detection of pearlitic phase, SR-CT was applied to observe the metallographic structures in carbon steel (S35C), which contains a lot of pearlitic phase and a little inclusion. In this case, no metallographic structure was observed inside specimen. These results indicate that the microstructures those were observed by SR-CT method was inclusions, not pearlitic phase. (author)

  12. Bright conjugated polymer nanoparticles containing a biodegradable shell produced at high yields and with tuneable optical properties by a scalable microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelha, T F; Phillips, T W; Bannock, J H; Nightingale, A M; Dreiss, C A; Kemal, E; Urbano, L; deMello, J C; Green, M; Dailey, L A

    2017-02-02

    This study compares the performance of a microfluidic technique and a conventional bulk method to manufacture conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) embedded within a biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-block-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PEG 5K -PLGA 55K ) matrix. The influence of PEG 5K -PLGA 55K and conjugated polymers cyano-substituted poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (CN-PPV) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) on the physicochemical properties of the CPNs was also evaluated. Both techniques enabled CPN production with high end product yields (∼70-95%). However, while the bulk technique (solvent displacement) under optimal conditions generated small nanoparticles (∼70-100 nm) with similar optical properties (quantum yields ∼35%), the microfluidic approach produced larger CPNs (140-260 nm) with significantly superior quantum yields (49-55%) and tailored emission spectra. CPNs containing CN-PPV showed smaller size distributions and tuneable emission spectra compared to F8BT systems prepared under the same conditions. The presence of PEG 5K -PLGA 55K did not affect the size or optical properties of the CPNs and provided a neutral net electric charge as is often required for biomedical applications. The microfluidics flow-based device was successfully used for the continuous preparation of CPNs over a 24 hour period. On the basis of the results presented here, it can be concluded that the microfluidic device used in this study can be used to optimize the production of bright CPNs with tailored properties with good reproducibility.

  13. Highly efficient degradation of thidiazuron with Ag/AgCl- activated carbon composites under LED light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yisi [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Processing and Application of Catalytic Materials, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); College of Chemical Engineering, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); Zhang, Yan [Hubei Key Laboratory for Processing and Application of Catalytic Materials, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); College of Chemical Engineering, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); Dong, Mingguang; Yan, Ting; Zhang, Maosheng [College of Chemical Engineering, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); Zeng, Qingru, E-mail: 40083763@qq.com [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China)

    2017-08-05

    Highlights: • Photocatalytic degradation of thidiazuron was performed in a neutral water matrix. • This was carried out in the presence of Ag/AgCl-activated carbon composites and LED light. • The pH effect and the dominant active species were explored. • Degradation products and pathways in water were studied for the first time. - Abstract: Thidiazuron (TDZ; 1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)urea) is one of the most widely used defoliant and easy to dissolve in surface water. Risk associated with the pesticide is not clearly defined, so it is important to remove/degrade TDZ with an efficient and environment friendly technology. Here, we investigated the use of Ag/AgCl-activated carbon (Ag/AgCl–AC) composites in photocatalytic degradation of TDZ under LED light. By the synergic effect of Ag/AgCl and AC, the optimum Ag/carbon weight ratio of 2:1 exhibited superior visible-light photocatalytic activity, the highest removal efficiency was close to 91% in pH 7 matrix. Different types of Ag/AgCl–AC composites were tested, all showed much faster photodegradation kinetics than bare Ag/AgCl in 210 min. The degradation products as identified by HPLC–MS revealed that the hydroxylation by hydroxyl radicals and that of oxidation by superoxide radicals as well as holes were the two main pathways for TDZ degradation. Results revealed that the adsorption concentrated TDZ molecules and the photocatalytically generated radicals rapidly degradated TDZ, the two contributions functioned together for removal of the pollutant from water.

  14. Highly efficient degradation of thidiazuron with Ag/AgCl- activated carbon composites under LED light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yisi; Zhang, Yan; Dong, Mingguang; Yan, Ting; Zhang, Maosheng; Zeng, Qingru

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Photocatalytic degradation of thidiazuron was performed in a neutral water matrix. • This was carried out in the presence of Ag/AgCl-activated carbon composites and LED light. • The pH effect and the dominant active species were explored. • Degradation products and pathways in water were studied for the first time. - Abstract: Thidiazuron (TDZ; 1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)urea) is one of the most widely used defoliant and easy to dissolve in surface water. Risk associated with the pesticide is not clearly defined, so it is important to remove/degrade TDZ with an efficient and environment friendly technology. Here, we investigated the use of Ag/AgCl-activated carbon (Ag/AgCl–AC) composites in photocatalytic degradation of TDZ under LED light. By the synergic effect of Ag/AgCl and AC, the optimum Ag/carbon weight ratio of 2:1 exhibited superior visible-light photocatalytic activity, the highest removal efficiency was close to 91% in pH 7 matrix. Different types of Ag/AgCl–AC composites were tested, all showed much faster photodegradation kinetics than bare Ag/AgCl in 210 min. The degradation products as identified by HPLC–MS revealed that the hydroxylation by hydroxyl radicals and that of oxidation by superoxide radicals as well as holes were the two main pathways for TDZ degradation. Results revealed that the adsorption concentrated TDZ molecules and the photocatalytically generated radicals rapidly degradated TDZ, the two contributions functioned together for removal of the pollutant from water.

  15. Long-term stable stacked CsPbBr3 quantum dot films for highly efficient white light generation in LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Hyun; Yoo, Jin Sun; Kang, Bong Kyun; Choi, Seung Hee; Ji, Eun Kyung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2016-12-01

    We report highly efficient ethyl cellulose with CsPbBr 3 perovskite QD films for white light generation in LED application. Ethyl cellulose with CsPbBr 3 quantum dots is applied with Sr 2 Si 5 N 8  : Eu 2+ red phosphor on an InGaN blue chip, achieving a highly efficient luminous efficacy of 67.93 lm W -1 under 20 mA current.

  16. EDITORIAL: LED light sources (light for the future) LED light sources (light for the future)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, N.

    2010-09-01

    Generating white light from electricity with maximum efficacy has been a long quest since the first incandescent lamp was invented by Edison at the end of the 19th century. Nowadays, semiconductors are making reality the holy grail of converting electrons into photons with 100% efficiency and with colours that can be mixed for white light illumination. The revolution in solid-state lighting (SSL) dates to 1994 when Nakamura reported the first high-brightness blue LED based on GaN semiconductors. Then, white light was produced by simply combining a blue dye with a yellow phosphor. After more than a decade of intensive research the performance of white LEDs is quite impressive, beating by far the luminous efficacy of compact fluorescent lamps. We are likely close to replacing our current lighting devices by SSL lamps. However, there are still technological and fabrication cost issues that could delay large market penetration of white LEDs. Interestingly, SSL may create novel ways of using light that could potentially limit electricity saving. Whatever the impact of SSL, it will be significant on our daily life. The purpose of this special cluster issue is to produce a snapshot of the current situation of SSL from different viewing angles. In an introductory paper, Tsao and co-workers from Sandia National Laboratories, present an energy-economics perspective of SSL considering societal changes and SSL technology evolution. In a second article, Narukawa et al working at Nichia Corporation—the pioneer and still the leading company in SSL—describe the state of the art of current research products. They demonstrate record performance with white LEDs exhibiting luminous efficacy of 183 lm W-1 at high-current injection. Then, a series of topical papers discuss in detail various aspects of the physics and technology of white LEDs Carrier localization in InGaN quantum wells has been considered the key to white LEDs' success despite the huge density of defects. A

  17. Schlieren study of a sonic jet injected into a supersonic cross flow using high-current pulsed LEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giskes, Ella; Verschoof, Ruben A.; Segerink, Frans B.; Venner, Cornelis H.

    2017-01-01

    Benefiting from the development of increasingly advanced high speed cameras, flow visualization and analysis nowadays yield detailed data of the flow field in many applications. Notwithstanding this progress, for high speed and supersonic flows it is still not trivial to capture high quality images.

  18. A novel dimmable LED driver with soft-start and UVLO circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jinguang; Tan Gaojian; Zhou Xifeng; Zhang Zeyu

    2015-01-01

    A fully integrated LED driver based on a current mode PWM boost DC—DC converter with constant output current is proposed. In order to suppress the inrush of current and the overshoot voltage at the start up state, a soft-start circuit is adopted. Additionally, to adjust the LED brightness without color variation over the full dimming range and achieve high efficiency, a PWM dimming circuit is presented. Furthermore, to keep the loop stability of the LED driver, an internal slope compensation network is designed to avoid the sub-harmonic oscillation when the duty cycle exceeds 50%. Finally, a UVLO circuit is adopted to improve the reliability of the LED driver against the input voltage changing. The LED driver has been fabricated with a standard 0.5 μm CMOS process, and only occupies 1.21 × 0.76 mm 2 . Experimental results show that the brightness of the LED can be adjusted by an off-chip PWM signal with a wide adjusting range. The inductor current and output current increase smoothly over the whole load range. The chip is in the UVLO condition when the input voltage is below 2.18 V and has achieved about 137 μs typical start-up time. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  19. Functional Analysis in Long-Term Operation of High Power UV-LEDs in Continuous Fluoro-Sensing Systems for Hydrocarbon Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arques-Orobon, Francisco Jose; Nuñez, Neftali; Vazquez, Manuel; Gonzalez-Posadas, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the long-term functionality of HP (High-power) UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes) as the exciting light source in non-contact, continuous 24/7 real-time fluoro-sensing pollutant identification in inland water. Fluorescence is an effective alternative in the detection and identification of hydrocarbons. The HP UV-LEDs are more advantageous than classical light sources (xenon and mercury lamps) and helps in the development of a low cost, non-contact, and compact system for continuous real-time fieldwork. This work analyzes the wavelength, output optical power, and the effects of viscosity, temperature of the water pollutants, and the functional consistency for long-term HP UV-LED working operation. To accomplish the latter, an analysis of the influence of two types 365 nm HP UV-LEDs degradation under two continuous real-system working mode conditions was done, by temperature Accelerated Life Tests (ALTs). These tests estimate the mean life under continuous working conditions of 6200 h and for cycled working conditions (30 s ON & 30 s OFF) of 66,000 h, over 7 years of 24/7 operating life of hydrocarbon pollution monitoring. In addition, the durability in the face of the internal and external parameter system variations is evaluated. PMID:26927113

  20. Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal Conductivity for Next Generation Phosphor-Converted LED-based Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockstaller, Michael [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The low thermal conductivity of state-of-the-art polymer encapsulants (k ~ 0.15 Wm-1K-1) limits the efficiency and power density of current phosphor conversion light emitting diodes (pc-LEDs). The technical objective of this project was to demonstrate synthesis and processing schemes for the fabrication of polymer hybrid encapsulants with a thermal conductivity exceeding k = 0.4 Wm-1K-1 for LED applications. The ‘hybrid polymer’ approach encompasses the dispersion of high thermal conductivity particle fillers (zinc oxide, ZnO as well as the alpha-polymorph of alumina, Al2O3) within a polysiloxane matrix (poly(dimethylsiloxane), PDMS as well as poly(phenyl methyl siloxane), PPMS) to increase the thermal conductivity while maintaining optical transparency and photothermal stability at levels consistent with LED applications. To accomplish this goal, a novel synthesis method for the fabrication of nanosized ZnO particles was developed and a novel surface chemistry was established to modify the surface of zinc oxide particle fillers and thus to enable their dispersion in poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) matrix polymers. Molecular dynamics and Mie simulations were used to optimize ligand structure and to enable the concurrent mixing of particles in PDMS/PPMS embedding media while also minimizing the thermal boundary resistance as well as optical scattering of particle fillers. Using this approach the synthesis of PDMS/ZnO hybrid encapsulants exhibiting a thermal conductivity of 0.64 Wm-1K-1 and optical transparency > 0.7 mm-1 was demonstrated. A forming process based on micromolding was developed to demonstrate the forming of particle filled PDMS into film and lens shapes. Photothermal stability testing revealed stability of the materials for approximately 4000 min when exposed to blue light LED (450 nm, 30 W/cm2). One postgraduate and seven graduate students were supported by the project. The research performed within this project led to fifteen publications in peer

  1. Inhibition of enteric pathogens and surrogates using integrated, high intensity 405nm led light on the surface of almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The disinfecting properties of 405 nm light were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and their non-pathogenic surrogate bacteria on the surface of almonds. High intensity monochromatic blue light (MBL) was generated from an array of narrow-band 405 nm light-emitting diodes (LE...

  2. Effect of a Cooling Step Treatment on a High-Voltage GaN LED During ICP Dry Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Sheng; Hsiao, Sheng-Yu; Tseng, Chun-Lung; Shen, Ching-Hsing; Chiang, Jung-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a lower dislocation density for a GaN surface and a reduced current path are observed at the interface of a SiO2 isolation sidewall, using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. This is grown using a 3-min cooling step treatment during inductivity coupled plasma dry etching. The lower forward voltage is measured, the leakage current decreases from 53nA to 32nA, and the maximum output power increases from 354.8 W to 357.2 W for an input current of 30 mA. The microstructure and the optoelectronic properties of high-voltage light-emitting-diodes is proven to be affected by the cooling step treatment, which allows enough time to release the thermal energy of the SiO2 isolation well.

  3. Simultaneous brightness contrast of foraging Papilio butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Takahashi, Yuki; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the sense of brightness in the foraging Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We presented two red discs of different intensity on a grey background to butterflies, and trained them to select one of the discs. They were successfully trained to select either a high intensity or a low intensity disc. The trained butterflies were tested on their ability to perceive brightness in two different protocols: (i) two orange discs of different intensity presented on the same intensity grey background and (ii) two orange discs of the same intensity separately presented on a grey background that was either higher or lower in intensity than the training background. The butterflies trained to high intensity red selected the orange disc of high intensity in protocol 1, and the disc on the background of low intensity grey in protocol 2. We obtained similar results in another set of experiments with purple discs instead of orange discs. The choices of the butterflies trained to low intensity red were opposite to those just described. Taken together, we conclude that Papilio has the ability to learn brightness and darkness of targets independent of colour, and that they have the so-called simultaneous brightness contrast. PMID:22179808

  4. The "Brightness Rules" Alternative Conception for Light Bulb Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Joel A.; Stuessy, Carol

    2006-01-01

    An alternative conception for the observed differences in light bulb brightness was revealed during an unguided inquiry investigation in which prospective elementary teachers placed identical bulbs in series, parallel, and combination direct current circuits. Classroom observations, document analyses, and video and audio transcriptions led to the…

  5. Oxygen-induced high diffusion rate of magnesium dopants in GaN/AlGaN based UV LED heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowski, Paweł Piotr; Złotnik, Sebastian; Sitek, Jakub; Rosiński, Krzysztof; Rudziński, Mariusz

    2018-05-23

    Further development of GaN/AlGaN based optoelectronic devices requires optimization of the p-type material growth process. In particular, uncontrolled diffusion of Mg dopants may decrease the performance of a device. Thus it is meaningful to study the behavior of Mg and the origins of its diffusion in detail. In this work we have employed secondary ion mass spectrometry to study the diffusion of magnesium in GaN/AlGaN structures. We show that magnesium has a strong tendency to form Mg-H complexes which immobilize Mg atoms and restrain their diffusion. However, these complexes are not present in samples post-growth annealed in an oxygen atmosphere or Al-rich AlGaN structures which naturally have a high oxygen concentration. In these samples, more Mg atoms are free to diffuse and thus the average diffusion length is considerably larger than for a sample annealed in an inert atmosphere.

  6. Highly uniform ultraviolet-A quantum-confined AlGaN nanowire LEDs on metal/silicon with a TaN interlayer

    KAUST Repository

    Priante, Davide; Janjua, Bilal; Prabaswara, Aditya; Subedi, Ram Chandra; Elafandy, Rami T.; Lopatin, Sergei; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Zhao, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we describe ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting at 325 nm based on a highly uniform structure of quantum-confined AlGaN quantum-disk nanowires (NWs). By incorporating a 20 nm TaN interlayer between a Ti pre-orienting layer and the silicon substrate, we eliminated the potential barrier for carrier injection and phonon transport, and inhibited the formation of interfacial silicide that led to device failure. Compared to previous reports on metal substrate, we achieved a 16 × reduction in root-mean-square (RMS) roughness, from 24 nm to 1.6 nm, for the samples with the Ti/TaN metal-bilayer, owing to the effective diffusion barrier characteristic of TaN. This was confirmed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). We achieved a considerable increase in the injection current density (up to 90 A/cm2) compared to our previous studies, and an optical power of 1.9 μW for the 0.5 × 0.5 mm2 NWs-LED. This work provides a feasible pathway for both a reliable and stable UV-A device operation at elevated current injection, and eventually towards low-cost production of UV devices, leveraging on the scalability of silicon substrates.

  7. Highly uniform ultraviolet-A quantum-confined AlGaN nanowire LEDs on metal/silicon with a TaN interlayer

    KAUST Repository

    Priante, Davide

    2017-11-02

    In this paper, we describe ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting at 325 nm based on a highly uniform structure of quantum-confined AlGaN quantum-disk nanowires (NWs). By incorporating a 20 nm TaN interlayer between a Ti pre-orienting layer and the silicon substrate, we eliminated the potential barrier for carrier injection and phonon transport, and inhibited the formation of interfacial silicide that led to device failure. Compared to previous reports on metal substrate, we achieved a 16 × reduction in root-mean-square (RMS) roughness, from 24 nm to 1.6 nm, for the samples with the Ti/TaN metal-bilayer, owing to the effective diffusion barrier characteristic of TaN. This was confirmed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). We achieved a considerable increase in the injection current density (up to 90 A/cm2) compared to our previous studies, and an optical power of 1.9 μW for the 0.5 × 0.5 mm2 NWs-LED. This work provides a feasible pathway for both a reliable and stable UV-A device operation at elevated current injection, and eventually towards low-cost production of UV devices, leveraging on the scalability of silicon substrates.

  8. Design of a lighting system with high-power LEDs, large area electronics, and light management structure in the LUMENTILE European project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, L.; Simonetta, M.; Benetti, G.; Tramonte, A.; Capelli, G.; Benedetti, M.; Randone, E. M.; Ylisaukko-oja, A.; Keränen, K.; Facchinetti, T.; Giuliani, G.

    2017-02-01

    LUMENTILE (LUMinous ElectroNic TILE) is a project funded by the European Commission with the goal of developing a luminous tile with novel functionalities, capable of changing its color and interact with the user. Applications include interior/exterior tile for walls and floors covering, high-efficiency luminaries, and advertising under the form of giant video screens. High overall electrical efficiency of the tile is mandatory, as several millions of square meters are foreseen to be installed each year. Demand is for high uniformity of the illumination of the top tile surface, and for high optical extraction efficiency. These features are achieved by smart light management, using a new approach based on light guiding slab and spatially selective light extraction obtained using both diffusion and/or reflection from the top and bottom interfaces of the optical layer. Planar and edge configurations for the RGB LEDs are considered and compared. A square shape with side length from 20cm to 60cm is considered for the tiles. The electronic circuit layout must optimize the electrical efficiency, and be compatible with low-cost roll-to-roll production on flexible substrates. LED heat management is tackled by using dedicated solutions that allow operation in thermally harsh environment. An approach based on OLEDs has also been considered, still needing improvement on emitted power and ruggedness.

  9. Optical Sky Brightness and Transparency during the Winter Season at Dome A Antarctica from the Gattini-All-Sky Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Moore, Anna M.; Krisciunas, Kevin; Wang, Lifan; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Fu, Jianning; Brown, Peter J.; Cui, Xiangqun; Feng, Long-Long; Gong, Xuefei; Hu, Zhongwen; Lawrence, Jon S.; Luong-Van, Daniel; Riddle, Reed L.; Shang, Zhaohui; Sims, Geoff; Storey, John W. V.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Tothill, Nick; Travouillon, Tony; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Zhou, Xu; Zhu, Zhenxi

    2017-07-01

    The summit of the Antarctic plateau, Dome A, is proving to be an excellent site for optical, near-infrared, and terahertz astronomical observations. Gattini is a wide-field camera installed on the PLATO instrument module as part of the Chinese-led traverse to Dome A in 2009 January. We present here the measurements of sky brightness with the Gattini ultra-large field of view (90^\\circ × 90^\\circ ) in the photometric B-, V-, and R-bands; cloud cover statistics measured during the 2009 winter season; and an estimate of the sky transparency. A cumulative probability distribution indicates that the darkest 10% of the nights at Dome A have sky brightness of S B = 22.98, S V = 21.86, and S R = 21.68 mag arcsec-2. These values were obtained during the year 2009 with minimum aurora, and they are comparable to the faintest sky brightness at Maunakea and the best sites of northern Chile. Since every filter includes strong auroral lines that effectively contaminate the sky brightness measurements, for instruments working around the auroral lines, either with custom filters or with high spectral resolution instruments, these values could be easily obtained on a more routine basis. In addition, we present example light curves for bright targets to emphasize the unprecedented observational window function available from this ground-based site. These light curves will be published in a future paper.

  10. LED-roulette : LED's vervangen balletje

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, P.

    2007-01-01

    Iedereen waagt wel eens een gokje, in een loterij of misschien ook in een casino. Wie droomt er immers niet van om op een gemakkelijke manier rijk te worden? Met de hier beschreven LED-roulette valt weliswaar weinig te winnen, maar het is wel een uitstekende manier om het roulettespel thuis te

  11. The ZTF Bright Transient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremling, C.; Sharma, Y.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Miller, A. A.; Taggart, K.; Perley, D. A.; Gooba, A.

    2018-06-01

    As a supplement to the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF; ATel #11266) public alerts (ATel #11685) we plan to report (following ATel #11615) bright probable supernovae identified in the raw alert stream from the ZTF Northern Sky Survey ("Celestial Cinematography"; see Bellm & Kulkarni, 2017, Nature Astronomy 1, 71) to the Transient Name Server (https://wis-tns.weizmann.ac.il) on a daily basis; the ZTF Bright Transient Survey (BTS; see Kulkarni et al., 2018; arXiv:1710.04223).

  12. The role of bound chlorine in the brightness reversion of bleached hardwood kraft pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Maria Morais Eiras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous paper showed fragmentary evidence that pulp brightness reversion may be negatively affected by its organically bound chlorine (OX content. A thorough investigation on eucalyptus kraft pulp led to the conclusion that OX increases reversion of certain pulps but this trend is not universal. Alkaline bleaching stages decrease reversion regardless of pulp OX content. Pulps bleached with high temperature chlorine dioxide revert less than those bleached with conventional chlorine dioxide in sequences ending with a chlorine dioxide stage but similarly in sequences ending with a final peroxide stage. The use of secondary condensate for pulp washing decreases reversion.

  13. High color rendering index of remote-type white LEDs with multi-layered quantum dot-phosphor films and short-wavelength pass dichroic filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hee Chang; Oh, Ji Hye; Do, Young Rag

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces high color rendering index (CRI) white light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs) coated with red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors and yellowish-green emitting AgIn5S8/ZnS (AIS/ZS) quantum dots (QDs) on glass or a short-wavelength pass dichroic filter (SPDF), which transmit blue wavelength regions and reflect yellow wavelength regions. The red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphor film is coated on glass and a SPDF using a screen printing method, and then the yellowish-green emitting AIS/ZS QDs are coated on the red phosphor (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu film-coated glass and SPDF using the electrospray (e-spray) method.To fabricate the red phosphor film, the optimum amount of phosphor is dispersed in a silicon binder to form a red phosphor paste. The AIS/ZS QDs are mixed with dimethylformamide (DMF), toluene, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for the e-spray coating. The substrates are spin-coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to fabricate a conductive surface. The CRI of the white LEDs is improved through inserting the red phosphor film between the QD layer and the glass substrate. Furthermore, the light intensities of the multi-layered phosphor films are enhanced through changing the glass substrate to the SPDF. The correlated color temperatures (CCTs) vary as a function of the phosphor concentration in the phosphor paste. The optical properties of the yellowish-green AIS/ZS QDs and red (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors are characterized using photoluminescence (PL), and the multi-layered QD-phosphor films are measured using electroluminescence (EL) with an InGaN blue LED (λmax = 450 nm) at 60 mA.

  14. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(��) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irr...

  15. Bright outlook for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    After enduring contract price cuts over the past two years of almost 17% for thermal coal and 23% for hard coking coal, the New South Wales coal industry is looking forward to a reversal of fortune for 2001. Increased export demand, improved prices, significant improvements in mine site productivity, a weak Australian dollar and the probability of a number of new projects or extensions progressing to development are likely to result in an increase in NSW saleable production to around 110 million tonnes (Mt) in 2000-01. Sharply weaker coal prices over the past two years, intensified international competition and the Asian economic downturn had a negative impact on profitability, investment, exports and employment in the NSW coal industry. As a result, the industry has undergone substantial restructuring. The restructuring process has led to a consolidation in ownership, reduced production costs and improved operational efficiency. The outcome is an industry well positioned to take advantage of the positive market conditions and one likely to experience levels of profitability not achieved over the past few years

  16. The distribution of InCl sub x compounds in model polymeric LEDs A combined low and high-energy ion beam analysis study

    CERN Document Server

    Reijme, M A; Simons, D P L; Schok, M; Ijzendoorn, L J V; Brongersma, H H; De Voigt, M J A

    2002-01-01

    A combination of low- and high-energy ion beam analysis techniques was used to determine the distribution of indium chloride compounds in model polymeric light-emitting diodes (p-LEDs). Parts of polymeric LEDs (polydialkoxyphenylenevinylene (OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV) on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrates) were exposed to a HCl/Ar flow to simulate the processes occurring during conversion of precursor PPVs and acid treatment of polymers. Samples with variable exposure times as well as pristine samples were studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), low energy ion scattering (LEIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The RBS measurements show that after HCl exposure indium is distributed throughout the OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV layer. LEIS and XPS measurements indicate that the indium and chlorine are present at the outermost surface of the OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV layer. PIXE measurements in combination with the RBS data demonstrate that th...

  17. Electromagnetically induced transparency control in terahertz metasurfaces based on bright-bright mode coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiaoui, R.; Burrow, J. A.; Mekonen, S. M.; Sarangan, A.; Mathews, J.; Agha, I.; Searles, T. A.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a highly flexible planar terahertz metamaterial (MM) comprised of three-gap split-ring resonators. The keys to achieve EIT in this system are the frequency detuning and hybridization processes between two bright modes coexisting in the same unit cell as opposed to bright-dark modes. We present experimental verification of two bright modes coupling for a terahertz EIT-MM in the context of numerical results and theoretical analysis based on a coupled Lorentz oscillator model. In addition, a hybrid variation of the EIT-MM is proposed and implemented numerically to dynamically tune the EIT window by incorporating photosensitive silicon pads in the split gap region of the resonators. As a result, this hybrid MM enables the active optical control of a transition from the on state (EIT mode) to the off state (dipole mode).

  18. Dansk LED - Museumsbelysning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Thorseth, Anders

    Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen.......Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen....

  19. Record productions establish RF-driven sources as the standard for generating high-duty-factor, high-current H- beams for accelerators (Winner of the ICIS 2017 Brightness Award)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockli, Martin P.; Welton, Robert F.; Han, Baoxi

    2018-05-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source operates reliably at 1.2 MW and will gradually ramp to 1.4 MW. This paper briefly recalls some of the struggles when the unprecedented project was started and ramped to 1 MW over a 3½ year period. This was challenging, especially for the H- ion source and the low-energy beam transport system, which make up the H- injector. It took several more years to push the H- injector to the 1.4 MW requirements, and even longer to reach close to 100% injector availability. An additional breakthrough was the carefully staged, successful extension of the H- source service cycle so that disruptive source changes became rare events. More than 7 A.h of extracted H- ions have been demonstrated with a single source without maintenance, more than twice the single-source quantity of ions produced by any other high-current H- accelerator facility. Achieving the 1.4 MW requirements with close to 100% availability and record-breaking source service cycles were the basis for the 2017 Brightness Award.

  20. Goniometric characterization of LED based greenhouse lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Lindén, Johannes; Corell, Dennis Dan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a demonstration of goniospectroradiometry for characterizations of new light emitting diode (LED) based luminaries for enhanced photosynthesis in greenhouses. It highlights the differences between measurement of the traditional high pressure sodium (HPS) luminaries and the LED...

  1. The distribution of star formation and metals in the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. E.; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Wang, Sharon X.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce the MUSCEL Programme (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry and Evolution of LSB galaxies), a project aimed at determining the star-formation histories of low surface brightness galaxies. MUSCEL utilizes ground-based optical spectra and space-based UV and IR photometry to fully constrain the star-formation histories of our targets with the aim of shedding light on the processes that led low surface brightness galaxies down a different evolutionary path from that followed by high surface brightness galaxies, such as our Milky Way. Here we present the spatially resolved optical spectra of UGC 628, observed with the VIRUS-P IFU at the 2.7-m Harlen J. Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory, and utilize emission-line diagnostics to determine the rate and distribution of star formation as well as the gas-phase metallicity and metallicity gradient. We find highly clustered star formation throughout UGC 628, excluding the core regions, and a log(O/H) metallicity around -4.2, with more metal-rich regions near the edges of the galactic disc. Based on the emission-line diagnostics alone, the current mode of star formation, slow and concentrated in the outer disc, appears to have dominated for quite some time, although there are clear signs of a much older stellar population formed in a more standard inside-out fashion.

  2. High brightness extreme ultraviolet (at 13.5 nm) emission from time-of-flight controlled discharges with coaxial fuel injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokai, Tomonao; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Hotta, Eiki; Yokoyama, Takuma; Sato, Hiroto; Zhidkov, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from discharge produced plasma with the coaxial injection of fuel vapor (tin and lithium) produced by laser ablation is experimentally studied. Multiple plasma pinches preceding a strong and long recombination radiation of EUV are observed in the first half cycle of a sinusoidal discharge current. Due to the time-of-flight control type of the discharge, the shape of pinch radiation pulses is almost identical. With the coaxial injection of time-of-flight controlled discharges, the highest brightness of EUV emission (maximum extracted energy of 244.3 mJ/2π sr per pulse with the emitter size of ∼1x0.3 mm 2 in full width at half maximum) is provided with efficiency exceeding 2% of deposited energy into the plasma (or 1% of dissipated energy in the discharge) due to a much better matching with the optimal plasma parameters in the recombination regime and a decrease in the off-duty factor. Stability of emitting plasma of the repetitive pinches is essentially improved with use of a second laser pulse

  3. A synthetic method of solar spectrum based on LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-qiang; Su, Shi; Zhang, Guo-yu; Zhang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    A synthetic method of solar spectrum which based on the spectral characteristics of the solar spectrum and LED, and the principle of arbitrary spectral synthesis was studied by using 14 kinds of LED with different central wavelengths.The LED and solar spectrum data were selected by Origin Software firstly, then calculated the total number of LED for each center band by the transformation relation between brightness and illumination and Least Squares Curve Fit in Matlab.Finally, the spectrum curve of AM1.5 standard solar spectrum was obtained. The results met the technical indexes of the solar spectrum matching with ±20% and the solar constant with >0.5.

  4. Final Report on DTRA Basic Research Project #BRCALL08-Per3-C-2-0006 "High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and Bright X-ray Sources with New Laser Targets"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colvin, Jeffrey D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This project had two major goals. Final Goal: obtain spectrally resolved, absolutely calibrated x-ray emission data from uniquely uniform mm-scale near-critical-density high-Z plasmas not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) to benchmark modern detailed atomic physics models. Scientific significance: advance understanding of non-LTE atomic physics. Intermediate Goal: develop new nano-fabrication techniques to make suitable laser targets that form the required highly uniform non-LTE plasmas when illuminated by high-intensity laser light. Scientific significance: advance understanding of nano-science. The new knowledge will allow us to make x-ray sources that are bright at the photon energies of most interest for testing radiation hardening technologies, the spectral energy range where current x-ray sources are weak. All project goals were met.

  5. Room temperature synthesis of ultra-small, near-unity single-sized lead halide perovskite quantum dots with wide color emission tunability, high color purity and high brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lucheng; Geng, Jing; Ai, Lisha; Zhang, Ying; Xie, Renguo; Yang, Wensheng

    2016-08-01

    Phosphor with extremely narrow emission line widths, high brightness, and wide color emission tunability in visible regions is required for display and lighting applications, yet none has been reported in the literature so far. In the present study, single-sized lead halide perovskite (APbX 3; A = CH3NH3 and Cs; X = Cl, Br, and I) nanocrystalline (NC) phosphors were achieved for the first time in a one-pot reaction at room temperature (25 °C). The size-dependent samples, which included four families of CsPbBr3 NCs and exhibited sharp excitonic absorption peaks and pure band gap emission, were directly obtained by simply varying the concentration of ligands. The continuity of the optical spectrum can be successively tuned over the entire UV-visible spectral region (360-610 nm) by preparing CsPbCl3, CsPbI3, and CsPb(Y/Br)3 (Y = Cl and I) NCs with the use of CsPbBr3 NCs as templates by anion exchange while maintaining the size of NCs and high quantum yields of up to 80%. Notably, an emission line width of 10-24 nm, which is completely consistent with that of their single particles, indicates the formation of single-sized NCs. The versatility of the synthetic strategy was validated by extending it to the synthesis of single-sized CH3NH3PbX 3 NCs by simply replacing the cesium precursor by the CH3NH3 X precursor.

  6. Performance of LED fluorescence microscopy for the detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) bright-field microscopy is time-consuming, with poor sensitivity, even under optimal conditions. Introduction of Primo Star iLED fluorescent microscopy (FM) may improve TB case finding at referral hospitals in Rwanda. The study aimed to determine the acceptability and effectiveness of iLED ...

  7. Measurement of the photometric characteristics of LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, L.A.; Zubkov, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Proposed and implemented a method for measuring LEDs, which is based on self-calibration of the LED goniophotometer facility by using a trap-detector. Designed and manufactured automated goniophotometer, which provides a measurement of high power LEDs at a specified junction temperature. Designed and experimentally researched the photometer with a photometric sphere based diffuser, which meets all requirements of CIE for photometric measurements of LEDs

  8. [LED lights in dermatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, C; Pelletier-Aouizerate, M; Cartier, H

    2017-04-01

    The use in dermatology of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) continues to be surrounded by controversy. This is due mainly to poor knowledge of the physicochemical phases of a wide range of devices that are difficult to compare to one another, and also to divergences between irrefutable published evidence either at the level of in vitro studies or at the cellular level, and discordant clinical results in a variety of different indications: rejuvenation, acne, wound healing, leg ulcers, and cutaneous inflammatory or autoimmune processes. Therapeutic LEDs can emit wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet, through visible light, to the near infrared (247-1300 nm), but only certain bands have so far demonstrated any real value. We feel certain that if this article remains factual, then readers will have a different, or at least more nuanced, opinion concerning the use of such LED devices in dermatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Notes on LED Installations in Street Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Spunei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study made on choosing LED street lighting installations, such that the quality requirements for exterior artificial lighting are fulfilled. We analyze two types of LED street lighting installations from a technical point of view, together with lighting level and brightness values obtained during the measurements. Following on the field measurements, the lighting quality parameters are calculated, and, for the lighting installation with the best performance, optimal mounting suggestions are made. The optimal quality parameters are calculated by simulations using the Dialux software. The same software and the same light sources we also compute an optimal street lighting by determining the size of the installation that provides the best lighting parameter values.

  10. Plant growth with Led lighting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiotti, C.A.; Bernardini, A.; Di Carlo, F.; Scoccianti, M.; Alonzo, G.; Carlino, M.; Dondi, F.; Bibbiani, C.

    2009-01-01

    Leds lighting is highly relevant for the horticultural industry. Compared to other light sources used for plant production, leds have several properties which are potentially useful in relation to horticulture. However, although LEDs technology has raised strong interest in research for extraterrestrial agriculture, current LEDs panel costs are still too high for commercial adoption in greenhouse sector, and their electrical efficacies do not compete with those of high-pressure sodium lamps, but several manufactures are working to address these issues. When LEDs become practical, their ability to based light sources specifically suitable for photosynthesis and other horticulturally relevant plant properties (i.e. low radiated heat; lighting from within the canopy) will render the narrow band spectrum of LEDs of particular interest for providing light to greenhouse horticulture. A general description of LEDs application and their technical characteristics is briefly reported. [it

  11. LED system reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Yuan, C.A.; Koh, S.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our effort to predict the system reliability of Solid State Lighting (SSL) applications. A SSL system is composed of a LED engine with micro-electronic driver(s) that supplies power to the optic design. Knowledge of system level reliability is not only a challenging scientific

  12. Visible Color and Photometry of Bright Materials on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, S. E.; Li, J. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Keller, H. U.

    2012-01-01

    The Dawn Framing Camera (FC) collected images of the surface of Vesta at a pixel scale of 70 m in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) phase through its clear and seven color filters spanning from 430 nm to 980 nm. The surface of Vesta displays a large diversity in its brightness and colors, evidently related to the diverse geology [1] and mineralogy [2]. Here we report a detailed investigation of the visible colors and photometric properties of the apparently bright materials on Vesta in order to study their origin. The global distribution and the spectroscopy of bright materials are discussed in companion papers [3, 4], and the synthesis results about the origin of Vestan bright materials are reported in [5].

  13. Generation of solar spectrum by using LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pengzhi; Yang, Hua; Pei, Yanrong; Li, Jing; Xue, Bin; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin

    2016-09-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) has been recognized as an applicable light source for indoor and outdoor lighting, city beautifying, landscape facilities, and municipal engineering etc. Conventional LED has superior characteristics such as long life time, low power consumption, high contrast, and wide viewing angle. Recently, LED with high color-rendering index and special spectral characteristics has received more and more attention. This paper is intended to report a solar spectrum simulated by multichip LED light source. The typical solar spectrum of 5500k released by CIE was simulated as a reference. Four types of LEDs with different spectral power distributions would be used in the LED light source, which included a 430nm LED, a 480nm LED, a 500nm LED and a white LED. In order to obtain better simulation results, the white LED was achieved by a 450nm LED chip with the mixture of phosphor. The phosphor combination was prepared by mixing green phosphor, yellow phosphor and red phosphor in a certain proportion. The multichip LED light source could provide a high fidelity spectral match with the typical solar spectrum of 5500k by adjusting injection current to each device. The luminous flux, CIE chromaticity coordinate x, y, CCT, and Ra were 104.7 lm, 0.3337, 0.3681, 5460K, and 88.6, respectively. Because of high color-rendering index and highly match to the solar spectrum, the multichip LED light source is a competitive candidate for applications where special spectral is required, such as colorimetric measurements, visual inspection, gemstone identification and agriculture.

  14. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J M [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); McDonald, G S [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Chamorro-Posada, P [Departmento de TeorIa de la Senal y Comunicaciones e IngenierIa Telematica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Campus Miguel Delibes s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2007-02-16

    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts.

  15. A New Sky Brightness Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, David L.; McKenna, D.

    2006-12-01

    A good estimate of sky brightness and its variations throughout the night, the months, and even the years is an essential bit of knowledge both for good observing and especially as a tool in efforts to minimize sky brightness through local action. Hence a stable and accurate monitor can be a valuable and necessary tool. We have developed such a monitor, with the financial help of Vatican Observatory and Walker Management. The device is now undergoing its Beta test in preparation for production. It is simple, accurate, well calibrated, and automatic, sending its data directly to IDA over the internet via E-mail . Approximately 50 such monitors will be ready soon for deployment worldwide including most major observatories. Those interested in having one should enquire of IDA about details.

  16. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J M; McDonald, G S; Chamorro-Posada, P

    2007-01-01

    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts

  17. Raman beam combining for laser brightness enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jay W.; Allen, Graham S.; Pax, Paul H.; Heebner, John E.; Sridharan, Arun K.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Barty, Chrisopher B. J.

    2015-10-27

    An optical source capable of enhanced scaling of pulse energy and brightness utilizes an ensemble of single-aperture fiber lasers as pump sources, with each such fiber laser operating at acceptable pulse energy levels. Beam combining involves stimulated Raman scattering using a Stokes' shifted seed beam, the latter of which is optimized in terms of its temporal and spectral properties. Beams from fiber lasers can thus be combined to attain pulses with peak energies in excess of the fiber laser self-focusing limit of 4 MW while retaining the advantages of a fiber laser system of high average power with good beam quality.

  18. Next generation diode lasers with enhanced brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, S.; Rauch, S.; Irmler, L.; Rikels, J.; Killi, A.; Papastathopoulos, E.; Sarailou, E.; Zimer, H.

    2018-02-01

    High-power diode lasers are nowadays well established manufacturing tools in high power materials processing, mainly for tactile welding, surface treatment and cladding applications. Typical beam parameter products (BPP) of such lasers range from 30 to 50 mm·mrad at several kilowatts of output power. TRUMPF offers a product line of diode lasers to its customers ranging from 150 W up to 6 kW of output power. These diode lasers combine high reliability with small footprint and high efficiency. However, up to now these lasers are limited in brightness due to the commonly used spatial and coarse spectral beam combining techniques. Recently diode lasers with enhanced brightness have been presented by use of dense wavelength multiplexing (DWM). In this paper we report on TRUMPF's diode lasers utilizing DWM. We demonstrate a 2 kW and a 4 kW system ideally suited for fine welding and scanner welding applications. The typical laser efficiency is in the range of 50%. The system offers plug and play exchange of the fiber beam delivery cable, multiple optical outputs and integrated cooling in a very compact package. An advanced control system offers flexible integration in any customer's shop floor environment and includes industry 4.0 capabilities (e.g. condition monitoring and predictive maintenance).

  19. Electron beam brightness with field immersed emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.K.; Neil, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    The beam quality or brightness of an electron beam produced with field immersed emission is studied with two models. First, an envelope formulation is used to determine the scaling of brightness with current, magnetic field and cathode radius, and examine the equilibrium beam radius. Second, the DPC computer code is used to calculate the brightness of two electron beam sources

  20. New illuminations approaches with single-use micro LEDs endoilluminators for the pars plana vitrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelbl, Philipp Simon; Koch, Frank H. J.; Lingenfelder, Christian; Hessling, Martin

    2018-02-01

    The illumination of the intraocular space during pars plana vitrectomy always bears the risk of retina damage by irradiation. Conventional illumination systems consist of an external light source and an optical fiber to transfer the visible light (radiation) into the eye. Often xenon arc and halogen lamps are employed for this application with some disadvantageous properties like high phototoxicity and low efficiency. Therefore, we propose to generate the light directly within the eye by inserting a white micro LED with a diameter of 0.6 mm. The LED offers a luminous flux of 0.6 lm of white light with a blue peak @ 450 nm and a yellow peak @ 555 nm. The presented prototypes fit through a standard 23 G trocar and are the first intraocular light sources worldwide. Two different single-use approaches have already been developed: a handguided and a chandelier device. The hand-guided applicator enables a directly navigation and illumination up to a working distance of 6 mm. The chandelier device is much smaller and does not need an active navigation of the light cone. The brightness and homogeneity of the illumination of these LED devices have been successfully tested on porcine eyes. Presented measurements and calculations prove that even for high LED currents and small distances to the retina these intraocular micro LED devices expose the retina to less hazard than conventional illumination sources like fiber based xenon systems. Even under the worst circumstances application durations of 180 hours would be justifiable.

  1. Thermal management for LED applications

    CERN Document Server

    Poppe, András

    2014-01-01

    Thermal Management for LED Applications provides state-of-the-art information on recent developments in thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems and their applications. Coverage begins with an overview of the basics of thermal management including thermal design for LEDs, thermal characterization and testing of LEDs, and issues related to failure mechanisms and reliability and performance in harsh environments. Advances and recent developments in thermal management round out the book with discussions on advances in TIMs (thermal interface materials) for LED applications, advances in forced convection cooling of LEDs, and advances in heat sinks for LED assemblies. This book also: Presents a comprehensive overview of the basics of thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems Discusses both design and thermal management considerations when manufacturing LEDs and LED-based systems Covers reliability and performance of LEDs in harsh environments Has a hands-on applications a...

  2. White LED visible light communication technology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao

    2017-03-01

    Visible light communication is a new type of wireless optical communication technology. White LED to the success of development, the LED lighting technology is facing a new revolution. Because the LED has high sensitivity, modulation, the advantages of good performance, large transmission power, can make it in light transmission light signal at the same time. Use white LED light-emitting characteristics, on the modulation signals to the visible light transmission, can constitute a LED visible light communication system. We built a small visible optical communication system. The system composition and structure has certain value in the field of practical application, and we also research the key technology of transmitters and receivers, the key problem has been resolved. By studying on the optical and LED the characteristics of a high speed modulation driving circuit and a high sensitive receiving circuit was designed. And information transmission through the single chip microcomputer test, a preliminary verification has realized the data transmission function.

  3. Aqueous synthesis of high bright Ag{sub 2}Se−ZnSe quantum dots with tunable near-infrared emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che, Dongchen; Ding, Di [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201602 (China); Wang, Hongzhi, E-mail: wanghz@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201602 (China); Zhang, Qinghong [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201602 (China); Li, Yaogang, E-mail: yaogang_li@dhu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Glass Manufacturing Technology, Ministry of Education, Donghua University, Shanghai 201602 (China)

    2016-09-05

    Efficient aqueous synthetic methods for near-infrared quantum dots as bioimaging agents are urgently required. In this work, a simple and fast synthesis of highly luminescent, near-infrared Ag{sub 2}Se quantum dots (QDs) in aqueous media is reported. The method avoids high temperature, pressure and organic solvents to directly generate water-dispersible Ag{sub 2}Se QDs. The photoluminescence emission of Ag{sub 2}Se QDs ranges from 835 to 940 nm by different Ag:Se molar ratio. Using the ZnSe as a shell, the quantum yield reaches up to 42%. The Ag{sub 2}Se−ZnSe QDs with high quantum yield, near-infrared and low cytotoxic could be used as good cell labels, showing great potential applications in bio-imaging. - Highlights: • Ag{sub 2}Se−ZnSe nanocrystals are prepared directly in aqueous media at low temperature. • Ag{sub 2}Se−ZnSe nanocrystals show excellent water solubility and colloidal stability. • Ag{sub 2}Se nanocrystals exhibit tunable near-infrared emission with ultrasmall size. • Ag{sub 2}Se−ZnSe nanocrystals show high quantum yield with low cytotoxicity. • Ag{sub 2}Se−ZnSe nanocrystals are stable over a month at room temperature in the air.

  4. Examining the Impact of a Highly Targeted State Administered Merit Aid Program on Brain Drain: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis of Missouri's Bright Flight Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James R.; Muñoz, José; Curs, Bradley R.; Ehlert, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of state-funded merit-based aid programs has become increasingly popular among policy-makers, particularly in the southeastern part of the United States. One of the primary rationales of state-funded merit-based aid is to provide scholarships to the best and brightest students as a means to retain high quality human capital in the…

  5. Implementation of a Low-Cost Automated LED Photometer for Enzymatic Reaction Detection to Teach Basic Bioelectronics Technologies in Vocational High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huai-Yi; Nieh, Hwa-Ming; Yang, Ming-Feng; Chou, Yu-Kung; Chung, Jui-Hsu; Liou, Je-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a home-assembled, low-cost blue light-emitting diode (LED) photometer that uses simple and low-cost hardware and software, costing about US $150. This 425-nm wavelength photometer is controlled by an 89C51 microcontroller chip. Glucose concentration detection experiments involving enzyme coupling reactions were carried out to…

  6. Low surface brightness spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation presents an observational overview of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies. The sample galaxies were chosen to have low surface brightness disks and indications of spiral structure visible on the Palomar Sky Survey. They are of sufficient angular size (diameter > 2.5 arcmin), to allow detailed surface photometry using Mayall 4-m prime focus plates. The major findings of this dissertation are: (1) The average disk central surface brightness of the LSB galaxies is 22.88 magnitude/arcsec 2 in the B passband. (2) From broadband color measurements of the old stellar population, we infer a low average stellar metallicity, on the order of 1/5 solar. (3) The spectra and optical colors of the HII regions in the LSB galaxies indicate a lack of hot ionizing stars compared to HII regions in other late-type galaxies. (4) The average surface mass density, measured within the radius containing half the total mass, is less than half that of a sample of normal late-type spirals. (5) The average LSB galaxy neutral hydrogen mass to blue luminosity ratio is about 0.6, significantly higher than in a sample of normal late-type galaxies. (6) We find no conclusive evidence of an abnormal mass-to-light ratio in the LSB galaxies. (7) Some of the LSB galaxies exhibit well-developed density wave patterns. (8) A very crude calculation shows the lower metallicity of the LSB galaxies compared with normal late-type spirals might be explained simply by the deficiency of massive stars in the LSB galaxies

  7. POWERFUL ACTIVITY IN THE BRIGHT AGES. I. A VISIBLE/IR SURVEY OF HIGH REDSHIFT 3C RADIO GALAXIES AND QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, B.; Chiaberge, M.; Kotyla, J. P.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tremblay, G. R. [Yale University, Department of Astronomy, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Stanghellini, C. [INAF—Istituto di Radioastronomia, Via P. Gobetti, 101 I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Baum, S.; O’Dea, C. P. [University of Manitoba, Dept of Physics and Astronomy, 66 Chancellors Circle, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Capetti, A. [Osservatorio Astronomico de Torino, Corso Savona, I-10024 Moncalieri TO (Italy); Miley, G. K. [Universiteit Leiden, Rapenburg 70, 2311 EZ Leiden (Netherlands); Perlman, E. S. [Florida Institute of Technology, 150 W University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Quillen, A. [Rochester Institute of Technology, School of Physics and Astronomy, 84 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We present new rest-frame UV and visible observations of 22 high- z (1 < z < 2.5) 3C radio galaxies and QSOs obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope ’s Wide Field Camera 3 instrument. Using a custom data reduction strategy in order to assure the removal of cosmic rays, persistence signal, and other data artifacts, we have produced high-quality science-ready images of the targets and their local environments. We observe targets with regions of UV emission suggestive of active star formation. In addition, several targets exhibit highly distorted host galaxy morphologies in the rest frame visible images. Photometric analyses reveal that brighter QSOs generally tend to be redder than their dimmer counterparts. Using emission line fluxes from the literature, we estimate that emission line contamination is relatively small in the rest frame UV images for the QSOs. Using archival VLA data, we have also created radio map overlays for each of our targets, allowing for analysis of the optical and radio axes alignment.

  8. Take a look at the bright side: Effects of positive body exposure on selective visual attention in women with high body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glashouwer, Klaske A; Jonker, Nienke C; Thomassen, Karen; de Jong, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Women with high body dissatisfaction look less at their 'beautiful' body parts than their 'ugly' body parts. This study tested the robustness of this selective viewing pattern and examined the influence of positive body exposure on body-dissatisfied women's attention for 'ugly' and 'beautiful' body parts. In women with high body dissatisfaction (N = 28) and women with low body dissatisfaction (N = 14) eye-tracking was used to assess visual attention towards pictures of their own and other women's bodies. Participants with high body dissatisfaction were randomly assigned to 5 weeks positive body exposure (n = 15) or a no-treatment condition (n = 13). Attention bias was assessed again after 5 weeks. Body-dissatisfied women looked longer at 'ugly' than 'beautiful' body parts of themselves and others, while participants with low body dissatisfaction attended equally long to own/others' 'beautiful' and 'ugly' body parts. Although positive body exposure was very effective in improving participants' body satisfaction, it did not systematically change participants' viewing pattern. The tendency to preferentially allocate attention towards one's 'ugly' body parts seems a robust phenomenon in women with body dissatisfaction. Yet, modifying this selective viewing pattern seems not a prerequisite for successfully improving body satisfaction via positive body exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultra-bright red-emitting photostable perylene bisimide dyes: new indicators for ratiometric sensing of high pH or carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, David; Klimant, Ingo; Borisov, Sergey M

    2018-05-08

    New pH sensitive perylene bisimide indicator dyes were synthesised and used for fabrication of optical sensors. The highly photostable dyes show absorption/emission bands in the red/near-infrared (NIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum, high molar absorption coefficients (up to 100 000 M-1 cm-1) and fluorescence quantum yields close to unity. The absorption and emission spectra show strong bathochromic shift upon deprotonation of imidazole nitrogen which makes the dyes promising as ratiometric fluorescent indicators. Physical entrapment of the indicators into polyurethane hydrogel enables pH determination in alkaline pH. It is also shown that plastic carbon dioxide solid state sensor can be manufactured via immobilization of the pH indicator in a hydrophilic polymer, along with a quaternary ammonium base. The influence of plasticizer, different lipophilic bases and humidity on the sensitivity of the sensor material were systematically investigated. The disubstituted perylene, particularly, features two deprotonation equilibria enabling sensing over a very broad range from 0.5 to 1000 hPa pCO2. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Meeting the challenges of developing LED-based projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, Enrico

    2006-04-01

    The main challenge in developing a LED-based projection system is to meet the brightness requirements of the market. Therefore a balanced combination of optical, electrical and thermal parameters must be reached to achieve these performance and cost targets. This paper describes the system design methodology for a digital micromirror display (DMD) based optical engine using LEDs as the light source, starting at the basic physical and geometrical parameters of the DMD and other optical elements through characterization of the LEDs to optimizing the system performance by determining optimal driving conditions. LEDs have a luminous flux density which is just at the threshold of acceptance in projection systems and thus only a fully optimized optical system with a matched set of LEDs can be used. This work resulted in two projection engines, one for a compact pocket projector and the other for a rear projection television, both of which are currently in commercialization.

  11. Evidence for ubiquitous high-equivalent-width nebular emission in z ∼ 7 galaxies: toward a clean measurement of the specific star-formation rate using a sample of bright, magnified galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, R.; Bouwens, R. J.; Labbé, I. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Zheng, W.; Lemze, D.; Ford, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Postman, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Donahue, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Moustakas, J. [Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Umetsu, K. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P. O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Zitrin, A.; Bartelmann, M. [Institut fur Theoretische Astrophysik, ZAH, Albert-Ueberle-Straß e 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gonzalez, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Benítez, N.; Jimenez-Teja, Y. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huetor 24, Granada 18008 (Spain); Broadhurst, T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country, P. O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Grillo, C. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Infante, L. [Departamento de Astronoia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, V. Mackenna 4860, Santiago 22 (Chile); and others

    2014-03-20

    Growing observational evidence indicates that nebular line emission has a significant impact on the rest-frame optical fluxes of z ∼ 5-7 galaxies. This line emission makes z ∼ 5-7 galaxies appear more massive, with lower specific star-formation rates (sSFRs). However, corrections for this line emission have been difficult to perform reliably because of huge uncertainties on the strength of such emission at z ≳ 5.5. In this paper, we present the most direct observational evidence thus far for ubiquitous high-equivalent-width (EW) [O III] + Hβ line emission in Lyman-break galaxies at z ∼ 7, and we present a strategy for an improved measurement of the sSFR at z ∼ 7. We accomplish this through the selection of bright galaxies in the narrow redshift window z ∼ 6.6-7.0 where the Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) 4.5 μm flux provides a clean measurement of the stellar continuum light, in contrast with the 3.6 μm flux, which is contaminated by the prominent [O III] + Hβ lines. To ensure a high signal-to-noise ratio for our IRAC flux measurements, we consider only the brightest (H {sub 160} < 26 mag) magnified galaxies we have identified behind galaxy clusters. It is remarkable that the mean rest-frame optical color for our bright seven-source sample is very blue, [3.6]-[4.5] = –0.9 ± 0.3. Such blue colors cannot be explained by the stellar continuum light and require that the rest-frame EW of [O III] + Hβ is greater than 637 Å for the average source. The four bluest sources from our seven-source sample require an even more extreme EW of 1582 Å. We can also set a robust lower limit of ≳ 4 Gyr{sup –1} on the sSFR of our sample based on the mean spectral energy distribution.

  12. Micromachining and dicing of sapphire, gallium nitride and micro LED devices with UV copper vapour laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, E.; Jeon, C.W.; Choi, H.W.; Rice, G.; Dawson, M.D.; Illy, E.K.; Knowles, M.R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and sapphire are important materials for fabricating photonic devices such as high brightness light emitting diodes (LEDs). These materials are strongly resistant to wet chemical etching and also, low etch rates restrict the use of dry etching. Thus, to develop alternative high resolution processing and machining techniques for these materials is important in fabricating novel photonic devices. In this work, a repetitively pulsed UV copper vapour laser (255 nm) has been used to machine and dice sapphire, GaN and micro LED devices. Machining parameters were optimised so as to achieve controllable machining and high resolution. For sapphire, well-defined grooves 30 μm wide and 430 μm deep were machined. For GaN, precision features such as holes on a tens of micron length scale have been fabricated. By using this technique, compact micro LED chips with a die spacing 100 and a 430 μm thick sapphire substrate have been successfully diced. Measurements show that the performances of LED devices are not influenced by the UV laser machining. Our results demonstrate that the pulsed UV copper vapour laser is a powerful tool for micromachining and dicing of photonic materials and devices

  13. Featured Image: Bright Dots in a Sunspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    This image of a sunspot, located in in NOAA AR 12227, was captured in December 2014 by the 0.5-meter Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode spacecraft. This image was processed by a team of scientists led by Rahul Yadav (Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory Dewali, India) in order to examine the properties of umbral dots: transient, bright features observed in the umbral region (the central, darkest part) of a sunspot. By exploring these dots, Yadav and collaborators learned how their properties relate to the large-scale properties of the sunspots in which they form for instance, how do the number, intensities, or filling factors of dots relate to the size of a sunspots umbra? To find out more about the authors results, check out the article below.Sunspot in NOAA AR 11921. Left: umbralpenumbral boundary. Center: the isolated umbra from the sunspot. Right: The umbra with locations of umbral dots indicated by yellow plus signs. [Adapted from Yadav et al. 2018]CitationRahul Yadav et al 2018 ApJ 855 8. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaaeba

  14. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Sandra; Troup, Nicholas William; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Barcos-Munoz, Loreto D.; Beaton, Rachael; Bittle, Lauren; Borish, Henry J.; Burkhardt, Andrew; Corby, Joanna; Dean, Janice; Hancock, Danielle; King, Jennie; Prager, Brian; Romero, Charles; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Wenger, Trey; Zucker, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Now entering our sixth year of operation, Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts beyond Virginia's Standards of Learning. Our primary focus is hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools. Each week, DSBK volunteers take the role of coaches to introduce astronomy-related concepts ranging from the Solar System to galaxies to astrobiology, and to lead students in interactive learning activities. Another hallmark of DSBK is hosting our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows.DSBK has amassed over 15,000 contact hours since 2009 and we continue to broaden our impact. One important step we have taken in the past year is to establish a graduate student led assessment program to identify and implement directed learning goals for DSBK outreach. The collection of student workbooks, observations, and volunteer surveys indicates broad scale success for the program both in terms of student learning and their perception of science. The data also reveal opportunities to improve our organizational and educational practices to maximize student achievement and overall volunteer satisfaction for DSBK's future clubs and outreach endeavors.

  15. Temporary blinding from bright light sources as a significant impact on occupational safety and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidenbach, Hans-Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Low power laser and high-brightness LEDs (HB-LEDs) have been applied in specially developed and computer assisted test setups in order to determine the duration and progression of colours in afterimages, the disturbance of visual acuity as well as the impairment of colour and contrast vision. Interrelationships between wavelength, exposure duration, optical power and energy have been investigated. Afterimage durations up to 300 seconds were found if the fovea of the human retina is irradiated from a laser beam at less than 30 μW, whereas lower values are valid in the Parafoveal region and in the periphery. The visual acuity was strongly reduced during about 30 % of the afterimage time. The time-dependent progression of the afterimage colours was determined for 4 different dominant wavelengths of HB-LEDs, i.e. 455 nm, 530 nm, 590 nm and 625 nm, in the power range between 0.05 m W and 0.5 m W for exposure durations between 0.5 s and 5 s. The flight of colours obtained with 5 test persons is given as 8-bit RGB-values and illustrated as a function of the applied optical energy in the CIE chromaticity diagram together with the respective total afterimage durations. The colour contrast capability was investigated for 3 volunteers with specially developed test charts in 7 colours, namely without and after glare from 4 coloured high-brightness LEDs. Each subject completed 56 time-consuming tests since adequate adaptation was necessary between the respective tests. Glare increases the identification times about 14 s and 16 s and even stronger impairment is observable especially at low colour contrast. Tests with 40 subjects and 4 different pseudoisochromatic colour plates have shown that colour vision was impaired for periods between 27 s and 186 s depending on the applied colour plate and respective LED colour. Such relatively long lasting visual disturbances could be of particular concern connected with performing safety critical operations such as working with machines

  16. Bright point study. [of solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, F.; Harvey, K.; Bruner, M.; Kent, B.; Antonucci, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transition region and coronal observations of bright points by instruments aboard the Solar Maximum Mission and high resolution photospheric magnetograph observations on September 11, 1980 are presented. A total of 31 bipolar ephemeral regions were found in the photosphere from birth in 9.3 hours of combined magnetograph observations from three observatories. Two of the three ephemeral regions present in the field of view of the Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Polarimeter were observed in the C IV 1548 line. The unobserved ephemeral region was determined to be the shortest-lived (2.5 hr) and lowest in magnetic flux density (13G) of the three regions. The Flat Crystal Spectrometer observed only low level signals in the O VIII 18.969 A line, which were not statistically significant to be positively identified with any of the 16 ephemeral regions detected in the photosphere. In addition, the data indicate that at any given time there lacked a one-to-one correspondence between observable bright points and photospheric ephemeral regions, while more ephemeral regions were observed than their counterparts in the transition region and the corona.

  17. Beam brightness calculation for analytical and empirical distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T.J.; Boulais, K.A.; O, Y.S.; Rhee, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    The beam brightness, a figure of merit for a beam quality useful for high-current low-emittance beams, was introduced by van Steenbergen as B = I/V 4 , where I is the beam current and V 4 is the hypervolume in the four-dimensional trace space occupied by the beam particles. Customarily, the brightness is expressed in terms of the product of emittances ε x ε y as B = ηI/(π 2 ε x ε y ), where η is a form factor of order unity which depends on the precise definition of emittance and hypervolume. Recently, a refined definition of the beam brightness based on the arithmetic mean value defined in statistics is proposed. The beam brightness is defined as B triple-bond 4 > = I -1 ∫ ρ 4 2 dxdydx'dy', where I is the beam current given by I ∫ ρ 4 dxdydx'dy'. Note that in this definition, neither the hypervolume V 4 nor the emittance, are explicitly used; the brightness is determined solely by the distribution function. Brightnesses are unambiguously calculated and expressed analytically in terms of the respective beam current and effective emittance for a few commonly used distribution functions, including Maxwellian and water-bag distributions. Other distributions of arbitrary shape frequently encountered in actual experiments are treated numerically. The resulting brightnesses are expressed in the form B = ηI/(π 2 ε x ε y ), and η is found to be weakly dependent on the form of velocity distribution as well as spatial distribution

  18. Advances in LEDs for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jy; Peddada, Rao; Spinger, Benno

    2016-03-01

    High power LEDs were introduced in automotive headlights in 2006-2007, for example as full LED headlights in the Audi R8 or low beam in Lexus. Since then, LED headlighting has become established in premium and volume automotive segments and beginning to enable new compact form factors such as distributed low beam and new functions such as adaptive driving beam. New generations of highly versatile high power LEDs are emerging to meet these application needs. In this paper, we will detail ongoing advances in LED technology that enable revolutionary styling, performance and adaptive control in automotive headlights. As the standards which govern the necessary lumens on the road are well established, increasing luminance enables not only more design freedom but also headlight cost reduction with space and weight saving through more compact optics. Adaptive headlighting is based on LED pixelation and requires high contrast, high luminance, smaller LEDs with high-packing density for pixelated Matrix Lighting sources. Matrix applications require an extremely tight tolerance on not only the X, Y placement accuracy, but also on the Z height of the LEDs given the precision optics used to image the LEDs onto the road. A new generation of chip scale packaged (CSP) LEDs based on Wafer Level Packaging (WLP) have been developed to meet these needs, offering a form factor less than 20% increase over the LED emitter surface footprint. These miniature LEDs are surface mount devices compatible with automated tools for L2 board direct attach (without the need for an interposer or L1 substrate), meeting the high position accuracy as well as the optical and thermal performance. To illustrate the versatility of the CSP LEDs, we will show the results of, firstly, a reflector-based distributed low beam using multiple individual cavities each with only 20mm height and secondly 3x4 to 3x28 Matrix arrays for adaptive full beam. Also a few key trends in rear lighting and impact on LED light

  19. The lowest surface brightness disc galaxy known

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of a galaxy with a prominent bulge and a dominant extremely low surface brightness disc component is reported. The profile of this galaxy is very similar to the recently discovered giant low surface brightness galaxy Malin 1. The disc central surface brightness is found to be ∼ 26.4 Rμ, some 1.5 mag fainter than Malin 1 and thus by far the lowest yet observed. (author)

  20. Cold atomic beams of high brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhdestvensky, Yu V

    2004-01-01

    The possibility is studied for obtaining intense cold atomic beams by using the Renyi entropy to optimise the laser cooling process. It is shown in the case of a Gaussian velocity distribution of atoms, the Renyi entropy coincides with the density of particles in the phase space. The optimisation procedure for cooling atoms by resonance optical radiation is described, which is based on the thermodynamic law of increasing the Renyi entropy in time. Our method is compared with the known methods for increasing the laser cooling efficiency such as the tuning of a laser frequency in time and a change of the atomic transition frequency in an inhomogeneous transverse field of a magnetic solenoid. (laser cooling)

  1. Brightness-normalized Partial Least Squares Regression for hyperspectral data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilhauer, Hannes; Asner, Gregory P.; Martin, Roberta E.; Schmidtlein, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Developed in the field of chemometrics, Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) has become an established technique in vegetation remote sensing. PLSR was primarily designed for laboratory analysis of prepared material samples. Under field conditions in vegetation remote sensing, the performance of the technique may be negatively affected by differences in brightness due to amount and orientation of plant tissues in canopies or the observing conditions. To minimize these effects, we introduced brightness normalization to the PLSR approach and tested whether this modification improves the performance under changing canopy and observing conditions. This test was carried out using high-fidelity spectral data (400-2510 nm) to model observed leaf chemistry. The spectral data was combined with a canopy radiative transfer model to simulate effects of varying canopy structure and viewing geometry. Brightness normalization enhanced the performance of PLSR by dampening the effects of canopy shade, thus providing a significant improvement in predictions of leaf chemistry (up to 3.6% additional explained variance in validation) compared to conventional PLSR. Little improvement was made on effects due to variable leaf area index, while minor improvement (mostly not significant) was observed for effects of variable viewing geometry. In general, brightness normalization increased the stability of model fits and regression coefficients for all canopy scenarios. Brightness-normalized PLSR is thus a promising approach for application on airborne and space-based imaging spectrometer data.

  2. The preparation of TiO2@rGO nanocomposite efficiently activated with UVA/LED and H2O2 for high rate oxidation of acetaminophen: Catalyst characterization and acetaminophen degradation and mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshme Khavar, Amir Hossein; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Mahjoub, Ali Reza

    2018-05-01

    The present work was focused on the preparation of TiO2@rGO nanocomposite using an innovative facile synthesis method and the investigation of its photocatalytic activity in a UVA/LED photoreactor. The XRD patterns indicated anatase structure for all samples. Presence of rGO in nanocomposites was confirmed by FT-IR and Raman spectra. Also, mono-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles on rGO sheet were shown in the SEM and HRTEM images. The prepared TiO2@rGO nanocomposite was used as the photocatalyst for degradation of acetaminophen (ACT) in the photoreactor illuminated with UVA/LEDs having the intensity of 95 μW/cm2. The complete degradation of 50 mg/L ACT was attained within 50 min in the LED/TiO2@rGO process while P25/LED process only showed 17% ACT degradation under similar experimental conditions. The photocatalytic activity was strongly affected by the rGO to TiO2 ratio in the nanocomposites and the highest photocatalytic activity was observed at 3.0 wt.% of rGO. Reaction with free radOH was the main mechanism involved in the ACT photodegradation in the TiO2@rGO/LED process under the selected conditions. The performance of LED/TiO2@rGO process improved by four and three times in ACT degradation and mineralization, respectively, at the presence of H2O2. As made TiO2@rGO nanocompsite could preserve its catalytic activity during five consecutive recycles in the process. Accordingly, TiO2@rGO nanocomposite is an active and stable catalyst in the UVA/LED photoreactor for high rate degradation of pharmaceuticals in the contaminated water.

  3. High performance GaN-based LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate with patterned composite SiO2/Al2O3 passivation layers and TiO2/Al2O3 DBR backside reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hao; Zhang, Xiong; Chen, Hongjun; Zhang, Peiyuan; Liu, Honggang; Chang, Hudong; Zhao, Wei; Liao, Qinghua; Cui, Yiping

    2013-09-09

    GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) with patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layers and TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) backside reflector have been proposed and fabricated. Highly passivated Al(2)O(3) layer deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) layer with excellent uniformity and quality has been achieved with atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. With a 60 mA current injection, an enhancement of 21.6%, 59.7%, and 63.4% in the light output power (LOP) at 460 nm wavelength was realized for the LED with the patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layers, the LED with the patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layers and Ag mirror + 3-pair TiO(2)/SiO(2) DBR backside reflector, and the LED with the patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layer and Ag mirror + 3-pair ALD-grown TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) DBR backside reflector as compared with the conventional LED only with a single SiO(2) passivation layer, respectively.

  4. Low dimensional neutron moderators for enhanced source brightness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mezei, Ferenc; Zanini, Luca; Takibayev, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In a recent numerical optimization study we have found that liquid para-hydrogen coupled cold neutron moderators deliver 3–5 times higher cold neutron brightness at a spallation neutron source if they take the form of a flat, quasi 2-dimensional disc, in contrast to the conventional more voluminous...... for cold neutrons. This model leads to the conclusions that the optimal shape for high brightness para-hydrogen neutron moderators is the quasi 1-dimensional tube and these low dimensional moderators can also deliver much enhanced cold neutron brightness in fission reactor neutron sources, compared...... to the much more voluminous liquid D2 or H2 moderators currently used. Neutronic simulation calculations confirm both of these theoretical conclusions....

  5. Leonids 2017 from Norway – A bright surprise!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaarder, K.

    2018-01-01

    I am very pleased to have been able to observe near maximum activity of the Leonids, and clearly witnessed the unequal mass distribution during these hours. A lot of bright Leonids were seen, followed by a short period of high activity of fainter meteors, before a sharp drop in activity. The Leonids is undoubtedly a shower to watch closely, with its many variations in activity level and magnitude distribution. I already look forward to observing the next years’ display, hopefully under a dark and clear sky, filled with bright meteors!

  6. The bright-bright and bright-dark mode coupling-based planar metamaterial for plasmonic EIT-like effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Meng, Hongyun; Chen, Zhangjie; Li, Xianping; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Faqiang; Wei, Zhongchao; Tan, Chunhua; Huang, Xuguang; Li, Shuti

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel planar metamaterial structure for the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like effect, which consists of a split-ring resonator (SRR) and a pair of metal strips. The simulated results indicate that a single transparency window can be realized in the symmetry situation, which originates from the bright-bright mode coupling. Further, a dual-band EIT-like effect can be achieved in the asymmetry situation, which is due to the bright-bright mode coupling and bright-dark mode coupling, respectively. Different EIT-like effect can be simultaneously achieved in the proposed structure with the different situations. It is of certain significance for the study of EIT-like effect.

  7. THE XMM-NEWTON X-RAY SPECTRA OF THE MOST X-RAY LUMINOUS RADIO-QUIET ROSAT BRIGHT SURVEY-QSOs: A REFERENCE SAMPLE FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QSO SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumpe, M.; Markowitz, A.; Lamer, G.; Corral, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the broadband X-ray properties of four of the most X-ray luminous (L X ≥ 10 45 erg s -1 in the 0.5-2 keV band) radio-quiet QSOs found in the ROSAT Bright Survey. This uniform sample class, which explores the extreme end of the QSO luminosity function, exhibits surprisingly homogenous X-ray spectral properties: a soft excess with an extremely smooth shape containing no obvious discrete features, a hard power law above 2 keV, and a weak narrow/barely resolved Fe Kα fluorescence line for the three high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectra. The soft excess can be well fitted with only a soft power law. No signatures of warm or cold intrinsic absorbers are found. The Fe Kα centroids and the line widths indicate emission from neutral Fe (E = 6.4 keV) originating from cold material from distances of only a few light days or further out. The well-constrained equivalent widths (EW) of the neutral Fe lines are higher than expected from the X-ray Baldwin effect which has been only poorly constrained at very high luminosities. Taking into account our individual EW measurements, we show that the X-ray Baldwin effect flattens above L X ∼ 10 44 erg s -1 (2-10 keV band) where an almost constant (EW) of ∼100 eV is found. We confirm the assumption of having very similar X-ray active galactic nucleus properties when interpreting stacked X-ray spectra. Our stacked spectrum serves as a superb reference for the interpretation of low S/N spectra of radio-quiet QSOs with similar luminosities at higher redshifts routinely detected by XMM-Newton and Chandra surveys.

  8. Near-infrared photometry of bright elliptical galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Jameson, R. F.

    High-quality visual-infrared color profiles have been determined for elliptical galaxies for the first time. Surface photometry in J and K is presented for 12 bright elliptical galaxies, and the results have been combined with CCD data in visual passbands. It is shown that the galaxies become bluer

  9. 150 southern compact and bright-nucleus galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairall, A.P.

    1977-01-01

    Galaxies having regions of exceptionally high surface brightness have been selected from the ESO Quick Blue Survey and investigated by 'grating photography' -direct photography plus low-dispersion slitless spectroscopy. Two new Seyfert galaxies and a peculiar multiple system have been discovered. Differences in red continua are also noted. (author)

  10. LED Technology for Dental Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Ou, Yiyu; Soerensen, L. H.

    LEDs have a large potential in many dental and oral applications. Areas such as photo polymerization, fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy, and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for LED based diagnostics and treatment in dentistry.......LEDs have a large potential in many dental and oral applications. Areas such as photo polymerization, fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy, and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for LED based diagnostics and treatment in dentistry....

  11. Brightness and darkness as perceptual dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, T.; Lucassen, M.P.; Cornelissen, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    A common-sense assumption concerning visual perception states that brightness and darkness cannot coexist at a given spatial location. One corollary of this assumption is that achromatic colors, or perceived grey shades, are contained in a one-dimensional (1-D) space varying from bright to dark. The

  12. SURFACE PHOTOMETRY OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBLOK, WJG; VANDERHULST, JM; BOTHUN, GD

    1995-01-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are galaxies dominated by an exponential disc whose central surface brightness is much fainter than the value of mu(B)(0) = 21.65 +/- 0.30 mag arcsec(-2) found by Freeman. In this paper we present broadband photometry of a sample of 21 late-type LSB galaxies.

  13. P1-16: The Effect of Visual Stimuli of LED Lighting by Color Temperature and Illuminance Control on Attention and Meditation Level of Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Su Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently LED (Lighting Emitting Diode lighting sources are applied not only for displays like LED BLU (back light unit TV but also for general lighting like LED lamps for home and office. The color temperature, or chromaticity, and brightness of LED lighting can be easily controlled. Preferred combinations between illuminance and color temperature of lighting depend on daily living activities (Oi et al., 2007 Symposium on Design of Artificial Environments 214–215. Changes in intensity can be more easily detected than color changes (Almeida et al., 2009 Perception 38 1109–1117. We investigated whether the illumination stimuli of LED lighting can enhance attention and relaxation level by controlling color temperature and illuminance according to activities. EEG signals are used to estimate attention and relaxation levels of human subjects under different lighting conditions. Nine participants with normal eye sight and color vision participated in the experiments with four different activities under different illumination conditions. LED lighting with color temperature 3600 K in 240 lux is used for relaxation activities, and LED lighting with 6600 K in 794 lux is used for the task which requires attention. These lighting conditions are compared with conventional lighting condition with 4600 K in 530 lux. Preliminary experiment results show that low color temperature with low illumination intensity of LED lighting enhances relaxation level and high color temperature with high illuminance improves attention level compared with conventional lighting environment without illuminance and color temperature changes.

  14. Color homogeneity in LED spotlights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.R.; Tukker, T.W.; IJzerman, W.L.; Thije Boonkkamp, ten J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    LED is a rising technology in the field of lighting. Halogen spotlights are nowadays replaced by LED spotlights because of their energy efficiency and long lifetime. However, color variation in the light output is a common problem. Poorly designed LED spotlights tend to have yellowish or bluish

  15. Deep UV LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung; Amano, Hiroshi; Schowalter, Leo

    2014-06-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) photons interact strongly with a broad range of chemical and biological molecules; compact DUV light sources could enable a wide range of applications in chemi/bio-sensing, sterilization, agriculture, and industrial curing. The much shorter wavelength also results in useful characteristics related to optical diffraction (for lithography) and scattering (non-line-of-sight communication). The family of III-N (AlGaInN) compound semiconductors offers a tunable energy gap from infrared to DUV. While InGaN-based blue light emitters have been the primary focus for the obvious application of solid state lighting, there is a growing interest in the development of efficient UV and DUV light-emitting devices. In the past few years we have witnessed an increasing investment from both government and industry sectors to further the state of DUV light-emitting devices. The contributions in Semiconductor Science and Technology 's special issue on DUV devices provide an up-to-date snapshot covering many relevant topics in this field. Given the expected importance of bulk AlN substrate in DUV technology, we are pleased to include a review article by Hartmann et al on the growth of AlN bulk crystal by physical vapour transport. The issue of polarization field within the deep ultraviolet LEDs is examined in the article by Braut et al. Several commercial companies provide useful updates in their development of DUV emitters, including Nichia (Fujioka et al ), Nitride Semiconductors (Muramoto et al ) and Sensor Electronic Technology (Shatalov et al ). We believe these articles will provide an excellent overview of the state of technology. The growth of AlGaN heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy, in contrast to the common organo-metallic vapour phase epitaxy, is discussed by Ivanov et al. Since hexagonal boron nitride (BN) has received much attention as both a UV and a two-dimensional electronic material, we believe it serves readers well to include the

  16. Brightness Alteration with Interweaving Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roncato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromatic induction is observed whenever the perceived colour of a target surface shifts towards the hue of a neighbouring surface. Some vivid manifestations may be seen in a white background where thin coloured lines have been drawn (assimilation or when lines of different colours are collinear (neon effect or adjacent (watercolour to each other. This study examines a particular colour induction that manifests in concomitance with an opposite effect of colour saturation (or anti-spread. The two phenomena can be observed when a repetitive pattern is drawn in which outline thin contours intercept wider contours or surfaces, colour spreading appear to fill the surface occupied by surfaces or thick lines whereas the background traversed by thin lines is seen as brighter or filled of a saturated white. These phenomena were first observed by Bozzi (1975 and Kanizsa (1979 in figural conditions that did not allow them to document their conjunction. Here we illustrate various manifestations of this twofold phenomenon and compare its effects with the known effects of brightness and colour induction. Some conjectures on the nature of these effects are discussed.

  17. Development of highly durable deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based LED multichip array with hemispherical encapsulated structures using a selected resin through a detailed feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Shoko; Yamada, Kiho; Hirano, Akira; Ippommatsu, Masamichi; Ito, Masahiro; Morishima, Naoki; Aosaki, Ko; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2016-08-01

    To replace mercury lamps with AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LEDs, a simple and low-cost package with increased light extraction efficiency (LEE) is indispensable. Therefore, resin encapsulation is considered to be a key technology. However, the photochemical reactions induced by DUV light cause serious problems, and conventional resins cannot be used. In the former part of this study, a comparison of a silicone resin and fluorine polymers was carried out in terms of their suitability for encapsulation, and we concluded that only one of the fluorine polymers can be used for encapsulation. In the latter part, the endurance of encapsulation using the selected fluorine polymer was investigated, and we confirmed that the selected fluorine polymer can guarantee a lifetime of over 6,000 h at a wavelength of 265 nm. Furthermore, a 3 × 4 array module of encapsulated dies on a simple AlN submount was fabricated, demonstrating the possibility of W/cm2-class lighting.

  18. Pharmacist-led, primary care-based disease management improves hemoglobin A1c in high-risk patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Russell; Malone, Robb; Bryant, Betsy; Horlen, Cheryl; Pignone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a comprehensive pharmacist-led, primary care-based diabetes disease management program for patients with Type 2 diabetes and poor glucose control at our academic general internal medicine practice. The primary goal of this program was to improve glucose control, as measured by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Clinic-based pharmacists offered support to patients with diabetes through direct teaching about diabetes, frequent phone follow-up, medication algorithms, and use of a database that tracked patient outcomes and actively identified opportunities to improve care. From September 1999, to May 2000, 159 subjects were enrolled, and complete follow-up data were available for 138 (87%) patients. Baseline HbA1c averaged 10.8%, and after an average of 6 months of intervention, the mean reduction in HbA1c was 1.9 percentage points (95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.3). In predictive regression modeling, baseline HbA1c and new onset diabetes were associated with significant improvements in HbA1c. Age, race, gender, educational level, and provider status were not significant predictors of improvement. In conclusion, a pharmacist-based diabetes care program integrated into primary care practice significantly reduced HbA1c among patients with diabetes and poor glucose control.

  19. Mono- and dichromatic LED illumination leads to enhanced growth and energy conversion for high-efficiency cultivation of microalgae for application in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ines; Steinweg, Christian; Posten, Clemens

    2016-08-01

    Illumination with red and blue photons is known to be efficient for cultivation of higher plants. For microalgae cultivation, illumination with specific wavelengths rather than full spectrum illumination can be an alternative where there is a lack of knowledge about achievable biomass yields. This study deals with the usage of color LED illumination to cultivate microalgae integrated into closed life support systems for outer space. The goal is to quantify biomass yields using color illumination (red, blue, green and mixtures) compared to white light. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was cultivated in plate reactors with color compared to white illumination regarding PCE, specific pigment concentration and cell size. Highest PCE values were achieved under low PFDs with a red/blue illumination (680 nm/447 nm) at a 90 to 10% molar ratio. At higher PFDs saturation effects can be observed resulting from light absorption characteristics and the linear part of PI curve. Cell size and aggregation are also influenced by the applied light color. Red/blue color illumination is a promising option applicable for microalgae-based modules of life support systems under low to saturating light intensities and double-sided illumination. Results of higher PCE with addition of blue photons to red light indicate an influence of sensory pigments. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Bright Sparks of Our Future!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Naoimh

    2016-04-01

    My name is Naoimh Riordan and I am the Vice Principal of Rockboro Primary School in Cork City, South of Ireland. I am a full time class primary teacher and I teach 4th class, my students are aged between 9-10 years. My passion for education has developed over the years and grown towards STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects. I believe these subjects are the way forward for our future. My passion and beliefs are driven by the unique after school programme that I have developed. It is titled "Sparks" coming from the term Bright Sparks. "Sparks" is an after school programme with a difference where the STEM subjects are concentrated on through lessons such as Science, Veterinary Science Computer Animation /Coding, Eco engineering, Robotics, Magical Maths, Chess and Creative Writing. All these subjects are taught through activity based learning and are one-hour long each week for a ten-week term. "Sparks" is fully inclusive and non-selective which gives all students of any level of ability an opportunity to engage into these subjects. "Sparks" is open to all primary students in County Cork. The "Sparks" after school programme is taught by tutors from the different Universities and Colleges in Cork City. It works very well because the tutor brings their knowledge, skills and specialised equipment from their respective universities and in turn the tutor gains invaluable teaching practise, can trial a pilot programme in a chosen STEM subject and gain an insight into what works in the physical classroom.

  1. Designers predict a bright future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statton, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    As power plant designers and builders, there is a bright future for the industry. The demand for electricity will continue to grow, and the need for new plants will increase accordingly. But companies that develop and supply these plants must adapt to new ways of doing business if they expect to see the dawn of this new age. Several factors will have a profound effect on the generation and use of electricity in future years. Instant communications now reach all corners of the globe, making people everywhere aspire to a higher standard of living. The economic surge needed to satisfy these appetites will, in turn, be fed by a network of suppliers who are themselves restructuring to serve global markets, unimpeded by past nationalistic barriers to trade. The strong correlation between economic progress and the growing demand for electricity is well recognized. A ready supply of affordable electricity is a necessary underpinning for any economic expansion. As economies advance and jobs increase, electric demand grows geometrically, fueled by an ever-improving quality of life. Coupled with increasing demand is the worldwide trend toward privatization of the generation industry. The reasons may vary in different parts of the world, but the effect is the same--companies are battling intensely for the right to build or purchase generating facilities. Those companies, like the industry they serve, are themselves in a period of transition. Once a closed, monopolistic group of owners in a predominantly services-based market, they are, thanks to competitive forces, being driven steadily toward a product-based structure

  2. Fluorescence brightness and photostability of individual copper (I) oxide nanocubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohora, Nafisa; Kandjani, Ahmad Esmaielzadeh; Orth, Antony; Brown, Hannah M; Hutchinson, Mark R; Gibson, Brant C

    2017-12-04

    Conventional organic fluorophores lose their ability to fluoresce after repeated exposure to excitation light due to photobleaching. Therefore, research into emerging bright and photostable nanomaterials has become of great interest for a range of applications such as bio-imaging and tracking. Among these emerging fluorophores, metal oxide-based nanomaterials have attracted significant attention as a potential multifunctional material with photocatalytic and angeogenisis abilities in addition to fluorescnce applications. However, most of these applications are highly dependent on size, morphology, and chemo-physical properties of individual particles. In this manuscript, we present a method to study the intrinsic optical characteristics of individual copper (I) oxide (Cu 2 O) nanocubes. When excited at 520 nm using only 11 µW excitation power (1.7 W/cm2), individual nanocubes were observed to emit light with peak wavelengths ~760 nm which is conveniently within the near-infrared 1 (NIR1) biological window where tissue autofluorescence is minimal. Bright and photostable fluorescence was observed with intensities up to 487 K counts/s under constant illumination for at least 2 minutes with a brightness approximately four times higher than the autofluorescence from a fixed cumulus-oocyte complex. With near-IR emission, high fluorescence brightness, and outstanding photostability, Cu 2 O nanocubes are attractive candidates for long-term fluorescent bioimaging applications.

  3. Preliminary investigations of piezoelectric based LED luminary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Meyer, Kaspar Sinding

    2011-01-01

    , modulation schemes, LEDs and LED driving conditions are analyzed. A prototype radial mode PT optimized for ZVS (Zero Voltage Switching) is designed. FEM (Final Element Method) and measurements validates the PT design. A prototype PT based AC/DC converter operating from european mains is proposed......This paper presents a preliminary study of PT (Piezoelectric Transformer) based SMPS’s (Switch Mode Power Supplies) for LED luminary. The unique properties of PTs (efficiency, power density and EMI) make them highly suitable for this application. Power stage topologies, rectifiers circuits...

  4. Avaliação da eficácia clínica de uma nova modalidade de fototerapia utilizando diodos emissores de luz Efficacy of new microprocessed phototherapy system with five high intensity light emitting diodes (Super LED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca M. R. Martins

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia terapêutica de um sistema de fototerapia microprocessada que utiliza diodos emissores de luz (Super LED de alta intensidade no tratamento da hiperbilirrubinemia em recém-nascidos prematuros. MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico, randomizado e controlado, utilizando a fototerapia Super LED no grupo experimental e duas fototerapias halógenas no grupo controle. A randomização foi realizada em blocos e estratificada por peso de nascimento. A duração da fototerapia e a queda nos níveis séricos de bilirrubina total nas primeiras 24 horas de tratamento foram os principais desfechos analisados. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 88 recém-nascidos, 44 no grupo da fototerapia Super LED e 44 no grupo da fototerapia halógena. As características demográficas da população foram semelhantes nos dois grupos. O nível sérico médio inicial de bilirrubina no grupo do Super LED (10,1±2,4 mg% foi semelhante ao do grupo que recebeu fototerapia halógena (10,9±2,0 mg%. A queda percentual na concentração sérica de bilirrubina total nas primeiras 24 horas de tratamento foi significativamente maior (27,9 versus 10,7%, p OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of a microprocessed phototherapy (PT system with five high intensity light emitting diodes (Super LED for the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia of premature infants. METHODS: Randomized clinical trial using Super LED phototherapy in the study group and twin halogen spotlight phototherapy in the control group. A stratified blocked randomization, based on birth weight, was performed. The duration of phototherapy and the rate of decrease of total serum bilirubin (TSB concentration in the first 24 hours of treatment were the main outcome measures. RESULTS: We studied 88 infants, 44 in the Super LED group and 44 in the halogen spotlight PT group. The demographic characteristics of the patients in both groups were similar. Infants in the Super LED group had a similar mean initial

  5. A High-Voltage Low-Power Switched-Capacitor DC-DC Converter Based on GaN and SiC Devices for LED Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Lin; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2018-01-01

    Previous research on switched-capacitor DC-DC converters has focused on low-voltage and/or high-power ranges where the efficiencies are dominated by conduction loss. Switched-capacitor DC-DC converters at high-voltage (> 100 V) low-power (high efficiency and high power density...... are anticipated to emerge. This paper presents a switched-capacitor converter with an input voltage up to 380 V (compatible with rectified European mains) and a maximum output power of 10 W. GaN switches and SiC diodes are analytically compared and actively combined to properly address the challenges at high......-voltage low-current levels, where switching loss becomes significant. Further trade-off between conduction loss and switching loss is experimentally optimized with switching frequencies. Three variant designs of the proposed converter are implemented, and the trade-off between the efficiency and the power...

  6. LED Virtual Simulation based on Web3D

    OpenAIRE

    Lilan Liu; Liu Han; Zhiqi Lin; Manping Li; Tao Yu

    2014-01-01

    Regarding to the high price and low market popularity of current LED indoor lighting products, a LED indoor lighting platform is proposed based on Web3D technology. The internet virtual reality technology is integrated and applied into the LED collaborative e-commerce website with Virtools. According to the characteristics of the LED indoor lighting products, this paper introduced the method to build encapsulated model and three characteristics of LED lighting: geometrical, optical and behavi...

  7. Diode lasers optimized in brightness for fiber laser pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, M.; Gilly, J.; Friedmann, P.; Hilzensauer, S.; Ogrodowski, L.; Kissel, H.; Biesenbach, J.

    2018-02-01

    In diode laser applications for fiber laser pumping and fiber-coupled direct diode laser systems high brightness becomes essential in the last years. Fiber coupled modules benefit from continuous improvements of high-power diode lasers on chip level regarding output power, efficiency and beam characteristics resulting in record highbrightness values and increased pump power. To gain high brightness not only output power must be increased, but also near field widths and far field angles have to be below a certain value for higher power levels because brightness is proportional to output power divided by beam quality. While fast axis far fields typically show a current independent behaviour, for broadarea lasers far-fields in the slow axis suffer from a strong current and temperature dependence, limiting the brightness and therefore their use in fibre coupled modules. These limitations can be overcome by carefully optimizing chip temperature, thermal lensing and lateral mode structure by epitaxial and lateral resonator designs and processing. We present our latest results for InGaAs/AlGaAs broad-area single emitters with resonator lengths of 4mm emitting at 976nm and illustrate the improvements in beam quality over the last years. By optimizing the diode laser design a record value of the brightness for broad-area lasers with 4mm resonator length of 126 MW/cm2sr has been demonstrated with a maximum wall-plug efficiency of more than 70%. From these design also pump modules based on 9 mini-bars consisting of 5 emitters each have been realized with 360W pump power.

  8. Bright boys the making of information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Everything has a beginning. None was more profound-and quite as unexpected-than Information Technology. Here for the first time is the untold story of how our new age came to be and the bright boys who made it happen. What began on the bare floor of an old laundry building eventually grew to rival in size the Manhattan Project. The unexpected consequence of that journey was huge---what we now know as Information Technology. For sixty years the bright boys have been totally anonymous while their achievements have become a way of life for all of us. "Bright Boys" brings them home. By 1950 they'd

  9. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.; Butterfield, Karla [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.

    2016-03-01

    Kaplan Thompson Architects (KTA) has specialized in sustainable, energy-efficient buildings, and they have designed several custom, zero-energy homes in New England. These zero-energy projects have generally been high-end, custom homes with budgets that could accommodate advanced energy systems. In an attempt to make zero energy homes more affordable and accessible to a larger demographic, KTA explored modular construction as way to provide high-quality homes at lower costs. In the mid-2013, KTA formalized this concept when they launched BrightBuilt Home (BBH). The BBH mission is to offer a line of architect-designed, high-performance homes that are priced to offer substantial savings off the lifetime cost of a typical home and can be delivered in less time. For the past two years, CARB has worked with BBH and Keiser Homes (the primary modular manufacturer for BBH) to discuss challenges related to wall systems, HVAC, and quality control. In Spring of 2014, CARB and BBH began looking in detail on a home to be built in Lincolnville, ME by Black Bros. Builders. This report details the solution package specified for this modular plan and the challenges that arose during the project.

  10. CooLED - efficient LED bulbs with custrom optics - final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Jesper; Corell, Dennis Dan; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    Denne rapport indeholder en beskrivelse af arbejdet udført i og resultaterne af forsknings- og udviklingsprojektet EUDP 64012-0226, CooLED – en ny generation LED Lyskilde for det tidsløse high-end marked....

  11. Time-resolved brightness measurements by streaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Joshua S.; Speirs, Rory W.; McCulloch, Andrew J.; Scholten, Robert E.

    2018-03-01

    Brightness is a key figure of merit for charged particle beams, and time-resolved brightness measurements can elucidate the processes involved in beam creation and manipulation. Here we report on a simple, robust, and widely applicable method for the measurement of beam brightness with temporal resolution by streaking one-dimensional pepperpots, and demonstrate the technique to characterize electron bunches produced from a cold-atom electron source. We demonstrate brightness measurements with 145 ps temporal resolution and a minimum resolvable emittance of 40 nm rad. This technique provides an efficient method of exploring source parameters and will prove useful for examining the efficacy of techniques to counter space-charge expansion, a critical hurdle to achieving single-shot imaging of atomic scale targets.

  12. BrightStat.com: free statistics online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Powerful software for statistical analysis is expensive. Here I present BrightStat, a statistical software running on the Internet which is free of charge. BrightStat's goals, its main capabilities and functionalities are outlined. Three different sample runs, a Friedman test, a chi-square test, and a step-wise multiple regression are presented. The results obtained by BrightStat are compared with results computed by SPSS, one of the global leader in providing statistical software, and VassarStats, a collection of scripts for data analysis running on the Internet. Elementary statistics is an inherent part of academic education and BrightStat is an alternative to commercial products.

  13. Use of long-term stable CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots in phospho-silicate glass for highly efficient white LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xiaoxuan; Hu, Zemin; Jiang, Jutao; He, Meiling; Zhou, Lei; Xiang, Weidong; Liang, Xiaojuan

    2017-10-05

    We report the synthesis of CsPbBr 3 QDs with great stability and high quantum yield in phospho-silicate glass, which was fabricated by using a heat-treatment approach, for white light emitting devices. QD glasses exhibited excellent photo- and thermal stability, and significantly prolonged the lifetime of light emitters under ambient air conditions.

  14. Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    Report: Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and...Number: W911NF-16-1-0436 Organization: University of Rochester Title: Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science Report Term: 0-Other Email: xi...exploring new cutting-edge research and broader applications, following the significant development of THz science and technology in the late 80’s, is the

  15. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is proposed that Freeman's discovery that the extrapolated central surface brightness of spiral galaxies is approximately constant can be simply explained if the galaxies contain a spheroidal component which dominates the light in their outer isophotes. Calculations of an effective central surface brightness indicate a wide spread of values. This requires either a wide spread in disc properties or significant spheroidal components or, most probably, both. (author)

  16. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.; Phillipps, S.

    1985-01-01

    The intrinsic surface brightness Ssub(e) of 500 disc galaxies (0<=T<=9) drawn from the Second Reference Catalogue is computed and it is shown that Ssub(e) does not correlate significantly with Msub(B), (B-V) or type. This is consistent with the notion that there is a heavy selection bias in favour of disc galaxies with that particular surface brightness which allows inclusion in the catalogue over the largest volume of space. (author)

  17. Uniformity of LED light illumination in application to direct imaging lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Ming; Chang, Shenq-Tsong; Tsay, Ho-Lin; Hsu, Ming-Ying; Chen, Fong-Zhi

    2016-09-01

    Direct imaging has widely applied in lithography for a long time because of its simplicity and easy-maintenance. Although this method has limitation of lithography resolution, it is still adopted in industries. Uniformity of UV irradiance for a designed area is an important requirement. While mercury lamps were used as the light source in the early stage, LEDs have drawn a lot of attention for consideration from several aspects. Although LED has better and better performance, arrays of LEDs are required to obtain desired irradiance because of limitation of brightness for a single LED. Several effects are considered that affect the uniformity of UV irradiance such as alignment of optics, temperature of each LED, performance of each LED due to production uniformity, and pointing of LED module. Effects of these factors are considered to study the uniformity of LED Light Illumination. Numerical analysis is performed by assuming a serious of control factors to have a better understanding of each factor.

  18. Comparative analysis of high pressure sodium vapor lamps and mercury vapor lamp with the solid state (LED) in the public lighting systems; Analise comparativa das lampadas de vapor de sodio a alta pressao e de vapor de mercurio com a lampada a estado solido (LED) em sistemas de iluminacao publica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damato, J.C.; Bueno, J.E.; Astorga, O.A.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (LESIP/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Eficiencia Energetica em Sistemas de Iluminacao Publica; Ricciulli, D.L.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DEE/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    2009-07-01

    The necessity of energy conservation in Brazilian electric sector, with the intention to diminish the resources of generation investments, has going to use of electric energy conservation programs, being most important PROCEL - a national program of electric conservation energy by ELETROBRAS, and inside this, a national program for public illumination and efficient traffic signaling - named 'Reluz'. This program looks for a more efficient implantation of public lighting systems, that requires the use of lamp technologies that present a greater value in a relation between lumen/watt relation and then beyond providing economy, due to low consumption of electric energy. Besides technologies that are appearing, the inclusion of LED lamps, which offers a great application potential, comes blunting as improvement alternative, being that the next public illumination parks will be able count on these lamps associates to the high-pressure sodium lamps and other types currently used. (author)

  19. Brightness masking is modulated by disparity structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekanos, Vassilis; Ban, Hiroshi; Welchman, Andrew E

    2015-05-01

    The luminance contrast at the borders of a surface strongly influences surface's apparent brightness, as demonstrated by a number of classic visual illusions. Such phenomena are compatible with a propagation mechanism believed to spread contrast information from borders to the interior. This process is disrupted by masking, where the perceived brightness of a target is reduced by the brief presentation of a mask (Paradiso & Nakayama, 1991), but the exact visual stage that this happens remains unclear. In the present study, we examined whether brightness masking occurs at a monocular-, or a binocular-level of the visual hierarchy. We used backward masking, whereby a briefly presented target stimulus is disrupted by a mask coming soon afterwards, to show that brightness masking is affected by binocular stages of the visual processing. We manipulated the 3-D configurations (slant direction) of the target and mask and measured the differential disruption that masking causes on brightness estimation. We found that the masking effect was weaker when stimuli had a different slant. We suggest that brightness masking is partly mediated by mid-level neuronal mechanisms, at a stage where binocular disparity edge structure has been extracted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. New dental applications with LEDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, A.; Ou, Yiyu; Petersen, Paul Michael

    Visible and ultraviolet LEDs will in the future give rise to new dental applications. Fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for diagnostics and treatment in dentistry.......Visible and ultraviolet LEDs will in the future give rise to new dental applications. Fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for diagnostics and treatment in dentistry....

  1. LARGER PLANET RADII INFERRED FROM STELLAR ''FLICKER'' BRIGHTNESS VARIATIONS OF BRIGHT PLANET-HOST STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ( f licker ) of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ∼0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T eff = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested

  2. Energy-exchange collisions of dark-bright-bright vector solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, R; Manikandan, N; Aravinthan, K

    2015-12-01

    We find a dark component guiding the practically interesting bright-bright vector one-soliton to two different parametric domains giving rise to different physical situations by constructing a more general form of three-component dark-bright-bright mixed vector one-soliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with nine free real parameters. Moreover our main investigation of the collision dynamics of such mixed vector solitons by constructing the multisoliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with the help of Hirota technique reveals that the dark-bright-bright vector two-soliton supports energy-exchange collision dynamics. In particular the dark component preserves its initial form and the energy-exchange collision property of the bright-bright vector two-soliton solution of the Manakov model during collision. In addition the interactions between bound state dark-bright-bright vector solitons reveal oscillations in their amplitudes. A similar kind of breathing effect was also experimentally observed in the Bose-Einstein condensates. Some possible ways are theoretically suggested not only to control this breathing effect but also to manage the beating, bouncing, jumping, and attraction effects in the collision dynamics of dark-bright-bright vector solitons. The role of multiple free parameters in our solution is examined to define polarization vector, envelope speed, envelope width, envelope amplitude, grayness, and complex modulation of our solution. It is interesting to note that the polarization vector of our mixed vector one-soliton evolves in sphere or hyperboloid depending upon the initial parametric choices.

  3. Brightness measurement of an electron impact gas ion source for proton beam writing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, N.; Santhana Raman, P. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Xu, X.; Pang, R.; Kan, J. A. van, E-mail: phyjavk@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Khursheed, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2016-02-15

    We are developing a high brightness nano-aperture electron impact gas ion source, which can create ion beams from a miniature ionization chamber with relatively small virtual source sizes, typically around 100 nm. A prototype source of this kind was designed and successively micro-fabricated using integrated circuit technology. Experiments to measure source brightness were performed inside a field emission scanning electron microscope. The total output current was measured to be between 200 and 300 pA. The highest estimated reduced brightness was found to be comparable to the injecting focused electron beam reduced brightness. This translates into an ion reduced brightness that is significantly better than that of conventional radio frequency ion sources, currently used in single-ended MeV accelerators.

  4. Broadband white light emission from Ce:AlN ceramics: High thermal conductivity down-converters for LED and laser-driven solid state lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Wieg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce high thermal conductivity aluminum nitride (AlN as a transparent ceramic host for Ce3+, a well-known active ion dopant. We show that the Ce:AlN ceramics have overlapping photoluminescent (PL emission peaks that cover almost the entire visible range resulting in a white appearance under 375 nm excitation without the need for color mixing. The PL is due to a combination of intrinsic AlN defect complexes and Ce3+ electronic transitions. Importantly, the peak intensities can be tuned by varying the Ce concentration and processing parameters, causing different shades of white light without the need for multiple phosphors or light sources. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage coordinates calculated from the measured spectra confirm white light emission. In addition, we demonstrate the viability of laser driven white light emission by coupling the Ce:AlN to a readily available frequency tripled Nd-YAG laser emitting at 355 nm. The high thermal conductivity of these ceramic down-converters holds significant promise for producing higher power white light sources than those available today.

  5. T1 bright appendix sign to exclude acute appendicitis in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ilah; An, Chansik; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of the T1 bright appendix sign for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women. This retrospective study included 125 pregnant women with suspected appendicitis who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The T1 bright appendix sign was defined as a high intensity signal filling more than half length of the appendix on T1-weighted imaging. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix identification were calculated in all patients and in those with borderline-sized appendices (6-7 mm). The T1 bright appendix sign was seen in 51% of patients with normal appendices, but only in 4.5% of patients with acute appendicitis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix diagnosis were 44.9%, 95.5%, 97.6%, and 30.0%, respectively. All four patients with borderline sized appendix with appendicitis showed negative T1 bright appendix sign. The T1 bright appendix sign is a specific finding for the diagnosis of a normal appendix in pregnant women with suspected acute appendicitis. • Magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used in emergency settings. • Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. • Magnetic resonance imaging is widely used in pregnant population. • T1 bright appendix sign can be a specific sign representing normal appendix.

  6. Supplemental Blue LED Lighting Array to Improve the Signal Quality in Hyperspectral Imaging of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Katrin Mahlein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging systems used in plant science or agriculture often have suboptimal signal-to-noise ratio in the blue region (400–500 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum. Typically there are two principal reasons for this effect, the low sensitivity of the imaging sensor and the low amount of light available from the illuminating source. In plant science, the blue region contains relevant information about the physiology and the health status of a plant. We report on the improvement in sensitivity of a hyperspectral imaging system in the blue region of the spectrum by using supplemental illumination provided by an array of high brightness light emitting diodes (LEDs with an emission peak at 470 nm.

  7. Unperturbed moderator brightness in pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batkov, K.; Takibayev, A.; Zanini, L.; Mezei, F.

    2013-01-01

    The unperturbed neutron brightness of a moderator can be defined from the number of neutrons leaving the surface of a moderator completely surrounded by a reflector. Without openings for beam extraction, it is the maximum brightness that can be theoretically achieved in a moderator. The unperturbed brightness of a cylindrical cold moderator filled with pure para-H 2 was calculated using MCNPX; the moderator dimensions were optimised, for a fixed target and reflector geometry corresponding to the present concept for the ESS spallation source. This quantity does not depend on openings for beam extraction and therefore can be used for a first-round optimisation of a moderator, before effects due to beam openings are considered. We find that such an optimisation yields to a factor of 2 increase with respect to a conventional volume moderator, large enough to accommodate a viewed surface of 12×12 cm 2 : the unperturbed neutron brightness is maximum for a disc-shaped moderator of 15 cm diameter, 1.4 cm height. The reasons for this increase can be related to the properties of the scattering cross-section of para-H 2 , to the added reflector around the exit surface in the case of a compact moderator, and to a directionality effect. This large optimisation gain in the unperturbed brightness hints towards similar potentials for the perturbed neutron brightness, in particular in conjunction with advancing the optical quality of neutron delivery from the moderator to the sample, where by Liouville theorem the brightness is conserved over the beam trajectory, except for absorption and similar type losses

  8. Intermittent episodes of bright light suppress myopia in the chicken more than continuous bright light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Weizhong; Feldkaemper, Marita; Schaeffel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Bright light has been shown a powerful inhibitor of myopia development in animal models. We studied which temporal patterns of bright light are the most potent in suppressing deprivation myopia in chickens. Eight-day-old chickens wore diffusers over one eye to induce deprivation myopia. A reference group (n = 8) was kept under office-like illuminance (500 lux) at a 10:14 light:dark cycle. Episodes of bright light (15 000 lux) were super-imposed on this background as follows. Paradigm I: exposure to constant bright light for either 1 hour (n = 5), 2 hours (n = 5), 5 hours (n = 4) or 10 hours (n = 4). Paradigm II: exposure to repeated cycles of bright light with 50% duty cycle and either 60 minutes (n = 7), 30 minutes (n = 8), 15 minutes (n = 6), 7 minutes (n = 7) or 1 minute (n = 7) periods, provided for 10 hours. Refraction and axial length were measured prior to and immediately after the 5-day experiment. Relative changes were analyzed by paired t-tests, and differences among groups were tested by one-way ANOVA. Compared with the reference group, exposure to continuous bright light for 1 or 2 hours every day had no significant protective effect against deprivation myopia. Inhibition of myopia became significant after 5 hours of bright light exposure but extending the duration to 10 hours did not offer an additional benefit. In comparison, repeated cycles of 1:1 or 7:7 minutes of bright light enhanced the protective effect against myopia and could fully suppress its development. The protective effect of bright light depends on the exposure duration and, to the intermittent form, the frequency cycle. Compared to the saturation effect of continuous bright light, low frequency cycles of bright light (1:1 min) provided the strongest inhibition effect. However, our quantitative results probably might not be directly translated into humans, but rather need further amendments in clinical studies.

  9. High-quality uniaxial In(x)Ga(1-x)N/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanowires (NWs) on Si(111) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and light-emitting diode (LED) fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Yong-Ho; Navamathavan, R; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2013-03-01

    This article describes the growth and device characteristics of vertically aligned high-quality uniaxial p-GaN/InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQW)/n-GaN nanowires (NWs) on Si(111) substrates grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. The resultant nanowires (NWs), with a diameter of 200-250 nm, have an average length of 2 μm. The feasibility of growing high-quality NWs with well-controlled indium composition MQW structure is demonstrated. These resultant NWs grown on Si(111) substrates were utilized for fabricating vertical-type light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The steep and intense photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra are observed, based on the strain-free NWs on Si(111) substrates. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis revealed that the MQW NWs are grown along the c-plane with uniform thickness. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of these NWs exhibited typical p-n junction LEDs and showed a sharp onset voltage at 2.75 V in the forward bias. The output power is linearly increased with increasing current. The result indicates that the pulsed MOCVD technique is an effective method to grow uniaxial p-GaN/InxGa1-xN/GaN MQW/n-GaN NWs on Si(111), which is more advantageous than other growth techniques, such as molecular beam epitaxy. These results suggest the uniaxial NWs are promising to allow flat-band quantum structures, which can enhance the efficiency of LEDs.

  10. Practical lighting design with LEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The second edition of Practical Lighting Design with LEDs has been revised and updated to provide the most current information for developing light-emitting diodes products. The authors, noted authorities in the field, offer a review of the most relevant topics including optical performance, materials, thermal design, and modeling and measurement. Comprehensive in scope, the text covers all the information needed to design LEDs into end products.

  11. Standardization of UV LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Larason, T. C.; Yoon, H. W.

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally used source spectral-distribution or detector spectral-response based standards cannot be applied for accurate UV LED measurements. Since the CIE standardized rectangular-shape spectral response function for UV measurements cannot be realized with small spectral mismatch when using filtered detectors, the UV measurement errors can be several times ten percent or larger. The UV LEDs produce broadband radiation and both their peaks or spectral bandwidths can change significantly. The detectors used for the measurement of these LEDs also have different spectral bandwidths. In the discussed example, where LEDs with 365 nm peak are applied for fluorescent crack-recognition using liquid penetrant (non-destructive) inspection, the broadband radiometric LED (signal) measurement procedure is standardized. A UV LED irradiance-source was calibrated against an FEL lamp standard to determine its spectral irradiance. The spectral irradiance responsivity of a reference UV meter was also calibrated. The output signal of the reference UV meter was calculated from the spectral irradiance of the UV source and the spectral irradiance responsivity of the reference UV meter. From the output signal, both the integrated irradiance (in the reference plane of the reference meter) and the integrated responsivity of the reference meter were determined. Test UV meters calibrated for integrated responsivity against the reference UV meter, can be used to determine the integrated irradiance from a field UV source. The obtained 5 % (k=2) measurement uncertainty can be decreased when meters with spectral response close to a constant value are selected.

  12. Proxy magnetometry of the photosphere: why are G-band bright points so bright?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.; Kiselman, Dan; Voort, Luc Rouppe van der; Plez, Bertrand

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the formation of G-band bright points in terms of standard uxtube modeling, in particular the 1D LTE models constructed by Solanki and coworkers. Combined with LTE spectral synthesis they explain observed G-band bright point contrasts quite well. The G-band contrast increase over the

  13. A selective deficit in the appreciation and recognition of brightness: brightness agnosia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, T.C.W.; Nys, G.M.S.; van der Smagt, M.J.; de Haan, E.H.F.

    2009-01-01

    We report a patient with extensive brain damage in the right hemisphere who demonstrated a severe impairment in the appreciation of brightness. Acuity, contrast sensitivity as well as luminance discrimination were normal, suggesting her brightness impairment is not a mere consequence of low-level

  14. Refrigerating liquid prototype for LED's thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faranda, Roberto; Guzzetti, Stefania; Lazaroiu, George Cristian; Leva, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The heat management is the critical factor for high performance operation of LED. A new heat management application of refrigerating liquid integrated within a fabricated prototype is proposed and investigated. A series of experiments considering different heights of liquid level were performed to evaluate the heat dissipation performance and optical characteristics of the refrigerating liquid based prototype. The results reveal that the junction temperature decreases as the level of refrigerating liquid increases. The experimental results report that the refrigerating liquid reduces the junction temperature, and can positively influence the luminous radiation performances. An optimization investigation of the proposed solution was carried out to find an optimum thermal performance. The experiments indicated that refrigerating liquid cooling is a powerful way for heat dissipation of high power LEDs, and the fabrication of prototype was feasible and useful. - Highlights: ► New heat management application of refrigerating liquid on a fabricated LED prototype. ► Thermal models setup and comparison between the classical and the new solutions. ► The impact of refrigerating liquid level on LED thermal and luminous performances. ► The relationship between different levels of liquid with LED prototype performances.

  15. Energy and Emission Characteristics of a Short-Arc Xenon Flash Lamp Under "Saturated" Optical Brightness Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrukov, A. S.; Kireev, S. G.; Kozlov, N. P.; Shashkovskii, S. G.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of a study of the electrical, energy, and spectral brightness characteristics of an experimental three-electrode high-pressure xenon flash lamp under conditions ensuring close to maximum possible spectral brightness for the xenon emission. We show that under saturated optical brightness conditions (brightness temperature in the visible region of the spectrum 30,000 K), emission of a pulsed discharge in xenon is quite different from the emission from an ideal blackbody: the maximum brightness temperatures are 24,000 K in the short-wavelength UV region and 19,000 K in the near IR range. The relative fraction of UV radiation in the emission spectrum of the lamp is >50%, which lets us consider such lamps as promising broadband sources of radiation with high spectral brightness for many important practical applications.

  16. Bright spots among the world’s coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinner, Joshua E.; Huchery, Cindy; MacNeil, M. Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; McClanahan, Tim R.; Maina, Joseph; Maire, Eva; Kittinger, John N.; Hicks, Christina C.; Mora, Camilo; Allison, Edward H.; D'Agata, Stephanie; Hoey, Andrew; Feary, David A.; Crowder, Larry; Williams, Ivor D.; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent; Wantiez, Laurent; Edgar, Graham; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Green, Alison L.; Hardt, Marah J.; Beger, Maria; Friedlander, Alan; Campbell, Stuart J.; Holmes, Katherine E.; Wilson, Shaun K.; Brokovich, Eran; Brooks, Andrew J.; Cruz-Motta, Juan J.; Booth, David J.; Chabanet, Pascale; Gough, Charlie; Tupper, Mark; Ferse, Sebastian C. A.; Sumaila, U. Rashid; Mouillot, David

    2016-07-01

    Ongoing declines in the structure and function of the world’s coral reefs require novel approaches to sustain these ecosystems and the millions of people who depend on them. A presently unexplored approach that draws on theory and practice in human health and rural development is to systematically identify and learn from the ‘outliers’—places where ecosystems are substantially better (‘bright spots’) or worse (‘dark spots’) than expected, given the environmental conditions and socioeconomic drivers they are exposed to. Here we compile data from more than 2,500 reefs worldwide and develop a Bayesian hierarchical model to generate expectations of how standing stocks of reef fish biomass are related to 18 socioeconomic drivers and environmental conditions. We identify 15 bright spots and 35 dark spots among our global survey of coral reefs, defined as sites that have biomass levels more than two standard deviations from expectations. Importantly, bright spots are not simply comprised of remote areas with low fishing pressure; they include localities where human populations and use of ecosystem resources is high, potentially providing insights into how communities have successfully confronted strong drivers of change. Conversely, dark spots are not necessarily the sites with the lowest absolute biomass and even include some remote, uninhabited locations often considered near pristine. We surveyed local experts about social, institutional, and environmental conditions at these sites to reveal that bright spots are characterized by strong sociocultural institutions such as customary taboos and marine tenure, high levels of local engagement in management, high dependence on marine resources, and beneficial environmental conditions such as deep-water refuges. Alternatively, dark spots are characterized by intensive capture and storage technology and a recent history of environmental shocks. Our results suggest that investments in strengthening fisheries

  17. A selective deficit in the appreciation and recognition of brightness: brightness agnosia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Nys, Gudrun M S; van der Smagt, Maarten J; de Haan, Edward H F

    2009-01-01

    We report a patient with extensive brain damage in the right hemisphere who demonstrated a severe impairment in the appreciation of brightness. Acuity, contrast sensitivity as well as luminance discrimination were normal, suggesting her brightness impairment is not a mere consequence of low-level sensory impairments. The patient was not able to indicate the darker or the lighter of two grey squares, even though she was able to see that they differed. In addition, she could not indicate whether the lights in a room were switched on or off, nor was she able to differentiate between normal greyscale images and inverted greyscale images. As the patient recognised objects, colours, and shapes correctly, the impairment is specific for brightness. As low-level, sensory processing is normal, this specific deficit in the recognition and appreciation of brightness appears to be of a higher, cognitive level, the level of semantic knowledge. This appears to be the first report of 'brightness agnosia'.

  18. Plasmonic EIT-like switching in bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junxue; Wang, Pei; Chen, Chuncong; Lu, Yonghua; Ming, Hai; Zhan, Qiwen

    2011-03-28

    In this paper we report the study of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission in the bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators. It is demonstrated that the interferences between the dark plasmons excited by two bright plasmon resonators can be controlled by the incident light polarization. The constructive interference strengthens the coupling between the bright and dark resonators, leading to a more prominent EIT-like transparency window of the metamaterial. In contrary, destructive interference suppresses the coupling between the bright and dark resonators, destroying the interference pathway that forms the EIT-like transmission. Based on this observation, the plasmonic EIT switching can be realized by changing the polarization of incident light. This phenomenon may find applications in optical switching and plasmon-based information processing.

  19. STARS4ALL Night Sky Brightness Photometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Zamorano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the main features of TESS-W, the first version of a series of inexpensive but reliable photometers that will be used to measure night sky brightness. The bandpass is extended to the red with respect of that of the Sky Quality Meter (SQM. TESS-W connects to a router via WIFI and it sends automatically the brightness values to a data repository using Internet of Things protocols. The device includes an infrared sensor to estimate the cloud coverage. It is designed for fixed stations to monitor the evolution of the sky brightness. The photometer could also be used in local mode connected to a computer or tablet to gather data from a moving vehicle. The photometer is being developed within STARS4ALL project, a collective awareness platform for promoting dark skies in Europe, funded by the EU. We intend to extend the existing professional networks to a citizen-based network of photometers. 

  20. Discovery of a bright quasar without a massive host galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magain, Pierre; Letawe, Géraldine; Courbin, Frédéric; Jablonka, Pascale; Jahnke, Knud; Meylan, Georges; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2005-09-15

    A quasar is thought to be powered by the infall of matter onto a supermassive black hole at the centre of a massive galaxy. Because the optical luminosity of quasars exceeds that of their host galaxy, disentangling the two components can be difficult. This led in the 1990s to the controversial claim of the discovery of 'naked' quasars. Since then, the connection between quasars and galaxies has been well established. Here we report the discovery of a quasar lying at the edge of a gas cloud, whose size is comparable to that of a small galaxy, but whose spectrum shows no evidence for stars. The gas in the cloud is excited by the quasar itself. If a host galaxy is present, it is at least six times fainter than would normally be expected for such a bright quasar. The quasar is interacting dynamically with a neighbouring galaxy, whose gas might be feeding the black hole.