WorldWideScience

Sample records for high brain levels

  1. High voltage electric potentials to enhance brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamoto, Hiroji; Nakajo, Yukako; Kataoka, Hiroharu; Iihara, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Development of a safe method to increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain is expected to enhance learning and memory, induce tolerance to cerebral infarction or tolerance to depressive state, improve glucose metabolism, and suppress appetite and body weight. We have shown that repetitive applications of high-voltage electric potential (HELP) to the body increase BDNF levels in the brain, improving learning and memory in mice. Here, we investigated the effects of HELP treatment for a chronic period on the BDNF levels in the mouse brain, and on body weight in mice and humans. Adult mice were exposed to 3.1 or 5.4 kV HELP (on the body), 5 h a day for 24 weeks, and BDNF levels in the brain and alterations in body weight were analyzed. Humans [age, 53.2 ± 15.5 years old; BMI, 27.8 ± 5.6 (mean ± SD, n = 6)] were exposed to 3.9 kV HELP (on the body) for 1 h a day, continuing for 33 months (2.8 years) under the monitor of body weight. In mice, the HELP application elevated BDNF levels in the brain at least temporarily, affecting body weight in a voltage- and time-dependent manner. In humans, the HELP treatment reduced body weight compared to the pretreated initial values without any aversive effects (p BDNF, and 5.4 kV HELP was considered as excessive. HELP with an appropriate voltage can be utilized to increase BDNF levels in the brain for a prolonged period. We anticipate further investigations to clarify the effect of the optimal-leveled HELP therapy on memory disturbances, neurological deficits after stroke, depression, diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  2. High-fat diet transition reduces brain DHA levels associated with altered brain plasticity and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Zhuang, Yumei; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    To assess how the shift from a healthy diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids to a diet rich in saturated fatty acid affects the substrates for brain plasticity and function, we used pregnant rats fed with omega-3 supplemented diet from their 2nd day of gestation period as well as their male pups for 12 weeks. Afterwards, the animals were randomly assigned to either a group fed on the same diet or a group fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fats for 3 weeks. We found that the HFD increased vulnerability for anxiety-like behavior, and that these modifications harmonized with changes in the anxiety-related NPY1 receptor and the reduced levels of BDNF, and its signalling receptor pTrkB, as well as the CREB protein. Brain DHA contents were significantly associated with the levels of anxiety-like behavior in these rats.

  3. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Ciobanu

    Full Text Available During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T(2*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7T and 17.2T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine. We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T(2*-weighted images at 17.2T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation.

  4. Uremic anorexia: a consequence of persistently high brain serotonin levels? The tryptophan/serotonin disorder hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, A; Selgas, R; Codoceo, R; Bajo, A

    2000-01-01

    Anorexia is a frequent part of uremic syndrome, contributing to malnutrition in dialysis patients. Many factors have been suggested as responsible for uremic anorexia. In this paper we formulate a new hypothesis to explain the appetite disorders in dialysis patients: "the tryptophan/serotonin disorder hypothesis." We review current knowledge of normal hunger-satiety cycle control and the disorders described in uremic patients. There are four phases in food intake regulation: (1) the gastric phase, during which food induces satiety through gastric distention and satiety peptide release; (2) the post absorptive phase, during which circulating compounds, including glucose and amino acids, cause satiety by hepatic receptors via the vagus nerve; (3) the hepatic phase, during which adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration is the main stimulus inducing hunger or satiety, with cytokines inhibiting ATP production; and (4) the central phase, during which appetite is regulated through peripheral (circulating plasma substances and neurotransmitters) and brain stimuli. Brain serotonin is the final target for peripheral mechanisms controlling appetite. High brain serotonin levels and a lower serotonin/dopamine ratio cause anorexia. Plasma and brain amino acid concentrations are recognized factors involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and appetite control. Tryptophan is the substrate of serotonin synthesis. High plasma levels of anorectics such as tryptophan (plasma and brain), cholecystokinin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, and leptin, and deficiencies of nitric oxide and neuropeptide Y have been described in uremia; all increase intracerebral serotonin. We suggest that brain serotonin hyperproduction due to a uremic-dependent excess of tryptophan may be the final common pathway involved in the genesis of uremic anorexia. Various methods of ameliorating anorexia by decreasing the central effects of serotonin are proposed.

  5. Functional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Behr, Michael K; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2011-09-27

    Neuroscientists have debated for centuries whether some regions of the human brain are selectively engaged in specific high-level mental functions or whether, instead, cognition is implemented in multifunctional brain regions. For the critical case of language, conflicting answers arise from the neuropsychological literature, which features striking dissociations between deficits in linguistic and nonlinguistic abilities, vs. the neuroimaging literature, which has argued for overlap between activations for linguistic and nonlinguistic processes, including arithmetic, domain general abilities like cognitive control, and music. Here, we use functional MRI to define classic language regions functionally in each subject individually and then examine the response of these regions to the nonlinguistic functions most commonly argued to engage these regions: arithmetic, working memory, cognitive control, and music. We find little or no response in language regions to these nonlinguistic functions. These data support a clear distinction between language and other cognitive processes, resolving the prior conflict between the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literatures.

  6. High fat diet and inflammation - modulation of Haptoglobin level in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stefania eSpagnuolo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and dietary fats are well known risk factors for the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The analysis of specific markers, whose brain level can be affected by diet, might contribute to unveil the intersection between inflammation/obesity and neurodegeneration. Haptoglobin (Hpt is an acute phase protein, which acts as antioxidant by binding free Haemoglobin (Hb, thus neutralizing its pro-oxidative action. We previously demonstrated that Hpt plays critical functions in brain, modulating cholesterol trafficking in neuroblastoma cell lines, beta-amyloid (Aβ uptake by astrocyte, and limiting Aβ toxicity on these cells. A major aim of this study was to evaluate whether a long term (12 or 24 weeks high-fat diet (HFD influences Hpt and Hb expression in rat hippocampus. We also assessed the development of obesity-induced inflammation by measuring hippocampal level of TNF-alpha, and the extent of protein oxidation by titrating nitro-tyrosine (N-Tyr. Hpt concentration was lower (p<0.001 in hippocampus of HFD rats than in control animals, both in the 12 and in the 24 weeks fed groups. HFD was also associated in hippocampus with the increase of Hb level (p<0.01, inflammation and protein oxidative modification, as evidenced by the increase in the concentration of TNF-alpha and nitro-tyrosine. In fact, TNF-alpha concentration was higher in rats receiving HFD for 12 (p<0.01 or 24 weeks (p<0.001 compared to those receiving the control diet. N-Tyr concentration was more elevated in hippocampus of HFD than in control rats in both 12 weeks (p=0.04 and 24 weeks groups (p=0.01, and a positive correlation between Hb and N-Tyr concentration was found in each group. Finally, we found that the treatment of the human glioblastoma-astrocytoma cell line U-87 MG with cholesterol and fatty acids, such as palmitic and linoleic acid, significantly impairs (p<0.001 Hpt secretion in the extracellular compartment.We hypothesize that the HFD-dependent decrease of

  7. Biological Signatures of Brain Damage Associated with High Serum Ferritin Levels in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Thrombolytic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Millán

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Increased body iron stores have been related to greater oxidative stress and brain injury in clinical and experimental cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. We aimed to investigate the biological signatures of excitotoxicity, inflammation and blood brain barrier disruption potentially associated with high serum ferritin levels-related damage in acute stroke patients treated with i.v. t-PA.

  8. High αv Integrin Level of Cancer Cells Is Associated with Development of Brain Metastasis in Athymic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingjen Jeffrey; Pagel, Michael A; Muldoon, Leslie L; Fu, Rongwei; Neuwelt, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    Brain metastases commonly occur in patients with malignant skin, lung and breast cancers resulting in high morbidity and poor prognosis. Integrins containing an αv subunit are cell adhesion proteins that contribute to cancer cell migration and cancer progression. We hypothesized that high expression of αv integrin cell adhesion protein promoted metastatic phenotypes in cancer cells. Cancer cells from different origins were used and studied regarding their metastatic ability and intetumumab, anti-αv integrin mAb, sensitivity using in vitro cell migration assay and in vivo brain metastases animal models. The number of brain metastases and the rate of occurrence were positively correlated with cancer cell αv integrin levels. High αv integrin-expressing cancer cells showed significantly faster cell migration rate in vitro than low αv integrin-expressing cells. Intetumumab significantly inhibited cancer cell migration in vitro regardless of αv integrin expression level. Overexpression of αv integrin in cancer cells with low αv integrin level accelerated cell migration in vitro and increased the occurrence of brain metastases in vivo. αv integrin promotes brain metastases in cancer cells and may mediate early steps in the metastatic cascade, such as adhesion to brain vasculature. Targeting αv integrin with intetumumab could provide clinical benefit in treating cancer patients who develop metastases. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Automated ventricular systems segmentation in brain CT images by combining low-level segmentation and high-level template matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Kevin R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate analysis of CT brain scans is vital for diagnosis and treatment of Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI. Automatic processing of these CT brain scans could speed up the decision making process, lower the cost of healthcare, and reduce the chance of human error. In this paper, we focus on automatic processing of CT brain images to segment and identify the ventricular systems. The segmentation of ventricles provides quantitative measures on the changes of ventricles in the brain that form vital diagnosis information. Methods First all CT slices are aligned by detecting the ideal midlines in all images. The initial estimation of the ideal midline of the brain is found based on skull symmetry and then the initial estimate is further refined using detected anatomical features. Then a two-step method is used for ventricle segmentation. First a low-level segmentation on each pixel is applied on the CT images. For this step, both Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM and Maximum A Posteriori Spatial Probability (MASP are evaluated and compared. The second step applies template matching algorithm to identify objects in the initial low-level segmentation as ventricles. Experiments for ventricle segmentation are conducted using a relatively large CT dataset containing mild and severe TBI cases. Results Experiments show that the acceptable rate of the ideal midline detection is over 95%. Two measurements are defined to evaluate ventricle recognition results. The first measure is a sensitivity-like measure and the second is a false positive-like measure. For the first measurement, the rate is 100% indicating that all ventricles are identified in all slices. The false positives-like measurement is 8.59%. We also point out the similarities and differences between ICM and MASP algorithms through both mathematically relationships and segmentation results on CT images. Conclusion The experiments show the reliability of the proposed algorithms. The

  10. The Human Brain Does Not Need High Levels of Motivation to Learn a Foreign Language: Motivation Has Had its Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Green

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Language is nature in action and something humans do.  This literature review presents evidence from the literature that suggests that learning a foreign language in a classroom situation does not require high levels of student motivation.  It is instead suggested that high levels of motivation are needed to make progress when a teacher is using traditional teaching methods.  It is shown that all healthy human brains are excellent at learning and using language, and high levels of motivation to learn a foreign language are not required if teaching practices and materials replicate natural learning experiences, and class participation is ensured.  This work is of great importance to teachers as it demonstrates that teachers would help students more by investing their time in developing class materials than by worrying about student motivation. Keywords:  foreign language, cognitive linguistics, language evolution, language learnability, language usability, motivation

  11. Hypothetical high-level cognitive functions cannot be localized in the brain: another argument for a revitalized behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, William R

    2004-01-01

    A key epistemological difference between behaviorism and cognitivism concerns their respective attitudes toward the analysis of so-called cognitive processes into functional modules. Behaviorists generally say it is not possible. Cognitivists argue that this is an achievable goal. The question has been concretized by recent developments in brain imaging technology. A consideration of the matter suggests that technical and conceptual difficulties abound in the effort to localize "high-level cognitive functions" in narrowly circumscribed regions of the brain. Some of the most serious involve the ambiguous definition of the putative mental components that are to be localized and the generally unacknowledged nonlinear complexity of both psychological processes and the brain. In addition, the imaging techniques themselves are replete with technical difficulties that raise additional questions about this particular application, even though these wonderful machines can make extraordinary contributions to our knowledge of brain anatomy and physiology. The cumulative implication of these difficulties is that the cognitive approach to the study of scientific psychology has once again set out on a search for a chimera. New approaches to behaviorism may be required to set psychology back on the correct track.

  12. CD38 Knockout Mice Show Significant Protection Against Ischemic Brain Damage Despite High Level Poly-ADP-Ribosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Aaron; Park, Ji H; Klimova, Nina; Fowler, Carol; Loane, David J; Kristian, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    Several enzymes in cellular bioenergetics metabolism require NAD(+) as an essential cofactor for their activity. NAD(+) depletion following ischemic insult can result in cell death and has been associated with over-activation of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase PARP1 as well as an increase in NAD(+) consuming enzyme CD38. CD38 is an NAD(+) glycohydrolase that plays an important role in inflammatory responses. To determine the contribution of CD38 activity to the mechanisms of post-ischemic brain damage we subjected CD38 knockout (CD38KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice to transient forebrain ischemia. The CD38KO mice showed a significant amelioration in both histological and neurologic outcome following ischemic insult. Decrease of hippocampal NAD(+) levels detected during reperfusion in WT mice was only transient in CD38KO animals, suggesting that CD38 contributes to post-ischemic NAD(+) catabolism. Surprisingly, pre-ischemic poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) levels were dramatically higher in CD38KO animals compared to WT animals and exhibited reduction post-ischemia in contrast to the increased levels in WT animals. The high PAR levels in CD38 mice were due to reduced expression levels of poly-ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG). Thus, the absence of CD38 activity can not only directly affect inflammatory response, but also result in unpredicted alterations in the expression levels of enzymes participating in NAD(+) metabolism. Although the CD38KO mice showed significant protection against ischemic brain injury, the changes in enzyme activity related to NAD(+) metabolism makes the determination of the role of CD38 in mechanisms of ischemic brain damage more complex.

  13. Brain Tumour Segmentation based on Extremely Randomized Forest with high-level features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Adriano; Pereira, Sergio; Correia, Higino; Oliveira, J; Rasteiro, Deolinda M L D; Silva, Carlos A

    2015-08-01

    Gliomas are among the most common and aggressive brain tumours. Segmentation of these tumours is important for surgery and treatment planning, but also for follow-up evaluations. However, it is a difficult task, given that its size and locations are variable, and the delineation of all tumour tissue is not trivial, even with all the different modalities of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). We propose a discriminative and fully automatic method for the segmentation of gliomas, using appearance- and context-based features to feed an Extremely Randomized Forest (Extra-Trees). Some of these features are computed over a non-linear transformation of the image. The proposed method was evaluated using the publicly available Challenge database from BraTS 2013, having obtained a Dice score of 0.83, 0.78 and 0.73 for the complete tumour, and the core and the enhanced regions, respectively. Our results are competitive, when compared against other results reported using the same database.

  14. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in alcohol-dependent patients receiving high-dose baclofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisel, Olga; Hellweg, Rainer; Müller, Christian A

    2016-06-30

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in the development and maintenance of addictive and other psychiatric disorders. Also, interactions of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic compounds and BDNF have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate serum levels of BDNF over time in alcohol-dependent patients receiving individually titrated high-dose treatment (30-270mg/d) with the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen or placebo for up to 20 weeks. Serum levels of BDNF were measured in patients of the baclofen/placebo group at baseline (t0), 2 weeks after reaching individual high-dose of baclofen/placebo treatment (t1) and after termination of study medication (t2) in comparison to carefully matched healthy controls. No significant differences in serum levels of BDNF between the baclofen and the placebo group or healthy controls were found at t0, t1, or at t2. Based on these findings, it seems unlikely that baclofen exerts a direct effect on serum levels of BDNF in alcohol-dependent patients. Future studies are needed to further explore the mechanism of action of baclofen and its possible relationship to BDNF in alcohol use disorders.

  15. Drug metabolism in human brain: high levels of cytochrome P4503A43 in brain and metabolism of anti-anxiety drug alprazolam to its active metabolite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Agarwal

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (P450 is a super-family of drug metabolizing enzymes. P450 enzymes have dual function; they can metabolize drugs to pharmacologically inactive metabolites facilitating their excretion or biotransform them to pharmacologically active metabolites which may have longer half-life than the parent drug. The variable pharmacological response to psychoactive drugs typically seen in population groups is often not accountable by considering dissimilarities in hepatic metabolism. Metabolism in brain specific nuclei may play a role in pharmacological modulation of drugs acting on the CNS and help explain some of the diverse response to these drugs seen in patient population. P450 enzymes are also present in brain where drug metabolism can take place and modify therapeutic action of drugs at the site of action. We have earlier demonstrated an intrinsic difference in the biotransformation of alprazolam (ALP in brain and liver, relatively more alpha-hydroxy alprazolam (alpha-OHALP is formed in brain as compared to liver. In the present study we show that recombinant CYP3A43 metabolizes ALP to both alpha-OHALP and 4-hydroxy alprazolam (4-OHALP while CYP3A4 metabolizes ALP predominantly to its inactive metabolite, 4-OHALP. The expression of CYP3A43 mRNA in human brain samples correlates with formation of relatively higher levels of alpha-OH ALP indicating that individuals who express higher levels of CYP3A43 in the brain would generate larger amounts of alpha-OHALP. Further, the expression of CYP3A43 was relatively higher in brain as compared to liver across different ethnic populations. Since CYP3A enzymes play a prominent role in the metabolism of drugs, the higher expression of CYP3A43 would generate metabolite profile of drugs differentially in human brain and thus impact the pharmacodynamics of psychoactive drugs at the site of action.

  16. Low-level and high-level modulations of fixational saccades and high frequency oscillatory brain activity in a visual object classification task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej eKosilo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently induced gamma-band activity (GBA was considered a neural marker of cortical object representation. However induced GBA in the electroencephalogram (EEG is susceptible to artifacts caused by miniature fixational saccades. Recent studies have demonstrated that fixational saccades also reflect high-level representational processes. Do high-level as opposed to low-level factors influence fixational saccades? What is the effect of these factors on artifact-free GBA? To investigate this, we conducted separate eye tracking and EEG experiments using identical designs. Participants classified line drawings as objects or non-objects. To introduce low-level differences, contours were defined along different directions in cardinal colour space: S-cone-isolating, intermediate isoluminant, or a full-colour stimulus, the latter containing an additional achromatic component. Prior to the classification task, object discrimination thresholds were measured and stimuli were scaled to matching suprathreshold levels for each participant. In both experiments, behavioural performance was best for full-colour stimuli and worst for S-cone isolating stimuli. Saccade rates 200-700 ms after stimulus onset were modulated independently by low and high-level factors, being higher for full-colour stimuli than for S-cone isolating stimuli and higher for objects. Low-amplitude evoked GBA and total GBA were observed in very few conditions, showing that paradigms with isoluminant stimuli may not be ideal for eliciting such responses. We conclude that cortical loops involved in the processing of objects are preferentially excited by stimuli that contain achromatic information. Their activation can lead to relatively early exploratory eye movements even for foveally-presented stimuli.

  17. High-throughput dual-color precision imaging for brain-wide mapping of the connectome with cytoarchitectonic landmarks at the cellular level (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui; Yuan, Jing; Li, Xiangning; Li, Anan; Xu, Tonghui

    2017-02-01

    Deciphering the fine morphology and precise location of neurons and neural circuits are crucial to enhance our understanding of brain function and diseases. Traditionally, we have to map brain images to coarse axial-sampling planar reference atlases to orient neural structures. However, this means might fail to orient neural projections at single-cell resolution due to position errors resulting from individual differences at the cellular level. Here, we present a high-throughput imaging method that can automatically obtain the fine morphologies and precise locations of both neurons and circuits, employing wide-field large-volume tomography to acquire three-dimensional images of thick tissue and implementing real-time soma counterstaining to obtain cytoarchitectonic landmarks during the imaging process. The reconstruction and orientation of brain-wide neural circuits at single-neuron resolution can be accomplished for the same mouse brain without additional counterstains or image registration. Using our method, mouse brain imaging datasets of multiple type-specific neurons and circuits were successfully acquired, demonstrating the versatility. The results show that the simultaneous acquisition of labeled neural structures and cytoarchitecture reference at single-neuron resolution in the same brain greatly facilitates precise tracing of long-range projections and accurate locating of nuclei. Our method provides a novel and effective tool for application in studies on genetic dissection, brain function and the pathology of the nervous system.

  18. The Human Brain Does Not Need High Levels of Motivation to Learn a Foreign Language: Motivation Has Had Its Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    Language is nature in action and something humans do. This literature review presents evidence from the literature that suggests that learning a foreign language in a classroom situation does not require high levels of student motivation. It is instead suggested that high levels of motivation are needed to make progress when a teacher is using…

  19. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels as a possible predictor of psychopathology in healthy twins at high and low risk for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a potential biomarker of affective disorder. However, longitudinal studies evaluating a potential predictive role of BDNF on subsequent psychopathology are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF alone or in interaction...... with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism predict onset of affective disorder in healthy individuals at heritable risk for affective disorder. In a high-risk study, we assessed whole blood levels of BDNF in 234 healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorder (high...... developed psychiatric disorder. Cox regression analysis revealed that BDNF levels at baseline were not associated with onset of illness in this explorative study. Further, two-way interactions between BDNF levels and the Val66Met polymorphism or between familial risk and the Val66Met polymorphism did...

  20. Analysis of the reports of high-level commissions that have comprehensively reviewed US public policy on brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofke, W Andrew

    2014-12-01

    The notion of brain death from its inception has not been uniformly understood with many grisly conceptions of it as it pertains to reliability and to organ donation. Accordingly, the aforementioned recitation of statutes and commission reports has served a useful societal role in addressing controversies and misconceptions while promulgating unifying foundational concepts and guidance in practical translation to clinical practice. There is clearly a consensus that statutory uniformity across jurisdictions is important and that there are two ways to define death. The first is the traditional cardiopulmonary criteria of cessation of cardiac function and breathing. The second is through established procedures to reliably determine the presence of total brain death with the presence of a comatose state which is irreversible. Another common thread through the ethically focused reports has been recognition that organ donation and death are temporally and geographically associated but there is emphasis that the processes of determination of death(by somatic or cerebral criteria) must be logically, ethically, and procedurally separate from the procedures for performing organ harvesting and transplantation.

  1. Brain cell apoptosis and enhancement of nervous excitability in pregnant rats with high plasma levels of homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ge, Jing; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Xuli; Xue, Dan

    2012-10-05

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an important risk factor for preeclampsia-eclampsia. This study established a pregnant rat model of hyperhomocysteinemia, in which blood plasma homocysteine concentrations were twice or three times greater than that of normal pregnant rats. TUNEL revealed an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the frontal cortex of pregnant rats with hyperhomocysteinemia. In addition, immunohistochemical staining detected activated nuclear factor-κB-positve cells in the frontal cortex. Reverse transcription-PCR detected that mRNA expression of the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 diminished in the frontal cortex. In situ hybridization and western blotting revealed that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 mRNA and protein expression was upregulated in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. These results indicate that hyperhomocysteinemia can induce brain cell apoptosis, increase nerve excitability, and promote the occurrence of preeclampsia in pregnant rats.

  2. Brain cell apoptosis and enhancement of nervous excitability in pregnant rats with high plasma levels of homocysteine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Jing Ge; Liu Yang; Haiyan Zhang; Xuli Li; Dan Xue

    2012-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an important risk factor for preeclampsia-eclampsia.This study established a pregnant rat model of hyperhomocysteinemia,in which blood plasma homocysteine concentrations were twice or three times greater than that of normal pregnant rats.TUNEL revealed an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the frontal cortex of pregnant rats with hyperhomocysteinemia.In addition,immunohistochemical staining detected activated nuclear factor-κB-positve cells in the frontal cortex.Reverse transcription-PCR detected that mRNA expression of the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2diminished in the frontal cortex.In situ hybridization and western blotting revealed that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 mRNA and protein expression was upregulated in the frontal cortex and hippocampus.These results indicate that hyperhomocysteinemia can induce brain cell apoptosis,increase nerve excitability,and promote the occurrence of preeclampsia in pregnant rats.

  3. Brain cell apoptosis and enhancement of nervous excitability in pregnant rats with high plasma levels of homocysteine☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ge, Jing; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Xuli; Xue, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an important risk factor for preeclampsia-eclampsia. This study established a pregnant rat model of hyperhomocysteinemia, in which blood plasma homocysteine concentrations were twice or three times greater than that of normal pregnant rats. TUNEL revealed an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the frontal cortex of pregnant rats with hyperhomocysteinemia. In addition, immunohistochemical staining detected activated nuclear factor-κB-positve cells in the frontal cortex. Reverse transcription-PCR detected that mRNA expression of the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 diminished in the frontal cortex. In situ hybridization and western blotting revealed that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 mRNA and protein expression was upregulated in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. These results indicate that hyperhomocysteinemia can induce brain cell apoptosis, increase nerve excitability, and promote the occurrence of preeclampsia in pregnant rats. PMID:25538740

  4. Changes in mRNA levels for brain-derived neurotrophic factor after wheel running in rats selectively bred for high- and low-aerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves-Chapman, Jessica L; Murray, Patrick S; Stevens, Kristin L; Monroe, Derek C; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Holmes, Philip V; Dishman, Rod K

    2011-11-24

    We evaluated levels of exercise-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) messenger RNA (mRNA) within the hippocampal formation in rats selectively bred for 1) high intrinsic (i.e., untrained) aerobic capacity (High Capacity Runners, HCR), 2) low intrinsic aerobic capacity (Low Capacity Runners, LCR), and 3) unselected Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with or without free access to running wheels for 3 weeks. The specific aim of the study was to determine whether a dose-response relationship exists between cumulative running distance and levels of BDNF mRNA. No additional treatments or behavioral manipulations were used. HCR, LCR, and SD rats were grouped by strain and randomly assigned to sedentary or activity (voluntary access to activity wheel) conditions. Animals were killed after 21 days of exposure to the assigned conditions. Daily running distances (mean ± standard deviation meters/day) during week three were: HCR (4726 ± 3220), SD (2293 ± 3461), LCR (672 ± 323). Regardless of strain, levels of BDNF mRNA in CA1 were elevated in wheel runners compared to sedentary rats and this difference persisted after adjustment for age (p=0.040). BDNF mRNA was not affected by intrinsic aerobic capacity and was not related to total running distance. The results support that BDNF mRNA expression is increased by unlimited access to activity wheel running for 3 weeks but is not dependent upon accumulated running distance.

  5. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels as a possible predictor of psychopathology in healthy twins at high and low risk for affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a potential biomarker of affective disorder. However, longitudinal studies evaluating a potential predictive role of BDNF on subsequent psychopathology are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF alone or in interaction with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism predict onset of affective disorder in healthy individuals at heritable risk for affective disorder. In a high-risk study, we assessed whole blood levels of BDNF in 234 healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorder (high and low risk twins, respectively). Participants were followed up longitudinally with questionnaires at 6-month intervals for mean seven years and then reassessed with a personal interview to obtain information about whether they had developed psychiatric illness. At follow-up 36 participants (15.4%) had developed psychiatric disorder. Cox regression analysis revealed that BDNF levels at baseline were not associated with onset of illness in this explorative study. Further, two-way interactions between BDNF levels and the Val66Met polymorphism or between familial risk and the Val66Met polymorphism did not predict illness onset.

  6. High potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperkalemia; Potassium - high; High blood potassium ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may include: Nausea Slow, weak, or irregular pulse Sudden collapse, when the heartbeat gets too ...

  7. High level HIV-1 DNA concentrations in brain tissues differentiate patients with post-HAART AIDS dementia complex or cardiovascular disease from those with AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Li; GALLIGAN Derek C.; LAMERS Susanna L.; YU Stephanie; SHAGRUN Lamia; SALEMI Marco; MCGRATH Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) has had a significant Impact on survival of individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); however, with the longer life-span of patients with AIDS, there is increasing prevalence of AIDS dementia complex (ADC) and other non-AIDS-defining illness, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are also common. The influence of these varied disease processes on HIV-1 DNA concentration in brain tissues has not been thoroughly assessed in the post-HAART era. The purpose of the current study is to clarify the impacts of ADC and other complications of HIV disease on the viral load in the brains in AIDS patients with post-HARRT. We examined autopsy specimens from the brains of thirteen patients who died from complications of AIDS with quantitative poiymerase chain reaction (QPCR). All but one patient had HAART prior to death since 1995. Two patients died with severe CVD, multiple cerebrovascular atherosclerosis (CVA)throughout the brain and five patients died with ADC. Six patients had no ADC/CVA. A QPCR was used to measure the presence of HIV-1 DNA in six brain tissues (meninges, frontal grey matter, frontal white matter, temporal subcortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia). In the post-HARRT era, for non-ADC/CVA patients, HIV-1 DNA concentration in brain tissues was statistically higher than that in patients with ADC. in a new finding, two patients who suffered from severe CVD, especially CVA, also had high concentrations of HIV-1 in brain compartments not showing ADC related changes. To our knowledge,this is the first report of a relationship between the CVA and HIV-1 viral burden in brain. The current observations suggest that HAART-resistant HIV reservoirs may survive within ADC lesions of the brain as well as the macrophage rich atherosclerosis, which needs to be confirmed by more AIDS cases with CVA.

  8. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  9. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  10. The subcortical role of language processing. High level linguistic features such as ambiguity-resolution and the human brain; an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketteler, Daniel; Kastrau, Frank; Vohn, Rene; Huber, Walter

    2008-02-15

    In the present study, we were interested in the neurofunctional representations of ambiguity processing by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twelve right-handed, healthy adults aged between 21 and 29 years (6 male, 6 female) underwent an ambiguity resolution task with 4 different conditions (dominant vs. non-dominant; dominant vs. distractor; non-dominant vs. distractor; distractor vs. distractor). After subtraction of the corresponding control task (distractor vs. distractor) we found significant activation especially in the thalamus and some parts of the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen). Our findings implicate a participation of the thalamus and other basal ganglia circuits in high level linguistic functions and match with theoretical considerations on this highly controversial topic. Subcortical neural circuits probably become activated when the language processing system cannot rely entirely on automatic mechanisms but has to recruit controlled processes as well. Furthermore, we found broad activation in the inferior parietal lobule, the prefrontal gyrus, pre-SMA and SMA and the cingulate cortex. This might reflect a strategic semantic search mechanism which probably can be illustrated with connectionist models of language processing. According to this, we hypothesize a neuroregulatory role for the thalamus and basal ganglia in regulating and monitoring the release of preformulated language segments for motor programming and semantic verification. According to our findings there is strong evidence, that especially the thalamus, the caudate nucleus, the cingulate cortex, the inferior parietal lobule and the prefrontal cortex are responsible for an accurate ambiguity resolution in the human brain.

  11. Influence of ischemic preconditioning on levels of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and their high-affinity receptors in hippocampus following forebrain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsong-Hai; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Ko, Yu-Shien; Kato, Hiroyuki; Itoyama, Yasuto; Kogure, Kyuya

    2008-01-02

    Preconditioning of gerbil brain with a sublethal forebrain ischemia is known to protect hippocampal CA1 neurons following a subsequent lethal ischemia (the second ischemia) which usually damages neurons (ischemic tolerance). Present report using a confocal laser scanning microscope demonstrated that the hippocampal cells of sham operation gerbils contained immunofluorescent NGF and BDNF and their high-affinity receptors (TrkA and TrkB). A 2-min ischemia caused little change of these proteins (ANOVA test, PBDNF but not NGF and their high-affinity receptors showed a transient reduction at 4 h (ANOVA test, PBDNF and TrkB decreased transiently from 4 h to 1 day (ANOVA test, PCA3 and dentate gyrus areas, only BDNF decreased significantly at 7 days in the CA3 area without ischemic preconditioning (ANOVA test, PCA3 and dentate gyrus areas with and without ischemic preconditioning. Western blot study showed that in the hippocampal formation with ischemic preconditioning, preconditioning prevented the decline of these protein levels from 1 day to 7 days after the second lethal ischemia (ANOVA test, P>0.05). Results of this study demonstrate that ischemic preconditioning recovers the initial decline in NGF and BDNF and their corresponding receptors in the vulnerable CA1 neurons after the second lethal ischemia, suggesting that growth factors might play a role in the protective mechanism of ischemic preconditioning.

  12. High level HIV-1 DNA concentrations in brain tissues differentiate patients with post-HAART AIDS dementia complex or cardiovascular disease from those with AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GALLIGAN; Derek; C.; LAMERS; Susanna; L.; YU; Stephanie; SHAGRUN; Lamia; SALEMI; Marco; MCGRATH; Michael; S.

    2009-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral treatment(HAART) has had a significant impact on survival of individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS);however,with the longer life-span of patients with AIDS,there is increasing prevalence of AIDS dementia complex(ADC) and other non-AIDS-defining illness,and cardiovascular diseases(CVD) are also common.The influence of these varied disease processes on HIV-1 DNA concentration in brain tissues has not been thoroughly assessed in the post-HAART era.The purpose of the current study is to clarify the impacts of ADC and other complications of HIV disease on the viral load in the brains in AIDS patients with post-HARRT.We examined autopsy specimens from the brains of thirteen patients who died from complications of AIDS with quantitative polymerase chain reaction(QPCR).All but one patient had received HAART prior to death since 1995.Two patients died with severe CVD,multiple cerebrovascular atherosclerosis(CVA) throughout the brain and five patients died with ADC.Six patients had no ADC/CVA.A QPCR was used to measure the presence of HIV-1 DNA in six brain tissues(meninges,frontal grey matter,frontal white matter,temporal subcortex,cerebellum and basal ganglia).In the post-HARRT era,for non-ADC/CVA patients,HIV-1 DNA concentration in brain tissues was statistically higher than that in patients with ADC.In a new finding,two patients who suffered from severe CVD,especially CVA,also had high concentrations of HIV-1 in brain compartments not showing ADC related changes.To our knowledge,this is the first report of a relationship between the CVA and HIV-1 viral burden in brain.The current observations suggest that HAART-resistant HIV reservoirs may survive within ADC lesions of the brain as well as the macrophage rich atherosclerosis,which needs to be confirmed by more AIDS cases with CVA.

  13. Brain Food at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Scenic view at high altitude is a pleasure to the eyes, but it has some shortcoming effects as well. High altitude can be divided into different categories, i.e., high altitude (3000-5000 ft), very high altitude (5000-8000 ft), and extreme altitude (above 8000 ft). Much of the population resides at high altitude, and others go there for tourism. Military personnel are also posted there to defend boundaries. As we ascent to high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen reduces, whereas concentration remains the same; this reduces the availability of oxygen to different body parts. This pathophysiological condition is known as hypobaric hypoxia (HH) which leads to oxidative stress and further causes cognitive dysfunction in some cases. Hypoxia causes neurodegeneration in different brain regions; however, the hippocampus is found to be more prone in comparison to other brain regions. As the hippocampus is affected most, therefore, spatial memory is impaired most during such condition. This chapter will give a brief review of the damaging effect of high altitude on cognition and also throw light on possible herbal interventions at high altitude, which can improve cognitive performance as well as provide protection against the deteriorating effect of hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude.

  14. Effects of a high-caloric diet and physical exercise on brain metabolite levels: a combined proton MRS and histologic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthias K; Sack, Markus; Lenz, Jenny N; Jakovcevski, Mira; Biedermann, Sarah V; Falfán-Melgoza, Claudia; Deussing, Jan; Steinle, Jörg; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Pfister, Frederik; Stalla, Günter K; Ende, Gabriele; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Fuss, Johannes; Gass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Excessive intake of high-caloric diets as well as subsequent development of obesity and diabetes mellitus may exert a wide range of unfavorable effects on the central nervous system (CNS). It has been suggested that one mechanism in this context is the promotion of neuroinflammation. The potentially harmful effects of such diets were suggested to be mitigated by physical exercise. Here, we conducted a study investigating the effects of physical exercise in a cafeteria-diet mouse model on CNS metabolites by means of in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS). In addition postmortem histologic and real-time (RT)-PCR analyses for inflammatory markers were performed. Cafeteria diet induced obesity and hyperglycemia, which was only partially moderated by exercise. It also induced several changes in CNS metabolites such as reduced hippocampal glutamate (Glu), choline-containing compounds (tCho) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA)+N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamic acid (NAAG) (tNAA) levels, whereas opposite effects were seen for running. No association of these effects with markers of central inflammation could be observed. These findings suggest that while voluntary wheel running alone is insufficient to prevent the unfavorable peripheral sequelae of the diet, it counteracted many changes in brain metabolites. The observed effects seem to be independent of neuroinflammation. PMID:25564238

  15. High level binocular rivalry effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eWolf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Binocular rivalry (BR occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: 1 BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low levels have access to utrocular information. 2 All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn’t stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. 3 Rivalry is affected by low level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. 4 There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high level mechanism: 1 Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. 2 Attention affects alternations. 3 Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI regarding cortical level(s of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution.We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other nonwords and find significantly longer dominance durations for nonwords. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that Binocular Rivalry has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level

  16. Hybrid brain-computer interfaces and hybrid neuroprostheses for restoration of upper limb functions in individuals with high-level spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohm, Martin; Schneiders, Matthias; Müller, Constantin; Kreilinger, Alex; Kaiser, Vera; Müller-Putz, Gernot R; Rupp, Rüdiger

    2013-10-01

    The bilateral loss of the grasp function associated with a lesion of the cervical spinal cord severely limits the affected individuals' ability to live independently and return to gainful employment after sustaining a spinal cord injury (SCI). Any improvement in lost or limited grasp function is highly desirable. With current neuroprostheses, relevant improvements can be achieved in end users with preserved shoulder and elbow, but missing hand function. The aim of this single case study is to show that (1) with the support of hybrid neuroprostheses combining functional electrical stimulation (FES) with orthoses, restoration of hand, finger and elbow function is possible in users with high-level SCI and (2) shared control principles can be effectively used to allow for a brain-computer interface (BCI) control, even if only moderate BCI performance is achieved after extensive training. The individual in this study is a right-handed 41-year-old man who sustained a traumatic SCI in 2009 and has a complete motor and sensory lesion at the level of C4. He is unable to generate functionally relevant movements of the elbow, hand and fingers on either side. He underwent extensive FES training (30-45min, 2-3 times per week for 6 months) and motor imagery (MI) BCI training (415 runs in 43 sessions over 12 months). To meet individual needs, the system was designed in a modular fashion including an intelligent control approach encompassing two input modalities, namely an MI-BCI and shoulder movements. After one year of training, the end user's MI-BCI performance ranged from 50% to 93% (average: 70.5%). The performance of the hybrid system was evaluated with different functional assessments. The user was able to transfer objects of the grasp-and-release-test and he succeeded in eating a pretzel stick, signing a document and eating an ice cream cone, which he was unable to do without the system. This proof-of-concept study has demonstrated that with the support of hybrid FES

  17. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  18. BrainMaps.org - Interactive High-Resolution Digital Brain Atlases and Virtual Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, Shawn; Stone, James M; Jones, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    BrainMaps.org is an interactive high-resolution digital brain atlas and virtual microscope that is based on over 20 million megapixels of scanned images of serial sections of both primate and non-primate brains and that is integrated with a high-speed database for querying and retrieving data about brain structure and function over the internet. Complete brain datasets for various species, including Homo sapiens, Macaca mulatta, Chlorocebus aethiops, Felis catus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, and Tyto alba, are accessible online. The methods and tools we describe are useful for both research and teaching, and can be replicated by labs seeking to increase accessibility and sharing of neuroanatomical data. These tools offer the possibility of visualizing and exploring completely digitized sections of brains at a sub-neuronal level, and can facilitate large-scale connectional tracing, histochemical and stereological analyses.

  19. rse, a novel receptor-type tyrosine kinase with homology to Axl/Ufo, is expressed at high levels in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, M R; Scadden, D T; Wang, Z; Gu, Q; Goddard, A; Godowski, P J

    1994-04-08

    We have isolated cDNA clones that encode the human and murine forms of a novel receptor-type tyrosine kinase termed Rse. Sequence analysis indicates that human Rse contains 890 amino acids, with an extracellular region composed of two immunoglobulin-like domains followed by two fibronectin type III domains. Murine Rse contains 880 amino acids and shares 90% amino acid identity with its human counterpart. Rse is structurally similar to the receptor-type tyrosine kinase Axl/Ufo, and the two proteins have 35 and 63% sequence identity in their extracellular and intracellular domains, respectively. To study the synthesis and activation of this putative receptor-type tyrosine kinase, we constructed a version of Rse (termed gD-Rse, where gD represents glycoprotein D) that contains an NH2-terminal epitope tag. NIH3T3 cells were engineered to express gD-Rse, which could be detected at the cell surface by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Moreover, gD-Rse was rapidly phosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon incubation of the cells with an antibody directed against the epitope tag, suggesting that rse encodes an active tyrosine kinase. In the human tissues we examined, the highest level of expression of rse mRNA was observed in the brain; rse mRNA was also detected in the premegakaryocytopoietic cell lines CMK11-5 and Dami. The gene for rse was localized to human chromosome 15.

  20. Identifying Brain Image Level Endophenotypes in Epilepsy

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Wei; Tian, Ge; Feng, Jianfeng; Wang, Zhengge; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lu, GuangMing

    2012-01-01

    A brain wide association study (BWAS) based on the logistic regression was first developed and applied to a large population of epilepsy patients (168) and healthy controls (136). It was found that the most significant links associated with epilepsy are those bilateral links with regions mainly belonging to the default mode network and subcortex, such as amygdala, fusiform gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, hippocampus, temporal pole, parahippocampal gyrus, insula, middle occipital gyrus, cuneus. These links were found to have much higher odd ratios than other links, and all of them showed reduced functional couplings in patients compared with controls. Interestingly, with the increasing of the seizure onset frequency or duration of illness, the functional connection between these bilateral regions became further reduced. On the other hand, as a functional compensation and brain plasticity, connections of these bilateral regions to other brain regions were abnormally enhanced and became even much stronger with t...

  1. 5-HT1A receptor gene silencers Freud-1 and Freud-2 are differently expressed in the brain of rats with genetically determined high level of fear-induced aggression or its absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondaurova, Elena M; Ilchibaeva, Tatiana V; Tsybko, Anton S; Kozhemyakina, Rimma V; Popova, Nina K; Naumenko, Vladimir S

    2016-09-01

    Serotonin 5-HT1A receptor is known to play a crucial role in the mechanisms of genetically defined aggression. In its turn, 5-HT1A receptor functional state is under control of multiple factors. Among others, transcriptional factors Freud-1 and Freud-2 are known to be involved in the repression of 5-HT1A receptor gene expression. However, implication of these factors in the regulation of behavior is unclear. Here, we investigated the expression of 5-HT1A receptor and silencers Freud-1 and Freud-2 in the brain of rats selectively bred for 85 generations for either high level of fear-induced aggression or its absence. It was shown that Freud-1 and Freud-2 levels were different in aggressive and nonaggressive animals. Freud-1 protein level was decreased in the hippocampus, whereas Freud-2 protein level was increased in the frontal cortex of highly aggressive rats. There no differences in 5-HT1A receptor gene expression were found in the brains of highly aggressive and nonaggressive rats. However, 5-HT1A receptor protein level was decreased in the midbrain and increased in the hippocampus of highly aggressive rats. These data showed the involvement of Freud-1 and Freud-2 in the regulation of genetically defined fear-induced aggression. However, these silencers do not affect transcription of the 5-HT1A receptor gene in the investigated rats. Our data indicate the implication of posttranscriptional rather than transcriptional regulation of 5-HT1A receptor functional state in the mechanisms of genetically determined aggressive behavior. On the other hand, the implication of other transcriptional regulators for 5-HT1A receptor gene in the mechanisms of genetically defined aggression could be suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High serotonin levels during brain development alter the structural input-output connectivity of neural networks in the rat somatosensory layer IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eMiceli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic regulation of serotonin (5-HT concentration is critical for normal topographical organization and development of thalamocortical (TC afferent circuits. Down-regulation of the serotonin transporter (SERT and the consequent impaired reuptake of 5-HT at the synapse, results in a reduced terminal branching of developing TC afferents within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1. Despite the presence of multiple genetic models, the effect of high extracellular 5-HT levels on the structure and function of developing intracortical neural networks is far from being understood. Here, using juvenile SERT knockout (SERT-/- rats we investigated, in vitro, the effect of increased 5-HT levels on the structural organization of (i the thalamocortical projections of the ventroposteromedial thalamic nucleus towards S1, (ii the general barrel-field pattern and (iii the electrophysiological and morphological properties of the excitatory cell population in layer IV of S1 (spiny stellate and pyramidal cells. Our results confirmed previous findings that high levels of 5-HT during development lead to a reduction of the topographical precision of TCA projections towards the barrel cortex. Also, the barrel pattern was altered but not abolished in SERT-/- rats. In layer IV, both excitatory spiny stellate and pyramidal cells showed a significantly reduced intracolumnar organization of their axonal projections. In addition, the layer IV spiny stellate cells gave rise to a prominent projection towards the infragranular layer Vb. Our findings point to a structural and functional reorganization, of TCAs, as well as early stage intracortical microcircuitry, following the disruption of 5-HT reuptake during critical developmental periods. The increased projection pattern of the layer IV neurons suggests that the intracortical network changes are not limited to the main entry layer IV but may also affect the subsequent stages of the canonical circuits of the barrel

  3. Do glutathione levels decline in aging human brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Junchao; Fitzmaurice, Paul S; Moszczynska, Anna; Mattina, Katie; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Boileau, Isabelle; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Sailasuta, Napapon; Kish, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    For the past 60 years a major theory of "aging" is that age-related damage is largely caused by excessive uncompensated oxidative stress. The ubiquitous tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant defense mechanism against reactive free radicals and has also served as a marker of changes in oxidative stress. Some (albeit conflicting) animal data suggest a loss of glutathione in brain senescence, which might compromise the ability of the aging brain to meet the demands of oxidative stress. Our objective was to establish whether advancing age is associated with glutathione deficiency in human brain. We measured reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in multiple regions of autopsied brain of normal subjects (n=74) aged one day to 99 years. Brain GSH levels during the infancy/teenage years were generally similar to those in the oldest examined adult group (76-99 years). During adulthood (23-99 years) GSH levels remained either stable (occipital cortex) or increased (caudate nucleus, frontal and cerebellar cortices). To the extent that GSH levels represent glutathione antioxidant capacity, our postmortem data suggest that human brain aging is not associated with declining glutathione status. We suggest that aged healthy human brains can maintain antioxidant capacity related to glutathione and that an age-related increase in GSH levels in some brain regions might possibly be a compensatory response to increased oxidative stress. Since our findings, although suggestive, suffer from the generic limitations of all postmortem brain studies, we also suggest the need for "replication" investigations employing the new (1)H MRS imaging procedures in living human brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Human brain mercury levels related to exposure to amalgam fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertaş, E; Aksoy, A; Turla, A; Karaarslan, E S; Karaarslan, B; Aydın, A; Eken, A

    2014-08-01

    The safety of dental amalgam as the primary material in dental restoration treatments has been debated since its introduction. It is widely accepted that amalgam restorations continuously release elemental mercury (Hg) vapor, which is inhaled and absorbed by the body and distributed to tissues, including the brain. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the presence of amalgam fillings is correlated with brain Hg level. The Hg levels in the parietal lobes of the brains of 32 cadavers were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrometer with the mercury hydride system. A total of 32 brain samples were tested; of these, 10 were from cadavers with amalgam fillings, while 22 of them were amalgam free. Hg was detected in 60.0% (6 of 10) of the samples in the amalgam group and in 36.3% (8 of 22) in the amalgam-free group. The average Hg level of the amalgam group was 0.97 ± 0.83 µg/g (minimum: 0.3 µg/g and maximum: 2.34 µg/g), and in the amalgam-free group, it was 1.06 ± 0.57 µg/g (minimum: 0.17 µg/g and maximum: 1.76 µg/g). The results of the present study showed no correlation between the presence of amalgam fillings and brain Hg level.

  5. Sleep, brain energy levels, and food intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworak, M.; Kim, T.; McCarley, R.W.; Basheer, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The feeling of hunger and feeding, a wake–state-dependent behavior, is regulated by specific centers within the hypothalamus. While paraventricular nucleus (PVN), arcuate nucleus (ARC), and dorso- and ventromedial hypothalamus (DMH/VMH) regulate feeding, the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is associated both with feeding and wake/REM sleep regulation. In order to examine the effects of sleep and wakefulness on food intake and body weight, we also measured hypothalamic ATP concentrations, which are known to be involved in feeding behavior and sleep–wake regulation. Methods In rats, food intake and body weight was measured during a 24-h light–dark cycle and during 6 h of sleep deprivation (SD) performed by gentle handling. Tissue samples from the PVN, ARC/DMH/VMH, and LH were collected after 6 h of SD and from time-matched diurnal controls. ATP was measured by luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay. Results Across the 24-h light–dark period, rats consumed approximately 28.13±4.48 g of food and gained 5.22±1.65 g with a positive correlation between food intake and body weight. During SD, while food intake increased significantly +147.31±6.13%, they lost weight significantly (–93.29±13.64%) when compared to undisturbed controls. SD resulted in a significant decrease in ATP levels only in LH (–44.60±21.13%) with no change in PVN, ARC/DMH/VMH region when compared with undisturbed controls. Conclusion The results indicate a strong overall correlation between ATP concentrations in the LH and individual food intake and suggest a sleep–wake dependent neuronal control of food intake and body weight. PMID:23585726

  6. High-level binocular rivalry effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michal; Hochstein, Shaul

    2011-01-01

    Binocular rivalry (BR) occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: (1) BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low-levels have access to utrocular information. (2) All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn't stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. (3) Rivalry is affected by low-level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. (4) There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high-level mechanism: (1) Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. (2) Attention affects alternations. (3) Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI) regarding cortical level(s) of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution. We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other non-words and find significantly longer dominance durations for non-words. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that BR has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level mechanism.

  7. Human plasma DNP level after severe brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yi-lu; XIN Hui-ning; FENG Yi; FAN Ji-wei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between DNP level after human severe brain injury and hyponatremia as well as isorrhea.Methods: The peripheral venous plasma as control was collected from 8 volunteers. The peripheral venous plasma from 14 severe brain injury patients were collected in the 1, 3, 7 days after injury. Radioimmunoassay was used to detect the DNP concentration. Meanwhile, daily plasma and urine electrolytes, osmotic pressure as well as 24 h liquid intake and output volume were detected.Results: The normal adult human plasma DNP level was 62. 46 pg/ml ± 27. 56 pg/ml. In the experimental group, the plasma DNP levels were higher from day 1 today 3 in 8 of the 14 patients than those in the control group (P1 =0.05, P3 =0.03). Negative fluid balance occurred in 8 patients and hyponatremia in 7 patients. The increase of plasma DNP level was significantly correlated with the development of a negative fluid balance (r=-0.69,P<0.01) and hyponatremia (x2 =4.38, P<0.05).Conclusions: The increase of plasma DNP level is accompanied by the enhancement of natriuretic and diuretic responses in severe brain-injured patients, which is associated with the development of a negative fluid balance and hyponatremia after brain injury.

  8. Acute melatonin and para-chloroamphetamine interactions on pineal, brain and serum serotonin levels as well as stress hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzana, E J; Chen, W J; Champney, T H

    2001-08-03

    para-Chloroamphetamine, an amphetamine analog, alters serotonergic neurochemistry. In previous reports, melatonin (MEL), when administered with other amphetamine analogs, altered the decline in serotonin content produced by these analogs. The present studies assessed the effects of various doses of melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine on serotonin levels in numerous brain regions in male rats. Melatonin (10, 25 or 50 mg/kg, s.c.) and p-chloroamphetamine (3 or 5 mg/kg, s.c.) were administered and, 3 h later, brain samples and serum were collected. Serotonin levels in the serum and various regions of the brain were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Melatonin in combination with a high dose of p-chloroamphetamine (5 mg/kg) produced cumulative deficits in serotonin levels in the serum. However, serotonin levels in the pineal, cortex or brain stem in all combined melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine groups were not significantly different from groups that received p-chloroamphetamine alone. Serum adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone levels were significantly elevated in the melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine combined groups, suggesting that animals receiving both treatments were more stressed than control animals or animals receiving melatonin or p-chloroamphetamine alone. These results indicate that melatonin does not alter p-chloroamphetamine-induced deficits in central serotonin levels. The increased serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and serotonin levels observed following melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine treatment suggest that this combination may have adverse peripheral effects.

  9. Decreased relative brain tissue levels of inositol in fetal hydrocephalus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.D.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.; Eskes, T.K.A.B.; Heerschap, A.; Berg, P.P. van den

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inositol seems to play a role in the development of the central nervous system. In this study, the brain tissue level of inositol in fetal hydrocephalus was compared with that of healthy control subjects. STUDY DESIGN: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to examine the inosito

  10. Blood and Brain Glutamate Levels in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Tamer H.; Abdelrahman, Hadeel M.; Fattah, Nelly R. Abdel; El-Masry, Nagda M.; Hashim, Haitham M.; El-Gerby, Khaled M.; Fattah, Nermin R. Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Despite of the great efforts that move forward to clarify the pathophysiologic mechanisms in autism, the cause of this disorder, however, remains largely unknown. There is an increasing body of literature concerning neurochemical contributions to the pathophysiology of autism. We aimed to determine blood and brain levels of glutamate in children…

  11. Circulating and brain BDNF levels in stroke rats. Relevance to clinical studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Béjot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whereas brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels are measured in the brain in animal models of stroke, neurotrophin levels in stroke patients are measured in plasma or serum samples. The present study was designed to investigate the meaning of circulating BDNF levels in stroke patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Unilateral ischemic stroke was induced in rats by the injection of various numbers of microspheres into the carotid circulation in order to mimic the different degrees of stroke severity observed in stroke patients. Blood was serially collected from the jugular vein before and after (4 h, 24 h and 8 d embolization and the whole brains were collected at 4, 24 h and 8 d post-embolization. Rats were then selected from their degree of embolization, so that the distribution of stroke severity in the rats at the different time points was large but similar. Using ELISA tests, BDNF levels were measured in plasma, serum and brain of selected rats. Whereas plasma and serum BDNF levels were not changed by stroke, stroke induced an increase in brain BDNF levels at 4 h and 24 h post-embolization, which was not correlated with stroke severity. Individual plasma BDNF levels did not correlate with brain levels at any time point after stroke but a positive correlation (r = 0.67 was observed between individual plasma BDNF levels and stroke severity at 4 h post-embolization. CONCLUSION: Circulating BDNF levels do not mirror brain BDNF levels after stroke, and severe stroke is associated with high plasma BDNF in the very acute stage.

  12. Effect of domoic acid on brain amino acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, R; Arufe, M C; Arias, B; Alfonso, M

    1995-03-01

    The administration of Domoic Acid (Dom) in a 0.2 mg/kg i.p. dose induces changes in the levels of amino acids of neurochemical interest (Asp, Glu, Gly, Tau, Ala, GABA) in different rat brain regions (hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, cortex and midbrain). The most affected amino acid is the GABA, the main inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter, whereas glutamate, the main excitatory amino acid, is not affected. The rat brain regions that seem to be the main target of the Dom action belong to the limbic system (hippocampus, amygdala). The possible implication of the amino acids in the actions of Dom is also discussed.

  13. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  14. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...... by other papers. Thus, e.g., none of the original papers introducing the first versions of high-level Petri nets have been included. The introductions to the individual sections mention a number of researchers who have contributed to the development of high-level Petri nets. Detailed references...

  15. RPython high-level synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  16. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Deldicque, C; Ero, J; Frühwirth, R; Jeitler, Manfred; Kastner, K; Köstner, S; Neumeister, N; Porth, M; Padrta P; Rohringer, H; Sakulinb, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Walzel, G; Wulz, C E; Lowette, S; Van De Vyver, B; De Lentdecker, G; Vanlaer, P; Delaere, C; Lemaître, V; Ninane, A; van der Aa, O; Damgov, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampen, T; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lehti, S; Nysten, J; Tuominiemi, J; Busson, P; Todorov, T; Schwering, G; Gras, P; Daskalakis, G; Sfyrla, A; Barone, M; Geralis, T; Markou, C; Zachariadou, K; Hidas, P; Banerjee, S; Mazumdara, K; Abbrescia, M; Colaleoa, A; D'Amato, N; De Filippis, N; Giordano, D; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Silvestris, L; Zito, G; Arcelli, S; Bonacorsi, D; Capiluppi, P; Dallavalle, G M; Fanfani, A; Grandi, C; Marcellini, S; Montanari, A; Odorici, F; Travaglini, R; Costa, S; Tricomi, A; Ciulli, a V; Magini, N; Ranieri, R; Berti, L; Biasotto, M; Gulminia, M; Maron, G; Toniolo, N; Zangrando, L; Bellato, M; Gasparini, U; Lacaprara, S; Parenti, A; Ronchese, P; Vanini, S; Zotto, S; Ventura P L; Perugia; Benedetti, D; Biasini, M; Fano, L; Servoli, L; Bagliesi, a G; Boccali, T; Dutta, S; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Palla, F; Segneri, G; Starodumov, A; Tenchini, R; Meridiani, P; Organtini, G; Amapane, a N; Bertolino, F; Cirio, R; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Pac, Y; Joo, K; Kim, S B; Suwon; Choi, Y I; Yu, I T; Cho, K; Chung, J; Ham, S W; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kim, W; CKim, J; Oh, S K; Park, H; Ro, S R; Son, D C; Suh, J S; Aftab, Z; Hoorani, H; Osmana, A; Bunkowski, K; Cwiok, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, K; Kazana, M; Królikowski, J; Kudla, I; Pietrusinski, M; Pozniak, Krzysztof T; Zabolotny, W M; Zalipska, J; Zych, P; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Almeida, C; Almeida, N; Da Silva, J C; Santos, M; Teixeira, I; Teixeira, J P; Varelaa, J; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Konoplyanikov, V F; Urkinbaev, A R; Toropin, A; Gavrilov, V; Kolosov, V; Krokhotin, A; Oulianov, A; Stepanov, N; Kodolova, O L; Vardanyan, I; Ilic, J; Skoro, G P; Albajar, C; De Troconiz, J F; Calderón, A; López-Virto, M A; Marco, R; Martínez-Rivero, C; Matorras, F; Vila, I; Cucciarelli, S; Konecki, M; Ashby, S; Barney, D; Bartalini, P; Benetta, R; Brigljevic, V; Bruno, G; Cano, E; Cittolin, S; Della Negra, M; de Roeck, A; Favre, P; Frey, A; Funk, W; Futyan, D; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gutleber, J; Hansen, M; Innocente, V; Jacobs, C; Jank, W; Kozlovszky, Miklos; Larsen, H; Lenzi, M; Magrans, I; Mannelli, M; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Mirabito, L; Murray, S J; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Palomares-Espiga, C; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Reynaud, S; Samyn, D; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schwick, C; Sguazzoni, G; Sinanis, N; Sphicas, P; Spiropulu, M; Strandlie, A; Taylor, B G; Van Vulpen, I; Wellisch, J P; Winkler, M; Villigen; Kotlinski, D; Zurich; Prokofiev, K; Speer, T; Dumanoglu, I; Bristol; Bailey, S; Brooke, J J; Cussans, D; Heath, G P; Machin, D; Nash, S J; Newbold, D; Didcot; Coughlan, A; Halsall, R; Haynes, W J; Tomalin, I R; Marinelli, N; Nikitenko, A; Rutherford, S; Seeza, C; Sharif, O; Antchev, G; Hazen, E; Rohlf, J; Wu, S; Breedon, R; Cox, P T; Murray, P; Tripathi, M; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Kreuzer, P; Lindgren, M; Mumford, J; Schlein, P E; Shi, Y; Tannenbaum, B; Valuev, V; Von der Mey, M; Andreevaa, I; Clare, R; Villa, S; Bhattacharya, S; Branson, J G; Fisk, I; Letts, J; Mojaver, M; Paar, H P; Trepagnier, E; Litvine, V; Shevchenko, S; Singh, S; Wilkinson, R; Aziz, S; Bowden, M; Elias, J E; Graham, G; Green, D; Litmaath, M; Los, S; O'Dell, V; Ratnikova, N; Suzuki, I; Wenzel, H; Acosta, D; Bourilkov, D; Korytov, A; Madorsky, A; Mitselmakher, G; Rodríguez, J L; Scurlock, B; Abdullin, S; Baden, D; Eno, S; Grassi, T; Kunori, S; Pavlon, S; Sumorok, K; Tether, S; Cremaldi, L M; Sanders, D; Summers, D; Osborne, I; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Fisher,W C; Mans6, J; Stickland, D P; Tully, C; Wildish, T; Wynhoff, S; Padley, B P; Chumney, P; Dasu, S; Smith, W H; CMS Trigger Data Acquisition Group

    2006-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider at CERN the proton bunches cross at a rate of 40MHz. At the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment the original collision rate is reduced by a factor of O (1000) using a Level-1 hardware trigger. A subsequent factor of O(1000) data reduction is obtained by a software-implemented High Level Trigger (HLT) selection that is executed on a multi-processor farm. In this review we present in detail prototype CMS HLT physics selection algorithms, expected trigger rates and trigger performance in terms of both physics efficiency and timing.

  17. The ALICE high level trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, T.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Röhrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbø, A.; Vik, T.; Wiebalck, A.; the ALICE Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s-1. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  18. High-Tc superconducting quantum interference device recordings of spontaneous brain activity: Towards high-Tc magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öisjöen, F.; Schneiderman, J. F.; Figueras, G. A.; Chukharkin, M. L.; Kalabukhov, A.; Hedström, A.; Elam, M.; Winkler, D.

    2012-03-01

    We have performed single- and two-channel high transition temperature (high-Tc) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of spontaneous brain activity in two healthy human subjects. We demonstrate modulation of two well-known brain rhythms: the occipital alpha rhythm and the mu rhythm found in the motor cortex. We further show that despite higher noise-levels compared to their low-Tc counterparts, high-Tc SQUIDs can be used to detect and record physiologically relevant brain rhythms with comparable signal-to-noise ratios. These results indicate the utility of high-Tc technology in MEG recordings of a broader range of brain activity.

  19. Thalamic GABA levels and occupational manganese neurotoxicity: Association with exposure levels and brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruoyun E; Ward, Eric J; Yeh, Chien-Lin; Snyder, Sandy; Long, Zaiyang; Gokalp Yavuz, Fulya; Zauber, S Elizabeth; Dydak, Ulrike

    2017-09-02

    Excessive occupational exposure to Manganese (Mn) has been associated with clinical symptoms resembling idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), impairing cognitive and motor functions. Several studies point towards an involvement of the brain neurotransmitter system in Mn intoxication, which is hypothesized to be disturbed prior to onset of symptoms. Edited Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) offers the unique possibility to measure γ-amminobutyric acid (GABA) and other neurometabolites in vivo non-invasively in workers exposed to Mn. In addition, the property of Mn as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agent may be used to study Mn deposition in the human brain. In this study, using MRI, MRS, personal air sampling at the working place, work history questionnaires, and neurological assessment (UPDRS-III), the effects of chronic Mn exposure on the thalamic GABAergic system was studied in a group of welders (N=39) with exposure to Mn fumes in a typical occupational setting. Two subgroups of welders with different exposure levels (Low: N=26; mean air Mn=0.13±0.1mg/m(3); High: N=13; mean air Mn=0.23±0.18mg/m(3)), as well as unexposed control workers (N=22, mean air Mn=0.002±0.001mg/m(3)) were recruited. The group of welders with higher exposure showed a significant increase of thalamic GABA levels by 45% (p<0.01, F(1,33)=9.55), as well as significantly worse performance in general motor function (p<0.01, F(1,33)=11.35). However, welders with lower exposure did not differ from the controls in GABA levels or motor performance. Further, in welders the thalamic GABA levels were best predicted by past-12-months exposure levels and were influenced by the Mn deposition in the substantia nigra and globus pallidus. Importantly, both thalamic GABA levels and motor function displayed a non-linear pattern of response to Mn exposure, suggesting a threshold effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The ALICE high level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Grastveit, G [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Helstrup, H [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Lindenstruth, V [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Loizides, C [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Roehrich, D [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Skaali, B [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Steinbeck, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Stock, R [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Tilsner, H [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Ullaland, K [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Vestboe, A [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Vik, T [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Wiebalck, A [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s{sup -1}. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  1. Correlation of brain levels of progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone with neurological recovery after traumatic brain injury in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Acaz-Fonseca, Estefania; Giatti, Silvia; Caruso, Donatella; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Melcangi, Roberto C; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of disability in humans. Neuroactive steroids, such as progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), are neuroprotective in TBI models. However in order to design potential neuroprotective strategies based on neuroactive steroids it is important to determine whether its brain levels are altered by TBI. In this study we have used a weight-drop model of TBI in young adult female mice to determine the levels of neuroactive steroids in the brain and plasma at 24h, 72 h and 2 weeks after injury. We have also analyzed whether the levels of neuroactive steroids after TBI correlated with the neurological score of the animals. TBI caused neurological deficit detectable at 24 and 72 h, which recovered by 2 weeks after injury. Brain levels of progesterone, tetrahydroprogesterone (THP), isopregnanolone and 17β-estradiol were decreased 24h, 72 h and 2 weeks after TBI. DHEA and brain testosterone levels presented a transient decrease at 24h after lesion. Brain levels of progesterone and DHEA showed a positive correlation with neurological recovery. Plasma analyses showed that progesterone was decreased 72 h after lesion but, in contrast with brain progesterone, its levels did not correlate with neurological deficit. These findings indicate that TBI alters the levels of neuroactive steroids in the brain with independence of its plasma levels and suggest that the pharmacological increase in the brain of the levels of progesterone and DHEA may result in the improvement of neurological recovery after TBI.

  2. Reduced serum levels of oestradiol and brain derived neurotrophic factor in both diabetic women and HFD-feeding female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Shan-Wen; Khandekar, Neeta; Tong, Shi-Fei; Yang, He-Qin; Wang, Wan-Ru; Huang, Xu-Feng; Song, Zhi-Yuan; Lin, Shu

    2017-04-01

    The estrogen levels in the pre and post menstrual phases interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a complex manner, which influences the overall state of the body. To study the role of oestradiol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in modulating obesity related type 2 diabetes and the interactions between two factors, we enrolled 15 diabetic premenopausal women and 15 diabetic postmenopausal women respectively, the same number of healthy pre and postmenopausal women were recruited as two control groups. The fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipids, estrogen, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured through clinical tests. Additionally, we set up obese female mouse model to mimic human trial stated above, to verify the relationship between estrogen and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Our findings revealed that there is a moderately positive correlation between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and oestradiol in females, and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor may worsen impaired insulin function. The results further confirmed that high fat diet-fed mice which exhibited impaired glucose tolerance, showed lower levels of oestradiol and decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in the ventromedial hypothalamus. The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor reduced on condition that the level of oestradiol is sufficiently low, such as women in postmenopausal period, which aggravates diabetes through feeding-related pathways. Increasing the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor may help to alleviate the progression of the disease in postmenopausal women with diabetes.

  3. High level white noise generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  4. Low-level light therapy of the eye and brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas JC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Julio C Rojas1,2, F Gonzalez-Lima1 1Departments of Psychology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX; 2Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: Low-level light therapy (LLLT using red to near-infrared light energy has gained attention in recent years as a new scientific approach with therapeutic applications in ophthalmology, neurology, and psychiatry. The ongoing therapeutic revolution spearheaded by LLLT is largely propelled by progress in the basic science fields of photobiology and bioenergetics. This paper describes the mechanisms of action of LLLT at the molecular, cellular, and nervous tissue levels. Photoneuromodulation of cytochrome oxidase activity is the most important primary mechanism of action of LLLT. Cytochrome oxidase is the primary photoacceptor of light in the red to near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is also a key mitochondrial enzyme for cellular bioenergetics, especially for nerve cells in the retina and the brain. Evidence shows that LLLT can secondarily enhance neural metabolism by regulating mitochondrial function, intraneuronal signaling systems, and redox states. Current knowledge about LLLT dosimetry relevant for its hormetic effects on nervous tissue, including noninvasive in vivo retinal and transcranial effects, is also presented. Recent research is reviewed that supports LLLT potential benefits in retinal disease, stroke, neurotrauma, neurodegeneration, and memory and mood disorders. Since mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in neurodegeneration, LLLT has potential significant applications against retinal and brain damage by counteracting the consequences of mitochondrial failure. Upon transcranial delivery in vivo, LLLT induces brain metabolic and antioxidant beneficial effects, as measured by increases in cytochrome oxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Increases

  5. [Pharmacological influences on the brain level and transport of GABA. II) Effect of various psychoactive drugs on brain level and uptake of GABA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabana, M A; Varotto, M; Saladini, M; Zanchin, G; Battistin, L

    1981-04-30

    The effects of some psychoactive drugs on the level and uptake of GABA in the mouse brain was studied using well standardized procedures, mainely the silica-gel cromatography for determining the GABA content and the brain slices for measuring GABA uptake. It was found that levomepromazine, sulpiride, haloperidol and amytryptiline were without effects on the cerebral level of GABA; it was also found that these drugs do not influence the rates of uptake of GABA by mouse brain slices. Such results do indicate that the psychoactive drugs studied are without effects on the level and uptake of GABA in the brain.

  6. Brain and hepatic Hsp70 protein levels in heat-acclimated broiler chickens during heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EN Guerreiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we have investigated the effects of heat acclimation on brain and hepatic Hsp70 protein levels and body temperature of broiler chickens in response to gradual heat stress. Two groups of broilers were raised up to 47 days of age under distinct temperature conditions: thermoneutral (TN, according to bird age or hot environmental (HS, 31-33°C. At 46 days of age, the birds reared at high ambient temperature were transferred to thermoneutrality conditions. After 18 h, these birds and the birds reared at thermoneutral temperature were submitted to gradual heat stress in a climatic chamber so that environment temperature was increased from 28 to 40ºC at a rate of 2ºC/h. Colonic temperature was measured using a thermometer sensor probe at each two hours, and hepatic and brain tissues were collected immediately after slaughter in order to assess Hsp70 protein level by Western blotting analysis. The colonic temperatures of birds reared at high temperature increased steeply during the first 2 h of heat stress (1.06ºC/h and more slowly thereafter (0.59ºC/h. Broilers reared at thermoneutral temperature showed a small increase in the first 4 h of heat stress (0.18ºC/h and then colonic temperature increased sharply (0.72ºC/h. Nevertheless, both groups presented similar final colonic temperature by the end of the stress period. Hsp70 levels (ng Hsp70 µg total protein-1 did not change in the liver or brain of the birds reared at high temperature. On the other hand, both liver and brain Hsp70 levels increased significantly during heat stress in the animals reared at thermoneutrality, with a higher expression of this peptide in brain tissue.

  7. Brain glycogen – new perspectives on its metabolic function and regulation at the subcellular level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linea Frimodt Obel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g. liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia. In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been an emerging understanding in brain energy metabolism: that glycogen is more than just a convenient way to store energy for use in emergencies – it is a highly dynamic molecule with versatile implications in brain function, i.e. synaptic activity and memory formation. In line with the great spatiotemporal complexity of the brain and thereof derived focus on the basis for ensuring the availability of the right amount of energy at the right time and place, we here encourage a closer look into the molecular and subcellular mechanisms underlying glycogen metabolism. Based on i the compartmentation of the interconnected second messenger pathways controlling glycogen metabolism (calcium and cAMP, ii alterations in the subcellular location of glycogen-associated enzymes and proteins induced by the metabolic status and iii a sequential component in the intermolecular mechanisms of glycogen metabolism, we suggest that glycogen metabolism in astrocytes is compartmentalized at the subcellular level. As a consequence, the meaning and importance of conventional terms used to describe glycogen metabolism (e.g. turnover is challenged. Overall, this review represents an overview of contemporary knowledge about brain glycogen and its metabolism and function. However, it also has a sharp focus on what we do not know, which is perhaps even more important for the future quest of uncovering the roles of glycogen in brain physiology and pathology.

  8. High-resolution digital brain atlases: a Hubble telescope for the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edward G; Stone, James M; Karten, Harvey J

    2011-05-01

    We describe implementation of a method for digitizing at microscopic resolution brain tissue sections containing normal and experimental data and for making the content readily accessible online. Web-accessible brain atlases and virtual microscopes for online examination can be developed using existing computer and internet technologies. Resulting databases, made up of hierarchically organized, multiresolution images, enable rapid, seamless navigation through the vast image datasets generated by high-resolution scanning. Tools for visualization and annotation of virtual microscope slides enable remote and universal data sharing. Interactive visualization of a complete series of brain sections digitized at subneuronal levels of resolution offers fine grain and large-scale localization and quantification of many aspects of neural organization and structure. The method is straightforward and replicable; it can increase accessibility and facilitate sharing of neuroanatomical data. It provides an opportunity for capturing and preserving irreplaceable, archival neurohistological collections and making them available to all scientists in perpetuity, if resources could be obtained from hitherto uninterested agencies of scientific support. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Convergent evolution of complex brains and high intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gerhard

    2015-12-19

    Within the animal kingdom, complex brains and high intelligence have evolved several to many times independently, e.g. among ecdysozoans in some groups of insects (e.g. blattoid, dipteran, hymenopteran taxa), among lophotrochozoans in octopodid molluscs, among vertebrates in teleosts (e.g. cichlids), corvid and psittacid birds, and cetaceans, elephants and primates. High levels of intelligence are invariantly bound to multimodal centres such as the mushroom bodies in insects, the vertical lobe in octopodids, the pallium in birds and the cerebral cortex in primates, all of which contain highly ordered associative neuronal networks. The driving forces for high intelligence may vary among the mentioned taxa, e.g. needs for spatial learning and foraging strategies in insects and cephalopods, for social learning in cichlids, instrumental learning and spatial orientation in birds and social as well as instrumental learning in primates.

  10. Mapping how local perturbations influence systems-level brain dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Gollo, Leonardo L.; James A. Roberts; Cocchi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The human brain exhibits a relatively stable spatiotemporal organization that supports brain function and can be manipulated via local brain stimulation. Such perturbations to local cortical dynamics are globally integrated by distinct neural systems. However, it remains unclear how and why local changes in neural activity affect large-scale system dynamics. Here, we briefly review empirical and computational studies addressing how localized perturbations affect brain activity. We then system...

  11. Estradiol levels modulate brain activity and negative responses to psychosocial stress across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Kimberly; Pruessner, Jens; Newhouse, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Although ovarian hormones are thought to have a potential role in the well-known sex difference in mood and anxiety disorders, the mechanisms through which ovarian hormone changes contribute to stress regulation are not well understood. One mechanism by which ovarian hormones might impact mood regulation is by mediating the effect of psychosocial stress, which often precedes depressive episodes and may have mood consequences that are particularly relevant in women. In the current study, brain activity and mood response to psychosocial stress was examined in healthy, normally cycling women at either the high or low estradiol phase of the menstrual cycle. Twenty eight women were exposed to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with brain activity determined through functional magnetic resonance imaging, and behavioral response assessed with subjective mood and stress measures. Brain activity responses to psychosocial stress differed between women in the low versus high estrogen phase of the menstrual cycle: women with high estradiol levels showed significantly less deactivation in limbic regions during psychosocial stress compared to women with low estradiol levels. Additionally, women with higher estradiol levels also had less subjective distress in response to the MIST than women with lower estradiol levels. The results of this study suggest that, in normally cycling premenopausal women, high estradiol levels attenuate the brain activation changes and negative mood response to psychosocial stress. Normal ovarian hormone fluctuations may alter the impact of psychosocially stressful events by presenting periods of increased vulnerability to psychosocial stress during low estradiol phases of the menstrual cycle. This menstrual cycle-related fluctuation in stress vulnerability may be relevant to the greater risk for affective disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder in women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Asymmetry of the bioelectrical activity of the human brain at different levels of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusalova, M N

    2006-12-01

    Asymmetry of different human EEG indices was studied at different levels of consciousness. Subjects' self-reported changes in the content of consciousness: the intensity and quality of involuntary mental processes served as indicator of the level of consciousness. It was shown that a certain profile of EEG asymmetry corresponded to each the observed level of consciousness. In active state of consciousness, the connections in the high-frequency bands: beta-2 and gamma, were more pronounced in the left hemisphere of the brain. At the same time, transition of the focus of coherent connections to the right hemisphere was characteristic of the state of inhibition of "internal speech". The interhemisphere dynamics of autospectra amplitude and foci of coherent connections supports the notion that the character of interhemisphere asymmetry of the brain bioelectrical activity depends on its functional state.

  13. Factors influencing brain natriuretic peptide levels in healthy pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayama, Michinori; Yoshihara, Masato; Uno, Kaname; Tano, Sho; Takeda, Takehiko; Ukai, Mayu; Kishigami, Yasuyuki; Oguchi, Hidenori

    2017-02-01

    The normal range of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in pregnant women is still unclear. Moreover, pregnant women experience dynamic body weight changes and suffer from anemia, but effects on maternal BNP have not been investigated. This study aimed to reveal the normal plasma BNP range and examine the effects of physiological changes on BNP among pregnant women. Plasma BNP, hemoglobin, plasma creatinine and BMI were measured in 58 non-pregnant control women and in 773 normal pregnant women at late pregnancy, early postpartum and 1-month postpartum. Mean plasma BNP (in pg/mL) was 11.8 (95% confidence interval: 0-27.5) in non-pregnant women, 17.9 (0-44.7, pchange during pregnancy (p=0.001) and post-delivery creatinine (p=0.010) but negatively associated with body weight loss at delivery (pchanges, creatinine and hemoglobin levels; therefore, these factors should be considered when analysing cardiac function and the physiological implications of BNP levels in pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microvascular brain pathology on high resolution MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veluw, S.J. van

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding in the aging human brain and is associated with stroke, cognitive decline, and dementia. On autopsy, SVD encompasses pathological processes affecting small arteries and arterioles. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detects the consequences of th

  15. Cerebral Taurine Levels are Associated with Brain Edema and Delayed Cerebral Infarction in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Mario; Schiefecker, Alois; Ferger, Boris; Beer, Ronny; Sohm, Florian; Broessner, Gregor; Hackl, Werner; Rhomberg, Paul; Lackner, Peter; Pfausler, Bettina; Thomé, Claudius; Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2015-12-01

    Cerebral edema and delayed cerebral infarction (DCI) are common complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and associated with poor functional outcome. Experimental data suggest that the amino acid taurine is released into the brain extracellular space secondary to cytotoxic edema and brain tissue hypoxia, and therefore may serve as a biomarker for secondary brain injury after aSAH. On the other hand, neuroprotective mechanisms of taurine treatment have been described in the experimental setting. We analyzed cerebral taurine levels using high-performance liquid chromatography in the brain extracellular fluid of 25 consecutive aSAH patients with multimodal neuromonitoring including cerebral microdialysis (CMD). Patient characteristics and clinical course were prospectively recorded. Associations with CMD-taurine levels were analyzed using generalized estimating equations with an autoregressive process to handle repeated observations within subjects. CMD-taurine levels were highest in the first days after aSAH (11.2 ± 3.2 µM/l) and significantly decreased over time (p taurine levels compared to those without (Wald = 7.3, df = 1, p taurine supplementation and brain extracellular taurine (p = 0.6). Moreover, a significant correlation with brain extracellular glutamate (r = 0.82, p taurine levels were found in patients with brain edema or DCI after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Its value as a potential biomarker deserves further investigation.

  16. Genetic increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels enhances learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajo, Yukako; Miyamoto, Susumu; Nakano, Yoshikazu; Xue, Jing-Hui; Hori, Takuya; Yanamoto, Hiroji

    2008-11-19

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin, is known to promote neuronal differentiation stimulating neurite outgrowth in the developing CNS, and is also known to modulate synaptic plasticity, thereby contributing to learning and memory in the mature brain. Here, we investigated the role of increased levels of intracerebral BDNF in learning and memory function. Using genetically engineered transgenic BDNF overexpressing mice (RTG-BDNF), young adult, homozygous (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), or wild-type (-/-) littermates, we analyzed escape latency to a hidden-platform and swimming velocity in the Morris Water Maze test (MWM) with modifications for the mice. The MWM comprised 4 trials per day over 5 consecutive days (sessions) without prior or subsequent training. In a separate set of animals, BDNF protein levels in the cortex, thalamostriatum and the hippocampus were measured quantitatively using ELISA. In the BDNF (+/-) mice, the BDNF levels in the cortex, the thalamostriatum and the hippocampus were significantly high, compared to the wild-type littermates; 238%, 158%, and 171%, respectively (PBDNF levels in the BDNF (+/+) mice were not elevated. The BDNF (+/-), but not the (+/+) mice, demonstrated significantly shorter escape latency, shorter total path length in the MWM, and more frequent arrivals at the location where the platform had been placed previously in the probe trial, compared with the wild-type littermates (PBDNF-transgenic mice, increased BDNF levels in the brain were found to enhance spatial learning and memory function. Although it has been postulated that excessive BDNF is deteriorating for neuronal survival or neurite outgrowth, further investigations are needed to clarify the mechanism of paradoxical lack of increase in BDNF levels in the (+/+) mouse brain.

  17. The brain drain phenomenon analysis of high level of competitive sports of our country%我国高水平竞技体育人才流失现象分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2016-01-01

    By using methods of literature to the brain drain phenomenon of athletics sports of our country is analyzed, and the causes in order to promote the sustainable development of competitive sports in our country. Research shows that the loss of the number of athletes is more, erosion is the main features are: the item set, flow stability, gradually increase, outstanding competitive level, gender characteristics. The causes of this phenomenon is: international sports organization rules allow, perks and benefits temptation abroad, domestic environment of fierce competition, the drawbacks of the system, the “care plan”and “a Wolf plan”.%运用文献资料等方法对竞技体育人才流失的现象及其根源进行分析,以促进竞技体育的可持续发展。研究表明:流失现象的主要特点是项目集中、流向稳定、逐步增加、竞技水平突出、性别特征;造成这种现象的原因是国际体育组织规则允许、国外优厚待遇和福利诱惑、国内竞争环境激烈、体制的弊端、“援外计划”与“养狼计划”的影响。

  18. Fornix deep brain stimulation enhances acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the fornix has gained interest as a potential therapy for advanced treatment-resistant dementia, yet the mechanism of action remains widely unknown. Previously, we have reported beneficial memory effects of fornix DBS in a scopolamine-induced rat model of dementia, which is dependent on various brain structures including hippocampus. To elucidate mechanisms of action of fornix DBS with regard to memory restoration, we performed c-Fos immunohistochemistry in the...

  19. Effect of Posttraumatic Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels on Severity and Mortality of Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Saki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is an important cause of death and disability in young adults ,and may lead to physical disabilities and long-term cognitive, behavioral psychological and social defects. There is a lack of definite result about the effect of thyroid hormones after traumatic brain injury in the severity and no data about their effect on mortality of the injury. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of thyroid hormones after traumatic brain injury in the severity and mortality and gain a clue in brain injury prognosis. In a longitudinal prospective study from February 2010 until February 2011, we checked serum levels of T3, T4, TSH and TBG of severely brain injured patients and compared the relationship of them with primary Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score and mortality of patients. Statistical analysis used SPSS 11.5 software with using chi-square and Fisher exact test. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were decreased after brain trauma but not TSH and TBG. Mortality rates were higher in patients with lower T4 serum levels. The head injury was more severe in whom with low T3 and T4. Follow a severe brain injury a secondary hypothyroidism is happened due to pituitary dysfunction. Also, serum level of T3 and T4 on the first day admission affect on primary GCS score of patients which is an indicator of severity of brain injury. In addition, mortality rates of severely brain injured patients have a high correlation with the serum level of T4 in the first day admission.

  20. Structural and diffusional brain abnormality related to relatively low level alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroki; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Fukuda, Rin; Yamada, Haruyasu; Takei, Kunio; Suga, Motomu; Takao, Hidemasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2009-06-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol intake results in alcohol-related brain damage. Many previous reports have documented alcohol-related global or local brain shrinkage or diffusional abnormalities among alcoholics and heavy to moderate drinkers; however, the influence of relatively low levels of alcohol consumption on brain structural or diffusional abnormality is unclear. We investigated structural or diffusional abnormalities related to lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) among Japanese non-alcohol-dependent individuals (114 males, 97 females). High-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance images and diffusion tensor imaging were acquired in all subjects. The collected images were normalized, segmented, and smoothed using SPM 5. Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) were normalized for each total intracranial volume (TIV), and partial correlation coefficients were estimated between normalized GMV or WMV and lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) adjusted for age. To investigate regional GMV or WMV abnormalities related to LAC, multiple regression analyses were performed among regional GMV or WMV and LAC, age, and TIV. To investigate subtle regional abnormalities, multiple regression analyses were performed among fractional anisotropy (FA) or mean diffusivity (MD), and LAC and age. No LAC-related global or regional GMV or WMV abnormality or LAC-related regional FA abnormality was found among male or female subjects. Significant LAC-related MD increase was found in the right amygdala among female subjects only. The current results suggest female brain vulnerability to alcohol, and a relation between subtle abnormality in the right amygdala and alcohol misuse.

  1. Blood-Brain Barrier Changes in High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, José V; Bermudez, Garazi; Camargo-Arce, Lorena; Bulnes, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral syndromes related to high-altitude exposure are becoming more frequent as the number of trips to high altitudes has increased in the last decade. The commonest symptom is headache, followed by acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), which can be fatal. The pathophysiology of these syndromes is not fully understood. The classical "tight-fit hypothesis" posits that there are some anatomical variations that would obstruct the sinovenous outflow and worsen vasogenic edema and intracranial hypertension reactive to hypoxia. This could explain microhemorrhages seen in autopsies. However, recent magnetic resonance imaging studies have demonstrated some components of cytotoxic edema in HACE absent in AMS, suggesting a dysfunction in water balance at the cellular level. Currently, the "red-ox theory" supports trigemino-vascular system activation by free radicals formed after hypoxia and the consequent oxidative stress cascades. Apart from trigemino-vascular system activation, free radicals can also provoke membrane destabilisation mediated by lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and local hypoxia inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor activation, resulting in gross blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. Besides alterations in endothelial cells such as increased pinocytotic vesicles and disassembly of interendothelial tight junction proteins, capillary permeability may also increase with subsequent swelling of astrocyte end-feet. In conclusion, although the pathophysiology of AMS and HACE is not completely understood, recent evidence proposes a multifactorial entity, with brain swelling and compromise of the BBB considered to play an important role. A fuller comprehension of these processes is crucial to reduce and prevent BBB alterations during high-altitude exposure.

  2. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A;

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  3. High-level language computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yaohan

    1975-01-01

    High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr

  4. Brain insulin lowers circulating BCAA levels by inducing hepatic BCAA catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Andrew C; Fasshauer, Martin; Filatova, Nika; Grundell, Linus A; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Scherer, Thomas; Lindtner, Claudia; White, Phillip J; Lapworth, Amanda L; Ilkayeva, Olga; Knippschild, Uwe; Wolf, Anna M; Scheja, Ludger; Grove, Kevin L; Smith, Richard D; Qian, Wei-Jun; Lynch, Christopher J; Newgard, Christopher B; Buettner, Christoph

    2014-11-04

    Circulating branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels are elevated in obesity/diabetes and are a sensitive predictor for type 2 diabetes. Here we show in rats that insulin dose-dependently lowers plasma BCAA levels through induction of hepatic protein expression and activity of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the BCAA degradation pathway. Selective induction of hypothalamic insulin signaling in rats and genetic modulation of brain insulin receptors in mice demonstrate that brain insulin signaling is a major regulator of BCAA metabolism by inducing hepatic BCKDH. Short-term overfeeding impairs the ability of brain insulin to lower BCAAs in rats. High-fat feeding in nonhuman primates and obesity and/or diabetes in humans is associated with reduced BCKDH protein in liver. These findings support the concept that decreased hepatic BCKDH is a major cause of increased plasma BCAAs and that hypothalamic insulin resistance may account for impaired BCAA metabolism in obesity and diabetes.

  5. IGF1R levels in the brain negatively correlate with longevity in 16 rodent species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpurua, Jorge; Yang, Jiang-Nan; Van Meter, Michael; Liu, Zhengshan; Kim, Julie; Lobo Ladd, Aliny AB; Coppi, Antonio Augusto; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) pathway is a major conserved regulator of aging. Nematode, fruit fly and mouse mutants with reduced IIS signaling exhibit extended lifespan. These mutants are often dwarfs leading to the idea that small body mass correlates with longevity within species. However, when different species are compared, larger animals are typically longer-lived. Hence, the role of IIS in the evolution of life history traits remains unresolved. Here we used comparative approach to test whether IGF1R signaling changes in response to selection on lifespan or body mass and whether specific tissues are involved. The IGF1R levels in the heart, lungs, kidneys, and brains of sixteen rodent species with highly diverse lifespans and body masses were measured via immunoblot after epitope conservation analysis. We report that IGF1R levels display strong negative correlation with maximum lifespan only in brain tissue and no significant correlations with body mass for any organ. The brain-IGF1R and lifespan correlation holds when phylogenetic non-independence of data-points is taken into account. These results suggest that modulation of IGF1R signaling in nervous tissue, but not in the peripheral tissues, is an important factor in the evolution of longevity in mammals. PMID:23651613

  6. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... positive correlation between frontal cortex and hippocampal BDNF levels in mice (r2=0.81, p=0.0139). Our data support the view that measures of blood and plasma BDNF levels reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels....

  7. Modafinil-Induced Increases in Brain Dopamine Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The acute effects of modafinil on extracellular dopamine and on dopamine transporters in the male human brain were measured by PET study in 10 healthy subjects at Brookhaven National Laboratory and National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD.

  8. Endogenous level of TIGAR in brain is associated with vulnerability of neurons to ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lijuan; Chen, Jieyu; Li, Mei; Qin, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Meiling; Sheng, Rui; Han, Feng; Wang, Guanghui; Qin, Zheng-Hong

    2015-10-01

    In previous studies, we showed that TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) protects neurons against ischemic brain injury. In the present study, we investigated the developmental changes of TIGAR level in mouse brain and the correlation of TIGAR expression with the vulnerability of neurons to ischemic injury. We found that the TIGAR level was high in the embryonic stage, dropped at birth, partially recovered in the early postnatal period, and then continued to decline to a lower level in early adult and aged mice. The TIGAR expression was higher after ischemia/reperfusion in mouse brain 8 and 12 weeks after birth. Four-week-old mice had smaller infarct volumes, lower neurological scores, and lower mortality rates after ischemia than 8- and 12-week-old mice. TIGAR expression also increased in response to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)/reoxygenation insult or H2O2 treatment in cultured primary neurons from different embryonic stages (E16 and E20). The neurons cultured from the early embryonic period had a greater resistance to OGD and oxidative insult. Higher TIGAR levels correlated with higher pentose phosphate pathway activity and less oxidative stress. Older mice and more mature neurons had more severe DNA and mitochondrial damage than younger mice and less mature neurons in response to ischemia/reperfusion or OGD/reoxygenation insult. Supplementation of cultured neurons with nicotinamide adenine dinuclectide phosphate (NADPH) significantly reduced ischemic injury. These results suggest that TIGAR expression changes during development and its expression level may be correlated with the vulnerability of neurons to ischemic injury.

  9. Increased levels of carbonic anhydrase II in the developing Down syndrome brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palminiello, Sonia; Kida, Elizabeth; Kaur, Kulbir; Walus, Marius; Wisniewski, Krystyna E; Wierzba-Bobrowicz, Teresa; Rabe, Ausma; Albertini, Giorgio; Golabek, Adam A

    2008-01-23

    By using a proteomic approach, we found increased levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) in the brain of Ts65Dn mice, a mouse model for Down syndrome (DS). Further immunoblot analyses showed that the levels of CA II are increased not only in the brain of adult Ts65Dn mice but also in the brain of infants and young children with DS. Cellular localization of the enzyme in human brain, predominantly in the oligodendroglia and primitive vessels in fetal brain and in the oligodendroglia and some GABAergic neurons postnatally, was similar in DS subjects and controls. Given the role of CA II in regulation of electrolyte and water balance and pH homeostasis, up-regulation of CA II may reflect a compensatory mechanism mobilized in response to structural/functional abnormalities in the developing DS brain. However, this up-regulation may also have an unfavorable effect by increasing susceptibility to seizures of children with DS.

  10. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2011-02-08

    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  11. Low Level Laser Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    recorded in each trial. A significant decrease in EL from that of first session was considered as a successful learning. Lesion size was measured in...histological sections by Image J and percentages of the lesion size was expressed relatively to the whole brain section. 6 Objective 2(ii...pinch, and muscular relaxation. After imaging, the animal was placed in the cage and allowed to recover from anesthesia. Perfusion indices were

  12. Brain Development Parameters and Intelligence in Chilean High School Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic, Daniza M.; Leiva, Boris P.; Castro, Carmen G.; Olivares, Manuel G.; Jansana, Joan Manuel M.; Castro, Veronica G.; Almagia, Atilio Aldo F.; Toro, Triana D.; Urrutia, Maria Soledad C.; Miller, Patricio T.; Bosch, Enrique O.; Larrain, Cristian G.; Perez, Hernan T.

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis that independently of sex, brain volume (BV) and head circumference (HC) are positively and significantly associated with intellectual quotient (IQ) was examined in a sample of 96 high school graduates of high [Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults--Revised (WAIS-R) is greater than 120] and low IQ (WAIS-R is less than 100) (1:1),…

  13. Circulating and Brain BDNF Levels in Stroke Rats. Relevance to Clinical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yannick Béjot; Claude Mossiat; Maurice Giroud; Anne Prigent-Tessier; Christine Marie

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whereas brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are measured in the brain in animal models of stroke, neurotrophin levels in stroke patients are measured in plasma or serum samples. The present study was designed to investigate the meaning of circulating BDNF levels in stroke patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Unilateral ischemic stroke was induced in rats by the injection of various numbers of microspheres into the carotid circulation in order to mimic the different degrees o...

  14. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  15. High-Level Dialogue on International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UNHCR

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available UNHCR wishes to bring the following observations andrecommendations to the attention of the High-LevelDialogue (HLD on International Migration and Development,to be held in New York, 14-15 September 2006:

  16. Statistics of high-level scene context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michelle R

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT IS CRITICAL FOR RECOGNIZING ENVIRONMENTS AND FOR SEARCHING FOR OBJECTS WITHIN THEM: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed "things" in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by statistics

  17. Brain inspired high performance electronics on flexible silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2014-06-01

    Brain\\'s stunning speed, energy efficiency and massive parallelism makes it the role model for upcoming high performance computation systems. Although human brain components are a million times slower than state of the art silicon industry components [1], they can perform 1016 operations per second while consuming less power than an electrical light bulb. In order to perform the same amount of computation with today\\'s most advanced computers, the output of an entire power station would be needed. In that sense, to obtain brain like computation, ultra-fast devices with ultra-low power consumption will have to be integrated in extremely reduced areas, achievable only if brain folded structure is mimicked. Therefore, to allow brain-inspired computation, flexible and transparent platform will be needed to achieve foldable structures and their integration on asymmetric surfaces. In this work, we show a new method to fabricate 3D and planar FET architectures in flexible and semitransparent silicon fabric without comprising performance and maintaining cost/yield advantage offered by silicon-based electronics.

  18. Prenatal exposure to zinc oxide particles alters monoaminergic neurotransmitter levels in the brain of mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yuka; Tachibana, Ken; Yanagita, Shinya; Takeda, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-sized particles (NPs) are beneficial materials used for sunscreens and cosmetics. Although ZnO NPs are widely used for cosmetics, the health effects of exposure during pregnancy on offspring are largely unknown. Here we investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to ZnO NPs on the monoaminergic system of the mouse brain. Subcutaneous administration of ZnO NPs to the pregnant ICR mice (total 500 μg/mouse) were carried out and then measured the levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and noradrenalin, and their metabolites in 9 regions of the brain of offspring (6-week-old) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC analysis demonstrated that DA levels were increased in hippocampus in the ZnO NP exposure group. In the levels of DA metabolites, homovanillic acid was increased in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was increased in the prefrontal cortex by prenatal ZnO NP exposure. Furthermore, DA turnover levels were increased in the prefrontal cortex, neostriatum, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala in the ZnO NP exposure group. We also found changes of the levels of serotonin in the hypothalamus, and of the levels of 5-HIAA (5-HT metabolite) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the ZnO NP-exposed group. The levels of 5-HT turnover were increased in each of the regions except for the cerebellum by prenatal ZnO NP exposure. The present study indicated that prenatal exposure to ZnO NPs might disrupt the monoaminergic system, and suggested the possibility of detrimental effects on the mental health of offspring.

  19. Brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels of young rats are related to alpha-linolenic acid (ALA levels and fat matrix of the diet: impact of dairy fat*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delplanque Bernadette

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dososahexaenoate (DHA is highly concentrated in mammalian nervous and visual systems and its deficiency during gestation, lactation and early life, could have dramatic impacts on brain functions and mental health. Achieving an appropriate DHA status in the neonatal brain is an important goal of neonatal nutrition. We evaluated how a-linolenic acid (ALA provided by different dietary fat matrices improved DHA content in the brains of both young male and female rats. Young rats born from dams fed during gestation and lactation with a low ALA diet (0.4% of fatty acids were subjected for 6 weeks after weaning to an anhydrous dairy fat blend-based diet that provided 1.5% ALA or to a palm oil blend-based diet that provided the same ALA level: either 1.5% ALA or 1.5% ALA and 0.12% DHA with 0.4% arachidonic acid (ARA. With each diet the n-6/ n-3 ratio was similar (10 to follow the values generally recommended for infant formula. Fatty acids analysis in whole brain showed that 1.5% ALA dairy fat blend was superior to both 1.5% ALA palm-oil blends, supplemented or not with dietary DHA, for increasing brain DHA. Females compared to males had significantly higher brain DHA with the 1.5% ALA palm-blend diet, but the dietary supplementation with DHA smoothed the differences by a specific increase of males DHA brain. In conclusion, dairy fat blend enriched with ALA appear to be an interesting strategy for achieving optimal DHA levels in the brain of post-weaning rats. Inclusion of dairy fat in infant formulas should be reconsidered.

  20. Changes in Therapeutic Intensity Level Following Airway Pressure Release Ventilation in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jeffrey J; Wilson, Thomas J; Rajajee, Venkatakrishna; Davidson, Scott B; Walsh, Jon C

    2016-09-20

    Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) utilizes high levels of airway pressure coupled with brief expiratory release to facilitate open lung ventilation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of APRV-induced elevated airway pressure mean in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. This was a retrospective cohort study at a 424-bed Level I trauma center. Linear mixed effects models were developed to assess the difference in therapeutic intensity level (TIL), intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) over time following the application of APRV. The study included 21 epochs of APRV in 21 patients. In the 6-hour epoch following the application of APRV, the TIL was significantly increased (P = .002) and the ICP significantly decreased (P = .041) compared to that before 6 hours. There was no significant change in CPP (P = .42) over time. The baseline static compliance and time interaction was not significant for TIL (χ(2) = 0.2 [df 1], P = .655), CPP (χ(2) = 0 [df 1], P = 1), or ICP (χ(2) = 0.1 [df 1], P = .752). Application of APRV in patients with severe traumatic brain injury was associated with significantly, but not clinically meaningful, increased TIL and decreased ICP. No significant change in CPP was observed. No difference was observed based on the baseline pulmonary static compliance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Statistics of High-level Scene Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R. Greene

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Context is critical to our ability to recognize environments and to search for objects within them: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48,167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell, Torralba, Muphy & Freeman, 2008. From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed things in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human rapid scene categorization is discussed. Ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature, and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. Some objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help researchers in visual cognition design new data

  2. Caffeine suppresses amyloid-beta levels in plasma and brain of Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chuanhai; Cirrito, John R; Lin, Xiaoyang; Wang, Li; Wang, Lilly; Verges, Deborah K; Dickson, Alexander; Mamcarz, Malgorzata; Zhang, Chi; Mori, Takashi; Arendash, Gary W; Holtzman, David M; Potter, Huntington

    2009-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies suggest that caffeine may be protective against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Supportive of this premise, our previous studies have shown that moderate caffeine administration protects/restores cognitive function and suppresses brain amyloid-beta (Abeta) production in AD transgenic mice. In the present study, we report that acute caffeine administration to both young adult and aged AD transgenic mice rapidly reduces Abeta levels in both brain interstitial fluid and plasma without affecting Abeta elimination. Long-term oral caffeine treatment to aged AD mice provided not only sustained reductions in plasma Abeta, but also decreases in both soluble and deposited Abeta in hippocampus and cortex. Irrespective of caffeine treatment, plasma Abeta levels did not correlate with brain Abeta levels or with cognitive performance in individual aged AD mice. Although higher plasma caffeine levels were strongly associated with lower plasma Abeta1-40 levels in aged AD mice, plasma caffeine levels were also not linked to cognitive performance. Plasma caffeine and theophylline levels were tightly correlated, both being associated with reduced inflammatory cytokine levels in hippocampus. Our conclusion is two-fold: first, that both plasma and brain Abeta levels are reduced by acute or chronic caffeine administration in several AD transgenic lines and ages, indicating a therapeutic value of caffeine against AD; and second, that plasma Abeta levels are not an accurate index of brain Abeta levels/deposition or cognitive performance in aged AD mice.

  3. Glycogen Supercompensation in the Rat Brain After Acute Hypoglycemia is Independent of Glucose Levels During Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João M N; Morgenthaler, Florence D; Gruetter, Rolf

    2017-01-12

    Patients with diabetes display a progressive decay in the physiological counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia, resulting in hypoglycemia unawareness. The mechanism through which the brain adapts to hypoglycemia may involve brain glycogen. We tested the hypothesis that brain glycogen supercompensation following hypoglycemia depends on blood glucose levels during recovery. Conscious rats were submitted to hypoglycemia of 2 mmol/L for 90 min and allowed to recover at different glycemia, controlled by means of i.v. glucose infusion. Brain glycogen concentration was elevated above control levels after 24 h of recovery in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. This glycogen supercompensation was independent of blood glucose levels in the post-hypoglycemia period. In the absence of a preceding hypoglycemia insult, brain glycogen concentrations were unaltered after 24 h under hyperglycemia. In the hypothalamus, which controls peripheral glucose homeostasis, glycogen levels were unaltered. Overall, we conclude that post-hypoglycemia glycogen supercompensation occurs in several brain areas and its magnitude is independent of plasma glucose levels. By supporting brain metabolism during recurrent hypoglycemia periods, glycogen may have a role in the development of hypoglycemia unawareness.

  4. A High Rate Tension Device for Characterizing Brain Tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Rashid, Badar; Gilchrist, Michael; 10.1177/1754337112436900

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical characterization of brain tissue at high loading velocities is vital for understanding and modeling Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). The most severe form of TBI is diffuse axonal injury (DAI) which involves damage to individual nerve cells (neurons). DAI in animals and humans occurs at strains > 10% and strain rates > 10/s. The mechanical properties of brain tissues at these strains and strain rates are of particular significance, as they can be used in finite element human head models to accurately predict brain injuries under different impact conditions. Existing conventional tensile testing machines can only achieve maximum loading velocities of 500 mm/min, whereas the Kolsky bar apparatus is more suitable for strain rates > 100/s. In this study, a custom-designed high rate tension device is developed and calibrated to estimate the mechanical properties of brain tissue in tension at strain rates < 90/s, while maintaining a uniform velocity. The range of strain can also be extended to 100% de...

  5. Ribbon scanning confocal for high-speed high-resolution volume imaging of brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan M; Rose, Annika H; Gibson, Gregory A; Gardner, Christina L; Sun, Chengqun; Reed, Douglas S; Lam, L K Metthew; St Croix, Claudette M; Strick, Peter L; Klimstra, William B; Watkins, Simon C

    2017-01-01

    Whole-brain imaging is becoming a fundamental means of experimental insight; however, achieving subcellular resolution imagery in a reasonable time window has not been possible. We describe the first application of multicolor ribbon scanning confocal methods to collect high-resolution volume images of chemically cleared brains. We demonstrate that ribbon scanning collects images over ten times faster than conventional high speed confocal systems but with equivalent spectral and spatial resolution. Further, using this technology, we reconstruct large volumes of mouse brain infected with encephalitic alphaviruses and demonstrate that regions of the brain with abundant viral replication were inaccessible to vascular perfusion. This reveals that the destruction or collapse of large regions of brain micro vasculature may contribute to the severe disease caused by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Visualization of this fundamental impact of infection would not be possible without sampling at subcellular resolution within large brain volumes.

  6. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in schizophrenia: A systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cui, Huiru; Jin, Yi; Wang, Jijun; Weng, Xuchu; Li, Chunbo

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the onset and course of schizophrenia, but there are conflicting reports about serum levels of BDNF in patients with schizophrenia...

  7. Low-level laser therapy for traumatic brain injury in mice increases brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and synaptogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Weijun; Agrawal, Tanupriya; Huang, Liyi; Gupta, Gaurav K; Hamblin, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Transcranial low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) is a new non-invasive approach to treating a range of brain disorders including traumatic brain injury (TBI). We (and others) have shown that applying near-infrared light to the head of animals that have suffered TBI produces improvement in neurological functioning, lessens the size of the brain lesion, reduces neuroinflammation, and stimulates the formation of new neurons. In the present study we used a controlled cortical impact TBI in mice and treated the mice either once (4 h post-TBI, 1-laser), or three daily applications (3-laser) with 810 nm CW laser 36 J/cm(2) at 50 mW/cm(2). Similar to previous studies, the neurological severity score improved in laser-treated mice compared to untreated TBI mice at day 14 and continued to further improve at days 21 and 28 with 3-laser being better than 1-laser. Mice were sacrificed at days 7 and 28 and brains removed for immunofluorescence analysis. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was significantly upregulated by laser treatment in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and the subventricular zone (SVZ) but not in the perilesional cortex (lesion) at day 7 but not at day 28. Synapsin-1 (a marker for synaptogenesis, the formation of new connections between existing neurons) was significantly upregulated in lesion and SVZ but not DG, at 28 days but not 7 days. The data suggest that the benefit of LLLT to the brain is partly mediated by stimulation of BDNF production, which may in turn encourage synaptogenesis. Moreover the pleiotropic benefits of BDNF in the brain suggest LLLT may have wider applications to neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Neurological Severity Score (NSS) for TBI mice.

  8. The levels of soluble versus insoluble brain Abeta distinguish Alzheimer's disease from normal and pathologic aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Dickson, D W; Trojanowski, J Q; Lee, V M

    1999-08-01

    The abundance and solubility of Abeta peptides are critical determinants of amyloidosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, we compared levels of total soluble, insoluble, and total Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 in AD brains with those in age-matched normal and pathologic aging brains using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Since the measurement of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 depends critically on the specificity of the monoclonal antibodies used in the sandwich ELISA, we first demonstrated that each assay is specific for Abeta1-40 or Abeta1-42 and the levels of these peptides are not affected by the amyloid precursor protein in the brain extracts. Thus, this sandwich ELISA enabled us to show that the average levels of total cortical soluble and insoluble Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 were highest in AD, lowest in normal aging, and intermediate in pathologic aging. Remarkably, the average levels of insoluble Abeta1-40 were increased 20-fold while the average levels of insoluble Abeta1-42 were increased only 2-fold in the AD brains compared to pathologic aging brains. Further, the soluble pools of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 were the largest fractions of total Abeta in the normal brain (i.e., 50 and 23%, respectively), but they were the smallest in the AD brain (i.e., 2.7 and 0.7%, respectively) and intermediate (i.e., 8 and 0.8%, respectively) in pathologic aging brains. Thus, our data suggest that pathologic aging is a transition state between normal aging and AD. More importantly, our findings imply that a progressive shift of brain Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 from soluble to insoluble pools and a profound increase in the levels of insoluble Abeta1-40 plays mechanistic roles in the onset and/or progression of AD.

  9. High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junjie; Wang, Lidai; Yang, Joon-Mo; Maslov, Konstantin I; Wong, Terence T W; Li, Lei; Huang, Chih-Hsien; Zou, Jun; Wang, Lihong V

    2015-05-01

    We present fast functional photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) for three-dimensional high-resolution, high-speed imaging of the mouse brain, complementary to other imaging modalities. We implemented a single-wavelength pulse-width-based method with a one-dimensional imaging rate of 100 kHz to image blood oxygenation with capillary-level resolution. We applied PAM to image the vascular morphology, blood oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen metabolism in both resting and stimulated states in the mouse brain.

  10. The low levels of eicosapentaenoic acid in rat brain phospholipids are maintained via multiple redundant mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuck T; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Liu, Zhen; Masoodi, Mojgan; Bazinet, Richard P

    2013-09-01

    Brain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels are 250- to 300-fold lower than docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), at least partly, because EPA is rapidly β-oxidized and lost from brain phospholipids. Therefore, we examined if β-oxidation was necessary for maintaining low EPA levels by inhibiting β-oxidation with methyl palmoxirate (MEP). Furthermore, because other metabolic differences between DHA and EPA may also contribute to their vastly different levels, this study aimed to quantify the incorporation and turnover of DHA and EPA into brain phospholipids. Fifteen-week-old rats were subjected to vehicle or MEP prior to a 5 min intravenous infusion of (14)C-palmitate, (14)C-DHA, or (14)C-EPA. MEP reduced the radioactivity of brain aqueous fractions for (14)C-palmitate-, (14)C-EPA-, and (14)C-DHA-infused rats by 74, 54, and 23%, respectively; while it increased the net rate of incorporation of plasma unesterified palmitate into choline glycerophospholipids and phosphatidylinositol and EPA into ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and phosphatidylserine. MEP also increased the synthesis of n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (n-3 DPA) from EPA. Moreover, the recycling of EPA into brain phospholipids was 154-fold lower than DHA. Therefore, the low levels of EPA in the brain are maintained by multiple redundant pathways including β-oxidation, decreased incorporation from plasma unesterified FA pool, elongation/desaturation to n-3 DPA, and lower recycling within brain phospholipids.

  11. Fluorescent-protein stabilization and high-resolution imaging of cleared, intact mouse brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K Schwarz

    Full Text Available In order to observe and quantify long-range neuronal connections in intact mouse brain by light microscopy, it is first necessary to clear the brain, thus suppressing refractive-index variations. Here we describe a method that clears the brain and preserves the signal from proteinaceous fluorophores using a pH-adjusted non-aqueous index-matching medium. Successful clearing is enabled through the use of either 1-propanol or tert-butanol during dehydration whilst maintaining a basic pH. We show that high-resolution fluorescence imaging of entire, structurally intact juvenile and adult mouse brains is possible at subcellular resolution, even following many months in clearing solution. We also show that axonal long-range projections that are EGFP-labelled by modified Rabies virus can be imaged throughout the brain using a purpose-built light-sheet fluorescence microscope. To demonstrate the viability of the technique, we determined a detailed map of the monosynaptic projections onto a target cell population in the lateral entorhinal cortex. This example demonstrates that our method permits the quantification of whole-brain connectivity patterns at the subcellular level in the uncut brain.

  12. Highly potent soluble amyloid-β seeds in human Alzheimer brain but not cerebrospinal fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Stephan A.; Maia, Luis F.; Portelius, Erik; Pinotsi, Dorothea; Kaminski, Clemens F.; Winkler, David T.; Maetzler, Walter; Keyvani, Kathy; Spitzer, Philipp; Wiltfang, Jens; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S.; Zetterberg, Henrik; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Jucker, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    The soluble fraction of brain samples from patients with Alzheimer’s disease contains highly biologically active amyloid-β seeds. In this study, we sought to assess the potency of soluble amyloid-β seeds derived from the brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Soluble Alzheimer’s disease brain extracts were serially diluted and then injected into the hippocampus of young, APP transgenic mice. Eight months later, seeded amyloid-β deposition was evident even when the hippocampus received subattomole amounts of brain-derived amyloid-β. In contrast, cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Alzheimer’s disease, which contained more than 10-fold higher levels of amyloid-β peptide than the most concentrated soluble brain extracts, did not induce detectable seeding activity in vivo. Similarly, cerebrospinal fluid from aged APP-transgenic donor mice failed to induce cerebral amyloid-β deposition. In comparison to the soluble brain fraction, cerebrospinal fluid largely lacked N-terminally truncated amyloid-β species and exhibited smaller amyloid-β-positive particles, features that may contribute to the lack of in vivo seeding by cerebrospinal fluid. Interestingly, the same cerebrospinal fluid showed at least some seeding activity in an in vitro assay. The present results indicate that the biological seeding activity of soluble amyloid-β species is orders of magnitude greater in brain extracts than in the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:25212850

  13. Interaction between different sports branches such as taekwondo, box, athletes and serum brain derived neurotrophic factor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztasyonar, Yunus

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to compare serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels "which contributes in both neuron development/regeneration" between combat sport braches, which requires high attention and concentration and can lead micro and macro brain trauma, and athleticism, which requires durability in competition. The study design included 4 groups. Group 1 had sedentary participants, and group 2 athletes (middle and long runners) who exercised for two 2-hour daily training sessions 6 days a week. group 3 included boxers, and group 4 taekwondo fighters. We investigated changes in the blood BDNF levels of taekwondo fighters, boxers, and athletes before and after training and compared them among each other and with measurements of sedentary controls. All athletes had higher basal BDNF levels than sedentary participants. Boxers and taekwondo athletes had especially high basal BDNF levels. When we compared different sports branch each other Pre- and post- training BDNF values are ranked as follows: taekwondo > boxing > athletes > sedentary. In sport branches such as combat sports and athletes, serum BDNF levels have been demonstrated to be higher after training than before. In addition, serum BDNF levels were higher in taekwondo fighters and boxers than athletes. BDNF might have a role in the protection mechanism against brain damage or contributes in occurrence and maintenance of high attention and concentration especially among combat sports.

  14. EAP high-level product architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2013-01-01

    the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach...... of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture....... Initial results from applying the platform on demonstrator design for potential applications are promising. The scope of the article does not include technical details. © 2013 SPIE....

  15. Sex, the brain and hypertension: brain oestrogen receptors and high blood pressure risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major contributor to worldwide morbidity and mortality rates related to cardiovascular disease. There are important sex differences in the onset and rate of hypertension in humans. Compared with age-matched men, premenopausal women are less likely to develop hypertension. However, after age 60, the incidence of hypertension increases in women and even surpasses that seen in older men. It is thought that changes in levels of circulating ovarian hormones as women age may be involved in the increase in hypertension in older women. One of the key mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension in both men and women is an increase in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Brain regions important for the regulation of SNA, such as the subfornical organ, the paraventricular nucleus and the rostral ventral lateral medulla, also express specific subtypes of oestrogen receptors. Each of these brain regions has also been implicated in mechanisms underlying risk factors for hypertension such as obesity, stress and inflammation. The present review brings together evidence that links actions of oestrogen at these receptors to modulate some of the common brain mechanisms involved in the ability of hypertensive risk factors to increase SNA and blood pressure. Understanding the mechanisms by which oestrogen acts at key sites in the brain for the regulation of SNA is important for the development of novel, sex-specific therapies for treating hypertension. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  16. Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob; Knorr, U; Bennike, B;

    2012-01-01

    Decreased levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been associated with depression. It is uncertain whether abnormally low levels of BDNF in blood are present beyond the depressive state and whether levels of BDNF are associated with the course of clinical illness....

  17. Brain Network Analysis from High-Resolution EEG Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Babiloni, Fabio

    Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the detection of the functional connectivity in the brain from different neuroelectromagnetic and hemodynamic signals recorded by several neuro-imaging devices such as the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner, electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) apparatus. Many methods have been proposed and discussed in the literature with the aim of estimating the functional relationships among different cerebral structures. However, the necessity of an objective comprehension of the network composed by the functional links of different brain regions is assuming an essential role in the Neuroscience. Consequently, there is a wide interest in the development and validation of mathematical tools that are appropriate to spot significant features that could describe concisely the structure of the estimated cerebral networks. The extraction of salient characteristics from brain connectivity patterns is an open challenging topic, since often the estimated cerebral networks have a relative large size and complex structure. Recently, it was realized that the functional connectivity networks estimated from actual brain-imaging technologies (MEG, fMRI and EEG) can be analyzed by means of the graph theory. Since a graph is a mathematical representation of a network, which is essentially reduced to nodes and connections between them, the use of a theoretical graph approach seems relevant and useful as firstly demonstrated on a set of anatomical brain networks. In those studies, the authors have employed two characteristic measures, the average shortest path L and the clustering index C, to extract respectively the global and local properties of the network structure. They have found that anatomical brain networks exhibit many local connections (i.e. a high C) and few random long distance connections (i.e. a low L). These values identify a particular model that interpolate between a regular

  18. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels in COPD without pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed G. El Gazzar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Plasma BNP can be used as a useful prognostic biomarker of COPD and a good predictor of exacerbation, As BNP level was significantly higher in COPD patients than in control groups, (p < 0.005 and also significantly higher in grade (IV, III than grade (II and was significantly higher in grade (II than grade (I COPD patients, BNP level significantly higher (p < 0.005 during exacerbation than during remission of COPD patients.

  19. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  20. Effects of Glycemic Level on Outcome of Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Navas-Marrugo, Sandy Zuleica; Velasquez-Loperena, Robert Andrés; Adie-Villafañe, Richard José; Velasquez-Loperena, Duffay; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Alcala- Cerra, Gabriel; Pulido-Gutiérrez, Juan Camilo; Rodríguez-Conde, Javier Ricardo; Moreno-Moreno, María Fernanda; M. Rubiano, Andrés; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of glycemic level on outcome patients with traumatic brain injury. Methods:  From September 2010 to December 2012, all medical records of adult patients with TBI admitted to the Emergency Room of Laura Daniela Clinic in Valledupar City, Colombia, South America were enrolled. Both genders between 18 and 85 years who referred during the first 48 hours after trauma, and their glucose level was determined in the first 24 hours of admission were included. Adults older than 85 years, with absence of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and a brain Computerized Tomography (CT) scans were excluded. The cut-off value was considered 200 mg/dL to define hyperglycemia. Final GCS, hospital admission duration and complications were compared between normoglycemic and hyperglycemic patients. Results: Totally 217 patients were identified with TBI. Considering exclusion criteria, 89 patients remained for analysis. The mean age was 43.0±19.6 years, the mean time of remission was 5.9±9.4 hours, the mean GCS on admission was 10.5±3.6 and the mean blood glucose level in the first 24 hours was 138.1±59.4 mg/dL. Hyperglycemia was present in 13.5% of patients. The most common lesions presented by patients with TBI were fractures (22.5%), hematoma (18.3%), cerebral edema (18.3%) and cerebral contusion (16.2%). Most of patients without a high glucose level at admission were managed only medically, whereas surgical treatment was more frequent in patients with hyperglycemia (p=0.042). Hyperglycemia was associated with higher complication (p=0.019) and mortality rate (p=0.039). GCS was negatively associated with on admission glucose level (r=0.11; p=0.46). Conclusion: Hyperglycemia in the first 24-hours of TBI is associated with higher rate of surgical intervention, higher complication and mortality rates. So hyperglycemia handling is critical to the outcome of patients with traumatic brain injury. PMID:27162868

  1. Effects of Glycemic Level on Outcome of Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effects of glycemic level on outcome patients with traumatic brain injury. Methods: From September 2010 to December 2012, all medical records of adult patients with TBI admitted to the Emergency Room of Laura Daniela Clinic in Valledupar City, Colombia, South America were enrolled. Both genders between 18 and 85 years who referred during the first 48 hours after trauma, and their glucose level was determined in the first 24 hours of admission were included. Adults older than 85 years, with absence of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score and a brain Computerized Tomography (CT scans were excluded. The cut-off value was considered 200 mg/dL to define hyperglycemia. Final GCS, hospital admission duration and complications were compared between normoglycemic and hyperglycemic patients. Results: Totally 217 patients were identified with TBI. Considering exclusion criteria, 89 patients remained for analysis. The mean age was 43.0±19.6 years, the mean time of remission was 5.9±9.4 hours, the mean GCS on admission was 10.5±3.6 and the mean blood glucose level in the first 24 hours was 138.1±59.4 mg/dL. Hyperglycemia was present in 13.5% of patients. The most common lesions presented by patients with TBI were fractures (22.5%, hematoma (18.3%, cerebral edema (18.3% and cerebral contusion (16.2%. Most of patients without a high glucose level at admission were managed only medically, whereas surgical treatment was more frequent in patients with hyperglycemia (p=0.042. Hyperglycemia was associated with higher complication (p=0.019 and mortality rate (p=0.039. GCS was negatively associated with on admission glucose level (r=0.11; p=0.46. Conclusion: Hyperglycemia in the first 24-hours of TBI is associated with higher rate of surgical intervention, higher complication and mortality rates. So hyperglycemia handling is critical to the outcome of patients with traumatic brain injury.

  2. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.; Andre, S.; Genevey, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Kossakowski, R.; Moszynski, M.; Preibisz, Z.

    1981-07-01

    We report here on the first study of the level structure of /sup 151/Ho. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho have been populated in the /sup 141/Pr + /sup 16/O and /sup 144/Sm + /sup 12/C reactions. The level structure has been established up to 6,6 MeV energy and the spins and parities determined up to 49/2/sup -/. Most of the proposed level configurations can be explained by the coupling of h sub(11/2) protons to fsub(7/2) and/or hsub(9/2) neutrons. An isomer with 14 +- 3 ns half-life and a delayed gamma multiplicity equal to 17 +- 2 has been found. Its spin is larger than 57/2 h units.

  3. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.; Andre, S.; Genevey, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Kossakowski, R.; Moszynski, M.; Preibisz, Z.

    1981-07-01

    We report here on the first study of the level structure of /sup 151/Ho. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho have been populated in the /sup 141/Pr + /sup 16/O and /sup 144/Sm + /sup 12/C reactions. The level structure has been established up to 6.6 MeV energy and the spins and parities determined up to 49/2/sup -/. Most of the proposed level configurations can be explained by the coupling of hsub(11/2) protons to fsub(7/2) and/or hsub(9/2) neutrons. An isomer with 14 +- 3 ns half-life and a delayed gamma multiplicity equal 17 +- 2 has been found. Its spin is larger than 57/2 h units.

  4. Survival and level of care among breast cancer patients with brain metastases treated with whole brain radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, Gabriella; Tinge, Beatrice; Ekberg, Sara; Eloranta, Sandra; Bäcklund, L Magnus; Lidbrink, Elisabet; Smedby, Karin E

    2017-08-22

    The benefit of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for late stage breast cancer patients with brain metastases has been questioned. In this study we evaluated survival and level of care (hospital or home) following WBRT in a population-based cohort by personal and tumor characteristics. We identified 241 consecutive patients with breast cancer and brain metastases receiving WBRT in Stockholm, Sweden, 1999-2012. Through review of medical records, we collected data on prognostic determinants including level of care before and after WBRT. Survival was estimated using Cox regression, and odds ratios (OR) of not coming home using logistic regression. Median age at WBRT was 58 years (range 30---88 years). Most patients (n = 212, 88%) were treated with 4 Gray × 5. Median survival following WBRT was 2.9 months (interquartile range 1.1-6.6 months), and 57 patients (24%) were never discharged from hospital. Poor performance status and triple-negative tumors were associated with short survival (WHO 3-4 median survival 0.9 months, HR = 5.96 (3.88-9.17) versus WHO 0-1; triple-negative tumors median survival 2.0 months, HR = 1.87 (1.23-2.84) versus Luminal A). Poor performance status and being hospitalized before WBRT were associated with increased ORs of not coming home whereas cohabitation with children at home was protective. Survival was short following WBRT, and one in four breast cancer patients with brain metastases could never be discharged from hospital. When deciding about WBRT, WHO score, level of care before WBRT, and the patient's choice of level of care in the end-of-life period should be considered.

  5. Preliminary notes on brain weight variation across labrid fish species with different levels of cooperative behaviour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta C.SOARES; Gon(c)alo I.ANDR(E); José R.PAULA

    2015-01-01

    Brain size and weight vary tremendously in the animal kingdom.It has been suggested that brain structural development must evolve balanced between the advantages of dealing with greater social challenges and the energetic costs of maintaining and developing larger brains.Here we ask if interspecific differences in cooperative behaviour (i.e.cleaning behaviour) are related to brain weight variations in four close-related species of Labrid fish:two are obligatory cleanerfish throughout their entire life (Labroides dimidiatus and L.bicolor),one facultative cleaner fish Labropsis australis and one last species that never engage in cleaning Labrichthys unilineatus.We first search for the link between the rate of species' cooperation and its relative brain weight,and finally,if the degree of social complexity and cooperation are reflected in the weight of its major brain substructures.Overall,no differences were found in relative brain weight (in relation to body weight) across species.Fine-scale differences were solely demonstrated for the facultative cleaner L.australis,at the brainstem level.Furthermore,data visual examination indicates that the average cerebellum and brainstem weights appear to be larger for L.dimidiatus.Because variation was solely found at specific brain areas (such as cerebellum and brainstem) and not for the whole brain weight values,it suggests that species social-ecological and cognitive demands may be directly contributing to a selective investment in relevant brain areas.This study provides first preliminary evidence that links potential differences in cognitive ability in cooperative behaviour to how these may mediate the evolution of brain structural development in non-mammal vertebrate groups [Current Zoology 61 (2):274-280,2015].

  6. VERP and brain imaging for identifying levels of visual dorsal and ventral stream function in typical and preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddick, Oliver; Atkinson, Janette; Wattam-Bell, John

    2011-01-01

    Visual development is a key area for understanding and assessing early brain development. Different levels in the hierarchy of visual processing, from the initial response to flashes of light, through selective responses to contour orientation and motion in primary visual cortex (V1), to global processing in extrastriate of large-scale patterns of form and motion, can each be assessed using stimuli designed to isolate specific neural activity in visual event-related potentials (VERPs). This approach has been used to reveal the sequence of emergence of different visual cortical functions in the first 6 months of typical human development, and to provide early indicators of anomalies in brain development. Delayed or absent onset of orientation-reversal (OR-)VERPs, as a measure of cortical development, has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of perinatal brain damage in both term-born and prematurely born infants. Direction-reversal (DR-)VERPs appear a few weeks later than OR-VERPs in typical development, and are further delayed in even healthy children born preterm, reflecting possible early vulnerability of the motion (dorsal stream) system. High-density recordings of responses to global motion and global form patterns show that these extrastriate systems are typically functional by 5 months of age, but the topography of the activity distributions shows that the brain systems underlying these responses are radically reorganized between infancy and adulthood. In prematurely born infants whose structural brain MRI was evaluated at birth, the onset of the response is absent or delayed in those with severe brain injury, while in those with mild/moderate brain injury the response is present but its spatial organization is further from the adult pattern than those in controls. These findings are related to the development of distinct networks of brain areas in the dorsal and ventral cortical streams, and the apparent vulnerability of the dorsal-stream network in a wide

  7. Pharmacological activities of clobazam and diazepam in the rat: relation to drug brain levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, S; Carli, M; Garattini, S; Poggesi, E; Rech, R; Samanin, R

    1980-02-01

    Brain distribution and various pharmacological effects of clobazam and diazepam were studied in rats. When given at 10 mg/kg i.p. the compounds reached peak brain levels 15 min after injection, and showed similar half lives. At peak time brain levels were proportional to the dose administered. Very little of the N-desmethylmetabolite of each compound was found in the brain. Clobazam was less effective than diazepam in protecting rats from pentetrazol convulsions. Disrupting rota-rod performance and increasing punished responses in a "conflict" test, the relative potencies ranging from 4 to 8 in the various tests. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of animal species selection for predicting favourable therapeutic effects in humans.

  8. Rules rule! Brain activity dissociates the representations of stimulus contingencies with varying levels of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chun-Yu; Low, Kathy A; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele

    2012-09-01

    The significance of stimuli is linked not only to their nature but also to the sequential structure in which they are embedded, which gives rise to contingency rules. Humans have an extraordinary ability to extract and exploit these rules, as exemplified by the role of grammar and syntax in language. To study the brain representations of contingency rules, we recorded ERPs and event-related optical signal (EROS; which uses near-infrared light to measure the optical changes associated with neuronal responses). We used sequences of high- and low-frequency tones varying according to three contingency rules, which were orthogonally manipulated and differed in processing requirements: A Single Repetition rule required only template matching, a Local Probability rule required relating a stimulus to its context, and a Global Probability rule could be derived through template matching or with reference to the global sequence context. ERP activity at 200-300 msec was related to the Single Repetition and Global Probability rules (reflecting access to representations based on template matching), whereas longer-latency activity (300-450 msec) was related to the Local Probability and Global Probability rules (reflecting access to representations incorporating contextual information). EROS responses with corresponding latencies indicated that the earlier activity involved the superior temporal gyrus, whereas later responses involved a fronto-parietal network. This suggests that the brain can simultaneously hold different models of stimulus contingencies at different levels of the information processing system according to their processing requirements, as indicated by the latency and location of the corresponding brain activity.

  9. Python based high-level synthesis compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radosław; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a python based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in Python and map it to VHDL. FPGA combines many benefits of both software and ASIC implementations. Like software, the mapped circuit is flexible, and can be reconfigured over the lifetime of the system. FPGAs therefore have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of bypassing the fetch-decode-execute operations of traditional processors, and possibly exploiting a greater level of parallelism. Creating parallel programs implemented in FPGAs is not trivial. This article describes design, implementation and first results of created Python based compiler.

  10. Caffeine suppresses β-amyloid levels in plasma and brain of Alzheimer’s transgenic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Chuanhai; Cirrito, John R.; Lin, Xiaoyang; Wang, Lilly; Verges, Deborah K.; Dickson, Alexander; Mamcarz, Malgorzata; Zhang, Chi; Mori, Takashi; Arendash, Gary W.; Holtzman, David M.; Potter, Huntington

    2009-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies suggest that caffeine may be protective against Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Supportive of this premise, our previous studies have shown that moderate caffeine administration protects/restores cognitive function and suppresses brain β-amyloid (Aβ) production in AD transgenic mice. In the present study, we report that acute caffeine administration to both young adult and aged AD transgenic mice rapidly reduces Aβ levels in both brain interstitial fluid and plasma with...

  11. DUACS: Toward High Resolution Sea Level Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugere, Y.; Gerald, D.; Ubelmann, C.; Claire, D.; Pujol, M. I.; Antoine, D.; Desjonqueres, J. D.; Picot, N.

    2016-12-01

    The DUACS system produces, as part of the CNES/SALP project, and the Copernicus Marine Environment and Monitoring Service, high quality multimission altimetry Sea Level products for oceanographic applications, climate forecasting centers, geophysic and biology communities... These products consist in directly usable and easy to manipulate Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (multiple sensors merged as maps or time series) and are available in global and regional version (Mediterranean Sea, Arctic, European Shelves …).The quality of the products is today limited by the altimeter technology "Low Resolution Mode" (LRM), and the lack of available observations. The launch of 2 new satellites in 2016, Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A, opens new perspectives. Using the global Synthetic Aperture Radar mode (SARM) coverage of S3A and optimizing the LRM altimeter processing (retracking, editing, ...) will allow us to fully exploit the fine-scale content of the altimetric missions. Thanks to this increase of real time altimetry observations we will also be able to improve Level-4 products by combining these new Level-3 products and new mapping methodology, such as dynamic interpolation. Finally these improvements will benefit to downstream products : geostrophic currents, Lagrangian products, eddy atlas… Overcoming all these challenges will provide major upgrades of Sea Level products to better fulfill user needs.

  12. Lower brain levels of serotonin in rainbow trout larvae with a propensity for social dominance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Erik; Åberg Andersson, Madelene

    There is general consensus that low levels of brain serotonin are associated with aggression and social dominance. However, most of the studies investigating the relationship between serotonin (5-HT) and aggressive behavior have been performed in animals with previous social experience. Studies...... performed on socially naive animals, predisposed to different levels of aggression, are needed to investigate to which extent inherited differences in 5-HTergic transmission underlie this behavioral variability. In this work we show that rainbow trout larvae, having a large yolk during emergence from...... the spawning nests, also have higher probability to become social dominant. Furthermore, newly emerged socially naïve individuals with larger yolk also had lower brain 5-HT levels. This demonstrates a propensity to social dominance, which is associated with lower brain serotonin levels, in larvae that emerge...

  13. Monitoring of newborns at high risk for brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Pisani, Francesco; Spagnoli, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing number of surviving preterm newborns and to the recognition of therapeutic hypothermia as the current gold standard in newborns with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, there has been a growing interest in the implementation of brain monitoring tools in newborns at high risk for neurological disorders. Among the most frequent neurological conditions and presentations in the neonatal period, neonatal seizures and neonatal status epilepticus, paroxysmal non-epileptic motor p...

  14. High-Performance Bioinstrumentation for Real-Time Neuroelectrochemical Traumatic Brain Injury Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos I.; Wang, Chu; Rogers, Michelle L.; Gowers, Sally A. N.; Leong, Chi L.; Boutelle, Martyn G.; Drakakis, Emmanuel M.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been identified as an important cause of death and severe disability in all age groups and particularly in children and young adults. Central to TBIs devastation is a delayed secondary injury that occurs in 30–40% of TBI patients each year, while they are in the hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Secondary injuries reduce survival rate after TBI and usually occur within 7 days post-injury. State-of-art monitoring of secondary brain injuries benefits from the acquisition of high-quality and time-aligned electrical data i.e., ElectroCorticoGraphy (ECoG) recorded by means of strip electrodes placed on the brains surface, and neurochemical data obtained via rapid sampling microdialysis and microfluidics-based biosensors measuring brain tissue levels of glucose, lactate and potassium. This article progresses the field of multi-modal monitoring of the injured human brain by presenting the design and realization of a new, compact, medical-grade amperometry, potentiometry and ECoG recording bioinstrumentation. Our combined TBI instrument enables the high-precision, real-time neuroelectrochemical monitoring of TBI patients, who have undergone craniotomy neurosurgery and are treated sedated in the ICU. Electrical and neurochemical test measurements are presented, confirming the high-performance of the reported TBI bioinstrumentation. PMID:27242477

  15. Polysilicon-based flexible temperature sensor for brain monitoring with high spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhizhen; Li, Chunyan; Hartings, Jed; Ghosh, Sthitodhi; Narayan, Raj; Ahn, Chong

    2017-02-01

    Temperature is one of the most important variables in brain monitoring, since changes of focal brain temperature are closely coupled to cerebral physiology and pathophysiological phenomena in injured brain. In this work, a highly accurate temperature sensor with polysilicon thermistors has been developed on flexible polyimide for monitoring brain temperature with high spatial resolution. The temperature sensors have a response time of 1.5 s and sensitivity of  -0.0031 °C-1. Thermal hysteresis of the sensor in the physiological temperature range of 30-45 °C was found to be less than 0.1 °C. With silicon nitride as the passivation layer, the temperature sensor exhibits drift of less than 0.3 °C for 3 d in water. In vivo tests of the sensor show a low noise level of 0.025  ±  0.03 °C, and the expected transient increases in cortical temperature associated with cortical spreading depolarization. The temperature sensor developed in this work is suitable for monitoring brain temperature with the desired high sensitivity and resolution.

  16. Fasting levels of ghrelin covary with the brain response to food pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroemer, Nils B; Krebs, Lena; Kobiella, Andrea; Grimm, Oliver; Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Smolka, Michael N

    2013-09-01

    Ghrelin figures prominently in the regulation of appetite in normal-weighed individuals. The apparent failure of this mechanism in eating disorders and the connection to addictive behavior in general demand a deeper understanding of the endogenous central-nervous processes related to ghrelin. Thus, we investigated processing of pictures showing palatable food after overnight fasting and following a standardized caloric intake (i.e. a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test) using functional magnetic resonance imaging and correlated it with blood plasma levels of ghrelin. Twenty-six healthy female and male volunteers viewed food and control pictures in a block design and rated their appetite after each block. Fasting levels of ghrelin correlated positively with food-cue reactivity in a bilateral network of visual processing-, reward- and taste-related regions, including limbic and paralimbic regions. Notably, among those regions were the hypothalamus and the midbrain where ghrelin receptors are densely concentrated. In addition, high fasting ghrelin levels were associated with stronger increases of subjective appetite during the food-cue-reactivity task. In conclusion, brain activation and subjective appetite ratings suggest that ghrelin elevates the hedonic effects of food pictures. Thereby, fasting ghrelin levels may generally enhance subjective craving when confronted with reward cues.

  17. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2014-01-01

    A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and lepton iso...

  18. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  19. Service-oriented high level architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenguang; Li, Qun; Wang, Weiping; Liu, Xichun

    2009-01-01

    Service-oriented High Level Architecture (SOHLA) refers to the high level architecture (HLA) enabled by Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web Services etc. techniques which supports distributed interoperating services. The detailed comparisons between HLA and SOA are made to illustrate the importance of their combination. Then several key enhancements and changes of HLA Evolved Web Service API are introduced in comparison with native APIs, such as Federation Development and Execution Process, communication mechanisms, data encoding, session handling, testing environment and performance analysis. Some approaches are summarized including Web-Enabling HLA at the communication layer, HLA interface specification layer, federate interface layer and application layer. Finally the problems of current research are discussed, and the future directions are pointed out.

  20. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Jr, Joseph M; Bickford, Dennis F; Day, Delbert E; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L; Marra, Sharon L; Peeler, David K; Strachan, Denis M; Triplett, Mark B; Vienna, John D; Wittman, Richard S

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  1. Serum EGF and NGF levels of patients with brain injury and limb fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Feng Zhuang; Jie Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the expression and sign if icance of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to measure the serum EGF and NGF expression levels of patients with limb fracture and brain trauma injurry after 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, 14 d and the relationship between them was analyzed. The level was compared among the simple fracture group, traumatic brain injury group and the normal control group, with 40 cases in each group. Results: The serum NGF levels were significantly different among three groups. Serum NGF, EGF mRNA and protein levels gradually decreased with the increasing injury time in the limb fracture combined with brain injury group, traumatic brain injury group, the simple fracture group and the health control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: The serum of NGF, EGF levels significantly increased when limb fracture combined with brain injury, so EGF and NGF may be involved in the process of fracture healing.

  2. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, T.; Skoog, I.; Oudkerk, M.; Leeuw, H.F. de; Groot, J.C. de; Hofman, A.W.I.M.; Breteler, M.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  3. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Skoog, [No Value; Oudkerk, M; de Leeuw, FE; de Groot, JC; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  4. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, T.; Skoog, I.; Oudkerk, M.; Leeuw, H.F. de; Groot, J.C. de; Hofman, A.W.I.M.; Breteler, M.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  5. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Skoog, [No Value; Oudkerk, M; de Leeuw, FE; de Groot, JC; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  6. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  7. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Agostino, Lorenzo; Beccati, Barbara; Behrens, Ulf; Berryhil, Jeffrey; Biery, Kurt; Bose, Tulika; Brett, Angela; Branson, James; Cano, Eric; Cheung, Harry; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Dahmes, Bryan; Deldicque, Christian; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Gutleber, Johannes; Hatton, Derek; Laurens, Jean-Francois; Loizides, Constantin; Ma, Frank; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Meyer, Andreas; Mommsen, Remigius K; Moser, Roland; O'Dell, Vivian; Oh, Alexander; Orsini, Luciano; Patras, Vaios; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schieferdeckerd, Philipp; Schwick, Christoph; Serrano Margaleff, Josep Francesc; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Sean; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sungho Yoon, Andre; Wittich, Peter; Zanetti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  8. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  9. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  10. Magnetoencephalography Detection of High-Frequency Oscillations in the Developing Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly eLeiken

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence from invasive intracranial recordings suggests that the matured brain generates both physiological and pathological high-frequency signals. The present study was designed to detect high-frequency brain signals in the developing brain using newly developed magnetoencephalography (MEG methods. Twenty healthy children were studied with a high sampling rate MEG system. Functional high-frequency brain signals were evoked by electrical stimulation applied to the index fingers. To determine if the high-frequency neuromagnetic signals are true brain responses in high-frequency range, we analyzed the MEG data using the conventional averaging as well as newly developed time-frequency analysis along with beamforming. The data of healthy children showed that very high-frequency brain signals (> 1000 Hz in the somatosensory cortex in the developing brain could be detected and localized using MEG. The amplitude of very high-frequency brain signals was significantly weaker than that of the low-frequency brain signals. Very high-frequency brain signals showed a much earlier latency than those of a low-frequency. Magnetic source imaging (MSI revealed that a portion of the high-frequency signals was from the somatosensory cortex, another portion of the high-frequency signals was probably from the thalamus. Our results provide evidence that the developing brain generates high-frequency signals that can be detected with the noninvasive technique of MEG. MEG detection of high-frequency brain signals may open a new window for the study of developing brain function.

  11. The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, B; Cicalo, Corrado; Das, Indranil; de Vaux, Gareth; Fearick, Roger; Lindenstruth, Volker; Marras, Davide; Sanyal, Abhijit; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Staley, Florent; Steinbeck, Timm; Szostak, Artur; Usai, Gianluca; Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger (dHLT) is an on-line processing stage whose primary function is to select interesting events that contain distinct physics signals from heavy resonance decays such as J/psi and Gamma particles, amidst unwanted background events. It forms part of the High Level Trigger of the ALICE experiment, whose goal is to reduce the large data rate of about 25 GB/s from the ALICE detectors by an order of magnitude, without loosing interesting physics events. The dHLT has been implemented as a software trigger within a high performance and fault tolerant data transportation framework, which is run on a large cluster of commodity compute nodes. To reach the required processing speeds, the system is built as a concurrent system with a hierarchy of processing steps. The main algorithms perform partial event reconstruction, starting with hit reconstruction on the level of the raw data received from the spectrometer. Then a tracking algorithm finds track candidates from the recon...

  12. Susceptibility Contrast in High Field MRI of Human Brain as a Function of Tissue Iron Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bing; Li, Tie-Qiang; van Gelderen, Peter; Shmueli, Karin; de Zwart, Jacco A.; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility provides an important contrast mechanism for MRI. Increasingly, susceptibility-based contrast is being exploited to investigate brain tissue microstructure and to detect abnormal levels of brain iron as these have been implicated in a variety of neuro-degenerative diseases. However, it remains unclear to what extent magnetic susceptibility-related contrast at high field relates to actual brain iron concentrations. In this study, we performed susceptibility weighted imaging as a function of field strength on healthy brains in vivo and post-mortem brain tissues at 1.5T, 3T and 7T. Iron histology was performed on the tissue samples for comparison. The calculated susceptibility-related parameters R2* and signal frequency shift in four iron-rich regions (putamen, globus pallidus, caudate, and thalamus) showed an almost linear dependence (r=0.90 for R2*; r=0.83 for phase, p<0.01) on field strength, suggesting that potential ferritin saturation effects are not relevant to susceptibility-weighted contrast for field strengths up to 7T. The R2* dependence on the putative (literature-based) iron concentration was 0.048 Hz/Tesla/ppm. The histological data from brain samples confirmed the linear dependence of R2* on field strength and showed a slope against iron concentration of 0.0099 Hz/Tesla/ppm dry-weight, which is equivalent to 0.05 Hz/Tesla/ppm wet-weight and closely matched the calculated value in vivo. These results confirm the validity of using susceptibility-weighted contrast as an indicator of iron content in iron-rich brain regions. The absence of saturation effects opens the way to exploit the benefits of MRI at high field strengths for the detection of iron distributions with high sensitivity and resolution. PMID:19027861

  13. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved trac...

  14. Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 5 at the Blood-Brain Barrier Regulates Endogenous Brain Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels and Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yijun; Short, Jennifer L; Choy, Kwok H C; Zeng, Annie X; Marriott, Philip J; Owada, Yuji; Scanlon, Martin J; Porter, Christopher J H; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2016-11-16

    Fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) at the blood-brain barrier contributes to the brain uptake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a blood-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid essential for maintenance of cognitive function. Given the importance of DHA in cognition, the aim of this study was to investigate whether deletion of FABP5 results in cognitive dysfunction and whether this is associated with reduced brain endothelial cell uptake of exogenous DHA and subsequent attenuation in the brain levels of endogenous DHA. Cognitive function was assessed in male and female FABP5(+/+) and FABP5(-/-) mice using a battery of memory paradigms. FABP5(-/-) mice exhibited impaired working memory and short-term memory, and these cognitive deficits were associated with a 14.7 ± 5.7% reduction in endogenous brain DHA levels. The role of FABP5 in the blood-brain barrier transport of DHA was assessed by measuring (14)C-DHA uptake into brain endothelial cells and capillaries isolated from FABP5(+/+) and FABP5(-/-) mice. In line with a crucial role of FABP5 in the brain uptake of DHA, (14)C-DHA uptake into brain endothelial cells and brain capillaries of FABP5(-/-) mice was reduced by 48.4 ± 14.5% and 14.0 ± 4.2%, respectively, relative to those of FABP5(+/+) mice. These results strongly support the hypothesis that FABP5 is essential for maintaining brain endothelial cell uptake of DHA, and that cognitive deficits observed in FABP5(-/-) mice are associated with reduced CNS access of DHA. Genetic deletion of fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) in mice reduces uptake of exogenous docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into brain endothelial cells and brain capillaries and reduces brain parenchymal levels of endogenous DHA. Therefore, FABP5 in the brain endothelial cell is a crucial contributor to the brain levels of DHA. Critically, lowered brain DHA levels in FABP5(-/-) mice occurred in tandem with cognitive deficits in a battery of memory paradigms. This study provides evidence of a critical role

  15. Simultaneous administration of fluoxetine and simvastatin ameliorates lipid profile, improves brain level of neurotransmitters, and increases bioavailability of simvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K; Ullah, Zabih; Al Masoudi, Aqeel Salman; Ahmad, Ishtiaque

    2017-01-01

    Simvastatin (STT), a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, is widely prescribed for dyslipidemia, whereas fluoxetine (FLX) is the first-choice drug for the treatment of depression and anxiety. A recent report suggests that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can interact with the cytochrome P450 3A4 substrate, and another one suggests that STT enhances the antidepressant activity of FLX. However, the data are inconclusive. The present study was designed to explore the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic consequences of coadministration of STT and FLX in experimental animals. For this, Wistar rats weighing 250±10 g were divided into four groups, including control, STT (40 mg/kg/day), FLX (20 mg/kg/day), and STT+FLX group, respectively. After the dosing period of 4 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and the blood and brain samples were collected for the analysis of STT, simvastatin acid (STA), FLX, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine, and hydroxy indole acetic acid. It was found that the coadministration resulted in a significant increase in the bioavailability of STT in the plasma (41.8%) and brain (68.7%) compared to administration of STT alone (pSTT was also found to be increased significantly in the plasma and brain compared to that achieved after monotherapy (pSTT failed to improve the pharmacokinetics of FLX up to a significant level. The results of this study showed that the combined regimen significantly reduced the level of cholesterol and triglyceride and increased the level of HDL when compared to STT monotherapy. Furthermore, the coadministration of STT with FLX led to an elevated level of neurotransmitters in the brain (pSTT in the plasma and brain. The coadministration of these drugs also led to an improved lipid profile. However, in the long-term, this interaction may have a vital clinical importance because the increase in STT level may lead to life-threatening side

  16. The smarter, the stronger: intelligence level correlates with brain resilience to systematic insults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Rossi, Simone; Rossi, Alessandro

    2015-03-01

    Neuroimaging evidences posit human intelligence as tightly coupled with several structural and functional brain properties, also suggesting its potential protective role against aging and neurodegenerative conditions. However, whether higher order cognition might in fact lead to a more resilient brain has not been quantitatively demonstrated yet. Here we document a relationship between individual intelligence quotient (IQ) and brain resilience to targeted and random attacks, as measured through resting-state fMRI graph-theoretical analysis in 102 healthy individuals. In this modeling context, enhanced brain robustness to targeted attacks (TA) in individuals with higher IQ is supported by an increased distributed processing capacity despite the systematic loss of the most important node(s) of the system. Moreover, brain resilience in individuals with higher IQ is supported by a set of neocortical regions mainly belonging to language and memory processing network(s), whereas regions related to emotional processing are mostly responsible for lower IQ individuals. Results suggest intelligence level among the predictors of post-lesional or neurodegenerative recovery, also promoting the evolutionary role of higher order cognition, and simultaneously suggesting a new framework for brain stimulation interventions aimed at counteract brain deterioration over time.

  17. Huntington's disease accelerates epigenetic aging of human brain and disrupts DNA methylation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Steve; Langfelder, Peter; Kwak, Seung; Aaronson, Jeff; Rosinski, Jim; Vogt, Thomas F; Eszes, Marika; Faull, Richard L M; Curtis, Maurice A; Waldvogel, Henry J; Choi, Oi-Wa; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V; Coppola, Giovanni; Yang, X William

    2016-07-01

    Age of Huntington's disease (HD) motoric onset is strongly related to the number of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin gene, suggesting that biological tissue age plays an important role in disease etiology. Recently, a DNA methylation based biomarker of tissue age has been advanced as an epigenetic aging clock. We sought to inquire if HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age. DNA methylation data was generated for 475 brain samples from various brain regions of 26 HD cases and 39 controls. Overall, brain regions from HD cases exhibit a significant epigenetic age acceleration effect (p=0.0012). A multivariate model analysis suggests that HD status increases biological age by 3.2 years. Accelerated epigenetic age can be observed in specific brain regions (frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and cingulate gyrus). After excluding controls, we observe a negative correlation (r=-0.41, p=5.5×10-8) between HD gene CAG repeat length and the epigenetic age of HD brain samples. Using correlation network analysis, we identify 11 co-methylation modules with a significant association with HD status across 3 broad cortical regions. In conclusion, HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age of specific brain regions and more broadly with substantial changes in brain methylation levels.

  18. Differentiating the Influences of Aging and Adiposity on Brain Weights, Levels of Serum and Brain Cytokines, Gastrointestinal Hormones, and Amyloid Precursor Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William A; Abrass, Christine K; Hansen, Kim M

    2016-01-01

    Aging and obesity exert important effects on disease. Differentiating these effects is difficult, however, because weight gain often accompanies aging. Here, we used a nested design of aged, calorically restricted, and refed rats to measure changes in brain and blood levels of cytokines and gastrointestinal hormones, brain amyloid precursor protein levels, and brain and body weights. By comparing groups and using path analysis, we found divergent influences of chronological aging versus body weight, our main findings being (i) changes in whole brain weight and serum macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels correlated better with body weight than with chronological aging, (ii) a decrease in brain cytokines and brain plasminogen activator inhibitor levels correlated better with chronological aging than with body weight, (iii) serum erythropoietin levels were influenced by both body weight and aging, (iv) serum plasminogen activator inhibitor, serum cytokines, and brain tumor necrosis factor were not influenced by aging or body weight, and (v) brain amyloid precursor protein more closely related to body weight and serum levels of gastrointestinal hormones than to brain weight, chronological aging, or cytokines. These findings show that although aging and body weight interact, their influences are distinct not only among various cytokines and hormones but also between the central nervous system and the peripheral tissue compartments.

  19. Smoking, alcoholism and genetic polymorphisms alter CYP2B6 levels in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksys, Sharon; Lerman, Caryn; Shields, Peter G; Mash, Deborah C; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2003-07-01

    CYP2B6 metabolizes drugs such as nicotine and bupropion, and many toxins and carcinogens. Nicotine induces CYP2B1 in rat brain and in humans polymorphic variation in CYP2B6 affects smoking cessation rates. The aim of this study was to compare CYP2B6 expression in brains of human smokers and non-smokers and alcoholics and non-alcoholics (n=26). CYP2B6 expression was brain region-specific, and was observed in both neurons and astrocytes. CYP2B6 levels were higher in brains of smokers and alcoholics, particularly in cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, cells known to be damaged in alcoholics. Significantly more (penzyme levels, stability and activity. Preliminary genotyping of this small sample (n=24) suggested that individuals with the CC genotype had higher brain CYP2B6 than those with the CT or TT genotype. Higher brain CYP2B6 activity in smokers and alcoholics may cause altered sensitivity to centrally acting drugs, increased susceptibility to neurotoxins and carcinogenic xenobiotics and contribute to central tolerance to nicotine.

  20. Astaxanthin alleviates brain aging in rats by attenuating oxidative stress and increasing BDNF levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wanqiang; Wang, Xin; Xiang, Qisen; Meng, Xu; Peng, Ye; Du, Na; Liu, Zhigang; Sun, Quancai; Wang, Chan; Liu, Xuebo

    2014-01-01

    Astaxanthin (AST) is a carotenoid pigment which possesses potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate whether administration of AST had protective effects on D-galactose-induced brain aging in rats, and further examined its protective mechanisms. The results showed that AST treatment significantly restored the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increased glutathione (GSH) contents and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), but decreased malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonylation and 8-hydroxy-2- deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in the brains of aging rats. Furthermore, AST increased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, but decreased the expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the brains of aging rats. Additionally, AST ameliorated histopathological changes in the hippocampus and restored brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in both the brains and hippocampus of aging rats. These results suggested that AST could alleviate brain aging, which may be due to attenuating oxidative stress, ameliorating hippocampus damage, and upregulating BDNF expression.

  1. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor Levels in Ischemic Stroke Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Hidayat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF present during early neuronal development and play important roles in the process of neurorepairing includes angiogenesis, neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity after ischemic stroke. In this study, we observed VEGF and BDNF levels of subjects with ischemic stroke in different onset time. METHODS: A cross sectional study was designed. Study subjects were 51 ischemic stroke subjects, aged 30-80 years old, recruited from Gatot Subroto Army Central Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Ischemic stroke was diagnosed by neurologist, based on clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI result. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on onset time of stroke: 30 days (Group C. VEGF and BDNF levels from serum were measured using lumine Magpix. The data was analyzed for comparison and correlation. RESULTS: VEGF and BDNF levels of group B and C were significantly different with p=0.034 and p=0.007, respectively. Group B had the highest VEGF levels, whereas Group C had the highest BDNF level. VEGF and BDNF levels in each group were not significantly correlated. CONCLUSION: Each stage of time after ischemic stroke has different recovery activities like angiogenesis, neurogenesis and plasticity. Angiogenesis process was optimum in 7-30 days after onset. in more than 30 days onset, Low VEGF with high BDNF have important role in a long period of time after the onset of stroke in the regeneration and repair, such as maintaining neuronal survival and plasticity. KEYWORDS: ischemic stroke, VEGF, BDNF

  2. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  3. Optimizing brain tumor resection. High-field interventional MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, R P; Chu, R M; Liu, H; Truwit, C L; Hall, W A

    2001-11-01

    High-field strength iMRI guidance is an effective tool for brain tumor resection. Although its use lengthens the average time for a craniotomy, the reward is a more extensive tumor excision compared with conventional neurosurgery without an increased risk to the patient (Table 4). Although intraoperative patient transfer into and out of the magnet is cumbersome, the possibility for complete resection, especially for a low-grade glioma, makes the effort worthwhile. The cost and technical support required for this system presently limits its use to only a few sites worldwide. As with any technology, further refinements will make this system less expensive and more attainable. Practical consideration aside, high-field strength iMRI is presently [table: see text] the most effective tool available for brain tumor resection. Because of its novelty, future studies are necessary to determine if this technology lowers the incidence of and extends the duration to tumor recurrence as the preliminary data in children suggests. These are the ultimate measures of efficacy for any brain tumor treatment. Based on the rapid advancement of technology, will today's high-field strength interventional magnet become tomorrow's low-field system? Very high-field strength designs may improve diagnostic capabilities through higher resolution, but their interventional applications may be hindered by increased sensitivity for clinically insignificant abnormalities and decreased specificity for clinically relevant lesions. As new technology is developed, clinicians must continue to explore and refine the existing high-field strength iMRI to make it cost-effective and widely applicable.

  4. High-intensity Exercise Modifies the Effects of Stanozolol on Brain Oxidative Stress in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiletti-Moirón, D; Aparicio, V A; Nebot, E; Medina, G; Martínez, R; Kapravelou, G; Andrade, A; Porres, J M; López-Jurado, M; Aranda, P

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the effects of high-intensity exercise (HIE) and anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) on brain redox status. 40 male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in 4 experimental groups (n=10) with or without HIE and with or without weekly Stanozolol administration. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) were assessed. Total superoxide dismutase (tSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured. Finally, protein expression levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, Quinone 1 (NQO1), NF-E2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nuclear factor kappa β p65 (NF-κβ) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 were determined. Brain PCC concentrations were lower in the HIE groups compared to the untrained controls, whereas CAT activity was higher (both, peffect on brain redox status.

  5. Discovery of a Highly Selective, Brain-Penetrant Aminopyrazole LRRK2 Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Bryan K; Estrada, Anthony A; Chen, Huifen; Atherall, John; Baker-Glenn, Charles; Beresford, Alan; Burdick, Daniel J; Chambers, Mark; Dominguez, Sara L; Drummond, Jason; Gill, Andrew; Kleinheinz, Tracy; Le Pichon, Claire E; Medhurst, Andrew D; Liu, Xingrong; Moffat, John G; Nash, Kevin; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Sheng, Zejuan; Shore, Daniel G; Van de Poël, Hervé; Zhang, Shuo; Zhu, Haitao; Sweeney, Zachary K

    2013-01-10

    The modulation of LRRK2 kinase activity by a selective small molecule inhibitor has been proposed as a potentially viable treatment for Parkinson's disease. By using aminopyrazoles as aniline bioisosteres, we discovered a novel series of LRRK2 inhibitors. Herein, we describe our optimization effort that resulted in the identification of a highly potent, brain-penetrant aminopyrazole LRRK2 inhibitor (18) that addressed the liabilities (e.g., poor solubility and metabolic soft spots) of our previously disclosed anilino-aminopyrimidine inhibitors. In in vivo rodent PKPD studies, 18 demonstrated good brain exposure and engendered significant reduction in brain pLRRK2 levels post-ip administration. The strategies of bioisosteric substitution of aminopyrazoles for anilines and attenuation of CYP1A2 inhibition described herein have potential applications to other drug discovery programs.

  6. Proton Affinity Calculations with High Level Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolboe, Stein

    2014-08-12

    Proton affinities, stretching from small reference compounds, up to the methylbenzenes and naphthalene and anthracene, have been calculated with high accuracy computational methods, viz. W1BD, G4, G3B3, CBS-QB3, and M06-2X. Computed and the currently accepted reference proton affinities are generally in excellent accord, but there are deviations. The literature value for propene appears to be 6-7 kJ/mol too high. Reported proton affinities for the methylbenzenes seem 4-5 kJ/mol too high. G4 and G3 computations generally give results in good accord with the high level W1BD. Proton affinity values computed with the CBS-QB3 scheme are too low, and the error increases with increasing molecule size, reaching nearly 10 kJ/mol for the xylenes. The functional M06-2X fails markedly for some of the small reference compounds, in particular, for CO and ketene, but calculates methylbenzene proton affinities with high accuracy.

  7. The high-level trigger of ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilsner, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Steinbeck, T. [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Alt, T.; Aurbakken, K.; Grastveit, G.; Nystrand, J.; Roehrich, D.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A. [Department of Physics, University of Bergen (Norway); Helstrup, H. [Bergen College (Norway); Loizides, C. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Skaali, B.; Vik, T. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    One of the main tracking detectors of the forthcoming ALICE Experiment at the LHC is a cylindrical Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with an expected data volume of about 75 MByte per event. This data volume, in combination with the presumed maximum bandwidth of 1.2 GByte/s to the mass storage system, would limit the maximum event rate to 20 Hz. In order to achieve higher event rates, online data processing has to be applied. This implies either the detection and read-out of only those events which contain interesting physical signatures or an efficient compression of the data by modeling techniques. In order to cope with the anticipated data rate, massive parallel computing power is required. It will be provided in form of a clustered farm of SMP-nodes, based on off-the-shelf PCs, which are connected with a high bandwidth low overhead network. This High-Level Trigger (HLT) will be able to process a data rate of 25 GByte/s online. The front-end electronics of the individual sub-detectors is connected to the HLT via an optical link and a custom PCI card which is mounted in the clustered PCs. The PCI card is equipped with an FPGA necessary for the implementation of the PCI-bus protocol. Therefore, this FPGA can also be used to assist the host processor with first-level processing. The first-level processing done on the FPGA includes conventional cluster-finding for low multiplicity events and local track finding based on the Hough Transformation of the raw data for high multiplicity events. (orig.)

  8. The high-level trigger of ALICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilsner, H.; Alt, T.; Aurbakken, K.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Nystrand, J.; Roehrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A.; Vik, T.

    One of the main tracking detectors of the forthcoming ALICE Experiment at the LHC is a cylindrical Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with an expected data volume of about 75 MByte per event. This data volume, in combination with the presumed maximum bandwidth of 1.2 GByte/s to the mass storage system, would limit the maximum event rate to 20 Hz. In order to achieve higher event rates, online data processing has to be applied. This implies either the detection and read-out of only those events which contain interesting physical signatures or an efficient compression of the data by modeling techniques. In order to cope with the anticipated data rate, massive parallel computing power is required. It will be provided in form of a clustered farm of SMP-nodes, based on off-the-shelf PCs, which are connected with a high bandwidth low overhead network. This High-Level Trigger (HLT) will be able to process a data rate of 25 GByte/s online. The front-end electronics of the individual sub-detectors is connected to the HLT via an optical link and a custom PCI card which is mounted in the clustered PCs. The PCI card is equipped with an FPGA necessary for the implementation of the PCI-bus protocol. Therefore, this FPGA can also be used to assist the host processor with first-level processing. The first-level processing done on the FPGA includes conventional cluster-finding for low multiplicity events and local track finding based on the Hough Transformation of the raw data for high multiplicity events. PACS: 07.05.-t Computers in experimental physics - 07.05.Hd Data acquisition: hardware and software - 29.85.+c Computer data analysis

  9. Evolution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels after autologous hematopietic stem cell transplantation in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Y; Saiz, A; Costa, M; Torres-Peraza, J F; Carreras, E; Alberch, J; Jaraquemada, D; Graus, F

    A neuroprotective role of inflammation has been suggested based on that immune cells are the main source of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We investigated the 3-year evolution of BDNF levels in serum, CSF and culture supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), unstimulated and stimulated with anti-CD3 and soluble anti-CD28 antibodies, in 14 multiple sclerosis patients who underwent an autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT). BDNF levels were correlated with previously reported MRI measures that showed a reduction of T2 lesion load and increased brain atrophy, mainly at first year post-transplant. A significant decrease of serum BDNF levels was seen at 12 months post-transplant. BDNF values were found significantly lower in stimulated but not in unstimulated PBMC supernatants during the follow-up, supporting that AHSCT may induce a down-regulation of BDNF production. The only significant correlation was found between CSF BDNF levels and T2 lesion load before and 1 year after AHSCT, suggesting that BDNF reflects the past and ongoing inflammatory activity and demyelination of these highly active patients. Our study suggests that AHSCT can reduce BDNF levels to values associated with lower activity. This decrease does not seem to correlate with the brain atrophy measures observed in the MRI.

  10. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and personality traits in patients with major depression

    OpenAIRE

    Nomoto, Hiroshi; Baba, Hajime; Satomura, Emi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Takebayashi, Naoko; Namekawa, Yuki; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2015-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors. Previous studies have demonstrated lower serum BDNF levels in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and reported an association between BDNF levels and depression-related personality traits in healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to explore for a possible association between peripheral BDNF levels and personality traits in patients with MDD. Methods In this cross...

  11. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  12. Correlation of vascular endothelial growth factor to permeability of blood-brain barrier and brain edema during high-altitude exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiquan Zhou; Chang'e Liu; Jing Wang; Yunli Wang; Bo Zhou

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Many studies have evaluated the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in traumatic brain edema and hemorrhagic brain edema.OBJECTIVE:To observe the effects of VEGF expression on permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during high-altitude and hypoxia exposure,and to investigate the correlation between VEGF expression and BBB permeability with regard to Evans blue staining and brain edema during high-altitude exposure.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:The randomized,controlled,animal study was performed at the Tanggula Etape,Central Laboratory of Chengdu Medical College,and Central Laboratory of General Hospital of Chengdu Military Area Command of Chinese PLA,China,from July 2003 to November 2004.MATERIALS:Quantitative RT-PCR kit (Sigma,USA),VEGF ELISA kit (Biosource,USA),and Evans blue (Jingchun,China) were acquired for this study.METHODS:A total of 180 Wistar rats were equally and randomly assigned to 15 groups:low-altitude (500 m),middle-altitude (2 880 m),high-altitude (4 200 m),super-high-altitude (5 000 m),1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19,and 21 days of super high-altitude exposure.Wistar rats were exposed to various altitude gradients to establish a hypoxia model.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Brain water content was calculated according to the wet-to-dry weight ratio.BBB permeability to Evans blue was determined by colorimetric method.VEGF mRNA and protein levels in brain tissues were detected using RT-PCR and double-antibody sandwich ELISA.RESULTS:Brain water content,BBB permeability to Evans blue,and VEGF mRNA and protein levels in brain tissues increased with increasing altitude and prolonged exposure to altitude.The greatest increase was determined on day 9 upon ascending 5 000 m.Simultaneously,VEGF expression positively correlated to BBB permeability of Evans blue and brain water content (r=0.975,0.917,P<0.01).CONCLUSION:Increased VEGF protein and mRNA expression was responsible for increased BBB permeability,which may be an important mechanism

  13. Early metabolic/cellular-level resuscitation following terminal brain stem herniation: implications for organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    Patients with terminal brain stem herniation experience global physiological consequences and represent a challenging population in critical care practice as a result of multiple factors. The first factor is severe depression of consciousness, with resulting compromise in airway stability and lung ventilation. Second, with increasing severity of brain trauma, progressive brain edema, mass effect, herniation syndromes, and subsequent distortion/displacement of the brain stem follow. Third, with progression of intracranial pathophysiology to terminal brain stem herniation, multisystem consequences occur, including dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, depletion of stress hormones, and decreased thyroid hormone bioavailability as well as biphasic cardiovascular state. Cardiovascular dysfunction in phase 1 is a hyperdynamic and hypertensive state characterized by elevated systemic vascular resistance and cardiac contractility. Cardiovascular dysfunction in phase 2 is a hypotensive state characterized by decreased systemic vascular resistance and tissue perfusion. Rapid changes along the continuum of hyperperfusion versus hypoperfusion increase risk of end-organ damage, specifically pulmonary dysfunction from hemodynamic stress and high-flow states as well as ischemic changes consequent to low-flow states. A pronounced inflammatory state occurs, affecting pulmonary function and gas exchange and contributing to hemodynamic instability as a result of additional vasodilatation. Coagulopathy also occurs as a result of consumption of clotting factors as well as dilution of clotting factors and platelets consequent to aggressive crystalloid administration. Each consequence of terminal brain stem injury complicates clinical management within this patient demographic. In general, these multisystem consequences are managed with mechanism-based interventions within the context of caring for the donor's organs (liver, kidneys, heart, etc.) after death by neurological

  14. Brain and gonadal aromatase activity and steroid hormone levels in female and polymorphic males of the peacock blenny Salaria pavo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, David; Teles, Magda; Alpedrinha, João; Oliveira, Rui F

    2008-11-01

    In the peacock blenny Salaria pavo large males with well-developed secondary sexual characters establish nests and attract females while small "sneaker" males mimic female sexual displays in order to approach the nests of larger males and parasitically fertilize eggs. These alternative reproductive tactics are sequential, as sneakers irreversibly switch into nesting males. This transition involves major morphologic and behavioral changes and is likely to be mediated by hormones. This study focuses on the role of aromatase, an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of androgens into estrogens, in the regulation of male sexual polymorphism in S. pavo. For this, sex steroid plasma levels and aromatase activity (AA) in gonads, whole brain and brain macroareas were determined in sneakers, transitional males (i.e. sneakers undergoing the transition into nesting males), nesting males and females collected in the field. AA was much higher in ovarian tissue than in testicular tissue and accordingly circulating estradiol levels were highest in females. This supports the view that elevated AA and estradiol levels are associated with the development of a functional ovary. Transitional males are in a non-reproductive phase and had underdeveloped testes when compared with sneakers and nesting males. Testicular AA was approximately 10 times higher in transitional males when compared with sneakers and nesting males, suggesting high AA has a suppressive effect on testicular development. Nesting males had significantly higher plasma levels of both testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone when compared with the other male morphs and previous studies demonstrated that these androgens suppress female-like displays in sneakers. In the brain, AA was highest in macroareas presumably containing hypothalamic nuclei traditionally associated with the regulation of reproductive behaviors. Overall, females presented the highest levels of brain AA. In male morphs AA increased from sneakers, to

  15. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabili- ties of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a stream- lined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable out- put rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and ...

  16. Hierarchical random cellular neural networks for system-level brain-like signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Robert; Puljic, Marko

    2013-09-01

    Sensory information processing and cognition in brains are modeled using dynamic systems theory. The brain's dynamic state is described by a trajectory evolving in a high-dimensional state space. We introduce a hierarchy of random cellular automata as the mathematical tools to describe the spatio-temporal dynamics of the cortex. The corresponding brain model is called neuropercolation which has distinct advantages compared to traditional models using differential equations, especially in describing spatio-temporal discontinuities in the form of phase transitions. Phase transitions demarcate singularities in brain operations at critical conditions, which are viewed as hallmarks of higher cognition and awareness experience. The introduced Monte-Carlo simulations obtained by parallel computing point to the importance of computer implementations using very large-scale integration (VLSI) and analog platforms.

  17. Effect of glutathione on brain nitric oxide levels in an experimental epilepsy mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aylin Akcali; Sadrettin Pence; Naciye Kurtul; Mehmet Bosnak; Munife Neyal

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Glutathione, known as one of the compounds of antioxidant defense, has been shown to inhibit convulsions. Nitric oxide has a proconvulsant effect on a pentylenetetrazole-induced animal model. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of glutathione administration on nitric oxide levels in brain regions of convulsive and kindling pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure models. DESIGN, TIME, AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal experiment. The study was performed at the Department of Physiology, Gaziantep University and Department of Chemistry-Biochemistry, Kahramamaras Sutcu Imam University in 2006.MATERIALS: Pentylenetetrazole and glutathione were purchased from Sigma, USA. METHODS: A total of 80 mice were assigned to 8 groups (n=10): normal control, saline control (1 mL normal saline), convulsive pentylenetetrazole (single intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole, 60 mg/kg), convulsive pentylenetrazole plus glutathione (single administration of 60 mg/kg pentylenetetrazole and 200 mg/kg glutathione), five-dose glutathione (intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg glutathione respectively at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days), single-dose glutathione (single administration of 200 mg/kg glutathione), pentylenetetrazole kindling (intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole of 40 mg/kg at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days), and pentylenetetrazole kindling plus glutathione group (intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg pentylenetetrazole and 200 mg/kg glutathione respectively at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All mice were sacrificed 1 hour after the last administration. Brain nitric oxide levels were determined by spectrophotometry. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in nitric oxide levels between the normal control, saline control, five-dose glutathione, and single-dose glutathione groups (P>0.05). Nitric oxide levels in the cerebral hemisphere and

  18. REM sleep loss associated changes in orexin-A levels in discrete brain areas in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rachna; Khanday, Mudasir Ahmad; Mallick, Birendra Nath

    2015-03-17

    Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) serves house-keeping function of the brain and its loss affects several pathophysiological processes. Relative levels of neurotransmitters including orexin A (Orx-A) in various parts of the brain in health and diseases are among the key factors for modulation of behaviors, including REMS. The level of neurotransmitter in an area in the brain directly depends on number of projecting neurons and their firing rates. The locus coeruleus (LC), the site of REM-OFF neurons, receives densest, while the pedunculo-pontine area (PPT), the site of REM-ON neurons receives lesser projections from the Orx-ergic neurons. Further, the Orx-ergic neurons are active during waking and silent during REMS and NREMS. Therefore, the level of Orx-A in discrete regions of the brain is likely to be different during normal and altered states, which in turn is likely to be responsible for altered behaviors in health and diseases, including in relation to REMS. Therefore, in the present study, we estimated Orx-A level in LC, cortex, posterior hypothalamus (PH), hippocampus, and PPT after 96 h REMSD, in post-deprivation recovered rats and in control rats. This is the first report of estimation of Orx-A in different brain regions after prolonged REMSD. It was observed that after REMSD the Orx-A level increased significantly in LC, cortex and PH which returned to normal level after recovery; however, the level did not change in the hippocampus and PPT. The Orx-A induced modulation of REMS could be secondary to increased waking.

  19. Concurrent Low Brain and High Liver Uptake on FDG PET Are Associated with Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyun-Yeol; Jun, Sungmin; Pak, Kyoungjune

    2017-01-01

    Objective Concurrent low brain and high liver uptake are sometimes observed on fluorine-18-labeled fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We investigated the potential clinical significance of this uptake pattern related to metabolic syndrome (MS). Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed data from 264 consecutive males who had undergone general health check-ups, including FDG PET/CT scans. After an overnight fast, the men had their peripheral blood drawn and the levels of various laboratory parameters measured; an FDG PET/CT scan was performed on the same day. We measured the maximum standardized uptake values of the brain and liver from regions of interest manually placed over the frontal cortex at the level of the centrum semiovale and the right lobe of the liver parenchyma, respectively. Results Fasting blood glucose (FBG; odds ratio [OR] = 1.063, p < 0.001) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; OR = 3.634, p = 0.010) were the strongest predictive factors for low brain FDG uptake, whereas waist circumference (OR = 1.200, p < 0.001) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (OR = 1.012, p = 0.001) were the strongest predictive factors for high liver uptake. Eleven subjects (4.2%) showed concurrent low brain and high liver FDG uptake, and all but one of these subjects (90.9%) had MS. Systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, FBG, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, insulin resistance (measured by homeostasis model assessment), insulin, HbA1c, and body mass index were higher in subjects with this FDG uptake pattern than in those without (all, p < 0.001). Conclusion Concurrent low brain and high liver FDG uptake were closely associated with MS. Moreover, subjects with this pattern had higher values for various cardiovascular risk factors than did those without. PMID:28246520

  20. Concurrent low brain and high liver uptake on FDG PET are associated with cardiovascular risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Hyun Yeol [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Sung Min [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, In Joo [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Concurrent low brain and high liver uptake are sometimes observed on fluorine-18-labeled fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We investigated the potential clinical significance of this uptake pattern related to metabolic syndrome (MS). We retrospectively reviewed data from 264 consecutive males who had undergone general health check-ups, including FDG PET/CT scans. After an overnight fast, the men had their peripheral blood drawn and the levels of various laboratory parameters measured; an FDG PET/CT scan was performed on the same day. We measured the maximum standardized uptake values of the brain and liver from regions of interest manually placed over the frontal cortex at the level of the centrum semiovale and the right lobe of the liver parenchyma, respectively. Fasting blood glucose (FBG; odds ratio [OR] = 1.063, p < 0.001) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; OR = 3.634, p = 0.010) were the strongest predictive factors for low brain FDG uptake, whereas waist circumference (OR = 1.200, p < 0.001) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (OR = 1.012, p = 0.001) were the strongest predictive factors for high liver uptake. Eleven subjects (4.2%) showed concurrent low brain and high liver FDG uptake, and all but one of these subjects (90.9%) had MS. Systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, FBG, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, insulin resistance (measured by homeostasis model assessment), insulin, HbA1c, and body mass index were higher in subjects with this FDG uptake pattern than in those without (all, p < 0.001). Concurrent low brain and high liver FDG uptake were closely associated with MS. Moreover, subjects with this pattern had higher values for various cardiovascular risk factors than did those without.

  1. Level set method with automatic selective local statistics for brain tumor segmentation in MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapaliya, Kiran; Pyun, Jae-Young; Park, Chun-Su; Kwon, Goo-Rak

    2013-01-01

    The level set approach is a powerful tool for segmenting images. This paper proposes a method for segmenting brain tumor images from MR images. A new signed pressure function (SPF) that can efficiently stop the contours at weak or blurred edges is introduced. The local statistics of the different objects present in the MR images were calculated. Using local statistics, the tumor objects were identified among different objects. In this level set method, the calculation of the parameters is a challenging task. The calculations of different parameters for different types of images were automatic. The basic thresholding value was updated and adjusted automatically for different MR images. This thresholding value was used to calculate the different parameters in the proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm was tested on the magnetic resonance images of the brain for tumor segmentation and its performance was evaluated visually and quantitatively. Numerical experiments on some brain tumor images highlighted the efficiency and robustness of this method.

  2. A comparative study of diazepam levels in bone marrow versus serum, saliva and brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, T; Tomii, S; Terazawa, K; Nagao, M; Kanamori, M; Tomaru, Y

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of diazepam in biological fluids and tissues of rats was examined 1, 2, 4 and 8 h after intraperitoneal administration by using a radioimmunoassay with specific anti-diazepam antibody. The diazepam levels in serum, saliva, brain and bone marrow decreased over a period of 2 h and levelled off 4 h after administration. The diazepam concentration in bone marrow was much higher than in serum, saliva and brain, suggesting an accumulation of diazepam in this tissue. This indicates that bone marrow could be a very useful material for the detection of diazepam in skeletonized remains. The diazepam concentrations in bone marrow, serum, saliva and brain showed a linear relationship (r = 0.860-0.997), indicating that a valid estimate of diazepam concentration in blood can be made from bone marrow samples.

  3. High-Level Language Production in Parkinson's Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori J. P. Altmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses impairments of high-level, complex language production in Parkinson's disease (PD, defined as sentence and discourse production, and situates these impairments within the framework of current psycholinguistic theories of language production. The paper comprises three major sections, an overview of the effects of PD on the brain and cognition, a review of the literature on language production in PD, and a discussion of the stages of the language production process that are impaired in PD. Overall, the literature converges on a few common characteristics of language production in PD: reduced information content, impaired grammaticality, disrupted fluency, and reduced syntactic complexity. Many studies also document the strong impact of differences in cognitive ability on language production. Based on the data, PD affects all stages of language production including conceptualization and functional and positional processing. Furthermore, impairments at all stages appear to be exacerbated by impairments in cognitive abilities.

  4. Abnormal brain processing of pain in migraine without aura: a high-density EEG brain mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, L L; Jensen, R; Buchgreitz, L

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we used high-density EEG brain mapping to investigate spatio-temporal aspects of brain activity in response to experimentally induced muscle pain in 17 patients with migraine without aura and 15 healthy controls. Painful electrical stimuli were applied to the trapezius muscle...... to the tonic muscle pain condition (z = 29 mm vs. z =¿-13 mm, P aura....

  5. The Effect of Hemoglobin Levels on Mortality in Pediatric Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin F. Yee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. There is increasing evidence of adverse outcomes associated with blood transfusions for adult traumatic brain injury patients. However, current evidence suggests that pediatric traumatic brain injury patients may respond to blood transfusions differently on a vascular level. This study examined the influence of blood transfusions and anemia on the outcome of pediatric traumatic brain injury patients. Design. A retrospective cohort analysis of severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI patients was undertaken to investigate the association between blood transfusions and anemia on patient outcomes. Measurements and Main Results. One hundred and twenty patients with severe traumatic brain injury were identified and included in the analysis. The median Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS was 6 and the mean hemoglobin (Hgb on admission was 115.8 g/L. Forty-three percent of patients (43% received at least one blood transfusion and the mean hemoglobin before transfusion was 80.1 g/L. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that anemia and the administration of packed red blood cells were not associated with adverse outcomes. Factors that were significantly associated with mortality were presence of abusive head trauma, increasing PRISM score, and low GCS after admission. Conclusion. In this single centre retrospective cohort study, there was no association found between anemia, blood transfusions, and hospital mortality in a pediatric traumatic brain injury patient population.

  6. Physical exercise and brain responses to images of high-calorie food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Kipman, Maia; Schwab, Zachary J; Tkachenko, Olga; Preer, Lily; Gogel, Hannah; Bark, John S; Mundy, Elizabeth A; Olson, Elizabeth A; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-04

    Physical exercise has many health benefits, including improved cardiovascular fitness, lean muscle development, increased metabolism, and weight loss, as well as positive effects on brain functioning and cognition. Recent evidence suggests that regular physical exercise may also affect the responsiveness of reward regions of the brain to food stimuli. We examined whether the total number of minutes of self-reported weekly physical exercise was related to the responsiveness of appetite and food reward-related brain regions to visual presentations of high-calorie and low-calorie food images during functional MRI. Second, we examined whether such responses would correlate with self-reported food preferences. While undergoing scanning, 37 healthy adults (22 men) viewed images of high-calorie and low-calorie foods and provided desirability ratings for each food image. The correlation between exercise minutes per week and brain responses to the primary condition contrast (high-calorie>low-calorie) was evaluated within the amygdala, insula, and medial orbitofrontal cortex, brain regions previously implicated in responses to food images. Higher levels of exercise were significantly correlated with lower responsiveness within the medial orbitofrontal cortex and left insula to high-calorie foods. Furthermore, activation of these regions was positively correlated with preference ratings for high-calorie foods, particularly those with a savory flavor. These findings suggest that physical exercise may be associated with reduced activation in food-responsive reward regions, which are in turn associated with reduced preferences for unhealthy high-calorie foods. Physical exercise may confer secondary health benefits beyond its primary effects on cardiovascular fitness and energy expenditure.

  7. Significance of High-frequency Electrical Brain Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Agari, Takashi; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Shibata, Takashi; Hanaoka, Yoshiyuki; Akiyama, Mari; Endoh, Fumika; Oka, Makio; Date, Isao

    2017-06-01

     Electroencephalogram (EEG) data include broadband electrical brain activity ranging from infra-slow bands (frequency bands (e.g., the approx. 10 Hz alpha rhythm) to high-frequency bands of up to 500 Hz. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) including ripple and fast ripple oscillations (80-200 Hz and>200 / 250 Hz, respectively) are particularly of note due to their very close relationship to epileptogenicity, with the possibility that they could function as a surrogate biomarker of epileptogenicity. In contrast, physiological high-frequency activity plays an important role in higher brain functions, and the differentiation between pathological / epileptic and physiological HFOs is a critical issue, especially in epilepsy surgery. HFOs were initially recorded with intracranial electrodes in patients with intractable epilepsy as part of a long-term invasive seizure monitoring study. However, fast oscillations (FOs) in the ripple and gamma bands (40-80 Hz) are now noninvasively detected by scalp EEG and magnetoencephalography, and thus the scope of studies on HFOs /FOs is rapidly expanding.

  8. GPR40/FFAR1 deficient mice increase noradrenaline levels in the brain and exhibit abnormal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuka Aizawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is activated by long chain fatty acids. We have previously demonstrated that activation of brain GPR40/FFAR1 exerts an antinociceptive effect that is mediated by the modulation of the descending pain control system. However, it is unclear whether brain GPR40/FFAR1 contributes to emotional function. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPR40/FFAR1 in emotional behavior using GPR40/FFAR1 deficient (knockout, KO mice. The emotional behavior in wild and KO male mice was evaluated at 9–10 weeks of age by the elevated plus-maze test, open field test, social interaction test, and sucrose preference test. Brain monoamines levels were measured using LC–MS/MS. The elevated plus-maze test and open field tests revealed that the KO mice reduced anxiety-like behavior. There were no differences in locomotor activity or social behavior between the wild and KO mice. In the sucrose preference test, the KO mice showed reduction in sucrose preference and intake. The level of noradrenaline was higher in the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus and midbrain of KO mice. Therefore, these results suggest that brain GPR40/FFAR1 is associated with anxiety- and depression-related behavior regulated by the increment of noradrenaline in the brain.

  9. Gender specific associations of serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molendijk, Marc L.; Bus, Boudewijn A. A.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Prickaerts, Jos; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude; Elzinga, Bernet M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Whereas animal models indicate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in anxiety-related behaviour, little is known about BDNF in patients with an anxiety disorder. We tested the hypothesis that serum BDNF levels are low in patients with an anxiety disorder as compare

  10. Fractal Analysis of Brain Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) Signals from Children with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dona, Olga; DeMatteo, Carol; Connolly, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Conventional imaging techniques are unable to detect abnormalities in the brain following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Yet patients with mTBI typically show delayed response on neuropsychological evaluation. Because fractal geometry represents complexity, we explored its utility in measuring temporal fluctuations of brain resting state blood oxygen level dependent (rs-BOLD) signal. We hypothesized that there could be a detectable difference in rs-BOLD signal complexity between healthy subjects and mTBI patients based on previous studies that associated reduction in signal complexity with disease. Methods Fifteen subjects (13.4 ± 2.3 y/o) and 56 age-matched (13.5 ± 2.34 y/o) healthy controls were scanned using a GE Discovery MR750 3T MRI and 32-channel RF-coil. Axial FSPGR-3D images were used to prescribe rs-BOLD (TE/TR = 35/2000ms), acquired over 6 minutes. Motion correction was performed and anatomical and functional images were aligned and spatially warped to the N27 standard atlas. Fractal analysis, performed on grey matter, was done by estimating the Hurst exponent using de-trended fluctuation analysis and signal summation conversion methods. Results and Conclusions Voxel-wise fractal dimension (FD) was calculated for every subject in the control group to generate mean and standard deviation maps for regional Z-score analysis. Voxel-wise validation of FD normality across controls was confirmed, and non-Gaussian voxels (3.05% over the brain) were eliminated from subsequent analysis. For each mTBI patient, regions where Z-score values were at least 2 standard deviations away from the mean (i.e. where |Z| > 2.0) were identified. In individual patients the frequently affected regions were amygdala (p = 0.02), vermis(p = 0.03), caudate head (p = 0.04), hippocampus(p = 0.03), and hypothalamus(p = 0.04), all previously reported as dysfunctional after mTBI, but based on group analysis. It is well known that the brain is best modeled as a complex

  11. Reliability-Centric High-Level Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Tosun, S; Arvas, E; Kandemir, M; Xie, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Importance of addressing soft errors in both safety critical applications and commercial consumer products is increasing, mainly due to ever shrinking geometries, higher-density circuits, and employment of power-saving techniques such as voltage scaling and component shut-down. As a result, it is becoming necessary to treat reliability as a first-class citizen in system design. In particular, reliability decisions taken early in system design can have significant benefits in terms of design quality. Motivated by this observation, this paper presents a reliability-centric high-level synthesis approach that addresses the soft error problem. The proposed approach tries to maximize reliability of the design while observing the bounds on area and performance, and makes use of our reliability characterization of hardware components such as adders and multipliers. We implemented the proposed approach, performed experiments with several designs, and compared the results with those obtained by a prior proposal.

  12. Effect of clozapine and molindone on plasma and brain levels of mescaline in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N S; Gulati, O D

    1984-01-01

    Levels of unchanged mescaline were examined in the plasma and brain of albino Swiss-Webster mice pretreated with various doses of either clozapine or molindone. In clozapine treated mice, the mescaline levels were statistically significantly higher at 2 and 3 h with 7.5 and 15.0 mg/kg and at 1, 2 and 3 h with 30 mg/kg. Molindone at 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg produced no significant effect; at 16.0 and 48.0 mg/kg, the levels were significantly higher at 1 and 2 h. Elevated brain levels of mescaline by clozapine and molindone indicate an adverse metabolic interaction between a hallucinogen and drugs that are commonly used to treat mescaline-induced psychosis.

  13. Effect of one month duration ketogenic and non-ketogenic high fat diets on mouse brain bioenergetic infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfridge, J Eva; Wilkins, Heather M; E, Lezi; Carl, Steven M; Koppel, Scott; Funk, Eric; Fields, Timothy; Lu, Jianghua; Tang, Ee Phie; Slawson, Chad; Wang, WenFang; Zhu, Hao; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2015-04-01

    Diet composition may affect energy metabolism in a tissue-specific manner. Using C57Bl/6J mice, we tested the effect of ketosis-inducing and non-inducing high fat diets on genes relevant to brain bioenergetic infrastructures, and on proteins that constitute and regulate that infrastructure. At the end of a one-month study period the two high fat diets appeared to differentially affect peripheral insulin signaling, but brain insulin signaling was not obviously altered. Some bioenergetic infrastructure parameters were similarly impacted by both high fat diets, while other parameters were only impacted by the ketogenic diet. For both diets, mRNA levels for CREB, PGC1α, and NRF2 increased while NRF1, TFAM, and COX4I1 mRNA levels decreased. PGC1β mRNA increased and TNFα mRNA decreased only with the ketogenic diet. Brain mtDNA levels fell in both the ketogenic and non-ketogenic high fat diet groups, although TOMM20 and COX4I1 protein levels were maintained, and mRNA and protein levels of the mtDNA-encoded COX2 subunit were also preserved. Overall, the pattern of changes observed in mice fed ketogenic and non-ketogenic high fat diets over a one month time period suggests these interventions enhance some aspects of the brain's aerobic infrastructure, and may enhance mtDNA transcription efficiency. Further studies to determine which diet effects are due to changes in brain ketone body levels, fatty acid levels, glucose levels, altered brain insulin signaling, or other factors such as adipose tissue-associated hormones are indicated.

  14. Brain insulin lowers circulating BCAA levels by inducing hepatic BCAA catabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Andrew C.; Fasshauer, Martin; Filatova, Nika; Grundell, Linus A.; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Scherer, Thomas; Lindtner, Claudia; Phillip J White; Lapworth, Amanda L.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Knippschild, Uwe; Wolf, Anna M.; Scheja, Ludger; Grove, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels are elevated in obesity/diabetes and are a sensitive predictor for type 2 diabetes. Here we show in rats that insulin dose-dependently lowers plasma BCAA levels through induction of hepatic protein expression and activity of branched-chain α keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the BCAA degradation pathway. Selective induction of hypothalamic insulin signaling in rats and genetic modulation of brain insulin receptors ...

  15. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiting; Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Trivedi, Malav S; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Fournier, Margot; Cuenod, Michel; Do, Kim Quang; Deth, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age), primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY). Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO) mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  16. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiting Zhang

    Full Text Available Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl, serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age, primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY. Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  17. Clinical significance of serum high mobility group box 1 protein in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    濮雪华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To detect the levels of high mobility group box 1 protein(HMGB1),tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α),interleukin-6(IL-6),C-reactive protein(CRP)in order to explore the clinical significance of HMGB1 in patients with severely traumatic brain injury.Methods A total of 75 patients composed of 40 male and35 female with severely traumatic brain

  18. Early Brain changes May Help Predict Autism Among High-Risk Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Early brain changes may help predict autism among high-risk ... Share this: Page Content NIH-funded researchers link brain changes at 6 and 12 months of age ...

  19. MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oien, Derek B; Osterhaus, Greg L; Latif, Shaheen A; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2008-07-15

    Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA(-/-)) mouse. Here we show that MsrA(-/-) mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA(-/-) mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA(-/-) mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA(-/-) brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower levels of dopamine were observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA(-/-) mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathways are impaired in MsrA(-/-) mice, which may contribute to their abnormal behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  20. The MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oien, Derek B.; Osterhaus, Greg L.; Latif, Shaheen A.; Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA−/−) mouse. Here we show that MsrA−/− mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA−/− mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA−/− mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA−/− brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower level of dopamine was observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA−/− mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathway are impaired in MsrA−/− mice, which may contribute to their abnormal bio-behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18466776

  1. Low-Frequency Fluctuations of the Resting Brain: High Magnitude Does Not Equal High Reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewang Mao

    Full Text Available The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF measures low-frequency oscillations of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal, characterizing local spontaneous activity during the resting state. ALFF is a commonly used measure for resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI in numerous basic and clinical neuroscience studies. Using a test-retest rs-fMRI dataset consisting of 21 healthy subjects and three repetitive scans, we found that several key brain regions with high ALFF intensities (or magnitude had poor reliability. Such regions included the posterior cingulate cortex, the medial prefrontal cortex in the default mode network, parts of the right and left thalami, and the primary visual and motor cortices. The above finding was robust with regard to different sample sizes (number of subjects, different scanning parameters (repetition time and variations of test-retest intervals (i.e., intra-scan, intra-session, and inter-session reliability, as well as with different scanners. Moreover, the qualitative, map-wise results were validated further with a region-of-interest-based quantitative analysis using "canonical" coordinates as reported previously. Therefore, we suggest that the reliability assessments be incorporated in future ALFF studies, especially for the brain regions with a large ALFF magnitude as listed in our paper. Splitting single data into several segments and assessing within-scan "test-retest" reliability is an acceptable alternative if no "real" test-retest datasets are available. Such evaluations might become more necessary if the data are collected with clinical scanners whose performance is not as good as those that are used for scientific research purposes and are better maintained because the lower signal-to-noise ratio may further dampen ALFF reliability.

  2. Opiate-induced changes in brain adenosine levels and narcotic drug responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M; Sahbaie, P; Zheng, M; Lobato, R; Boison, D; Clark, J D; Peltz, G

    2013-01-01

    We have very little information about the metabolomic changes that mediate neurobehavioral responses, including addiction. It was possible that opioid-induced metabolomic changes in brain could mediate some of the pharmacodynamic effects of opioids. To investigate this, opiate-induced brain metabolomic responses were profiled using a semi-targeted method in C57BL/6 and 129Sv1 mice, which exhibit extreme differences in their tendency to become opiate dependent. Escalating morphine doses (10-40 mg/kg) administered over a 4-day period selectively induced a twofold decrease (pOpiate-induced changes in brain adenosine levels may explain many important neurobehavioral features associated with opiate addiction and withdrawal.

  3. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  4. Elevated levels of a glycoprotein antigen (P-80) in gray and white matter of brain from victims of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, T F; Quackenbush, E J; Letarte, M; Moscarello, M A

    1986-06-01

    The levels of a glycoprotein reactive with monoclonal antibody (MAb) 44D10 in white and gray matter from brains of victims of several neurological diseases, including Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, were compared to that of normal individuals. The concentration of antigen reactive with MAb 44D10 was elevated in both gray and white matter of all MS brains examined, but not in brains with other neurological diseases. The increase in the concentration of antigen varied amongst the MS brains, such that the levels of antigen were only slightly increased in 2 of the 6 MS brains whereas 2 to 4 fold higher levels were found in the other 4 brains. Increased levels of antigen were detected in gray matter of MS brains, whereas this antigen was either not detected or present in very low levels in gray matter homogenates prepared from age-matched normal brains. MAb Leu 1, which reacts with T lymphocytes, was not absorbed by normal and MS brain tissue suggesting the increase in antigen reactive with MAb 44D10 in MS brain homogenates was not associated with non-specific infiltration by T lymphocytes. Comparison of the purified antigen from MS gray matter and normal white matter by gel electrophoresis demonstrated that MAb 44D10 was reacting with a similar protein in both tissues with an apparent molecular weight of 80K. We have named this molecule P-80 glycoprotein.

  5. Application of fractal and grey level co-occurrence matrix analysis in evaluation of brain corpus callosum and cingulum architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantic, Igor; Dacic, Sanja; Brkic, Predrag; Lavrnja, Irena; Pantic, Senka; Jovanovic, Tomislav; Pekovic, Sanja

    2014-10-01

    This aim of this study was to assess the discriminatory value of fractal and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) analysis methods in standard microscopy analysis of two histologically similar brain white mass regions that have different nerve fiber orientation. A total of 160 digital micrographs of thionine-stained rat brain white mass were acquired using a Pro-MicroScan DEM-200 instrument. Eighty micrographs from the anterior corpus callosum and eighty from the anterior cingulum areas of the brain were analyzed. The micrographs were evaluated using the National Institutes of Health ImageJ software and its plugins. For each micrograph, seven parameters were calculated: angular second moment, inverse difference moment, GLCM contrast, GLCM correlation, GLCM variance, fractal dimension, and lacunarity. Using the Receiver operating characteristic analysis, the highest discriminatory value was determined for inverse difference moment (IDM) (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve equaled 0.925, and for the criterion IDM≤0.610 the sensitivity and specificity were 82.5 and 87.5%, respectively). Most of the other parameters also showed good sensitivity and specificity. The results indicate that GLCM and fractal analysis methods, when applied together in brain histology analysis, are highly capable of discriminating white mass structures that have different axonal orientation.

  6. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, N; Eifert, T; Fischer, G; George, S; Haller, J; Höcker, A; Masik, J; Zur Nedden, M; Pérez-Réale, V; Risler, C; Schiavi, C; Stelzer, J; Wu, X; International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2008-01-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider receives events which pass the LVL1 trigger at ~75 kHz and has to reduce the rate to ~200 Hz while retaining the most interesting physics. It is a software trigger and performs the reduction in two stages: the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter (EF). At the heart of the HLT is the Steering software. To minimise processing time and data transfers it implements the novel event selection strategies of seeded, step-wise reconstruction and early rejection. The HLT is seeded by regions of interest identified at LVL1. These and the static configuration determine which algorithms are run to reconstruct event data and test the validity of trigger signatures. The decision to reject the event or continue is based on the valid signatures, taking into account pre-scale and pass-through. After the EF, event classification tags are assigned for streaming purposes. Several powerful new features for commissioning and operation have been added: co...

  7. Physical exertion may cause high troponin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agewall, Stefan; Tjora, Solve

    2011-11-15

    It is important to measure troponin levels when acute myocardial infarct is suspected. Many other factors that affect the heart can cause an increase in troponin levels, for example extreme physical exertion. Recent studies have shown that more normal physical activity can also lead to increase in troponin levels in healthy individuals.

  8. Image reconstruction techniques for high resolution human brain PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comtat, C.; Bataille, F.; Sureau, F. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    High resolution PET imaging is now a well established technique not only for small animal, but also for human brain studies. The ECAT HRRT brain PET scanner(Siemens Molecular Imaging) is characterized by an effective isotropic spatial resolution of 2.5 mm, about a factor of 2 better than for state-of-the-art whole-body clinical PET scanners. Although the absolute sensitivity of the HRRT (6.5 %) for point source in the center of the field-of-view is increased relative to whole-body scanner (typically 4.5 %) thanks to a larger co-polar aperture, the sensitivity in terms of volumetric resolution (75 (m{sup 3} at best for whole-body scanners and 16 (m{sup 3} for t he HRRT) is much lower. This constraint has an impact on the performance of image reconstruction techniques, in particular for dynamic studies. Standard reconstruction methods used with clinical whole-body PET scanners are not optimal for this application. Specific methods had to be developed, based on fully 3D iterative techniques. Different refinements can be added in the reconstruction process to improve image quality: more accurate modeling of the acquisition system, more accurate modeling of the statistical properties of the acquired data, anatomical side information to guide the reconstruction . We will present the performances these added developments for neuronal imaging in humans. (author)

  9. Brain levels of arginine-vasotocin and isotocin in dominant and subordinate males of a cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Olinda; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Oliveira, Rui F

    2012-02-01

    The nonapeptides arginine-vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT), which are the teleost homologues of arginine-vasopressin and oxytocin in mammals, have well established peripheral effects on osmoregulation and stress response, and central effects on social behavior. However, all studies that have looked so far into the relationship between these nonapeptides and social behavior have used indirect measures of AVT/IT activity (i.e. immunohistochemistry of AVT/IT immunoreactive neurons, or AVT/IT or their receptors mRNA expression with in situ hybridization or qPCR) and therefore direct measures of peptide levels in relation to social behavior are still lacking. Here we use a recently developed high-performance liquid chromatography analysis with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FL) method to quantify the levels of both AVT and IT in macro-dissected brain areas [i.e. olfactory bulbs, telencephalon, diencephalon, optic tectum, cerebellum, and hindbrain (= rhombencephalon minus cerebellum)] and pituitary of dominant and subordinate male cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus). The pituitary shows higher levels of both peptides than any of the brain macroareas, and the olfactory bulbs have the highest AVT among all brain areas. Except for IT in the telencephalon there is a lack of correlations between central levels and pituitary peptide levels, suggesting an independent control of hypophysial and CNS nonapeptide secretion. There were also no correlations between AVT and IT levels either for each brain region or for the pituitary gland, suggesting a decoupled activity of the AVT and IT systems at the CNS level. Subordinate AVT pituitary levels are significantly higher than those of dominants, and dominant hindbrain IT levels are significantly higher than those of subordinates, suggesting a potential involvement of AVT in social stress in subordinate fish and of IT in the regulation of dominant behavior at the level of the hindbrain. Since in this species dominant males use urine

  10. Increased Arousal Levels and Decreased Sleep by Brain Music in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Zhan Fang; Chun-Peng Zhang; Dan Wu; Yang Xia; Yong-Xiu Lai; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    More and more studies have been reported on whether music and other types of auditory stimulation would improve the quality of sleep.Many of these studies have found significant results,but others argue that music is not significantly better than the tones or control conditions in improving sleep.For further understanding the relationship between music and sleep or music and arousal,the present study therefore examines the effects of brain music on sleep and arousal by means of biofeedback.The music is from the transformation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) of rats using an algorithm in the Chengdu Brain Music (CBM) system.When the brain music was played back to rats,EEG data were recorded to assess the efficacy of music to induce or improve sleep,or increase arousal levels by sleep staging,etc.Our results demonstrate that exposure to the brain music increases arousal levels and decreases sleep in rats,and the underlying mechanism of decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep may be different.

  11. Early life stress-induced alterations in rat brain structures measured with high resolution MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabdjitsingh, R Angela; Loi, Manila; Joëls, Marian; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; van der Toorn, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Adverse experiences early in life impair cognitive function both in rodents and humans. In humans this increases the vulnerability to develop mental illnesses while in the rodent brain early life stress (ELS) abnormalities are associated with changes in synaptic plasticity, excitability and microstructure. Detailed information on the effects of ELS on rodent brain structural integrity at large and connectivity within the brain is currently lacking; this information is highly relevant for understanding the mechanism by which early life stress predisposes to mental illnesses. Here, we exposed rats to 24 hours of maternal deprivation (MD) at postnatal day 3, a paradigm known to increase corticosterone levels and thereby activate glucocorticoid receptors in the brain. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging we examined: i) volumetric changes and white/grey matter properties of the whole cerebrum and of specific brain areas; and ii) whether potential alterations could be normalized by blocking glucocorticoid receptors with mifepristone during the critical developmental window of early adolescence, i.e. between postnatal days 26 and 28. The results show that MD caused a volumetric reduction of the prefrontal cortex, particularly the ventromedial part, and the orbitofrontal cortex. Within the whole cerebrum, white (relative to grey) matter volume was decreased and region-specifically in prefrontal cortex and dorsomedial striatum following MD. A trend was found for the hippocampus. Grey matter fractions were not affected. Treatment with mifepristone did not normalize these changes. This study indicates that early life stress in rodents has long lasting consequences for the volume and structural integrity of the brain. However, changes were relatively modest and-unlike behavior- not mitigated by blockade of glucocorticoid receptors during a critical developmental period.

  12. The clinical analysis of expression levels of IL-6, BNP and CRP in patients with brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Feng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical analysis of expression levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), interleukin -6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with traumatic brain injury and its clinical significance. Methods: The levels of IL-6, BNP, CRP of 80 cases of traumatic brain injury and 80 cases of healthy people group were determined with radioimmunoassay and immunoassays. Results: The levels of IL-6 and CRP of patients with traumatic brain injury were higher than healthy people group (P<0.05), while the levels of BNP of patients with traumatic brain injury were lower than healthy people group (P<0.05). The levels of CRP and IL-6 of patients with severe were higher than light and moderate traumatic brain injury patients (P<0.05) .Compared with the time of admission, the serum BNP, IL-6 and -CRP levels of the patient admitted to hospital within 24 h reached a peak and gradually decreased in 3d after admission, compared with the previous admission, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The levels of BNP of the severe were lower than light and moderate traumatic brain injury patients (P<0.05). Conclusions: The measurement of serum BNP, IL-6 and CRP levels will help to evaluate the extent of disease in elderly patients with traumatic brain injury and prognosis.

  13. Magnetoencephalography detection of high-frequency oscillations in the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiken, Kimberly; Xiang, Jing; Zhang, Fawen; Shi, Jingping; Tang, Lu; Liu, Hongxing; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence from invasive intracranial recordings suggests that the matured brain generates both physiological and pathological high-frequency signals. The present study was designed to detect high-frequency brain signals in the developing brain using newly developed magnetoencephalography (MEG) methods. Twenty healthy children were studied with a high-sampling rate MEG system. Functional high-frequency brain signals were evoked by electrical stimulation applied to the index fingers. To determine if the high-frequency neuromagnetic signals are true brain responses in high-frequency range, we analyzed the MEG data using the conventional averaging as well as newly developed time-frequency analysis along with beamforming. The data of healthy children showed that very high-frequency brain signals (>1000 Hz) in the somatosensory cortex in the developing brain could be detected and localized using MEG. The amplitude of very high-frequency brain signals was significantly weaker than that of the low-frequency brain signals. Very high-frequency brain signals showed a much earlier latency than those of a low-frequency. Magnetic source imaging (MSI) revealed that a portion of the high-frequency signals was from the somatosensory cortex, another portion of the high-frequency signals was probably from the thalamus. Our results provide evidence that the developing brain generates high-frequency signals that can be detected with the non-invasive technique of MEG. MEG detection of high-frequency brain signals may open a new window for the study of developing brain function.

  14. A survey of human brain transcriptome diversity at the single cell level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmanis, Spyros; Sloan, Steven A; Zhang, Ye; Enge, Martin; Caneda, Christine; Shuer, Lawrence M; Hayden Gephart, Melanie G; Barres, Ben A; Quake, Stephen R

    2015-06-09

    The human brain is a tissue of vast complexity in terms of the cell types it comprises. Conventional approaches to classifying cell types in the human brain at single cell resolution have been limited to exploring relatively few markers and therefore have provided a limited molecular characterization of any given cell type. We used single cell RNA sequencing on 466 cells to capture the cellular complexity of the adult and fetal human brain at a whole transcriptome level. Healthy adult temporal lobe tissue was obtained during surgical procedures where otherwise normal tissue was removed to gain access to deeper hippocampal pathology in patients with medical refractory seizures. We were able to classify individual cells into all of the major neuronal, glial, and vascular cell types in the brain. We were able to divide neurons into individual communities and show that these communities preserve the categorization of interneuron subtypes that is typically observed with the use of classic interneuron markers. We then used single cell RNA sequencing on fetal human cortical neurons to identify genes that are differentially expressed between fetal and adult neurons and those genes that display an expression gradient that reflects the transition between replicating and quiescent fetal neuronal populations. Finally, we observed the expression of major histocompatibility complex type I genes in a subset of adult neurons, but not fetal neurons. The work presented here demonstrates the applicability of single cell RNA sequencing on the study of the adult human brain and constitutes a first step toward a comprehensive cellular atlas of the human brain.

  15. Prenatal malnutrition and lead intake produce increased brain lipid peroxidation levels in newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Cedillo, Brenda Gabriela; Díaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Montes, Sergio; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Ríos, Camilo; Beltrán-Campos, Vicente; Alcaraz-Zubeldia, Mireya; Díaz-Cintra, Sofia

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal malnutrition (M) and lead intoxication (Pb) have adverse effects on neuronal development; one of the cellular mechanisms involved is a disruption of the pro- and anti-oxidant balance. In the developing brain, the vulnerability of neuronal membrane phospholipids is variable across the different brain areas. This study assesses the susceptibility of different brain regions to damage by quitar tissue oxidative stress and lead quitar concentrations to determine whether the combined effect of prenatal malnutrition (M) and lead (Pb) intoxication is worse than the effect of either of them individually. M was induced with an isocaloric and hypoproteinic (6% casein) diet 4 weeks before pregnancy. Intoxication was produced with lead acetate in drinking water, from the first gestational day. Both the M and Pb models were continued until the day of birth. Four brain regions (hippocampus, cortex, striatum, and cerebellum) were dissected out to analyze the lipid peroxidation (LP) levels in four groups: normally nourished (C); normally nourished but intoxicated with lead (CPb); malnourished (M); and M intoxicated with lead (MPb). Dam body and brain weights were significantly reduced in the fourth gestational week in the MPb group. Their pups had significantly lower body weights than those in the C and CPb groups. The PbM group exhibited significant increases of lead concentration and LP in all areas evaluated. A potentiation effect of Pb and M on LP was found in the cerebellum. This study provides information on how environmental conditions (intoxication and malnutrition) during the intrauterine period could differentially affect the development of neuronal plasticity and, in consequence, alter adult brain functions such as learning and memory.

  16. Functional system and areal organization of a highly sampled individual human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumann, Timothy O.; Gordon, Evan M.; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Joo, Sung Jun; Chen, Mei-Yen; Gilmore, Adrian W.; McDermott, Kathleen B.; Nelson, Steven M.; Dosenbach, Nico U.F.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Mumford, Jeanette A.; Poldrack, Russell A.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Resting state functional MRI has enabled description of group-level functional brain organization at multiple spatial scales. However, cross-subject averaging may obscure patterns of brain organization specific to each individual. Here, we characterized the brain organization of a single individual repeatedly measured over more than a year. We report a reproducible and internally valid subject-specific areal-level parcellation that corresponds with subject-specific task activations. Highly convergent correlation network estimates can be derived from this parcellation if sufficient data are collected – considerably more than typically acquired. Notably, within-subject correlation variability across sessions exhibited a heterogeneous distribution across the cortex concentrated in visual and somato-motor regions, distinct from the pattern of inter-subject variability. Further, although the individual's systems-level organization is broadly similar to the group, it demonstrates distinct topological features. These results provide a foundation for studies of individual differences in cortical organization and function, especially for special or rare individuals. PMID:26212711

  17. Association between serum tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 levels and mortality in patients with severe brain trauma injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M; López, Patricia; Ramos, Luis; Blanquer, José; Cáceres, Juan J; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Solera, Jorge; Cabrera, Judith; Argueso, Mónica; Ortiz, Raquel; Mora, María L; Lubillo, Santiago; Jiménez, Alejandro; Borreguero-León, Juan M; González, Agustín; Orbe, Josune; Rodríguez, José A; Páramo, José A

    2014-01-01

    ...) play a role in neuroinflammation after brain trauma injury (TBI). Previous studies with small sample size have reported higher circulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels in patients with TBI, but no association between those levels and mortality...

  18. High-field proton MRS of human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Costanzo, Alfonso E-mail: alfonso.dicostanzo@unina2.it; Trojsi, F.; Tosetti, M.; Giannatempo, G.M.; Nemore, F.; Piccirillo, M.; Bonavita, S.; Tedeschi, G.; Scarabino, T

    2003-11-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) of the brain reveals specific biochemical information about cerebral metabolites, which may support clinical diagnoses and enhance the understanding of neurological disorders. The advantages of performing {sup 1}H-MRS at higher field strengths include better signal to noise ratio (SNR) and increased spectral, spatial and temporal resolution, allowing the acquisition of high quality, easily quantifiable spectra in acceptable imaging times. In addition to improved measurement precision of N-acetylaspartate, choline, creatine and myo-inositol, high-field systems allow the high-resolution measurement of other metabolites, such as glutamate, glutamine, {gamma}-aminobutyric acid, scyllo-inositol, aspartate, taurine, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, glucose and branched amino acids, thus extending the range of metabolic information. However, these advantages may be hampered by intrinsic field-dependent technical difficulties, such as decreased T2 signal, chemical shift dispersion errors, J-modulation anomalies, increased magnetic susceptibility, eddy current artifacts, limitations in the design of homogeneous and sensitive radiofrequency (RF) coils, magnetic field instability and safety issues. Several studies demonstrated that these limitations could be overcome, suggesting that the appropriate optimization of high-field {sup 1}H-MRS would expand the application in the fields of clinical research and diagnostic routine.

  19. Critical levels of brain atrophy associated with homocysteine and cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Celeste A

    2014-09-01

    Few B-vitamin trials to lower homocysteine (Hcy) have reported evidence of beneficial effects on cognition in older adults with cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. This article reviews the role of Hcy in cognitive decline. It also considers some reasons why meta-analyses have failed to find effects of B-vitamin treatment. Findings from the successful VITACOG trial are examined from a new perspective of critical levels of Hcy and brain atrophy that may impact on the efficacy of B-vitamin treatment. It appears that there is a critical level of brain shrinkage, possibly mediated by elevated Hcy, which when reached, results in cognitive decline, especially in episodic memory performance. Supplements, food sources, and effects of folic acid fortification are discussed in relation to B12 deficiency.

  20. Increased 5-hydroxymethylation levels in the sub ventricular zone of the Alzheimer's brain

    OpenAIRE

    Mastroeni, Diego; Chouliaras, Leonidas; Daniel L. Van den Hove; Nolz, Jennifer; Rutten, Bart P. F.; Delvaux, Elaine; Coleman, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) is a site of neurogenesis in the aging brain, and epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in regulating the “normal” distribution of new nerve cells into the existing cellular milieu. In a case-control study of human primary SVZ cultures and fixed tissue from the same individuals, we have found significant increases in DNA hydroxymethylation levels in the SVZ of Alzheimer's disease patients compared with nondiseased control subjects. We show that this increase...

  1. The MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels

    OpenAIRE

    Oien, Derek B.; Osterhaus, Greg L.; Latif, Shaheen A.; Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA−/−) mouse. Here we show that MsrA−/− mice have compromised complex task lear...

  2. Dietary composition modulates brain mass and solubilizable Aβ levels in a mouse model of aggressive Alzheimer's amyloid pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxbaum Joseph D

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS. Recently, an increased interest in the role diet plays in the pathology of AD has resulted in a focus on the detrimental effects of diets high in cholesterol and fat and the beneficial effects of caloric restriction. The current study examines how dietary composition modulates cerebral amyloidosis and neuronal integrity in the TgCRND8 mouse model of AD. Methods From 4 wks until 18 wks of age, male and female TgCRND8 mice were maintained on one of four diets: (1 reference (regular commercial chow; (2 high fat/low carbohydrate custom chow (60 kcal% fat/30 kcal% protein/10 kcal% carbohydrate; (3 high protein/low carbohydrate custom chow (60 kcal% protein/30 kcal% fat/10 kcal% carbohydrate; or (4 high carbohydrate/low fat custom chow (60 kcal% carbohydrate/30 kcal% protein/10 kcal% fat. At age 18 wks, mice were sacrificed, and brains studied for (a wet weight; (b solubilizable Aβ content by ELISA; (c amyloid plaque burden; (d stereologic analysis of selected hippocampal subregions. Results Animals receiving a high fat diet showed increased brain levels of solubilizable Aβ, although we detected no effect on plaque burden. Unexpectedly, brains of mice fed a high protein/low carbohydrate diet were 5% lower in weight than brains from all other mice. In an effort to identify regions that might link loss of brain mass to cognitive function, we studied neuronal density and volume in hippocampal subregions. Neuronal density and volume in the hippocampal CA3 region of TgCRND8 mice tended to be lower in TgCRND8 mice receiving the high protein/low carbohydrate diet than in those receiving the regular chow. Neuronal density and volume were preserved in CA1 and in the dentate gyrus. Interpretation Dissociation of Aβ changes from brain mass changes raises the possibility that diet plays a role not only in modulating amyloidosis but also in

  3. Association of acute adverse effects with high local SAR induced in the brain from prolonged RF head and neck hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibzadeh, F.; Verhaart, R. F.; Verduijn, G. M.; Fortunati, V.; Rijnen, Z.; Franckena, M.; van Rhoon, G. C.; Paulides, M. M.

    2015-02-01

    To provide an adequate level of protection for humans from exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to assure that any adverse health effects are avoided. The basic restrictions in terms of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) were prescribed by IEEE and ICNIRP. An example of a therapeutic application of non-ionizing EMF is hyperthermia (HT), in which intense RF energy is focused at a target region. Deep HT in the head and neck (H&N) region involves inducing energy at 434 MHz for 60 min on target. Still, stray exposure of the brain is considerable, but to date only very limited side-effects were observed. The objective of this study is to investigate the stringency of the current basic restrictions by relating the induced EM dose in the brain of patients treated with deep head and neck (H&N) HT to the scored acute health effects. We performed a simulation study to calculate the induced peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (psSAR10g) in the brains of 16 selected H&N patients who received the highest SAR exposure in the brain, i.e. who had the minimum brain-target distance and received high forwarded power during treatment. The results show that the maximum induced SAR in the brain of the patients can exceed the current basic restrictions (IEEE and ICNIRP) on psSAR10g for occupational environments by 14 times. Even considering the high local SAR in the brain, evaluation of acute effects by the common toxicity criteria (CTC) scores revealed no indication of a serious acute neurological effect. In addition, this study provides pioneering quantitative human data on the association between maximum brain SAR level and acute adverse effects when brains are exposed to prolonged RF EMF.

  4. Effects of Acute Lithium Treatment on Brain Levels of Inflammatory Mediators in Poststroke Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Boyko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Few therapeutic options with proven efficacy are available for the treatment of this disabling disease. Lithium is the gold standard treatment for bipolar disorder. Moreover, lithium has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects and therapeutic efficacy as a treatment of other neurological disorders. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of lithium on brain inflammatory mediators levels, fever, and mortality in postischemic stroke rats. Ischemic stroke was induced by occlusion of the mid cerebral artery (MCAO. Pretreatment with a single dose of lithium at 2 hours before MCAO induction significantly reduced the elevation in interleukin- (IL- 6 and prostaglandin E2 levels in brain of post-MCAO rats, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. On the other hand, lithium did not affect the elevation in IL-1α, IL-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels in brain of post-MCAO rats. Moreover, pretreatment with lithium did not alter post-MCAO fever and mortality. These results suggest that acute pretreatment with a single dose of lithium did not markedly affect post-MCAO morbidity and mortality in rats.

  5. Diagnostic value of MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate level in identifying children with mitochondrial disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsing, Roelineke J.; Strating, Kim [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Child Neurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Koning, Tom J. de [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Groningen (Netherlands); Sijens, Paul E. [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of children with or without neurometabolic disease is used for the first time for quantitative assessment of brain tissue lactate signals, to elaborate on previous suggestions of MRS-detected lactate as a marker of mitochondrial disease. Multivoxel MRS of a transverse plane of brain tissue cranial to the ventricles was performed in 88 children suspected of having neurometabolic disease, divided into 'definite' (n = 17, ≥1 major criteria), 'probable' (n = 10, ≥2 minor criteria), 'possible' (n = 17, 1 minor criterion) and 'unlikely' mitochondrial disease (n = 44, none of the criteria). Lactate levels, expressed in standardized arbitrary units or relative to creatine, were derived from summed signals from all voxels. Ten 'unlikely' children with a normal neurological exam served as the MRS reference subgroup. For 61 of 88 children, CSF lactate values were obtained. MRS lactate level (>12 arbitrary units) and the lactate-to-creatine ratio (L/Cr >0.22) differed significantly between the definite and the unlikely group (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively). MRS L/Cr also differentiated between the probable and the MRS reference subgroup (p = 0.03). No significant group differences were found for CSF lactate. MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate levels can serve as diagnostic marker for identifying mitochondrial disease in children. (orig.)

  6. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Patterns Predict Consciousness Level and Recovery Outcome in Acquired Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuehai; Zou, Qihong; Hu, Jin; Tang, Weijun; Mao, Ying; Gao, Liang; Zhu, Jianhong; Jin, Yi; Wu, Xin; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Yaojun; Zhang, Yao; Dai, Zhengjia; Gao, Jia-Hong; Weng, Xuchu; Northoff, Georg; Giacino, Joseph T.; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    For accurate diagnosis and prognostic prediction of acquired brain injury (ABI), it is crucial to understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying loss of consciousness. However, there is no consensus on which regions and networks act as biomarkers for consciousness level and recovery outcome in ABI. Using resting-state fMRI, we assessed intrinsic functional connectivity strength (FCS) of whole-brain networks in a large sample of 99 ABI patients with varying degrees of consciousness loss (including fully preserved consciousness state, minimally conscious state, unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state, and coma) and 34 healthy control subjects. Consciousness level was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Scale and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised on the day of fMRI scanning; recovery outcome was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale 3 months after the fMRI scanning. One-way ANOVA of FCS, Spearman correlation analyses between FCS and the consciousness level and recovery outcome, and FCS-based multivariate pattern analysis were performed. We found decreased FCS with loss of consciousness primarily distributed in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCU), medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral parietal cortex. The FCS values of these regions were significantly correlated with consciousness level and recovery outcome. Multivariate support vector machine discrimination analysis revealed that the FCS patterns predicted whether patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state and coma would regain consciousness with an accuracy of 81.25%, and the most discriminative region was the PCC/PCU. These findings suggest that intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of the human posteromedial cortex could serve as a potential indicator for consciousness level and recovery outcome in individuals with ABI. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Varying degrees of consciousness loss and recovery are commonly observed in acquired brain injury patients, yet the

  7. Alkali metals levels in the human brain tissue: Anatomical region differences and age-related changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Patrícia; Santos, Agostinho; Pinto, Edgar; Pinto, Nair Rosas; Mendes, Ricardo; Magalhães, Teresa; Almeida, Agostinho

    2016-12-01

    The link between trace elements imbalances (both "toxic" and "essential") in the human brain and neurodegenerative disease has been subject of extensive research. More recently, some studies have highlighted the potential role of the homeostasis deregulation of alkali metals in specific brain regions as key factor in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Using flame atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion of the samples, alkali metals (Na, K, Li, Rb and Cs) were determined in 14 different areas of the human brain (frontal cortex, superior and middle temporal gyri, caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, cingulated gyrus, hippocampus, inferior parietal lobule, visual cortex of the occipital lobe, midbrain, pons, medulla and cerebellum) of adult individuals (n=42; 71±12, range: 50-101 years old) with no known history and evidence of neurodegenerative, neurological or psychiatric disorder. Potassium was found as the most abundant alkali metal, followed by Na, Rb, Cs and Li. Lithium, K and Cs distribution showed to be quite heterogeneous. On the contrary, Rb and Na appeared quite homogeneously distributed within the human brain tissue. The lowest levels of Na, K, Rb and Li were found in the brainstem (midbrain, medulla and pons) and cerebellum, while the lowest levels of Cs were found in the frontal cortex. The highest levels of K (mean±sd; range 15.5±2.5; 8.9-21.8mg/g) Rb (17.2±6.1; 3.9-32.4μg/g and Cs (83.4±48.6; 17.3-220.5ng/g) were found in putamen. The highest levels of Na and Li were found in the frontal cortex (11.6±2.4; 6.6-17.1mg/g) and caudate nucleus (7.6±4.6 2.2-21.3ng/g), respectively. Although K, Cs and Li levels appear to remain largely unchanged with age, some age-related changes were observed for Na and Rb levels in particular brain regions (namely in the hippocampus). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All

  8. Decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor plasma levels in psoriasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Brunoni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is associated with neuroplasticity and synaptic strength, and is decreased in conditions associated with chronic stress. Nevertheless, BDNF has not yet been investigated in psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory systemic disease that is exacerbated by stress. Therefore, our aim was to determine BDNF plasma levels in psoriasis patients and healthy controls. Adult patients (n=94 presenting with psoriasis for at least 1 year were enrolled, and age- and gender-matched with healthy controls (n=307 from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil. Participants had neither a previous history of coronary artery disease nor current episode of major depression. BDNF plasma levels were determined using the Promega ELISA kit. A general linear model was used to compare BDNF levels in psoriasis patients and controls, with age, gender, systolic blood pressure, serum fasting glucose, blood lipid levels, triglycerides, smoking status, and body mass index examined. After adjusting for clinical and demographic variables, significantly decreased BNDF plasma levels were observed in psoriasis patients (P=0.01 (estimated marginal means of 3922 pg/mL; 95%CI=2660-5135 compared with controls (5788 pg/mL; 95%CI=5185-6442. Similar BDNF levels were found in both mild and severe cases of psoriasis. Our finding, that BDNF is decreased in psoriasis, supports the concept of a brain-skin connection in psoriasis. Further studies should determine if BDNF is increased after specific psoriasis treatments, and associated with different disease stages.

  9. High alcohol consumption causes high IgE levels but not high risk of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Frederikke K; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    disease. Genetically, we explored potential causal relationships between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic disease. RESULTS: The multivariable adjusted odds ratio for IgE levels greater than versus less than 150 kU/L and compared with subjects without allergic disease was 2.3 (95% CI, 2......BACKGROUND: High alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels in observational studies; however, whether high alcohol consumption leads to high IgE levels and allergic disease is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that high alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels...... for the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH-1B; rs1229984) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH-1C; rs698). Observationally, we investigated associations between IgE levels and allergic disease (allergic asthma, rhinitis, and eczema) and between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic...

  10. Changes in neurotransmitter receptor expression levels in rat brain after 4-week exposure to 1-bromopropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohideen, Sahabudeen Sheik; Ichihara, Sahoko; Banu, Shameema; Liu, Fang; Kitoh, Junzoh; Ichihara, Gaku

    2009-11-01

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP), an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents, exhibits neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity in animals and humans. The present study investigated the effects of exposure to 1-BP on expression of neurotransmitter receptor genes in the rat brain to explore possible biomarkers for central neurotoxicity and find brain regions sensitive for microarray analysis. Thirty-six F344 rats were divided at random into four equal groups of nine and exposed to 1-BP at 0, 400, 800 and 1000 ppm for 8 h/day; 7 days/week for 4 weeks. Total RNA from different brain regions was extracted and real-time PCR was conducted to quantify the mRNA levels of serotonin, dopamine and GABA receptors. Western blot analysis for specific regions of interest was also carried out to determine the protein levels. The mRNAs of 5HTr2a, D2R and GABAa1 were down regulated in a 1-BP dose-dependent manner in the hippocampus. The mRNA levels of 5HTr1a, 5HTr2a, D1R and GABAa1 were significantly decreased in the cortex of rats exposed to 800 ppm, but not to 1000 ppm. The mRNAs of 5HTr1a and 5HTr3a in the pons-medulla were decreased in rats exposed to 400 ppm or higher concentrations. The mRNA expression of D2R in the hippocampus and 5HTr1a and 5HTr3a in the pons-medulla oblongata were the most sensitive indicators of 1-BP neurotoxicity. The results suggest that mRNA expression analysis is useful in identifying brain regions susceptible to 1-BP, as well as providing potential biomarkers for central nervous system toxicity.

  11. Level set segmentation of brain magnetic resonance images based on local Gaussian distribution fitting energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Chen, Yunjie; Pan, Xiaohua; Hong, Xunning; Xia, Deshen

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents a variational level set approach in a multi-phase formulation to segmentation of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images with intensity inhomogeneity. In our model, the local image intensities are characterized by Gaussian distributions with different means and variances. We define a local Gaussian distribution fitting energy with level set functions and local means and variances as variables. The means and variances of local intensities are considered as spatially varying functions. Therefore, our method is able to deal with intensity inhomogeneity without inhomogeneity correction. Our method has been applied to 3T and 7T MR images with promising results.

  12. Circulating levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor: correlation with mood, cognition and motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Antonio Lucio; Barbosa, Izabela Guimarães; Diniz, Breno Satler; Kummer, Arthur

    2010-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most widely distributed neurotrophin in the CNS, where it plays several pivotal roles in synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival. As a consequence, BDNF has become a key target in the physiopathology of several neurological and psychiatric diseases. Recent studies have consistently reported altered levels of BDNF in the circulation (i.e., serum or plasma) of patients with major depression, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease. Correlations between serum BDNF levels and affective, cognitive and motor symptoms have also been described. BDNF appears to be an unspecific biomarker of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by neurodegenerative changes.

  13. Evaluation of zinc effect on cadmium action in lipid peroxidation and metallothionein levels in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos M. Braga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a known hepato- and nephrotoxic pollutant and zinc (Zn metalloproteins are important targets of Cd. Hence, the administration of Zn may mitigate Cd toxic effects. However, the interaction of Cd and Zn has been little investigated in the brain. Previously, we reported a protective effect of Zn on mortality caused by Cd in rats. Here, we tested whether the protective effect of Zn could be related to changes in brain Zn-proteins, metallothionein (MT and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratse (δ-ALA-D. Male adult rats were daily administered for 10 days with Zn (2 mg kg−1, Cd (0.25 and 1 mg kg−1 and 0.25 mg kg−1 of Cd plus Zn and 1 mg kg−1 of Cd plus Zn. The body weight loss, food intake deprivation, and mortality occurred in 1 mg kg−1 of Cd, but Zn co-administration did mitigate these effects. The brain Zn content was not modified by treatment with Cd, whereas cerebral Cd levels increased in animals exposed to Cd. The administration of 0.25 mg kg−1 of Cd (with or without Zn induced lipid peroxidation and decreased MT concentration, but 2 mg kg−1 of Zn and 1 mg kg−1 of Cd did not change these parameters. Brain δ-ALA-D was not modified by Cd and/or Zn treatments. Since the co-administration of Zn did not attenuate the changes induced by Cd in the brain, our results suggest that the protective effect of Zn on impairments caused by Cd in animal status is weakly related to a cerebral interaction of these metals.

  14. Progress in the High Level Trigger Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Cristobal Padilla

    2007-01-01

    During the week from March 19th to March 23rd, the DAQ/HLT group performed another of its technical runs. On this occasion the focus was on integrating the Level 2 and Event Filter triggers, with a much fuller integration of HLT components than had been done previously. For the first time this included complete trigger slices, with a menu to run the selection algorithms for muons, electrons, jets and taus at the Level-2 and Event Filter levels. This Technical run again used the "Pre-Series" system (a vertical slice prototype of the DAQ/HLT system, see the ATLAS e-news January issue for details). Simulated events, provided by our colleagues working in the streaming tests, were pre-loaded into the ROS (Read Out System) nodes. These are the PC's where the data from the detector is stored after coming out of the front-end electronics, the "first part of the TDAQ system" and the interface to the detectors. These events used a realistic beam interaction mixture and had been subjected to a Level-1 selection. The...

  15. Serial Serum Leukocyte Apoptosis Levels as Predictors of Outcome in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Apoptosis associates with secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI. This study posits that serum leukocyte apoptosis levels in acute TBI are predictive of outcome. Methods. Two hundred and twenty-nine blood samples from 88 patients after acute TBI were obtained on admission and on Days 4 and 7. Serial apoptosis levels of different leukocyte subsets were examined in 88 TBI patients and 27 control subjects. Results. The leukocyte apoptosis was significantly higher in TBI patients than in controls. Brief unconsciousness (P=0.009, motor deficits (P≤0.001, GCS (P≤0.001, ISS (P=0.001, WBC count (P=0.015, late apoptosis in lymphocytes and monocytes on Day 1 (P=0.004 and P=0.022, resp., subdural hemorrhage on initial brain CT (P=0.002, neurosurgical intervention (P≤0.001, and acute posttraumatic seizure (P=0.046 were significant risk factors of outcome. Only motor deficits (P=0.033 and late apoptosis in monocytes on Day 1 (P=0.037 were independently associated with outcome. A cutoff value of 5.72% of late apoptosis in monocytes was associated with poor outcome in acute TBI patients. Conclusion. There are varying degrees of apoptosis in patients following TBI and in healthy individuals. Such differential expression suggests that apoptosis in different leukocyte subsets plays an important role in outcome following injury.

  16. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E.; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D.; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, alpha-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana’s main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by re-exposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are currently no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA provides a novel pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

  17. How genetics affects the brain to produce higher-level dysfunctions in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Laura; Petrucci, Antonio; Spanò, Barbara; Torso, Mario; Olivito, Giusy; Lispi, Ludovico; Costanzi-Porrini, Sandro; Giulietti, Giovanni; Koch, Giacomo; Giacanelli, Manlio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disorder dominated by muscular impairment and brain dysfunctions. Although brain damage has previously been demonstrated in DM1, its associations with the genetics and clinical/neuropsychological features of the disease are controversial. This study assessed the differential role of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in determining higher-level dysfunctions in DM1. Ten patients with genetically confirmed DM1 and 16 healthy How genetics affects the brain to produce higher-level dysfunctions in myotonic dystrophy type 1 matched controls entered the study. The patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment and quantification of CTG triplet expansion. All the subjects underwent MR scanning at 3T, with studies including T1-weighted volumes and diffusion-weighted images. Voxel-based morphometry and tractbased spatial statistics were used for unbiased quantification of regional GM atrophy and WM integrity. The DM1 patients showed widespread involvement of both tissues. The extent of the damage correlated with CTG triplet expansion and cognition. This study supports the idea that genetic abnormalities in DM1mainly target the WM, but GM involvement is also crucial in determining the clinical characteristics of DM1.

  18. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health.

  19. Linking Brain Principles to High-Quality Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Stephen; Juola-Rushton, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Many educators are already knowledgeable about and skilled in best practices. And much of what is happening in developmentally appropriate programs exemplifies "brain compatible" practices. Being educated in the connections between best practices and brain compatibility is an important part of the knowledge base of early childhood educators. Just…

  20. Chronic alcoholism in rats induces a compensatory response, preserving brain thiamine diphosphate, but the brain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenases are inactivated despite unchanged coenzyme levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhomenko, Yulia M; Kudryavtsev, Pavel A; Pylypchuk, Svetlana Yu; Chekhivska, Lilia I; Stepanenko, Svetlana P; Sergiichuk, Andrej A; Bunik, Victoria I

    2011-06-01

    Thiamine-dependent changes in alcoholic brain were studied using a rat model. Brain thiamine and its mono- and diphosphates were not reduced after 20 weeks of alcohol exposure. However, alcoholism increased both synaptosomal thiamine uptake and thiamine diphosphate synthesis in brain, pointing to mechanisms preserving thiamine diphosphate in the alcoholic brain. In spite of the unchanged level of the coenzyme thiamine diphosphate, activities of the mitochondrial 2-oxoglutarate and pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes decreased in alcoholic brain. The inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was caused by its increased phosphorylation. The inactivation of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHC) correlated with a decrease in free thiols resulting from an elevation of reactive oxygen species. Abstinence from alcohol following exposure to alcohol reactivated OGDHC along with restoration of the free thiol content. However, restoration of enzyme activity occurred before normalization of reactive oxygen species levels. Hence, the redox status of cellular thiols mediates the action of oxidative stress on OGDHC in alcoholic brain. As a result, upon chronic alcohol consumption, physiological mechanisms to counteract the thiamine deficiency and silence pyruvate dehydrogenase are activated in rat brain, whereas OGDHC is inactivated due to impaired antioxidant ability.

  1. Food and Nutrition Curriculum Guide for Florida. Elementary Level, Middle/Junior High Level, Senior High Level, Post-Secondary Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Myrna P.; Baum, Rosemere

    This curriculum guide contains competency-based curricula suggested for teaching foods and nutrition courses on the elementary, middle/junior high school, senior high school, and postsecondary levels in Florida. For each level, concepts and subconcepts are presented, referenced to competencies or terminal performance objectives. For each…

  2. High-level Behavior Representation Languages Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Newell, A. (1980). The keystroke-level model for user performance time with interactive systems. Communications of the ACM , 23(7), 396-410. Cohen, M. A... ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI󈧊. New York, NY: ACM . Howes, A., Lewis, R. L., Vera, A., & Richardson, J. (2005...modeling made easy. In Proceedings of CHI 2004 (Vienna, Austria, April 2004), 455-462. New York, NY: ACM . Jones, R. M., Crossman, J. A. L., Lebiere, C

  3. Genetic dissection of the mouse brain using high-field magnetic resonance microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, A; Johnson, G A; Williams, R W

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has demonstrated that variation in brain structure is associated with differences in behavior and disease state. However, it has rarely been practical to prospectively test causal models that link anatomical and functional differences in humans. In the present study we have combined classical mouse genetics with high-field MR to systematically explore and test such structure-functional relations across multiple brain regions. We segmented 33 regions in two parental strains-C57BL/6J (B) and DBA/2J (D)-and in nine BXD recombinant inbred strains. All strains have been studied extensively for more than 20 years using a battery of genetic, functional, anatomical, and behavioral assays. We compared levels of variation within and between strains and sexes, by region, and by system. Average within-strain variation had a coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.6% for the whole brain; while the CV ranged from 2.3 to 3.6% for olfactory bulbs, cortex and cerebellum, and up to approximately 18% for septum and laterodorsal thalamic nucleus. Variation among strain averages ranged from 6.7% for cerebellum, 7.6% for whole brain, 9.0% for cortex, up to approximately 26% for the ventricles, laterodorsal thalamic nucleus, and the interpeduncular nucleus. Heritabilities averaged 0.60+/-0.18. Sex differences were not significant with the possible (and unexpected) exception of the pons ( approximately 20% larger in males). A correlation matrix of regional volumes revealed high correlations among functionally related parts of the CNS (e.g., components of the limbic system), and several high correlations between regions that are not anatomically connected, but that may nonetheless be functionally or genetically coupled.

  4. Increased serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients with narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Jennum, Poul; Knudsen, Stine

    2013-01-01

    in hypocretin neurons in hypothalamus in post-mortem tissue. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are important for activity-dependent neuronal function and synaptic modulation and it is considered that these mechanisms are important in sleep regulation. We hypothesised......Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy), fragmentation of nocturnal sleep and sleep paralysis. The symptoms of the disease strongly correlate with a reduction in hypocretin levels in CSF and a reduction...... that serum levels of these factors are altered in patients with narcolepsy compared to healthy controls without sleep disturbances. Polysomnography data was obtained and serum BDNF and NGF levels measured using ELISA, while hypocretin was measured using RIA. Serum BDNF levels were significantly higher...

  5. Increased acetyl and total histone levels in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Pritika J; Lill, Claire; Faull, Richard; Curtis, Maurice A; Dragunow, Mike

    2015-02-01

    Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that plays a critical role in chromatin remodelling and transcriptional regulation. There is increasing evidence that epigenetic modifications may become compromised in aging and increase susceptibility to the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Immunohistochemical labelling of free-floating sections from the inferior temporal gyrus (Alzheimer's disease, n=14; control, n=17) and paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays containing tissue from the middle temporal gyrus (Alzheimer's disease, n=29; control, n=28) demonstrated that acetyl histone H3 and acetyl histone H4 levels, as well as total histone H3 and total histone H4 protein levels, were significantly increased in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain tissue compared to age- and sex-matched neurologically normal control brain tissue. Changes in acetyl histone levels were proportional to changes in total histone levels. The increase in acetyl histone H3 and H4 was observed in Neuronal N immunopositive pyramidal neurons in Alzheimer's disease brain. Using immunolabelling, histone markers correlated significantly with the level of glial fibrillary acidic protein and HLA-DP, -DQ and -DR immunopositive cells and with the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (hyperphosphorylated tau load and β-amyloid plaques). Given that histone acetylation changes were correlated with changes in total histone protein, it was important to evaluate if protein degradation pathways may be compromised in Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, significant positive correlations were also found between ubiquitin load and histone modifications. The relationship between histone acetylation and ubiquitin levels was further investigated in an in vitro model of SK-N-SH cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor Mg132 and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid. In this model, compromised protein degradation caused by Mg132 lead to elevated histone

  6. BrainFrame: A node-level heterogeneous accelerator platform for neuron simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaragdos, Georgios; Chatzikonstantis, Georgios; Kukreja, Rahul; Sidiropoulos, Harry; Rodopoulos, Dimitrios; Sourdis, Ioannis; Al-Ars, Zaid; Kachris, Christoforos; Soudris, Dimitrios; de Zeeuw, Chris; Strydis, Christos

    2017-07-14

    Objective: The advent of High-Performance Computing (HPC) in recent years has led to its increasing use in brain study through computational models. The scale and complexity of such models are constantly increasing, leading to challenging computational requirements. Even though modern HPC platforms can often deal with such challenges, the vast diversity of the modeling field does not permit for a homogeneous acceleration platform to effectively address the complete array of modeling requirements. Approach: In this paper we propose and build BrainFrame, a heterogeneous acceleration platform that incorporates three distinct acceleration technologies, an Intel Xeon-Phi CPU, a NVidia GP-GPU and a Maxeler Dataflow Engine. The PyNN software framework is also integrated into the platform. As a challenging proof of concept, we analyze the performance of BrainFrame on different experiment instances of a state-of-the-art neuron model, representing the Inferior-Olivary Nucleus using a biophysically-meaningful, extended Hodgkin-Huxley representation. The model instances take into account not only the neuronal-network dimensions but also different network-connectivity densities, which can drastically affect the workload's performance characteristics. Main results: The combined use of different HPC fabrics demonstrated that BrainFrame is better able to cope with the modeling diversity encountered in realistic experiments. Our performance analysis shows clearly that the model directly affects performance and all three technologies are required to cope with all the model use cases. Significance: The BrainFrame framework is designed to transparently configure and select the appropriate back-end accelerator technology for use per simulation run. The PyNN integration provides a familiar bridge to the vast number of models already available. Additionally, it gives a clear roadmap for extending the platform support beyond the proof of concept, with improved usability and directly

  7. Acute aerobic exercise increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in elderly with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Vital, Thays Martins; Stein, Angelica Miki; Arantes, Franciel José; Rueda, André Veloso; Camarini, Rosana; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate the involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Decreased BDNF levels may constitute a lack of trophic support and contribute to cognitive impairment in AD. The benefits of acute and chronic physical exercise on BDNF levels are well-documented in humans, however, exercise effects on BDNF levels have not been analyzed in older adults with AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute aerobic exercise on BDNF levels in older adults with AD and to verify associations among BDNF levels, aerobic fitness, and level of physical activity. Using a controlled design, twenty-one patients with AD (76.3 ± 6.2 years) and eighteen healthy older adults (74.6 ± 4.7 years) completed an acute aerobic exercise. The outcomes included measures of BDNF plasma levels, aerobic fitness (treadmill grade, time to exhaustion, VO2, and maximal lactate) and level of physical activity (Baecke Questionnaire Modified for the Elderly). The independent t-test shows differences between groups with respect to the BDNF plasma levels at baseline (p = 0.04; t = 4.53; df = 37). In two-way ANOVA, a significant effect of time was found (p = 0.001; F = 13.63; df = 37), the aerobic exercise significantly increased BDNF plasma levels in AD patients and healthy controls. A significant correlation (p = 0.04; r = 0.33) was found between BDNF levels and the level of physical activity. The results of our study suggest that aerobic exercise increases BDNF plasma levels in patients with AD and healthy controls. In addition to that, BDNF levels had association with level of physical activity.

  8. 白藜芦醇对高脂饮食去卵巢肥胖大鼠海马组织脑源性神经营养因子水平的影响%Effect of resveratrol on level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampus of obese rats induced by ovariectomy and high-fat diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗玉连; 武传龙; 刘金波; 江蓓; 张晓黎

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨去卵巢联合高脂饮食诱导的肥胖大鼠海马组织中脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)、雌激素受体α(ERα)和雌激素受体β(ERβ)表达的变化,同时观察白藜芦醇对这些改变的影响.方法:50只3月龄雌性Wistar大鼠随机分为5组:假手术普通饮食对照(C)组、假手术高脂饮食(H)组、单纯去卵巢(O)组、去卵巢高脂饮食(O+H)组和白藜芦醇(40mg·kg-1 ·d-1)+去卵巢高脂饮食(O+H+R)组.3月后抽取股动脉血检测血清雌二醇(E2)、总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)含量;实时荧光定量PCR法检测海马BDNF、ERα和ERβ mRNA表达,蛋白免疫印迹法及ELISA法分别检测海马BD-NF蛋白含量.结果:与C组比较,H组大鼠血清TC和LDL-C含量升高,海马BDNF水平显著降低(P<0.05或P<0.01),O组大鼠血清E2水平降低,TC含量升高,海马BDNF水平及ERα、ERβ mRNA表达均明显下降(P<0.05或P<0.01);O+H组大鼠血清TC含量升高,HDL-C水平降低,海马BDNF水平降低,与C组、H组和O组比较均有显著差异(P<0.05或P<0.01),海马ERα和ERβ mRNA表达下降,与C组和H组比较差异显著(P<0.05或P<0.01);O+H+R组大鼠血清E2水平升高,TC含量降低,海马ERα和ERβ mRNA表达水平及BDNF含量均明显增加,与O+H组比较有显著差异(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论:去卵巢联合高脂饮食显著降低大鼠海马ERα和ERβ mRNA表达及BDNF水平,而白藜芦醇能够明显改善绝经后肥胖大鼠的血脂水平,上调海马ERα和ERβ mR-NA表达,增加海马BDNF水平.%AIM: To explore the effects of resvERαtrol on the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( BD-NF) and the mRNA expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ) in hippocampus of obese rats induced by ovariectomy and high-fat diet. METHODS: Fifty female Wistar rats, aged 3 months, were randomly divided into 5 groups: control ( C) group, sham

  9. Screening for impact of popular herbs improving mental abilities on the transcriptional level of brain transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrozikiewicz Przemyslaw M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of compounds that can modify the activity of ABC (ATP-binding cassette and SLC (solute carrier transporters in the blood-brain barrier (BBB. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural and synthetic substances on the expression level of genes encoding transporters present in the BBB (mdr1a, mdr1b, mrp1, mrp2, oatp1a4, oatp1a5 and oatp1c1. Our results showed that verapamil caused the greatest reduction in the mRNA level while other synthetic (piracetam, phenobarbital and natural (codeine, cyclosporine A, quercetin substances showed a selective inhibitory effect. Further, the extract from the roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer exhibited a decrease of transcription against selected transporters whereas the extract from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves resulted in an increase of the expression level of tested genes, except for mrp2. Extract from the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. was the only one to cause an increased mRNA level for mdr1 and oatp1c1. These findings suggest that herbs can play an important role in overcoming the BBB and multidrug resistance to pharmacotherapy of brain cancer and mental disorders, based on the activity of selected drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters located in the BBB

  10. Globalism on the High School Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presutti, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the International Sibling Program at Lewiston-Porter High School in Youngstown, New York. Notes that 10 "sibling schools" in eight countries participate by exchanging faculty and students. Suggests that the program has given students, staff, and the community many opportunities to interact with the real world. (RS)

  11. Speech at the High-level Dialogue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu; Hongjun

    2014-01-01

    <正>The commemoration of 2014 International Day of Peace,themed with"A More Secure Asia Aspired by People"is highly relevant.To begin with,I would like to share 3 points on Asian security with you.Firstly,problems in the realm of traditional security are worrying.Outdated security perspectives and security systemic structures left by the cold war are threatening Asian peace and development,yet some countries still believe in backward security

  12. Developmental and Cognitive Characteristics of “High-Level Potentialities” (Highly Gifted Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vaivre-Douret

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study covers the interesting field of the development in gifted children which is often neglected in pediatrics because psychomotor development data are still rare, since “gifted” children are generally noticed towards the end of their primary schooling by IQ measurement. Developmental studies have shown the evidence from several fields that children identified as “high-level potentialities” or “intellectually gifted” develop sensory, locomotor, neuropsychological, and language skills earlier than typically expected. The hypothesis is offered that the earlier development originates from biological processes affecting the physical development of the brain and in turn even intellectual abilities are developed earlier, potentially allowing for advanced development. Further it is discussed how these developmental advances interact with the social environment and in certain circumstances may entail increased risk for developing socioemotional difficulties and learning disabilities that often go unaddressed due to the masking by the advance intellectual abilities.

  13. Rapid fluctuations in extracellular brain glucose levels induced by natural arousing stimuli and intravenous cocaine: fueling the brain during neural activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Magalie

    2012-01-01

    Glucose, a primary energetic substrate for neural activity, is continuously influenced by two opposing forces that tend to either decrease its extracellular levels due to enhanced utilization in neural cells or increase its levels due to entry from peripheral circulation via enhanced cerebral blood flow. How this balance is maintained under physiological conditions and changed during neural activation remains unclear. To clarify this issue, enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with high-speed amperometry were used in freely moving rats to evaluate fluctuations in extracellular glucose levels induced by brief audio stimulus, tail pinch (TP), social interaction with another rat (SI), and intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg). Measurements were performed in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), which drastically differ in neuronal activity. In NAcc, where most cells are powerfully excited after salient stimulation, glucose levels rapidly (latency 2–6 s) increased (30–70 μM or 6–14% over baseline) by all stimuli; the increase differed in magnitude and duration for each stimulus. In SNr, where most cells are transiently inhibited by salient stimuli, TP, SI, and cocaine induced a biphasic glucose response, with the initial decrease (−20–40 μM or 5–10% below baseline) followed by a reboundlike increase. The critical role of neuronal activity in mediating the initial glucose response was confirmed by monitoring glucose currents after local microinjections of glutamate (GLU) or procaine (PRO). While intra-NAcc injection of GLU transiently increased glucose levels in this structure, intra-SNr PRO injection resulted in rapid, transient decreases in SNr glucose. Therefore, extracellular glucose levels in the brain change very rapidly after physiological and pharmacological stimulation, the response is structure specific, and the pattern of neuronal activity appears to be a critical factor determining direction and magnitude of physiological

  14. Cloning, high-level expression, purification and characterization of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cloning, high-level expression, purification and characterization of a staphylokinase variant, SakøC, ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Hence in this study, we reported the cloning, high-level expression, purification and characterization of ...

  15. Memory deficit associated with increased brain proinflammatory cytokine levels and neurodegeneration in acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate behavioral changes and neuroinflammatory process following left unilateral common carotid artery occlusion (UCCAO, a model of cerebral ischemia. Post-ischemic behavioral changes following 15 min UCCAO were recorded 24 hours after reperfusion. The novel object recognition task was used to assess learning and memory. After behavioral test, brains from sham and ischemic mice were removed and processed to evaluate central nervous system pathology by TTC and H&E techniques as well as inflammatory mediators by ELISA. UCCAO promoted long-term memory impairment after reperfusion. Infarct areas were observed in the cerebrum by TTC stain. Moreover, the histopathological analysis revealed cerebral necrotic cavities surrounded by ischemic neurons and hippocampal neurodegeneration. In parallel with memory dysfunction, brain levels of TNF-a, IL-1b and CXCL1 were increased post ischemia compared with sham-operated group. These findings suggest an involvement of central nervous system inflammatory mediators and brain damage in cognitive impairment following unilateral acute ischemia.

  16. Inhibition of fatty acid binding proteins elevates brain anandamide levels and produces analgesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kaczocha

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA is an antinociceptive lipid that is inactivated through cellular uptake and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs are intracellular carriers that deliver AEA and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs to FAAH for hydrolysis. The mammalian brain expresses three FABP subtypes: FABP3, FABP5, and FABP7. Recent work from our group has revealed that pharmacological inhibition of FABPs reduces inflammatory pain in mice. The goal of the current work was to explore the effects of FABP inhibition upon nociception in diverse models of pain. We developed inhibitors with differential affinities for FABPs to elucidate the subtype(s that contributes to the antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors. Inhibition of FABPs reduced nociception associated with inflammatory, visceral, and neuropathic pain. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors mirrored their affinities for FABP5, while binding to FABP3 and FABP7 was not a predictor of in vivo efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors were mediated by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα and FABP inhibition elevated brain levels of AEA, providing the first direct evidence that FABPs regulate brain endocannabinoid tone. These results highlight FABPs as novel targets for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

  17. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case......-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3...... were measured in 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and in 40 age- and gender matched healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of BDNF and NT-3 were evaluated in various affective states in bipolar disorder...

  18. Low-light-level therapy as a treatment for minimal hepatic encephalopathy: behavioural and brain assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Natalia; Méndez, Marta; Arias, Jorge L

    2016-11-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) has been shown to affect daily functioning, quality of life, driving and overall mortality. However, little is known about treating or diagnosing early impairments involved in MHE. We studied one of its precipitating factors, portal hypertension. The purpose was to evaluate an enhancement in neuronal metabolism through low-light-level therapy (LLLT) and whether this therapy has effects on behavioural task acquisition. Rats were trained to perform a stimulus-response task using the Morris water maze. Three groups of animals were used: a SHAM (sham-operated) group (n = 7), a portal hypertension (PH) group (n = 7) and a PH + LLLT group (n = 7). The triple portal vein ligation method was used to create an animal model of the early developmental phase of HE, and then the animals were exposed to 670 + 10 nm LED light at a dose of 9 J/cm(2) once a day for 7 days. The metabolic activity of the brains was studied with cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry. There were differences in behavioural performance, with an improvement in the PH + LLLT group. Energetic brain metabolism revealed significant differences between the groups in all the brain structures analysed, except the anterodorsal thalamus. At the same time, in different brain networks, the PH group showed a more complicated relationship among the structures, while the SHAM and PH + LLLT groups had similar patterns. In this study, we provide the first preliminary insights into the validity of LLLT as a possible intervention to improve memory under minimal hepatic encephalopathy conditions.

  19. Increased 5-hydroxymethylation levels in the sub ventricular zone of the Alzheimer's brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mastroeni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subventricular zone (SVZ is a site of neurogenesis in the aging brain, and epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in regulating the “normal” distribution of new nerve cells into the existing cellular milieu. In a case-control study of human primary SVZ cultures and fixed tissue from the same individuals, we have found significant increases in DNA hydroxymethylation levels in the SVZ of Alzheimer's disease patients compared with nondiseased control subjects. We show that this increase in hydroxymethylation directly correlates to an increase in cellular proliferation in Alzheimer's disease precursor cells, which implicates the hydroxymethylation tag to a higher degree of cellular proliferation.

  20. Brain levels of N-acylethanolamine phospholipids in mice during pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, B.; Hansen, H.H.; Petersen, G.

    2003-01-01

    The N-acylethanolamine phospholipids (NAPE) are precursors for N-acylethanolamines (NAE), including anandamide (20:4-NAE), which is a ligand for the cannabinoid receptors. Previously, NAPE were believed to be found only in injured tissue, e.g., after neurodegenerative insults. Neuronal injury may...... and of N-acyltransferase in brain membrane preparations from adult and 3-d-old mice revealed an enzyme pattern in the adult mice that was favorable for NAE accumulation as opposed to NAPE accumulation. Thus, there was no difference in NAPE levels; at present, however, this does not exclude that NAE may...

  1. Brain N-acetylaspartate levels correlate with motor function in metachromatic leukodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    i Dali, C; Hanson, L G; Barton, N W

    2010-01-01

    and is known as a marker for neuronal and axonal loss. NAA and other metabolite levels measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) correlate with performance of the brain in normal children. There is a need for sensitive measures of disease progression in patients with MLD to enable development......Late infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder that causes severe demyelination of the nervous system. The neuronal metabolite N-acetylaspartate (NAA) serves as a source of acetyl groups for myelin lipid synthesis in oligodendrocytes...

  2. Posterior cingulate cross-hemispheric functional connectivity predicts the level of consciousness in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haosu; Dai, Rui; Qin, Pengmin; Tang, Weijun; Hu, Jin; Weng, Xuchu; Wu, Xing; Mao, Ying; Wu, Xuehai; Northoff, Georg

    2017-03-24

    Previous studies have demonstrated that altered states of consciousness are related to changes in resting state activity in the default-mode network (DMN). Anatomically, the DMN can be divided into anterior and posterior regions. The anterior DMN includes the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex and other medial prefrontal cortical regions, whereas the posterior DMN includes regions such as the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the temporal parietal junction (TPJ). Although differential roles have been attributed to the anterior and posterior DMN regions, their exact contributions to consciousness levels remain unclear. To investigate the specific role of the posterior DMN in consciousness levels, we investigated 20 healthy controls (7 females, mean age = 33.6 years old) and 20 traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients (5 females, mean age = 43 years old) whose brain lesions were mainly restricted to the bilateral frontal cortex but retained a well-preserved posterior DMN (e.g., the PCC and the TPJ) and who exhibited varying levels of consciousness. We investigated the intra- and cross-functional connectivity strengths (FCSs) between the right/left PCC and the right/left TPJ and their correlation with consciousness levels. Significant reductions in both the intra- and cross-hemispheric FCSs were observed in patients compared with controls. A significant correlation with consciousness levels was observed only for the cross-hemispheric PCC-TPJ FCS but not for the intra-hemispheric PCC-TPJ FCS. Taken together, our results show that the cross-hemispheric posterior DMN is related to consciousness levels in a specific group of patients without posterior structural lesions. We therefore propose that the PCC may be central in maintaining consciousness through its cross-hemispheric FC with the TPJ.

  3. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels are elevated in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Sachiko; Soeki, Takeshi; Matsuura, Tomomi; Tobiume, Takeshi; Ise, Takayuki; Kusunose, Kenya; Yamaguchi, Koji; Yagi, Shusuke; Fukuda, Daiju; Iwase, Takashi; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Shimabukuro, Michio; Muguruma, Naoki; Takayama, Tetsuji; Kishimoto, Ichiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Sata, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides have been proposed as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, especially heart failure. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) has also been shown to be upregulated at the transcriptional and translational levels by pro-inflammatory cytokines in cardiac myocytes. Although we often measure plasma BNP levels in cancer patients, it remains unknown whether cancer-related inflammation affects the plasma BNP levels. We investigated the relationship between the BNP and human cancers. We retrospectively studied 2,923 patients in whom the plasma BNP levels and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured and echocardiography was performed. Patients with clinically evident heart failure (NYHA II or higher), heart disease requiring medical treatment or surgery, renal dysfunction, and inflammatory disease were excluded. There were 234 patients in the final analysis. Blood sampling was performed before surgery and chemotherapy. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between the inflammation and plasma BNP levels in mouse models of colon cancer. Of the 234 patients, 80 were diagnosed with cancer. Both the plasma BNP and serum CRP levels were significantly higher in cancer patients than those without. There were no significant differences in the echocardiographic parameters. There was a significant positive correlation between the plasma BNP and serum CRP levels in cancer patients (r = 0.360, P<0.01) but not in those without. In cancer patients, only the CRP correlated with the BNP independent of the age, creatinine level, hypertension, and body mass index. In addition, in nude mice with subcutaneous colon cancer, the plasma BNP level was elevated compared with that in non-cancer mice, and there was a significant relationship between the plasma BNP and serum levels of the inflammatory markers. In cancer patients, as well as colon cancer model mice, the plasma BNP levels were elevated, possibly due to cancer-related inflammation. The effect of cancer on the BNP

  4. Conformable actively multiplexed high-density surface electrode array for brain interfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan

    2015-01-13

    Provided are methods and devices for interfacing with brain tissue, specifically for monitoring and/or actuation of spatio-temporal electrical waveforms. The device is conformable having a high electrode density and high spatial and temporal resolution. A conformable substrate supports a conformable electronic circuit and a barrier layer. Electrodes are positioned to provide electrical contact with a brain tissue. A controller monitors or actuates the electrodes, thereby interfacing with the brain tissue. In an aspect, methods are provided to monitor or actuate spatio-temporal electrical waveform over large brain surface areas by any of the devices disclosed herein.

  5. Physical activity and amyloid-β plasma and brain levels: results from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B M; Peiffer, J J; Taddei, K; Lui, J K; Laws, S M; Gupta, V B; Taddei, T; Ward, V K; Rodrigues, M A; Burnham, S; Rainey-Smith, S R; Villemagne, V L; Bush, A; Ellis, K A; Masters, C L; Ames, D; Macaulay, S L; Szoeke, C; Rowe, C C; Martins, R N

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies suggest physical activity improves cognition and lowers Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. However, key AD pathogenic factors that are thought to be influenced by physical activity, particularly plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) and Aβ brain load, have yet to be thoroughly investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if plasma Aβ and amyloid brain deposition are associated with physical activity levels, and whether these associations differed between carriers and non-carriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele. Five-hundred and forty six cognitively intact participants (aged 60-95 years) from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing (AIBL) were included in these analyses. Habitual physical activity levels were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Serum insulin, glucose, cholesterol and plasma Aβ levels were measured in fasting blood samples. A subgroup (n=116) underwent (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) scanning to quantify brain amyloid load. Higher levels of physical activity were associated with higher high density lipoprotein (HDL) (P=0.037), and lower insulin (Pphysical activity. Conversely, lower levels of PiB SUVR (standardised uptake value ratio) were observed in higher exercising APOE ε4 carriers. Lower plasma Aβ1-42/1-40 and brain amyloid was observed in those reporting higher levels of physical activity, consistent with the hypothesis that physical activity may be involved in the modulation of pathogenic changes associated with AD.

  6. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Exley

    Full Text Available The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD value of 51.0 (33.0 μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  7. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  8. High-protein diet induces oxidative stress in rat brain: protective action of high-intensity exercise against lipid peroxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Camiletti-Moir??n, Daniel; Aparicio Garc??a-Molina, Virginia A.; Nebot Valenzuela, Elena; Medina, Gerardo; Mart??nez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Andrade, Ana; Porres-Foulquie, Jes??s; L??pez-Jurado, Mar??a; Aranda Ram??rez, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    diets as well as aerobic exercise could promote antioxidant capacity and consequently reduce free radicals overproduction on brain. However, little is know regarding to the high-protein diets and high intensity exercise on oxidative stress production. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of high-protein diets and high-intensity exercise (HIE) on brain oxidative stress markers. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 male Wistar rats were randomly distributed i...

  9. Systemic Administration of Glibenclamide Fails to Achieve Therapeutic Levels in the Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lahmann

    Full Text Available Activating mutations in the Kir6.2 (KCNJ11 subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel cause neonatal diabetes (ND. Patients with severe mutations also suffer from neurological complications. Glibenclamide blocks the open KATP channels and is the treatment of choice for ND. However, although glibenclamide successfully restores normoglycaemia, it has a far more limited effect on the neurological problems. To assess the extent to which glibenclamide crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB in vivo, we quantified glibenclamide concentrations in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, and brain tissue of rats, control mice, and mice expressing a human neonatal diabetes mutation (Kir6.2-V59M selectively in neurones (nV59M mice. As only small sample volumes can be obtained from rodents, we developed a highly sensitive method of analysis, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry acquisition with pseudo-selected reaction monitoring, achieving a quantification limit of 10ng/ml (20nM glibenclamide in a 30μl sample. Glibenclamide was not detectable in the CSF or brain of rats after implantation with subcutaneous glibenclamide pellets, despite high plasma concentrations. Further, one hour after a suprapharmacological glibenclamide dose was administered directly into the lateral ventricle of the brain, the plasma concentration was twice that of the CSF. This suggests the drug is rapidly exported from the CSF. Elacridar, an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (major multidrug resistance transporters at the BBB, did not affect glibenclamide levels in CSF and brain tissue. We also identified a reduced sensitivity to volatile anaesthetics in nV59M mice and showed this was not reversed by systemic delivery of glibenclamide. Our results therefore suggest that little glibenclamide reaches the central nervous system when given systemically, that glibenclamide is rapidly removed across the BBB when given intracranioventricularly

  10. A new stress model, a scream sound, alters learning and monoamine levels in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lili; Yang, Juan; Song, Tusheng; Hou, Ni; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Xiaoge; Zhang, Dianzeng; Wang, Lumin; Wang, Tao; Huang, Chen

    2014-01-17

    Most existing animal models for stress involve the simultaneous application of physical and psychological stress factors. In the current study, we described and used a novel psychological stress model (scream sound stress). To study the validity of it, we carried out acute and chronic scream sound stress. First, adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into white noise, stress and background groups. The white noise group and stress group were treated with white noise and scream sound for 4h in the morning respectively. Compared with white noise and background groups, exposure to acute scream sound increased corticosterone (CORT) level and decreased latency in Morris water maze (MWM) test. The levels of noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were altered in the striatum, hypothalamus and hippocampus of stress rats. Second, adult SD rats were randomly divided into background and stress groups, which were treated with scream sound for three weeks. Exposure to chronic scream sound suppressed body weight gain, increased corticosterone (CORT) level, influenced the morphology of adrenal gland, improved spleen and thymus indices, and decreased latency in MWM test. NE, DA, DOPAC, HVA and 5-HIAA levels were also altered in the brain of stress rats. Our results suggested that scream sound, as a novel stressor, facilitated learning ability, as well as altered monoamine levels in the rat brain. Moreover, scream sound is easy to apply and can be applied in more animals at the same time.

  11. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and personality traits in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Hiroshi; Baba, Hajime; Satomura, Emi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Takebayashi, Naoko; Namekawa, Yuki; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2015-03-04

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors. Previous studies have demonstrated lower serum BDNF levels in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and reported an association between BDNF levels and depression-related personality traits in healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to explore for a possible association between peripheral BDNF levels and personality traits in patients with MDD. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 123 inpatients with MDD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th edition) at the Juntendo University Koshigaya Hospital were recruited. Serum levels of BDNF were measured. Personality traits were assessed using the 125-item short version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, dose of antidepressant, and depression severity showed that TCI Self-Directedness (SD) scores were negatively associated with serum BDNF levels (β = -0.23, p = 0.026). MDD patients who have low SD did not show the reduction in serum BDNF levels that is normally associated with depressive state. Our findings suggest that depression-related biological changes may not occur in these individuals.

  12. Accumulated source imaging of brain activity with both low and high-frequency neuromagnetic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jing; Luo, Qian; Kotecha, Rupesh; Korman, Abraham; Zhang, Fawen; Luo, Huan; Fujiwara, Hisako; Hemasilpin, Nat; Rose, Douglas F

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the importance of high-frequency brain signals (>70 Hz). One challenge of high-frequency signal analysis is that the size of time-frequency representation of high-frequency brain signals could be larger than 1 terabytes (TB), which is beyond the upper limits of a typical computer workstation's memory (high-frequency magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in a single automated and versatile interface, rather than the more traditional, time-intensive visual inspection methods, which may take up to several days. To address the aim, we developed a new method, accumulated source imaging, defined as the volumetric summation of source activity over a period of time. This method analyzes signals in both low- (1~70 Hz) and high-frequency (70~200 Hz) ranges at source levels. To extract meaningful information from MEG signals at sensor space, the signals were decomposed to channel-cross-channel matrix (CxC) representing the spatiotemporal patterns of every possible sensor-pair. A new algorithm was developed and tested by calculating the optimal CxC and source location-orientation weights for volumetric source imaging, thereby minimizing multi-source interference and reducing computational cost. The new method was implemented in C/C++ and tested with MEG data recorded from clinical epilepsy patients. The results of experimental data demonstrated that accumulated source imaging could effectively summarize and visualize MEG recordings within 12.7 h by using approximately 10 GB of computer memory. In contrast to the conventional method of visually identifying multi-frequency epileptic activities that traditionally took 2-3 days and used 1-2 TB storage, the new approach can quantify epileptic abnormalities in both low- and high-frequency ranges at source levels, using much less time and computer memory.

  13. NT-brain natriuretic peptide levels in pleural fluid distinguish between pleural transudates and exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcsányi, János; Nagy, Erzsébet; Somlói, Miklós; Moldvay, Judit; Bezzegh, Attila; Bózsik, Béla; Strausz, János

    2004-10-01

    Pleural effusion is not pathognomic and distinguishing between transudates and exudates often presents a diagnostic dilemma. The purpose of our study was to examine whether the inclusion of pleural fluid brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurement into the analysis improves the diagnostic accuracy of pleural effusion. The pleural effusion of 14 patients with CHF (group A) and 14 subjects with different pleural pathology (group B) were analyzed. Samples of pleural fluid and serum were obtained from all patients on admission and biochemical analysis, bacterial and fungal culture, acid-fast bacilli smear and culture and cytology were performed on the pleural fluid. In vitro quantitative determination of N-terminal pro-Brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in serum and pleural fluid were performed by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay proBNP method on an Elecsys 2010 (Roche) analyzer. The median NT-proBNP levels in groups A and B were 6295 pg/ml and 276 pg/ml, respectively: (P=0.0001). There was no overlap between the two groups. While the Light's criteria had a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 43% for transudates, the pleural fluid NT-proBNP level accurately differentiated between the two groups. The pleural NT-proBNP levels were elevated in all patients who had transudate. Therefore if the NT-proBNP levels of pleural effusion are within the normal range, transudate resulting from congestive heart failure can be ruled out. Our results suggest that the inclusion of pleural fluid NT-proBNP measurement in the routine diagnostic panel would enhance discrimination among the different causes of pleural effusions.

  14. High levels of mitochondrial DNA deletions in substantia nigra neurons in aging and Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andreas; Krishnan, Kim J; Morris, Christopher M; Taylor, Geoffrey A; Reeve, Amy K; Perry, Robert H; Jaros, Evelyn; Hersheson, Joshua S; Betts, Joanne; Klopstock, Thomas; Taylor, Robert W; Turnbull, Douglass M

    2006-05-01

    Here we show that in substantia nigra neurons from both aged controls and individuals with Parkinson disease, there is a high level of deleted mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (controls, 43.3% +/- 9.3%; individuals with Parkinson disease, 52.3% +/- 9.3%). These mtDNA mutations are somatic, with different clonally expanded deletions in individual cells, and high levels of these mutations are associated with respiratory chain deficiency. Our studies suggest that somatic mtDNA deletions are important in the selective neuronal loss observed in brain aging and in Parkinson disease.

  15. Effects of tetrathiomolybdate and penicillamine on brain hydroxyl radical and free copper levels: a microdialysis study in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Wei; Liu, Jun-Xiu; Hou, Hai-Man; Chen, Ding-Bang; Feng, Li; Wu, Chao; Wei, Li-Ting; Li, Xun-Hua

    2015-02-27

    Wilson disease is an inherited disorder of excessive copper accumulation. The commonly used drug d-penicillamine (PA) or trientine both cause a high incidence (10-50%) of neurological worsening, which rarely occurs with tetrathiomolybdate (TM) treatment. To investigate the mechanisms of neurologic deterioration after the initiation of chelation therapy, brain hydroxyl radical and free copper were assessed in vivo in this study. On days 3, 7, 14, and 21 after PA or TM administration, striatal hydroxyl radical levels of both TX mice and controls were assessed by terephthalic acid (TA) combined with microdialysis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Within the same microdialysis samples, free copper was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that both hydroxyl radical and free copper markedly increased in the striatum of TX mice during PA administration but were not elevated when administering TM. These results suggested that the further increased free copper in the brain and oxidative stress caused by some chelators might contribute to the neurological deterioration.

  16. Acute strength exercise and the involvement of small or large muscle mass on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Correia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Blood neurotrophins, such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor, are considered to be of great importance in mediating the benefits of physical exercise. In this study, the effect of acute strength exercise and the involvement of small versus large muscle mass on the levels of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor were evaluated in healthy individuals. METHODS: The concentric strengths of knee (large and elbow (small flexor and extensor muscles were measured on two separate days. Venous blood samples were obtained from 16 healthy subjects before and after exercise. RESULTS: The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the plasma did not significantly increase after both arm and leg exercise. There was no significant difference in the plasma levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the arms and legs. CONCLUSION: The present results demonstrate that acute strength exercise does not induce significant alterations in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor plasma concentrations in healthy individuals. Considering that its levels may be affected by various factors, such as exercise, these findings suggest that the type of exercise program may be a decisive factor in altering peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

  17. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste from...

  18. A High-Voltage Level Tolerant Transistor Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne Johan; Geelen, Godefridus Johannes Gertrudis Maria

    2001-01-01

    A high-voltage level tolerant transistor circuit, comprising a plurality of cascoded transistors, including a first transistor (T1) operatively connected to a high-voltage level node (3) and a second transistor (T2) operatively connected to a low-voltage level node (2). The first transistor (T1) con

  19. Influence of dietary fatty acids on endocannabinoid and N-acylethanolamine levels in rat brain, liver and small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Andreas; Petersen, Gitte; Hellgren, Lars

    2008-01-01

    acid in brain, jejunum and liver. The OA-diet increased brain levels of anandamide and oleoylethanolamide (not 2-arachidonoylglycerol) without changing tissue fatty acid composition. The same diet increased oleoylethanolamide in liver. All five dietary fats decreased oleoylethanolamide in jejunum...... (AA)) on tissue levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, anandamide, oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide, stearoylethanolamide, linoleoylethanolamide, eicosapentaenoylethanolamide, docosahexaenoylethanolamide and tissue fatty acid composition. The LA-diet increased linoleoylethanolamide and linoleic...... without changing levels of anandamide, suggesting that dietary fat may have an orexigenic effect. The AA-diet increased anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in jejunum without effect on liver. The FO-diet decreased liver levels of all N-acylethanolamines (except eicosapentaenoylethanolamide...

  20. CT findings of the brain damages resulting from the high voltage electric injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, So Eun; Kim, Young Keun; Shim, Hyang Yi; Lee, Shin Hyung; Lee, Chang Joon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the CT features and pathogenesis of the electric brain injuries. We reviewed the CT scans of 3 patients injured by high-voltage electricity. We evaluated the findings early and delayed periods in each patients. The early CT findings were diffuse brain edema, scalp swelling, and focal hemorrhagic contusion. The findings of delayed period were cerebral infarction, pneumocephalus, brain abscess, and pneumatocele. CT was useful to correlate the pathogenesis and variable features of electric brain injuries.

  1. Potassium Aspartate Attenuates Brain Injury Induced by Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats Through Increasing Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Levels, Na+/K+-ATPase Activity and Reducing Brain Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yumei; Su, Yujin; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2016-12-13

    BACKGROUND Potassium aspartate (PA), as an electrolyte supplement, is widely used in clinical practice. In our previous study, we found PA had neuroprotective effects against apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. In this study, we examine whether PA has protective effects on traumatic brain injury (TBI). MATERIAL AND METHODS TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rats. Vehicle treatment (control) or PA treatment was administered intraperitoneally at 30 minutes after CCI. The modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and cortical lesion volume were examined. Brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity were measured, as well as brain ATP contents, lactic acid levels, and Na+/K+-ATPase activities. RESULTS We found that CCI induced cortical injury in rats. Acute PA treatment at the dose of 62.5 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg significantly improved neurological deficits (pATP (pATP levels, Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and reducing brain edema. It provides experimental evidence for the clinical application of PA.

  2. Multiphasic modification of intrinsic functional connectivity of the rat brain during increasing levels of propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiping; Pillay, Siveshigan; Li, Rupeng; Vizuete, Jeannette A; Pechman, Kimberly R; Schmainda, Kathleen M; Hudetz, Anthony G

    2013-12-01

    The dose-dependent effects of anesthetics on brain functional connectivity are incompletely understood. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) is widely used to assess the functional connectivity in humans and animals. Propofol is an anesthetic agent with desirable characteristics for functional neuroimaging in animals but its dose-dependent effects on rsfMRI functional connectivity have not been determined. Here we tested the hypothesis that brain functional connectivity undergoes specific changes in distinct neural networks at anesthetic depths associated with loss of consciousness. We acquired spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals simultaneously with electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from rats under steady-state, intravenously administered propofol at increasing doses from light sedation to deep anesthesia (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/kg/h IV). Power spectra and burst suppression ratio were calculated from the EEG to verify anesthetic depth. Functional connectivity was determined from the whole brain correlation of BOLD data in regions of interest followed by a segmentation of the correlation maps into anatomically defined regional connectivity. We found that propofol produced multiphasic, dose dependent changes in functional connectivity of various cortical and subcortical networks. Cluster analysis predicted segregation of connectivity into two cortical and two subcortical clusters. In one cortical cluster (somatosensory and parietal), the early reduction in connectivity was followed by transient reversal; in the other cluster (sensory, motor and cingulate/retrosplenial), this rebound was absent. The connectivity of the subcortical cluster (brainstem, hippocampal and caudate) was strongly reduced, whereas that of another (hypothalamus, medial thalamus and n. basalis) did not. Subcortical connectivity increased again in deep anesthesia associated with EEG burst suppression. Regional correlation analysis confirmed the

  3. Binding and release of brain calcium by low-level electromagnetic fields: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adey, W. R.; Bawin, S. M.

    Evidence has accumulated that sensitivity of brain tissue to specific weak oscillating electromagnetic fields occurs in the absence of significant tissue heating (less than 0.1°C). This review focuses on the ‘windowed’ character of sensitivities of calcium binding and electrical activity in brain tissue to low-frequency modulation and intensity characteristics of impressed RF fields. ELF fields decrease calcium efflux from isolated chick and cat cerebral tissue by about 15% only in narrow amplitude and frequency ‘windows,’ between 6 and 20 Hz and between 10 and 100 V/m (approximate tissue gradient, 10-7 V/cm). VHF (147 MHz) and UHF (450 MHz) fields increase calcium efflux from isolated chick brain by about 15% when amplitude modulated between 6 and 20 Hz, but only for incident fields in the vicinity of 1.0 mW/cm2. We have now shown that this increased efflux in response to 16-Hz amplitude-modulated 450-MHz, 0.75-mW/cm2 field exposure is insensitive to variations in calcium concentration from 0 to 4.16 mM in the testing solution but is enhanced by addition of hydrogen ions (0.108 mM 0.1 N HCl) and inhibited in the absence of normal bicarbonate ion levels (2.4 mM). In the presence of lanthanum ions (2.0 mM), which block transmembrane movement of calcium, exposure to these EM fields decreases the 45Ca2 + efflux. Low-frequency gradients may be transduced in a specific class of extracellular binding sites, normally occupied by calcium ions and susceptible to competitive hydrogen ion binding. Transductive coupling may involve coherent charge states between anionic sites on membrane surface glycoproteins, with longrange cooperative interactions triggered by weak extracellular electric fields. Proton ‘tunneling’ may occur at boundaries between coherent and noncoherent charge zones.

  4. A comparison of brain gene expression levels in domesticated and wild animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank W Albert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits. We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30-75 genes (less than 1% of expressed genes were differentially expressed, while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different.

  5. Development of a high angular resolution diffusion imaging human brain template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varentsova, Anna; Zhang, Shengwei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

    2014-05-01

    Brain diffusion templates contain rich information about the microstructure of the brain, and are used as references in spatial normalization or in the development of brain atlases. The accuracy of diffusion templates constructed based on the diffusion tensor (DT) model is limited in regions with complex neuronal micro-architecture. High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) overcomes limitations of the DT model and is capable of resolving intravoxel heterogeneity. However, when HARDI is combined with multiple-shot sequences to minimize image artifacts, the scan time becomes inappropriate for human brain imaging. In this work, an artifact-free HARDI template of the human brain was developed from low angular resolution multiple-shot diffusion data. The resulting HARDI template was produced in ICBM-152 space based on Turboprop diffusion data, was shown to resolve complex neuronal micro-architecture in regions with intravoxel heterogeneity, and contained fiber orientation information consistent with known human brain anatomy.

  6. High-field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals metabolic effects of normal brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Janna L; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Swerdlow, Russell H; Choi, In-Young; Lee, Phil; Brooks, William M

    2014-07-01

    Altered brain metabolism is likely to be an important contributor to normal cognitive decline and brain pathology in elderly individuals. To characterize the metabolic changes associated with normal brain aging, we used high-field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo to quantify 20 neurochemicals in the hippocampus and sensorimotor cortex of young adult and aged rats. We found significant differences in the neurochemical profile of the aged brain when compared with younger adults, including lower aspartate, ascorbate, glutamate, and macromolecules, and higher glucose, myo-inositol, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, total choline, and glutamine. These neurochemical biomarkers point to specific cellular mechanisms that are altered in brain aging, such as bioenergetics, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell membrane turnover, and endogenous neuroprotection. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be a valuable translational approach for studying mechanisms of brain aging and pathology, and for investigating treatments to preserve or enhance cognitive function in aging.

  7. Time-dependent changes in serum biomarker levels after blast traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorgy, Andrea; Ling, Geoffrey; Wingo, Daniel; Walker, John; Tong, Lawrence; Parks, Steve; Januszkiewicz, Adolph; Baumann, Richard; Agoston, Denes V

    2011-06-01

    Neuronal and glial proteins detected in the peripheral circulating blood after injury can reflect the extent of the damage caused by blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI). The temporal pattern of their serum levels can further predict the severity and outcome of the injury. As part of characterizing a large-animal model of bTBI, we determined the changes in the serum levels of S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), myelin basic protein (MBP), and neurofilament heavy chain (NF-H). Blood samples were obtained prior to injury and at 6, 24, 72 h, and 2 weeks post-injury from animals with different severities of bTBI; protein levels were determined using reverse phase protein microarray (RPPM) technology. Serum levels of S100B, MBP, and NF-H, but not NSE, showed a time-dependent increase following injury. The detected changes in S100B and MBP levels showed no correlation with the severity of the injury. However, serum NF-H levels increased in a unique, rapid manner, peaking at 6 h post-injury only in animals exposed to severe blast with poor clinical and pathological outcomes. We conclude that the sudden increase in serum NF-H levels following bTBI may be a useful indicator of injury severity. If additional studies verify our findings, the observed early peak of serum NF-H levels can be developed into a useful diagnostic tool for predicting the extent of damage following bTBI.

  8. Zinc transporters protein level in postmortem brain of depressed subjects and suicide victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalo-Ulinska, Anna; Piotrowska, Joanna; Kryczyk, Agata; Opoka, Włodzimierz; Sowa-Kucma, Magdalena; Misztak, Paulina; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Stockmeier, Craig A; Datka, Wojciech; Nowak, Gabriel; Szewczyk, Bernadeta

    2016-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious psychiatric illness, associated with an increasing rate of suicide. The pathogenesis of depression may be associated with the disruption of zinc (Zn) homeostasis. In the brain, several proteins that regulate Zn homeostasis are present, including Zn transporters (ZnTs) which remove Zn from the cytosol. The present study was designed to investigate whether depression and suicide are associated with alterations in the expression of the ZnTs protein. Protein levels of ZnT1, ZnT3, ZnT4, ZnT5 and ZnT6 were measured in postmortem brain tissue from two different cohorts. Cohort A contained 10 subjects diagnosed with MDD (7 were suicide victims) and 10 psychiatrically-normal control subjects and cohort B contained 11 non-diagnosed suicide victims and 8 sudden-death control subjects. Moreover, in cohort A we measured protein level of NMDA (GluN2A subunit), AMPA (GluA1 subunit) and 5-HT1A receptors and PSD-95. Proteins were measured in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) using Western blotting. In addition, Zn concentration was measured using a voltammetric method. There was a significant increase in protein levels of ZnT1, ZnT4, ZnT5 in the PFC in MDD, relative to control subjects, while ZnT3 protein level was decreased in MDD. There was no significant difference in the Zn concentration in the PFC between control and MDD subjects. Similarly, in the PFC of suicide victims (non-diagnosed), an increase in protein levels of ZnT1, ZnT4, ZnT5 and ZnT6 was observed. Conversely, protein levels of ZnT3 were decreased in both suicide victims and subjects with MDD, in comparison with control subjects. There was also a significant decrease in the protein level of GluA1, GluN2A, PSD-95 and 5-HT1A in MDD. Our studies suggest that alterations in Zn transport proteins are associated with the pathophysiology of MDD and suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In vivo high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging of the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Xu, Jiadi; McMahon, Michael T; van Zijl, Peter C M; Mori, Susumu; Northington, Frances J; Zhang, Jiangyang

    2013-12-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the laboratory mouse brain provides important macroscopic information for anatomical characterization of mouse models in basic research. Currently, in vivo DTI of the mouse brain is often limited by the available resolution. In this study, we demonstrate in vivo high-resolution DTI of the mouse brain using a cryogenic probe and a modified diffusion-weighted gradient and spin echo (GRASE) imaging sequence at 11.7 T. Three-dimensional (3D) DTI of the entire mouse brain at 0.125 mm isotropic resolution could be obtained in approximately 2 h. The high spatial resolution, which was previously only available with ex vivo imaging, enabled non-invasive examination of small structures in the adult and neonatal mouse brains. Based on data acquired from eight adult mice, a group-averaged DTI atlas of the in vivo adult mouse brain with 60 structure segmentations was developed. Comparisons between in vivo and ex vivo mouse brain DTI data showed significant differences in brain morphology and tissue contrasts, which indicate the importance of the in vivo DTI-based mouse brain atlas.

  10. Study of gene function based on spatial co-expression in a high-resolution mouse brain atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Tao

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Allen Brain Atlas (ABA project systematically profiles three-dimensional high-resolution gene expression in postnatal mouse brains for thousands of genes. By unveiling gene behaviors at both the cellular and molecular levels, ABA is becoming a unique and comprehensive neuroscience data source for decoding enigmatic biological processes in the brain. Given the unprecedented volume and complexity of the in situ hybridization image data, data mining in this area is extremely challenging. Currently, the ABA database mainly serves as an online reference for visual inspection of individual genes; the underlying rich information of this large data set is yet to be explored by novel computational tools. In this proof-of-concept study, we studied the hypothesis that genes sharing similar three-dimensional expression profiles in the mouse brain are likely to share similar biological functions. Results In order to address the pattern comparison challenge when analyzing the ABA database, we developed a robust image filtering method, dubbed histogram-row-column (HRC algorithm. We demonstrated how the HRC algorithm offers the sensitivity of identifying a manageable number of gene pairs based on automatic pattern searching from an original large brain image collection. This tool enables us to quickly identify genes of similar in situ hybridization patterns in a semi-automatic fashion and consequently allows us to discover several gene expression patterns with expression neighborhoods containing genes of similar functional categories. Conclusion Given a query brain image, HRC is a fully automated algorithm that is able to quickly mine vast number of brain images and identify a manageable subset of genes that potentially shares similar spatial co-distribution patterns for further visual inspection. A three-dimensional in situ hybridization pattern, if statistically significant, could serve as a fingerprint of certain gene function

  11. Nonselenium glutathione peroxidase in human brain : elevated levels in Parkinson's disease and dementia with lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, John H T; Shannon, John M; Blumbergs, Peter C; Gai, Wei-Ping

    2002-09-01

    Nonselenium glutathione peroxidase (NSGP) is a new member of the antioxidant family. Using antibodies to recombinant NSGP we have examined the distribution of this enzyme in normal, Parkinson's disease (PD), and dementia with Lewy body disease (DLB) brains. We have also co-localized this enzyme with alpha-synuclein as a marker for Lewy bodies. In normal brains there was a very low level of NSGP staining in astrocytes. In PD and DLB there were increases in the number and staining intensity of NSGP-positive astrocytes in both gray and white matter. Cell counting of NSGP cells in PD and DLB frontal and cingulated cortices indicated there was 10 to 15 times more positive cells in gray matter and three times more positive cells in white matter than in control cortices. Some neurons were positive for both alpha-synuclein and NSGP in PD and DLB, and double staining indicated that NSGP neurons contained either diffuse cytoplasmic alpha-synuclein deposits or Lewy bodies. In concentric Lewy bodies, alpha-synuclein staining was peripheral whereas NSGP staining was confined to the central core. Immunoprecipitation indicated there was direct interaction between alpha-synuclein and NSGP. These results suggest oxidative stress conditions exist in PD and DLB and that certain cells have responded by up-regulating this novel antioxidant enzyme.

  12. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Montenegro, M.L.; Vaquero, J.J.; Garcia-Barreno, P.; Desco, M. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Laboratorio de Imagen, Medicina Experimental, Madrid (Spain); Arango, C. [Hospital General Gregorio Maranon, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Madrid (Spain); Ricaurte, G. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  13. In vivo studies of low level laser (light) therapy for traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Weijun; Wu, Qiuhe; Huang, Ying-Ying; Ando, Takahiro; Huang, Liyi; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-03-01

    Low-level laser (or light) therapy (LLLT) is attracting growing interest to treat both stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The fact that near-infrared light can penetrate into the brain allows non-invasive treatment to be carried out with a low likelihood of treatment-related adverse events. It is proposed that red and NIR light is absorbed by chromophores in the mitochondria of cells leading to changes in gene transcription and upregulation of proteins involved in cell survival, antioxidant production, collagen synthesis, reduction of chronic inflammation and cell migration and proliferation. We developed a mouse model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) TBI and examined the effect of 0, 1, 3, and 14 daily 810-nm CW laser treatments in the CCI model as measured by neurological severity score and wire grip and motion test. 1 laser Tx gave a significant improvement while 3 laser Tx was even better. Surprisingly 14 laser Tx was no better than no treatment. Histological studies at necropsy suggested that the neurodegeneration was reduced at 14 days and that the cortical lesion was repaired by BrdU+ve neural progenitor (stem) cells at 28 days. Transcranial laser therapy is a promising treatment for acute (and chronic TBI) and the lack of side-effects and paucity of alternative treatments encourages early clinical trials.

  14. Alcohol-Binding Sites in Distinct Brain Proteins: The Quest for Atomic Level Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Slesinger, Paul A.; Davies, Daryl L.; Das, Joydip; Trudell, James R.; Harris, R. Adron

    2011-01-01

    Defining the sites of action of ethanol on brain proteins is a major prerequisite to understanding the molecular pharmacology of this drug. The main barrier to reaching an atomic-level understanding of alcohol action is the low potency of alcohols, ethanol in particular, which is a reflection of transient, low-affinity interactions with their targets. These mechanisms are difficult or impossible to study with traditional techniques such as radioligand binding or spectroscopy. However, there has been considerable recent progress in combining X-ray crystallography, structural modeling, and site-directed mutagenesis to define the sites and mechanisms of action of ethanol and related alcohols on key brain proteins. We review such insights for several diverse classes of proteins including inwardly rectifying potassium, transient receptor potential, and neurotransmit-ter-gated ion channels, as well as protein kinase C epsilon. Some common themes are beginning to emerge from these proteins, including hydrogen bonding of the hydroxyl group and van der Waals interactions of the methylene groups of ethanol with specific amino acid residues. The resulting binding energy is proposed to facilitate or stabilize low-energy state transitions in the bound proteins, allowing ethanol to act as a “molecular lubricant” for protein function. We discuss evidence for characteristic, discrete alcohol-binding sites on protein targets, as well as evidence that binding to some proteins is better characterized by an interaction region that can accommodate multiple molecules of ethanol. PMID:21676006

  15. How genetics affects the brain to produce higher-level dysfunctions in myotonic dystrophy type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Laura; Petrucci, Antonio; Spanò, Barbara; Torso, Mario; Olivito, Giusy; Lispi, Ludovico; Costanzi-Porrini, Sandro; Giulietti, Giovanni; Koch, Giacomo; Giacanelli, Manlio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Summary Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disorder dominated by muscular impairment and brain dysfunctions. Although brain damage has previously been demonstrated in DM1, its associations with the genetics and clinical/neuropsychological features of the disease are controversial. This study assessed the differential role of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in determining higher-level dysfunctions in DM1. Ten patients with genetically confirmed DM1 and 16 healthy matched controls entered the study. The patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment and quantification of CTG triplet expansion. All the subjects underwent MR scanning at 3T, with studies including T1-weighted volumes and diffusion-weighted images. Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics were used for unbiased quantification of regional GM atrophy and WM integrity. The DM1 patients showed widespread involvement of both tissues. The extent of the damage correlated with CTG triplet expansion and cognition. This study supports the idea that genetic abnormalities in DM1 mainly target the WM, but GM involvement is also crucial in determining the clinical characteristics of DM1. PMID:26214024

  16. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  17. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  18. Global brain blood-oxygen level responses to autonomic challenges in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is accompanied by brain injury, perhaps resulting from apnea-related hypoxia or periods of impaired cerebral perfusion. Perfusion changes can be determined indirectly by evaluation of cerebral blood volume and oxygenation alterations, which can be measured rapidly and non-invasively with the global blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal, a magnetic resonance imaging procedure. We assessed acute BOLD responses in OSA subjects to pressor challenges that elicit cerebral blood flow changes, using a two-group comparative design with healthy subjects as a reference. We separately assessed female and male patterns, since OSA characteristics and brain injury differ between sexes. We studied 94 subjects, 37 with newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA (6 female (age mean ± std: 52.1±8.1 yrs; apnea/hypopnea index [AHI]: 27.7±15.6 events/hr and 31 male 54.3±8.4 yrs; AHI: 37.4±19.6 events/hr, and 20 female (age 50.5±8.1 yrs and 37 male (age 45.6±9.2 yrs healthy control subjects. We measured brain BOLD responses every 2 s while subjects underwent cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. The global BOLD signal rapidly changed after the first 2 s of each challenge, and differed in magnitude between groups to two challenges (cold pressor, hand grip, but not to the Valsalva maneuver (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05. OSA females showed greater differences from males in response magnitude and pattern, relative to healthy counterparts. Cold pressor BOLD signal increases (mean ± adjusted standard error at the 8 s peak were: OSA 0.14±0.08% vs. Control 0.31±0.06%, and hand grip at 6 s were: OSA 0.08±0.03% vs. Control at 0.30±0.02%. These findings, indicative of reduced cerebral blood flow changes to autonomic challenges in OSA, complement earlier reports of altered resting blood flow and reduced cerebral artery responsiveness. Females are more affected than males, an outcome which may contribute to the sex

  19. Caffeine reverses cognitive impairment and decreases brain amyloid-beta levels in aged Alzheimer's disease mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendash, Gary W; Mori, Takashi; Cao, Chuanhai; Mamcarz, Malgorzata; Runfeldt, Melissa; Dickson, Alexander; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Tane, Jun; Citron, Bruce A; Lin, Xiaoyang; Echeverria, Valentina; Potter, Huntington

    2009-01-01

    We have recently shown that Alzheimer's disease (AD) transgenic mice given a moderate level of caffeine intake (the human equivalent of 5 cups of coffee per day) are protected from development of otherwise certain cognitive impairment and have decreased hippocampal amyloid-beta (Abeta) levels due to suppression of both beta-secretase (BACE1) and presenilin 1 (PS1)/gamma-secretase expression. To determine if caffeine intake can have beneficial effects in "aged" APPsw mice already demonstrating cognitive impairment, we administered caffeine in the drinking water of 18-19 month old APPsw mice that were impaired in working memory. At 4-5 weeks into caffeine treatment, those impaired transgenic mice given caffeine (Tg/Caff) exhibited vastly superior working memory compared to the continuing impairment of control transgenic mice. In addition, Tg/Caff mice had substantially reduced Abeta deposition in hippocampus (decrease 40%) and entorhinal cortex (decrease 46%), as well as correlated decreases in brain soluble Abeta levels. Mechanistically, evidence is provided that caffeine suppression of BACE1 involves the cRaf-1/NFkappaB pathway. We also determined that caffeine concentrations within human physiological range effectively reduce active and total glycogen synthase kinase 3 levels in SweAPP N2a cells. Even with pre-existing and substantial Abeta burden, aged APPsw mice exhibited memory restoration and reversal of AD pathology, suggesting a treatment potential of caffeine in cases of established AD.

  20. A Decrease of Brain MicroRNA-122 Level Is an Early Marker of Cerebrovascular Disease in the Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita Stanzione

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on preliminary evidence that highlights microRNA-122 as a contributing factor to stroke pathogenesis, we aimed at assessing its expression level, along with the presence of early signs of cerebrovascular disease, in the brain of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP, a suitable model of human disease that accelerates stroke occurrence under a high sodium/low potassium (Japanese-style diet (JD. After one month of JD, before stroke occurrence, brain microRNA-122 level was significantly decreased in SHRSP as compared to the stroke-resistant SHR (SHRSR. At this time, levels of markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as of endothelial integrity and function, apoptosis and necrosis were differently modulated in the brains of JD-fed SHRSP as compared to SHRSR, pointing to a significant activation of all deleterious mechanisms underlying subsequent stroke development in SHRSP. We also showed that miR-122 improved survival of rat endothelial cerebral cells upon stress stimuli (excess NaCl, hydrogen peroxide. Our data suggest that a decrease of brain microRNA-122 level is deleterious and can be considered as an early marker of stroke in the SHRSP. Understanding the mechanisms by which microRNA-122 protects vascular cells from stress stimuli may provide a useful approach to improve preventive and treatment strategies against stroke.

  1. Practical Use of High-level Petri Net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The aim of the workshop is to bring together researchers and practitioners with interests in the use of high-level nets and their tools for practical applications. A typical paper is expected to report on a case study where high-level Petri nets and their tools have been used in practice. We also...... welcome papers describing a tool, a methodology, or other developments that have proved successful to make high-level Petri nets more applicable in practice....

  2. Modeling the effects of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation at the biophysical, network, and cognitive Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Bergmann, Til Ole; Herz, Damian Marc

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) is widely used to elucidate the contribution of different brain regions to various cognitive functions. Here we present three modeling approaches that are informed by functional or structural brain mapping or behavior profiling and discuss how...... predictions regarding the impact of interindividual variations in cortical anatomy on the injected electric fields or the influence of the orientation of current flow on the physiological stimulation effects. (ii) Functional brain mapping of the spatiotemporal neural dynamics during cognitive tasks can...

  3. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in different neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglia, Mariacarla; Zanardini, Roberta; Bonomini, Cristina; Zanetti, Orazio; Volpe, Daniele; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Gennarelli, Massimo; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella

    2013-01-01

    Consistent evidence indicates the involvement of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we compared serum BDNF in 624 subjects: 266 patients affected by AD, 28 by frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 40 by Lewy body dementia (LBD), 91 by vascular dementia (VAD), 30 by PD, and 169 controls. Our results evidenced lower BDNF serum levels in AD, FTD, LBD, and VAD patients (P benzodiazepines (P = 0.020). In conclusion, our results support the role of BDNF alterations in neurodegenerative mechanisms common to different forms of neurological disorders and underline the importance of including drug treatment in the analyses to avoid confounding effects.

  4. Brain N-acetylaspartate levels correlate with motor function in metachromatic leukodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    í Dali, Christine; Hanson, Lars G.; Barton, N. W.

    2010-01-01

    in oligodendrocytes and is known as a marker for neuronal and axonal loss. NAA and other metabolite levels measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) correlate with performance of the brain in normal children. There is a need for sensitive measures of disease progression in patients with MLD to enable...... development of future reatments. Methods: A cross-section of 13 children with late infantile MLD were examined by proton MRS. Signals from NAA, total choline, and total creatine in the deep white matter were measured and correlated with the results of cognitive and motor function tests. Results: The NAA...... signal decreased as the disease process advanced. Motor function, measured by the Gross Motor Function Measure–88, varied from 13 (only head movement in the supine position) to 180 (able to walk) across the study cohort, demonstrating a wide range in functional status. Similarly, varied decreases were...

  5. A High-Resolution In Vivo Atlas of the Human Brain's Serotonin System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliveau, Vincent; Ganz, Melanie; Feng, Ling

    2017-01-01

    associations between protein expression and density at high detail. This new in vivo neuroimaging atlas of the 5-HT system not only provides insight in the human brain's regional protein synthesis, transport, and density, but also represents a valuable source of information for the neuroscience community......The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system modulates many important brain functions and is critically involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present a high-resolution, multidimensional, in vivo atlas of four of the human brain's 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4...... brain by comparing the 5-HT density across the atlas with data from the Allen Human Brain atlas and identified receptor- and transporter-specific associations that show the regional relation between the two measures. Together, these data provide unparalleled insight into the serotonin system...

  6. Synchronization between the anterior and posterior cortex determines consciousness level in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Carrion, Jose; Leon-Dominguez, Umberto; Pollonini, Luca; Wu, Meng-Hung; Frye, Richard E; Dominguez-Morales, Maria Rosario; Zouridakis, George

    2012-10-02

    Survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often suffer disorders of consciousness as a result of a breakdown in cortical connectivity. However, little is known about the neural discharges and cortical areas working in synchrony to generate consciousness in these patients. In this study, we analyzed cortical connectivity in patients with severe neurocognitive disorder (SND) and in the minimally conscious state (MCS). We found two synchronized networks subserving consciousness; one retrolandic (cognitive network) and the other frontal (executive control network). The synchrony between these networks is severely disrupted in patients in the MCS as compared to those with better levels of consciousness and a preserved state of alertness (SND). The executive control network could facilitate the synchronization and coherence of large populations of distant cortical neurons using high frequency oscillations on a precise temporal scale. Consciousness is altered or disappears after losing synchrony and coherence. We suggest that the synchrony between anterior and retrolandic regions is essential to awareness, and that a functioning frontal lobe is a surrogate marker for preserved consciousness. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Brain Integration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased adult hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and normal levels of neurogenesis in maternal separation rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greisen, Mia H; Altar, C Anthony; Bolwig, Tom G; Whitehead, Richard; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2005-03-15

    Repeated maternal separation of rat pups during the early postnatal period may affect brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neurons in brain areas that are compromised by chronic stress. In the present study, a highly significant increase in hippocampal BDNF protein concentration was found in adult rats that as neonates had been subjected to 180 min of daily separation compared with handled rats separated for 15 min daily. BDNF protein was unchanged in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus/paraventricular nucleus. Expression of BDNF mRNA in the CA1, CA3, or dentate gyrus of the hippocampus or in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus was not affected by maternal separation. All animals displayed similar behavioral patterns in a forced-swim paradigm, which did not affect BDNF protein concentration in the hippocampus or hypothalamus. Repeated administration of bromodeoxyuridine revealed equal numbers of surviving, newly generated granule cells in the dentate gyrus of adult rats from the 15 min or 180 min groups. The age-dependent decline in neurogenesis from 3 months to 7 months of age did not differ between the groups. Insofar as BDNF can stimulate neurogenesis and repair, we propose that the elevated hippocampal protein concentration found in maternally deprived rats might be a compensatory reaction to separation during the neonatal period, maintaining adult neurogenesis at levels equal to those of the handled rats.

  8. Blast-Associated Shock Waves Result in Increased Brain Vascular Leakage and Elevated ROS Levels in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushi Kabu

    Full Text Available Blast-associated shock wave-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI remains a persistent risk for armed forces worldwide, yet its detailed pathophysiology remains to be fully investigated. In this study, we have designed and characterized a laboratory-scale shock tube to develop a rodent model of bTBI. Our blast tube, driven by a mixture of oxygen and acetylene, effectively generates blast overpressures of 20-130 psi, with pressure-time profiles similar to those of free-field blast waves. We tested our shock tube for brain injury response to various blast wave conditions in rats. The results show that blast waves cause diffuse vascular brain damage, as determined using a sensitive optical imaging method based on the fluorescence signal of Evans Blue dye extravasation developed in our laboratory. Vascular leakage increased with increasing blast overpressures and mapping of the brain slices for optical signal intensity indicated nonhomogeneous damage to the cerebral vasculature. We confirmed vascular leakage due to disruption in the blood-brain barrier (BBB integrity following blast exposure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in the brain also increased with increasing blast pressures and with time post-blast wave exposure. Immunohistochemical analysis of the brain sections analyzed at different time points post blast exposure demonstrated astrocytosis and cell apoptosis, confirming sustained neuronal injury response. The main advantages of our shock-tube design are minimal jet effect and no requirement for specialized equipment or facilities, and effectively generate blast-associated shock waves that are relevant to battle-field conditions. Overall data suggest that increased oxidative stress and BBB disruption could be the crucial factors in the propagation and spread of neuronal degeneration following blast injury. Further studies are required to determine the interplay between increased ROS activity and BBB disruption to develop effective

  9. Application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the differentiation of high-grade brain neoplasm and inflammatory brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes; Santana-Netto, Pedro Vieira; Sgnolf, Aline [FAMERP Medical School, Sao Jose do Rio Preto SP (Brazil). Image Dept.], e-mail: jrl.ferraz@terra.com.br; Rocha-Filho, Jose Alves; Mauad, Fernando [FAMERP Medical School, Sao Jose do Rio Preto SP (Brazil). Radiology Dept.; Sanches, Rafael Angelo [FAMERP Medical School, Sao Jose do Rio Preto SP (Brazil). Imaging Dept.

    2009-06-15

    This study aims at evaluating the application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors and inflammatory brain lesions. The examinations of 81 individuals, who performed brain MRS and were retrospectively analyzed. The patients with ages between 10 and 80 years old, were divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 42 individuals with diagnoses of cerebral toxoplasmosis and Group B was formed of 39 individuals with diagnosis of glial neoplasms. On analyzing the ROC curve, the discriminatory boundary for the Cho/Cr ratio between inflammatory lesions and tumors was 1.97 and for the NAA/Cr ratio it was 1.12. RMS is an important method useful in the distinction of inflammatory brain lesions and high-degree tumors when the Cho/Cr ratio is greater than 1.97 and the NAA/Cr ratio is less than 1.12. And so this method is important in the planning of treatment and monitoring of the therapeutic efficiency. (author)

  10. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1980 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1980 to 1995, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  11. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1995 to 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1995 to 2000, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  12. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2005 to 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2005 to 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  13. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2000 to 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2000 to 2005, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  14. Increased levels of deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in active bacteria-related appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaemmerer, Elke; Schneider, Ursula; Klaus, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Kaemmerer E, Schneider U, Klaus C, Plum P, Reinartz A, Adolf M, Renner M, Wolfs T G A M, Kramer B W, Wagner N, Mollenhauer J & Gassler N (2012) Histopathology Increased levels of deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in active bacteria-related appendicitis Aims:  Deleted in malignant brain...... in bacteria-related active intestinal inflammation such as appendicitis. Methods and results:  mRNA and protein levels of DMBT1 were analysed in surgical resections of 50 appendices (active inflammation: n = 25). In non-actively inflamed appendices, inter-individual differences in basal DMBT1 levels...

  15. Age-Dependent Increase of Brain Copper Levels and Expressions of Copper Regulatory Proteins in the Subventricular Zone and Choroid Plexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherleen eFu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our recent data suggest a high accumulation of Cu in the subventricular zone (SVZ along the wall of brain ventricles. Anatomically, SVZ is in direct contact with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, which is secreted by a neighboring tissue choroid plexus. Changes in Cu regulatory gene expressions in the SVZ and choroid plexus as the function of aging may determine Cu levels in the CSF and SVZ. This study was designed to investigate associations between age, Cu levels, and Cu regulatory genes in SVZ and plexus. The SVZ and choroid plexus were dissected from brains of 3-week, 10-week or 9-month old male rats. Analyses by atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed that the SVZ of adult and old animals contained the highest Cu level compared with other tested brain regions. Significant positive correlations between age and Cu levels in SVZ and plexus were observed; the SVZ Cu level of old animals was 7.5- and 5.8-fold higher than those of young and adult rats (p<0.01, respectively. Quantitation by qPCR of the transcriptional expressions of Cu regulatory proteins showed that the SVZ expressed the highest level of Cu storage protein MTs, while the choroid plexus expressed the high level of Cu transporter protein Ctr1. Noticeably, Cu levels in the SVZ were positively associated with type B slow proliferating cell marker Gfap (p<0.05, but inversely associated with type A proliferating neuroblast marker Dcx (p<0.05 and type C transit amplifying progenitor marker Nestin (p<0.01. Dmt1 had significant positive correlations with age and Cu levels in the plexus (p<0.01. These findings suggest that Cu levels in all tested brain regions are increased as the function of age. The SVZ shows a different expression pattern of Cu-regulatory genes from the choroid plexus. The age-related increase of MTs and decrease of Ctr1 may contribute to the high Cu level in this neurogenesis active brain region.

  16. Alteration of Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level After Acute Moderate Exercise in Professional Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Sheikhani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac fatigue or myocardial damage following exercise until complete exhaustion can increase blood levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in athletes. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of resistance and acute moderate aerobic exercise on alterations in BNP levels in professional athletes. Materials and Methods: Forty professional athletes who had at least 3 years of a championship background in track and field (aerobic group or body building (resistance group volunteered to participate in the present study. Track and field athletes (n = 20 were requested to run 8 km at 60% to 70% of maximum heart rate. Body building athletes (n = 20 performed a resistance training session of 5 exercises in 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 75% of 1 RM (bench press, seated row, leg extension, leg curl, and leg press. Before and immediately after the exercise, plasma BNP levels of both groups of athletes were measured by PATHFASTTM NT-proBNP assay, an immunochemiluminescent assay using two polyclonal antibodies in sandwich test format, on a PATHFASTTM automated analyzer. Results: Plasma BNP levels immediately following exercise increased significantly as compared with baseline values. Plasma BNP concentrations in the aerobic group were significantly higher than in the resistance group before and after exercise. Moreover, the increase in mean BNP concentrations in aerobic athletes was 7 times more than in resistance athletes. Conclusions: BNP levels in athlete who performed distance exercises increased significantly compared with resistance training. Possibly exercise program type, intensity of exercise, volume of exercise program, and field sport can be factors of changes in BNP levels

  17. One-year prognosis and the role of brain natriuretic peptide levels in patients with chronic cor pulmonale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Young; Lee, Chang Youl; Kim, Changhwan; Jang, Seung Hun; Park, Yong Bum; Park, Sunghoon; Hwang, Yong Il; Lee, Myung Goo; Jung, Ki-Suck; Kim, Dong-Gyu

    2015-04-01

    Data on the clinical outcomes and role of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with chronic cor pulmonale are limited. A total of 69 patients with chronic cor pulmonale, admitted for dyspnea (January 2007 to September 2011) to three university hospitals, were retrospectively reviewed. All of the patients had right ventricular (RV) dysfunction on echocardiography. The median age was 70.0 yr, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (40.6%) and tuberculosis-destroyed lung (TDL, 27.5%) were the leading causes of chronic cor pulmonale. At the 1-yr follow-up, the mortality rate was 15.9%, and the readmission rate was 53.7%; patients with TDL had higher mortality (31.6% vs. 10.0%; P=0.059) and readmission rates (78.9% vs. 43.8%; P=0.009) than those with non-TDL diseases. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for admission BNP levels to predict readmission was 0.788 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.673-0.904), and the sensitivity and specificity of the cut-off value were 80.6% and 77.4%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, high admission BNP levels were a significant risk factor for subsequent readmission (hazard ratio, 1.049; 95% CI, 1.005-1.094). Additionally, admission BNP levels were well correlated with cardiac troponin I (r=0.558), and delta BNP also correlated with delta RV systolic pressure (n=25; r=0.562). In conclusion, among hospitalized patients with chronic cor pulmonale, admission high BNP levels are a significant risk factor for subsequent readmission. Therefore, more intensive monitoring and treatment are needed in patients with higher BNP levels.

  18. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scassellati, Catia; Zanardini, Roberta; Tiberti, Alessandra; Pezzani, Marco; Valenti, Vera; Effedri, Paola; Filippini, Elena; Conte, Stefano; Ottolini, Alberto; Gennarelli, Massimo; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella

    2014-03-01

    It has been proposed that the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be involved in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) etiopathogenesis. Alterations in BDNF serum levels have been observed in childhood/adulthood neurodevelopmental pathologies, but no evidence is available for BDNF serum concentrations in ADHD. The study includes 45 drug-naïve ADHD children and 45 age-sex matched healthy subjects. Concentration of serum BDNF was determined by the ELISA method. BDNF serum levels in patients with ADHD were not different from those of controls (mean ± SD; ADHD: 39.33 ± 10.41 ng/ml; controls: 38.82 ± 8.29 ng/ml, t = -0.26, p = 0.80). Our findings indicate no alteration of serum BDNF levels in untreated patients with ADHD. A further stratification for cognitive, neuropsychological and psychopathological assessment in a larger sample could be useful to clarify the role of BDNF in the endophenotype characterization of ADHD.

  19. Lacosamide reduces HDAC levels in the brain and improves memory: Potential for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Shraddha R; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D; Jagdale, Priti G; Adkar, Prafulla P; Waghmare, Arun B; Ambavade, Prashant D

    2015-07-01

    Lacosamide, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of epilepsy. Some HDAC inhibitors have been proven effective for the treatment of memory disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the effect of lacosamide on memory and brain HDAC levels. The effect on memory was evaluated in animals with scopolamine-induced amnesia using the elevated plus maze, object recognition test, and radial arm maze. The levels of acetylcholinesterase and HDAC in the cerebral cortex were evaluated. Lacosamide at doses of 10 and 30mg/kg significantly reduced the transfer latency in the elevated plus maze. Lacosamide at a dose of 30mg/kg significantly increased the time spent with a familiar object in the object recognition test at the 24h interval and decreased the time spent in the baited arm. Moreover, at this dose, the number of errors in the radial arm maze at 3 and 24h intervals was minimized and a reduction in the level of HDAC1, but not acetylcholinesterase, was observed in the cerebral cortex. These effects of lacosamide are equivalent to those of piracetam at a dose of 300mg/kg. These results suggest that lacosamide at a 30mg/kg dose improves disrupted memory, possibly by inhibiting HDAC, and could be used to treat amnesic symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Changes of Plasma Levels of Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Xiaoyang; Pan Ying; Hu Xuesong; Li Song; Xu Yawei; Yu Xuejing

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the changes of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).Methods Plasma BNP concentrations in patients with CHF (n=56) and in normal controls (n=60) were measured with specific radioimmunoassay. Left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with chronic heart failure was measured with 99mTc gated cardiac blood pool scintigraphy. Results The results showed that Plasma BNP concentrations in patients with CHF were significantly higher than normal controls (223±79 ng/L vs 40±15 ng/L, P < 0.01). Plasma BNP concentrations had a significant negative correlation with left ventricular ejection fractions(r=-0.68, P <0.01 ). Conclusions These results indicates that Plasma BNP levels are increased in patients with CHF, and they markedly increased according to the severity of heart failure classified by NYHA classification. The plasma BNP levels may be a biochemical parameter for evaluating the left ventricular function.

  1. Altered α-synuclein, parkin, and synphilin isoform levels in multiple system atrophy brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudek, Tomasz; Winge, Kristian; Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo

    2016-01-01

    Together with Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a member of a diverse group of neurodegenerative disorders termed α-synucleinopathies. Previously, it has been shown that α-synuclein, parkin, and synphilin-1 display disease-specific transcript......Together with Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a member of a diverse group of neurodegenerative disorders termed α-synucleinopathies. Previously, it has been shown that α-synuclein, parkin, and synphilin-1 display disease......-specific transcription patterns in frontal cortex in PD, dementia with Lewy bodies, and MSA, and thus may mediate the development of α-synucleinopathies. In this study, the differential expression of α-synuclein isoforms on transcriptional and translational levels was ascertained in MSA patients in comparison with PD...... for parkin and synphilin-1 isoforms. In MSA brains, α-synuclein140 and α-synuclein 112 isoform levels were significantly increased, whereas levels of the α-synuclein 126 isoform were decreased in the substantia nigra, striatum, cerebellar cortex, and nucleus dentatus versus controls. Moreover, in MSA cases...

  2. Intracerebroventricular administration of α-ketoisocaproic acid decreases brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor levels in brain of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Miriam S W; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gomes, Lara M; Zapelini, Hugo G; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emilio L

    2016-04-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited aminoacidopathy resulting from dysfunction of the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase complex, leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine and valine as well as their corresponding transaminated branched-chain α-ketoacids. This disorder is clinically characterized by ketoacidosis, seizures, coma, psychomotor delay and mental retardation whose pathophysiology is not completely understood. Recent studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in neuropathology of MSUD. However, the effect of accumulating α-ketoacids in MSUD on neurotrophic factors has not been investigated. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute intracerebroventricular administration of α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the brains of young male rats. Ours results showed that intracerebroventricular administration of KIC decreased BDNF levels in hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex, without induce a detectable change in pro-BDNF levels. Moreover, NGF levels in the hippocampus were reduced after intracerebroventricular administration of KIC. In conclusion, these data suggest that the effects of KIC on demyelination and memory processes may be mediated by reduced trophic support of BDNF and NGF. Moreover, lower levels of BDNF and NGF are consistent with the hypothesis that a deficit in this neurotrophic factor may contribute to the structural and functional alterations of brain underlying the psychopathology of MSUD, supporting the hypothesis of a neurodegenerative process in MSUD.

  3. Autoradiographic imaging and quantification of the high-affinity GHB binding sites in rodent brain using (3)H-HOCPCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A B; Bay, T; Villumsen, I S; Falk-Petersen, C B; Marek, A; Frølund, B; Clausen, R P; Hansen, H D; Knudsen, G M; Wellendorph, P

    2016-11-01

    GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) is a compound endogenous to mammalian brain with high structural resemblance to GABA. GHB possesses nanomolar-micromolar affinity for a unique population of binding sites, but the exact nature of these remains elusive. In this study we utilized the highly selective GHB analogue, 3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA) as a tritiated version ((3)H-HOCPCA) to radioactively label the specific GHB high-affinity binding site and gain further insight into the density, distribution and developmental profile of this protein. We show that, in low nanomolar concentrations, (3)H-HOCPCA displays excellent signal-to-noise ratios using rodent brain autoradiography, which makes it a valuable ligand for anatomical quantification of native GHB binding site levels. Our data confirmed that (3)H-HOCPCA labels only the high-affinity specific GHB binding site, found in high density in cortical and hippocampal regions. The experiments revealed markedly stronger binding at pH 6.0 (Kd 73.8 nM) compared to pH 7.4 (Kd 2312 nM), as previously reported for other GHB radioligands but similar Bmax values. Using (3)H-HOCPCA we analyzed the GHB binding protein profile during mouse brain development. Due to the high sensitivity of this radioligand, we were able to detect low levels of specific binding already at E15 in mouse brain, which increased progressively until adulthood. Collectively, we show that (3)H-HOCPCA is a highly sensitive radioligand, offering advantages over the commonly used radioligand (3)H-NCS-382, and thus a very suitable in vitro tool for qualitative and quantitative autoradiography of the GHB high-affinity site.

  4. Placental and cord blood brain derived neurotrophic factor levels are decreased in nondiabetic macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian-Ying; Zhang, Heng-Xin; Wang, Chen-Chen; Sun, Hao; Sun, Shu-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Huan; Yan, Hong-Tao; Yang, Xin-Jun

    2017-08-01

    To measure levels of placental brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression and umbilical cord blood BDNF in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia and determine associations between these levels and macrosomia. This case-control study included 58 nondiabetic macrosomic and 59 normal birth weight mother-infant pairs. Data were collected from interviews and our hospital's database. BDNF gene expression was quantified in placental tissues using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (n = 117). Umbilical cord blood BDNF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (n = 90). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between BDNF levels and macrosomia. Placental BDNF gene expression (P = 0.026) and cord blood BDNF (P = 0.008) were lower in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia than in normal birth weight controls. Cord blood BDNF was significantly lower in vaginally delivered macrosomic neonates than vaginally delivered controls (P = 0.014), but cord BDNF did not differ between vaginal and cesarean section delivery modes in macrosomic neonates. Cord blood BDNF was positively associated with gestational age in control neonates (r = 0.496, P macrosomia (adjusted odds ratio 0.992; 95% confidence interval 0.986-0.998). Both placental BDNF gene expression and cord blood BDNF were downregulated in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia compared with normal birth weight neonates. Cord BDNF may partly derive from BDNF secreted by the placenta. Higher cord plasma BDNF levels protected against nondiabetic macrosomia.

  5. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Wayne A.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  6. Acquistion of High Resolution Electroencephalogram Systems for Advancing Brain-Machine Interaction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-21

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The goal of this project is to acquire high performance Electroencephalogram (EEG) systems that enable real-time...measurement of human brain activities at high spatial-temporal resolution in both laboratory and real-life environments. Our long-term vision is to develop...state-of-the-art Biosemi Active Two EEG device to enable real-time measurement of brain 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13

  7. In vitro discrimination of the role of LRP1 at the BBB cellular level: focus on brain capillary endothelial cells and brain pericytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Pietra; Saint-Pol, Julien; Kuntz, Mélanie; Boucau, Marie-Christine; Lamartiniere, Yordenca; Gosselet, Fabien; Fenart, Laurence

    2015-01-12

    Several studies have demonstrated that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) (dynamic cellular complex composed by brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) and surrounded by astrocytic end feet and pericytes) regulates the exchanges of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide between the blood and the brain. Deregulation of these exchanges seems to be a key trigger for the brain accumulation of Aβ peptide observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whereas the involvement of receptor for advanced glycation end-products in Aβ peptide transcytosis has been demonstrated in our laboratory, low-density lipoprotein receptor's role at the cellular level needs to be clarified. For this, we used an in vitro BBB model that consists of a co-culture of bovine BCECs and rat glial cells. This model has already been used to characterize low-density lipoprotein receptor-related peptide (LRP)'s involvement in the transcytosis of molecules such as tPA and angiopep-2. Our results suggest that Aβ peptide efflux across the BCEC monolayer involves a transcellular transport. However, the experiments with RAP discard an involvement of LRP family members at BCECs level. In contrast, our results show a strong transcriptional expression of LRP1 in pericytes and suggest its implication in Aβ endocytosis. Moreover, the observations of pericytes contraction and local downregulation of LRP1 in response to Aβ treatment opens up perspectives for studying this cell type with respect to Aβ peptide metabolism and AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prenatal folate, homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels and child brain volumes, cognitive development and psychological functioning: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ars, Charlotte L; Nijs, Ilse M; Marroun, Hanan E; Muetzel, Ryan; Schmidt, Marcus; Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; van der Lugt, Aad; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; White, Tonya

    2016-01-22

    Previous studies have suggested that prenatal maternal folate deficiency is associated with reduced prenatal brain growth and psychological problems in offspring. However, little is known about the longer-term impact. The aims of this study were to investigate whether prenatal maternal folate insufficiency, high total homocysteine levels and low vitamin B12 levels are associated with altered brain morphology, cognitive and/or psychological problems in school-aged children. This study was embedded in Generation R, a prospective population-based cohort study. The study sample consisted of 256 Dutch children aged between 6 and 8 years from whom structural brain scans were collected using MRI. The mothers of sixty-two children had insufficient (9·1 µmol/l) predicted poorer performance on the language (B -0·31; 95 % CI -0·56, -0·06; P=0·014) and visuo-spatial domains (B -0·36; 95 % CI -0·60, -0·11; P=0·004). No associations with psychological problems were found. Our findings suggest that folate insufficiency in early pregnancy has a long-lasting, global effect on brain development and is, together with homocysteine levels, associated with poorer cognitive performance.

  9. The prognostic value of multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy determined metabolite levels in white and grey matter brain tissue for adverse outcome in term newborns following perinatal asphyxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doormaal, Pieter Jan van [University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Groningen (Netherlands); Meander Medical Center Amersfoort, Department of Radiology, PO Box 1502, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Meiners, Linda C.; Sijens, Paul E. [University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Horst, Hendrik J. ter; Veere, Christa N. van der [University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy can identify brain metabolic changes in perinatal asphyxia by providing ratios of metabolites, such as choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and lactate (Lact) [Cho/Cr, Lact/NAA, etc.]. The purpose of this study was to quantify the separate white and grey matter metabolites in a slab cranial to the ventricles and relate these to the outcome. A standard 2D-chemical shift imaging protocol was used for measuring a transverse volume of interest located cranial to the ventricles allowing for direct comparison of the metabolites in white and grey matter brain tissue in 24 term asphyxiated newborns aged 3 to 16 days. Cho, NAA and Lact showed significant differences between four subgroups of asphyxiated infants with more and less favourable outcomes. High levels of Cho and Lact in the grey matter differentiated non-survivors from survivors (P = 0.003 and P = 0.017, respectively). In perinatal asphyxia the levels of Cho, NAA and Lact in both white and grey matter brain tissue are affected. The levels of Cho and Lact measured in the grey matter are the most indicative of survival. It is therefore advised to include grey matter brain tissue in the region of interest examined by multivoxel MR spectroscopy. (orig.)

  10. Rats given linseed oil in microemulsion forms enriches the brain synaptic membrane with docosahexaenoic acid and enhances the neurotransmitter levels in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugasini, Dhavamani; Lokesh, Belur R

    2015-02-01

    Long chain n-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for the normal functioning of the brain. The vegetarian sections of the population get only alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) through their diet as a source of n-3 fatty acids. Hence, in this group of the population, the ALAs need to be converted to DHA through the action of the desaturase and the elongase enzymes. However, the conversion of the ALA to the DHA is very minimal (linseed oil (LSO) containing ALA. The rats were fed LSO as microemulsions in whey protein or in lipoid for 60 days through gavage. The rats given LSO microemulsions in lipoid showed higher levels of the DHA in the brain synaptic membrane when compared to rats given LSO without emulsion formation. This decreased the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of the brain synaptic membrane. This also increased the membrane fluidity, Na⁺-K⁺ ATPase activity, and acetylcholine esterase activity in the synaptic membranes. Furthermore, Ca²⁺-Mg²⁺ ATPase activity, monoamine oxidase A and monoamine oxidase B activity was lowered in the rats given LSO in the microemulsion form. The dopamine and the serotonin levels in the brain were increased in the rats given LSO in the microemulsion form with lipoid as compared to those given LSO without the preemulsion formation. This study indicates that the LSO microemulsions in the lipoid can enhance the synaptic membrane DHA levels and influence the functions associated with the brain in a beneficial manner.

  11. Floorplan-Driven Multivoltage High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwu Xing

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As the semiconductor technology advances, interconnect plays a more and more important role in power consumption in VLSI systems. This also imposes a challenge in high-level synthesis, in which physical information is limited and conventionally considered after high-level synthesis. To close the gap between high-level synthesis and physical implementation, integration of physical synthesis and high-level synthesis is essential. In this paper, a technique named FloM is proposed for integrating floorplanning into high-level synthesis of VLSI system with multivoltage datapath. Experimental results obtained show that the proposed technique is effective and the energy consumed by both the datapath and the wires can be reduced by more than 40%.

  12. High performance nanobio photocatalyst for targeted brain cancer therapy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhkova, E.; Ulasov, I.; Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Lesniak, M.; Rajh, T.; Lai, B.; Center for Nanoscale Materials

    2009-09-01

    We report pronounced and specific antiglioblastoma cell phototoxicity of 5 nm TiO{sub 2} particles covalently tethered to an antibody via a dihydroxybenzene bivalent linker. The linker application enables absorption of a visible part of the solar spectrum by the nanobio hybrid. The phototoxicity is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) that initiate programmed death of the cancer cell. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) was applied for direct visualization of the nanobioconjugate distribution through a single brain cancer cell at the submicrometer scale.

  13. Exploring Serum Levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Nerve Growth Factor Across Glaucoma Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busanello, Anna; Bonini, Stefano; Quaranta, Luciano; Agnifili, Luca; Manni, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the serum levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) in patients affected by primary open angle glaucoma with a wide spectrum of disease severity compared to healthy controls and to explore their relationship with morphological and functional glaucoma parameters. Materials and Methods 45 patients affected by glaucoma at different stages and 15 age-matched healthy control subjects underwent visual field testing, peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and blood collection for both neurotrophins detection by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Statistical analysis and association between biostrumental and biochemical data were investigated. Results Serum levels of BDNF in glaucoma patients were significantly lower than those measured in healthy controls (261.2±75.0 pg/ml vs 313.6±79.6 pg/ml, p = 0.03). Subgroups analysis showed that serum levels of BDNF were significantly lower in early (253.8±40.7 pg/ml, p = 0.019) and moderate glaucoma (231.3±54.3 pg/ml, p = 0.04) but not in advanced glaucoma (296.2±103.1 pg/ml, p = 0.06) compared to healthy controls. Serum levels of NGF in glaucoma patients were significantly lower than those measured in the healthy controls (4.1±1 pg/mL vs 5.5±1.2 pg/mL, p = 0.01). Subgroups analysis showed that serum levels of NGF were significantly lower in early (3.5±0.9 pg/mL, p = 0.0008) and moderate glaucoma (3.8±0.7 pg/ml, p<0.0001) but not in advanced glaucoma (5.0±0.7 pg/ml, p = 0.32) compared to healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were not related to age, visual field mean deviation or retinal nerve fibre layer thickness either in glaucoma or in controls while NGF levels were significantly related to visual field mean deviation in the glaucoma group (r2 = 0.26, p = 0.004). Conclusions BDNF and NGF serum levels are reduced in the early and moderate glaucoma stages, suggesting the possibility that

  14. Decreased serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in schizophrenic patients with deficit syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akyol ES

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Esra Soydas Akyol,1 Yakup Albayrak,2 Murat Beyazyüz,3 Nurkan Aksoy,4 Murat Kuloglu,5 Kenji Hashimoto6 1Deparment of Psychiatry, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey; 3Department of Psychiatry, Biga State Hospital, Çanakkale, Turkey; 4Department of Biochemistry, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey; 6Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a well-established neurotrophin that plays a role in the pathophysiology of numerous psychiatric disorders. Many studies have investigated the serum BDNF levels in patients with schizophrenia. However, there are restricted data in the literature that compare the serum BDNF levels in patients with deficit and nondeficit syndromes. In this study, we aimed to compare the serum BDNF levels between schizophrenic patients with deficit or nondeficit syndrome and healthy controls.Methods: After fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 58 patients with schizophrenia and 36 healthy controls were included in the study. The patients were grouped as deficit syndrome (N=23 and nondeficit syndrome (N=35 according to the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome. Three groups were compared in terms of the sociodemographic and clinical variants and serum BDNF levels.Results: The groups were similar in terms of age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status. The serum BDNF levels in patients with deficit syndrome were significantly lower than those in healthy controls. In contrast, the serum BDNF levels in patients with nondeficit syndrome were similar to those in healthy controls.Conclusion: This study suggests that decreased BDNF levels may play a role in the pathophysio­logy of schizophrenic

  15. Randomization and resilience of brain functional networks as systems-level endophenotypes of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chun-Yi Zac; Su, Tsung-Wei; Huang, Chu-Chung; Hung, Chia-Chun; Chen, Wei-Ling; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Lin, Ching-Po; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-07-21

    Schizophrenia is increasingly conceived as a disorder of brain network organization or dysconnectivity syndrome. Functional MRI (fMRI) networks in schizophrenia have been characterized by abnormally random topology. We tested the hypothesis that network randomization is an endophenotype of schizophrenia and therefore evident also in nonpsychotic relatives of patients. Head movement-corrected, resting-state fMRI data were acquired from 25 patients with schizophrenia, 25 first-degree relatives of patients, and 29 healthy volunteers. Graphs were used to model functional connectivity as a set of edges between regional nodes. We estimated the topological efficiency, clustering, degree distribution, resilience, and connection distance (in millimeters) of each functional network. The schizophrenic group demonstrated significant randomization of global network metrics (reduced clustering, greater efficiency), a shift in the degree distribution to a more homogeneous form (fewer hubs), a shift in the distance distribution (proportionally more long-distance edges), and greater resilience to targeted attack on network hubs. The networks of the relatives also demonstrated abnormal randomization and resilience compared with healthy volunteers, but they were typically less topologically abnormal than the patients' networks and did not have abnormal connection distances. We conclude that schizophrenia is associated with replicable and convergent evidence for functional network randomization, and a similar topological profile was evident also in nonpsychotic relatives, suggesting that this is a systems-level endophenotype or marker of familial risk. We speculate that the greater resilience of brain networks may confer some fitness advantages on nonpsychotic relatives that could explain persistence of this endophenotype in the population.

  16. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback: Level of evidence in mental and brain disorders and suggestions for good clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; McGonigal, A; Lopez, R; Daudet, C; Kotwas, I; Bartolomei, F

    2015-12-01

    The technique of electroencephalographic neurofeedback (EEG NF) emerged in the 1970s and is a technique that measures a subject's EEG signal, processes it in real time, extracts a parameter of interest and presents this information in visual or auditory form. The goal is to effectuate a behavioural modification by modulating brain activity. The EEG NF opens new therapeutic possibilities in the fields of psychiatry and neurology. However, the development of EEG NF in clinical practice requires (i) a good level of evidence of therapeutic efficacy of this technique, (ii) a good practice guide for this technique. Firstly, this article investigates selected trials with the following criteria: study design with controlled, randomized, and open or blind protocol, primary endpoint related to the mental and brain disorders treated and assessed with standardized measurement tools, identifiable EEG neurophysiological targets, underpinned by pathophysiological relevance. Trials were found for: epilepsies, migraine, stroke, chronic insomnia, attentional-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, addictive disorders, psychotic disorders. Secondly, this article investigates the principles of neurofeedback therapy in line with learning theory. Different underlying therapeutic models are presented didactically between two continua: a continuum between implicit and explicit learning and a continuum between the biomedical model (centred on "the disease") and integrative biopsychosocial model of health (centred on "the illness"). The main relevant learning model is to link neurofeedback therapy with the field of cognitive remediation techniques. The methodological specificity of neurofeedback is to be guided by biologically relevant neurophysiological parameters. Guidelines for good clinical practice of EEG NF concerning technical issues of electrophysiology and of learning are suggested. These require validation by

  17. PCA and level set based non-rigid image registration for MRI and Paxinos-Watson atlas of rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chao; Liu, Ailing; Ding, Mingyue; Zhou, Chengping

    2007-12-01

    Image registration provides the ability to geometrically align one dataset with another. It is a basic task in a great variety of biomedical imaging applications. This paper introduced a novel three-dimensional registration method for Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) and Paxinos-Watson Atlas of rat brain. For the purpose of adapting to a large range and non-linear deformation between MRI and atlas in higher registration accuracy, based on the segmentation of rat brain, we chose the principle components analysis (PCA) automatically performing the linear registration, and then, a level set based nonlinear registration correcting some small distortions. We implemented this registration method in a rat brain 3D reconstruction and analysis system. Experiments have demonstrated that this method can be successfully applied to registering the low resolution and noise affection MRI with Paxinos-Watson Atlas of rat brain.

  18. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in institutionalized elderly with depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chin-Liang; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Lin, Yu-Te; Pan, Chih-Chuan; Lu, Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung; Chow, Philip C

    2012-06-01

    To compare the differences in plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels among institutionalized ethnic Chinese elderly participants with major depression, those with subclinical depression, and a nondepressed control group. A cross-sectional study. The veterans' home in southern Taiwan. One hundred sixty-seven residents. Questionnaires including the Minimum Data Set Nursing Home 2.1, Chinese-language version, and the short-form Geriatric Depression Scale, Chinese-language version. Depressive disorder was diagnosed by a well-trained psychiatrist using DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision) criteria. We measured plasma BDNF levels in the following 3 groups: nondepressive subjects (n = 122), subclinically depressive subjects (n = 33), and subjects with major depression (n = 12). Plasma BDNF was assayed using the sandwich ELISA method. We noted a significantly negative association between age and plasma BDNF in the regression model. There was no significant correlation between BDNF plasma levels and body weight or platelet counts. We found that plasma BDNF was significantly lower in the major depressive group (mean, 115.1 pg/mL; SD, 57.2) than in the nondepressive group (mean, 548.8 pg/mL; SD, 370.6; P depressive group (mean, 231.8 pg/mL; SD, 92.4; P depressive disorder but also in those with subclinical depression. This makes the plasma BDNF level a potential biological marker for clinical or subclinical depression. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Integration of ultra-high field MRI and histology for connectome based research of brain disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shan; Yang, Zhengyi; Fischer, Karin; Zhong, Kai; Stadler, Jörg; Godenschweger, Frank; Steiner, Johann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Bogerts, Bernhard; Mawrin, Christian; Reutens, David C.; Speck, Oliver; Walter, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) became increasingly relevant for in vivo neuroscientific research because of improved spatial resolutions. However, this is still the unchallenged domain of histological studies, which long played an important role in the investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders. While the field of biological psychiatry strongly advanced on macroscopic levels, current developments are rediscovering the richness of immunohistological information when attempting a multi-level systematic approach to brain function and dysfunction. For most studies, histology sections lost information on three-dimensional reconstructions. Translating histological sections to 3D-volumes would thus not only allow for multi-stain and multi-subject alignment in post mortem data, but also provide a crucial step in big data initiatives involving the network analyses currently performed with in vivo MRI. We therefore investigated potential pitfalls during integration of MR and histological information where no additional blockface information is available. We demonstrated that strengths and requirements from both methods can be effectively combined at a spatial resolution of 200 μm. However, the success of this approach is heavily dependent on choices of hardware, sequence and reconstruction. We provide a fully automated pipeline that optimizes histological 3D reconstructions, providing a potentially powerful solution not only for primary human post mortem research institutions in neuropsychiatric research, but also to help alleviate the massive workloads in neuroanatomical atlas initiatives. We further demonstrate (for the first time) the feasibility and quality of ultra-high spatial resolution (150 μm isotopic) imaging of the entire human brain MRI at 7T, offering new opportunities for analyses on MR-derived information. PMID:24098272

  20. Integration of ultra-high field MRI and histology for connectome based research of brain disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan eYang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI became increasingly relevant for in vivo neuroscientific research because of improved spatial resolutions. However, this is still the unchallenged domain of histological studies, which long played an important role in the investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders. While the field of biological psychiatry strongly advanced on macroscopic levels, current developments are rediscovering the richness of immunohistological information when attempting a multi-level systematic approach to brain function and dysfunction. For most studies, histology sections lost information on three-dimensional reconstructions. Translating histological sections to 3D-volumes would thus not only allow for multi-stain and multi-subject alignment in post mortem data, but also provide a crucial step in big data initiatives involving the network analyses currently performed with in vivo MRI. We therefore investigated potential pitfalls during integration of MR and histological information where no additional blockface information is available. We demonstrated that strengths and requirements from both methods seem to be ideally merged at a spatial resolution of 200 μm. However, the success of this approach is heavily dependent on choices of hardware, sequence and reconstruction. We provide a fully automated pipeline that optimizes histological 3D reconstructions, providing a potentially powerful solution not only for primary human post mortem research institutions in neuropsychiatric research, but also to help alleviate the massive workloads in neuroanatomical atlas initiatives. We further demonstrate (for the first time the feasibility and quality of ultra-high spatial resolution (150 µm isotopic imaging of the entire human brain MRI at 7T, offering new opportunities for analyses on MR-derived information.

  1. Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Different Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariacarla Ventriglia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent evidence indicates the involvement of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD and Parkinson’s disease (PD. In the present study, we compared serum BDNF in 624 subjects: 266 patients affected by AD, 28 by frontotemporal dementia (FTD, 40 by Lewy body dementia (LBD, 91 by vascular dementia (VAD, 30 by PD, and 169 controls. Our results evidenced lower BDNF serum levels in AD, FTD, LBD, and VAD patients (P<0.001 and a higher BDNF concentration in patients affected by PD (P=0.045. Analyses of effects of pharmacological treatments suggested significantly higher BDNF serum levels in patients taking mood stabilizers/antiepileptics (P=0.009 and L-DOPA (P<0.001 and significant reductions in patients taking benzodiazepines (P=0.020. In conclusion, our results support the role of BDNF alterations in neurodegenerative mechanisms common to different forms of neurological disorders and underline the importance of including drug treatment in the analyses to avoid confounding effects.

  2. Enhanced zinc consumption causes memory deficits and increased brain levels of zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, J.M.; Hunter, D.; Linkous, D.H.; Lanzirotti, A.; Smith, L.N.; Brightwell, J.; Jones, B.F.

    2005-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has been shown to impair cognitive functioning, but little work has been done on the effects of elevated zinc. This research examined the effect on memory of raising Sprague-Dawley rats on enhanced levels of zinc (10 ppm ZnCO3; 0.153 mM) in the drinking water for periods of 3 or 9 months, both pre- and postnatally. Controls were raised on lab water. Memory was tested in a series of Morris Water Maze (MWM) experiments, and zinc-treated rats were found to have impairments in both reference and working memory. They were significantly slower to find a stationary platform and showed greater thigmotaxicity, a measure of anxiety. On a working memory task, where the platform was moved each day, zinc-treated animals had longer latencies over both trials and days, swam further from the platform, and showed greater thigmotaxicity. On trials using an Atlantis platform, which remained in one place but was lowered on probe trials, the zinc-treated animals had significantly fewer platform crossings, spent less time in the target quadrant, and did not swim as close to the platform position. They had significantly greater latency on nonprobe trials. Microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (??SXRF) confirmed that brain zinc levels were increased by adding ZnCO 3 to the drinking water. These data show that long-term dietary administration of zinc can lead to impairments in cognitive function. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. DNA methylation levels of α-synuclein intron 1 in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boni, Laura; Riedel, Linda; Schmitt, Ina; Kraus, Theo F J; Kaut, Oliver; Piston, Dominik; Akbarian, Schahram; Wüllner, Ullrich

    2015-12-01

    DNA methylation patterns change with age, and aging itself is a major confounding risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Duplication and triplication, that is, increased expression of the α-synuclein (SNCA) gene, cause familial PD, and demethylation of SNCA intron 1 has been shown to result in increased expression of SNCA. We thus hypothesized that age-related alterations of SNCA methylation might underly the increased susceptibility toward PD in later life. The present study sought to determine (1) whether alterations of SNCA intron 1 methylation occurred during aging, (2) whether the methylation pattern differed between men and women, and (3) whether purified neurons compared with non-neuronal cells exhibited different methylation patterns. The analysis of DNA from brain tissue and fluorescence activated cell sorting-sorted purified neurons of 41 individuals revealed only a minor increase of SNCA intron 1 DNA methylation levels in presumably healthy individuals during aging but no significant difference between men and women. Interestingly enough, methylation of SNCA intron 1 was higher in neurons compared with non-neuronal cells, although non-neuronal cells express lower levels of SNCA. Therefore, the normal pattern of SNCA methylation during aging should not result in increased expression of α-synuclein protein. It is thus likely that additional, yet not identified, mechanisms contribute to the tissue specificity of SNCA expression and the presumed dysregulation in PD.

  4. Theoretical model for mesoscopic-level scale-free self-organization of functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersa, Jaroslaw; Piekniewski, Filip; Schreiber, Tomasz

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we provide theoretical and numerical analysis of a geometric activity flow network model which is aimed at explaining mathematically the scale-free functional graph self-organization phenomena emerging in complex nervous systems at a mesoscale level. In our model, each unit corresponds to a large number of neurons and may be roughly seen as abstracting the functional behavior exhibited by a single voxel under functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the course of the dynamics, the units exchange portions of formal charge, which correspond to waves of activity in the underlying microscale neuronal circuit. The geometric model abstracts away the neuronal complexity and is mathematically tractable, which allows us to establish explicit results on its ground states and the resulting charge transfer graph modeling functional graph of the network. We show that, for a wide choice of parameters and geometrical setups, our model yields a scale-free functional connectivity with the exponent approaching 2, which is in agreement with previous empirical studies based on fMRI. The level of universality of the presented theory allows us to claim that the model does shed light on mesoscale functional self-organization phenomena of the nervous system, even without resorting to closer details of brain connectivity geometry which often remain unknown. The material presented here significantly extends our previous work where a simplified mean-field model in a similar spirit was constructed, ignoring the underlying network geometry.

  5. High risk factors of brain metastases in 295 patients with advanced breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Min; L(U) Hui-min; LIU Zhen-zhen; LIU Hui; ZHANG Meng-wei; SUN Xi-bin; CUI Shu-de

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of brain metastases in patients with breast cancer is approximately 10%-16%,and survival after diagnosis of brain metastases is usually short.This study was designed to evaluate the risk factors associated with brain metastases in advanced breast cancer patients,with a view to help predict patient groups with high risk of brain metastases.Methods In total,295 patients with advanced breast cancer were evaluated.All patients were pathologically confirmed and metastatic lesions were confirmed pathologically or by imaging.All patients were examined at least once every 6 months with head CT or MRI.Patients showing symptoms underwent immediate inspection,and brain metastatic lesions were confirmed by head CT and/or MRI.Results At a median follow-up of 12 months from the occurrence of metastases,brain metastases had occurred in 49 patients (16.6%).In our univariate analysis,variables significantly related to increased risk of brain metastases were hormone receptor-negative tumors,epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive tumors,and multiple distant metastases.Patients with dominant tumor sites in soft tissue,or defined as Luminal A subtype,tended to have a lower risk of brain metastases than patients with visceral metastases,Luminal B subtype,triple-negative subtype or HER2-enriched subtype tumors.Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that factors such as Luminal B,triple-negative,and HER2-enriched subtypes are high risk factors for brain metastases.These data,therefore,provide pivotal clinical evidence towards a comprehensive understanding of the risk factors of brain metastases in advanced breast cancer patients.

  6. Pentoxifylline attenuates TNF-α protein levels and brain edema following temporary focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Abedin; Mojarrad, Somye; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2011-03-04

    Cerebral edema is the most common cause of neurological deterioration and mortality during acute ischemic stroke. Despite the clinical importance of cerebral ischemia, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent studies suggest a role for TNF-α in the brain edema formation. To further investigate whether TNF-α would play a role in brain edema formation, we examined the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX, an inhibitor of TNF-α synthesis) on the brain edema and TNF-α levels in a model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. The right middle cerebral artery (MCA) of rats was occluded for 60 min using the intraluminal filament method. The animals received PTX (60 mg/kg) immediately, 1, 3, or 6h post-ischemic induction. Twenty-four hours after induction of ischemic injury, permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain edema were determined by in situ brain perfusion of Evans Blue (EB) and wet-to-dry weight ratio, respectively. TNF-α protein levels in ischemic cortex were also measured at 1, 4, and 24h after the beginning of an ischemic stroke by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The administration of PTX up to 6h after occlusion of the MCA significantly reduced the brain edema. Moreover, PTX significantly reduced the concentration of TNF-α in ischemic brain cortex up to 4h post-transient focal stroke (Pedema in a model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. The beneficial effects of PTX may be mediated, at least in part, through a decline in TNF-α production and BBB breakdown.

  7. N-3 fatty acids reduced trans fatty acids retention and increased docosahexaenoic acid levels in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Saín, Juliana; Fariña, Ana Clara; Bernal, Claudio Adrián; González, Marcela Aída

    2017-09-01

    The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) are critical for the normal structure and function of the brain. Trans fatty acids (TFA) and the source of the dietary fatty acids (FA) interfere with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TFA supplementation in diets containing different proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA on the brain FA profile, including the retention of TFA, LC-PUFA levels, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. These parameters were also investigated in the liver, considering that LC-PUFA are mainly bioconverted from their dietary precursors in this tissue and transported by serum to the brain. Also, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) gene expressions were evaluated. Male CF1 mice were fed (16 weeks) diets containing different oils (olive, corn, and rapeseed) with distinct proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA (55.2/17.2/0.7, 32.0/51.3/0.9, and 61.1/18.4/8.6), respectively, substituted or not with 0.75% of TFA. FA composition of the brain, liver, and serum was assessed by gas chromatography. TFA were incorporated into, and therefore retained in the brain, liver, and serum. However, the magnitude of retention was dependent on the tissue and type of isomer. In the brain, total TFA retention was lower than 1% in all diets. Dietary n-3 PUFA decreased TFA retention and increased DHA accretion in the brain. The results underscore the importance of the type of dietary FA on the retention of TFA in the brain and also on the changes of the FA profile.

  8. The effect of high altitude on nasal nitric oxide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altundag, Aytug; Salihoglu, Murat; Cayonu, Melih; Cingi, Cemal; Tekeli, Hakan; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether nasal nitric oxide (nNO) levels change in relation to high altitude in a natural setting where the weather conditions were favorable. The present study included 41 healthy volunteers without a history of acute rhinosinusitis within 3 weeks and nasal polyposis. The study group consisted of 31 males (76 %) and 10 females (24 %) and the mean age of the study population was 38 ± 10 years. The volunteers encamped for 2 days in a mountain village at an altitude of 1,500 m above sea level (masl) and proceeded to highlands at an altitude of 2,200 masl throughout the day. The measurements of nNO were done randomly, either first at the mountain village or at sea level. Each participant had nNO values both at sea level and at high altitude at the end of the study. The nNO values of sea level and high altitude were compared to investigate the effect of high altitude on nNO levels. The mean of average nNO measurements at the high altitude was 74.2 ± 41 parts-per-billion (ppb) and the mean of the measurements at sea level was 93.4 ± 45 ppb. The change in nNO depending on the altitude level was statistically significant (p high altitude even if the weather conditions were favorable, such as temperature, humidity, and wind.

  9. Summary of high field diffusion MRI and microscopy data demonstrate microstructural aberration in chronic mild stress rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Chuhutin, Andrey; Wiborg, Ove

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This data article describes a large, high resolution diffusion MRI data set from fixed rat brain acquired at high field strength. The rat brain samples consist of21adult rat brain hemispheres from animals exposed to chronic mild stress (anhedonic and resilient) and controls. Histology from...

  10. The brain responses to different frequencies of binaural beat sounds on QEEG at cortical level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirakittayakorn, Nantawachara; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2015-01-01

    Beat phenomenon is occurred when two slightly different frequency waves interfere each other. The beat can also occur in the brain by providing two slightly different frequency waves separately each ear. This is called binaural beat. The brain responses to binaural beat are in discussion process whether the brain side and the brain area. Therefore, this study aims to figure out the brain responses to binaural beat by providing different binaural beat frequencies on 250 carrier tone continuously for 30 minutes to participants and using quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) to interpret the data. The result shows that different responses appear in different beat frequency. Left hemisphere dominance occur in 3 Hz beat within 15 minutes and 15 Hz beat within 5 minutes. Right hemisphere dominance occurs in 10 Hz beat within 25 minute. 6 Hz beat enhances all area of the brain within 10 minutes. 8 Hz and 25 Hz beats have no clearly responses while 40 Hz beat enhances the responses in frontal lobe. These brain responses can be used for brain modulation application to induce the brain activity in further studies.

  11. The Reliability of Highly Elevated CA 19-9 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Osswald

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available CA 19-9 is used as a tumour marker of the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, extremely elevated CA 19-9 levels are found also in patients with benign diseases. Cholestasis was present in 97.1 % of patients with high elevated CA 19-9, independent of their primary disease. 50% of patients with non-malignant diseases and increased CA 19-9 levels showed liver cirrhosis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis and/or hepatitis. In 8.8% no explanation was found for the extremely high CA 19-9 level. The results provide evidence of different factors influencing the CA 19-9 level.

  12. EFFECTS OF CHRONIC STRESS ON THE ACTIVITIES OF SOD, GSH-Px AND MDA LEVEL IN FEMALE RATS' BRAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 杨东伟; 谢雯; 庞炜; 蒋马莉; 韩太真

    2002-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of chronic emotional stress on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malonialdehyde (MDA) level in female rats' brain. Methods The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group (group N), emotional stress group (group E), emotional stress + pregnancy group (group E+P) and regularly drinking group (group R). Emotional stress in rats was induced by training rats with empty drinking bottles. Having been finished the stress procedure, the brain was taken out and homogenized. Then the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and MDA level were measured. Results Compared to group N, both the activities of SOD in brain tissues of group E and group E+P were significantly decreased (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively) while the MDA level increased (P<0.05). However, the extent of changes in group E+P was more obvious than that in E. GSH-Px activities in E+P and E were significantly changed. However, the GSH-Px activity in E+P was decreased (P<0.05) while the activity in E increased (P<0.05).Conclusion The chronic emotional stress can reduce the antioxidative system by decreasing the antioxidative enzyme activity and potentiating the lipid peroxidation in the brain. It is also suggested that the combination of emotional stress and pregnancy can augment the oxidative damage in rats' brain.

  13. Physiological mouse brain Abeta levels are not related to the phosphorylation state of threonine-668 of Alzheimer's APP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitake Sano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amyloid-beta peptide species ending at positions 40 and 42 (Abeta40, Abeta42 are generated by the proteolytic processing of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein (APP. Abeta peptides accumulate in the brain early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD, especially Abeta42. The cytoplasmic domain of APP regulates intracellular trafficking and metabolism of APP and its carboxyl-terminal fragments (CTFalpha, CTFbeta. The role of protein phosphorylation in general, and that of the phosphorylation state of APP at threonine-668 (Thr668 in particular, has been investigated in detail by several laboratories (including our own. Some investigators have recently proposed that the phosphorylation state of Thr668 plays a pivotal role in governing brain Abeta levels, prompting the current study. METHODOLOGY: In order to evaluate whether the phosphorylation state of Thr668 controlled brain Abeta levels, we studied the levels and subcellular distributions of holoAPP, sAPPalpha, sAPPbeta, CTFalpha, CTFbeta, Abeta40 and Abeta42 in brains from "knock-in" mice in which a non-phosphorylatable alanyl residue had been substituted at position 668, replacing the threonyl residue present in the wild-type protein. CONCLUSIONS: The levels and subcellular distributions of holoAPP, sAPPalpha, sAPPbeta, CTFalpha, CTFbeta, Abeta40 and Abeta42 in the brains of Thr668Ala mutant mice were identical to those observed in wild-type mice. These results indicate that, despite speculation to the contrary, the phosphorylation state of APP at Thr668 does not play an obvious role in governing the physiological levels of brain Abeta40 or Abeta42 in vivo.

  14. Comparison of blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy recording during functional brain activation in patients with stroke and brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakatani, Kaoru; Murata, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Norio; Hoshino, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Shin; Kano, Tsuneo; Katayama, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    Blood-oxygen-level-dependent contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) has been used to perform functional imaging in brain disorders such as stroke and brain tumors. However, recent studies have revealed that BOLD-fMRI does not image activation areas correctly in such patients. To clarify the characteristics of the evoked cerebral blood oxygenation (CBO) changes occurring in stroke and brain tumors, we have been comparing near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and BOLD-fMRI recording during functional brain activation in these patients. We review our recent studies and related functional imaging studies on the brain disorders. In the primary sensorimotor cortex (PSMC) on the nonlesion side, the motor task consistently caused a decrease of deoxyhemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) with increases of oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin (t-Hb), which is consistent with the evoked CBO response observed in normal adults. BOLD-fMRI demonstrated robust activation areas on the nonlesion side. In stroke patients, severe cerebral ischemia (i.e., misery perfusion) caused an increase of deoxy-Hb during the task, associated with increases of oxy-Hb and t-Hb, in the PSMC on the lesion side. In addition, the activation volume of BOLD-fMRI was significantly reduced on the lesion side. The BOLD signal did not change in some areas of the PSMC on the lesion side, but it tended to decrease in other areas during the tasks. In brain tumors, BOLD-fMRI clearly demonstrated activation areas in the PSMC on the lesion side in patients who displayed a normal evoked CBO response. However, the activation volume on the lesion side was significantly reduced in patients who exhibited an increase of deoxy-Hb during the task. In both stroke and brain tumors, false-negative activations (i.e., marked reductions of activation volumes) in BOLD imaging were associated with increases of deoxy-Hb, which could cause a reduction in BOLD signal. BOLD-fMRI investigations of patients with brain disorders

  15. High-level waste immobilization program: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, W.R.

    1979-09-01

    The High-Level Waste Immobilization Program is providing technology to allow safe, affordable immobilization and disposal of nuclear waste. Waste forms and processes are being developed on a schedule consistent with national needs for immobilization of high-level wastes stored at Savannah River, Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley, New York. This technology is directly applicable to high-level wastes from potential reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The program is removing one more obstacle previously seen as a potential restriction on the use and further development of nuclear power, and is thus meeting a critical technological need within the national objective of energy independence.

  16. 围生期心肌病患者血清B型脑钠肽与超敏C反应蛋白水平变化及临床意义%The clinical significance of the level changes of B type brain natriuretic peptide and high sensitive C-reaction protein in peripartum cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪朝春; 杨群爱

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨血清B型脑钠肽(BNP)与超敏C反应蛋白(hs- CRP)水平在围生期心肌病(PPCM)诊断及治疗中的价值。方法测定21例PPCM患者(观察组)BNP hs- CRP,同时行心脏彩色多普勒超声心动图检查测量左心室舒张末期内径(LVED)和左心室射血分数(LVEF),并对患者进行1个月的随访。选取同期住院的正常分娩患者20例作为对照组。结果观察组与对照组比较,BNP[(870.1±168.2)ng/L,(99.2±38.3)ng/L]、hs- CRP[(28.1±7.2)mg/L,(6.7±2.2)mg/L]明显升高(均P<0.01),hs- CRP与BNP呈正相关(r=0.67,P<0.01)。经过1个月治疗,观察组平均LVEF由(33.1±9.5)%提高至(50.3±12.1)%,BNP、hs- CRP[治疗后分别为(196.6±40.2)ng/L、(7.8±3.1)mg/L)]明显下降(均P<0.01)。结论 BNP及hs- CRP可以作为PPCM较好的诊断、治疗参考指标。%Objective To explore the clinical significances of the level changes of B type brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and high sensitive C- reaction protein(hs- CRP) for diagnosis and treatment in peripartum cardiomyopathy(PPCM ). Methods A total of 21 PPCM and 20 normal delivery femals were randomly recruited in the current study.echocardiographic,hs- CRP,BNP were measured.21PPCM were fol owed up for a month. Results The PPCM patients compared to the controls, BNP(870.1ng/L) and hs- CRP (28.1mg/L) were significantly higher in the PPCM patients compared with the control (99.2ng/L and 6.7mg/L) hs- CRP was positively related with BNP(r=0.67,P<0.01).After a month of treatment,left ventricular ejection fraction enhanced from 33.1%to 50.3%, BNP significantly declined from 870.1ng/L to 196.6ng/L(P<0.01),hs- CRP significantly declined from 28.1mg/L to 7.8mg/L(P<0.01). Conclusion BNP and hs- CRP provide a good reference index for diagnosis and treatment in the PPCM.

  17. Short-term effect of adrenalin on S-100b and N-CAM level in the different rat brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Kovalchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The level of adrenalin grows under stress conditions, sense of danger, anxiety, fear, trauma, burns and shock. In high concentrations adrenaline increases the speed of protein catabolism. Working through the circulatory system, adrenaline affects almost all the functions of organs, causing the body mobilization to counter stressful situations. Due to ELISA the astrocytes-specific protein (S-100b and neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM were studied. S-100b is produced mainly by astrocytes іn the brain and depending on the concentration it causes trophic or toxic effect on the neurons and glial cells.Strong stress and ischemia induce re-distribution of calcium-binding protein S-100b and elevation of its level. Quantitative changes of S-100b under the influence of various factors on the body which lead to the metabolic disorder in the brain are considered today as a sign of brain damage (cortical, ischemic one, etc.. Fluctuations in the concentration of S-100b in the brain are not always accompanied by marked deterioration of the physical condition of animals, but they can also lead to a number of violations of integrative functions of the brain depending on over-production of this protein. Most N-CAM are transmembrane proteins that cross the plasma membraneonce; intracellular domains have different size and it is thought they are involved in binding to cytoskeleton or cell signaling. Violation of N-CAM functions leads to disruption of nerve sprouts. Data obtained in our study showed no serious re-distribution of S-100b and N-CAM level in the different areas of rat brain (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and thalamus under effect of adrenalin administered to the animals (under skin in dosage of 0.45–0.60 mg per rat, 1 time per day during 10 days, probably because of the type of injection and/or short time of adrenalin action. Increased dosage of adrenaline 1 hour before decapitation leads to the decrease of level of total protein in membrane

  18. Effects of antiepileptic drugs on mRNA levels of BDNF and NT-3 and cell neogenesis in the developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiu-Yu; Wang, Ji-Wen; Cui, Hong; Li, Bao-Min; Lei, Ge-Fei; Sun, Ruo-Peng

    2010-03-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that occurs more frequently in childhood than in adulthood. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) which are used to treat seizures in pregnant women, infants, and young children may cause cognitive impairment or other uncertain injury. However, the exact mechanisms responsible for adverse effects of AEDs in the developing brain are still not clear. In the present study, we investigate the effects of AEDs on mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), cell neogenesis and mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) in the developing rat brain. Long-term treatment with Phenobarbital (40mg/kg), valproate (100mg/kg) and topiramate (40mg/kg) reduces BDNF and NT-3 mRNA expression in the developing brain, while lamotrigine reduces mRNA expression only at high dose level (80mg/kg). Cell neogenesis only increases in the rats treated with valproate and lamotrigine. And no differences are observed between the control group and the AEDs-treated groups in the Timm scores of the CA3 region and supragranular region. Our findings present some possible mechanisms to explain why different AEDs cause different cognitive impairment.

  19. High glycogen levels in the hippocampus of patients with epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Madsen, Flemming F; Secher, Niels H

    2006-01-01

    biopsies were obtained from pathologic hippocampus (n=19) and from apparently 'normal' cortical grey and white matter. We determined the in vivo brain glycogen level and the activity of glycogen phosphorylase and synthase. Regional differences in glycogen concentration were examined similarly in healthy...... pigs (n=5). In the patients, the glycogen concentration in 'normal' grey and white matter was 5 to 6 mmol/L, but much higher in the hippocampus, 13.1+/-4.3 mmol/L (mean+/-s.d.; P..., glycogen was similarly higher than in grey and white matter. Consequently, in human grey and white matter and, particularly, in the hippocampus of patients with temporal lope epilepsy, glycogen constitutes a large, active energy reserve, which may be of importance for energy provision during sustained...

  20. Anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets enhance protection of critical brain regions exposed to acute levels of 56Fe cosmic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress which can lead to “accelerated aging”. One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, which consists of high-energy and -charge parti...

  1. Transcranial low-level laser therapy increases memory, learning, neuroprogenitor cells, BDNF and synaptogenesis in mice with traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Weijun; Huang, Liyi; Vatansever, Fatma; Agrawal, Tanupriya; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2015-03-01

    Increasing concern is evident over the epidemic of traumatic brain injury in both civilian and military medicine, and the lack of approved treatments. Transcranial low level laser therapy tLLLT) is a new approach in which near infrared laser is delivered to the head, penetrates the scalp and skull to reach the brain. We asked whether tLLLT at 810-nm could improve memory and learning in mice with controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury. We investigated the mechanism of action by immunofluorescence studies in sections from brains of mice sacrificed at different times. Mice with TBI treated with 1 or 3 daily laser applications performed better on Morris Water Maze test at 28 days. Laser treated mice had increased BrdU incorporation into NeuN positive cells in the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone indicating formation of neuroprogenitor cells at 7 days and less at 28 days. Markers of neuron migration (DCX and Tuj1) were also increased, as was the neurotrophin, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) at 7 days. Markers of synaptogenesis (formation of new connections between existing neurons) were increased in the perilesional cortex at 28 days. tLLLT is proposed to be able to induce the brain to repair itself after injury. However its ability to induce neurogenesis and synaptogenesis suggests that tLLLT may have much wider applications to neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.

  2. Combination of high-resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and microscale genomics to type brain tumor biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzika, A Aria; Astrakas, Loukas; Cao, Haihui; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Andronesi, Ovidiu C; Mindrinos, Michael; Zhang, Jiangwen; Rahme, Laurence G; Blekas, Konstantinos D; Likas, Aristidis C; Galatsanos, Nikolas P; Carroll, Rona S; Black, Peter M

    2007-08-01

    Advancements in the diagnosis and prognosis of brain tumor patients, and thus in their survival and quality of life, can be achieved using biomarkers that facilitate improved tumor typing. We introduce and implement a combinatorial metabolic and molecular approach that applies state-of-the-art, high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) proton (1H) MRS and gene transcriptome profiling to intact brain tumor biopsies, to identify unique biomarker profiles of brain tumors. Our results show that samples as small as 2 mg can be successfully processed, the HRMAS 1H MRS procedure does not result in mRNA degradation, and minute mRNA amounts yield high-quality genomic data. The MRS and genomic analyses demonstrate that CNS tumors have altered levels of specific 1H MRS metabolites that directly correspond to altered expression of Kennedy pathway genes; and exhibit rapid phospholipid turnover, which coincides with upregulation of cell proliferation genes. The data also suggest Sonic Hedgehog pathway (SHH) dysregulation may play a role in anaplastic ganglioglioma pathogenesis. That a strong correlation is seen between the HRMAS 1H MRS and genomic data cross-validates and further demonstrates the biological relevance of the MRS results. Our combined metabolic/molecular MRS/genomic approach provides insights into the biology of anaplastic ganglioglioma and a new potential tumor typing methodology that could aid neurologists and neurosurgeons to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and ongoing evaluation of brain tumor patients.

  3. Association between plasma brain natriuretic peptide/N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels and atrial fibrillation:evidence from a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yaowu; Xiao Yunyun; Chen Xinguang; Zhang Fengxiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Several small sample-size observational studies evaluated the association of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) with atrial fibrillation (AF),but the results were contradictory.We aimed to perform a meta-analysis of relevant studies to evaluate the availability of this association.Methods We performed an extensive literature search on PubMed,Web of Science (WOS) and the Cochrane Library databases.Pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the strength of association using random effects models.We performed sensitivity and subgroup analyses to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity.We also estimated publication biases.Statistical analyses were performed using the STATA 12.0 software.Results A total of 11 studies including 777 cases and 870 controls were finally analyzed.Overall,the brain natriuretic peptide/N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels were higher in atrial fibrillation patients than controls without atrial fibrillation.Results showed that the SMD in the natriuretic peptide levels between cases and controls was 2.68 units (95%CI 1.76 to 3.60); test for overall effect z-score=5.7 (P <0.001).There was significant heterogeneity between individual studies (I2=97.8%; P <0.001).Further analysis revealed that differences in the assay of natriuretic peptide possibly account for this heterogeneity.Conclusions Increased BNP/NT-proBNP levels were associated with the presence of atrial fibrillation.This finding indicates that BNP/NT-proBNP may prove to be a biomarker of an underlying predisposition to AF.

  4. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, High Low

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), daily, high low water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services...

  5. Burning high-level TRU waste in fusion fission reactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Yaosong

    2016-01-01

    .... A new method of burning high-level transuranic (TRU) waste combined with Thorium–Uranium (Th–U) fuel in the subcritical reactors driven by external fusion neutron sources is proposed in this paper...

  6. Methodological considerations to determine the effect of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels

    OpenAIRE

    Pareja Galeano, Helios; Alis, Rafael; Sanchís-Gomar, Fabián; Cabo, Helena; Cortell-Ballester, José; Gómez Cabrera, María del Carmen; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Viña, José

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise up-regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain and blood. However, there is yet no consensus about the adequate blood processing conditions to standardize its assessment. We aimed to find a reliable blood sample processing method to determine changes in BDNF due to exercise. 2.382 JCR (2015) Q2, 9/30 Medical laboratory technology UEM

  7. The study of low level laser irradiation therapy on brain infarction with SPECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Xuechang; Jia Shaowei; Zleng Xiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Effect of rCBF and brain function on ILIB treating brain infarction will be investigated by SPECT brain perfusion imaging. Method: 3 1 patients with brain infarction, 17 patients were treated by ILIB on standard pharmaceutial treatment. SPECT brain perfusion imaging was performed before and after ILIB therapy with comparison of oneself. They were quantified with BFCR% model effect during ILIB in 14 patients were observed. Result: ILIB 30 rnme SPECT showed the improvement of rCBF and cerebral function in 14 patients with brain infarction, and in 17 patients locus were prominence than mirror regions att er ILIB therapy, both are higher singnitficant difference ( t=4.4052, P<0.0001 ), but mirror regions were not singnificant difference before and after ILIB (t=1.6995, P>0.05). BFCR% quantitative results of locus were higher mirror regions, and higher singnificant difference (t=4.5278 p<0.0001 )。 Conclusion: ILIB can improve the rCBF and cerebral function of patients with brain infarction, and provoke function of brain cells. Some new evidence was provided for ILIB treatment of cerebral ischemia

  8. Effects of morphine dependence and withdrawal on levels of neurosteroids in rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai-zhen YAN; Yan-ning HOU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of morphine dependence and withdrawal on the concentrations of neurosteroids in rat brain. METHODS: A method of simultaneous quantification of neurosteroids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) had been established. RESULTS: The chronic morphine administration (ip) resulted in a marked decrease in the brain concentrations of pregnenolone (PREG), progesterone (PROG), and pregenenolone sulfate (PREGS) in rats killed 6 h after the last treatment. In contrast, there were no significant effects of morphine dependence on the brain concentrations of allopregnanolone (AP), dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and dihydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Naloxone-induced withdrawal produced a significant increase in the concentrations of PREG, PROG, AP, DHEA, PREGS, and DHEAS as compared with the control group.CONCLUSION: Morphine dependence and withdrawal affected the concentrations of neurosteroids in rat brain,which suggests that endogenous neurosteroids in brain might be related to the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal.

  9. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  10. Glucose level regulation via integral high-order sliding modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorel, Lela

    2011-04-01

    Diabetes is a condition in which the body either does not produce enough insulin, or does not properly respond to it. This causes the glucose level in blood to increase. An algorithm based on Integral High-Order Sliding Mode technique is proposed, which keeps the normal blood glucose level automatically releasing insulin into the blood. The system is highly insensitive to inevitable parametric and model uncertainties, measurement noises and small delays.

  11. Probing high energy levels of lanthanide ions - experiment and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijzel, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy of lanthanide ions. High-resolution emission and excitation spectra were recorded to investigate the VUV energy levels of lanthanide ions in fluoride and phosphate host lattices. A parameterized model for the calculation of the energy-level

  12. Retinoic acid reverses the PTU related decrease in neurogranin level in mice brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderlin, V; Vallortigara, J; Alfos, S; Féart, C; Pallet, V; Higueret, P

    2004-09-01

    Recent data have shown that fine regulation of retinoid mediated gene expression is fundamentally important for optimal brain functioning in aged mice. Nevertheless, alteration of the thyroid hormone signalling pathway may be a limiting factor, which impedes retinoic acid (RA) from exerting its modulating effect. Mild hypothyroidism is often described in the elderly. Thus, in the present study, it was of interest to determine if RA exerts its neurological modulating effect in mild hypothyroidism. To obtain further insight into this question, mice were submitted to a low propylthiouracyl (PTU) drink (0.05%) in order to slightly reduce the serum level of triiodothyronine (T3). A quantitative evaluation of RA nuclear receptors (RAR, RXR), T3 nuclear receptor (TR) and of neurogranin (RC3, a RA target gene which codes for a protein considered as a good marker of synaptic plasticity) in PTU treated mice injected with vehicle or RA or T3 was carried out. The PTU-related decrease in expression of RAR, RXR and RC3 was restored following RA or T3 administration, as observed in aged mice. The amount of TR mRNA, which was not affected in PTU treated mice, was increased only after T3 treatment as observed in overt hypothyroidism. These results suggest that neurobiological alterations observed in aged mice are probably related to RA and T3 signalling pathway modifications associated, in part, with mild changes in thyroid function.

  13. Low-level laser therapy promotes dendrite growth via upregulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chengbo; He, Zhiyong; Xing, Da

    2014-09-01

    Downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus occurs early in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since BDNF plays a critical role in neuronal survival and dendrite growth, BDNF upregulation may contribute to rescue dendrite atrophy and cell loss in AD. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to regulate neuronal function both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we found that LLLT rescued neurons loss and dendritic atrophy via the increase of both BDNF mRNA and protein expression. In addition, dendrite growth was improved after LLLT, characterized by upregulation of PSD95 expression, and the increase in length, branching, and spine density of dendrites in hippocampal neurons. Together, these studies suggest that upregulation of BDNF with LLLT can ameliorate Aβ-induced neurons loss and dendritic atrophy, thus identifying a novel pathway by which LLLT protects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Our research may provide a feasible therapeutic approach to control the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Hippocampal neurogenesis levels predict WATERMAZE search strategies in the aging brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Gil-Mohapel

    Full Text Available The hippocampus plays a crucial role in the formation of spatial memories, and it is thought that adult hippocampal neurogenesis may participate in this form of learning. To better elucidate the relationship between neurogenesis and spatial learning, we examined both across the entire life span of mice. We found that cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and neurogenesis significantly decrease with age, and that there is an abrupt reduction in these processes early on, between 1.5-3 months of age. After this, the neurogenic capacity continues to decline steadily. The initial abrupt decline in adult neurogenesis was paralleled by a significant reduction in Morris Water Maze performance, however overall learning and memory remained constant thereafter. Further analysis of the search strategies employed revealed that reductions in neurogenesis in the aging brain were strongly correlated with the adoption of spatially imprecise search strategies. Overall, performance measures of learning and memory in the Morris Water Maze were maintained at relatively constant levels in aging animals due to an increase in the use of spatially imprecise search strategies.

  15. A High-Resolution In Vivo Atlas of the Human Brain's Serotonin System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliveau, Vincent; Ganz, Melanie; Feng, Ling; Ozenne, Brice; Højgaard, Liselotte; Fisher, Patrick M; Svarer, Claus; Greve, Douglas N; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-01-04

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system modulates many important brain functions and is critically involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present a high-resolution, multidimensional, in vivo atlas of four of the human brain's 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4) and the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT). The atlas is created from molecular and structural high-resolution neuroimaging data consisting of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans acquired in a total of 210 healthy individuals. Comparison of the regional PET binding measures with postmortem human brain autoradiography outcomes showed a high correlation for the five 5-HT targets and this enabled us to transform the atlas to represent protein densities (in picomoles per milliliter). We also assessed the regional association between protein concentration and mRNA expression in the human brain by comparing the 5-HT density across the atlas with data from the Allen Human Brain atlas and identified receptor- and transporter-specific associations that show the regional relation between the two measures. Together, these data provide unparalleled insight into the serotonin system of the human brain.

  16. High-Frequency Deep Brain Stimulation of the Putamen Improves Bradykinesia in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Erwin B.; Huang, He; Walker, Harrison C.; Guthrie, Barton L.; Watts, Ray L.

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation is effective for a wide range of neurological disorders; however, its mechanisms of action remain unclear. With respect to Parkinson’s disease, the existence of multiple effective targets suggests that putamen stimulation also may be effective and raises questions as to the mechanisms of action. Are there as many mechanisms of action as there are effective targets or some single or small set of mechanisms common to all effective targets? During the course of routine surgery of the globus pallidus interna in patients with Parkinson’s disease, the deep brain stimulation lead was placed in the putamen en route to the globus pallidus interna. Recordings of hand opening and closing during high-frequency and no stimulation were made. Speed of the movements, based on the amplitude and frequency of the repetitive hand movements as well as the decay in amplitude, were studied. Hand speed in 6 subjects was statistically significantly faster during active deep brain stimulation than the no-stimulation condition. There were no statistically significant differences in decay in the amplitude of hand movements. High-frequency deep brain stimulation of the putamen improves bradykinesia in a hand-opening and -closing task in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Consequently, high-frequency deep brain stimulation of virtually every structure in the basal ganglia-thalamic-cortical system improves bradykinesia. These observations, together with microelectrode recordings reported in the literature, argue that deep brain stimulation effects may be system specific and not structure specific. PMID:21714010

  17. Nuclear Level Density at High Spin and Excitation Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.N. Behkami; Z. Kargar

    2001-01-01

    The intensive studies of equilibrium processes in heavy-ion reaction have produced a need for information on nuclear level densities at high energies and spins. The Fermi gas level density is often used in investigation of heavy-ion reaction studies. Some papers have claimed that nuclear level densities might deviate substantially from the Fermi gas predications at excitations related to heavy-ion reactions. The formulae of calculation of the nuclear level density based on the theory of superconductivity are presented, special attention is paid to the dependence of the level density on the angular momentum. The spin-dependent nuclear level density is evaluated using the pairing interaction. The resulting level density for an average spin of 52h is evaluated for 155Er and compared with experimental data. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is obtained.``

  18. High level resistance to aminoglycosides in enterococci from Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ballaa, S R; Qadri, S M; Al-Ballaa, S R; Kambal, A M; Saldin, H; Al-Qatary, K

    1994-07-01

    Enterococci with high level of aminoglycosides resistance are being reported from different parts of the world with increasing frequency. Treatment of infections caused by such isolates is associated with a high incidence of failure or relapse. This is attributed to the loss of the synergetic effect of aminoglycosides and cell wall active agents against isolates exhibiting this type of resistance. To determine the prevalence of enterococci with high level resistance to aminoglycosides in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 241 distinct clinical isolates were examined by disk diffusion method using high content aminoglycosides disks. Seventy-four isolates (30%) were resistant to one or more of the aminoglycosides tested. The most common pattern of resistance was that to streptomycin and kanamycin. Of the 241 isolates tested, 29 (12%) were resistant to high levels of gentamicin, 35 (15%) to tobramycin, 65 (27%) to kanamycin and 53 (22%) to streptomycin. The highest rate of resistance to a high level of gentamicin was found among enterococcal blood isolates (30%). Eighteen of the isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium, 13 (72%) of these showed high level resistance to two or more of the aminoglycosides tested.

  19. Face Tracking with Low-level and High-level Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUDong; LIStan; LIUZhengkai

    2005-01-01

    Face Tracking is an important and difficult vision task. In this paper, the high-level frontal face detector information and the low-level color information are fused iteratively. With the multi-step fusion schemes, better face tracking performance is achieved, as demonstrated by the exhaustive experiments.

  20. Behavioral changes in brain-injured critical care adults with different levels of consciousness during nociceptive stimulation: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, Marie-José; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie

    2014-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to describe the frequency of behaviors observed during rest, a non-nociceptive procedure, and a nociceptive procedure in brain-injured intensive care unit (ICU) patients with different levels of consciousness (LOC). Second, it examined the inter-rater reliability and discriminant and concurrent validity of the behavioral checklist used. The non-nociceptive procedure involved calling the patient and shaking his/her shoulder. The nociceptive procedure involved turning the patient. The frequency of behaviors was recorded using a behavioral checklist. Patients with absence of movement, or stereotyped flexion or extension responses to a nociceptive stimulus displayed more behaviors during turning (median 5.5, range 0-14) than patients with localized responses (median 4, range 0-10) or able to self-report their pain (median 4, range 0-10). Face flushing, clenched teeth, clenched fist, and tremor were more frequent in patients with absence of movement, or stereotyped responses to a nociceptive stimulus. The reliability of the checklist was supported by a high intra-class correlation coefficient (0.77-0.92), and the internal consistency was acceptable in all three groups (KR 20, 0.71-0.85). Discriminant validity was supported as significantly more behaviors were observed during nociceptive stimulation than at rest. Concurrent validity was confirmed as checklist scores were correlated to the patients' self-reports of pain (r s = 0.53; 95 % CI 0.21-0.75). Brain-injured patients reacted significantly more during a nociceptive stimulus and the number of observed behaviors was higher in patients with a stereotyped response.

  1. Level of serum neuron-specific enolase and brain damage in children with febrile seizures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lang Chen; Qiaobin Chen; Fang Yang; Zhi Lin; Xinfu Lin; Ying Huang; Xin Zheng; Yu Lin

    2006-01-01

    final analysis without any loss. Levels of S-NSE were (5.17±1.31) μg/L in SFS group, (5.84±1.62) μg/L in CFS group and (4.98±1.51) μg/L in control group, respectively. There were no significant differences among groups (t =0.498- 1.727, P> 0.05).CONCLUSION: FS may be not able to cause a severe brain damage.

  2. In hemodialysis, adiponectin, and pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels may be subjected to variations in body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimarchi, Hernan; Muryan, Alexis; Dicugno, Mariana; Forrester, Mariano; Lombi, Fernando; Young, Pablo; Pomeranz, Vanesa; Iriarte, Romina; Barucca, Nanci; Campolo-Girard, Vicente; Alonso, Mirta; Lindholm, Bengt

    2011-10-01

    Adiponectin exerts cardiovascular protective actions, although some studies have shown the opposite. In hemodialysis, obese subjects display lower mortality rates despite hypoadiponectinemia, while higher adiponectin concentrations correlate with an elevated cardiovascular risk in nonobese subjects. The aim of the study is to suggest that adiponectin level variations are associated with differences in the body mass index (BMI). The interplay between adiponectin and pro-brain natriuretic peptide (Pro-BNP) levels may vary according to body fat mass. Fifty-two chronic hemodialysis patients were divided into three groups. Group A, BMI30 (n=11). Diabetics: Group A 10%; Group B 6 29%; Group C 55%, P=0.027. Determinations: Adiponectin, Pro-BNP, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA), troponin T, nutritional status, ultrafiltration rates, C-reactive protein (CRP), vascular accesses, and echocardiography. Group A: adiponectinemia positively and significantly correlated with Pro-BNP, CRP, and troponin T. As BMI increased, adiponectin, Pro-BNP, and malnutrition significantly decreased, while insulin, HOMA, and ultrafiltration rates significantly increased. Cardiac restriction was significantly higher in obese patients. In all groups, Pro-BNP and troponin T displayed a strong positive correlation. In low-BMI subjects, high Pro-BNP and adiponectin, low myocardial restriction, and worse nutritional status were prevalent. In obesity, hypoadiponectinemia stimulates cardiac remodeling, cardiac hypertrophy, and decreased stretching, rendering Pro-BNP levels low despite high ultrafiltration rates. Thus, adiponectin correlates inversely with BMI, probably playing different cardiovascular roles as BMI changes. © 2011 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2011 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  3. Effects of glucocorticoid dexamethasone on serum nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels in a rat model of lung disease-induced brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huajun Li; Ligang Jiang; Meng Xia; Haiping Li; Fanhua Meng; Wei Li; Lifeng Liu; Zhaohui Wang

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of dexamethasone, pertussis toxin (a Gi protein inhibitor), and actinomycin (a transcription inhibitor) on serum nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide content in a rat model of lung disease-induced brain injury. High-dose dexamethasone (13 mg/kg) and dexamethasone + actinomycin reduced lung water content, increased serum nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide content, diminished inflammatory cell infiltration in pulmonary alveolar interstitium, attenuated meningeal vascular hyperemia, reduced glial cell infiltration, and decreased cerebral edema. These results demonstrate that high-dose glucocorticoid treatment can reduce the severity of lung disease-induced brain injury by increasing nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels.

  4. Effect of high-intensity exercise on aged mouse brain mitochondria, neurogenesis, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Lezi; Burns, Jeffrey M; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2014-11-01

    In aged mice, we assessed how intensive exercise affects brain bioenergetics, inflammation, and neurogenesis-relevant parameters. After 8 weeks of a supra-lactate threshold treadmill exercise intervention, 21-month-old C57BL/6 mice showed increased brain peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α protein, mammalian target of rapamycin and phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin protein, citrate synthase messenger RNA, and mitochondrial DNA copy number. Hippocampal vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) gene expression trended higher, and a positive correlation between VEGF-A and PRC messenger RNA levels was observed. Brain doublecortin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, and CCL11 gene expression, as well as plasma CCL11 protein levels, were unchanged. Despite these apparent negative findings, a negative correlation between plasma CCL11 protein levels and hippocampal doublecortin gene expression was observed; further analysis indicated exercise may mitigate this relationship. Overall, our data suggest supra-lactate threshold exercise activates a partial mitochondrial biogenesis in aged mice, and a gene (VEGF-A) known to support neurogenesis. Our data are consistent with another study that found systemic inflammation in general, and CCL11 protein specifically, suppresses hippocampal neurogenesis. Our study supports the view that intense exercise above the lactate threshold may benefit the aging brain; future studies to address the extent to which exercise-generated lactate mediates the observed effects are warranted.

  5. An overview of very high level software design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asdjodi, Maryam; Hooper, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Very High Level design methods emphasize automatic transfer of requirements to formal design specifications, and/or may concentrate on automatic transformation of formal design specifications that include some semantic information of the system into machine executable form. Very high level design methods range from general domain independent methods to approaches implementable for specific applications or domains. Applying AI techniques, abstract programming methods, domain heuristics, software engineering tools, library-based programming and other methods different approaches for higher level software design are being developed. Though one finds that a given approach does not always fall exactly in any specific class, this paper provides a classification for very high level design methods including examples for each class. These methods are analyzed and compared based on their basic approaches, strengths and feasibility for future expansion toward automatic development of software systems.

  6. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage.

  7. Brain glucose metabolism is associated with hormone level in Cushing's disease: A voxel-based study using FDG-PET

    OpenAIRE

    Shuai Liu; Yinyan Wang; Kaibin Xu; Fan Ping; Renzhi Wang; Fang Li; Xin Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids can exert a neurotoxic effect in patients, possibly manifesting as molecular imaging alterations in patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between brain metabolism and elevated hormone level using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. We retrospectively enrolled 92 consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of Cushing's disease. A voxel-based analysis was performed to investigate the...

  8. Electrophysiological dynamic brain connectivity during symbolic magnitude comparison in children with different mathematics achievement levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Velázquez, Fabiola R; Vélez-Pérez, Hugo; Espinoza-Valdez, Aurora; Romo-Vazquez, Rebeca; Salido-Ruiz, Ricardo A; Ruiz-Stovel, Vanessa; Gallardo-Moreno, Geisa B; González-Garrido, Andrés A; Berumen, Gustavo

    2017-02-08

    Children with mathematical difficulties usually have an impaired ability to process symbolic representations. Functional MRI methods have suggested that early frontoparietal connectivity can predict mathematic achievements; however, the study of brain connectivity during numerical processing remains unexplored. With the aim of evaluating this in children with different math proficiencies, we selected a sample of 40 children divided into two groups [high achievement (HA) and low achievement (LA)] according to their arithmetic scores in the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th ed.. Participants performed a symbolic magnitude comparison task (i.e. determining which of two numbers is numerically larger), with simultaneous electrophysiological recording. Partial directed coherence and graph theory methods were used to estimate and depict frontoparietal connectivity in both groups. The behavioral measures showed that children with LA performed significantly slower and less accurately than their peers in the HA group. Significantly higher frontocentral connectivity was found in LA compared with HA; however, when the connectivity analysis was restricted to parietal locations, no relevant group differences were observed. These findings seem to support the notion that LA children require greater memory and attentional efforts to meet task demands, probably affecting early stages of symbolic comparison.

  9. High-level trigger system for the LHC ALICE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramm, R.; Helstrup, H.; Lien, J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Roehrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Ullaland, K.; Vestboe, A. E-mail: vestbo@fi.uib.no; Wiebalck, A

    2003-04-21

    The central detectors of the ALICE experiment at LHC will produce a data size of up to 75 MB/event at an event rate {<=}200 Hz resulting in a data rate of {approx}15 GB/s. Online processing of the data is necessary in order to select interesting (sub)events ('High Level Trigger'), or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Processing this data requires a massive parallel computing system (High Level Trigger System). The system will consist of a farm of clustered SMP-nodes based on off-the-shelf PCs connected with a high bandwidth low latency network.

  10. High-level trigger system for the LHC ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bramm, R; Lien, J A; Lindenstruth, V; Loizides, C; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Steinbeck, T M; Stock, Reinhard; Ullaland, K; Vestbø, A S; Wiebalck, A

    2003-01-01

    The central detectors of the ALICE experiment at LHC will produce a data size of up to 75 MB/event at an event rate less than approximately equals 200 Hz resulting in a data rate of similar to 15 GB/s. Online processing of the data is necessary in order to select interesting (sub)events ("High Level Trigger"), or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Processing this data requires a massive parallel computing system (High Level Trigger System). The system will consist of a farm of clustered SMP-nodes based on off- the-shelf PCs connected with a high bandwidth low latency network.

  11. High-level trigger system for the LHC ALICE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramm, R.; Helstrup, H.; Lien, J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Röhrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbø, A.; Wiebalck, A.; ALICE Colloboration

    2003-04-01

    The central detectors of the ALICE experiment at LHC will produce a data size of up to 75 MB/ event at an event rate ⩽200 Hz resulting in a data rate of ˜15 GB/ s. Online processing of the data is necessary in order to select interesting (sub)events ("High Level Trigger"), or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Processing this data requires a massive parallel computing system (High Level Trigger System). The system will consist of a farm of clustered SMP-nodes based on off-the-shelf PCs connected with a high bandwidth low latency network.

  12. Highly adaptive tests for group differences in brain functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghi Kim

    2015-01-01

    The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not only easy to use, but also high-powered robustly across various scenarios. The usage and advantages of these novel tests are demonstrated on an Alzheimer's disease dataset and simulated data.

  13. The alteration of plasma TGF-β1 levels in patients with brain tumors after tumor removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Khim Loh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor (TGF β1 may be a candidate for a serologic tumor marker. In this study, the plasma levels of TGF-β1 in patients with brain tumors were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after tumor removal. Patients were divided into four groups, the control group and the benign, malignant, and metastatic brain tumor groups. All brain tumor groups showed significant increases in the levels of TGF-β1 before tumor removal (6.36 ± 3.94, 17.0 ± 9.7, and 12.2 ± 10.3 ng/ml for the benign, malignant, and metastatic groups, respectively. When compared with the results obtained in the control group (1.12 ± 0.74 ng/ml, significant decreases in TGF-β1 concentrations after total tumor removal were found in both the benign and malignant brain tumor groups (2.55 ± 2.00 and 8.93 ± 5.73 ng/ml, respectively; p = 0.0001 and p = 0.003, respectively. On the other hand, plasma TGF-β1 levels in the metastatic brain tumor group showed a slight but significant increase (14.7 ± 9.3 ng/ml, p = 0.035 after tumor removal. In a case of low-grade astrocytoma, plasma levels of TGF-β1 were found to be 3.6 and 1.1 ng/ml before and after tumor removal, respectively. However, recurrent tumor was noted in this patient 7 months later, and the levels of TGF-β1 were 26.2 and 8.4 ng/ml before and after the second operation, respectively. The data show that plasma TGF-β1 was elevated in the circulation of patients with brain tumors and that significant decreases in TGF-β1 levels were observed after the removal of benign and malignant tumors. The results also suggest that TGF-β1 may be a useful serologic marker for brain tumors.

  14. Brain Metastases Research 1990–2010: Pattern of Citation and Systematic Review of Highly Cited Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Carsten; Grosu, Anca L.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. High and continuously increasing research activity related to different aspects of prevention, prediction, diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases has been performed between 1990 and 2010. One of the major databases contains 2695 scientific articles that were published during this time period. Different measures of impact, visibility, and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this overview, article citation rate was chosen. Results. Among the 10 most cited articles, 7 reported on randomized clinical trials. Nine covered surgical or radiosurgical approaches and the remaining one a widely adopted prognostic score. Overall, 30 randomized clinical trials were published between 1990 and 2010, including those with phase II design and excluding duplicate publications, for example, after longer followup or with focus on secondary endpoints. Twenty of these randomized clinical trials were published before 2008. Their median number of citations was 110, range 13–1013, compared to 5-6 citations for all types of publications. Annual citation rate appeared to gradually increase during the first 2-3 years after publication before reaching high levels. Conclusions. A large variety of preclinical and clinical topics achieved high numbers of citations. However, areas such as quality of life, side effects, and end-of-life care were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted. PMID:23028253

  15. Effects of aerobic exercise training on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 levels in obese young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on the levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 in obese young men. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included sixteen obese young men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2). They were randomly divided between control and exercise groups (n = 8 in each group). The exercise group performed treadmill exercise for 40 min, 3 times a week for 8 weeks at the intensity of 70% heart rate reserve. Blood collection was performed to examine the levels of serum glucose, plasma malonaldehyde, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and plasma eotaxin-1 before and after the intervention (aerobic exercise training). [Results] Following the intervention, serum BDNF levels were significantly higher, while serum glucose, plasma MDA, and plasma eotaxin-1 levels were significantly lower than those prior to the intervention in the exercise group. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise training can induce neurogenesis in obese individuals by increasing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reducing the levels of eotaxin-1. Alleviation of oxidative stress is possibly responsible for such changes.

  16. Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain.

  17. Physical activity levels determine exercise-induced changes in brain excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulic, Tea; El-Sayes, Jenin; Fassett, Hunter J; Nelson, Aimee J

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that regular physical activity can impact cortical function and facilitate plasticity. In the present study, we examined how physical activity levels influence corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuitry in motor cortex following a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We aimed to determine whether exercise-induced short-term plasticity differed between high versus low physically active individuals. Participants included twenty-eight young, healthy adults divided into two equal groups based on physical activity level determined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: low-to-moderate (LOW) and high (HIGH) physical activity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess motor cortex excitability via motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curves for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle at rest (MEPREST) and during tonic contraction (MEPACTIVE), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (SICF), and intracortical facilitation (ICF). All dependent measures were obtained in the resting FDI muscle, with the exception of AMT and MEPACTIVE recruitment curves that were obtained during tonic FDI contraction. Dependent measures were acquired before and following moderate intensity aerobic exercise (20 mins, ~60% of the age-predicted maximal heart rate) performed on a recumbent cycle ergometer. Results indicate that MEPREST recruitment curve amplitudes and area under the recruitment curve (AURC) were increased following exercise in the HIGH group only (p = 0.002 and p = 0.044, respectively). SICI and ICF were reduced following exercise irrespective of physical activity level (p = 0.007 and p = 0.04, respectively). MEPACTIVE recruitment curves and SICF were unaltered by exercise. These findings indicate that the propensity for exercise-induced plasticity is different in high versus low physically active individuals. Additionally, these data highlight that a single session of

  18. Predicting Successful Pulmonary Vein Isolation In Patients With Atrial Fibrillation By Brain Natriuretic Peptide Plasma Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-In Shin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation is a clinically established treatment by now while success rate varies between 60% and 85%. Interventional treatment of atrial fibrillation is still a challenging technique associated with a long procedure time and risk of major complications in up to 6 % of treated patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in patients undergoing pulmonary vein isolation concerning stable sinus rhythm after ablation.Methods: In 68 consecutive patients with atrial fibrillation (AF and normal left ventricular ejection fraction, BNP was measured at baseline before pulmonary vein isolation (PVI. All patients received a 7-days-holter monitoring 3 months after radiofrequency (RF ablation in order to detect recurrent AF episodes. Results: 48 patients with paroxysmal and 20 patients with persistent AF were enrolled. Baseline BNP was significantly higher in patients with persistent AF compared to patients with paroxysmal AF (145,5 pg/ml vs. 84,4 pg/ml; p<0,05. 3 months after PVI 38 patients (79,1% with paroxysmal AF had a stable sinus rhythm documented on 7-days-holter monitoring, where as in 10 patients (20,9% AF episodes were detected. Patients with a successful PVI showed significantly lower BNP plasma levels at baseline compared to patients with AF recurrrence (68,7 pg/ml vs. 144,1 pg/ml; p<0,05. In patients with persistent AF 55% (11 cases had no recurrence of AF at 3 months 7-days holter and in 9 patients (45% AF recurred. BNP plasma levels at baseline were lower in patients with stable sinusrhythm after 3 months compared to the group of recurrent AF (105,8 pg/ml vs. 193,3 pg/ml; p=0,11. Conclusion: Patients with AF and low preprocedural BNP plasma levels showed a better outcome after PVI. Thus BNP may be helpful in patient selection for a successful treatment of AF by PVI.

  19. Portable High Sensitivity and High Resolution Sensor to Determine Oxygen Purity Levels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I STTR project is to develop a highly sensitive oxygen (O2) sensor, with high accuracy and precision, to determine purity levels of high...

  20. Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy for high-grade brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzuol, Lara

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumour in adults and among the most aggressive of all tumours. For several decades, the standard care of GBM was surgical resection followed by radiotherapy alone. In 2005, a landmark phase III clinical trial coordinated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) demonstrated the benefit of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. With TMZ, the median life expectancy in optimally managed patients is still only 12-14 months, with only 25% surviving 24 months. There is an urgent need for new therapies in particular in those patients whose tumour has an unmethylated methylguanine methyltransferase gene (MGMT) promoter, which is a predictive factor of benefit from TMZ. In this dissertation, the nature of the interaction between TMZ and radiation is investigated using both a mathematical model, based on in vivo population statistics of survival, and in vitro experimentation on a panel of human GBM cell lines. The results show that TMZ has an additive effect in vitro and that the population-based model may be insufficient in predicting TMZ response. The combination of TMZ with particle therapy is also investigated. Very little preclinical data exists on the effects of charged particles on GBM cell lines as well as on the concomitant application of chemotherapy. In this study, human GBM cells are exposed to 3 MeV protons and 6 MeV alpha particles in concomitance with TMZ. The results suggest that the radiation quality does not affect the nature of the interaction between TMZ and radiation, showing reproducible additive cytotoxicity. Since TMZ and radiation cause DNA damage in cancer cells, there has been increased attention to the use of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. PARP is a family of enzymes that play a key role in the repair of DNA breaks. In this study, a novel PARP inhibitor, ABT-888

  1. Effects of Wen Dan Tang on insomnia-related anxiety and levels of the brain-gut peptide Ghrelin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liye Wang; Binghe Guan; Xiaolan Liu; Yuehan Song; Feng Li; Yan Liu; Jie Ma; Meng Mao; Fengzhi Wu; Ying Wu; Sinai Li

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin, a brain-gut peptide that induces anxiety and other abnormal emotions, contributes to the effects of insomnia on emotional behavior. In contrast, the traditional Chinese Medi-cine remedy Wen Dan Tang reduces insomnia-related anxiety, which may perhaps correspond to changes in the brain-gut axis. This suggests a possible relationship between Wen Dan Tang’s pharmacological mechanism and the brain-gut axis. Based on this hypothesis, a sleep-deprived rat model was induced and Wen Dan Tang was administered using oral gavage during model es-tablishment. Wen Dan Tang signiifcantly reduced insomnia-related anxiety and prevented Ghrelin level decreases following sleep deprivation, especially in the hypothalamus. Increased expression of Ghrelin receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus was also observed, suggesting that reduced anxi-ety may be a result of Wen Dan Tang’s regulation of Ghrelin-Ghrelin receptors.

  2. X-ray micro-tomography for investigations of brain tissues on cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimchenko, Anna; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Thalmann, Peter; Zanette, Irene; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Bikis, Christos; Hipp, Alexander; Hieber, Simone E.; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    X-ray imaging in absorption contrast mode is well established for hard tissue visualization. However, performance for lower density materials is limited due to a reduced contrast. Our aim is three-dimensional (3D) characterization of micro-morphology of human brain tissues down to (sub-)cellular resolution within a laboratory environment. Using the laboratory-based microtomography (μCT) system nanotom m (GE Sensing and Inspection Technologies GmbH, Wunstorf, Germany) and synchrotron radiation at the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, Didcot, UK), we have acquired 3D data with a resolution down to 0.45 μm for visualization of a human cerebellum specimen down to cellular level. We have shown that all selected modalities, namely laboratory-based absorption contrast micro-tomography (LBμCT), synchrotron radiation based in-line single distance phase contrast tomography (SDPR) and synchrotron radiation based single-grating interferometry (GI), can reach cellular resolution for tissue samples with a size in the mm-range. The results are discussed qualitatively in comparison to optical microscopy of haematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained sections. As phase contrast yields to a better data quality for soft tissues and in order to overcome restrictions of limited beamline access for phase contrast measurements, we have equipped the μCT system nanotom m with a double-grating phase contrast set-up. Preliminary experimental results of a knee sample consisting of a bony part and a cartilage demonstrate that phase contrast data exhibits better quality compared to absorption contrast. Currently, the set-up is under adjustment. It is expected that cellular resolution would also be achieved. The questions arise (1) what would be the quality gain of laboratory-based phase contrast in comparison to laboratory-based absorption contrast tomography and (2) could laboratory-based phase contrast data provide comparable results to synchrotron radiation based

  3. A novel herbal treatment reduces depressive-like behaviors and increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the brain of type 2 diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo C

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chun Luo,1,* Yuting Ke,1,* Yanyan Yuan,1 Ming Zhao,1 Fuyan Wang,1 Yisheng Zhang,2 Shizhong Bu1 1Runliang Diabetes Laboratory, Diabetes Research Center, Ningbo University, 2Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Ningbo Medical Center, Li Huili Eastern Hospital, Ningbo, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Radix Puerariae and hawthorn fruit have been demonstrated to treat diabetes. They offer potential benefits for preventing depression in diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the combination of Radix Puerariae and hawthorn fruit (CRPHF could prevent depression in a diabetic rat model generated by feeding the rats with a high-fat diet and a low-dose streptozotocin (STZ. Methods: The CRPHF was provided by the Shanghai Chinese Traditional Medical University. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, normal-given-CRPHF (NC, diabetic control, and diabetic-given-CRPHF (DC groups. The type 2 diabetic model was created by feeding the rats with a high-fat diet for 4 weeks followed by injection of 25 mg/kg STZ. CRPHF was given at 2 g/kg/d to the rats of NC and DC groups by intragastric gavage daily for 4 weeks after the type 2 diabetic model was successfully created. Body weight, random blood glucose (RBG, oral glucose tolerance test, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were measured during the study. Depressive-like behavior was evaluated at the end of the treatment by using the open field test (OFT, the elevated plus-maze test (EPMT, locomotor activity test (LAT, and forced swimming test (FST. Levels of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the prefrontal cortex were evaluated by using Western blot. Results: 1 CRPHF reduced RBG and improved glucose tolerance in diabetic rats

  4. Effect of high fluoride and high fat on serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (Pfluoride and high fat (Pfluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (Pfluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (Pfluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (Pfluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbon Tetrachloride Increases the Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Levels in Different Brain Areas of Wistar Rats: The Protective Effect of Acai Frozen Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Machado, Fernanda; Marinho, Jéssica Pereira; Abujamra, Ana Lúcia; Dani, Caroline; Quincozes-Santos, André; Funchal, Cláudia

    2015-09-01

    Acai offers health benefits associated with its high antioxidante capacity, phytochemical composition, nutritional and sensory value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of acai frozen pulp on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced damage via modulation of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines in rat brain tissue. The rats were treated via oral (gavage) daily with water or acai frozen pulp for 14 days at a dose of 7 μL/g. On the 15th day, the animals in each group received a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 in a dose of 3.0 mL/kg or the same volume of mineral oil. After 4 h, the animals were euthanized by decapitation and the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were dissected and homogenated to evaluate the levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 18 (IL-18), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). Data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance followed by the Tukey post hoc test. It was observed that CCl4 increased TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-18 levels in all brain tissues, and that acai frozen pulp was able to prevent this increase. IL-6 and IL-10 brain tissue levels remained unchanged during all treatments. CCl4 experimental model was suitable to investigate brain tissue anti and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Acai frozen pulp prevented an increase in IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α, while IL-6 and IL-10 levels remained unchanged. The precise pathway by which inflammation contribute to hepatic encephalopathy, as well as to how this pathway can be modulated, is still under investigation.

  6. Effect of chronic aluminum exposure on the levels of conjugated dienes and enzymatic antioxidants in hippocampus and whole brain of rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.; Shukla, G.S. [Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India)

    1995-11-01

    The reported association between elevated tissue levels of aluminum (Al) and certain human neurological disorders have evoked increasing attention on the neurotoxic effects of aluminum. High levels of Al have been reported in hippocampal neurons comprising neurofibrillary tangles in senile dementia of Alzheimer`s type, amyotropic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsonian dementia of Guam. Aluminum is considered to be the causal factor for a high incidence of dialysis encephalopathy. It has been shown that the incidence of Alzheimer`s disease was higher in places with a high Al content in drinking water compared to low level areas. Varied uses of Al in pharmaceutical preparations, foods, water purification and many house-hold items have increased the risk of its exposure to general population. The exposure may be as high as 500 mg/kg/day in children with uremia who are treated with Al containing phosphate binding gels. Aluminum ingestion in humans and experimental animals have been reported to produce behavioural dysfunctions. The mechanism of al neurotoxicity is not understood at present. Attempts made in this direction have reported its interaction with blood-brain barrier function, decreased membrane fluidity, glutathione depletion and increased brain lipid peroxidation. These studies indicate the possibility that oxidative stress may be one of the possible mechanisms of Al-induced neurotoxicity. Since Al has been reported to be in high concentrations in hippocampal neurons in certain neurological diseases and there is wealth of evidence implicating hippocampal impairment and memory dysfunction, we attempted to investigate the effect of chronic Al intoxication on the status of enzymatic antioxidants and the extent of peroxidative damage in hippocampus and whole brain of rat. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. VHDL Specification Methodology from High-level Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmohammed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Design complexity has been increasing exponentially this last decade. In order to cope with such an increase and to keep up designers' productivity, higher level specifications were required. Moreover new synthesis systems, starting with a high level specification, have been developed in order to automate and speed up processor design. This study presents a VHDL specification methodology aimed to extend structured design methodologies to the behavioral level. The goal is to develop VHDL modeling strategies in order to master the design and analysis of large and complex systems. Structured design methodologies are combined with a high-level synthesis system, a VHDL based behavioral synthesis tool, in order to allow hierarchical design and component re-use.

  8. Validated LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of resveratrol levels in mouse plasma and brain and its application to pharmacokinetic and brain distribution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Prakash; Ko, Young Tag

    2016-02-01

    A rapid, selective, and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine resveratrol levels in plasma and brain tissue in mice for supporting pharmacokinetic and brain distribution studies. Analytes were separated using a Sepax BR-C18 analytical column (5μm, 120Å, 1.0×100mm) and eluted using an isocratic elution mobile phase acetonitrile and 0.01% formic acid [60:40, v/v] at a flow rate of 0.1mL/min. Precursor and product ion transitions for analyte resveratrol m/z 226.9>184.8 and curcumin m/z 367.1>148.9 were monitored using triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative ionization mode. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, within- and between-day precision, linearity, limit of quantification, recovery, and matrix effects of analyte. The inter- and intra-day accuracy and precision were within the range of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) acceptance criteria, for both matrices. The method was also successfully applied to pharmacokinetic and brain distribution studies of resveratrol after intravenous administration of free resveratrol and resveratrol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles to mice. The combined use of serial blood sampling, small sample volume, simple extraction, and capillary depletion method drastically improved resveratrol analysis from biological matrices.

  9. Web Based Technologies to Support High Level Process Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sharmila

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the uses of Web based Technologies to support High Level Process Maturity in an organization. It also provides an overview of CMMI, focusing on the importance of centralized data storage and data access for sustaining high maturity levels of CMMI. Further, elaboration is made on the web based technology, stressing that change over to Web Based Application is extremely helpful to maintain the centralized data repository, to collect data for process capability baseline, and to track process performance management, with reduced maintenance effort and ease of data access. A case study analysis of advantages of adopting Web Based Technology is also narrated. Finally the paper concludes that the sustenance of High level Process maturity can be achieved by adopting web application technology.

  10. Aspartic acid-promoted highly selective and sensitive colorimetric sensing of cysteine in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qin; Deng, Jingjing; Wang, Dalei; Yang, Lifen; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2012-11-06

    Direct selective determination of cysteine in the cerebral system is of great importance because of the crucial roles of cysteine in physiological and pathological processes. In this study, we report a sensitive and selective colorimetric assay for cysteine in the rat brain with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) as the signal readout. Initially, Au-NPs synthesized with citrate as the stabilizer are red in color and exhibit absorption at 520 nm. The addition of an aqueous solution (20 μL) of cysteine or aspartic acid alone to a 200 μL Au-NP dispersion causes no aggregation, while the addition of an aqueous solution of cysteine into a Au-NP dispersion containing aspartic acid (1.8 mM) causes the aggregation of Au-NPs and thus results in the color change of the colloid from wine red to blue. These changes are ascribed to the ion pair interaction between aspartic acid and cysteine on the interface between Au-NPs and solution. The concentration of cysteine can be visualized with the naked eye and determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. The signal output shows a linear relationship for cysteine within the concentration range from 0.166 to 1.67 μM with a detection limit of 100 nM. The assay demonstrated here is highly selective and is free from the interference of other natural amino acids and other thiol-containing species as well as the species commonly existing in the brain such as lactate, ascorbic acid, and glucose. The basal dialysate level of cysteine in the microdialysate from the striatum of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats is determined to be around 9.6 ± 2.1 μM. The method demonstrated here is facile but reliable and durable and is envisaged to be applicable to understanding the chemical essence involved in physiological and pathological events associated with cysteine.

  11. Theory and Methods for Supporting High Level Military Decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Gompert, and Kugler, 1996; Davis, 2002a). The relationship between defense applications and finance is more metaphorical than mathematical. A...be summarized as the fractal problem: • • 62 Theory and Methods for Supporting High-Level Military Decisionmaking Describing objectives...strategies, tactics, and tasks is a fractal matter—i.e., the concepts apply and are needed at each level, whether that of the president, the theater commander

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate levels and brain [18F]FDG PET hypometabolism within the default mode network in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liguori, Claudio [University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Neurophysiopathology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Rome (Italy); University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Neurology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Rome (Italy); Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Schillaci, Orazio [University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, Rome (Italy); IRCSS Neuromed, Pozzilli (Italy); Sancesario, Giuseppe; Stefani, Alessandro [University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Neurology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Rome (Italy); IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome (Italy); Sancesario, Giulia Maria [IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome (Italy); Mercuri, Nicola Biagio [University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Neurophysiopathology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Rome (Italy); University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Neurology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Rome (Italy); IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome (Italy); Pierantozzi, Mariangela [University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Neurology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Rome (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    It has been suggested that neuronal energy metabolism may be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this view, the finding of increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate levels in AD patients has been considered the result of energetic metabolism dysfunction. Here, we investigated the relationship between neuronal energy metabolism, as measured via CSF lactate levels, and cerebral glucose metabolism, as stated at the 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG PET) in AD patients. AD patients underwent lumbar puncture to measure CSF lactate levels and [18F]FDG PET to assess brain glucose metabolism. CSF and PET data were compared to controls. Since patients were studied at rest, we specifically investigated brain areas active in rest-condition owing to the Default Mode Network (DMN). We correlated the CSF lactate concentrations with the [18F]FDG PET data in brain areas owing to the DMN, using sex, age, disease duration, Mini Mental State Examination, and CSF levels of tau proteins and beta-amyloid as covariates. AD patients (n = 32) showed a significant increase of CSF lactate levels compared to Control 1 group (n = 28). They also showed brain glucose hypometabolism in the DMN areas compared to Control 2 group (n = 30). Within the AD group we found the significant correlation between increased CSF lactate levels and glucose hypometabolism in Broadman areas (BA) owing to left medial prefrontal cortex (BA10, mPFC), left orbitofrontal cortex (BA11, OFC), and left parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35, PHG). We found high CSF levels of lactate and glucose hypometabolism within the DMN in AD patients. Moreover, we found a relationship linking the increased CSF lactate and the reduced glucose consumption in the left mPFC, OFC and PHG, owing to the anterior hub of DMN. These findings could suggest that neural glucose hypometabolism may affect the DMN efficiency in AD, also proposing the possible role of damaged brain energetic machine in impairing

  13. Basal brain oxidative and nitrative stress levels are finely regulated by the interplay between superoxide dismutase 2 and p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Eugenio; Cenini, Giovanna; Di Domenico, Fabio; Noel, Teresa; Wang, Chi; Perluigi, Marzia; St Clair, Daret K; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-11-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes of the cell and catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals O2- to H2O2 and molecular oxygen (O2). Among the three forms of SOD identified, manganese-containing SOD (MnSOD, SOD2) is a homotetramer located wholly in the mitochondrial matrix. Because of the SOD2 strategic location, it represents the first mechanism of defense against the augmentation of ROS/reactive nitrogen species levels in the mitochondria for preventing further damage. This study seeks to understand the effects that the partial lack (SOD2(-/+) ) or the overexpression (TgSOD2) of MnSOD produces on oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels in different brain isolated cellular fractions (i.e., mitochondrial, nuclear, cytosolic) as well as in the whole-brain homogenate. Furthermore, because of the known interaction between SOD2 and p53 protein, this study seeks to clarify the impact that the double mutation has on oxidative/nitrative stress levels in the brain of mice carrying the double mutation (p53(-/-) × SOD2(-/+) and p53(-/-) × TgSOD2). We show that each mutation affects mitochondrial, nuclear, and cytosolic oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels differently, but, overall, no change or reduction of oxidative/nitrative stress levels was found in the whole-brain homogenate. The analysis of well-known antioxidant systems such as thioredoxin-1 and Nrf2/HO-1/BVR-A suggests their potential role in the maintenance of the cellular redox homeostasis in the presence of changes of SOD2 and/or p53 protein levels. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in schizophrenia: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Huiru; Jin, Yi; Wang, Jijun; Weng, Xuchu; Li, Chunbo

    2012-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the onset and course of schizophrenia, but there are conflicting reports about serum levels of BDNF in patients with schizophrenia. Aim Conduct a meta-analysis combining studies from China and other countries that have evaluated the relationship of serum BDNF levels to schizophrenia. Method We used Cochrane methodology and RevMan 5.1 software to identify and pool the results of studies. Electronic searches of western and Chinese registries and follow-up assessment of references located 268 potential articles. Twenty-five articles (20 in English and 5 in Chinese) published before December 2011 that used case-control methods, included patients with schizophrenia who had no concurrent disorders, and used ELISA technology to assess serum BDNF were included in the analysis. The main outcome was the pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) between cases and controls. The quality of the studies was independently assessed by two raters using the GRADE system. The heterogeneity, sensitivity and potential publication bias of the studies was evaluated using RevMan. Results The pooled sample included 1663 patients with schizophrenia and 1355 controls. Fifteen of the included studies were rated as ‘poor quality’ and 10 were rated as ‘very poor quality’. The results of the studies were quite heterogenous (I2=95%) but subgroup analyses found that the heterogeneity was not related to country of origin, sample size, age, gender, prior use of antipsychotic medication, or study quality. The pooled SMD (computed using a random-effect model because of study heterogeneity) was -0.74 (95% CI, -0.99∼-0.50; Z=5.99, pbias. Conclusion Despite the robust statistical findings of lower serum BDNF in patients with schizophrenia than in controls, given the low quality of the available studies and the substantial heterogeneity between studies, the evidence of lower serum BDNF in patients

  15. Morphological and chemical studies of pathological human and mice brain at the subcellular level: correlation between light, electron, and nanosims microscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Carmen; Wu, Ting-Di; Delatour, Benoit; Dhenain, Marc; Guerquin-Kern, Jean Luc; Croisy, Alain

    2007-04-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases induce morphological and chemical alterations in well-characterized regions of the brain. Understanding their pathological processes requires the use of methods that assess both morphological and chemical alterations in the tissues. In the past, microprobe approaches such as scanning electron microscopy combined with an X-ray spectrometer, Proton induced X-ray emission, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and laser microprobe mass analysis have been used for the study of pathological human brain with limited success. At the present, new SIMS instruments have been developed, such as the NanoSIMS-50 ion microprobe, that allow the simultaneous identification of five elements with high sensitivity, at subcellular spatial resolution (about 50-100 nm with the Cs(+) source and about 150-200 nm with O(-) source). Working in scanning mode, 2D distribution of five elements (elemental maps) can be obtained, thus providing their exact colocalization. The analysis can be performed on semithin or ultrathin embedded sections. The possibility of using transmission electron microscopy and SIMS on the same ultrathin sections allows the correlation between structural and analytical observations at subcellular and ultrastructural level to be established. Our observations on pathological brain areas allow us to establish that the NanoSIMS-50 ion microprobe is a highly useful instrument for the imaging of the morphological and chemical alterations that take place in these brain areas. In the human brain our results put forward the subcellular distribution of iron-ferritin-hemosiderin in the hippocampus of Alzheimer disease patients. In the thalamus of transgenic mice, our results have shown the presence of Ca-Fe mineralized amyloid deposits.

  16. Building high-level features using large scale unsupervised learning

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Quoc V; Devin, Matthieu; Corrado, Greg; Chen, Kai; Ranzato, Marc'Aurelio; Dean, Jeff; Ng, Andrew Y

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of building detectors for high-level concepts using only unsupervised feature learning. For example, we would like to understand if it is possible to learn a face detector using only unlabeled images downloaded from the internet. To answer this question, we trained a simple feature learning algorithm on a large dataset of images (10 million images, each image is 200x200). The simulation is performed on a cluster of 1000 machines with fast network hardware for one week. Extensive experimental results reveal surprising evidence that such high-level concepts can indeed be learned using only unlabeled data and a simple learning algorithm.

  17. Sterilization, high-level disinfection, and environmental cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2011-03-01

    Failure to perform proper disinfection and sterilization of medical devices may lead to introduction of pathogens, resulting in infection. New techniques have been developed for achieving high-level disinfection and adequate environmental cleanliness. This article examines new technologies for sterilization and high-level disinfection of critical and semicritical items, respectively, and because semicritical items carry the greatest risk of infection, the authors discuss reprocessing semicritical items such as endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors, endocavitary probes, prostate biopsy probes, tonometers, laryngoscopes, and infrared coagulation devices. In addition, current issues and practices associated with environmental cleaning are reviewed.

  18. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  19. Final report on cermet high-level waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Aaron, W.S.

    1981-08-01

    Cermets are being developed as an alternate method for the fixation of defense and commercial high level radioactive waste in a terminal disposal form. Following initial feasibility assessments of this waste form, consisting of ceramic particles dispersed in an iron-nickel base alloy, significantly improved processing methods were developed. The characterization of cermets has continued through property determinations on samples prepared by various methods from a variety of simulated and actual high-level wastes. This report describes the status of development of the cermet waste form as it has evolved since 1977. 6 tables, 18 figures.

  20. Alteration of plasma glutamate and glutamine levels in children with high-functioning autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Shimmura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has recently been hypothesized that hyperglutamatergia in the brain is involved in the pathophysiology of autism. However, there is no conclusive evidence of the validity of this hypothesis. As peripheral glutamate/glutamine levels have been reported to be correlated with those of the central nervous system, the authors examined whether the levels of 25 amino acids, including glutamate and glutamine, in the platelet-poor plasma of drug-naïve, male children with high-functioning autism (HFA would be altered compared with those of normal controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma levels of 25 amino acids in male children (N = 23 with HFA and normally developed healthy male controls (N = 22 were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Multiple testing was allowed for in the analyses. Compared with the normal control group, the HFA group had higher levels of plasma glutamate and lower levels of plasma glutamine. No significant group difference was found in the remaining 23 amino acids. The effect size (Cohen's d for glutamate and glutamine was large: 1.13 and 1.36, respectively. Using discriminant analysis with logistic regression, the two values of plasma glutamate and glutamine were shown to well-differentiate the HFA group from the control group; the rate of correct classification was 91%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study suggests that plasma glutamate and glutamine levels can serve as a diagnostic tool for the early detection of autism, especially normal IQ autism. These findings indicate that glutamatergic abnormalities in the brain may be associated with the pathobiology of autism.

  1. Detection of Low Level Microwave Radiation Induced Deoxyribonucleic Acid Damage Vis-à-vis Genotoxicity in Brain of Fischer Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Pravin Suryakantrao; Megha, Kanu; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Ahmed, Rafat Sultana; Chandna, Sudhir; Abegaonkar, Mahesh Pandurang; Tripathi, Ashok Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Non-ionizing radiofrequency radiation has been increasingly used in industry, commerce, medicine and especially in mobile phone technology and has become a matter of serious concern in present time. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the possible deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damaging effects of low-level microwave radiation in brain of Fischer rats. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed on male Fischer rats exposed to microwave radiation for 30 days at three different frequencies: 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz. Animals were divided into 4 groups: Group I (Sham exposed): Animals not exposed to microwave radiation but kept under same conditions as that of other groups, Group II: Animals exposed to microwave radiation at frequency 900 MHz at specific absorption rate (SAR) 5.953 × 10−4 W/kg, Group III: Animals exposed to 1800 MHz at SAR 5.835 × 10−4 W/kg and Group IV: Animals exposed to 2450 MHz at SAR 6.672 × 10−4 W/kg. At the end of the exposure period animals were sacrificed immediately and DNA damage in brain tissue was assessed using alkaline comet assay. Results: In the present study, we demonstrated DNA damaging effects of low level microwave radiation in brain. Conclusion: We concluded that low SAR microwave radiation exposure at these frequencies may induce DNA strand breaks in brain tissue. PMID:23833433

  2. Protective effect of taurine on the decreased biogenic amine neurotransmitter levels in the brain of mice exposed to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Piao, Fengyuan; Li, Yachen

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has a toxic effect on the central nervous system, especially on learning and memory. Norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) play an important role in learning and memory function of the brain. In the present study, the protective effect of taurine on the disturbed biogenic amine neurotransmitter levels in the mouse brain induced by arsenic was examined. Sixty SPF mice were divided into three groups. The As exposure group was administered with 4 ppm As(2)O(3) through drinking water for 60 days. The protective group was treated with both 4 ppm As(2)O(3) and 150 mg/kg taurine. The control group was given drinking water alone. The levels of NE, DA, and 5-HT were determined by HPLC in the cerebrum and cerebellum of mice. Ultrastructure of synapses in brain tissue of mice was observed in these groups by transmission electron microscopy. The mRNA expressions of dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) as NE, DA, and 5-HT synzymes were also analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that the concentrations of NE, DA, and 5-HT; the number of synaptic vesicles; and the expressions of TH, TPH, and DBH genes in the brains of mice exposed to As alone were significantly decreased. However, administration of taurine significantly alleviated the toxic effect on biochemicals detected in the experiment, compared with that in the brain of mice exposed to As alone. These results indicated that taurine was effective in counteracting the decreased biogenic amine neurotransmitter level and the mRNA expressions of their synzymes induced by arsenic.

  3. Transmission Level High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gary [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2016-10-05

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of utilizing high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in a Transmission Level Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) application. During the project, the type of high temperature superconducting material used evolved from 1st generation (1G) BSCCO-2212 melt cast bulk high temperature superconductors to 2nd generation (2G) YBCO based high temperature superconducting tape. The SFCL employed SuperPower's “Matrix” technology that offers modular features to enable scale up to transmission voltage levels. The SFCL consists of individual modules that contain elements and parallel inductors that assist in carrying the current during the fault. A number of these modules are arranged in an m x n array to form the current limiting matrix.

  4. Transmission Level High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gary [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2016-10-05

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in a Transmission Level Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) application. During the project, the type of high-temperature superconducting material used evolved from 1st generation (1G) BSCCO-2212 melt cast bulk high-temperature superconductors to 2nd generation (2G) YBCO-based high-temperature superconducting tape. The SFCL employed SuperPower's “Matrix” technology, that offers modular features to enable scale up to transmission voltage levels. The SFCL consists of individual modules that contain elements and parallel inductors that assist in carrying the current during the fault. A number of these modules are arranged in an m x n array to form the current-limiting matrix.

  5. Online pattern recognition for the ALICE high level trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Bramm, R; Lien, J A; Lindenstruth, V; Loizides, C; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Steinbeck, T M; Stock, Reinhard; Ullaland, K; Vestbø, A S; Wiebalck, A

    2003-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger system needs to reconstruct events online at high data rates. Focusing on the Time Projection Chamber we present two pattern recognition methods under investigation: the sequential approach (cluster finding, track follower) and the iterative approach (Hough Transform, cluster assignment, re-fitting). The implementation of the former in hardware indicates that we can reach the designed inspection rate for p-p collisions of 1 kHz with 98% efficiency.

  6. Online pattern recognition for the ALICE high level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramm, R.; Helstrup, H.; Lien, J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C. E-mail: loizides@ikf.uni-frankfurt.de; Rohrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Ullaland, K.; Vestboe, A.; Wiebalck, A

    2003-04-21

    The ALICE High Level Trigger system needs to reconstruct events online at high data rates. Focusing on the Time Projection Chamber we present two pattern recognition methods under investigation: the sequential approach (cluster finding, track follower) and the iterative approach (Hough Transform, cluster assignment, re-fitting). The implementation of the former in hardware indicates that we can reach the designed inspection rate for p-p collisions of 1 kHz with 98% efficiency.

  7. MRI measurements of the brain stem and cerebellum in high functioning autistic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Tayama, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Masahito; Murakawa, Kazuyoshi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro (Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-01-01

    To determine involvements of the brain stem and/or cerebellum in autism, we compared midsagittal magnetic resonance images of the brains of high functioning autistic children with those of normal controls. We found that the midbrain and medulla oblongata were significantly smaller in these autistic children than in the control children. The pons area did not differ between the two groups, nor was there any difference in the cerebellar vermis area. The ratio of the brain stem and cerebellum to the posterior fossa area did not differ significantly between the high functioning autistic and the control children. The development of the cerebellar vermis area was delayed in autistic children as compared with that in the control children. Thus, it was suggested that significant anatomical changes in the midbrain and medulla oblongata existed in the autistic children. (author).

  8. One brain, two selves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, AATS; Nijenhuis, ERS; Paans, AMJ; Korf, J; Willemsen, ATM; den Boer, JA

    2003-01-01

    Having a sense of self is an explicit and high-level functional specialization of the human brain. The anatomical localization of self-awareness and the brain mechanisms involved in consciousness were investigated by functional neuroimaging different emotional mental states of core consciousness in

  9. Antiepileptic activity of lobeline isolated from the leaf of Lobelia nicotianaefolia and its effect on brain GABA level in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abrar M Tamboli; Rukhsana A Rub; Pinaki Ghosh; SL Bodhankar

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the lobeline isolated from the Lobelia nicotianaefolia in chemoconvulsant-induced seizures and its biochemical mechanism by investigating relationship between seizure activities and altered gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) in brain of mice in Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure models. Methods:The anticonvulsant activity of the isolated lobeline (5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) was investigated in PTZ and strychnine induced seizures in mice and the effect of isolated lobeline on brain GABA level in seizures induced by PTZ. Diazepam was used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Results:Isolated lobeline (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly delayed and antagonized (P<0.050–0.001) the onset of PTZ-induced seizures. It also antagonized strychnine induced seizures. The mortality was also prevented in the test group of animals. In biochemical evaluation, isolated lobeline (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the brain GABA level. And at dose of 30 mg/kg GABA level showed slight decrease in PTZ model. Conclusions:In our findings, isolated lobeline (20mg/kg) exhibited potent anticonvulsant activity against PTZ induced seizures. Also a biochemical evaluation suggested significant increase in barain GABA level at 20 mg/kg i.p. of isolated lobeline. Hence, we may propose that lobeline reduces epileptic seizures by enhancing the GABA release supporting the GABAergic mechanism.

  10. Decreased modulation by the risk level on the brain activation during decision making in adolescents with internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Du, Xin; Yang, Yongxin; Du, Guijin; Gao, Peihong; Zhang, Yang; Qin, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Greater impulse and risk-taking and reduced decision-making ability were reported as the main behavioral impairments in individuals with internet gaming disorder (IGD), which has become a serious mental health issue worldwide. However, it is not clear to date how the risk level modulates brain activity during the decision-making process in IGD individuals. In this study, 23 adolescents with IGD and 24 healthy controls (HCs) without IGD were recruited, and the balloon analog risk task (BART) was used in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment to evaluate the modulation of the risk level (the probability of balloon explosion) on brain activity during risky decision making in IGD adolescents. Reduced modulation of the risk level on the activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the active BART was found in IGD group compared to the HCs. In the IGD group, there was a significant negative correlation between the risk-related DLPFC activation during the active BART and the Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11) scores, which were significantly higher in IGD group compared with the HCs. Our study demonstrated that, as a critical decision-making-related brain region, the right DLPFC is less sensitive to risk in IGD adolescents compared with the HCs, which may contribute to the higher impulsivity level in IGD adolescents.

  11. Decreased modulation by the risk level on the brain activation during decision making in adolescents with internet gaming disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eQi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Greater impulse and risk-taking and reduced decision-making ability were reported as the main behavioral impairments in individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD, which has become a serious mental health issue worldwide. However, it is not clear to date how the risk level modulates brain activity during the decision-making process in IGD individuals. In this study, 23 adolescents with IGD and 24 healthy controls (HCs without IGD were recruited, and the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART was used in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment to evaluate the modulation of the risk level (the probability of balloon explosion on brain activity during risky decisionmaking in IGD adolescents. Reduced modulation of the risk level on the activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC during the active BART was found in IGD group compared to the HCs. In the IGD group, there was a significant negative correlation between the risk-related DLPFC activation during the active BART and the Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11 scores, which were significantly higher in IGD group compared with the HCs. Our study demonstrated that, as a critical decision-making-related brain region, the right DLPFC is less sensitive to risk in IGD adolescents compared with the HCs, which may contribute to the higher impulsivity level in IGD adolescents.

  12. Translation of a High-Level Temporal Model into Lower Level Models: Impact of Modelling at Different Description Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    2001-01-01

    the existences in time can be mapped precisely and consistently securing a consistent handling of the temporal properties. We translate the high level temporal model into an entity-relationship model, with the information in a two-dimensional graph, and finally we look at the translations into relational...

  13. Stable long-term chronic brain mapping at the single-neuron level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tian-Ming; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Schuhmann, Thomas G; Viveros, Robert D; Lieber, Charles M

    2016-10-01

    Stable in vivo mapping and modulation of the same neurons and brain circuits over extended periods is critical to both neuroscience and medicine. Current electrical implants offer single-neuron spatiotemporal resolution but are limited by such factors as relative shear motion and chronic immune responses during long-term recording. To overcome these limitations, we developed a chronic in vivo recording and stimulation platform based on flexible mesh electronics, and we demonstrated stable multiplexed local field potentials and single-unit recordings in mouse brains for at least 8 months without probe repositioning. Properties of acquired signals suggest robust tracking of the same neurons over this period. This recording and stimulation platform allowed us to evoke stable single-neuron responses to chronic electrical stimulation and to carry out longitudinal studies of brain aging in freely behaving mice. Such advantages could open up future studies in mapping and modulating changes associated with learning, aging and neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. High-Resolution and Quantitative X-Ray Phase-Contrast Tomography for Mouse Brain Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques for visualizing cerebral vasculature and distinguishing functional areas are essential and critical to the study of various brain diseases. In this paper, with the X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique, we proposed an experiment scheme for the ex vivo mouse brain study, achieving both high spatial resolution and improved soft-tissue contrast. This scheme includes two steps: sample preparation and volume reconstruction. In the first step, we use heparinized saline to displace the blood inside cerebral vessels and then replace it with air making air-filled mouse brain. After sample preparation, X-ray phase-contrast tomography is performed to collect the data for volume reconstruction. Here, we adopt a phase-retrieval combined filtered backprojection method to reconstruct its three-dimensional structure and redesigned the reconstruction kernel. To evaluate its performance, we carried out experiments at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results show that the air-tissue structured cerebral vasculatures are highly visible with propagation-based phase-contrast imaging and can be clearly resolved in reconstructed cross-images. Besides, functional areas, such as the corpus callosum, corpus striatum, and nuclei, are also clearly resolved. The proposed method is comparable with hematoxylin and eosin staining method but represents the studied mouse brain in three dimensions, offering a potential powerful tool for the research of brain disorders.

  15. High-Resolution and Quantitative X-Ray Phase-Contrast Tomography for Mouse Brain Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yan; Lin, Xiaojie; Yuan, Falei; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Zhao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Imaging techniques for visualizing cerebral vasculature and distinguishing functional areas are essential and critical to the study of various brain diseases. In this paper, with the X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique, we proposed an experiment scheme for the ex vivo mouse brain study, achieving both high spatial resolution and improved soft-tissue contrast. This scheme includes two steps: sample preparation and volume reconstruction. In the first step, we use heparinized saline to displace the blood inside cerebral vessels and then replace it with air making air-filled mouse brain. After sample preparation, X-ray phase-contrast tomography is performed to collect the data for volume reconstruction. Here, we adopt a phase-retrieval combined filtered backprojection method to reconstruct its three-dimensional structure and redesigned the reconstruction kernel. To evaluate its performance, we carried out experiments at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results show that the air-tissue structured cerebral vasculatures are highly visible with propagation-based phase-contrast imaging and can be clearly resolved in reconstructed cross-images. Besides, functional areas, such as the corpus callosum, corpus striatum, and nuclei, are also clearly resolved. The proposed method is comparable with hematoxylin and eosin staining method but represents the studied mouse brain in three dimensions, offering a potential powerful tool for the research of brain disorders.

  16. Modeling the effects of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation at the biophysical, network, and cognitive level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Bergmann, Til Ole; Herz, Damian Marc; Angstmann, Steffen; Karabanov, Anke; Raffin, Estelle; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) is widely used to elucidate the contribution of different brain regions to various cognitive functions. Here we present three modeling approaches that are informed by functional or structural brain mapping or behavior profiling and discuss how these approaches advance the scientific potential of NTBS as an interventional tool in cognitive neuroscience. (i) Leveraging the anatomical information provided by structural imaging, the electric field distribution in the brain can be modeled and simulated. Biophysical modeling approaches generate testable predictions regarding the impact of interindividual variations in cortical anatomy on the injected electric fields or the influence of the orientation of current flow on the physiological stimulation effects. (ii) Functional brain mapping of the spatiotemporal neural dynamics during cognitive tasks can be used to construct causal network models. These models can identify spatiotemporal changes in effective connectivity during distinct cognitive states and allow for examining how effective connectivity is shaped by NTBS. (iii) Modeling the NTBS effects based on neuroimaging can be complemented by behavior-based cognitive models that exploit variations in task performance. For instance, NTBS-induced changes in response speed and accuracy can be explicitly modeled in a cognitive framework accounting for the speed-accuracy trade-off. This enables to dissociate between behavioral NTBS effects that emerge in the context of rapid automatic responses or in the context of slow deliberate responses. We argue that these complementary modeling approaches facilitate the use of NTBS as a means of dissecting the causal architecture of cognitive systems of the human brain.

  17. High-Level Development of Multiserver Online Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Glinka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiplayer online games with support for high user numbers must provide mechanisms to support an increasing amount of players by using additional resources. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the practically proven multiserver distribution mechanisms, zoning, instancing, and replication, and the tasks for the game developer implied by them. We propose a novel, high-level development approach which integrates the three distribution mechanisms seamlessly in today's online games. As a possible base for this high-level approach, we describe the real-time framework (RTF middleware system which liberates the developer from low-level tasks and allows him to stay at high level of design abstraction. We explain how RTF supports the implementation of single-server online games and how RTF allows to incorporate the three multiserver distribution mechanisms during the development process. Finally, we describe briefly how RTF provides manageability and maintenance functionality for online games in a grid context with dynamic resource allocation scenarios.

  18. Typewriter Modifications for Persons Who Are High-Level Quadriplegics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reagan, James R.; And Others

    Standard, common electric typewriters are not completely suited to the needs of a high-level quadriplegic typing with a mouthstick. Experiences show that for complete control of a typewriter a mouthstick user needs the combined features of one-button correction, electric forward and reverse indexing, and easy character viewing. To modify a…

  19. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-03-07

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized. (JRD)

  20. High-Level Overview of Data Needs for RE Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Anthony

    2016-12-22

    This presentation provides a high level overview of analysis topics and associated data needs. Types of renewable energy analysis are grouped into two buckets: First, analysis for renewable energy potential, and second, analysis for other goals. Data requirements are similar but and they build upon one another.

  1. Reachability Trees for High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Jensen, Arne M.; Jepsen, Leif Obel;

    1986-01-01

    the necessary analysis methods. In other papers it is shown how to generalize the concept of place- and transition invariants from place/transition nets to high-level Petri nets. Our present paper contributes to this with a generalization of reachability trees, which is one of the other important analysis...

  2. High-level manpower movement and Japan's foreign aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, K

    1992-01-01

    "Japan's technical assistance programs to Asian countries are summarized. Movements of high-level manpower accompanying direct foreign investments by private enterprise are also reviewed. Proposals for increased human resources development include education and training of foreigners in Japan as well as the training of Japanese aid experts and the development of networks for information exchange."

  3. High level cognitive information processing in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

  4. High-level expression, purification, polyclonal antibody preparation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. High-level expression ... resistance severely compromises effective therapeutic options. ... In the present study, we first report the expression of the oprD ... databases of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) ..... assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature.

  5. Murine erythrocytes contain high levels of lysophospholipase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Roelofsen, B.; Sanderink, G.; Middelkoop, E.; Hamer, R.

    1984-01-01

    Murine erythrocytes were found to be unique in the high levels of lysophospholipase activity in the cytosol of these cells. The specific activity of the enzyme in the cytosol of the murine cells is 10-times higher than in the cytosol of rabbit erythrocytes and approximately three orders of magnitude

  6. Acetaminophen inhibits liver trytophan-2,3-dioxygenase activity with a concomitant rise in brain serotonin levels and a reduction in urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daya, S; Anoopkumar-Dukie, S

    2000-06-08

    The effect of the analgesic agent, acetaminophen was determined on rat forebrain serotonin levels as well as hepatic tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) activity and urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA). The results show that acetaminophen administration (100mg/kg) over three hours does not affect the holoenzyme of tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase but significantly inhibits the apoenzyme. This inhibition is accompanied by a concomitant rise in forebrain serotonin levels. This phenomenon is also accompanied by a reduction in urinary 5-HIAA levels. These results suggest that acetaminophen use is accompanied by changes in brain serotonin levels due to inhibition of hepatic tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase activity. This in turn could explain the possible abuse potential of acetaminophen and its effects on mood at high doses.

  7. Changes in endocannabinoid and N-acylethanolamine levels in rat brain structures following cocaine self-administration and extinction training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrowska, Beata; Smaga, Irena; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-04-03

    Preclinical investigations have demonstrated that drugs of abuse alter the levels of lipid-based signalling molecules, including endocannabinoids (eCBs) and N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), in the rodent brain. In addition, several drugs targeting eCBs and/or NAEs are implicated in reward and/or seeking behaviours related to the stimulation of dopamine systems in the brain. In our study, the brain levels of eCBs (anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)) and NAEs (oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA)) were analyzed via an LC-MS/MS method in selected brain structures of rats during cocaine self-administration and after extinction training according to the "yoked" control procedure. Repeated (14days) cocaine (0.5mg/kg/infusion) self-administration and yoked drug delivery resulted in a significant decrease (ca. 52%) in AEA levels in the cerebellum, whereas levels of 2-AG increased in the frontal cortex, the hippocampus and the cerebellum and decreased in the hippocampus and the dorsal striatum. In addition, we detected increases (>150%) in the levels of OEA and PEA in the limbic areas in both cocaine treated groups, as well as an increase in the tissue levels of OEA in the dorsal striatum in only the yoked cocaine group and increases in the tissue levels of PEA in the dorsal striatum (both cocaine groups) and the nucleus accumbens (yoked cocaine group only). Compared to the yoked saline control group, extinction training (10days) resulted in a potent reduction in AEA levels in the frontal cortex, the hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens and in 2-AG levels in the hippocampus, the dorsal striatum and the cerebellum. The decreases in the limbic and subcortical areas were more apparent for rats that self-administered cocaine. Following extinction, there was a region-specific change in the levels of NAEs in rats previously injected with cocaine; a potent increase (ca. 100%) in the levels of OEA and PEA was detected in the prefrontal cortex and the

  8. Detection of high risk campylobacteriosis clusters at three geographic levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Weisent

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and many other developed countries. Understanding the spatial distribution of this disease and identifying high-risk areas is vital to focus resources for prevention and control measures. In addition, determining the appropriate scale for geographical analysis of surveillance data is an area of concern to epidemiologists and public health officials. The purpose of this study was to (i compare standardized risk estimates for campylobacteriosis in Tennessee over three distinct geographical scales (census tract, zip code and county subdivision, and (ii identify and investigate high-risk spatial clustering of campylobacteriosis at the three geographical scales to determine if clustering is scale dependent. Significant high risk clusters (P <0.05 were detected at all three spatial scales. There were overlaps in regions of high-risk and clusters at all three geographic levels. At the census tract level, spatial analysis identified smaller clusters of finer resolution and detected more clusters than the other two levels. However, data aggregation at zip code or county subdivision yielded similar findings. The importance of this line of research is to create a framework whereby economically efficient disease control strategies become more attainable through improved geographical precision and risk detection. Accurate identification of disease clusters for campylobacteriosis can enable public health personnel to focus scarce resources towards prevention and control programmes on the most at-risk populations. Consistent results at multiple spatial levels highlight the robustness of the geospatial techniques utilized in this study. Furthermore, analyses at the zip code and county subdivision levels can be useful when address level information (finer resolution data are not available. These procedures may also be used to help identify regionally specific risk factors for

  9. Association between Serum Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Levels and Mortality in Patients with Severe Brain Trauma Injury: e94370

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonardo Lorente; María M Martín; Patricia López; Luis Ramos; José Blanquer; Juan J Cáceres; Jordi Solé-Violán; Jorge Solera; Judith Cabrera; Mónica Argueso; Raquel Ortiz; María L Mora; Santiago Lubillo; Alejandro Jiménez; Juan M Borreguero-León; Agustín González; Josune Orbe; José A Rodríguez; José A Páramo

    2014-01-01

    ...) play a role in neuroinflammation after brain trauma injury (TBI). Previous studies with small sample size have reported higher circulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels in patients with TBI, but no association between those levels and mortality...

  10. Effects of Music Aerobic Exercise on Depression and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Community Dwelling Women

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Hui Yeh; Li-Wei Lin; Yu Kuan Chuang; Cheng-Ling Liu; Lu-Jen Tsai; Feng-Shiou Tsuei; Ming-Tsung Lee; Chiu-Yueh Hsiao; Kuender D. Yang

    2015-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial was utilized to compare the improvement of depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between community women with and without music aerobic exercise (MAE) for 12 weeks. The MAE group involved 47 eligible participants, whereas the comparison group had 59 participants. No significant differences were recorded in the demographic characteristics between the participants in the MAE group and the comparison group. Forty-one participants in the MAE gr...

  11. Cognitive function is related to fronto-striatal serotonin transporter levels--a brain PET study in young healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karine; Erritzøe, David Frederik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of serotonergic neurotransmission in healthy volunteers impacts on cognitive test performance. Specifically, markers of serotonin function are associated with attention and executive functioning, long-term memory, and general cognitive ability. The serotonin transporter...... (SERT) protein is a key regulator in the serotonin system. We hypothesized that higher performance on tests sensitive to serotonin would be associated with higher SERT levels in specific fronto-striatal brain regions....

  12. Concurrent thermochemoradiotherapy for brain high-grade glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabova, A. I., E-mail: ranigor@mail.ru; Novikov, V. A.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Bober, E. E.; Frolova, I. G. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Choinzonov, E. L. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Siberian State Medical University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Gribova, O. V. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Baranova, A. V. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Despite the achievements in the current strategies for treatment, the prognosis in malignant glioma patients remains unsatisfactory. Hyperthermia is currently considered to be the most effective and universal modifier of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Preliminary treatment outcomes for 28 patients with newly diagnosed (23) and recurrent (5) high-grade gliomas were presented. All the patients received multimodality treatment including surgery, thermoche-moradiotherapy followed by 4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. All the patients endured thermochemoradiotherapy well. A complication, limited skin burn (II stage), was diagnosed in two cases and treated conservatively without treatment interruption. A month after thermochemoradiotherapy the results were as follows: complete regression was achieved in 4 cases, partial regression in 4 cases, stable disease in 14 cases and disease progression in 6 cases (one of them is pseudo-progression). After completing the adjuvant chemotherapy 2 more patients demonstrated complete response and 1 patient had disease progression. Introduction of local hyperthermia in multimodal therapy of malignant glioma does not impair the combined modality treatment tolerability of patients with malignant gliomas. A small number of studied patients and short follow-up time do not allow making reliable conclusions about the impact of local hyperthermia on the treatment outcomes; however, there is a tendency towards the increase in disease-free survival in the patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas.

  13. Concurrent thermochemoradiotherapy for brain high-grade glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabova, A. I.; Novikov, V. A.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Bober, E. E.; Frolova, I. G.; Baranova, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    Despite the achievements in the current strategies for treatment, the prognosis in malignant glioma patients remains unsatisfactory. Hyperthermia is currently considered to be the most effective and universal modifier of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Preliminary treatment outcomes for 28 patients with newly diagnosed (23) and recurrent (5) high-grade gliomas were presented. All the patients received multimodality treatment including surgery, thermoche-moradiotherapy followed by 4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. All the patients endured thermochemoradiotherapy well. A complication, limited skin burn (II stage), was diagnosed in two cases and treated conservatively without treatment interruption. A month after thermochemoradiotherapy the results were as follows: complete regression was achieved in 4 cases, partial regression in 4 cases, stable disease in 14 cases and disease progression in 6 cases (one of them is pseudo-progression). After completing the adjuvant chemotherapy 2 more patients demonstrated complete response and 1 patient had disease progression. Introduction of local hyperthermia in multimodal therapy of malignant glioma does not impair the combined modality treatment tolerability of patients with malignant gliomas. A small number of studied patients and short follow-up time do not allow making reliable conclusions about the impact of local hyperthermia on the treatment outcomes; however, there is a tendency towards the increase in disease-free survival in the patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas.

  14. Brain development in adolescents at ultra-high risk for psychosis : Longitudinal changes related to resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Sanne; Wierenga, Lara M; Oranje, Bob; Ziermans, Tim B; Schothorst, Patricia F; van Engeland, Herman; Kahn, René S; Durston, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main focus of studies of individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) has been on identifying brain changes in those individuals who will develop psychosis. However, longitudinal studies have shown that up to half of UHR individuals are resilient, with symptomatic remission and

  15. MR venography of the human brain using susceptibility weighted imaging at very high field strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Peter J.; Manniesing, Rashindra; Niessen, Wiro J.; Viergever, Max A.; Barth, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Objective We investigate the implications of high magnetic field strength on MR venography based on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and estimate the optimum echo time to obtain maximum contrast between blood and brain tissue. Materials and methods We measured tissue contrast and T*(2) relaxati

  16. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischi-Gomez, Elda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Vasung, Lana; Griffa, Alessandra; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Monnier, Maryline; Lazeyras, François; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Hüppi, Petra S

    2016-01-01

    Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP) and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP) does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration in network

  17. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Fischi-Gomez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration

  18. Agavins Increase Neurotrophic Factors and Decrease Oxidative Stress in the Brains of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Franco-Robles

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fructans obtained from agave, called agavins, have recently shown significant benefits for human health including obesity. Therefore, we evaluated the potential of agavins as neuroprotectors and antioxidants by determining their effect on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF as well as oxidative brain damage in of obese mice. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD and treated daily with 5% (HFD/A5 or 10% (HFD/A10 of agavins or a standard diet (SD for 10 weeks. The levels of BDNF and GDNF were evaluated by ELISA. The oxidative stress was evaluated by lipid peroxidation (TBARS and carbonyls. SCFAs were also measured with GC-FID. Differences between groups were assessed using ANOVA and by Tukey’s test considering p < 0.05. Results: The body weight gain and food intake of mice HFD/A10 group were significantly lower than those in the HFD group. Agavins restored BDNF levels in HFD/A5 group and GDNF levels of HFD/A5 and HFD/A10 groups in cerebellum. Interestingly, agavins decreased TBARS levels in HFD/A5 and HFD/A10 groups in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and cerebellum. Carbonyl levels were also lower in HFD/A5 and HFD/A10 for only the hippocampus and cerebellum. It was also found that agavins enhanced SCFAs production in feces. Conclusion: Agavins may act as bioactive ingredients with antioxidant and protective roles in the brain.

  19. Respiratory Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) levels increase during lung maturation and infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, H; End, C; Weiss, C;

    2007-01-01

    Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) is a secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein that binds and aggregates various bacteria and viruses in vitro. Studies in adults have shown that DMBT1 is expressed mainly by mucosal epithelia and glands, in particular within the respiratory...

  20. Comparison of Regional Brain Perfusion Levels in Chronically Smoking and Non-Smoking Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C. Durazzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with numerous abnormalities in brain neurobiology, but few studies specifically investigated the chronic effects of smoking (compared to the acute effects of smoking, nicotine administration, or nicotine withdrawal on cerebral perfusion (i.e., blood flow. Predominately middle-aged male (47 ± 11 years of age smokers (n = 34 and non-smokers (n = 27 were compared on regional cortical perfusion measured by continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance studies at 4 Tesla. Smokers showed significantly lower perfusion than non-smokers in the bilateral medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, bilateral superior temporal gyri, left posterior cingulate, right isthmus of cingulate, and right supramarginal gyrus. Greater lifetime duration of smoking (adjusted for age was related to lower perfusion in multiple brain regions. The results indicated smokers showed significant perfusion deficits in anterior cortical regions implicated in the development, progression, and maintenance of all addictive disorders. Smokers concurrently demonstrated reduced blood flow in posterior brain regions that show morphological and metabolic aberrations as well as elevated beta amyloid deposition demonstrated by those with early stage Alzheimer disease. The findings provide additional novel evidence of the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on the human brain.

  1. Low-level electrical currents and brain indicators of behavioral activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lolas

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Distinguishing between slow brain potential correlates of arousal and activation on the basis of their functional role and temporal involvement during a reaction-time task, data are presented which suggest that weak electrical polarizing currents applied to the head in human subjects modify predominantly activation indicators rather than arousal ones.

  2. Cortical evoked potential and extracellular K+ and H+ at critical levels of brain ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, J; Symon, L; Branston, N M;

    1977-01-01

    As shown previously, the electrical function of the brain is critically dependent on cerebral blood flow in the sense that reduction beyond an ischemic threshold of approximately 15 ml/100 gm per minute (approximately 35% of control) in the baboon leads to complete failure of the somatosensory...

  3. Serum L-arginine and dimethylarginine levels in migraine patients with brain white matter lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdélyi-Bótor, Szilvia; Komáromy, Hedvig; Kamson, David Olayinka;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Migraine is a risk factor for the formation of silent brain white matter lesions (WMLs) that are possibly ischemic in nature. Although dysfunction of the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) pathway has been associated with oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in migraine, its rol...

  4. Subchronic exposure to arsenic disturbed the biogenic amine neurotransmitter level and the mRNA expression of synthetase in mice brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Liu, X; Zhao, L; Hu, S; Li, S; Piao, F

    2013-06-25

    Little is known about the influence of arsenic (As) exposure on monoamine neurotransmitters and the underlying mechanisms, although arsenic toxicity on the central nervous system has been well documented. In the present study, the levels of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and 5-HT were determined by high performance liquid chromatography in the cerebrum and cerebellum of mice exposed to 1, 2 and 4 ppm As2O3 through drinking water for 60 days. The ultra-structural change of vesicles in the synapses of mice brains was observed by transmission electron microscopy; the mRNA expressions of dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) as NE, DA and 5-HT synthetases were quantitatively assessed by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. It was shown that the concentrations of NE, DA and 5-HT in the cerebrum or cerebellum of mice exposed to As were significantly lower than those in the control group. The number of synaptic vesicles significantly decreased in the brain of mice exposed to As. Moreover, the expressions of TH, TPH and DBH genes were significantly lower in the brains of mice exposed to As than those in the controls. These results suggested that subchronic exposure to As might decrease the concentrations of the three monoamine neurotransmitters in the mouse brain and downregulate TH, TPH and DBH gene expressions. It was also indicated that the decreased concentrations of the three monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain might be related to the down-regulated gene expressions of these synthetases by As.

  5. Development of high drug-loading nanomicelles targeting steroids to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sijia; Xie, Yanqi; Li, Yuan; Li, Ling; Tian, Ning; Zhu, Wenbo; Yan, Guangmei; Wu, Chuanbin; Hu, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate high drug-loading ligand-modified nanomicelles to deliver a steroidal compound to the brain. YC1 (5α-cholestane-24-methylene-3β, 5α, 6β, 19-tetraol), with poor solubility and limited access to the brain, for the first time, has been proved to be an effective neuroprotective steroid by our previous studies. Based on the principle of 'like dissolves like', cholesterol, which shares the same steroidal parent nucleus with YC1, was selected to react with sodium alginate, producing amphiphilic sodium alginate- cholesterol derivatives (SACDs). To increase the grafting ratio and drug loading, cholesterol was converted to cholesteryl chloroformate, for the first time, before reacting with sodium alginate. Further, lactoferrin was conjugated on SACDs to provide lactoferrin-SACDs (Lf-SACD), which was established by immune electron microscopy (IEM) and self-assembled into brain-targeting nanomicelles. These nanomicelles were negatively charged and spherical in nature, with an average size of drug loading was increased due to the cholesteryl inner cores of the nanomicelles, and the higher the grafting ratio was, the lower the critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of SACD, and the higher drug loading. The in vitro drug release, studied by bulk-equilibrium dialysis in 20 mL of 6% hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin solution at 37°C, indicated a prolonged release profile. The YC1 concentration in mouse brain delivered by lactoferrin-modified nanomicelles was higher than in those delivered by non-modified nanomicelles and YC1 solution. The unique brain-targeting nanomicelle system may provide a promising carrier to deliver hydrophobic drugs across the blood-brain barrier for the treatment of brain diseases.

  6. Effects of low dose endosulfan exposure on brain neurotransmitter levels in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preud'homme, Valérie; Milla, Sylvain; Gillardin, Virginie; De Pauw, Edwin; Denoël, Mathieu; Kestemont, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the impact of pesticides in amphibians is of growing concern to assess the causes of their decline. Among pesticides, endosulfan belongs to one of the potential sources of danger because of its wide use and known effects, particularly neurotoxic, on a variety of organisms. However, the effect of endosulfan was not yet evaluated on amphibians at levels encompassing simultaneously brain neurotransmitters and behavioural endpoints. In this context, tadpoles of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis were submitted to four treatments during 27 d: one control, one ethanol control, and two low environmental concentrations of endosulfan (0.1 and 1 μg L(-1)). Endosulfan induced a significant increase of brain serotonin level at both concentrations and a significant increase of brain dopamine and GABA levels at the lower exposure but acetylcholinesterase activity was not modified by the treatment. The gene coding for the GABA transporter 1 was up-regulated in endosulfan contaminated tadpoles while the expression of other genes coding for the neurotransmitter receptors or for the enzymes involved in their metabolic pathways was not significantly modified by endosulfan exposure. Endosulfan also affected foraging, and locomotion in links with the results of the physiological assays, but no effects were seen on growth. These results show that low environmental concentrations of endosulfan can induce adverse responses in X. laevis tadpoles. At a broader perspective, this suggests that more research using and linking multiple markers should be used to understand the complex mode of action of pollutants.

  7. Neuropsin Expression Correlates with Dendritic Marker MAP2c Level in Different Brain Regions of Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Arpita; Thakur, M K

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsin (NP) is a serine protease, implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory acquisition through cleavage of synaptic adhesion molecule, L1CAM. However, NP has not been explored during brain aging that entails drastic deterioration of plasticity and memory with selective regional vulnerability. Therefore, we have analysed the expression of NP and correlated with its function via analysis of endogenous cleavage of L1CAM and level of dendritic marker MAP2c in different regions of the aging mouse brain. While NP expression gradually decreased in the cerebral cortex during aging, it showed a sharp rise in both olfactory bulb and hippocampus in adult and thereafter declined in old age. NP expression was moderate in young medulla, but undetectable in midbrain and cerebellum. It was positively correlated with L1CAM cleavage and MAP2c level in different brain regions during aging. Taken together, our study shows age-dependent regional variation in NP expression and its positive correlation with MAP2c level, suggesting the involvement of NP in MAP2c mediated alterations in dendritic morphology during aging.

  8. Exposure to static electric fields leads to changes in biogenic amine levels in the brains of Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Philip L.; Al Ghamdi, Mesfer S.; Sharkh, Suleiman; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Jackson, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic static electric fields are commonly found in the environment and can have both beneficial and harmful effects on many animals. Here, we asked how the fruitfly responds to these fields and what the consequences of exposure are on the levels of biogenic amines in the brain. When given a choice in a Y-tube bioassay Drosophila avoided electric fields, and the greater the field strength the more likely Drosophila were to avoid it. By comparing wild-type flies, flies with wings surgically removed and vestigial winged flies we found that the presence of intact wings was necessary to produce avoidance behaviour. We also show that Coulomb forces produced by electric fields physically lift excised wings, with the smaller wings of males being raised by lower field strengths than larger female wings. An analysis of neurochemical changes in the brains showed that a suite of changes in biogenic amine levels occurs following chronic exposure. Taken together we conclude that physical movements of the wings are used by Drosophila in generating avoidance behaviour and are accompanied by changes in the levels of amines in the brain, which in turn impact on behaviour. PMID:26224706

  9. The effect of piracetam on brain damage and serum nitric oxide levels in dogs submitted to hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Seda; Ikizceli, Ibrahim; Sözüer, Erdoğan Mütevelli; Avşaroğullari, Levent; Oztürk, Figen; Muhtaroğlu, Sebahattin; Akdur, Okhan; Küçük, Can; Durukan, Polat

    2008-10-01

    To demonstrate the effect of piracetam on changes in brain tissue and serum nitric oxide levels in dogs submitted to hemorrhagic shock. The subjects were randomized into four subgroups each consisting of 10 dogs. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in Group I for 1 hour and no treatment was given to this group. Blood and saline solutions were administered to Group II following 1 hour hemorrhagic shock. Blood and piracetam were given to Group III following 1 hour shock. No shock was induced and no treatment was applied to Group IV. Blood samples were obtained at the onset of the experiment and at 60, 120 and 180 minutes for nitric oxide analysis. For histopathological examination, brain tissue samples were obtained at the end of the experiment. The observed improvement in blood pressure and pulse rates in Group III was more than in Group II. Nitric oxide levels were increased in Group I; however, no correlation between piracetam and nitric oxide levels was determined. It was seen that recovery in brain damage in Group III was greater than in the control group. Piracetam, added to the treatment, may ecrease ischemic damage in hemorrhagic shock.

  10. Comprehensive analysis of human endogenous retrovirus group HERV-W locus transcription in multiple sclerosis brain lesions by high-throughput amplicon sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Katja; Richter, Christin; Backes, Christina; Meese, Eckart; Ruprecht, Klemens; Mayer, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) of the HERV-W group comprise hundreds of loci in the human genome. Deregulated HERV-W expression and HERV-W locus ERVWE1-encoded Syncytin-1 protein have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the actual transcription of HERV-W loci in the MS context has not been comprehensively analyzed. We investigated transcription of HERV-W in MS brain lesions and white matter brain tissue from healthy controls by employing next-generation amplicon sequencing of HERV-W env-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR products, thus revealing transcribed HERV-W loci and the relative transcript levels of those loci. We identified more than 100 HERV-W loci that were transcribed in the human brain, with a limited number of loci being predominantly transcribed. Importantly, relative transcript levels of HERV-W loci were very similar between MS and healthy brain tissue samples, refuting deregulated transcription of HERV-W env in MS brain lesions, including the high-level-transcribed ERVWE1 locus encoding Syncytin-1. Quantitative RT-PCR likewise did not reveal differences in MS regarding HERV-W env general transcript or ERVWE1- and ERVWE2-specific transcript levels. However, we obtained evidence for interindividual differences in HERV-W transcript levels. Reporter gene assays indicated promoter activity of many HERV-W long terminal repeats (LTRs), including structurally incomplete LTRs. Our comprehensive analysis of HERV-W transcription in the human brain thus provides important information on the biology of HERV-W in MS lesions and normal human brain, implications for study design, and mechanisms by which HERV-W may (or may not) be involved in MS.

  11. Lumbar disc herniation at high levels : MRI and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paek, Chung Ho; Kwon, Soon Tae; Lee, Jun Kyu; Ahn, Jae Sung; Lee, Hwan Do; Chung, Yon Su; Jeong, Ki Ho; Cho, Jun Sik [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To assess the frequency, location, associated MR findings, and clinical symptoms of the high level lumbar disc herniation(HLDH). A total of 1076 patients with lunbar disc herniation were retrospectively reviewed. MR images of 41 of these with HLDH(T12-L1, L1-2, L2-3) were analysed in terms of frequency, location, and associated MR findings, and correlated with clinical symptoms of HLDH. The prevalence of HLDH was 3.8%(41/1076). HLDH was located at T12-L1 level in four patients(10%), at L1-2 level in 14(34%), at L2-3 level in 21(51%), and at both L1-2 and L2-3 levels in two. The age of patients ranged from 20 to 72 years (mean, 44), and there were 26 men and 16 women. In 11(27%), whose mean age was 32 years, isolated disc herniation was limited to these high lumbar segments. The remaining 30 patients had HLDH associated with variable involvement of the lower lumbar segments. Associated lesions were as follow : lower level disc herniation(14 patients, 34%); apophyseal ring fracture(8 patients, 19%); Schmorl's node and spondylolisthesis (each 6 patients, each 14%); spondylolysis(3 patients, 7%); and retrolisthesis(2 patients, 5%). In 20 patients(49%) with HLDH(n=41), there was a previous history of trauma. Patients with HLDH showed a relatively high incidence of associated coexisting abnormalities such as lower lumbar disc herniation, apophyseal ring fracture, Schmorl's node, spondylolysis, and retrolisthesis. In about half of all patients with HLDH there was a previous history of trauma. The mean age of patients with isolated HLDH was lower; clinical symptoms of the condition were relatively nonspecific and their incidence was low.

  12. Perception of Emotional Facial Expressions in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) at Behavioural and Brain Metabolic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho-Özhan, Helena E. A.; Keller, Jürgen; Heimrath, Johanna; Uttner, Ingo; Kassubek, Jan; Birbaumer, Niels; Ludolph, Albert C.; Lulé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) primarily impairs motor abilities but also affects cognition and emotional processing. We hypothesise that subjective ratings of emotional stimuli depicting social interactions and facial expressions is changed in ALS. It was found that recognition of negative emotions and ability to mentalize other’s intentions is reduced. Methods Processing of emotions in faces was investigated. A behavioural test of Ekman faces expressing six basic emotions was presented to 30 ALS patients and 29 age-, gender and education matched healthy controls. Additionally, a subgroup of 15 ALS patients that were able to lie supine in the scanner and 14 matched healthy controls viewed the Ekman faces during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Affective state and a number of daily social contacts were measured. Results ALS patients recognized disgust and fear less accurately than healthy controls. In fMRI, reduced brain activity was seen in areas involved in processing of negative emotions replicating our previous results. During processing of sad faces, increased brain activity was seen in areas associated with social emotions in right inferior frontal gyrus and reduced activity in hippocampus bilaterally. No differences in brain activity were seen for any of the other emotional expressions. Inferior frontal gyrus activity for sad faces was associated with increased amount of social contacts of ALS patients. Conclusion ALS patients showed decreased brain and behavioural responses in processing of disgust and fear and an altered brain response pattern for sadness. The negative consequences of neurodegenerative processes in the course of ALS might be counteracted by positive emotional activity and positive social interactions. PMID:27741285

  13. Multi-study integration of brain cancer transcriptomes reveals organ-level molecular signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyun Sung

    Full Text Available We utilized abundant transcriptomic data for the primary classes of brain cancers to study the feasibility of separating all of these diseases simultaneously based on molecular data alone. These signatures were based on a new method reported herein--Identification of Structured Signatures and Classifiers (ISSAC--that resulted in a brain cancer marker panel of 44 unique genes. Many of these genes have established relevance to the brain cancers examined herein, with others having known roles in cancer biology. Analyses on large-scale data from multiple sources must deal with significant challenges associated with heterogeneity between different published studies, for it was observed that the variation among individual studies often had a larger effect on the transcriptome than did phenotype differences, as is typical. For this reason, we restricted ourselves to studying only cases where we had at least two independent studies performed for each phenotype, and also reprocessed all the raw data from the studies using a unified pre-processing pipeline. We found that learning signatures across multiple datasets greatly enhanced reproducibility and accuracy in predictive performance on truly independent validation sets, even when keeping the size of the training set the same. This was most likely due to the meta-signature encompassing more of the heterogeneity across different sources and conditions, while amplifying signal from the repeated global characteristics of the phenotype. When molecular signatures of brain cancers were constructed from all currently available microarray data, 90% phenotype prediction accuracy, or the accuracy of identifying a particular brain cancer from the background of all phenotypes, was found. Looking forward, we discuss our approach in the context of the eventual development of organ-specific molecular signatures from peripheral fluids such as the blood.

  14. Perception of Emotional Facial Expressions in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) at Behavioural and Brain Metabolic Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Keller, Jürgen; Heimrath, Johanna; Uttner, Ingo; Kassubek, Jan; Birbaumer, Niels; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) primarily impairs motor abilities but also affects cognition and emotional processing. We hypothesise that subjective ratings of emotional stimuli depicting social interactions and facial expressions is changed in ALS. It was found that recognition of negative emotions and ability to mentalize other's intentions is reduced. Processing of emotions in faces was investigated. A behavioural test of Ekman faces expressing six basic emotions was presented to 30 ALS patients and 29 age-, gender and education matched healthy controls. Additionally, a subgroup of 15 ALS patients that were able to lie supine in the scanner and 14 matched healthy controls viewed the Ekman faces during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Affective state and a number of daily social contacts were measured. ALS patients recognized disgust and fear less accurately than healthy controls. In fMRI, reduced brain activity was seen in areas involved in processing of negative emotions replicating our previous results. During processing of sad faces, increased brain activity was seen in areas associated with social emotions in right inferior frontal gyrus and reduced activity in hippocampus bilaterally. No differences in brain activity were seen for any of the other emotional expressions. Inferior frontal gyrus activity for sad faces was associated with increased amount of social contacts of ALS patients. ALS patients showed decreased brain and behavioural responses in processing of disgust and fear and an altered brain response pattern for sadness. The negative consequences of neurodegenerative processes in the course of ALS might be counteracted by positive emotional activity and positive social interactions.

  15. High-Level Information Fusion Management and Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Blasch, Erik; Lambert, Dale

    2012-01-01

    High-level information fusion is the ability of a fusion system to capture awareness and complex relations, reason over past and future events, utilize direct sensing exploitations and tacit reports, and discern the usefulness and intention of results to meet system-level goals. This authoritative book serves a practical reference for developers, designers, and users of data fusion services that must relate the most recent theory to real-world applications. This unique volume provides alternative methods to represent and model various situations and describes design component implementations o

  16. Design and Prototyping of the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.A.C.Bogaerts

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines the desgn and prototyping of the ATLAS High Level Trigger(HLT)wihch is a combined effort of the Data Collection HLT and PESA(Physics and Event Selection Architecture)subgroups within the ATLAS TDAQ collaboration.Two important issues,alresdy outlined in the ATLAS HLT,DAQ and DCS Technical Proposal [1] will be highlighted:the treatment of the LVL2 Trigger and Event Filter as aspects of a general HLT with a view to easier migration of algorthms between the two levels;unification of the selective data collection for LVL2 and Event Building.

  17. Iron-Restricted Diet Affects Brain Ferritin Levels, Dopamine Metabolism and Cellular Prion Protein in a Region-Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. V. Pino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential micronutrient for several physiological functions, including the regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. On the other hand, both iron, and dopamine can affect the folding and aggregation of proteins related with neurodegenerative diseases, such as cellular prion protein (PrPC and α-synuclein, suggesting that deregulation of iron homeostasis and the consequential disturbance of dopamine metabolism can be a risk factor for conformational diseases. These proteins, in turn, are known to participate in the regulation of iron and dopamine metaboli