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Sample records for high body condition

  1. Evaluation of the body condition of high yielding cows

    OpenAIRE

    Grubić G.; Novaković Ž.; Aleksić S.; Sretenović Lj.; Pantelić V.; Ostojić-Andrić D.

    2009-01-01

    Problems which relate to production, health and reproduction in herds of high yielding cows very often occur due to insufficient knowledge and monitoring of energy reserves in cow organisms. Many researches and practical experiences in this field indicate significant relation between body condition and achieved results in production. Body condition of heads of cattle in certain stages of production cycle is important parameter of applied nutrition, but also entire technological procedure. In ...

  2. BODY CONDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrew Taylor

    African antelope have both advantages and disadvantages in terms of meat production when compared with domestic .... Because juveniles can be differentiated from adults using BW, age differences in body ..... Meat and carcass by-products.

  3. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A Morfeld

    Full Text Available Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest. A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40% and 5 (34% categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2. The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  4. [Obesity paradox or reverse epidemiology: is high body weight a protective factor for various chronic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, T E; Rieder, A

    2010-03-01

    Overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for the development of disease and death in the general population. However, in people with various conditions (old age, wasting diseases, heart diseases or renal dialysis) overweight and obesity are associated with a higher survival rate. The terms "reverse epidemiology" or "obesity paradox" have been suggested to describe this finding. However, it still remains uncertain, whether this phenomenon is attributable to a real protective effect of high body fat mass. Methodological problems in studies suggesting an obesity paradox such as survivor bias, selection bias, lead time bias or, in meta analyses, publication bias and confounders have been discussed. These cannot, however, entirely explain the observed phenomenon. Biological models, examining possible explanations for the protective effect of high body mass, for instance, in wasting diseases and elderly patients, have also been produced. In particular high inflammation markers combined with malnutrition predict a high mortality rate among patients with various medical conditions: overweight and obesity could counter these effects. Possible implications for clinical and public health recommendations regarding weight management and nutrition are issues for future research. In elderly subjects and patients with a poor prognosis the impact of weight management on quality of life should also be taken into account.

  5. Comparison of a classical with a highly formularized body condition scoring system for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isensee, A; Leiber, F; Bieber, A; Spengler, A; Ivemeyer, S; Maurer, V; Klocke, P

    2014-12-01

    Body condition scoring is a common tool to assess the subcutaneous fat reserves of dairy cows. Because of its subjectivity, which causes limits in repeatability, it is often discussed controversially. Aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of considering the cows overall appearance on the scoring process and on the validity of the results. Therefore, two different methods to reveal body condition scores (BCS), 'independent BCS' (iBCS) and 'dependent BCS' (dBCS), were used to assess 1111 Swiss Brown Cattle. The iBCS and the dBCS systems were both working with the same flowchart with a decision tree structure for visual and palpatory assessment using a scale from 2 to 5 with increment units of 0.25. The iBCS was created strictly complying with the defined frames of the decision tree structure. The system was chosen due to its formularized approach to reduce the influence of subjective impressions. By contrast, the dBCS system, which was in line with common practice, had a more open approach, where - besides the decision tree - the overall impression of the cow's physical appearance was taken into account for generating the final score. Ultrasound measurement of the back fat thickness (BFT) was applied as a validation method. The dBCS turned out to be the better predictor of BFT, explaining 67.3% of the variance. The iBCS was only able to explain 47.3% of the BFT variance. Within the whole data set, only 31.3% of the animals received identical dBCS and iBCS. The pin bone region caused the most deviations between dBCS and iBCS, but also assessing the pelvis line, the hook bones and the ligaments led to divergences in around 20% of the scored animals. The study showed that during the assessment of body condition a strict adherence to a decision tree is a possible source of inexact classifications. Some body regions, especially the pin bones, proved to be particularly challenging for scoring due to difficulties in assessing them. All the more, the inclusion

  6. Changes in the blood indicators and body condition of high yielding Holstein cows with retained placenta and ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Nogalski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of changes in body condition in the dry period and the early lactation period on the incidence of retained placenta and ketosis in 94 high-yielding Holstein-Friesian cows. Body condition scoring was performed every two weeks from the beginning of the dry period until week 18 of lactation. Blood for the measuring of indicators of metabolism was sampled in weeks 1 and 2 ante partum and in weeks 1, 2, 3, 7 and 15 post partum. Retained placenta was reported in 11 cows, and ketosis was diagnosed in 18 animals. One week ante partum, the serum profile of cows diagnosed with ketosis during lactation revealed 0.52 mmol/l β-hydroxybutyric acid and 0.29 mmol/l non-esterified fatty acids on average. One week post partum, the serum profile of cows with ketosis revealed 1.59 mmol/l β-hydroxybutyric acid and 1.09 mmol/l non-esterified fatty acids and cows with retained placenta 1.65 and 1.41, respectively. From the week 5 ante partum to the point of lowest body condition the average body condition loss reached 1.4 points in cows with retained placenta, 1.1 points in cows with ketosis, and 0.8 points in healthy cows. Retained placenta and ketosis increased significantly conception rates by 0.47 and 0.50, respectively. Our results show that monitoring changes in the body condition and non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyric acid blood levels in high-yielding cows in the transition period, followed by taking relevant disease-control measures, may be effective in reducing the incidence of retained placenta and ketosis in dairy cattle herds.

  7. Milk yield and composition, nutrition, body conformation traits, body condition scores, fertility and diseases in high-yielding dairy cows--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhard, K; Bruckmaier, R M; Kuepfer, U; Blum, J W

    2001-03-01

    Twenty-nine pairs of high-yielding dairy cows (HC; > or = 45 kg/day reached at least once during lactation) and corresponding control cows (CC; with milk yields representing the average yield of the herds) were examined on 29 Swiss farms from March 1995 to September 1996. The hypotheses were tested that there are differences in feed intake, body-conformation traits, body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), fertility status and disease incidence between HC and CC cows. Cows were studied 2 weeks before and at 5, 9, 13, 17 and 40 weeks post-partum. HC cows produced more energy-corrected milk (ECM) than CC cows (10,670 +/- 321 kg in 293 +/- 5 days and 8385 +/- 283 kg in 294 +/- 4 days, respectively; P cows (46.2 +/- 1.1 and 36.2 +/- 1.0 kg ECM/day, respectively; P cows (7.6 +/- 0.5 and 5.7 +/- 0.5 kg/day, respectively) and dry matter intakes (measured in week 5 of lactation over 3 days on six farms) were greater in HC than in CC cows (24.0 +/- 1.1 and 20.3 +/- 1.1 kg/day, respectively; P cows were taller than CC cows (wither heights 143.3 +/- 0.8 and 140.1 +/- 0.8 cm, respectively; P cows was greater than in CC cows throughout the study, differences and decreases of BW during lactation were not significant. BCS at the end of pregnancy and decrements during lactation were similar in HC and CC cows. Fertility parameters were similar in HC and CC cows. Incidences of mastitis, claw and feet problems, hypocalcemia/downer cow syndrome, ovarian cysts and abortions were similar in HC and CC cows, but there were more indigestion problems in HC than in CC cows.

  8. Relationship between the pre- and postpartum body condition scores and periparturient indices and fertility in high-yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefańska Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body condition score (BCS determined on the dry-off day, calving day, and in the first month of lactation, its changes during the dry period and early lactation, and periparturient indices and fertility in high-producing dairy cows. Material and Methods: The experiment was conducted in two herds: A and B, located in Western Poland. The studies were conducted on 116 and 108 Polish Holstein-Friesian dairy cows respectively, with an average milk yield of >10 000 kg/305-day lactation. The experiment included the dry period (-56 d to the calving day, the calving day, and early lactation (from +1 to +56 d. The experimental factor was BCS (0 to 5-point scale. The BCS was performed by one person on day -56, on parturition day (in the first 12 h after calving and on day 30 of lactation. Results: A decrease in BCS (≥-0.25 in herd A during the dry period accelerated the planned calving period by 7.3 d. In the group of cows with BCS 3.50 in the first month of lactation (30 d resulted in the extension of uterine involution period (56 d. Improvement of BCS during the dry period shortened the anoestrus (60 d in herd A and the period of insemination service (60 d in herd B. However, in this group (IM BCS ≥ 0.25 of cows the day of the highest artificial insemination index (2.50 in herd B was analysed. Conclusion: The body condition on the dry-off day and at calving, as well as its deterioration in the first month of lactation, have a considerable effect on fertility indices in dairy cows, thus confirming the advisability of its regular monitoring during routine operations connected with the management of a dairy cattle herd.

  9. High levels of prevalence related to age and body condition: host-parasite interactions in a water frog Pelophylax kl hispanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Comas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Host traits can significantly influence patterns of infection and disease. Here, we studied the helminths parasitizing the Italian edible frog Pelophylax kl. hispanicus, giving special attention to the relationship between parasites and host traits such as sex, snout vent length, weight and body condition. The helminth community was composed of seven species: three trematode species (Diplodiscus subclavatus, Gorgodera cygnoides, Pleurogenes claviger, three nematode species (Icosiella neglecta, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Rhabdias sp. and one acanthocephalan species (Pomphorhychus laevis. We found that prevalence was positively correlated with snout-vent length and weight, but did not differ with body condition or sex. We found that prevalence and mean species richness increased with age. Our results show that abundance of Icosiella neglecta was positively correlated with higher values for host body condition. In fact, we found that high prevalence and mean species richness do not necessarily imply poorer body condition in the parasitized host. In conclusion, our results show that the helminth community in this taxon has great diversity, and this host-parasite system seems to be evolved to low levels of virulence, helminths maintaining a commensal relationship with this frog.

  10. [Body condition and metabolic stability as the basis for high milk yield and undisturbed fertility in dairy cows--a contribution for deduction of reference values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, R; Arndt, G; Schröder, U; Gelfert, C C

    2004-05-01

    The target of this study was to describe the interactions between body condition and various descriptors of yield and fertility. It was aimed to identify an optimal conditional range to be used in herd management which combines high milk yield with acceptable fertility traits and general health. For this purpose, backfat thickness was measured by ultrasound at 46111 dairy cows on 78 different farms and was subsequently related to production variables. Negative energy balance is getting more intense and prolonged with increasing milk yield. However a conditional nadir below 10 mm leads to decreased milk production. To reach a high production level without an increasing incidence of health disorders, conditional nadir should not decline below 13 mm backfat thickness on herd average. Lower value only lead to negligibly higher milk yield but cause a distinctively higher risk of fertility problems and culling. High herd yields do not have to be at expense of reproduction performance and can be achieved without extreme body condition losses. An efficient herd management can offset depression in fertility, which commonly is combined with increasing milk yield. A standard curve for backfat thickness throughout lactation is suggested to be used in dairy herd management.

  11. A combination of body condition measurements is more informative than conventional condition indices: temporal variation in body condition and corticosterone in brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waye, Heather L; Mason, Robert T

    2008-02-01

    The body condition index is a common method for quantifying the energy reserves of individual animals. Because good body condition is necessary for reproduction in many species, body condition indices can indicate the potential reproductive output of a population. Body condition is related to glucocorticoid production, in that low body condition is correlated to high concentrations of corticosterone in reptiles. We compared the body condition index and plasma corticosterone levels of brown tree snakes on Guam in 2003 to those collected in 1992/1993 to determine whether that population still showed the chronic stress and poor condition apparent in the earlier study. We also examined the relationship between fat mass, body condition and plasma corticosterone concentrations as indicators of physiological condition of individuals in the population. Body condition was significantly higher in 2003 than in the earlier sample for mature male and female snakes, but not for juveniles. The significantly lower levels of corticosterone in all three groups in 2003 suggests that although juveniles did not have significantly improved energy stores they, along with the mature males and females, were no longer under chronic levels of stress. Although the wet season of 2002 was unusually rainy, low baseline levels of corticosterone measured in 2000 indicate that the improved body condition of snakes in 2003 is likely the result of long-term changes in prey populations rather than annual variation in response to environmental conditions.

  12. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with conditioning regimen to total body irradiation + thiotepa + melphalan for 35 patients with high-risk leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumura-Yagi, Keiko; Inoue, Masami; Okamura, Takayuki

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-five children with high-risk leukemia received an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) following a pre-conditioning regimen consisting of total body irradiation, thiotepa and melphalan. Twenty-one patients had acute lymphocytic leukemia, 6 acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, 2 acute undifferentiated leukemia, 2 acute mixed lineage leukemia, 2 myelodysplastic syndrome and 2 juvenile chronic myeloid leukemia. Sixteen patients received BMT while in complete remission (CR), but 19 were not in CR. Eighteen patients received transplants from HLA-matched related donors, 15 from unrelated donors and 2 from HLA-mismatched related donors. Cyclosporin±methotrexate was used for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in the BMTs from related donors and tacrolimus±prednisolone in the BMTs from unrelated donors. Transplant-related death occurred in 12 patients; 5 acute GVHD, 4 infections (3 fungal infections, 1 Cytomegalovirus pneumonia), 1 intracranial haemorrhage and 2 chronic GVHD. Relapses were observed in 6 patients (69, 168, 175, 222, 275 and 609 days post BMT). Event-free survival rate at 2 years is 38.1% in CR patients and 36.9% in nonCR patients. (author)

  13. A phenotypical approach to the effects of production traits, parturition, puerperium and body condition on commencement of luteal activity in high yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Ariane; Becker, Frank; Martin, Gunter; Nürnberg, Gerd; Römer, Anke; Kanitz, Wilhelm

    2015-06-01

    The interval from calving to commencement of luteal activity (CLA) was determined by progesterone measurements from milk samples obtained once a week until the 14th week post-partum in 513 German Holstein cows in first to third parity. Milk samples were analyzed by an "on-farm" device (eProCheck(®), Minitüb, Germany) and simultaneously by RIA. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of milk yield, protein content and body condition of a cow on the CLA post-partum. Milk progesterone concentrations of "on-farm" measurements correlated with measurements done by the RIA-method significantly (r=0.72; PCows with a milk protein content at 1st milk recording of ≤3.5% revealed first luteal activity 1.3±0.3 weeks later than cows that had a content of >3.75% protein (Pcows with assisted calving or dystocia presented significantly later CLA than cows which required no help during the calving process (Pfertility cannot be confirmed regarding to CLA. The negative energy balance after calving, caused by the high milk yields, is more detrimental for the cyclical activity as was shown by the parameters milk protein content and change in BFT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with conditioning regimen of total body irradiation/busulfan/melphalan for 16 patients in children with high-risk leukemia and lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshihara, Takao; Fujii, Noriko [Matsushita Memorial Hospital, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan); Naya, Mayumi [and others

    1999-02-01

    We report the therapeutic results of allogeneic bone marrow transplantations (BMT) for 16 children with high-risk leukemia and lymphoma. The conditioning regimen consisted of total body irradiation (TBI) (12 Gy), busulfan (Bu) (4 mg/kg x 2 days), and melphalan (L-PAM) (70 mg/m{sup 2} x 2 or 3 days). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was performed with cyclosporin (CsA) + methotrexate (MTX) (4 cases) and CsA + MTX-methyl-prednisolone (11 cases). Seven patients had acute lymphocytic leukemia, 6 acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, 2 B-cell type non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma, and 1 peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Nine patients were in complete remission (CR) and 7 in non CR at BMT. Nine patients received transplants from HLA-matched related (MR) donors, 4 from HLA-mismatched related (MisR) donors, and 3 from unrelated (UR) donors. Seven of the cases, all of which were transplanted from MR, have continued complete remission for 15-47 (median 27) months. Nine patients, of which seven were transplanted from MisR/UR, died from complications from fungal pneumonia (3), cytomegalovirus pneumonitis (1), GVHD (1), rhabdomyolysis (1), lymphoproliferative disorder (1), rejection (1), and relapse (1). These results suggest that the combination of TBI, Bu, and L-PAM as a BMT regimen has a significant anti-neoplastic benefit and is considered to be useful; however, considering the high rate of fatal transplant-related complications, more refinement is required, especially for transplants from MisR and UR donors. (author)

  15. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with conditioning regimen of total body irradiation/busulfan/melphalan for 16 patients in children with high-risk leukemia and lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihara, Takao; Fujii, Noriko; Naya, Mayumi

    1999-01-01

    We report the therapeutic results of allogeneic bone marrow transplantations (BMT) for 16 children with high-risk leukemia and lymphoma. The conditioning regimen consisted of total body irradiation (TBI) (12 Gy), busulfan (Bu) (4 mg/kg x 2 days), and melphalan (L-PAM) (70 mg/m 2 x 2 or 3 days). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was performed with cyclosporin (CsA) + methotrexate (MTX) (4 cases) and CsA + MTX-methyl-prednisolone (11 cases). Seven patients had acute lymphocytic leukemia, 6 acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, 2 B-cell type non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 1 peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Nine patients were in complete remission (CR) and 7 in non CR at BMT. Nine patients received transplants from HLA-matched related (MR) donors, 4 from HLA-mismatched related (MisR) donors, and 3 from unrelated (UR) donors. Seven of the cases, all of which were transplanted from MR, have continued complete remission for 15-47 (median 27) months. Nine patients, of which seven were transplanted from MisR/UR, died from complications from fungal pneumonia (3), cytomegalovirus pneumonitis (1), GVHD (1), rhabdomyolysis (1), lymphoproliferative disorder (1), rejection (1), and relapse (1). These results suggest that the combination of TBI, Bu, and L-PAM as a BMT regimen has a significant anti-neoplastic benefit and is considered to be useful; however, considering the high rate of fatal transplant-related complications, more refinement is required, especially for transplants from MisR and UR donors. (author)

  16. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    , and body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes......The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width...

  17. Evaluation of Body Weight, Body Condition, and Muscle Condition in Cats with Hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M E; Castellano, C A; Rishniw, M

    2016-11-01

    The contribution of fat loss versus muscle wasting to the loss of body weight seen in hyperthyroid cats is unknown. To investigate body weight, body condition score (BCS), and muscle condition score (MCS) in hyperthyroid cats. Four hundred sixty-two cats with untreated hyperthyroidism, 117 of which were reevaluated after treatment. Prospective cross-sectional and before-after studies. Untreated hyperthyroid cats had body composition evaluated (body weight, BCS, and MCS). A subset of these cats were reevaluated 3-12 months after treatment when euthyroid. Pretreatment body weight (median, 4.36 kg; IQR, 3.5 to 5.2 kg) was lower than premorbid weight (5.45 kg; IQR, 4.6 to 6.4 kg, P loss of muscle mass. Cats showed increases in body weight (median, 4.1 kg to 5.0 kg), BCS (median, 3/5 to 3.5/5), and MCS (2/3 to 3/3) after treatment (P hyperthyroid cats lose body weight but maintain an ideal or overweight BCS, with only a third being underweight. As in human hyperthyroid patients, this weight loss is associated with muscle wasting, which affects >75% of hyperthyroid cats. Successful treatment leads to weight gain and increase of BCS in most cats, but almost half fail to regain normal muscle mass. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. [Synchronization of ovulation (OVSYNCH) in high-producing dairy cattle herds. I. Fertility parameters, body condition score and plama progesterone contration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klindworth, H P; Hoedemaker, M; Burfeindt, D; Heilkenbrinker, T

    2001-01-01

    A method for synchronization of ovulation (OVSYNCH) was evaluated for its practical use in seven North German dairy cattle herds. The original procedure of PURSLEY et al. (1995) was applied, i.e. cows were injected Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) at a random stage of the estrous cycle, followed by an injection of a prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha)-analogon seven days later and another injection of GnRH two days after PGF2 alpha. Cows were inseminated 24 h after the last injection by artificial insemination. Control animals were assigned by corresponding lactation number and stage of lactation (month of partus). Cows from the OVSYNCH group returned to the conventional reproductive management after the OVSYNCH treatment, which was the same management as that for the control group. The average milk yield in 1997 and 1998 was 8128.6 +/- 637.0 kg and 8688.3 +/- 665.0 kg per year, respectively. First service conception rate (FSC) in the OVSYNCH group (n = 187) (39.77%) was lower than in the controls (n = 175) (54.34%; P 0.05), whereas in 1998, FSC for the OVSYNCH group (29.27%) was significantly lower than in the control group (29.27% vs. 52.78%) and the OVSYNCH group in 1997 (each time P cows in the OVSYNCH group was significantly lower than in the control group (37.84% vs. 71.05%; P 0.05). Proportion of cows in each class of lactation number (1., 2. and > 2. lactation number) with days open 0.05). There was a great influence of body condition on the success of OVSYNCH. Cows with a body condition score (BCS) of 3.00 had a significant better FSC than cows with a BCS cows with a BCS > 3.25 and cows in good and poor condition taken together) than for cows with a BCS of 3.00 (P cows as determined by progesterone concentration in blood plasma. Nine out of eleven cows reacted with the resumption of ovarian activity. Two cows became pregnant after first insemination.

  19. Effects of dry period length and concentrate protein content in late lactation on body condition score change and subsequent lactation performance of thin high genetic merit dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, A J; Purcell, P J; Wylie, A R G; Gordon, A W; Ferris, C P

    2017-03-01

    Improving body condition score of thin cows in late lactation is necessary, because cows that are thin at drying off exhibit decreased fertility postpartum and are at increased risk of disease and of being culled in the subsequent lactation. Offering a diet low in crude protein (CP) content in late lactation may help to improve body condition score (BCS) at drying off, whereas imposing an extended dry period (EDP) has been advocated as another way to increase BCS at calving. To test these hypotheses, 65 thin cows (mean BCS 2.25 at 14 wk precalving) were managed on 1 of 3 treatments between 13 and 9 wk prepartum: normal protein control {NP; grass silage + 5 kg/d of a normal protein concentrate [228 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)]}, low protein [LP; grass silage + 5 kg/d of a low-protein concentrate (153 g of CP/kg of DM)], or EDP (cows dried off at 13 wk precalving and offered a grass silage-only diet). Both NP and LP cows were dried off at wk 8 prepartum, after which all cows were offered a grass silage-only diet until calving. After calving, all cows were offered a common diet (supplying 11.1 kg of concentrate DM/cow per day) for 19 wk. Between 13 and 9 wk prepartum, LP cows had lower DM intake, milk yield, and body weight than NP cows. Whereas EDP cows had lower serum β-hydroxybutyrate and fatty acid concentrations than those of NP cows, BCS at wk 9 prepartum did not differ between treatments. Cows on the LP treatment continued to have lower DMI and BW than those of NP and EDP cows between 8 wk prepartum and calving, but only EDP cows had a higher BCS at calving. Treatment did not affect calving difficulty score or calf birth weight. Although all cows were offered a common diet postpartum, cows on the LP treatment had lower DM intake and milk fat + plus protein yield than cows on any other treatment during the 19-wk period postpartum, but we found no differences in any postpartum indicator of body tissue reserves. The treatments imposed from wk 13 to 9 prepartum

  20. On Hydroelastic Body-Boundary Condition of Floating Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu

    1996-01-01

    A general linear body boundary condition of hydroelastic analysis of arbitrary shaped floating structures generalizes the classic kinematic rigid-body (Timman-Newman) boundary condition for seakeeping problems. The new boundary condition is consistent with the existing theories under certain...

  1. A longitudinal study of whole body, tissue, and cellular physiology in a mouse model of fibrosing NASH with high fidelity to the human condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anuradha; Abdullah, Tasduq Sheikh; Mounajjed, Taofic; Hartono, Stella; McConico, Andrea; White, Thomas; LeBrasseur, Nathan; Lanza, Ian; Nair, Sreekumaran; Gores, Gregory; Charlton, Michael

    2017-06-01

    The sequence of events that lead to inflammation and fibrosing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is incompletely understood. Hence, we investigated the chronology of whole body, tissue, and cellular events that occur during the evolution of diet-induced NASH. Male C57Bl/6 mice were assigned to a fast-food (FF; high calorie, high cholesterol, high fructose) or standard-chow (SC) diet over a period of 36 wk. Liver histology, body composition, mitochondrial respiration, metabolic rate, gene expression, and hepatic lipid content were analyzed. Insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)] increased 10-fold after 4 wk. Fibrosing NASH was fully established by 16 wk. Total hepatic lipids increased by 4 wk and remained two- to threefold increased throughout. Hepatic triglycerides declined from sixfold increase at 8 wk to threefold increase by 36 wk. In contrast, hepatic cholesterol levels steadily increased from baseline at 8 wk to twofold by 36 wk. The hepatic immune cell population altered over time with macrophages persisting beyond 16 wk. Mitochondrial oxygen flux rates of FF mice diet were uniformly lower with all the tested substrates (13-276 pmol·s -1 ·ml -1 per unit citrate synthase) than SC mice (17-394 pmol·s -1 ·ml -1 per unit citrate synthase) and was accompanied by decreased mitochondrial:nuclear gene copy number ratios after 4 wk. Metabolic rate was lower in FF mice. Mitochondrial glutathione was significantly decreased at 24 wk in FF mice. Expression of dismutases and catalase was also decreased in FF mice. The evolution of NASH in the FF diet-induced model is multiphasic, particularly in terms of hepatic lipid composition. Insulin resistance precedes hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Mitochondrial dysfunction and depletion occur after the histological features of NASH are apparent. Collectively, these observations provide a unique overview of the sequence of changes that coevolve with the histological evolution of

  2. Body condition variation in kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) nestlings in relation to breeding conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costantini, David; Casagrande, Stefania; Carello, Livia; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    The body condition index (i.e., body mass corrected for age or size differences) is commonly used to investigate offspring condition in nestling birds. The body condition index reflects different parameters related to the general nutritional state of nestlings and may predict survival prospects.

  3. Interoception: the sense of the physiological condition of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, A D

    2003-08-01

    Converging evidence indicates that primates have a distinct cortical image of homeostatic afferent activity that reflects all aspects of the physiological condition of all tissues of the body. This interoceptive system, associated with autonomic motor control, is distinct from the exteroceptive system (cutaneous mechanoreception and proprioception) that guides somatic motor activity. The primary interoceptive representation in the dorsal posterior insula engenders distinct highly resolved feelings from the body that include pain, temperature, itch, sensual touch, muscular and visceral sensations, vasomotor activity, hunger, thirst, and 'air hunger'. In humans, a meta-representation of the primary interoceptive activity is engendered in the right anterior insula, which seems to provide the basis for the subjective image of the material self as a feeling (sentient) entity, that is, emotional awareness.

  4. Body condition of Morelet’s Crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from northern Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Brandt, Laura A.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Hart, Kristen; Jeffery, Brian; McMurry, Scott T.; Platt, Steven G.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Vinci, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Body condition factors have been used as an indicator of health and well-being of crocodilians. We evaluated body condition of Morelet's Crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) in northern Belize in relation to biotic (size, sex, and habitat) and abiotic (location, water level, and air temperature) factors. We also tested the hypothesis that high water levels and warm temperatures combine or interact to result in a decrease in body condition. Size class, temperature, and water level explained 20% of the variability in condition of Morelet's Crocodiles in this study. We found that adult crocodiles had higher condition scores than juveniles/subadults but that sex, habitat, and site had no effect. We confirmed our hypothesis that warm temperatures and high water levels interact to decrease body condition. We related body condition of Morelet's Crocodiles to natural fluctuations in air temperatures and water levels in northern Belize, providing baseline conditions for population and ecosystem monitoring.

  5. Change of body composition in process of power conditional training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Anikieiev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees, considering decrease of fat mass percentage as the purpose. Methods: analysis of changes of body composition of trainees, practicing different kinds of conditional power training. Results: the data about influence of different physical loads on thickness of subcutaneous fat in different parts of body have been generalized. Recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees for body composition improving have been presented. It was found that fat loss occurs quicker in upper part of body (subcutaneous and visceral. This is observed with increasing of motor functioning and reducing calories of eating. When training any separate muscular group changes of subcutaneous fat take place not compulsory in body parts, in which the trained group is located. Conclusions: it is purposeful to mainly use basic (multi-joint exercises in power conditional training.

  6. Effect of Age, Hair Type and Body Condition Score on Body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the influence of age, hair type and body condition score on body weight and body conformation traits using 62 Yankasa rams. The ages of the rams were categorized into three; 12-18, 19-24 and 25-36 months. The hair types which were determined through touching and feeling were ...

  7. [Relationship between body condition (back fat thickness and body condition scoring) and fertility in dairy cows (German Black Pied/HF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossen, N; Fietze, S; Mösenfechtel, S; Hoedemaker, M

    2006-05-01

    It was the aim of this study to compare body condition scoring with ultrasonographic back fat thickness. Additionally, the relationship between back fat thickness and fertility, milk yield, number of parity and stage of lactation in dairy cows was examined. Body condition of 211 cows (German Black Pied/HF) was determined by means of ultrasonographic back fat thickness (BFT) and body condition scoring (BCS). The BFT and the BCS were measured at four different stages during the course of lactation (Time point 1 (T1) = 1.-3. d postpartum (pp); T2 = 40.-42. d pp; T3 = 90.-92. d pp and T4 = 130.-150. d pp). Number of parity, 100-day-milk-yield, incidence of ovarian cysts, incidence of acyclicity and fertility measures were recorded. There was a significant correlation between body condition scoring and ultrasonographic measurement of back fat thickness at the four time points (r = 0.68 to 0.74). Therefore, both methods were suitable to evaluate body condition. The number of lactations had an influence on body condition. At T1, the BFT in older cows was significantly higher than in younger cows (P cows was higher than in older cows (P body condition from T1 to T2 and T3. At T4, body condition increased, but did not reach the level of the postcalving values. In addition, cows with a high BFT at the beginning of lactation had a higher milk yield and a higher loss of body fat than cows with lower milk yield. Heifers compensated this loss of body fat significantly faster than older cows. Particularly at T3, body condition had an impact on fertility. Cows with a high loss of body condition between T1 and T3 developed significantly more often ovarian cysts than cows with low loss of back fat thickness. Cows with the lowest BFT at T3 had the longest calving to first service intervall and the highest 200-day-non-pregnancy index. In conclusion, our results suggest that there might be a certain relationship between body condition and fertility (delayed first service, ovarian

  8. High tobacco consumption lowers body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    in former or never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: High tobacco consumption causes lower body weight among current smokers. However, smoking does not seem to affect body shape or fat distribution causally. The lack of association between CHRNA3 genotype and body weight among former smokers and never smokers favours......BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...

  9. Wear performance of neat and vitamin E blended highly cross-linked PE under severe conditions: The combined effect of accelerated ageing and third body particles during wear test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affatato, Saverio; De Mattia, Jonathan Salvatore; Bracco, Pierangiola; Pavoni, Eleonora; Taddei, Paola

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of third-body particles on the in vitro wear behaviour of three different sets of polyethylene acetabular cups after prolonged testing in a hip simulator and accelerated ageing. Vitamin E-blended, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE_VE), cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) and conventional polyethylene (STD_PE) acetabular cups were simulator tested for two million cycles under severe conditions (i.e. by adding third-body particles to the bovine calf serum lubricant). Micro-Fourier Transform Infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopic analyses, differential scanning calorimetry, and crosslink density measurements were used to characterize the samples at a molecular level. The STD_PE cups had twice mass loss than the XLPE_VE components and four times than the XLPE samples; statistically significant differences were found between the mass losses of the three sets of cups. The observed wear trend was justified on the basis of the differences in cross-link density among the samples (XLPE>XLPE_VE>STD_PE). FTIR crystallinity profiles, bulk DSC crystallinity and surface micro-Raman crystallinity seemed to have a similar behaviour upon testing: all of them (as well as the all-trans and ortho-trans contents) revealed the most significant changes in XLPE and XLPE_VE samples. The more severe third-body wear testing conditions determined more noticeable changes in all spectroscopic markers with respect to previous tests. Unexpectedly, traces of bulk oxidation were found in both STD_PE (unirradiated) and XLPE (remelting-stabilized), which were expected to be stable to oxidation; on the contrary, XLPE_VE demonstrated a high oxidative stability in the present, highly demanding conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of neckbands on body condition of migratory geese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Madsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    index (API) of marked geese and body mass of recaptured birds previously marked, this study investigated the effect of neckbands on body condition of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus at different temporal scales, and evaluated to what extent capture, handling and banding affected these birds......Ringing and marking are widely used techniques in avian ecology to assist studies of migration, survival and behaviour, and often used approaches to estimate population sizes. Only rarely however, are the effects of these markings on bird viability thoroughly tested. Using an abdominal profile...... on short, medium and longer terms. Our results indicated that body condition of geese were negatively affected in the days immediately succeeding capture, but that only a minor effect persisted on a seasonal scale. We found no support for a long term effect of neckbands on the body mass of individual birds...

  11. Genetic relationships among Body condition score, Body weight, Milk yield and Fertility in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk production, and fertility-related traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 8591 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, milk production, and/or fertility from 78 seasonal calving

  12. Analysis of Urine as Indicators of Specific Body Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Souradeep; Saha, Triya; Narendrakumar, Uttamchand

    2017-11-01

    Urinalysis can be defined as a procedure for examining various factors of urine, which include physical properties, particulate matter, cells, casts, crystals, organisms and solutes. Urinalysis is recommended to be a part of the initial examination of all patients as its cheap, feasible and gives productive results. This paper focuses on the analysis of urine collected at specific body conditions. Here we illustrate the urine profile of different persons having various body conditions, which include, having urinary tract infection, undergoing strenuous exercise, having back pain regularly, having very low urine output and a person who is on 24 hours of diet. Examination of urine collected from different persons having specific body conditions usually helps us in the diagnosis of various diseases, which it indicates.

  13. Visualizing mushroom body response to a conditioned odor in honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Till; Menzel, Randolf

    2001-11-01

    Combining differential conditioning with optophysiological recordings of bee brain activity allows the investigation of learning-related changes in complex neural systems. In this study we focused on the mushroom bodies of the bee brain. Presenting different odors to the animal leads to significant activation of the mushroom body lips. After differential conditioning, the rewarded odor leads to stronger activation than it did before training. Activation by the unrewarded odor remains unchanged. These results resemble findings in the bee's antennal lobes, which are the first olfactory relay station in the insect brain. As an integrative neural network, enhanced activation of the mushroom body lip may carry additional information, i.e., for processing odor concentrations.

  14. Effect of Ecological Restoration on Body Condition of a Predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Tokman

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration attempts to recover the structure and function of ecosystems that have been degraded by human activities. A crucial test of ecosystem recovery would be to determine whether individuals in restored environments are as healthy as those in conserved environments. However, the impact of restoration on physiology of terrestrial animals has never been tested. Here, we evaluated the effect of two restoration methods on body condition measured as body size, body mass, lipid and muscle content of the spider Nephila clavipes in a tropical dry forest that has suffered chronic disturbance due to cattle grazing. We used experimental plots that had been excluded from disturbance by cattle grazing during eight years. Plots were either planted with native trees (i. e. maximal intervention, or only excluded from disturbance (i. e. minimal intervention, and were compared with control conserved (remnants of original forest and disturbed plots (where cattle is allowed to graze. We predicted (1 better body condition in spiders of conserved and restored sites, compared to disturbed sites, and (2 better body condition in plots with maximal intervention than in plots with minimal intervention. The first prediction was not supported in males or females, and the second prediction was only supported in females: body dry mass was higher in planted than in conserved plots for spiders of both sexes and also higher that in disturbed plots for males, suggesting that plantings are providing more resources. We discuss how different life histories and environmental pressures, such as food availability, parasitism, and competition for resources can explain our contrasting findings in male and female spiders. By studying animal physiology in restoration experiments it is possible to understand the mechanistic basis of ecological and evolutionary processes that determine success of ecological restoration.

  15. Approaches to estimate body condition from slaughter records in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Olofsson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term fluctuations in population densities of reindeer and caribou are common, where pasture is the limiting resource. Pasture quality affects the nutritional status and production of the animals. Therefore, continuous information about changes in the grazing resources is important when making management decisions. The objective of this study was to investigate different possibilities of using routine and additional slaughter records as body condition indicators, and thereby indicators of pasture resources in the summer ranges of reindeer husbandry. Records from 696 reindeer slaughtered in the winter 2002/2003 were included in the study. We developed a model with carcass weight as body condition indicator and two different models combining fatness, conformation, carcass weight, and body size as body condition indicators. The results showed age and sex dependent differences between the variables, and differentiation of animal age and sex improved the precision of models. Adjusting weight for body size also improved weight as a body condition indicator in adults. Conformation and fatness had good resemblance to weight and body size adjusted weight and should preferably be included, together with carcass weight and body size measures, when estimating body condition from carcasses. Our analysis showed that using non-invasive slaughter records is a good and non-expensive method of estimating body condition in reindeer. Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Tillvägagångssätt för skattning avkroppskondition hos ren från slaktregistreringarFluktuationer i ren- och caribou-populationers täthet över tiden är vanliga då betet är en begränsad resurs och beteskvalitén påverkar djurens kondition och produktion. Kontinuerligt uppdaterad information om förändringar i betesresurserna är viktigt i samband med beslutsfattande om förvaltning avresurserna. Syftet med denna studie var att utvärdera olika möjliga sätt att anv

  16. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Body Condition in the Australasian Gannet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren P Angel

    Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope's Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43 than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43 at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7% than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04. Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF stores, where TBF(% = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length - 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15. This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(% between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor.

  17. Body girth as an alternative to body mass for establishing condition indexes in field studies: a validation in the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viblanc, Vincent A; Bize, Pierre; Criscuolo, François; Le Vaillant, Maryline; Saraux, Claire; Pardonnet, Sylvia; Gineste, Benoit; Kauffmann, Marion; Prud'homme, Onésime; Handrich, Yves; Massemin, Sylvie; Groscolas, René; Robin, Jean-Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Body mass and body condition are often tightly linked to animal health and fitness in the wild and thus are key measures for ecophysiologists and behavioral ecologists. In some animals, such as large seabird species, obtaining indexes of structural size is relatively easy, whereas measuring body mass under specific field circumstances may be more of a challenge. Here, we suggest an alternative, easily measurable, and reliable surrogate of body mass in field studies, that is, body girth. Using 234 free-living king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at various stages of molt and breeding, we measured body girth under the flippers, body mass, and bill and flipper length. We found that body girth was strongly and positively related to body mass in both molting (R(2) = 0.91) and breeding (R(2) = 0.73) birds, with the mean error around our predictions being 6.4%. Body girth appeared to be a reliable proxy measure of body mass because the relationship did not vary according to year and experimenter, bird sex, or stage within breeding groups. Body girth was, however, a weak proxy of body mass in birds at the end of molt, probably because most of those birds had reached a critical depletion of energy stores. Body condition indexes established from ordinary least squares regressions of either body girth or body mass on structural size were highly correlated (r(s) = 0.91), suggesting that body girth was as good as body mass in establishing body condition indexes in king penguins. Body girth may prove a useful proxy to body mass for estimating body condition in field investigations and could likely provide similar information in other penguins and large animals that may be complicated to weigh in the wild.

  18. Relativistic initial conditions for N-body simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidler, Christian [Catholic University of Louvain—Center for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3) 2, Chemin du Cyclotron, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Tram, Thomas; Crittenden, Robert; Koyama, Kazuya; Wands, David [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Rampf, Cornelius, E-mail: christian.fidler@uclouvain.be, E-mail: thomas.tram@port.ac.uk, E-mail: rampf@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: robert.crittenden@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk, E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D–69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    Initial conditions for (Newtonian) cosmological N-body simulations are usually set by re-scaling the present-day power spectrum obtained from linear (relativistic) Boltzmann codes to the desired initial redshift of the simulation. This back-scaling method can account for the effect of inhomogeneous residual thermal radiation at early times, which is absent in the Newtonian simulations. We analyse this procedure from a fully relativistic perspective, employing the recently-proposed Newtonian motion gauge framework. We find that N-body simulations for ΛCDM cosmology starting from back-scaled initial conditions can be self-consistently embedded in a relativistic space-time with first-order metric potentials calculated using a linear Boltzmann code. This space-time coincides with a simple ''N-body gauge'' for z < 50 for all observable modes. Care must be taken, however, when simulating non-standard cosmologies. As an example, we analyse the back-scaling method in a cosmology with decaying dark matter, and show that metric perturbations become large at early times in the back-scaling approach, indicating a breakdown of the perturbative description. We suggest a suitable ''forwards approach' for such cases.

  19. A tale of two polar bear populations: Ice habitat, harvest, and body condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Peacock, Elizabeth; Taylor, Mitchell K.; Stirling, Ian; Born, Erik W.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Wiig, Øystein

    2012-01-01

    One of the primary mechanisms by which sea ice loss is expected to affect polar bears is via reduced body condition and growth resulting from reduced access to prey. To date, negative effects of sea ice loss have been documented for two of 19 recognized populations. Effects of sea ice loss on other polar bear populations that differ in harvest rate, population density, and/or feeding ecology have been assumed, but empirical support, especially quantitative data on population size, demography, and/or body condition spanning two or more decades, have been lacking. We examined trends in body condition metrics of captured bears and relationships with summertime ice concentration between 1977 and 2010 for the Baffin Bay (BB) and Davis Strait (DS) polar bear populations. Polar bears in these regions occupy areas with annual sea ice that has decreased markedly starting in the 1990s. Despite differences in harvest rate, population density, sea ice concentration, and prey base, polar bears in both populations exhibited positive relationships between body condition and summertime sea ice cover during the recent period of sea ice decline. Furthermore, females and cubs exhibited relationships with sea ice that were not apparent during the earlier period (1977–1990s) when sea ice loss did not occur. We suggest that declining body condition in BB may be a result of recent declines in sea ice habitat. In DS, high population density and/or sea ice loss, may be responsible for the declines in body condition.

  20. Correlation functions for Hermitian many-body systems: Necessary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, E.B.

    1994-01-01

    Lee [Phys. Rev. B 47, 8293 (1993)] has shown that the odd-numbered derivatives of the Kubo autocorrelation function vanish at t=0. We show that this condition is based on a more general property of nondiagonal Kubo correlation functions. This general property provides that certain functional forms (e.g., simple exponential decay) are not admissible for any symmetric or antisymmetric Kubo correlation function in a Hermitian many-body system. Lee's result emerges as a special case of this result. Applications to translationally invariant systems and systems with rotational symmetries are also demonstrated

  1. Medical conditions and body pain in patients presenting orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ana Lúcia; Runho, Gabriel Henrique Farto; Siqueira, José Tadeu Tesseroli de; Camparis, Cinara Maria

    2012-05-01

    To verify the frequency of self-reported medical conditions and pain areas in orofacial pain patients, comparing them with patients from the routine dental care. Data were collected from archives of the Orofacial Pain Clinic (Group A, n=319) and of the routine dental care clinics (Group B, n=84) at Faculdade de Odontologia de Araraquara, São Paulo, in Brazil. All individuals answered a standardized clinical questionnaire and completed a body map indicating their pain areas. The Mann-Whitney's test demonstrated that Group A presented a higher mean number of medical reports than Group B (p=0.004). In both groups, Pearson's correlation test showed that the highest frequencies of medical conditions were positively correlated to highest frequencies of painful areas (0.478, p=0.001 and 0.246, p=0.000, respectively). Group A tended to report more medical conditions and there was a positive correlation between the number of medical conditions and the one of pain areas for both groups.

  2. Influence of body condition on reproductive output in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Catherine Louise; Bonnet, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Reproduction is expensive. Substantial body reserves (i.e. high body condition) are usually required for females to undertake offspring production. In many vertebrates, maternal body condition positively influences reproductive output, and emaciated individuals skip reproduction. However, the impact of extremely high body condition, more specifically obesity, on animal reproductive performance remains poorly understood and research has generated contradictory results. For instance, obesity negatively affects fertility in women, but does not influence reproductive capacity or reproductive output in laboratory rodents. We examined the influence of high body condition on reproductive status and reproductive output in the guinea pig. In captivity, when fed ad libitum, guinea pigs store large amounts of fat tissues and exhibit a tendency for obesity. Our results show that obesity negatively affected reproduction in this species: both the proportion of fertile females and litter size were lower in the fattest females. Therefore, guinea pigs may represent suitable organisms to better understand the negative effect of obesity on reproduction. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  3. Genetic relationships among body condition score, body weight, milk yield, and fertility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Buckley, F; Dillon, P; Evans, R D; Rath, M; Veerkamp, R F

    2003-06-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk production, and fertility-related traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 8591 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, milk production, and/or fertility from 78 seasonal calving grass-based farms throughout southern Ireland. Of the cows included in the analysis, 4402 had repeated records across the 2 yr of the study. Genetic correlations between level of BCS at different stages of lactation and total lactation milk production were negative (-0.51 to -0.14). Genetic correlations between BW at different stages of lactation and total lactation milk production were all close to zero but became positive (0.01 to 0.39) after adjusting BW for differences in BCS. Body condition score at different stages of lactation correlated favorably with improved fertility; genetic correlations between BCS and pregnant 63 d after the start of breeding season ranged from 0.29 to 0.42. Both BW at different stages of lactation and milk production tended to exhibit negative genetic correlations with pregnant to first service and pregnant 63 d after the start of the breeding season and positive genetic correlations with number of services and the interval from first service to conception. Selection indexes investigated illustrate the possibility of continued selection for increased milk production without any deleterious effects on fertility or average BCS, albeit, genetic merit for milk production would increase at a slower rate.

  4. Body condition score (BCS and metabolic status of shelter dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andrighetto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A group of 147 shelter dogs were weighted and assigned a body condition score (BCS using a 9 point scale system, in order to evaluate the prevalence of obesity in the kennel. More than 60% of the animals showed a BCS³6 (overweight and obese and this condition was mainly attributed to an excess of carbohydrates and fat in the diet. In 67/147 dogs, a blood sample was drawn and the effects of BCS, age and time spent in the shelter were evaluated on biochemical parameters. Obese dogs showed significantly higher levels of triglycerides (P<0.01, while increasing BCS determined only an increasing non significant trend on cholesterol values. Age influenced creatinine (P<0.05 and the oldest dogs scoring BCS³6 registered significant higher NEFA (P<0.05 and CK (P=0.01 levels. Time spent in the shelter did not affect any parameter. The dogs’ metabolic condition reflects the need of taking more care of the quality of feed administered in the shelters to avoid the negative health effects caused by chronic obesity.

  5. High body mass index and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Smith, George Davey

    2016-01-01

    of follow-up (range 0-37), 8002 developed non-skin cancer, 3347 non-melanoma skin cancer, 1396 lung cancer, 637 other smoking related cancers, 1203 colon cancer, 159 kidney cancer, 1402 breast cancer, 1062 prostate cancer, and 2804 other cancers. Participants were genotyped for five genetic variants...... with a BMI ≥ 30 versus 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2). Corresponding risk of breast cancer was 20 % (0-44 %) higher in postmenopausal women. BMI was not associated with risk of colon, kidney, other smoking related cancers, prostate cancer, or other cancers. In genetic analyses, carrying 7-10 versus 0-4 BMI increasing......High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk of some cancer. Whether these reflect causal associations is unknown. We examined this issue. Using a Mendelian randomisation approach, we studied 108,812 individuals from the general population. During a median of 4.7 years...

  6. Water level influences on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in a Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    Full Text Available Effects of water level fluctuations on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis were studied in a 30 km² Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir. Physiological condition (K and gonadosomatic index (GSI were compared according to water level (low and high. Females' best conditions were associated to higher resources availability during high water, since gonad development did not change between low and high water. Males' condition did not change between water levels, while the highest gonad development occurred in low water. Females presented higher reproductive investment than males, which allocated most of energy for somatic development. This strategy could be a mechanism to undergo the stress caused by oligotrophic characteristics of the reservoir enhanced during low water level.

  7. Assessing and managing body condition score for the prevention of metabolic disease in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, John R; Kay, Jane K; Friggens, Nic C; Loor, Juan J; Berry, Donagh P

    2013-07-01

    Body condition score (BCS) is an assessment of a cow's body fat (and muscle) reserves, with low values reflecting emaciation and high values equating to obesity. The intercalving profile of BCS is a mirror image of the milk lactation profile. The BCS at which a cow calves, her nadir BCS, and the amount of BCS lost after calving are associated with milk production, reproduction, and health. Genetics, peripartum nutrition, and management are factors that likely interact with BCS to determine the risk of health disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of breed and feeding system on milk production, body weight, body condition score, reproductive performance, and postpartum ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S; Buckley, F; Pierce, K; Byrne, N; Patton, J; Dillon, P

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential differences among Holstein-Friesian (HF), Montbéliarde (MB), Normande (NM), Norwegian Red (NRF), Montbéliarde x Holstein-Friesian (MBX), and Normande x Holstein-Friesian (NMX) across 2 seasonal grass-based systems of milk production. The effects of breed and feeding system on milk production, body weight, body condition score, fertility performance, hormone parameters, ovarian function, and survival were determined by using mixed model methodology, generalized linear models, and survival analysis. The 5-yr study comprised up to 749 lactations on 309 cows in one research herd. The HF produced the greatest yield of solids-corrected milk, the MB and NM produced the least yields, and NRF, MBX, and NMX were intermediate. The NRF had the lowest body weight throughout lactation, the NM had the highest, and the other breeds were intermediate. Body condition score was greatest for MB and NM, least for HF, and intermediate for NRF, MBX, and NMX. The HF had a lower submission rate and overall pregnancy rate compared with the NRF. The NRF survived the longest in the herd, the HF survived the shortest, and the NM, MB, MBX, and NMX were intermediate. Breed of dairy cow had no effect on selected milk progesterone parameters from 5 d postpartum until 26 d after first artificial insemination. Breed of dairy cow did not influence insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 around parturition or at the start of the breeding season. Animals offered a high-concentrate diet had greater milk yield, but they did not have improved reproductive performance. Differences observed between the different breeds in this study are a likely consequence of the past selection criteria for the respective breeds.

  9. Associations among body condition score, body weight, and reproductive performance in seasonal-calving dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Macdonald, K A; Burke, C R; Lee, J M; Berry, D P

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify and quantify relationships between body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in dairy cows with reproduction variables in pasture-based, seasonal-calving dairy herds. Over 2,500 lactation records from 897 spring-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in the analyses. Eleven BCS- and 11 BW-related variables were generated, including observations at calving, nadir, planned start of mating (PSM), and first service, as well as days to nadir and the amount and rate of change between periods. The binary reproductive variables were cycling by PSM, mated in the first 21 d from PSM, pregnant to first service, and pregnant in the first 21, 42, and 84 d of the seasonal mating period. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify BCS and BW variables that significantly affected the probability of a successful reproductive outcome. After adjusting for the fixed effect of year of calving, parity (for cycling by PSM only), and the interval from calving to either first service or PSM, reproductive performance was found to be significantly affected by BW or BCS at key points, and by BCS and BW change during lactation. All reproductive response measures were negatively affected when BCS and BW measures indicated an increased severity and duration of the postpartum negative energy balance. In particular, cycling by PSM was positively associated with calving BCS, whereas pregnancy at 21, 42, and 84 d post-PSM were positively associated with nadir BCS and BW gain post-PSM, and negatively associated with BCS loss between calving and nadir. The results highlight the important role that BCS and BW loss has on reproductive performance, especially in seasonal-calving dairy systems because of the short period between calving and PSM.

  10. Take a look at the bright side: Effects of positive body exposure on selective visual attention in women with high body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glashouwer, Klaske A; Jonker, Nienke C; Thomassen, Karen; de Jong, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Women with high body dissatisfaction look less at their 'beautiful' body parts than their 'ugly' body parts. This study tested the robustness of this selective viewing pattern and examined the influence of positive body exposure on body-dissatisfied women's attention for 'ugly' and 'beautiful' body parts. In women with high body dissatisfaction (N = 28) and women with low body dissatisfaction (N = 14) eye-tracking was used to assess visual attention towards pictures of their own and other women's bodies. Participants with high body dissatisfaction were randomly assigned to 5 weeks positive body exposure (n = 15) or a no-treatment condition (n = 13). Attention bias was assessed again after 5 weeks. Body-dissatisfied women looked longer at 'ugly' than 'beautiful' body parts of themselves and others, while participants with low body dissatisfaction attended equally long to own/others' 'beautiful' and 'ugly' body parts. Although positive body exposure was very effective in improving participants' body satisfaction, it did not systematically change participants' viewing pattern. The tendency to preferentially allocate attention towards one's 'ugly' body parts seems a robust phenomenon in women with body dissatisfaction. Yet, modifying this selective viewing pattern seems not a prerequisite for successfully improving body satisfaction via positive body exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rheological investigation of body cream and body lotion in actual application conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically evaluate and compare the rheological behaviors of body cream and body lotion in actual usage situations. Using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available body cream and body lotion were measured over a wide range of shear rates, and the linear viscoelastic properties of these two materials in small amplitude oscillatory shear flow fields were measured over a broad range of angular frequencies. The temperature dependency of the linear viscoelastic behaviors was additionally investigated over a temperature range most relevant to usual human life. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows: (1) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a finite magnitude of yield stress. This feature is directly related to the primary (initial) skin feel that consumers usually experience during actual usage. (2) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a pronounced shear-thinning behavior. This feature is closely connected with the spreadability when cosmetics are applied onto the human skin. (3) The linear viscoelastic behaviors of body cream and body lotion are dominated by an elastic nature. These solid-like properties become a criterion to assess the selfstorage stability of cosmetic products. (4) A modified form of the Cox-Merz rule provides a good ability to predict the relationship between steady shear flow and dynamic viscoelastic properties for body cream and body lotion. (5) The storage modulus and loss modulus of body cream show a qualitatively similar tendency to gradually decrease with an increase in temperature. In the case of body lotion, with an increase in temperature, the storage modulus is progressively decreased while the loss modulus is slightly increased and then decreased. This information gives us a criterion to judge how the characteristics of cosmetic products are changed by the usual human environments.

  12. Genetic Parameters for Body condition score, Body weigth, Milk yield and Fertility estimated using random regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk yield, and fertility were estimated using a random regression animal model extended to multivariate analysis. The data analyzed included 81,313 BCS observations, 91,937 BW observations, and 100,458 milk test-day yields

  13. 42 CFR 482.12 - Condition of participation: Governing body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with hospital policy, the governing body must ensure that the following requirements are met: (1... responsible for the care of each Medicare patient with respect to any medical or psychiatric problem that— (i... according to generally accepted accounting principles. (2) The budget must include all anticipated income...

  14. Environmental factors and habitat use influence body condition of individuals in a species at risk, the grizzly bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Cattet, Marc R L; Darimont, Chris T; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Janz, David M

    2014-01-01

    Metrics used to quantify the condition or physiological states of individuals provide proactive mechanisms for understanding population dynamics in the context of environmental factors. Our study examined how anthropogenic disturbance, habitat characteristics and hair cortisol concentrations interpreted as a sex-specific indicator of potential habitat net-energy demand affect the body condition of grizzly bears (n = 163) in a threatened population in Alberta, Canada. We quantified environmental variables by modelling spatial patterns of individual habitat use based on global positioning system telemetry data. After controlling for gender, age and capture effects, we assessed the influence of biological and environmental variables on body condition using linear mixed-effects models in an information theoretical approach. Our strongest model suggested that body condition was improved when patterns of habitat use included greater vegetation productivity, increased influence of forest harvest blocks and oil and gas well sites, and a higher percentage of regenerating and coniferous forest. However, body condition was negatively affected by habitat use in close proximity to roads and in areas where potential energetic demands were high. Poor body condition was also associated with increased selection of parks and protected areas and greater seasonal vegetation productivity. Adult females, females with cubs-of-year, juvenile females and juvenile males were in poorer body condition compared with adult males, suggesting that intra-specific competition and differences in habitat use based on gender and age may influence body condition dynamics. Habitat net-energy demand also tended to be higher in areas used by females which, combined with observed trends in body condition, could affect reproductive success in this threatened population. Our results highlight the importance of considering spatiotemporal variability in environmental factors and habitat use when assessing

  15. Influence of body condition on incidence and degree of hepatic lipidosis in cows

    OpenAIRE

    Šamanc Horea; Stojić Velibor; Kirovski Danijela; Jovanović Milijan; Cernescu Horia; Vujanac Ivan; Prodanović Radiša

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of energy status of cows, estimated by body condition score, on the incidence and the degree of hepatic lipidosis during the early stage of lactation. Cows were divided into four groups: dry, early puerperal, early lactation and late lactation period. Each group consisted of 60 cows. Body condition was scored by the method established in Elaco Animal Health Buletin Al 8478. According to this method, body condition score is represented num...

  16. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus P Deikumah

    Full Text Available Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  17. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  18. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤ 2.50) versus higher (≥ 2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2

  19. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P. D.; Souza, A. H.; Amundson, M. C.; Hackbart, K. S.; Fuenzalida, M. J.; Herlihy, M. M.; Ayres, H.; Dresch, A. R.; Vieira, L. M.; Guenther, J. N.; Grummer, R. R.; Fricke, P. M.; Shaver, R. D.; Wiltbank, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤2.50) versus higher (≥2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2, and

  20. Condition-dependent trade-offs between sexual traits, body condition and immunity: the effect of novel habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Carrasco, Maider; Head, Megan L; Jennions, Michael D; Cabido, Carlos

    2016-06-21

    The optimal allocation of resources to sexual signals and other life history traits is usually dependent on an individual's condition, while variation in the expression of sexual traits across environments depends on the combined effects of local adaptation, mean condition, and phenotypic responses to environment-specific cues that affect resource allocation. A clear contrast can often be drawn between natural habitats and novel habitats, such as forest plantations and urban areas. In some species, males seem to change their sexual signals in these novel environments, but why this occurs and how it affects signal reliability is still poorly understood. The relative size of sexual traits and level of immune responses were significantly lower for male palmate newts Lissotriton helveticus caught in pine and eucalyptus plantations compared to those caught in native forests, but there was no habitat-dependent difference in body condition (n = 18 sites, 382 males). The reliability with which sexual traits signalled body condition and immune responses was the same in all three habitats. Finally, we conducted a mesocosm experiment in which males were maintained in pine, eucalypt or oak infused water for 21 days. Males in plantation-like water (pine or eucalypt) showed significantly lower immune responses but no change in body condition. This matches the pattern seen for field-caught males. Unlike field-caught males, however, there was no relationship between water type and relative sexual trait size. Pine and eucalyptus plantations are likely to be detrimental to male palmate newt because they are associated with reduced immune function and smaller sexual traits. This could be because ecological aspects of these novel habitats, such as high water turbidity or changes in male-male competition, drive selection for reduced investment into sexual traits. However, it is more probable that there are differences in the ease of acquisition, hence optimal allocation, of

  1. Body condition, diet and ecosystem function of red deer (Cervus elaphus in a fenced nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Fløjgaard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Body condition, as a sign of animal welfare, is of management concern in rewilding projects where fenced animals are subject to winter starvation, which may conflict with animal welfare legislation. Investigating the relationship between body condition, age, sex, diet quality and diet composition is therefore relevant to increase understanding of herbivores' ecosystem function and to inform management. In this study, we focused on red deer, Cervus elaphus, in a fenced nature reserve in Denmark, where the deer are managed as ecosystem engineers to contribute to biodiversity conservation. We measured body mass and body size of 91 culled red deer, and determined diet composition using DNA metabarcoding and diet quality using fecal nitrogen on 246 fecal samples. We found that body condition was predicted by age and diet composition, but not diet quality. We also found that individuals of different body condition had different diets, i.e., the fecal samples of red deer in poorer body condition contained significantly more Ericaceae sequences than red deer in good body condition. This may imply that certain functions of red deer in ecosystems, such as regeneration of heather by grazing, may depend on variation in body condition within the population. Our findings call for the need to consider the consequences of management practices, including culling or supplemental feeding, on the outcomes of habitat restoration, and more broadly underline the importance of preserving the overall breath of herbivore ecosystem functions for effective biodiversity conservation.

  2. Influences of immunocontraception on time budgets, social behavior, and body condition in feral horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, J.I.; Cade, B.S.; Hobbs, N.T.

    2010-01-01

    Managers concerned with shrinking habitats and limited resources for wildlife seek effective tools for limiting population growth in some species. Fertility control is one such tool, yet little is known about its impacts on the behavioral ecology of wild, free-roaming animals. We investigated influences of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on individual and social behavior in bands of feral horses (Equus caballus) in three discrete populations and used 14 hierarchical mixed effect models to gain insight into the influences of PZP treatment on feral horse behavior. A model of body condition was the strongest predictor of feeding, resting, maintenance, and social behaviors, with treated females allocating their time similarly to control females. Time spent feeding declined 11.4% from low condition to high condition females (F1,154 = 26.427, P modifications in feral horses.

  3. Effect of post-partum body condition score on milk yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determines the effect of dam body condition on milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows. The milk production records of 60 Friesian x Bunaji dairy cows were used for the study. The body condition score (BCS) was recorded on scale 1 to 5 with an increment of 0.25 points. The mean initial milk yield (IMY), ...

  4. Effects of body weight and condition changes after parturition on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean weight loss for Friesians from calving to commencement of luteal activity was 0.45 kg/day while that of Sahiwals was 0.64 kg/day. The relative weight loss was 6 and 7% for Friesians and Sahiwals respectively. The mean body condition loss for the two breeds showed Sahiwals lost less body condition at ...

  5. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Atwood, Todd C.; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J.; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies.

  6. Does habitat disturbance affect stress, body condition and parasitism in two sympatric lemurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoniaina, Josué H; Kappeler, Peter M; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Pechouskova, Eva; Hämäläinen, Anni M; Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kraus, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how animals react to human-induced changes in their environment is a key question in conservation biology. Owing to their potential correlation with fitness, several physiological parameters are commonly used to assess the effect of habitat disturbance on animals' general health status. Here, we studied how two lemur species, the fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius) and the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), respond to changing environmental conditions by comparing their stress levels (measured as hair cortisol concentration), parasitism and general body condition across four habitats ordered along a gradient of human disturbance at Kirindy Forest, Western Madagascar. These two species previously revealed contrasting responses to human disturbance; whereas M. murinus is known as a resilient species, C. medius is rarely encountered in highly disturbed habitats. However, neither hair cortisol concentrations nor parasitism patterns (prevalence, parasite species richness and rate of multiple infections) and body condition varied across the gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results indicate that the effect of anthropogenic activities at Kirindy Forest is not reflected in the general health status of both species, which may have developed a range of behavioural adaptations to deal with suboptimal conditions. Nonetheless, a difference in relative density among sites suggests that the carrying capacity of disturbed habitat is lower, and both species respond differently to environmental changes, with C. medius being more negatively affected. Thus, even for behaviourally flexible species, extended habitat deterioration could hamper long-term viability of populations.

  7. Body condition score, morphometric measurements and estimation of body weight in mature Icelandic horses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Danielsen, Signe H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condi...

  8. Asymmetries in body condition and order of arrival influence competitive ability and survival in a coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Davina E; McCormick, Mark I

    2015-11-01

    Trade-offs between traits that influence an individual's competitive ability are important in determining community assembly and coexistence of individuals sharing the same resources. Populations of coral reef fish are structurally complex, so it is important to understand how these populations are shaped as a result of an individual's suite of traits and those of its competitors. We conducted a 2 × 2 factorial field experiment that manipulated body condition (high or low, manipulated through a feeding regime) and residency (resident or intruder, where the resident arrived at the habitat 3 h before the intruder) to evaluate effects on competitive ability and survival. Prior residency alleviated the disadvantage of a low body condition with respect to aggression, which was similar between low-condition residents and high-condition intruders. However, high-condition residents displayed a significantly greater level of aggression than intruders, regardless of whether intruders were from high- or low-condition treatments. For intruders to have a high probability of becoming dominant, they needed to have a large body condition advantage. Mortality trajectories suggested that body condition modified the effect of prior residency, and intruders were more likely to suffer mortality if they had a low body condition because residents pushed them away from shelter. Our results highlight that the negative effects of some traits may be compensated for by the positive effects of other traits, and that the specific ecological context an individual faces (such as the characteristics of its competitors) can have a major influence on successful establishment and persistence.

  9. Patterns of body condition use and its impact on fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Savietto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 60 nulliparous crossbred rabbit females were, a posteriori, divided into 2 experimental groups according to their natural “decision” to conceive or not at day 11 post first parturition (L: solely-lactating or LP: lactating-pregnant. This design allowed us to study the evolution of body reserves around first parturition and its influence on the future reproductive success of rabbit females. Primiparous rabbit females that failed to conceive when inseminated at day 11 post-partum (L seemed to have a higher perirenal fat thickness (PFT 12 d pre-partum (+0.25 mm; P=0.079 than females that conceived (LP. In the subsequent days, L females showed a significantly higher mobilisation rate than LP females (on av.–0.12 and –0.07 mm of PFT per day, respectively; P=0.007, reaching a lower PFT at partum (5.17 mm vs. 5.62 mm, respectively; P = 0.002. However, due to a greater recovery rate observed in L females (+0.15 vs. +0.08 mm of PFT per day for L and LP females, respectively; P=0.007, PFT at 10 d post-partum was similar (on av. 5.86 mm. These different patterns showed that PFT level at 12 d pre-partum and PFT mobilisation rate onwards seems to drive the start of a new pregnancy. It also seems to modify the energy metabolism of rabbit females, allowing does to recover perirenal fat tissue without compromising the production of milk necessary for the current litter.

  10. Purines and Carotid Body: New Roles in Pathological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia V. Conde

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that adenosine and adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP are excitatory mediators involved in carotid body (CB hypoxic signaling. The CBs are peripheral chemoreceptors classically defined by O2, CO2, and pH sensors. When hypoxia activates the CB, it induces the release of neurotransmitters from chemoreceptor cells leading to an increase in the action potentials frequency at the carotid sinus nerve (CSN. This increase in the firing frequency of the CSN is integrated in the brainstem to induce cardiorespiratory compensatory responses. In the last decade several pathologies, as, hypertension, diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea and heart failure have been associated with CB overactivation. In the first section of the present manuscript we review in a concise manner fundamental aspects of purine metabolism. The second section is devoted to the role of purines on the hypoxic response of the CB, providing the state-of-the art for the presence of adenosine and ATP receptors in the CB; for the role of purines at presynaptic level in CB chemoreceptor cells, as well as, its metabolism and regulation; at postsynaptic level in the CSN activity; and on the ventilatory responses to hypoxia. Recently, we have showed that adenosine is involved in CB hypersensitization during chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH, which mimics obstructive sleep apnea, since caffeine, a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist that inhibits A2A and A2B adenosine receptors, decreased CSN chemosensory activity in animals subjected to CIH. Apart from this involvement of adenosine in CB sensitization in sleep apnea, it was recently found that P2X3 ATP receptor in the CB contributes to increased chemoreflex hypersensitivity and hypertension in spontaneously hypertension rats. Therefore the last section of this manuscript is devoted to review the recent findings on the role of purines in CB-mediated pathologies as hypertension, diabetes and sleep apnea emphasizing the potential

  11. Role of body condition score and body weight in the control of seasonal reproduction in Blanca Andaluza goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Calvo, L; Gatica, M C; Guzmán, J L; Zarazaga, L A

    2014-12-30

    The reproductive activity of 84 female Blanca Andaluza goats was monitored over 17 months to determine the role of body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in its control. Following a 3×2 factorial experimental design, the animals were allocated to three groups: low BCS (≤2.50, n=24), medium BCS (BCS=2.75-3.00, n=31) and high BCS (≥3.25, n=29). The same animals, irrespective of the BCS group categorization, were also divided into two groups depending on BW: low BW (≤40kg, n=44) and high BW (>40kg, n=40). Oestrus was evaluated daily using vasectomised males. The ovulation rate was assessed by trans-rectal ultrasonography after the identification of oestrus. Ovulations were determined by monitoring the plasma progesterone concentration weekly. The BCS and BW were recorded once a week and nutritional status adjusted to maintain the initial differences in BW and BCS between the groups. Both BCS and BW had a significant (at least Preproductive activity recorded in does with a BCS of ≥2.75 and BW of >40kg. No significant interaction between these variables was observed. Some (11.7%) of the does in the groups with animals of BCS≥2.75 had ovulations during seasonal anoestrus. None of the does with a BCS of ≤2.5 had ovulations during seasonal anoestrus. The ovulation rate of the first and last oestrus was influenced by BW (Preproductive seasonality that is clearly and independently modulated by BCS and BW. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Body Condition Score and Nutritional Flushing on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pasture or by feeding energy-rich supplements (Johnson, 2001). Nutritional .... Vitamin A,D,E premix. 26.2 ..... Effect of flushing hair sheep ewes during the dry and ... ADSA Foundation Scholar Award, Reproduction loss in high-producing dairy.

  13. Assessment of body fat in the pony: part I. Relationships between the anatomical distribution of adipose tissue, body composition and body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, A H A; Curtis, G C; Harris, P A; Argo, C Mc

    2011-09-01

    Evaluation of equine body fat content is important for nutritional and clinical purposes. However, our understanding of total body fat and its regional distribution in the body is sparse. Currently, body fat evaluation relies on the subjective assessment of body condition score (BCS), which has never been validated against 'gold standard' chemical analysis or dissection measurements in ponies. To define the relationships between subjective (BCS), objective (morphometric) indices of body fat and 'gold standard' measurements of actual body composition. BCS and morphometry offer valid, noninvasive methods for determination of body fat in equids. Seven mature (mean ± s.e. 13 ± 3 years, 212 ± 14 kg, BCS 1.25-7/9), Welsh Mountain pony mares, destined for euthanasia (for nonresearch purposes), were used. For all ponies, body mass (BM), BCS and various morphometric measurements were recorded. Following euthanasia, all ponies were systematically dissected. Discrete white adipose tissue (WAT) depots were independently described. Gross, body chemical composition was determined by proximate analyses. Total somatic soft tissues increased linearly (r(2) = 1.00), whereas body WAT content (1-26% live BM) increased exponentially (r(2) = 0.96), with BCS. WAT was equally distributed between internal and external sites in all animals irrespective of BCS. Nuchal fat was a poor predictor of total WAT (r(2) = 0.66). Periorbital WAT did not alter with BCS (r(2) = 0.01). Heart girth:withers height and ultrasonic retroperitoneal fat depth were closely associated with total, chemically-extracted lipid which comprised 1-29% live BM (r(2) = 0.91 and 0.88, respectively). The exponential relationship between BCS and total body WAT/lipid suggests that BCS is unlikely to be a sensitive index of body fat for animals in moderate-obese states. Morphometric measurements (body girths and retroperitonel fat depth) may be useful to augment subjective BCS systems. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Approaches to daily body condition management in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Terue

    2016-11-01

    To clarify the characteristics of sub-groups of patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease having similar approaches to daily body condition management. Prior literature has shed light on the experience of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and revealed that these patients engage in many activities and try different things in their daily lives to regulate and manage their body condition. The research so far has all been qualitative, comprising mostly interviews, and no quantitative studies have been performed. In this study, cluster analysis was used to show that subgroups of patients with similar characteristics undertake similar approaches to body condition management. Descriptive, correlational study. Invitations to participate in the survey were extended to patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cluster analysis was performed on the basis of questionnaire scores relating to nine different categories of daily body condition management actions. The characteristics of the body condition management approaches, in each subgroup, were investigated using analysis of variance and multiple comparisons. The cluster analysis produced six subgroups, each defined by the effort expended as part of their body condition management. The subgroups also differed depending on patient age and disease severity. Body condition management approaches taken by patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are overall, comprehensive approaches. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were subgrouped based on their engagement in body conditioning. Relationships between the subgroups and the engagement in body conditioning, age and shortness of breath severity were observed. The care of patient support should be comprehensive and depend on their age and the duration of the disease. In addition, it should be long term and recognise that the patients are living their own respective lives. Such considerations and

  15. Body condition and pregnancy in northern Yellowstone elk: evidence for predation risk effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P J; Garrott, Robert A; Hamlin, Kenneth L; Cook, Rachel C; Cook, John G; Cunningham, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    S. Creel et al. reported a negative correlation between fecal progesterone concentrations and elk:wolf ratios in greater Yellowstone elk (Cervus elaphus) herds and interpreted this correlation as evidence that pregnancy rates of elk decreased substantially in the presence of wolves (Canis lupus). Apparently, the hypothesized mechanism is that decreased forage intake reduces body condition and either results in elk failing to conceive during the autumn rut or elk losing the fetus during winter. We tested this hypothesis by comparing age-specific body condition (percentage ingesta-free body fat) and pregnancy rates for northern Yellowstone elk, one of the herds sampled by Creel et al., before (1962-1968) and after (2000-2006) wolf restoration using indices developed and calibrated for Rocky Mountain elk. Mean age-adjusted percentage body fat of female elk was similarly high in both periods (9.0%-0.9% pre-wolf; 8.9%-0.8% post-wolf). Estimated pregnancy rates (proportion of females that were pregnant) were 0.91 pre-wolf and 0.87 post-wolf for 4-9 year-old elk (95% CI on difference = -0.15 to 0.03, P = 0.46) and 0.64 pre-wolf and 0.78 post-wolf for elk > 9 years old (95% CI on difference = -0.01 to 0.27, P = 0.06). Thus, there was little evidence in these data to support strong effects of wolf presence on elk pregnancy. We caution that multiple lines of evidence and/or strong validation should be brought to bear before relying on indirect measures of how predators affect pregnancy rates.

  16. Synergistic effects of seasonal rainfall, parasites and demography on fluctuations in springbok body condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Wendy C.; Versfeld, Wilferd D.; Kilian, J. Werner; Getz, Wayne M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary 1. Seasonality of rainfall can exert a strong influence on animal condition and on host-parasite interactions. The body condition of ruminants fluctuates seasonally in response to changes in energy requirements, foraging patterns and resource availability, and seasonal variation in parasite infections may further alter ruminant body condition. 2. This study disentangles effects of rainfall and gastrointestinal parasite infections on springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) body condition and determines how these factors vary among demographic groups. 3. Using data from four years and three study areas, we investigated i) the influence of rainfall variation, demographic factors and parasite interactions on parasite prevalence or infection intensity, ii) whether parasitism or rainfall is a more important predictor of springbok body condition and iii) how parasitism and condition vary among study areas along a rainfall gradient. 4. We found that increased parasite intensity is associated with reduced body condition only for adult females. For all other demographic groups, body condition was significantly related to prior rainfall and not to parasitism. Rainfall lagged by two months had a positive effect on body condition. 5. Adult females showed evidence of a “periparturient rise” in parasite intensity, and had higher parasite intensity and lower body condition than adult males after parturition and during early lactation. After juveniles were weaned, adult females had lower parasite intensity than adult males. Sex differences in parasitism and condition may be due to differences between adult females and males in the seasonal timing of reproductive effort and its effects on host immunity, as well as documented sex differences in vulnerability to predation. 6. Our results highlight that parasites and the environment can synergistically affect host populations, but that these interactions might be masked by their interwoven relationships, their differential

  17. Presence of Breeding Birds Improves Body Condition for a Crocodilian Nest Protector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell, Lucas A; Frederick, Peter C; Mazzotti, Frank J; Vliet, Kent A; Brandt, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Ecological associations where one species enhances habitat for another nearby species (facilitations) shape fundamental community dynamics and can promote niche expansion, thereby influencing how and where species persist and coexist. For the many breeding birds facing high nest-predation pressure, enemy-free space can be gained by nesting near more formidable animals for physical protection. While the benefits to protected species seem well documented, very few studies have explored whether and how protector species are affected by nest protection associations. Long-legged wading birds (Pelecaniformes and Ciconiiformes) actively choose nesting sites above resident American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), apparently to take advantage of the protection from mammalian nest predators that alligator presence offers. Previous research has shown that wading bird nesting colonies could provide substantial food for alligators in the form of dropped chicks. We compared alligator body condition in similar habitat with and without wading bird nesting colonies present. Alligator morphometric body condition indices were significantly higher in colony than in non-colony locations, an effect that was statistically independent of a range of environmental variables. Since colonially nesting birds and crocodilians co-occur in many tropical and subtropical wetlands, our results highlight a potentially widespread keystone process between two ecologically important species-groups. These findings suggest the interaction is highly beneficial for both groups of actors, and illustrate how selective pressures may have acted to form and reinforce a strongly positive ecological interaction.

  18. Presence of Breeding Birds Improves Body Condition for a Crocodilian Nest Protector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell, Lucas A.; Frederick, Peter C.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Vliet, Kent A.; Brandt, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological associations where one species enhances habitat for another nearby species (facilitations) shape fundamental community dynamics and can promote niche expansion, thereby influencing how and where species persist and coexist. For the many breeding birds facing high nest-predation pressure, enemy-free space can be gained by nesting near more formidable animals for physical protection. While the benefits to protected species seem well documented, very few studies have explored whether and how protector species are affected by nest protection associations. Long-legged wading birds (Pelecaniformes and Ciconiiformes) actively choose nesting sites above resident American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), apparently to take advantage of the protection from mammalian nest predators that alligator presence offers. Previous research has shown that wading bird nesting colonies could provide substantial food for alligators in the form of dropped chicks. We compared alligator body condition in similar habitat with and without wading bird nesting colonies present. Alligator morphometric body condition indices were significantly higher in colony than in non-colony locations, an effect that was statistically independent of a range of environmental variables. Since colonially nesting birds and crocodilians co-occur in many tropical and subtropical wetlands, our results highlight a potentially widespread keystone process between two ecologically important species-groups. These findings suggest the interaction is highly beneficial for both groups of actors, and illustrate how selective pressures may have acted to form and reinforce a strongly positive ecological interaction. PMID:26934602

  19. Endoparasites in a Norwegian moose (Alces alces population – Faunal diversity, abundance and body condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K. Davidson

    2015-04-01

    Female moose had higher mean abomasal nematode counts than males, particularly among adults. However, adult males had higher faecal egg counts than adult females which may reflect reduction in faecal volume with concentration of eggs among males during the rut. We found no strong evidence for the development of acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes with age, although there was a higher Protostrongylid and Moniezia infection prevalence in younger animals. High burdens of several parasites were associated with poor body condition in terms of slaughter weight relative to skeletal size but unrelated to visually evaluated fat reserves. Given findings from earlier experimental studies, our results imply sub-clinical effects of GI parasite infection on host condition. Managers should be aware that autumn faecal egg counts and field assessments of fat reserves may not be reliable indicators of parasitism and may underestimate impacts on wildlife populations.

  20. High field conditioning of cryogenic RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, M.; Debiak, T.; Lom, C.; Shephard, W.; Sredniawski, J.

    1993-01-01

    Space-based and other related accelerators have conditioning and operation requirements that are not found in most machines. The use of cryogenic copper, relatively poor vacuum, and limited power storage and operating time put unusual demands on the high-field conditioning process and present some concerns. Two CW cryogenic engineering model open-quotes sparkerclose quotes cavities have been fabricated and tested to fairly high field levels. Tests included initial and repeated conditioning as well as sustained RF operations. The two cavities were an engineering model TDL and an engineering model RFQ. Both cavities operated at 425 MHz. The DTL was conditioned to 46 MV/m at 100% duty factor (CW) at cryogenic temperature. This corresponds to a gap voltage of 433 kV and a real estate accelerating gradient (energy gain/total cavity length) of 6.97 MV/m. The authors believe this to be record performance for cryo CW operation. During cryo pulsed operation, the same cavity reached 48 MV/m with 200 μsec pulses at 0.5% DF. The RFQ was conditioned to 30 MV/m CW at cryo, 85 kV gap voltage. During a brief period of cryo pulsed operation, the RFQ operated at 46 MV/m, or 125 kV gap voltage. Reconditioning experiments were performed on both cavities and no problems were encountered. It should be noted that the vacuum levels were not very stringent during these tests and no special cleanliness or handling procedures were followed. The results of these tests indicate that cavities can run CW without difficulty at cryogenic temperatures at normal conservative field levels. Higher field operation may well be possible, and if better vacuums are used and more attention is paid to cleanliness, much higher fields may be attainable

  1. Stress and body condition are associated with climate and demography in Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumby, Hannah S; Mar, Khyne U; Thitaram, Chatchote; Courtiol, Alexandre; Towiboon, Patcharapa; Min-Oo, Zaw; Htut-Aung, Ye; Brown, Janine L; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Establishing links between ecological variation, physiological markers of stress and demography is crucial for understanding how and why changes in environmental conditions affect population dynamics, and may also play a key role for conservation efforts of endangered species. However, detailed longitudinal studies of long-lived species are rarely available. We test how two markers of stress and body condition vary through the year and are associated with climatic conditions and large-scale mortality and fertility variation in the world's largest semi-captive population of Asian elephants employed in the timber industry in Myanmar. Glucocorticoid metabolites (used as a proxy for stress levels in 75 elephants) and body weight (used as a proxy for condition in 116 elephants) were monitored monthly across a typical monsoon cycle and compared with birth and death patterns of the entire elephant population over half a century (n = 2350). Our results show seasonal variation in both markers of stress and condition. In addition, this variation is correlated with population-level demographic variables. Weight is inversely correlated with population mortality rates 1 month later, and glucocorticoid metabolites are negatively associated with birth rates. Weight shows a highly positive correlation with rainfall 1 month earlier. Determining the factors associated with demography may be key to species conservation by providing information about the correlates of mortality and fertility patterns. The unsustainability of the studied captive population has meant that wild elephants have been captured and tamed for work. By elucidating the correlates of demography in captive elephants, our results offer management solutions that could reduce the pressure on the wild elephant population in Myanmar.

  2. Body condition variations in sheep and breeding systems in the region of Chlef, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taherti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The body condition scores (BCS of groups of ewes bred for reproduction were recorded in farms in Chlef region in Algeria from February 2012 to April 2013. The body condition and body reserves of the ewes varied according to i the category of females concerned (lambing in September-October or in March-April and ii the farm. Taking into account the quantities of fodder distributed in supplement of pasture and body reserves enabled us to make a diagnosis on the feed in each situation. The interaction between the body condition of the ewes at mating and their reproduction performance was evidenced. Indeed, as BCS at mating increased, fertility and prolificacy improved. The ewes with BCS at mating higher than or equal to 3 obtained 100% fertility and 130% prolificacy rates, against 76% and 100%, respectively, for those with a BCS lower than 3.

  3. Thin and fat cows, and the nonlinear genetic relationship between body condition score and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiezzi, F; Maltecca, C; Cecchinato, A; Penasa, M; Bittante, G

    2013-10-01

    Thin and fat cows are often credited for low fertility, but body condition score (BCS) has been traditionally treated as a linear trait when genetic correlations with reproductive performance have been estimated. The aims of this study were to assess genetic parameters for fertility, production, and body condition traits in the Brown Swiss population reared in the Alps (Bolzano-Bozen Province, Italy), and to investigate the possible nonlinearity among BCS and other traits by analyzing fat and thin cows. Records of BCS measured on a 5-point scale were preadjusted for year-season and days in milk at scoring, and were considered positive (1) for fat cows if they exceeded the value of 1 residual standard deviation or null (0) otherwise, whereas positive values for thin cows were imputed to records below -1 residual standard deviation. Fertility indicators measured on first- and second-parity cows were interval from parturition to first service, interval from first service to conception, interval from parturition to conception, number of inseminations to conception, conception at first service, and nonreturn rate at 56 d after first service. Production traits were peak milk yield, lactation milk yield, and lactation length. Data were from 1,413 herds and included 16,324 records of BCS, fertility, and production for first-parity, and 10,086 fertility records for second-parity cows. Animals calved from 2002 to 2007 and were progeny of 420 artificial insemination bulls. Genetic parameters for the aforementioned traits were obtained under univariate and bivariate threshold and censored linear sire models implemented in a Bayesian framework. Posterior means of heritabilities for BCS, fat cows, and thin cows were 0.141, 0.122, and 0.115, respectively. Genetic correlations of body condition traits with contemporary production were moderate to high and were between -0.556 and 0.623. Body condition score was moderately related to fertility in first (-0.280 to 0.497) and second

  4. Chironomidae (Diptera, Chironomidae) as biological indicators of water bodies ecological condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtin, M.M.; Sejsebaev, A.T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents data confirming that Chironomidae are good to be used as an indicative criterion when classifying lakes. It was found that their quantity and presence of certain species could serve as an index in assessment of water body ecological condition. Results of cytotaxonomic analysis helped to reveal the nature of Chironomini species diversity in STS water bodies. (author)

  5. Nickel container of highly-enriched uranium bodies and sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Walter H.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element comprises highly a enriched uranium bodies coated with a nonfissionable, corrosion resistant material. A plurality of these bodies are disposed in layers, with sodium filling the interstices therebetween. The entire assembly is enclosed in a fluid-tight container of nickel.

  6. Nickel container of highly-enriched uranium bodies and sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinn, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element comprises highly enriched uranium bodies coated with a nonfissionable, corrosion resistant material. A plurality of these bodies are disposed in layers, with sodium filling the interstices therebetween. The entire assembly is enclosed in a fluid-tight container of nickel

  7. Effects of the initial conditions on cosmological $N$-body simulations

    OpenAIRE

    L'Huillier, Benjamin; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan

    2014-01-01

    Cosmology is entering an era of percent level precision due to current large observational surveys. This precision in observation is now demanding more accuracy from numerical methods and cosmological simulations. In this paper, we study the accuracy of $N$-body numerical simulations and their dependence on changes in the initial conditions and in the simulation algorithms. For this purpose, we use a series of cosmological $N$-body simulations with varying initial conditions. We test the infl...

  8. Body size and condition influence migration timing of juvenile Arctic grayling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Kurt C.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Seitz, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes utilising seasonally available habitats within annual migratory circuits time movements out of such habitats with changing hydrology, although individual attributes of fish may also mediate the behavioural response to environmental conditions. We tagged juvenile Arctic grayling in a seasonally flowing stream on the Arctic Coastal Plain in Alaska and recorded migration timing towards overwintering habitat. We examined the relationship between individual migration date, and fork length (FL) and body condition index (BCI) for fish tagged in June, July and August in three separate models. Larger fish migrated earlier; however, only the August model suggested a significant relationship with BCI. In this model, 42% of variability in migration timing was explained by FL and BCI, and fish in better condition were predicted to migrate earlier than those in poor condition. Here, the majority (33%) of variability was captured by FL with an additional 9% attributable to BCI. We also noted strong seasonal trends in BCI reflecting overwinter mass loss and subsequent growth within the study area. These results are interpreted in the context of size and energetic state-specific risks of overwinter starvation and mortality (which can be very high in the Arctic), which may influence individuals at greater risk to extend summer foraging in a risky, yet prey rich, habitat. Our research provides further evidence that heterogeneity among individuals within a population can influence migratory behaviour and identifies potential risks to late season migrants in Arctic beaded stream habitats influenced by climate change and petroleum development.

  9. Body Condition Indices Predict Reproductive Success but Not Survival in a Sedentary, Tropical Bird

    OpenAIRE

    Milenkaya, Olga; Catlin, Daniel H.; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch), a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival ove...

  10. Survey of prevalence of overweight body condition in laboratory-housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sharon A; Leslie, Ken E; Pearl, David L; Fournier, Jocelyn; Turner, Patricia V

    2010-07-01

    Excessive weight gain has been reported to occur in captive cynomolgus macaques with little to no change in diet. Overweight body condition can result in development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes and should be avoided. The purpose of this survey was to assess the prevalence of overweight cynomolgus macaques in North American research facilities, including breeding colonies and short-term and long-term facilities, and to describe current methods used to assess body condition. The survey consisted of 51 questions covering animal population demographics, body weight and body condition scoring, feeding, and behavior. Voluntary participants included veterinarians and animal care managers. Respondents from 13 facilities completed the survey, and information was collected on 17,500 cynomolgus macaques. The majority of surveyed facilities housed juvenile and young adult macaques. The reported prevalence of overweight (greater than 10% of ideal body weight) animals ranged between 0% and 20% and reportedly was more frequent in animals younger than 10 y. Most facilities had weight reduction strategies in place. Despite these programs, a significant proportion of animals were reported as being overweight. The results of this survey demonstrate that most North American facilities housing cynomolgus macaques recognize the importance of tracking body condition regularly. However, implementing effective weight reduction programs may be difficult in captive housing environments. Because of the potential for adverse health effects, facilities should have a means of regularly tracking body weight as well as an action plan for managing overweight animals.

  11. HOLSTEIN CATTLE REPRODUCTION IN RELATION ON MILK YIELD AND BODY CONDITION SCORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav MARŠÁLEK

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic conditions of the economical success in milk production is the high and periodic reproduction of the cows. That means the parturition of a healthy calf from every cow per a year. The development and level of reproduction functions is very susceptible to the quantity and mainly quality of nutrition. The insuffi ciency in nutrition is strongly related to the fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproduction indicators depending upon the level of the milk yield and body condition of the Holstein cows at the family-owned farm. The basic dataset was obtained during the years 2004 – 2007. The milk yield and fertility data were gained from the herd records. The extreme values were removed from the basic set. Body condition score was evaluated every month. The groups according to the milk yield level and body condition score were evaluated. The basic statistical characteristics were determined in the groups of cows and in the evaluated sets. The effect of particular factors was proved by the one-factorial analysis of variance ANOVA. Increasing milk yield in the groups with milk yield up to 7000 kg of milk, 7000-8000 kg and more than 8000 kg had negative impact on the reproduction indicators. The differences in the length of calving to fififi rst service interval among particular groups were statistically signifififi cant (P ≥ 0.01. The average length of this interval was 96, 111 and 122 days for 1st, 2nd and 3rd group, respectively. In addition, the average length of calving to conception (service period interval was 154, 165 and 171 days. There were found no signifi cant differences in numbers of services per conception. The average BCS at calving was 3.59 points. After calving BCS level decreased till the 6th month of lactation, where its level 2.43 points, then the BCS level increased. Average BCS level at conception was under 2.5 points. The variation of BCS during the lactation was 2 points.

  12. Relationship between accumulated heat stress during the dry period, body condition score, and reproduction parameters of Holstein cows in tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Fuquay, John W; Moore, Reuben B; Liu, Zhanglin; Clark, Bruce L; Vierhout, C

    2010-02-01

    To estimate the relationship between heat stress during the last 60 days prepartum, body condition score and certain reproductive traits in the subsequent lactation of Holstein cows, 564 multiparous cows and 290 primiparous cows from four dairy herds were used in a hot, humid region. Maximum prepartum degree days were estimated to quantify the degree of heat stress. Multiple regressions analyses and logistic regression analysis were performed to determine the effect of prepartum heat stress and body condition change on reproductive parameters, which were obtained from DHIA forms at the end of the lactation. Multiparous and primiparous cows which gained body condition score from calving to 60 d postpartum exhibited 28 and 27 fewer days open (P 0.05) of heat stress measurement on days open or services per conception in either multiparous or primiparous cows. During hotter months of calving, multiparous cows showed higher services per conception and primiparous cows showed higher days open and services per conception (P score. Multiparous cows with high body condition score at calving were 1.47 times more likely to present a very difficult calving than cows that calved in October (P reproductive performance was not affected by cumulative prepartum heat stress although it was associated with very difficult calving score.

  13. Is risk of degenerative musculoskeletal conditions associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index and parity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Pottegård, Anton; Kirkegaard, Helene

    Background Obesity among women may influence the risk of degenerative musculoskeletal conditions (MSCs) and contribute to poor quality of life. Parity, which constitutes a sudden natural increase in weight as well it affects long-term body mass index (BMI), may put strain on the musculoskeletal....... Information on height and weight prior to pregnancy was obtained from telephone interviews and parity from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Diagnoses on degenerative MSC including osteoarthritis, disc disorders, low back pain, and soft tissue disorders were obtained from the National Patient Registry......% confidence interval 1.41-1.83]). Conclusions High pre-pregnancy BMI increased the occurrence of degenerative MSC in the years following pregnancy and childbirth. In combination with increasing pre-pregnancy BMI, higher parity added to an already elevated risk. Prevention of maternal overweight may reduce...

  14. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. British Veterinary Association.

  15. Body mass, wing length, and condition of wintering ducks relative to hematozoa infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph; Ramey, Andrew M.; Reeves, Andrew; Yee, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack information regarding factors that may be reducing the positive response of waterfowl body condition to habitat improvements. Protozoan blood parasites (i.e., hematozoa) are commonly found in birds and have been related to reduced body mass, wing length, and body condition. We studied relationships between 12 measures of hematozoa infection and body mass, wing length, and body mass divided by wing length (i.e., body condition index [BCI]) of the five most common duck species (northern pintail [Anas acuta], mallard [A. platyrhynchos], green-winged teal [A. crecca], American wigeon [A. Americana], northern shoveler [A. clypeata]) wintering in the Central Valley of California during October 2006-January 2007. After accounting for variation due to species, age-sex cohort, Central Valley region, and month; wing length, body mass, and BCI were found to be negatively related to infection by Leucocytozoon and by "any hematozoa" but not related to infection by only Plasmodium or Haemoproteus, or coinfections of greater than one genera or parasite haplotype (albeit, few ducks had Plasmodium or Haemoproteus infection or coinfections). Evidence of a negative relationship with infection was stronger for body mass and BCI than for wing length and indicated that the relationships varied among species, age-sex cohorts, regions, and months. Compared to uninfected ducks, hematozoa-infected duck body mass, wing length, and BCI was -1.63% (85% CI = -2.79%- -0.47%), -0.12% (-0.41%- +0.17%), and -1.38% (-2.49%- -0.26%), respectively. Although, seemingly small, the -1.63% difference in body mass represents a large percentage (e.g., 38% for northern pintail) of the observed increase in wintering duck body mass associated with Central Valley habitat improvements. Because infection prevalence and relationship to body condition might change over time due to climate or other factors, tracking hematozoa infection prevalence might be important to inform and accurately

  16. Effects of body condition and leptin on the reproductive performance of Lusitano mares on extensive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradinho, M J; Correia, M J; Grácio, V; Bliebernicht, M; Farrim, A; Mateus, L; Martin-Rosset, W; Bessa, R J B; Caldeira, R M; Ferreira-Dias, G

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of body condition (BC), BC changes, and plasma leptin concentrations on the reproductive performance of Lusitano broodmares on extensive systems. Data from 119 mares (ranging from 4 to 22 years of age) were collected over a period of four consecutive breeding seasons. Each case was considered as one foaled mare bred in 1 year. Body condition changes at conception (ΔBCScon) showed a strong effect on fertility at the first two postpartum estrous cycles and a significant interaction with body condition score at conception (BCScon) was observed (P rate for the 4-year period was 74.5%. Mean foaling interval and gestation length were, respectively, 368.0 ± 2.8 and 340.3 ± 1.0 days. Gestation length was influenced by the month of foaling (P conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly; Folz, Rodney J.; Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  18. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT SORTING OF FATTY ACID IN BOVINE MILK IN RELATION TO BODY CONDITION OF CZECH FLECKVIEH DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromir DUCHACEK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids in milk are one of the most important components of milk. The aim of this study was to determinate relationships between groups of fatty acids and body condition score change in Czech Fleckvieh cows. Fatty acids were classification along its length of chain and its source of creation. To analysis was included total of 50 Czech Fleckvieh cows with different order of lactation. During the first 4 weeks of lactation, milk samples were collected at a weekly interval and body condition score was assessed. Statistical analyses were performed using Microsoft Office Excel and the procedures MEANS and GLM of SAS 9.1. During the first four week of lactation, the proportions of short- and medium-chain fatty acids as well as de novo synthesised fatty acids increased. Moreover the cows with a greater body condition score change mobilized storage depot fat more intensively, which resulted in higher proportions of dietary and depot fatty acids since week 1 of lactation, and long-chain fatty acids since week 2 of lactation. On the contrary, the animals with only a small body condition score change exhibited high proportions of short- and medium-fatty acids as well as de novo synthesised fatty acids in the most part of the period analysed. This indicates abut negative energy balance in early part of lactation and its compensation. The results also confirm the relationships between different groups of fatty acids, body condition score and negative energy balance. As more accurate for evaluation of intensity of negative energy balance was confirmed rather classification along source of creation. These results further emphasize importance the monitoring of body condition, milk composition and good herd management in first part of lactation.

  19. Using time-dependent models to investigate body condition and growth rate of the giant gartersnake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, P.S.; Wylie, G.D.; Halstead, B.J.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Identifying links between phenotypic attributes and fitness is a primary goal of reproductive ecology. Differences in within-year patterns of body condition between sexes of gartersnakes in relation to reproduction and growth are not fully understood. We conducted an 11-year field study of body condition and growth rate of the giant gartersnake Thamnophis gigas across 13 study areas in the Central Valley of California, USA. We developed a priori mixed effects models of body condition index (BCI), which included covariates of time, sex and snout-vent length and reported the best-approximating models using an information theoretic approach. Also, we developed models of growth rate index (GRI) using covariates of sex and periods based on reproductive behavior. The largest difference in BCI between sexes, as predicted by a non-linear (cubic) time model, occurred during the mating period when female body condition (0.014??0.001 se) was substantially greater than males (-0.027??0.002 se). Males likely allocated energy to search for mates, while females likely stored energy for embryonic development. We also provided evidence that males use more body energy reserves than females during hibernation, perhaps because of different body temperatures between sexes. We found GRI of male snakes was substantially lower during the mating period than during a non-mating period, which indicated that a trade-off existed between searching for mates and growth. These findings contribute to our understanding of snake ecology in a Mediterranean climate. ?? 2009 The Zoological Society of London.

  20. Effect of brachycephaly and body condition score on respiratory thermoregulation of healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael S; Cummings, Sabrina L; Payton, Mark E

    2017-11-15

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of brachycephaly and body condition score on respiratory thermoregulation of healthy dogs. DESIGN Prospective study. ANIMALS 52 brachycephalic and 53 nonbrachycephalic dogs. PROCEDURES All dogs were exposed to a cool treatment (temperature, 21.8 ± 1.7°C [71.2 ± 3.1°F]; relative humidity, 62.2 ± 9.7%; and ambient enthalpy, 47.7 ± 6.6 kcal/kg) and then a hot treatment (temperature, 32.9 ± 1.7°C [91.2 ± 3.1°F]; relative humidity, 51.9 ± 9.8%; and ambient enthalpy, 74.8 ± 8.7 kcal/kg; heat stress) at least 1 hour later. For each treatment, dogs were allowed to acclimatize to the environment for 15 minutes and then were placed in a sealed whole-body plethysmograph for continuous measurement of the respiratory pattern for 10 minutes. Treatment was discontinued if a dog developed signs of respiratory distress. Respiratory variables and body temperature were compared between the 2 breed types (brachycephalic and nonbrachycephalic) and between treatments. RESULTS Body condition score was positively associated with body temperature independent of environmental conditions or breed type and negatively associated with tidal volume. Brachycephalic dogs had a greater increase in respiratory rate in response to heat stress than did nonbrachycephalic dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that brachycephalic dogs had decreased capacity for thermoregulation, compared with nonbrachycephalic dogs, but body condition score was a greater determinant of body temperature than breed type. Nevertheless, both upper airway conformation and body condition score should be considered when evaluating whether an individual dog is capable of tolerating heat stress.

  1. Effect of adverse environmental conditions and protective clothing on temperature rise in a human body exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephen M; McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Wood, Andrew W

    2017-07-01

    This study considers the computationally determined thermal profile of a finely discretized, heterogeneous human body model, simulating a radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) worker wearing protective clothing subject to RF-EMF exposure, and subject to various environmental conditions including high ambient temperature and high humidity, with full thermoregulatory mechanisms in place. How the human body responds in various scenarios was investigated, and the information was used to consider safety limits in current international RF-EMF safety guidelines and standards. It was found that different environmental conditions had minimal impact on the magnitude of the thermal response due to RF-EMF exposure, and that the current safety factor of 10 applied in international RF-EMF safety guidelines and standards for RF-EMF workers is generally conservative, though it is only narrowly so when workers are subjected to the most adverse environmental conditions. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:356-363, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Associations among serum pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, metabolic mediators, body condition, and uterine disease in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Kasimanickam, Vanmathy R; Olsen, Jesse R; Jeffress, Erin J; Moore, Dale A; Kastelic, John P

    2013-11-09

    Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ which secretes a wide range of hormones and protein factors, collectively termed adipokines. Adipokines affect appetite and satiety, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and immune functions. The objectives were to evaluate serum concentrations of adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6) in lactating dairy cows with postpartum uterine inflammatory conditions (metritis, clinical endometritis or subclinical endometritis) and in cows experiencing loss of body condition, and to assess the relationship of adipokines and body condition loss in the establishment of persistent uterine inflammatory conditions. Lactating multiparous Holstein cows (N = 40), with body condition scores (BCS) from 2 to 4 (eight cows for each 0.5 score increment) were enrolled. Body condition was monitored for all cows weekly for 7 weeks post calving; cows with uterine inflammatory conditions were also re-evaluated 2 weeks later. Blood samples were collected from 1 week prior to calving to 7 weeks after calving for determination of serum concentrations of adipokines, insulin and insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1. Cows with metritis or clinical endometritis had higher serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 compared to normal cows (P cows with subclinical endometritis compared to normal cows (P insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were lower in cows with metritis or clinical endometritis. Cows with low BCS (2 and 2.5) had significantly higher adiponectin, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 than those with high BCS (3 to 4). Cows with persistent uterine inflammatory conditions had higher adiponectin, leptin TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 and insulin compared to normal and spontaneously recovered cows, except for IGF-1 (P insulin, and IGF-1 had significant associations with BCS categories (low vs. high) and postpartum uterine inflammatory conditions. Perhaps loss of

  3. Herbivore body condition response in altered environments: mule deer and habitat management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Bergman

    Full Text Available The relationships between habitat, body condition, life history characteristics, and fitness components of ungulates are interwoven and of interest to researchers as they strive to understand the impacts of a changing environment. With the increased availability of portable ultrasound machines and the refinement of hormonal assays, assessment of ungulate body condition has become an accessible monitoring strategy. We employed body condition scoring, estimation of % ingesta-free body fat (%IFBF, assessment of free thyroid hormones (FT4 and FT3, and assessment of pregnancy, as metrics to determine if landscape-level habitat treatments affected body condition of adult (≥ 1.5 years old female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus. All body condition related metrics were measured on 2 neighboring study areas--a reference area that had received no habitat treatments and a treatment study area that had received mechanical removal of pinyon pine (Pinyus edulis--Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma forest, chemical control of weeds, and reseeding with preferred mule deer browse species. A consistent trend of higher %IFBF was observed in the treatment study area [Formula: see text] than in the reference study area [Formula: see text], although variation of estimates was larger than hypothesized. A similar pattern was observed with higher thyroid hormones concentrations being observed in the treatment study area, but large amounts of variation within concentration estimates were also observed. The consistent pattern of higher body condition related estimates in our treatment study area provides evidence that large mammalian species are sensitive to landscape change, although variation within estimates underlie the challenge in detecting population level impacts stemming from environmental change.

  4. Field trial on progesterone cycles, metabolic profiles, body condition score and their relation to fertility in Estonian Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarütel, J; Ling, K; Waldmann, A; Jaakson, H; Kaart, T; Leesmäe, A

    2008-08-01

    Resumption of luteal activity postpartum and fertility were investigated in an Estonian Holstein high milk production and good fertility dairy herd. Body condition was scored after every 10 days in 54 multiparous dairy cows (71 lactations) calving inside from December to March during 4-year period. Blood samples were taken 1-14 days before calving and 1-14, 28-42 and 63-77 days after calving: analytes estimated were serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose, ketone bodies, total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides. The general linear mixed model was used to compare the data for cows with different characteristics in luteal activity postpartum based on their milk progesterone profiles. Forty-five per cent of cases had abnormal profiles; delayed resumption of ovarian cyclicity postpartum (DC) was the most prevalent abnormality. There was no difference in body condition scores between the groups. The DC and prolonged luteal phase groups had higher serum AST activity (p fertility.

  5. Effect of Stress Conditions on Body Composition Parameters of Farmed Rohu (Labeo rohita)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Hussain, Muhammad Zubair; Asif Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Various stressors affect the body composition of fish. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effect of stress conditions on the body composition of farmed Labeo rohita. Sixty fingerlings were subjected to experimentation in aquaria after being acclimatized. The specimens were divided...... into control, starvation stress and double stress (pH 8 and starvation) groups with 20 individuals in each group. Fish samples for the estimation of body composition were taken after 12 days, 24 days, 36 days and 48 days. Standard procedures and protocols were used for analysis. There was a trend of gradual...... increase in ash contents (% dry body weight) in starvation and double stress group with increase in number of days. However, fat contents (% dry body weight) considerably decreased and protein contents remained unchanged. The inter-comparison of three groups showed that there was significant effect...

  6. Physical condition of female students with different level of body mass deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Kolokoltsev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to study the features of morphofunctional and motor characteristics of female students with body mass deficiency and with normal body mass. Material : it was examined 17-21-year-old female students (n=1937. All students were in the main medical group according to the health condition and attended classes on discipline Physical culture. It was carried out the anthropometrical and physiometric examination of female students. Results : It was determined the low integrated criterion of physical fitness of female students with body mass deficiency. It was defined the dependence between the decrease in level of physical fitness and decrease in body mass of female students. It was determined reliable differences between the morphofunctional parameters and results of motor tests of female students with different body mass. Conclusions : The obtained data allow to correct educational process on physical training of students using integrative pedagogical methods and methods of training.

  7. Effect of body condition on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Gardner, D R; Cook, D; Welch, K D

    2008-12-01

    We determined whether cows in low (LBC) or high body condition (HBC) would consume different amounts of green pine needles (Pinus ponderosa). Cows (mature; open Hereford and Hereford x Angus) were fed a maintenance basal diet (alfalfa pellets) for Exp. 1 and 2; during Exp. 3 and 4, cows were fed high-protein and high-energy diets, respectively. Experiment 5 was a grazing study on rangeland during winter in South Dakota; diets were determined by using bite counts. Mean BCS (1 = emaciated, 9 = obese) was 7.5 for HBC cows and <4.0 for LBC cows during the experiments. During Exp. 1, LBC cows consumed more (P = 0.001) pine needles than did HBC cows (5.5 +/- 0.25 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.14 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). During Exp. 2, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC cows consumed variable, but greater, amounts of pine needles than did HBC cows (3.7 +/- 0.19 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.12 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). When fed a high-protein/low-energy diet, LBC cows ate more (P = 0.04) pine needles than did HBC cows. When fed a low-protein/high-energy diet, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) because LBC cows consumed more pine needles than did HBC cows for the first 3 d of the study, and then consumption by LBC animals decreased during the last 4 d. These experiments suggest that the protein:energy ratio may be an important factor in the ability of cows to tolerate terpenes, and that cows were not able to sustain an increased quantity of needle consumption on a low-protein diet. During the 25-d grazing study, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC animals selected more pine needles (up to 25% of daily bites) on some days compared with HBC cows. Weather influenced pine needle consumption because pine needle bites by LBC cows were related (r(2) = 0.60; P = 0.001) to days of greater snow depth and lower minimum daily temperatures. Both LBC and HBC cows increased selection of pine needles from trees during cold, snowy weather, but

  8. Health, body condition and blood metabolites in reindeer after submaintenance feed intake and subsequent feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nilsson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition from experimentally induced poor nutritional conditions to feeding was studied with 69 eight-month-old female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus. During a pre-experimental period, all reindeer were fed a simulated winter diet with 80% lichens Cladina spp. and 20% Vaccinum myrtillus shrubs and Salix spp. leaves (lichen diet ad lib. The reindeer were divided into five groups. A control group (group C was fed the lichen diet ad lib. throughout the experiment. Four groups were fed half of that ration for eight days and were then totally deprived of feed for one day (restriction period. During the following 34 days (feeding period the groups were re-fed the lichen diet (group L, fed pelleted reindeer feed combined with either lichen (group PL or grass silage (group PS, or fed silage with a gradually increasing addition of pellets (group SP. Weekly measurements of blood samples and body weighr showed that the control group remained clinically healthy and had stable blood plasma concentrations of protein, urea, glucose and insulin throughout the experiment, but they lost weight. At slaughter, before and after the restriction period, all animals had lost rumen-free body weight, but the reindeer fed a restricted amount of feed lost more than the control group. Also the plasma metabolites were affected by the restricted feeding, with increased concentrations of urea and decreased concentrations of glucose. Group L responded immediately to the ad lib. feeding with blood metabolite levels rapidly approaching those of group C. The body weight developments were similar in groups L and C. Although the feed rations were increased gradually, diarrhoea occurred in some animals belonging to groups PL and PS within the first week of the feeding period. All reindeer recovered, after antibiotic treatment of the worst affected animals. The PL and PS groups, which had high contents of metabolisable energy and crude protein in their diets, showed

  9. Changes in body weight, body composition, and eating attitudes in high school wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka Humenikova; Betts, Nancy Mulhollen; Payton, Mark Edward

    2009-08-01

    Many wrestlers engage in chronic dieting and rapid "weight cutting" throughout the year to compete in a category below their natural weight. Such weight-management practices have a negative influence on their health and nutritional status, so the National Wrestling Coaches Association implemented a new weight-management program for high school wrestlers in 2006. The purpose of this study was to determine whether seasonal changes in weight, body fat, and eating attitudes occur among high school wrestlers after the implementation of the new weight-management rule. Fifteen high school wrestlers participated in the study. Their weight, body composition, and eating attitudes were measured preseason, in-season, and off-season. Body fat was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Attitudes toward dieting, food, and body weight were assessed using the Eating Attitude Test (EAT). No significant changes in body fat were detected from preseason to off-season. Weight increased from preseason to in-season (p < .05) and off-season (p < .05). Although the EAT score did not change significantly from preseason to off-season, 60% reported "thinking about burning up calories when exercising" during preseason, and only 40% felt that way during the season (p < .05) and 47% during, off-season (p < .05). The wrestlers experienced a significant weight gain from preseason to off-season with no significant changes in body fat. Their eating attitudes did not change significantly from preseason to off-season in this study, but further research using a large sample of high school wrestlers is warranted to confirm these findings.

  10. Assessing the cost of helping: the roles of body condition and oxidative balance in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janske van de Crommenacker

    Full Text Available In cooperatively breeding species, helping close relatives may provide important fitness benefits. However, helping can be energetically expensive and may result in increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Consequently, an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance can lead to higher oxidative stress susceptibility. Given the potential costs of helping, it may be that only individuals with a sufficiently good body condition and/or stable oxidative balance can afford to help. Knowledge about relationships between social status and oxidative balance in cooperatively breeding systems is still limited. Studying these relationships is important for understanding the costs of helping and physiological pressures of reproduction. Here we evaluate the relationship between helping behaviour, body condition and oxidative balance in a wild population of the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis. In this species, some subordinate individuals help dominant birds with the rearing of young, while others refrain from any assistance. We assessed body condition and oxidative parameters of birds of different social status caught during different breeding stages. We found that, prior to breeding, female subordinates that did not subsequently help (non-helpers had significantly lower body condition and higher ROMs (reactive oxygen metabolites than helpers and dominants. During the later stages of breeding, body condition was low in dominants and helpers, but high in non-helpers. Differences in oxidative balance between individuals of different social status were found only during nest care: Dominant males occupied with guarding behaviours tended to have relatively high oxidative stress susceptibility. Furthermore, dominant and helper females showed elevated antioxidant capacity (measured as OXY in the weeks just prior to egg-laying, possibly representing a change in their reproductive physiology. The results imply that an individuals

  11. Inorganic Contaminant Concentrations and Body Condition in Wintering Waterfowl from Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, J.; Conover, M.; Perschon, C.; Luft, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world and is an important region for migratory and breeding waterbirds. Because the GSL is a closed basin, contaminants associated with industrial and urban development may accumulate in this system. Recently, water and sediment samples from the GSL revealed high concentrations of Hg and Se and methylmercury concentrations in GSL water samples were among the highest ever recorded in surface water by the USGS Mercury Laboratory. Thus, GSL waterbirds are likely exposed to these contaminants and elevated contaminant concentrations may adversely affect survival and reproduction in waterfowl. Our objectives were to 1) estimate mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in wintering waterfowl from GSL and, 2) evaluate relationships between measures of waterfowl body condition and internal organ masses (hereafter body condition) with trace metal concentrations. We collected common goldeneye (COGO), northern shoveler (NSHO), and American green-winged teal (AGWT) from the GSL during early winter. We used ICP-MS to analyze liver and muscle tissue samples for contaminant concentrations. We developed species specific regression models for each of 5 condition indices, including ingesta-free plucked body mass (IFPBM), abdominal fat mass, spleen, liver, and pancreas masses. Independent variables were comprised of Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn and we included sex and age as covariates in each regression. We used Akaike's Information Criterion adjusted for small sample size to select best and competing models. Subsequently, we used partial correlations to depict inverse relationships identified in competing models. Hg concentrations in COGO and NSHO muscle tissue generally exceeded or approached the 1 ppm wet weight (ww) threshold considered unsafe for human consumption in fish and game. Hg concentrations in liver tissue exceeded or were among the highest reported in published

  12. Body Condition Indices Predict Reproductive Success but Not Survival in a Sedentary, Tropical Bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Milenkaya

    Full Text Available Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch, a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival over four breeding seasons, and sampled them for commonly used condition indices: mass adjusted for body size, muscle and fat scores, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Our study population is well suited for this research because individuals forage in common areas and do not hold territories such that variation in condition between individuals is not confounded by differences in habitat quality. Furthermore, we controlled for factors that are known to impact condition indices in our study population (e.g., breeding stage such that we assessed individual condition relative to others in the same context. Condition indices that reflect energy reserves predicted both the probability of an individual fledging young and the number of young produced that survived to independence, but only during some years. Those that were relatively heavy for their body size produced about three times more independent young compared to light individuals. That energy reserves are a meaningful predictor of reproductive success in a sedentary passerine supports the idea that energy reserves are at least sometimes predictors of fitness. However, hematological indices failed to predict reproductive success and none of the indices predicted survival. Therefore, some but not all condition indices may be informative, but because we found that most indices did not predict any component of fitness, we question the ubiquitous

  13. Body Condition Indices Predict Reproductive Success but Not Survival in a Sedentary, Tropical Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkaya, Olga; Catlin, Daniel H; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch), a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival over four breeding seasons, and sampled them for commonly used condition indices: mass adjusted for body size, muscle and fat scores, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Our study population is well suited for this research because individuals forage in common areas and do not hold territories such that variation in condition between individuals is not confounded by differences in habitat quality. Furthermore, we controlled for factors that are known to impact condition indices in our study population (e.g., breeding stage) such that we assessed individual condition relative to others in the same context. Condition indices that reflect energy reserves predicted both the probability of an individual fledging young and the number of young produced that survived to independence, but only during some years. Those that were relatively heavy for their body size produced about three times more independent young compared to light individuals. That energy reserves are a meaningful predictor of reproductive success in a sedentary passerine supports the idea that energy reserves are at least sometimes predictors of fitness. However, hematological indices failed to predict reproductive success and none of the indices predicted survival. Therefore, some but not all condition indices may be informative, but because we found that most indices did not predict any component of fitness, we question the ubiquitous interpretation of

  14. Body condition score to predict the postpartum fertility of crossbred beef cows.

    OpenAIRE

    MORAES, J. C. F.; JAUME, C. M.; SOUZA, C. J. H. de

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between changes in body condition score (BCS) during the postpartum and fertility in beef cows suckling calves under extensive conditions were investigated. Cows were subjected to four BCS evaluations over the postpartum period, starting around one month after calving. In the second evaluation cows were treated with medroxy-progesterone acetate impregnated pessaries and received an injection of estradiol benzoate. At the third evaluation, pessaries were removed and calves wer...

  15. ENDURANCE TRAINING IN FASTING CONDITIONS: BIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS AND BODY WEIGHT MANAGEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Salar, Néstor; Urdampilleta Otegui, Aritz; Roche Collado, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    in the majority of sports the athlete is required to achieve optimal conditions both at a muscular and metabolic level as well as in body composition, increasing the lean body mass and maintaining a low body fat mass. In this context, different training protocols have been proposed in order to reduce body fat content, by maximizing fat use instead of glycogen. to verify if the training while fasting favours the use of fatty acids due to the low glycogen levels, allowing an improvement in the performance ant the control of body weight. protocols have been published, differing in time periods and exercise intensity. In addition, several markers ranging from gene expression analysis to determination of circulating parameters have been assessed in order to interpret the results. Discusion: at low intensities of endurance-based exercises, adipose tissue lipolysis and muscle fat oxidation rate seem to be higher in fasting than in fed state. On the other hand, glucose metabolism is adapted in order to save glycogen stores, possibly through gluconeogenesis activation. Finally, it has been observed that protein degradation is mainly downregulated. Only one study analyses changes in body composition after fasting during long periods, thus further work is necessary to demonstrate that this is the best method to control body fat. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Secondary radiation dose during high-energy total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janiszewska, M.; Raczkowski, M. [Lower Silesian Oncology Center, Medical Physics Department, Wroclaw (Poland); Polaczek-Grelik, K. [University of Silesia, Medical Physics Department, Katowice (Poland); Szafron, B.; Konefal, A.; Zipper, W. [University of Silesia, Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, Katowice (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The goal of this work was to assess the additional dose from secondary neutrons and γ-rays generated during total body irradiation (TBI) using a medical linac X-ray beam. Nuclear reactions that occur in the accelerator construction during emission of high-energy beams in teleradiotherapy are the source of secondary radiation. Induced activity is dependent on the half-lives of the generated radionuclides, whereas neutron flux accompanies the treatment process only. The TBI procedure using a 18 MV beam (Clinac 2100) was considered. Lateral and anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior fractions were investigated during delivery of 2 Gy of therapeutic dose. Neutron and photon flux densities were measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and semiconductor spectrometry. The secondary dose was estimated applying the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. The main contribution to the secondary dose is associated with fast neutrons. The main sources of γ-radiation are the following: {sup 56}Mn in the stainless steel and {sup 187}W of the collimation system as well as positron emitters, activated via (n,γ) and (γ,n) processes, respectively. In addition to 12 Gy of therapeutic dose, the patient could receive 57.43 mSv in the studied conditions, including 4.63 μSv from activated radionuclides. Neutron dose is mainly influenced by the time of beam emission. However, it is moderated by long source-surface distances (SSD) and application of plexiglass plates covering the patient body during treatment. Secondary radiation gives the whole body a dose, which should be taken into consideration especially when one fraction of irradiation does not cover the whole body at once. (orig.) [German] Die zusaetzliche Dosis durch sekundaere Neutronen- und γ-Strahlung waehrend der Ganzkoerperbestrahlung mit Roentgenstrahlung aus medizinischen Linearbeschleunigern wurde abgeschaetzt. Bei der Emission hochenergetischer Strahlen zur Teletherapie finden hauptsaechlich im Beschleuniger

  17. Environmental contaminants in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in Svalbard: Relationships with feeding ecology and body condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglei, E. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromso (Norway)]. E-mail: eva.fuglei@npolar.no; Bustnes, J.O. [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Division of Arctic Ecology, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Hop, H. [Norwegian Polar Institute, The Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Mork, T. [National Veterinary Institute, Regional Laboratory, N-9292 Tromso (Norway); Bjoernfoth, H. [MTM Research Centre, Department of Natural Sciences, Orebro University, 701 82 Orebro (Sweden); Bavel, B. van [MTM Research Centre, Department of Natural Sciences, Orebro University, 701 82 Orebro (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    Adipose tissues from 20 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) of both sexes from Svalbard were analysed for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE), chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations. Gender (0.43 < p < 0.97) and age (0.15 < p < 0.95) were not significantly related to any of the organohalogen groups. Body condition showed a significant inverse relationship with {sigma}PBDE, {sigma}Chlordane and HCB, suggesting that increased tissue contaminant concentrations are associated with depletion of adipose tissue. The seasonal cyclic storage and mobilisation of adipose tissue, characteristic in Arctic wildlife, may then provide increased input of contaminants to sensitive, vital effect organs. Trophic position was estimated by {delta} {sup 15}N from muscle samples and showed significantly positive relationship with all contaminants, with the exception of HCB concentrations. This indicates that foxes feeding at high trophic levels had higher tissue contaminant levels as a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain. - High contaminant concentrations in the coastal ecotype of arctic fox may cause toxic health effects due to huge annual cyclic variation in storage and mobilisation of adipose tissue.

  18. Sow body condition at weaning and reproduction performance in organic piglet production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    that it is possible to avoid poor body condition at weaning even with a lactation length of seven weeks or more. No main effect of backfat at weaning on reproduction performance was found, but the probability of a successful reproduction after weaning tended to decrease with decreasing backfat for first parity sows...

  19. A novel integrative method for measuring body condition in ecological studies based on physiological dysregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milot, E.; Cohen, A.A.; Vézina, F.; Buehler, D.M.; Matson, K.D.; Piersma, T.

    2014-01-01

    1. The body condition of free-ranging animals affects their response to stress, decisions, ability to fulfil vitalneeds and, ultimately, fitness. However, this key attribute in ecology remains difficult to assess, and there is aclear need for more integrativemeasures than the common univariate

  20. Genetic analysis of body condition score of lactating Dutch Holstein and Red-and-White heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Dobbelaar, P.; Jong, de G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters for body condition scores (BCS) from the Dutch type classification system. Data included 108,809 Holstein (H) and 26,208 Red-and-White (R) heifers from 9701 herds that were scored once during lactation on a 1 to 9 scale (1 =

  1. Evaluation of classifiers that score linear type traits and body condition score using common sires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Gerritsen, C.L.M.; Koenen, E.P.C.; Hamoen, A.; Jong, de G.

    2002-01-01

    Subjective visual assessment of animals by classifiers is undertaken for several different traits in farm livestock, e.g., linear type traits, body condition score, or carcass conformation. One of the difficulties in assessment is the effect of an individual classifier. To ensure that classifiers

  2. Stress Reduction and Mood Enhancement in Four Exercise Modes: Swimming, Body Conditioning, Hatha Yoga, and Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Bonnie G.; Owen, David R.

    1988-01-01

    Differences in mood before and after class of college students taking different courses (swimming, body conditioning, hatha yoga, fencing exercise, and lecture) were analyzed using the Profile Mood States and the State Anxiety Inventory. Results suggest that courses which meet four requirements involving aerobics, noncompetitiveness,…

  3. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newth, J.L.; Rees, E.C.; Cromie, R.L.; McDonald, R.A.; Bearhop, S.; Pain, D.J.; Norton, G.J.; Deacon, C.; Hilton, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL"−"1) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL"−"1 (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot. - Highlights: • Elevated blood lead levels of >20 μg dL"−"1 were found in 41.7% of whooper swans. • Blood lead levels of ≥44 μg dL"−"1 were negatively associated with body condition. • Clinical effects were at lower levels than previously described for Anseriformes. • Reduction of lead shot in the environment would reduce the risk of lead exposure. - Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with the body condition of free-living whooper swans in winter when levels were ≥44 μg dL"−"1 (27/260 = 10% of birds were above this threshold).

  4. Purification of inclusion bodies using PEG precipitation under denaturing conditions to produce recombinant therapeutic proteins from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huanhuan; Li, Ninghuan; Xie, Yueqing; Jiang, Hua; Yang, Xiaoyi; Cagliero, Cedric; Shi, Siwei; Zhu, Chencen; Luo, Han; Chen, Junsheng; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Menglin; Feng, Lei; Lu, Huili; Zhu, Jianwei

    2017-07-01

    It has been documented that the purification of inclusion bodies from Escherichia coli by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) may benefit subsequent refolding and recovery of recombinant proteins. However, loading volume and the high cost of the column limits its application in large-scale manufacturing of biopharmaceutical proteins. We report a novel process using polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation under denaturing conditions to replace SEC for rapid purification of inclusion bodies containing recombinant therapeutic proteins. Using recombinant human interleukin 15 (rhIL-15) as an example, inclusion bodies of rhIL-15 were solubilized in 7 M guanidine hydrochloride, and rhIL-15 was precipitated by the addition of PEG 6000. A final concentration of 5% (w/v) PEG 6000 was found to be optimal to precipitate target proteins and enhance recovery and purity. Compared to the previously reported S-200 size exclusion purification method, PEG precipitation was easier to scale up and achieved the same protein yields and quality of the product. PEG precipitation also reduced manufacturing time by about 50 and 95% of material costs. After refolding and further purification, the rhIL-15 product was highly pure and demonstrated a comparable bioactivity with a rhIL-15 reference standard. Our studies demonstrated that PEG precipitation of inclusion bodies under denaturing conditions holds significant potential as a manufacturing process for biopharmaceuticals from E. coli protein expression systems.

  5. DETERMINATION OF PREDICTION EQUATIONS TO ESTIMATE BODY CONDITION SCORE FROM BODY SIZE AND TESTICULAR TRAITS OF YANKASA RAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yakubu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to develop prediction models using stepwise multiple linear regressionanalysis for estimating the body condition score (BCS from the body weight (BW, testicular length(TL, testicular diameter (TD and scrotal circumference (SC of indigenous Yankasa rams. Data wereobtained from 120 randomly selected rams with approximately two and half years of age, from differentextensively managed herds in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Although pairwise phenotypic correlationsindicated strong association (P<0.01 among the measured variables, there was collinearity problembetween BW and SC as revealed by the variance inflation factors (VIF and tolerance valves (T. TheVIT was higher than 10 (VIF = 19.45 and 16.65 for BW and SC, respectively. The Twas smaller than0.1 (T = 0.05 and 0.06 in BW and SC, respectively. BW was retained among the collinear variables, andwas singly accounted for 83.7% of the variation in BCS. However, a slight improvement was obtainedfrom the prediction of BCS from BW and TL [coefficient of determination (R2, adjusted R2 and rootmean squares error (RMSE were 85.3%, 85.1% and 0.305, respectively]. The prediction of the BCS ofYankasa rams from BW and testicular measurements could therefore be a potential tool for sustainableproduction and improvement of small ruminants in Nigeria.

  6. Genetic parameters for body condition score, body weight, milk yield, and fertility estimated using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Buckley, F; Dillon, P; Evans, R D; Rath, M; Veerkamp, R F

    2003-11-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk yield, and fertility were estimated using a random regression animal model extended to multivariate analysis. The data analyzed included 81,313 BCS observations, 91,937 BW observations, and 100,458 milk test-day yields from 8725 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows. A cubic random regression was sufficient to model the changing genetic variances for BCS, BW, and milk across different days in milk. The genetic correlations between BCS and fertility changed little over the lactation; genetic correlations between BCS and interval to first service and between BCS and pregnancy rate to first service varied from -0.47 to -0.31, and from 0.15 to 0.38, respectively. This suggests that maximum genetic gain in fertility from indirect selection on BCS should be based on measurements taken in midlactation when the genetic variance for BCS is largest. Selection for increased BW resulted in shorter intervals to first service, but more services and poorer pregnancy rates; genetic correlations between BW and pregnancy rate to first service varied from -0.52 to -0.45. Genetic selection for higher lactation milk yield alone through selection on increased milk yield in early lactation is likely to have a more deleterious effect on genetic merit for fertility than selection on higher milk yield in late lactation.

  7. Estimating resource acquisition and at-sea body condition of a marine predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; New, Leslie F; Thomas, Len; Costa, Daniel P; Hindell, Mark A; McMahon, Clive R; Robinson, Patrick W; Simmons, Samantha E; Thums, Michele; Harwood, John; Clark, James S

    2013-01-01

    Body condition plays a fundamental role in many ecological and evolutionary processes at a variety of scales and across a broad range of animal taxa. An understanding of how body condition changes at fine spatial and temporal scales as a result of interaction with the environment provides necessary information about how animals acquire resources. However, comparatively little is known about intra- and interindividual variation of condition in marine systems. Where condition has been studied, changes typically are recorded at relatively coarse time-scales. By quantifying how fine-scale interaction with the environment influences condition, we can broaden our understanding of how animals acquire resources and allocate them to body stores. Here we used a hierarchical Bayesian state-space model to estimate the body condition as measured by the size of an animal's lipid store in two closely related species of marine predator that occupy different hemispheres: northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) and southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina). The observation model linked drift dives to lipid stores. The process model quantified daily changes in lipid stores as a function of the physiological condition of the seal (lipid:lean tissue ratio, departure lipid and departure mass), its foraging location, two measures of behaviour and environmental covariates. We found that physiological condition significantly impacted lipid gain at two time-scales – daily and at departure from the colony – that foraging location was significantly associated with lipid gain in both species of elephant seals and that long-term behavioural phase was associated with positive lipid gain in northern and southern elephant seals. In northern elephant seals, the occurrence of short-term behavioural states assumed to represent foraging were correlated with lipid gain. Lipid gain was a function of covariates in both species. Southern elephant seals performed fewer drift dives than

  8. A mathematical high bar-human body model for analysing and interpreting mechanical-energetic processes on the high bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzis, A; Brüggemann, G P

    1998-12-01

    The aims of this study were: 1. To study the transfer of energy between the high bar and the gymnast. 2. To develop criteria from the utilisation of high bar elasticity and the utilisation of muscle capacity to assess the effectiveness of a movement solution. 3. To study the influence of varying segment movement upon release parameters. For these purposes a model of the human body attached to the high bar (high bar-human body model) was developed. The human body was modelled using a 15-segment body system. The joint-beam element method (superelement) was employed for modelling the high bar. A superelement consists of four rigid segments connected by joints (two Cardan joints and one rotational-translational joint) and springs (seven rotation springs and one tension-compression spring). The high bar was modelled using three superelements. The input data required for the high bar human body model were collected with video-kinematographic (50 Hz) and dynamometric (500 Hz) techniques. Masses and moments of inertia of the 15 segments were calculated using the data from the Zatsiorsky et al. (1984) model. There are two major phases characteristic of the giant swing prior to dismounts from the high bar. In the first phase the gymnast attempts to supply energy to the high bar-humanbody system through muscle activity and to store this energy in the high bar. The difference between the energy transferred to the high bar and the reduction in the total energy of the body could be adopted as a criterion for the utilisation of high bar elasticity. The energy previously transferred into the high bar is returned to the body during the second phase. An advantageous increase in total body energy at the end of the exercise could only be obtained through muscle energy supply. An index characterising the utilisation of muscle capacity was developed out of the difference between the increase in total body energy and the energy returned from the high bar. A delayed and initially slow but

  9. Improved running performance in hot humid conditions following whole body precooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, J; Marino, F; Ward, J J

    1997-07-01

    On two separate occasions, eight subjects controlled speed to run the greatest distance possible in 30 min in a hot, humid environment (ambient temperature 32 degrees C, relative humidity 60%). For the experimental test (precooling), exercise was preceeded by cold-water immersion. Precooling increased the distance run by 304 +/- 166 m (P body temperature decreased from 36.5 +/- 0.1 degrees C to 33.8 +/- 0.2 degrees C following precooling (P body sweating are not different between tests. In conclusion, water immersion precooling increased exercise endurance in hot, humid conditions with an enhanced rate of heat storage and decreased thermoregulatory strain.

  10. Genetic evaluation for body condition score in Italian Brown Swiss cattle

    OpenAIRE

    C. Nicoletti; E. Santus; L. Testa; O. Bonetti; A. Rossoni

    2010-01-01

    Body Condition Score (BCS) evaluates the body energy reserve in a cow using a numeric classification. It is possible to use the BCS as an indirect indicator of fertility. The genetic evaluation for BCS in Italian Brown Swiss is performed on 73125 BCS evaluations on the same number of primiparous, daughters of 507 sires. Effect of herd by year goes from -1,02 to +0,94 indicating large differences among herds. The primiparous cows show about 3.2 BCS points at calving, their BCS decreases slight...

  11. Level of energy restriction alters body condition score and morphometric profile in obese Shetland ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruynsteen, L; Moons, C P H; Janssens, G P J; Harris, P A; Vandevelde, K; Lefère, L; Duchateau, L; Hesta, M

    2015-10-01

    Due to the high prevalence of obesity in some horses and ponies (especially in the leisure horse sector), effective and safe weight loss strategies are required. The present study evaluated the effect of two different energy restriction rates on physical, morphometric and welfare parameters in 18 obese (body condition score [BCS] 7-9/9) Shetland geldings. The trial was divided into three periods: (1) a 4 week adaptation period, during which the maintenance energy intakes to maintain a stable obese bodyweight were determined (100% MERob); (2) a 16.5-week weight loss period during which the ponies were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6/group) comprising a control group (CONTROL), moderate energy restricted (MOD), and severe energy restricted (SEV) groups that were respectively fed at 100%, 80% and 60% of their individual MERob; and (3) a 3 week follow up period in which the ponies were again fed at their outset individual 100% MERob. Between the start and end of the weight loss period, significant pairwise differences between the three treatment groups were seen for bodyweight, BCS, heart girth, belly girth, and relative ultrasound fat depth at the level of loin and ribs at several time points (P < 0.05). The higher energy restriction was associated with a faster decrease in BCS, tail head, and heart plus belly girth, but no gastric ulcers or stereotypic behaviours were seen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetics of body condition score as an indicator of dairy cattle fertility. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastin, C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Body condition score (BCS is a subjective measure of the amount of metabolizable energy stored in a live animal. Change in BCS of dairy cows is considered to be an indicator of the extent and the duration of postpartum negative energy balance. Although change in BCS over lactation is lowly heritable, heritability estimates of level of BCS range from 0.20 to 0.50. Also, BCS tends to be more heritable in mid-lactation indicating that genetic differences are more related to how well cows recover from the negative energy balance state. BCS measurements are generally highly correlated within and between lactations. Genetic correlations with BCS are unfavorable for milk, fat, and protein yield, suggesting that genetically superior producers tend to have lower BCS, especially during the lactation. Genetic correlations are generally moderate and favorable with fertility indicating that cows with higher levels of BCS would have a greater chance to conceive after insemination and fewer number of days when not pregnant. Because direct selection to improve fertility might be complicated by several factors, selection for higher levels of BCS, especially in mid-lactation, appears to be a good option to indirectly improve fertility in dairy cows.

  13. Mood after various brief exercise and sport modes: aerobics, hip-hop dancing, ice skating, and body conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungwoon; Kim, Jingu

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the potential psychological benefits of brief exercise and sport activities on positive mood alterations, 45 Korean high school and 232 undergraduate students enrolled in physical education and stress management classes voluntarily participated and were randomly assigned to one of four activities: aerobic exercise, body conditioning, hip-hop dancing, and ice skating. Mood changes from before to after exercise (2 pm to 3 pm) were measured based on a Korean translation of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale. The findings suggested that the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups rated positive well-being higher than the body conditioning and ice skating groups. Immediately after exercise, psychological distress was rated lower in the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups, as was fatigue.

  14. High energy radiation effects on the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuaki

    1977-01-01

    High-energy radiation injuries and their risks were recognized, information on low-energy radiation injuries was also arranged, and with these backgrounds, countermeasures against prevention of radiation injuries were considered. Redintegration of DNA and mutation by radiation were described, and relationship between radiation injuries and dose was considered. Interaction of high-energy radiation and substances in the living body and injuries by the interaction were also considered. Expression method of risk was considered, and a concept of protection dose was suggested. Protection dose is dose equivalent which is worthy of value at the point where the ratio to permissible dose distributed among each part of the body is at its maximum in the distribution of dose equivalent formed within the body when standard human body is placed at a certain radiation field for a certain time. Significance and countermeasures of health examination which is under an abligation to make radiation workers receive health check were thought, and problems were proposed on compensation when radiation injuries should appear actually. (Tsunoda, M.)

  15. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction

  16. Immunoproteomics of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with atrophic body gastritis, a predisposing condition for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Edith; Bernardini, Giulia; Possenti, Silvia; Renzone, Giovanni; Scaloni, Andrea; Santucci, Annalisa; Annibale, Bruno

    2011-02-01

    Atrophic body gastritis is considered an outcome of H. pylori infection at high risk for gastric cancer. Immunoproteomics has been used to detect H. pylori antigens, which may act as potential markers for neoplastic disease and may be used in specific serological tests. We used immunoproteome technology to identify H. pylori antigens, recognized by sera from patients with atrophic body gastritis. Here, we performed 2DE protein maps of H. pylori strain 10K, probed against single sera from 3 groups of H. pylori-positive patients (atrophic body gastritis; intestinal-type gastric cancer; peptic ulcer) and negative controls. Immunoreactive spots were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. A total of 155 immunoreactive spots were detected corresponding to 14.1% of total spots detected in our reference map of H. pylori strain 10K. Sera from atrophic body gastritis (40.5±2%) and gastric cancer patients (25.9±1.8%) showed a significantly higher and stronger mean immunoreactivity versus H. pylori antigens compared to peptic ulcer patients (11.2±1.3%). The average intensity of immunoreactivity of sera from atrophic body gastritis and gastric cancer patients was significantly stronger compared to peptic ulcer patients. Sera from atrophic body gastritis and gastric cancer patients differentially recognized 17 H. pylori spots. Immunoproteome technology may discriminate between different H. pylori-related disease phenotypes showing a serological immunorecognition pattern common to patients with gastric cancer and atrophic body gastritis, its precursor condition. This tool may be promising for developing specific serological tests to identify patients with gastritis at high risk for gastric cancer, to be evaluated in prospective investigations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Bowhead whale body condition and links to summer sea ice and upwelling in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, John C.; Druckenmiller, Matthew L.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Suydam, Robert; Person, Brian

    2015-08-01

    We examined the response of bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) body condition to summer sea ice conditions and upwelling-favorable winds. We used a long-term dataset collected from whales of the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas (BCB) stock to estimate various body condition indices (BCI's) for individual whales that were harvested by Alaskan Eskimos. A series of offshore regions frequented by bowhead whales in summer were delineated and used to quantify interannual summertime environmental conditions including: (a) mean open water fraction, (b) duration of melt season, (c) date of continuous freeze-up, and (d) mean upwelling-favorable wind stress. Body condition was analyzed relative to these metrics for both the preceding summer feeding season and the previous three seasons combined. Our analysis indicates a significant increase in the long-term trend in an axillary girth-based body condition index (BCIG) over the study period (1989-2011). The increase in BCIG is likely associated with the trend in overall reduction of sea ice, including increased duration of open water, changes in upwelling potential (wind stress), and possibly higher primary production in the Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem favoring water-column invertebrates. We found strong significant positive correlations between BCIG and late summer open water fraction in the Beaufort Sea and smaller nearshore areas off the Mackenzie Delta and west of Banks Island. Additionally, BCIG was positively and significantly correlated with duration of melt season, later date of freeze-up in the Beaufort Sea, and upwelling-favorable winds on the Mackenzie shelf and west of Banks Island. A strong seasonal difference in BCI's was noted for subadult bowheads, presumably associated with summer feeding; however, yearlings were found to drop in BCI over at least the first summer after weaning. Our results indicate an overall increase in bowhead whale body condition and a positive correlation with summer sea ice loss over the

  18. Sows with high milk production had both a high feed intake and high body mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, A. V.; Bruun, T. S.; Hansen, C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Selection for increased litter size have generated hyper-prolific sows that nurses large litters, however limited knowledge is available regarding the connection between milk production, feed intake and body mobilization of these modern sows. The aim of the current study was to determine what...... be explained by a relatively higher proportion of their body reserves being mobilized compared with multiparous sows. The ADG of the litter was positively related by ADFI of the sows, litter size and BW loss and increasing the ADFI with 1 kg/day throughout lactation likely increased the ADG of the litter...... characterized sows with high milk production and nursing large litters, differences between sows of different parities and effects of lactational performance on next reproductive cycle. In total 565 sows (parity 1 to 4) were studied from 7 days before farrowing until weaning. On day 2 postpartum litters were...

  19. The Matter Bispectrum in N-body Simulations with non-Gaussian Initial Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Sefusatti, Emiliano; Crocce, Martin; Desjacques, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the dark matter bispectrum in N-body simulations with non-Gaussian initial conditions of the local kind for a large variety of triangular configurations and compare them with predictions from Eulerian perturbation theory up to one-loop corrections. We find that the effects of primordial non-Gaussianity at large scales, when compared to perturbation theory, are well described by the initial component of the matter bispectrum, linearly extrapolated at the redshift of ...

  20. Genetic correlations among body condition score, yield and fertility in multiparous cows using random regression models

    OpenAIRE

    Bastin, Catherine; Gillon, Alain; Massart, Xavier; Bertozzi, Carlo; Vanderick, Sylvie; Gengler, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Genetic correlations between body condition score (BCS) in lactation 1 to 3 and four economically important traits (days open, 305-days milk, fat, and protein yields recorded in the first 3 lactations) were estimated on about 12,500 Walloon Holstein cows using 4-trait random regression models. Results indicated moderate favorable genetic correlations between BCS and days open (from -0.46 to -0.62) and suggested the use of BCS for indirect selection on fertility. However, unfavorable genetic c...

  1. Evaluation of body condition score measured throughout lactation as an indicator of fertility in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Banos, G; Brotherstone, S; Coffey, MP

    2004-01-01

    Body condition score (BCS) records of primiparous Holstein cows were analyzed both as a single measure per animal and as repeated measures per sire of cow. The former resulted in a single, average, genetic evaluation for each sire, and the latter resulted in separate genetic evaluations per day of lactation. Repeated measure analysis yielded genetic correlations of less than unity between days of lactation, suggesting that BCS may not be the same trait across lactation. Differences between da...

  2. Internal resonance of an elastic body levitated above high-Tc superconducting bulks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokuzawa, T; Toshihiko, S; Yoshizawa, M

    2010-01-01

    In high-Tc superconducting magnetic levitation systems, levitated bodies can keep stable levitation with no contact and no control and thus their damping is very small. Thanks to these features, their applications to various apparatus are expected. However, on account of their small damping, the nonlinearity of electromagnetic levitation force can give notable effects upon motion of the levitated bodies. Therefore this nonlinearity must be taken into account to accurately analyze the dynamical behavior of the levitated bodies. Structures of such a levitated body can show elastic deformation if the large electromagnetic force acts on it. Therefore, we need to deal with the model as an elastic body. As mentioned above, nonlinear characteristics easily appear in this elastic vibration on account of the small damping. Especially when the ratio of the natural frequencies of the eigenmodes is integer, internal resonance can occur. This nonlinear resonance is derived from nonlinear interactions among the eigenmodes of the elastic levitated body. This kind of internal resonance of an elastic body appearing in high-Tc superconducting levitation systems has not been studied so far. This research especially deals with internal resonance of a beam supported at both its ends by electromagnetic forces acting on permanent magnets. The governing equation with the nonlinear boundary conditions for the dynamics of a levitated beam has been derived. Numerical results show internal resonance of the 1st mode and the 3rd mode. Experimental results are qualitatively in good agreement with numerical ones.

  3. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newth, J L; Rees, E C; Cromie, R L; McDonald, R A; Bearhop, S; Pain, D J; Norton, G J; Deacon, C; Hilton, G M

    2016-02-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL(-1)) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL(-1) (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues.

  5. Proper exercise decreases plasma carcinoembryonic antigen levels with the improvement of body condition in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Il-Gyu; Park, Eung-Mi; Choi, Hye-Jung; Yoo, Jaehyun; Lee, Jong-Kyun; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2014-05-01

    Aging increases the risk of chronic diseases including cancers. Physical exercise has the beneficial effects for the elderly susceptible to the development of cancers, through maintaining a healthy body condition and improving the immune system. However, excessive or insufficient exercise might increase the risk for cancer. In the present study, we investigated what exercise frequency improves cancer-related biomarkers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), red blood cell (RBC), and white blood cell (WBC), and the body composition of elderly women. Fifty-four females, aged 70 to 77 years, were divided into 4 groups: control, 1-day exercise (1E), 2-3-day exercise (2-3E), and 5-day exercise (5E) groups. The control group did not participate in any physical activity, while the subjects in the exercise groups underwent the exercise program for 12 weeks. As results, CEA was significantly decreased in the exercise groups, with the lowest values in 2-3E group. In contrast, AFP, RBC and WBC were not significantly changed. CEA is an oncofetal glycoprotein that is overexpressed in adenocarcinomas. Although the function of CEA has not been fully understood, CEA has been suggested to be involved in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines via stimulating monocytes and macrophages. Moreover, body weight and body mass index were improved in the exercise groups, with the lowest levels in 5E group. Thus, we suggest that exercise for 2-3 days per week decreases the expression of CEA and improves body condition, without loading fatigue or stress, which may contribute to preventing cancer in the elderly women.

  6. Influence of body condition on incidence and degree of hepatic lipidosis in cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of energy status of cows, estimated by body condition score, on the incidence and the degree of hepatic lipidosis during the early stage of lactation. Cows were divided into four groups: dry, early puerperal, early lactation and late lactation period. Each group consisted of 60 cows. Body condition was scored by the method established in Elaco Animal Health Buletin Al 8478. According to this method, body condition score is represented numerically from 1 to 5 points. Liver samples for pathohistological analyses were taken by biopsy from early lactation cows (60. day of lactation. Fat content in hepatocytes was determined morphometrically and results were compared with criteria based on total lipid and triglyceride content in liver tissue. On farm A, average body condition scores were in a range from 3.31, at sixty days of lactation, to 3.86 points in the dry period. Nevertheless, the range was wider on farm B, and was from 2.18 points at sixty days of lactation to 4.15 points at the dry period. Besides, differences in average body condition scores were higher than 1 point, and in some cases (between late lactation or dry period to sixty days of lactation were almost 2 points. The incidence and the degree of hepatic lipidosis strongly differ between the two examined farms. On farm A the incidence of hepatic lipidosis was 18.33 percent, while on farm B that percent was much higher (43.32. A significant difference was established in the degree of hepatic lipidosis between those two farms. On farm A diffuse hepatic lipidosis was determined in 5.0 percent of cows, while on farm B that percent was 18.33. According to these results, most of the cows on farm B had uncontrolled lipomobilisation and severe fatty liver during the early lactation period, probably due to the obesity of these cows in late lactation and the dry period.

  7. Does mercury contamination reduce body condition of endangered California clapper rails?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Keister, Robin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined mercury exposure in 133 endangered California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) within tidal marsh habitats of San Francisco Bay, California from 2006 to 2010. Mean total mercury concentrations were 0.56 μg/g ww in blood (range: 0.15–1.43), 9.87 μg/g fw in head feathers (3.37–22.0), 9.04 μg/g fw in breast feathers (3.68–20.2), and 0.57 μg/g fww in abandoned eggs (0.15–2.70). We recaptured 21 clapper rails and most had low within-individual variation in mercury. Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site, with some evidence for year and quadratic date effects. Mercury concentrations in feathers were correlated with blood, and slopes differed between sexes (R 2 = 0.58–0.76). Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. Model averaged estimates indicated a potential decrease in body mass of 20–22 g (5–7%) over the observed range of mercury concentrations. Our results indicate the potential for detrimental effects of mercury contamination on endangered California clapper rails in tidal marsh habitats. - Highlights: ► We examined mercury in endangered California clapper rails within tidal marshes. ► Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site. ► Mercury concentrations in blood, feathers, and eggs were considered elevated. ► Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. ► Results indicate detrimental effects of mercury on endangered clapper rails. - Mercury contamination in endangered California clapper rails was influenced by tidal marsh site and increased mercury resulted in reduced bird body condition.

  8. Electromagnetic Modeling of Human Body Using High Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Cho-Kuen; Beall, Mark; Ge, Lixin; Kim, Sanghoek; Klaas, Ottmar; Poon, Ada

    Realistic simulation of electromagnetic wave propagation in the actual human body can expedite the investigation of the phenomenon of harvesting implanted devices using wireless powering coupled from external sources. The parallel electromagnetics code suite ACE3P developed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is based on the finite element method for high fidelity accelerator simulation, which can be enhanced to model electromagnetic wave propagation in the human body. Starting with a CAD model of a human phantom that is characterized by a number of tissues, a finite element mesh representing the complex geometries of the individual tissues is built for simulation. Employing an optimal power source with a specific pattern of field distribution, the propagation and focusing of electromagnetic waves in the phantom has been demonstrated. Substantial speedup of the simulation is achieved by using multiple compute cores on supercomputers.

  9. Estimation of genotype X environment interactions, in a grassbased system, for milk yield, body condition score,and body weight using random regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    (Co)variance components for milk yield, body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), BCS change and BW change over different herd-year mean milk yields (HMY) and nutritional environments (concentrate feeding level, grazing severity and silage quality) were estimated using a random regression model.

  10. Thermal conditions influence changes in body temperature induced by intragastric administration of capsaicin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Noriyuki; Urata, Tomomi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    Capsaicin has been reported to have unique thermoregulatory actions. However, changes in core temperature after the administration of capsaicin are a controversial point. Therefore, we investigated the effects of environmental thermal conditions on changes in body temperature caused by capsaicin in mice. We showed that intragastric administration of 10 and 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperatures in the core temperature (CT)-constant and CT-decreasing conditions. In the CT-increasing condition, 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperature. However, 10 mg/kg capsaicin increased colonic temperature. Furthermore, the amount of increase in tail temperature was greater in the CT-decreasing condition and lower in the CT-increasing condition, compared with that of the CT-constant condition. These findings suggest that the changes in core temperature were affected by the environmental thermal conditions and that preliminary thermoregulation state might be more important than the constancy of temperature to evaluate the effects of heat diffusion and thermogensis.

  11. Prenatal maternal effects on body condition score, female fertility, and milk yield of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, G; Brotherstone, S; Coffey, M P

    2007-07-01

    In this study, maternal effects were described as age of dam at first and second calving, first-lactation body condition score (BCS) of the dam during gestation, and milk yield of the dam. The impact of these effects on first-lactation daughter BCS, fertility, and test-day milk yield was assessed. The effect of milk yield of dam on daughter 305-d yield in the latter's first 3 lactations was also investigated. The proportion of total phenotypic variance in daughter traits accounted for by maternal effects was calculated. Dams calving early for the first time (18 to 23 mo of age) had daughters that produced 4.5% more first-lactation daily milk, had 7% higher BCS, and had their first service 3 d earlier than cows whose dams calved late (30 to 36 mo). However, daughters of dams that calved early had difficulties conceiving as they needed 7% more inseminations and had a 7.5% higher return rate. Cows from second calvings of relatively young (36 to 41 mo) dams produced 6% more first-lactation daily milk, had 2% higher BCS, and showed a significantly better fertility profile than cows whose dams calved at a late age (47 to 55 mo). High maternal BCS during gestation had a favorable effect on daughter BCS, nonreturn rate, and number of inseminations per conception. However, it was also associated with a small decrease in daughter daily milk yield. Changes in dam BCS during gestation did not affect daughter performance significantly. Maternal effects of milk yield of the dam, expressed as her permanent environment during lactation, adversely affected daughter 305-d milk, fat, and protein yield. However, although the effect was significant, it was practically negligible (<0.3% of the mean). Finally, overall maternal effects accounted for a significant proportion of the total phenotypic variance of calving interval (1.4 +/- 0.6%) and nonreturn rate (1.1 +/- 0.5%).

  12. Re-alimentation strategy to manoeuvre body condition and carcass characteristics in cull ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R S; Soren, N M; Sahoo, A; Karim, S A

    2012-01-01

    Improvement in body condition and carcass traits through nutritional intervention was studied in cull ewes. Sixty-eight adult non-productive Malpura ewes (average body weight 26.7 ± 0.33 kg) were randomly divided into four equal groups: G0 maintained on free grazing for 8 h on protected natural rangeland with ad libitum guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) straw (GS) after grazing; G1, G2 and G3 fed with supplemental concentrate at the rate of 250 g, 2.5% of live weight (LW) and ad libitum, respectively. The experiment was continued for 90 days and daily feed intake, weekly LW and body condition score (BCS) were recorded. Intake and digestibility of nutrients were assessed by indicator method. Rumen fermentation attributes and blood biochemical profile were studied to assess the dietary effects and animals were slaughtered at the end of experiment for evaluation of carcass characteristics. Higher dry matter (DM) intake and improvement in plane of nutrition was observed in G2 and G3 with a higher LW gain (LWG) and improvement in BCS than in G0. The digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP, ADF and cellulose was higher (P alimentation of cull ewes with challenged feeding of concentrate at 2.5% of LW on a basal roughage diet for a period of 3 months may have promise for better economic return to the farmers with possibly meeting quality mutton for human consumption.

  13. EFFECT OF BODY CONDITION AND SEASON ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF CATTLE EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kubovičová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Unsatisfactory reproductive performance in dairy cows has been associated with environmental influences, such as season, chronic and acute changes in dietary intake and body composition. These factors can affect fertility especially ovarian function and yield and quality of oocytes and embryos. In our study the cow ´s body condition affected the overall embryo recovery rate (proportion of collected embryos to palpated corpora lutea. The significantly higher number of embryos was collected from cows with BCS 2.5- 2.75 (68.32 % embryo recovery rate and 3.0- 3.25 (63.30 % compared to the cows with BCS 2.0-2.25 (53.33% and 3.5-4.0 (47.87%; P0.05. On the contrary, the yield of transferable embryos was higher (P<0.05 during the autumn months (78.94% compared to spring (58.38% or summer (60.00% months. In conclusion, body condition and season may affect the yield and quality of bovine embryos. Higher embryo yield was recorded in average BCS (2.5-3.25 cows, whilst most transferable embryos were obtained in the higher BCS (3.5-4.0. Our results indicate that the best season for collection of transferable bovine embryos is autumn.

  14. A statistical analysis of the body condition of cows from two veterinary stations in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saporu, F.W.O.

    2003-12-01

    The improvement of livestock production is important for Zimbabwe's agriculturally base economy. This paper examines the relationship between the body condition and metabolic parameters of female cows, for the better understanding of traditional livestock farming in Zimbabwe. The data analysed are part of the baseline data on the improvement of livestock production, collected from two sites Chinamora and Bulawayo. Body condition is indexed by body score. Thirty-five variables are examined. The variable selection method employed is stepwise regression. Regression model assumptions of normality and independent observations are checked using normal probability plot and Durbin-Watson statistics for autocorrelation of residuals. Collinearity and outlier problems are examined using eigenanalysis and influence statistics. The effect of some factors, such as, site, which relates to livestock management, parity and season, categorized by the quality of forage available for grazing, are also studied. The data are analysed using SAS statistical package on a Personal Computer. The results show that only about four variables substantially influence the relationship in each of the two sites considered. For the better managed site, Bulawayo, these are PCV, Calcium and WBC. Strongyles, Progesterone Level, Phosphate and HB are obtained in Chinamora. Negative correlation coefficient corresponds to strongyles only. That is, the effect of stronglyes is to reduce the value of bodyscore. For other variables, an improvement in their respective values will bring about improved body condition. Site difference is identified as a factor affecting the relationship. This emphasizes the role of good management in livestock production. Parity and season are also identified. Only two interactions are significant; site-season and a progesterone level-season interaction. The latter is obtained only in Chinamora site and it can be deduced that the cyclic cows are exposed to the risk of loosing their

  15. Mutual relationships among body condition score, live weight, and back tissue development in meat sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ptáček

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Body tissue development and proportion affect predisposition to optimum functioning of production attributes, health, and fertility of sheep. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine relationships among indicators of mature ewes’ nutritional status documented by the body condition score and live weight using ultrasonic evaluation of backfat thickness and depth of musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis. The monitoring was carried out in Suffolk sheep (n = 942 for a period of 2 years. A significant increase (P P P P in vivo. Results of the present study could serve in flock management as a tool for evaluation of the current nutritional status as well as a basic ground for further research focused on development of sheep fattiness and carcass traits evaluation.

  16. High body mass index is associated with impaired cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaro, Roberta; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of weight problems is increasing worldwide. There is growing evidence that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with frontal lobe dysfunction and cognitive deficits concerning mental flexibility and inhibitory control efficiency. The present study aims at replicating and extending these observations. We compared cognitive control performance of normal weight (BMI task tapping either inhibitory control (Experiment 1) or interference control (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 replicated previous findings that found less efficient inhibitory control in overweight individuals. Experiment 2 complemented these findings by showing that cognitive control impairments associated with high BMI also extend to the ability to resolve stimulus-induced response conflict and to engage in conflict-driven control adaptation. The present results are consistent with and extend previous literature showing that high BMI in young, otherwise healthy individuals is associated with less efficient cognitive control functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Creation and validation of a novel body condition scoring method for the magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) in the zoo setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Julie; Sanchez, Jessica N

    2015-11-01

    This research aims to validate a novel, visual body scoring system created for the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) suitable for the zoo practitioner. Magellanics go through marked seasonal fluctuations in body mass gains and losses. A standardized multi-variable visual body condition guide may provide a more sensitive and objective assessment tool compared to the previously used single variable method. Accurate body condition scores paired with seasonal weight variation measurements give veterinary and keeper staff a clearer understanding of an individual's nutritional status. San Francisco Zoo staff previously used a nine-point body condition scale based on the classic bird standard of a single point of keel palpation with the bird restrained in hand, with no standard measure of reference assigned to each scoring category. We created a novel, visual body condition scoring system that does not require restraint to assesses subcutaneous fat and muscle at seven body landmarks using illustrations and descriptive terms. The scores range from one, the least robust or under-conditioned, to five, the most robust, or over-conditioned. The ratio of body weight to wing length was used as a "gold standard" index of body condition and compared to both the novel multi-variable and previously used single-variable body condition scores. The novel multi-variable scale showed improved agreement with weight:wing ratio compared to the single-variable scale, demonstrating greater accuracy, and reliability when a trained assessor uses the multi-variable body condition scoring system. Zoo staff may use this tool to manage both the colony and the individual to assist in seasonally appropriate Magellanic penguin nutrition assessment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p temperature compared to rats born with low exercise capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs. PMID:27504097

  19. Bumpus in the snake den: effects of sex, size, and body condition on mortality of red-sided garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, R; LeMaster, M P; Moore, I T; Olsson, M M; Mason, R T

    2001-03-01

    Huge breeding aggregations of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) at overwintering dens in Manitoba provide a unique opportunity to identify sources of mortality and to clarify factors that influence a snake's vulnerability to these factors. Comparisons of sexes, body sizes, and body condition of more than 1000 dead snakes versus live animals sampled at the same time reveal significant biases. Three primary sources of mortality were identified. Predation by crows, Corvus brachyrhynchos (590 snakes killed), was focussed mostly on small snakes of both sexes. Crows generally removed the snake's liver and left the carcass, but very small snakes were sometimes brought back to the nest. Suffocation beneath massive piles of other snakes within the den (301 dead animals) involved mostly small males and (to a lesser extent) large females; snakes in poor body condition were particularly vulnerable. Many emaciated snakes (n = 142, mostly females) also died without overt injuries, probably due to depleted energy reserves. These biases in vulnerability are readily interpretable from information on behavioral ecology of the snakes. For example, sex biases in mortality reflect differences in postemergence behavior and locomotor capacity, the greater attractiveness of larger females to males, and the high energy costs of reproduction for females.

  20. Hormonal profile and body condition scoring in dairy cows during pre partum and post partum periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Vargová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of selected indicators of energy, hormonal profile, body condition score (BCS and their relationships in dairy cows of the Slovak Pied Cattle from 3 weeks before parturition to 9 weeks after. Significant differences were found in the mean values of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA (P P post partum (P P P P P P < 0.05. These data provide evidence that the variations in the concentrations of leptin, ghrelin, and insulin are related to variations in the BCS. Negative correlation between leptin and ghrelin contributes to the argument that leptin negatively regulates ghrelin.

  1. Genetics of body condition score as an indicator of dairy cattle fertility. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Bastin, C.; Gengler, N.

    2013-01-01

    Body condition score (BCS) is a subjective measure of the amount of metabolizable energy stored in a live animal. Change in BCS of dairy cows is considered to be an indicator of the extent and the duration of postpartum negative energy balance. Although change in BCS over lactation is lowly heritable, heritability estimates of level of BCS range from 0.20 to 0.50. Also, BCS tends to be more heritable in mid-lactation indicating that genetic differences are more related to how well cows recove...

  2. A validation of 11 body-condition indices in a giant snake species that exhibits positive allometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan G Falk

    Full Text Available Body condition is a gauge of the energy stores of an animal, and though it has important implications for fitness, survival, competition, and disease, it is difficult to measure directly. Instead, body condition is frequently estimated as a body condition index (BCI using length and mass measurements. A desirable BCI should accurately reflect true body condition and be unbiased with respect to size (i.e., mean BCI estimates should not change across different length or mass ranges, and choosing the most-appropriate BCI is not straightforward. We evaluated 11 different BCIs in 248 Burmese pythons (Python bivittatus, organisms that, like other snakes, exhibit simple body plans well characterized by length and mass. We found that the length-mass relationship in Burmese pythons is positively allometric, where mass increases rapidly with respect to length, and this allowed us to explore the effects of allometry on BCI verification. We employed three alternative measures of 'true' body condition: percent fat, scaled fat, and residual fat. The latter two measures mostly accommodated allometry in true body condition, but percent fat did not. Our inferences of the best-performing BCIs depended heavily on our measure of true body condition, with most BCIs falling into one of two groups. The first group contained most BCIs based on ratios, and these were associated with percent fat and body length (i.e., were biased. The second group contained the scaled mass index and most of the BCIs based on linear regressions, and these were associated with both scaled and residual fat but not body length (i.e., were unbiased. Our results show that potential differences in measures of true body condition should be explored in BCI verification studies, particularly in organisms undergoing allometric growth. Furthermore, the caveats of each BCI and similarities to other BCIs are important to consider when determining which BCI is appropriate for any particular taxon.

  3. Maternal body condition influences magnitude of anti-predator response in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Amanda M; Murray, Dennis L

    2014-11-07

    Organisms exhibit plasticity in response to their environment, but there is large variation even within populations in the expression and magnitude of response. Maternal influence alters offspring survival through size advantages in growth and development. However, the relationship between maternal influence and variation in plasticity in response to predation risk is unknown. We hypothesized that variation in the magnitude of plastic responses between families is at least partly due to maternal provisioning and examined the relationship between maternal condition, egg provisioning and magnitude of plastic response to perceived predation risk (by dragonfly larvae: Aeshna spp.) in northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens). Females in better body condition tended to lay more (clutch size) larger (egg diameter) eggs. Tadpoles responded to predation risk by increasing relative tail depth (morphology) and decreasing activity (behaviour). We found a positive relationship between morphological effect size and maternal condition, but no relationship between behavioural effect size and maternal condition. These novel findings suggest that limitations imposed by maternal condition can constrain phenotypic variation, ultimately influencing the capacity of populations to respond to environmental change. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Review of parameters influencing the structural response of a submerged body under cavitation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escaler, X; De La Torre, O; Farhat, M

    2015-01-01

    Submerged structures that operate under extreme flows are prone to suffer large scale cavitation attached to their surfaces. Under such conditions the added mass effects differ from the expected ones in pure liquids. Moreover, the existence of small gaps between the structure and surrounding bodies filled with fluid also influence the dynamic response. A series of experiments and numerical simulations have been carried out with a truncated NACA0009 hydrofoil mounted as a cantilever beam at the LMH-EPFL cavitation tunnel. The three first modes of vibration have been determined and analysed under various hydrodynamic conditions ranging from air and still water to partial cavitation and supercavitation. A remote nonintrusive excitation system with piezoelectric patches has been used for the experiments. The effects of the cavity properties and the lateral gap size on the natural frequencies and mode shapes have been determined. As a result, the significance of several parameters in the design of such structures is discussed. (paper)

  5. Review of parameters influencing the structural response of a submerged body under cavitation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaler, X.; De La Torre, O.; Farhat, M.

    2015-12-01

    Submerged structures that operate under extreme flows are prone to suffer large scale cavitation attached to their surfaces. Under such conditions the added mass effects differ from the expected ones in pure liquids. Moreover, the existence of small gaps between the structure and surrounding bodies filled with fluid also influence the dynamic response. A series of experiments and numerical simulations have been carried out with a truncated NACA0009 hydrofoil mounted as a cantilever beam at the LMH-EPFL cavitation tunnel. The three first modes of vibration have been determined and analysed under various hydrodynamic conditions ranging from air and still water to partial cavitation and supercavitation. A remote nonintrusive excitation system with piezoelectric patches has been used for the experiments. The effects of the cavity properties and the lateral gap size on the natural frequencies and mode shapes have been determined. As a result, the significance of several parameters in the design of such structures is discussed.

  6. Psychosocial and other working conditions in relation to body mass index in a representative sample of Australian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louie Amber M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between psychosocial and other working conditions and body-mass index (BMI in a working population. This study contributes to the approximately dozen investigations of job stress, which have demonstrated mixed positive and negative results in relation to obesity, overweight and BMI. Methods A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted among working Australians in the state of Victoria. Participants were contacted by telephone from a random sample of phone book listings. Information on body mass index was self-reported as were psychosocial work conditions assessed using the demand/control and effort/reward imbalance models. Other working conditions measured included working hours, shift work, and physical demand. Separate linear regression analyses were undertaken for males and females, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results A total of 1101 interviews (526 men and 575 women were completed. Multivariate models (adjusted for socio-demographics demonstrated no associations between job strain, as measured using the demand/control model, or ERI using the effort/reward imbalance model (after further adjustment for over commitment and BMI among men and women. Multivariate models demonstrated a negative association between low reward and BMI among women. Among men, multivariate models demonstrated positive associations between high effort, high psychological demand, long working hours and BMI and a negative association between high physical demand and BMI. After controlling for the effort/reward imbalance or the demand/control model, the association between physical demand and working longer hours and BMI remained. Conclusion Among men and women the were differing patterns of both exposures to psychosocial working conditions and associations with BMI. Among men, working long hours was positively associated with higher BMI and this association was partly

  7. Do digestive contents confound body mass as a measure of relative condition in nestling songbirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Vernasco, Ben J.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative nestling condition, typically measured as nestling mass or as an index including nestling mass, is commonly purported to correlate with fledgling songbird survival. However, most studies directly investigating fledgling survival have found no such relationship. We weighed feces and stomach contents of nestling golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) to investigate the potential contribution of variation in digestive contents to differences in nestling mass. We estimated that the mass of a seventh-day (near fledging) nestling golden-winged warbler varies by 0.65 g (approx. 9% of mean nestling mass) depending on the contents of the nestling's digestive system at the time of weighing, and that digestive contents are dissimilar among nestlings at any moment the brood is removed from the nest for weighing. Our conservative estimate of within-individual variation in digestive contents equals 72% and 24% of the mean within-brood and population-wide range in nestling mass, respectively. Based on our results, a substantive but typically unknown amount of the variation in body mass among nestlings is confounded by differences in digestive contents. We conclude that short-term variation in digestive contents likely precludes the use of body mass, and therefore any mass-dependent index, as a measure of relative nestling condition or as a predictor of survival in golden-winged warblers and likely in many other songbirds of similar size.

  8. Metabolic profile of santa inês ewes whith low body condition score during peripartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Resende Nasciutti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the variations in the metabolic profile of protein, energy enzyme and mineral of Santa Inês ewes with low body condition score (BCS during peripartum. Blood samples were collected from 12 animals by jugular venipuncture to determine the serum biochemical profiles of protein, energy, mineral and enzyme metabolisms. Samples were collected on the following days: days 28, 21, 14, and 7 before lambing, at birth and, at days 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 postpartum (dpp. The samples were centrifuged and the serum analysed by Automated-Analyser. There was no alteration of the BCS during the 28 dpp, between 0.6 and 2.1 ± 2.4 ± 0.5, and was considered, as lean. The values of the total serum protein, globulin, albumin, and albumin/globulin ratio were reduced effective from the period before birth until 28dpp. The values of beta-hydroxybutyrate, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium remained below those of reference values. The concentrations of alanin aminotransferase (ALT were decreased particularly during the weeks before delivery. It was concluded that Santa Inês sheep with low body condition score demonstrated a reduction in the metabolism of proteins, energy, mineral and enzyme during peripartum.

  9. Plumage bacterial assemblages in a breeding wild passerine: relationships with ecological factors and body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saag, Pauli; Tilgar, Vallo; Mänd, Raivo; Kilgas, Priit; Mägi, Marko

    2011-05-01

    Microorganisms have been shown to play an important role in shaping the life histories of animals, and it has recently been suggested that feather-degrading bacteria influence the trade-off between parental effort and self-preening behavior in birds. We studied a wild breeding population of great tits (Parus major) to explore habitat-, seasonal-, and sex-related variation in feather-degrading and free-living bacteria inhabiting the birds' yellow ventral feathers and to investigate associations with body condition. The density and species richness of bacterial assemblages was studied using flow cytometry and ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. The density of studied bacteria declined between the nest-building period and the first brood. The number of bacterial phylotypes per bird was higher in coniferous habitat, while bacterial densities were higher in deciduous habitat. Free-living bacterial density was positively correlated with female mass; conversely, there was a negative correlation between attached bacterial density and female mass during the period of peak reproductive effort. Bacterial species richness was sex dependent, with more diverse bacterial assemblages present on males than females. Thus, this study revealed that bacterial assemblages on the feathers of breeding birds are affected both by life history and ecological factors and are related to body condition.

  10. Three-body correlations and conditional forces in suspensions of active hard disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtel, Andreas; Richard, David; Speck, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Self-propelled Brownian particles show rich out-of-equilibrium physics, for instance, the motility-induced phase separation (MIPS). While decades of studying the structure of liquids have established a deep understanding of passive systems, not much is known about correlations in active suspensions. In this work we derive an approximate analytic theory for three-body correlations and forces in systems of active Brownian disks starting from the many-body Smoluchowski equation. We use our theory to predict the conditional forces that act on a tagged particle and their dependence on the propulsion speed of self-propelled disks. We identify preferred directions of these forces in relation to the direction of propulsion and the positions of the surrounding particles. We further relate our theory to the effective swimming speed of the active disks, which is relevant for the physics of MIPS. To test and validate our theory, we additionally run particle-resolved computer simulations, for which we explicitly calculate the three-body forces. In this context, we discuss the modeling of active Brownian swimmers with nearly hard interaction potentials. We find very good agreement between our simulations and numerical solutions of our theory, especially for the nonequilibrium pair-distribution function. For our analytical results, we carefully discuss their range of validity in the context of the different levels of approximation we applied. This discussion allows us to study the individual contribution of particles to three-body forces and to the emerging structure. Thus, our work sheds light on the collective behavior, provides the basis for further studies of correlations in active suspensions, and makes a step towards an emerging liquid state theory.

  11. A functional approach to the body condition assessment of lactating donkeys as a tool for welfare evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspa, Federica; Giribaldi, Marzia; Barbero, Raffaella; Bergagna, Stefania; Antoniazzi, Sara; Mc Lean, Amy K.; Minero, Michela; Cavallarin, Laura

    2017-01-01

    first principal component (PC1). PC1 revealed a meaningful positive correlation between the BCS and the neck measurements (NT, NH and FNS), with high positive loadings, while a negative correlation was found for dental abnormalities. The owners’ evaluation of BCS was different from the expert evaluator’ assessment, since they tended to give higher score that was slightly but significantly correlated to AC. Discussion A new scoring system, called Fatty Neck Score (FNS), has been proposed for the judgement of the adiposity status of donkey neck. The results suggest that caregivers might use the proposed animal based indicators (BCS, FNS and dental scores) together as a tool for the evaluation of the body condition of lactating donkeys. Our findings highlight that caregivers need to be trained in order to be able to properly record these indicators. Ultimately use of these indicators may help to improve the welfare of lactating donkeys. PMID:28367363

  12. A functional approach to the body condition assessment of lactating donkeys as a tool for welfare evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Valle

    2017-03-01

    the first principal component (PC1. PC1 revealed a meaningful positive correlation between the BCS and the neck measurements (NT, NH and FNS, with high positive loadings, while a negative correlation was found for dental abnormalities. The owners’ evaluation of BCS was different from the expert evaluator’ assessment, since they tended to give higher score that was slightly but significantly correlated to AC. Discussion A new scoring system, called Fatty Neck Score (FNS, has been proposed for the judgement of the adiposity status of donkey neck. The results suggest that caregivers might use the proposed animal based indicators (BCS, FNS and dental scores together as a tool for the evaluation of the body condition of lactating donkeys. Our findings highlight that caregivers need to be trained in order to be able to properly record these indicators. Ultimately use of these indicators may help to improve the welfare of lactating donkeys.

  13. Nutritional modulation of IGF-1 in relation to growth and body condition in Sceloporus lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Christine A; Jetzt, Amanda E; Cohick, Wendie S; John-Alder, Henry B

    2015-05-15

    Nutrition and energy balance are important regulators of growth and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis. However, our understanding of these functions does not extend uniformly to all classes of vertebrates and is mainly limited to controlled laboratory conditions. Lizards can be useful models to improve our understanding of the nutritional regulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis because many species are relatively easy to observe and manipulate both in the laboratory and in the field. In the present study, the effects of variation in food intake on growth, body condition, and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA levels were measured in (1) juveniles of Sceloporus jarrovii maintained on a full or 1/3 ration and (2) hatchlings of Sceloporus undulatus subjected to full or zero ration with or without re-feeding. These parameters plus plasma IGF-1 were measured in a third experiment using adults of S. undulatus subjected to full or zero ration with or without re-feeding. In all experiments, plasma corticosterone was measured as an anticipated indicator of nutritional stress. In S. jarrovii, growth and body condition were reduced but lizards remained in positive energy balance on 1/3 ration, and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA and plasma corticosterone were not affected in comparison to full ration. In S. undulatus, growth, body condition, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA, and plasma IGF-1 were all reduced by zero ration and restored by refeeding. Plasma corticosterone was increased in response to zero ration and restored by full ration in hatchlings but not adults of S. undulatus. These data indicate that lizards conform to the broader vertebrate model in which severe food deprivation and negative energy balance is required to attenuate systemic IGF-1 expression. However, when animals remain in positive energy balance, reduced food intake does not appear to affect systemic IGF-1. Consistent with other studies on lizards, the corticosterone response to reduced food intake is an unreliable indicator

  14. The impact of body condition after calving on metabolism and milk progesterone profiles in two breeds of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Lisa A; Båge, Renée; Holtenius, Kjell

    2016-10-20

    Optimal body condition in early lactation is generally accepted as a prerequisite for good reproductive performance. Examination of milk progesterone profiles offers an objective method for characterization of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows. The present study investigated the relationship between body condition after calving, some metabolic parameters in blood plasma, and fertility, as reflected by milk progesterone profiles in the two dairy breeds Swedish Red (SR) and Swedish Holstein (SH). Multiparous dairy cows (n = 73) of SR and SH breeds were selected and divided into three groups based on their body condition score (BCS) after parturition. Selected plasma metabolites were determined, milk progesterone profiles were identified and body condition was scored. Over-conditioned cows and atypical progesterone profiles were more common among SR cows. Insulin sensitivity was lower and IGF 1 higher among SR cows. Insulin was positively related to body condition, but not related to breed. Atypical progesterone profiles were more common and insulin sensitivity lower in SR than in SH cows, but the SR breed had a higher proportion of over-conditioned SR cows. It is reasonable to assume that breed differences in body condition contributed to these results.

  15. Effects of microplastic exposure on the body condition and behaviour of planktivorous reef fish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchell, Kay; Hoogenboom, Mia O

    2018-01-01

    The effect of a pollutant on the base of the food web can have knock-on effects for trophic structure and ecosystem functioning. In this study we assess the effect of microplastic exposure on juveniles of a planktivorous fish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus), a species that is widespread and abundant on Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Under five different plastic concentration treatments, with plastics the same size as the natural food particles (mean 2mm diameter), there was no significant effect of plastic exposure on fish growth, body condition or behaviour. The amount of plastics found in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract was low, with a range of one to eight particles remaining in the gut of individual fish at the end of a 6-week plastic-exposure period, suggesting that these fish are able to detect and avoid ingesting microplastics in this size range. However, in a second experiment the number of plastics in the GI tract vastly increased when plastic particle size was reduced to approximately one quarter the size of the food particles, with a maximum of 2102 small (< 300μm diameter) particles present in the gut of individual fish after a 1-week plastic exposure period. Under conditions where food was replaced by plastic, there was a negative effect on the growth and body condition of the fish. These results suggest plastics could become more of a problem as they break up into smaller size classes, and that environmental changes that lead to a decrease in plankton concentrations combined with microplastic presence is likely have a greater influence on fish populations than microplastic presence alone.

  16. Immune activity, body condition and human-associated environmental impacts in a wild marine mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Brock

    Full Text Available Within individuals, immunity may compete with other life history traits for resources, such as energy and protein, and the damage caused by immunopathology can sometimes outweigh the protective benefits that immune responses confer. However, our understanding of the costs of immunity in the wild and how they relate to the myriad energetic demands on free-ranging organisms is limited. The endangered Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki is threatened simultaneously by disease from domestic animals and rapid changes in food availability driven by unpredictable environmental variation. We made use of this unique ecology to investigate the relationship between changes in immune activity and changes in body condition. We found that during the first three months of life, changes in antibody concentration were negatively correlated with changes in mass per unit length, skinfold thickness and serum albumin concentration, but only in a sea lion colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts. It has previously been shown that changes in antibody concentration during early Galapagos sea lion development were higher in a colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts than in a control colony. This study allows for the possibility that these relatively large changes in antibody concentration are associated with negative impacts on fitness through an effect on body condition. Our findings suggest that energy availability and the degree of plasticity in immune investment may influence disease risk in natural populations synergistically, through a trade-off between investment in immunity and resistance to starvation. The relative benefits of such investments may change quickly and unpredictably, which allows for the possibility that individuals fine-tune their investment strategies in response to changes in environmental conditions. In addition, our results suggest that anthropogenic environmental impacts may impose subtle energetic costs on

  17. Effects of microplastic exposure on the body condition and behaviour of planktivorous reef fish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Mia O.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of a pollutant on the base of the food web can have knock-on effects for trophic structure and ecosystem functioning. In this study we assess the effect of microplastic exposure on juveniles of a planktivorous fish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus), a species that is widespread and abundant on Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Under five different plastic concentration treatments, with plastics the same size as the natural food particles (mean 2mm diameter), there was no significant effect of plastic exposure on fish growth, body condition or behaviour. The amount of plastics found in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract was low, with a range of one to eight particles remaining in the gut of individual fish at the end of a 6-week plastic-exposure period, suggesting that these fish are able to detect and avoid ingesting microplastics in this size range. However, in a second experiment the number of plastics in the GI tract vastly increased when plastic particle size was reduced to approximately one quarter the size of the food particles, with a maximum of 2102 small (plastic exposure period. Under conditions where food was replaced by plastic, there was a negative effect on the growth and body condition of the fish. These results suggest plastics could become more of a problem as they break up into smaller size classes, and that environmental changes that lead to a decrease in plankton concentrations combined with microplastic presence is likely have a greater influence on fish populations than microplastic presence alone. PMID:29494635

  18. Quantification of discreteness effects in cosmological N-body simulations: Initial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, M.; Marcos, B.

    2007-01-01

    The relation between the results of cosmological N-body simulations, and the continuum theoretical models they simulate, is currently not understood in a way which allows a quantification of N dependent effects. In this first of a series of papers on this issue, we consider the quantification of such effects in the initial conditions of such simulations. A general formalism developed in [A. Gabrielli, Phys. Rev. E 70, 066131 (2004).] allows us to write down an exact expression for the power spectrum of the point distributions generated by the standard algorithm for generating such initial conditions. Expanded perturbatively in the amplitude of the input (i.e. theoretical, continuum) power spectrum, we obtain at linear order the input power spectrum, plus two terms which arise from discreteness and contribute at large wave numbers. For cosmological type power spectra, one obtains as expected, the input spectrum for wave numbers k smaller than that characteristic of the discreteness. The comparison of real space correlation properties is more subtle because the discreteness corrections are not as strongly localized in real space. For cosmological type spectra the theoretical mass variance in spheres and two-point correlation function are well approximated above a finite distance. For typical initial amplitudes this distance is a few times the interparticle distance, but it diverges as this amplitude (or, equivalently, the initial redshift of the cosmological simulation) goes to zero, at fixed particle density. We discuss briefly the physical significance of these discreteness terms in the initial conditions, in particular, with respect to the definition of the continuum limit of N-body simulations

  19. The impact of bodyweight and body condition on behavioral testing for painful diabetic neuropathy in the streptozotocin rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoybergs, Yves M J J; Biermans, Ria L V; Meert, Theo F

    2008-05-02

    The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes model is widely used for the induction of neuropathy in the rat. In this model, diabetic animals often display chronic illness, which raises objections not only on ethical but also on scientific grounds. In this study, the investigators set out to determine the impact of bodyweight and body condition (BC) on behavioral testing in the rat. Animals were allocated to four different groups as a function of their bodyweight, in particular one control group and three experimental groups with different starting weights (low bodyweight [LBW], medium bodyweight [MBW] and high bodyweight [HBW]), the groups having been rendered diabetic with an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65mg/kg). Bodyweight, blood glucose, body condition and thresholds for mechanical hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia were measured or evaluated over a 68-day period. Animals with a LBW at the start of the experiment showed a gradual increase in BW with a decrease in mechanical nociceptive thresholds, while MBW and HBW animals presented a decrease in both thresholds and BW. The body condition score (BCS) decreased in all STZ-treated groups over time. Since correlations between mechanical thresholds and BW were similar between the control group and the HBW and MBW groups, the loss in BW clearly contributed to the decrease in thresholds. In the LBW group, thresholds and BW correlated negatively, so that the decrease in thresholds was mainly caused by the development of a painful neuropathy. From an ethical and a scientific point of view, in the STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy model, animals should be chosen on the basis of bodyweight and it must also be ensured that STZ is correctly dosed.

  20. High average power solid state laser power conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkraus, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The power conditioning system for the High Average Power Laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. The system has been operational for two years. It is high voltage, high power, fault protected, and solid state. The power conditioning system drives flashlamps that pump solid state lasers. Flashlamps are driven by silicon control rectifier (SCR) switched, resonant charged, (LC) discharge pulse forming networks (PFNs). The system uses fiber optics for control and diagnostics. Energy and thermal diagnostics are monitored by computers

  1. Relativistic many-body theory of high density matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    A fully relativistic quantum many-body theory is applied to the study of high-density matter. The latter is identified with the zero-temperature ground state of a system of interacting baryons. In accordance with the observed short-range repulsive and long-range attractive character of the nucleon--nucleon force, baryons are described as interacting with each other via a massive scalar and a massive vector meson exchange. In the Hartree approximation, the theory yields the same result as the mean-field theory, but with additional vacuum fluctuation corrections. The resultant equation of state for neutron matter is used to determine properties of neutron stars. The relativistic exchange energy, its corresponding single-particle excitation spectrum, and its effect on the neutron matter equation of state, are calculated. The correlation energy from summing the set of ring diagrams is derived directly from the energy-momentum tensor, with renormalization carried out by adding counterterms to the original Lagrangian and subtracting purely vacuum expectation values. Terms of order g 4 lng 2 are explicitly given. Effects of scalar-vector mixing are discussed. Collective modes corresponding to macroscopic density fluctuation are investigated. Two basic modes are found, a plasma-like mode and zero sound, with the latter dominant at high density. The stability and damping of these modes are studied. Last, the effect of vacuum polarization in high-density matter is examined

  2. Effects of impoundment on the body condition of fish in the Manso reservoir, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Lopes de Moura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the body condition de Acestrorhynchus pantaneiro, Auchenipterus osteomystax, Pimelodus maculatus, Psectrogaster curviventris and Schizodon borellii in the Manso reservoir, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, during the first years after its formation (years I, II, III and IV. We hypothesized that sudden environmental changes alter differently the body condition, according to the time (sampling years and sex of individuals. Also, we checked the influence of the amount of food ingested and the reproductive status on nutritional status of the species. METHODS: The body condition (Kn, the feeding activity (SRI and reproductive (GSI were calculated only for adults. The difference between the sampling years and sexes (used as factors was assessed using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Temporal influence was tested by Spearman correlation and the interaction between both factors by PERMANOVA. RESULTS: The values of the Kn showed two groups: group 1: species whose body condition decreased in the year II, with a posterior increase (A. pantaneiro, P. curviventris and S. borelli, considered sensitive to the reservoir filling; group 2: species whose body condition increased in the year II (A. osteomystax and P. maculatus, indicating a more rapid adaptation to new environmental conditions. Still, all parameters investigated were somehow affected by the dam, mainly the body condition and gonadosomatic index for several species. On the other hand, the least affected factor was the feeding activity. CONCLUSIONS: The results did not evidence a same pattern of either increase or decrease of body condition for all species examined, since everything indicates that responses are species-specific. Even with a lack of consistency in some results, we can draw some suggestions for future investigations. Responses to these questions will certainly contribute to aggregate data to help better explain the body condition of fish species in dammed

  3. Dynamics of food availability, body condition and physiological stress response in breeding Black-legged Kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, John F.

    1999-01-01

    1. The seasonal dynamics of body condition (BC), circulating corticosterone levels (baseline, BL) and the adrenocortical response to acute stress (SR) were examined in long-lived Black-legged Kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, breeding at Duck (food-poor colony) and Gull (food-rich colony) Islands in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. It was tested whether the dynamics of corticosterone levels reflect a seasonal change in bird physiological condition due to reproduction and/or variation in foraging conditions. 2. BC declined seasonally, and the decline was more pronounced in birds at the food-poor colony. BL and SR levels of corticosterone rose steadily through the reproductive season, and BL levels were significantly higher in birds on Duck island compared with those on Gull Island. During the egg-laying and chick-rearing stages, birds had lower SR on Duck Island than on Gull Island. 3. The results suggest that, in addition to a seasonal change in bird physiology during reproduction, local ecological factors such as food availability affect circulating levels of corticosterone and adrenal response to acute stress.

  4. Tochilinite: A Sensitive Indicator of Alteration Conditions on the CM Asteroidal Parent Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, L. B.; Bourcier, W. L.

    1996-03-01

    Each CM chondrite experienced a different degree of aqueous alteration. As a group, then, these meteorites preserve tangible evidence of asteroidal reactions that were interrupted at many different stages of completion. Geochemical modeling of CM reaction progress should elucidate the nature of the accreted CM materials and the specific types of asteroidal processes and conditions that subsequently influenced them. However, most of the minerals in CM chondrites are stable under a wide range of environmental conditions, which hinders efforts to capitalize on the diverse degree of CM alteration. Petrologic evidence suggests that Fe-rich tochilinite, the widespread mineralic component of CM chondrites previously referred to as "poorly characterized phase (PCP)", may be the most sensitive indicator of the conditions of CM alteration. This possibility has not previously been explored because thermodynamic data for tochilinite are lacking. We have estimated the thermodynamic properties of tochilinite from mixing equations and then calculated its stability limits with associated non-silicate phases as a function of PS2, PO2, and PCO2. The resultant phase relations : a) are consistent with mineral association in CM chondrites, b) indicate that the CM fluids were S-depleted and extremely reducing, c) imply the possibility of H2 gas seeps on the CM parent body, and d) suggest that the alteration of CM materials occurred at significant asteroidal depths.

  5. Effects of Plyometric Versus Concentric and Eccentric Conditioning Contractions on Upper-Body Postactivation Potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Gert; Parstorfer, Mario

    2017-07-01

    There are limited data on postactivation potentiation's (PAP) effects after plyometric conditioning contractions (CCs), especially in the upper body. This study compared plyometric CCs with concentric-eccentric and eccentric CCs aiming to improve upper-body power performance due to a PAP effect. Sixteen resistance-trained males completed 3 experimental trials in a randomized order that comprised either a plyometric (PLY), a concentric-eccentric (CON), or an eccentric-only (ECC) CC. Maximal muscle performance, as determined by a ballistic bench-press throw, was measured before (baseline) and 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16 min after each CC. Compared with baseline, bench-press power was significantly enhanced only in CON (P = .046, ES = 0.21) after 8 min of recovery. However, the results obtained from the comparisons between baseline power performance and the individual best power performance for each subject after each CC stimulus showed significant increases in PLY (P < .001, ES = 0.31) and CON (P < .001, ES = 0.38). There was no significant improvement in ECC (P = .106, ES = 0.11). The results indicate that only CON CCs generated increases in bench-press power after 8 min of rest. However, considering an individual rest interval, PLY CCs led to an enhanced power performance in the bench-press exercise, and this increase was comparable to that induced by CON CCs. Due to the easy practical application before a competition, PLY CCs might be an interesting part of warm-up strategies aiming to improve upper-body power performance by reason of PAP.

  6. Genetic evaluation for body condition score in Italian Brown Swiss cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nicoletti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Body Condition Score (BCS evaluates the body energy reserve in a cow using a numeric classification. It is possible to use the BCS as an indirect indicator of fertility. The genetic evaluation for BCS in Italian Brown Swiss is performed on 73125 BCS evaluations on the same number of primiparous, daughters of 507 sires. Effect of herd by year goes from -1,02 to +0,94 indicating large differences among herds. The primiparous cows show about 3.2 BCS points at calving, their BCS decreases slightly during first 90 milking days but, after this period, the BCS increases until 3.5 BCS points at the end of first lactation. Sires with larger EBVs guarantee a slower decrease of BCS during the first part of lactation, which is preferred to the strong decrease exhibited by the daughter of low EBV sires. The pseudo-genetic correlations, correlations values estimated among EBV, confirmed the relationships between BCS and other important traits like milk yield (-0.20, final score, dairyness and udder. The correlations between BCS and functional traits, milking speed and functional longevity, is -0.14 and +0.17 respectively.

  7. Establishment Success of the Beetle Tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta Depends on Dose and Host Body Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Dhakal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasite effects on host fitness and immunology are often intensity-dependent. Unfortunately, only few experimental studies on insect-parasite interactions attempt to control the level of infection, which may contribute substantial variation to the fitness or immunological parameters of interest. The tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta—flour beetle Tenebrio molitor model—has been used extensively for ecological and evolutionary host–parasite studies. Successful establishment of H. diminuta cysticercoids in T. molitor relies on ingestion of viable eggs and penetration of the gut wall by the onchosphere. Like in other insect models, there is a lack of standardization of the infection load of cysticercoids in beetles. The aims of this study were to: (1 quantify the relationship between exposure dose and establishment success across several H. diminuta egg concentrations; and (2 test parasite establishment in beetles while experimentally manipulating host body condition and potential immune response to infection. Different egg concentrations of H. diminuta isolated from infected rat feces were fed to individual beetles 7–10 days after eclosion and beetles were exposed to starvation, wounding, or insertion of a nylon filament one hour prior to infection. We found that the establishment of cysticercoids in relation to exposure dose could be accurately predicted using a power function where establishment success was low at three lowest doses and higher at the two highest doses tested. Long-term starvation had a negative effect on cysticercoid establishment success, while insertion of a nylon filament and wounding the beetles did not have any effect compared to control treatment. Thus, our results show that parasite load may be predicted from the exposure dose within the observed range, and that the relationship between dose and parasite establishment success is able to withstand some changes in host body condition.

  8. Establishment Success of the Beetle Tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta Depends on Dose and Host Body Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Cassidy, Elizabeth; Vitt Meyling, Nicolai

    2018-01-01

    Parasite effects on host fitness and immunology are often intensity-dependent. Unfortunately, only few experimental studies on insect-parasite interactions attempt to control the level of infection, which may contribute substantial variation to the fitness or immunological parameters of interest. The tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta—flour beetle Tenebrio molitor model—has been used extensively for ecological and evolutionary host–parasite studies. Successful establishment of H. diminuta cysticercoids in T. molitor relies on ingestion of viable eggs and penetration of the gut wall by the onchosphere. Like in other insect models, there is a lack of standardization of the infection load of cysticercoids in beetles. The aims of this study were to: (1) quantify the relationship between exposure dose and establishment success across several H. diminuta egg concentrations; and (2) test parasite establishment in beetles while experimentally manipulating host body condition and potential immune response to infection. Different egg concentrations of H. diminuta isolated from infected rat feces were fed to individual beetles 7–10 days after eclosion and beetles were exposed to starvation, wounding, or insertion of a nylon filament one hour prior to infection. We found that the establishment of cysticercoids in relation to exposure dose could be accurately predicted using a power function where establishment success was low at three lowest doses and higher at the two highest doses tested. Long-term starvation had a negative effect on cysticercoid establishment success, while insertion of a nylon filament and wounding the beetles did not have any effect compared to control treatment. Thus, our results show that parasite load may be predicted from the exposure dose within the observed range, and that the relationship between dose and parasite establishment success is able to withstand some changes in host body condition. PMID:29401652

  9. Periparturient Period in Terms of Body Condition Score and Selected Parameters of Hormonal Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargová M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of all diseases in dairy cows occur during the period from three weeks before parturition to three weeks after parturition, in the periparturient or transitional period. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of selected parameters of: the hormonal profiles, the body condition score (BCS and their interrelationships. The study was carried out on 15 dairy cows of the Slovak Pied Cattle, from three weeks before to nine weeks after parturition, which were divided into six groups. The concentrations of leptin during ante partum increased from 23.08 ± 10.58 ng.ml−1 to 26.80 ± 11.47 ng.ml−1, then gradually decreased (P > 0.05, and conversely, the concentrations of ghrelin before parturition were found to be decreasing and during the postpartal period, the concentrations increased, with the highest value of 35.94 ± 16.85 pg.ml−1. In the case of insulin, we found the opposite tendency of ghrelin. We observed significantly higher values of BCS in dry cows than in cows after parturition (P < 0.001. Comparing the BCS and the parameter of the hormonal profiles, we found both positive and negative correlations: leptin and ghrelin (r = −0.235, P < 0.05, and BCS and insulin (r = 0.232, P < 0.05, and BCS and leptin (r = 0.360, P < 0.001. The interrelationships between the hormones and the body condition score, provided evidence that the variations in concentrations of leptin, ghrelin and insulin were related to variations in the BCS.

  10. Seasonal prevalence, body condition score and risk factors of bovine fasciolosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishmael Festus Jaja

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is an important zoonotic disease that is responsible for a significant loss in food resource and animal productivity. The objectives of this study were to determine the seasonal prevalence and risk factors associated with Fasciola infection in cattle. The results were obtained by coprology, antemortem and post-mortem survey of three abattoirs (HTPA1, n = 500, HTPA2, n = 400, and LTPA, n = 220. The seasonal prevalence of Fasciola infection was 10.4%, 12.8% and 10.9%, during summer, 11.2%, 10.8% and 8.6%, during autumn, 9.8%, 6.5% and 5.9% during winter and 8.2%, 7.8% and 5.9%, during spring in the three abattoirs HTPA1, HTPA and LTPA respectively. There was a significant association (p < 0.05 between the intensity of infection and body condition score (BCS of cattle at each abattoir. Factors such as age [HTPA1 (OR = 3.6, CI = 1.2, 10.2, and LTPA (OR = 3.8, CI= 2.4, 6.1], sex [LTPA (OR = 4.2, CI= 2.5, 7.0], breed [HTPA2 (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.3, 4.1 and LTPA (OR = 2.5, CI= 1.3, 5.0] and BCS had significant (p < 0.01–0.001 influence on the prevalence of fasciolosis. In conclusion, the infection with Fasciola spp was higher in the summer than in the winter; a positive association was established between the prevalence of fasciolosis and poor body condition in study animals. This study, therefore, suggests that fasciolosis could be causing substantial production losses, mainly due to cattle weight loss and liver condemnation.

  11. The impact of body condition after calving on metabolism and milk progesterone profiles in two breeds of dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    O?Hara, Lisa A.; B?ge, Ren?e; Holtenius, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    Background Optimal body condition in early lactation is generally accepted as a prerequisite for good reproductive performance. Examination of milk progesterone profiles offers an objective method for characterization of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows. The present study investigated the relationship between body condition after calving, some metabolic parameters in blood plasma, and fertility, as reflected by milk progesterone profiles in the two dairy breeds Swedish Red (SR) and S...

  12. The Effect of Body Weight on Heat Strain Indices in Hot and Dry Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Being overweight is a characteristic that may influence a person’s heat exchange. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of body weight on heat strain indices in hot and dry climatic conditions. Materials and Methods This study was completed with a sample of 30 participants with normal weights, as well as 25 participants who were overweight. The participants were physically inactive for a period of 120 minutes in a climatic chamber with hot and dry conditions (22 - 32°C and with 40% relative humidity (RH.The physiological strain index (PSI and heat strain score index (HSSI questionnaires were used. Simultaneous measurements were completed during heat exposure for periods of five minutes. The resting periods acted as the initial measurements for 15 minutes. Results In both groups, oral temperature, heart rate, and thermal perceptual responses increased during heat exposure. The means and standard deviations of heart rate and oral temperature were gathered when participants were in hot and dry climatic conditions and were not physically active. The heart rates and oral temperatures were 79.21 ± 5.93 bpm and 36.70 ± 0.45°C, respectively, for those with normal weights. For overweight individuals, the measurements for heart rate and oral temperature reached 82.21 ± 8.9 bpm and 37.84 ± 0.37°C, respectively. Conclusions The results showed that, compared to participants with normal weights, physiological and thermal perceptual responses were higher in overweight participants. Therefore, overweight individuals should avoid hot/dry weather conditions to decrease the amount of heat strain.

  13. Body condition score, nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in goats with subclinical ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marutsova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Studies were conducted to establish the influence of the values of β-hydroxybutyric acid (ВНВА and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA in the blood on the assessment of body condition score (BCS of goats with subclinical ketosis (SCK. A total of 113 dairy goats with yearly milk yield of 680 L, in their 2nd to 3rd lactation and average body weight 50-60 кg were included in the study. The goats were divided in three groups: І group (n=27 – pregnant (from pre-partum days 15 to 0; ІІ group (n=28 – recently kidded (from postpartum days 0 to 15 and ІІІ group (n=58 – lactating (from postpartum days 30 to 45. It was established that the quantity of BHBA in goats from control groups I, II and III were between 0.17±0.11 mmol/l and 0.56±0.11 mmol/l. In goats from the three groups with SCK signs, blood BHBA was statistically significantly elevated vs control goats – from 0.88±0.11 mmol/l to 1.2±0.42 mmol/l (р<0.001. Blood ВНВА <0.8 mmol/l in goats are indicative a good transition from pregnancy to lactation, whereas an amount between 0.8 mmol/l and 1.6 mmol /l are indicative of the SCK. Blood BHBA concentrations indicative for clinical ketosis were not established in goats from the three groups (ВНВА <1.6 mmol/l. The body condition scores (BCS of goats from the control groups was within the reference range – 2.45±0.3 – 2.85±0.2, whereas in goats with SCK – declines of varying degrees of reliability. In goats from the three groups with SCK signs, blood NEFA was statistically significantly elevated vs control groups.

  14. Influence of Urbanization on Body Size, Condition, and Physiology in an Urban Exploiter: A Multi-Component Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizée Meillère

    Full Text Available Consistent expanding urbanization dramatically transforms natural habitats and exposes organisms to novel environmental challenges, often leading to reduced species richness and diversity in cities. However, it remains unclear how individuals are affected by the urban environment and how they can or cannot adjust to the specific characteristics of urban life (e.g. food availability. In this study, we used an integrative multi-component approach to investigate the effects of urbanization on the nutritional status of house sparrows (Passer domesticus. We assessed several morphological and physiological indices of body condition in both juveniles (early post-fledging and breeding adults from four sites with different levels of urbanization in France, Western Europe. We found that sparrows in more urbanized habitats have reduced body size and body mass compared to their rural conspecifics. However, we did not find any consistent differences in a number of complementary indices of condition (scaled mass index, muscle score, hematocrit, baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels between urban and rural birds, indicating that urban sparrows may not be suffering nutritional stress. Our results suggest that the urban environment is unlikely to energetically constrain adult sparrows, although other urban-related variables may constrain them. On the other hand, we found significant difference in juvenile fat scores, suggesting that food types provided to young sparrows differed highly between habitats. In addition to the observed smaller size of urban sparrows, these results suggest that the urban environment is inadequate to satisfy early-life sparrows' nutritional requirements, growth, and development. The urban environment may therefore have life-long consequences for developing birds.

  15. Influence of Urbanization on Body Size, Condition, and Physiology in an Urban Exploiter: A Multi-Component Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillère, Alizée; Brischoux, François; Parenteau, Charline; Angelier, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Consistent expanding urbanization dramatically transforms natural habitats and exposes organisms to novel environmental challenges, often leading to reduced species richness and diversity in cities. However, it remains unclear how individuals are affected by the urban environment and how they can or cannot adjust to the specific characteristics of urban life (e.g. food availability). In this study, we used an integrative multi-component approach to investigate the effects of urbanization on the nutritional status of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We assessed several morphological and physiological indices of body condition in both juveniles (early post-fledging) and breeding adults from four sites with different levels of urbanization in France, Western Europe. We found that sparrows in more urbanized habitats have reduced body size and body mass compared to their rural conspecifics. However, we did not find any consistent differences in a number of complementary indices of condition (scaled mass index, muscle score, hematocrit, baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels) between urban and rural birds, indicating that urban sparrows may not be suffering nutritional stress. Our results suggest that the urban environment is unlikely to energetically constrain adult sparrows, although other urban-related variables may constrain them. On the other hand, we found significant difference in juvenile fat scores, suggesting that food types provided to young sparrows differed highly between habitats. In addition to the observed smaller size of urban sparrows, these results suggest that the urban environment is inadequate to satisfy early-life sparrows' nutritional requirements, growth, and development. The urban environment may therefore have life-long consequences for developing birds.

  16. Practical conditions in the neutron diffraction under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamigaki, Kazuo; Ohashi, Masayoshi

    1993-01-01

    Practical analysis is made on some conditions in utilizing neutrons for the study of atomistic structure of materials under high pressure. Investigation is made on the geometrical conditions; size of the specimen, width of slits, and the rate of extra-scattering. Experiments are performed on the effects of absorption by high pressure cell and the disturbance due to an overlapping of diffraction peaks. An observation is presented on the pressure-induced transformation in RbBr. (author)

  17. Factors associated with pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using fractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Hwa Kyung; Yoon, Hong In; Cho, Jae Ho [Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-09-15

    Pulmonary toxicities, including infectious pneumonia (IP) and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), are serious side effects of total body irradiation (TBI) used for myeloablative conditioning. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with IP and IPS following TBI. Fifty-eight patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent TBI before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. Most patients (91%) received 12 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions twice a day. Pulmonary toxicities were diagnosed based on either radiographic evidence or reduced pulmonary function, and were subdivided into IP and IPS based on the presence or absence of concurrent infection. Pulmonary toxicities developed in 36 patients (62%); 16 (28%) had IP and 20 (34%) had IPS. IP was significantly associated with increased treatment-related mortality (p = 0.028) and decreased survival (p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of developing IPS was significantly higher in patients who received stem cells from a matched unrelated donor than from a matched sibling donor (p = 0.021; hazard ratio [HR] = 12.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–110.30). Combining other conditioning agents with cyclophosphamide produced a higher tendency to develop IP (p = 0.064; HR = 6.19; 95% CI, 0.90–42.56). IP and IPS involve different risk factors and distinct pathogeneses that should be considered when planning treatments before and after TBI.

  18. Genetic relationship between body condition score, fertility, type and production traits in Brown Swiss dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the relationship between body condition score (BCS, calving interval (CI, angularity (ANG, strength (FV and milk yield (MY on Brown Swiss cattle using data collected in the alpine provinces of Bolzano- Bozen and Trentino. The data set consisted of 28,538 test day records of BCS and MY from 3,282 Brown Swiss cows in lactation reared in 109 herds; production traits were merged with 13,796 repeated individual calving interval records and 38,711 type traits records. A multi-traits REML animal model was used to estimate (covariance components, with repeated observations. Heritability estimates for BCS, FV and ANG was 18%, 18% and 27%, respectively, while estimates for CI was very low (2%. Genetic correlations between CI and BCS was -0.44; between BCS and ANG was - 0.64; between BCS and MY was -0.35; between ANG and CI was 0.12. In conclusion, the selection for MY and ANG negatively affect fertility and average condition score of Brown cows. BCS recorded during lactation could be proposed as a useful trait for indirect selection aimed to improve fertility of cows.

  19. Factors associated with pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hwa Kyung; Yoon, Hong In; Cho, Jae Ho

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicities, including infectious pneumonia (IP) and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), are serious side effects of total body irradiation (TBI) used for myeloablative conditioning. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with IP and IPS following TBI. Fifty-eight patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent TBI before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. Most patients (91%) received 12 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions twice a day. Pulmonary toxicities were diagnosed based on either radiographic evidence or reduced pulmonary function, and were subdivided into IP and IPS based on the presence or absence of concurrent infection. Pulmonary toxicities developed in 36 patients (62%); 16 (28%) had IP and 20 (34%) had IPS. IP was significantly associated with increased treatment-related mortality (p = 0.028) and decreased survival (p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of developing IPS was significantly higher in patients who received stem cells from a matched unrelated donor than from a matched sibling donor (p = 0.021; hazard ratio [HR] = 12.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–110.30). Combining other conditioning agents with cyclophosphamide produced a higher tendency to develop IP (p = 0.064; HR = 6.19; 95% CI, 0.90–42.56). IP and IPS involve different risk factors and distinct pathogeneses that should be considered when planning treatments before and after TBI

  20. Modeling the effect of adverse environmental conditions and clothing on temperature rise in a human body exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephen M; McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Wood, Andrew W

    2015-02-01

    This study considers the computationally determined thermal profile of a fully clothed, finely discretized, heterogeneous human body model, subject to the maximum allowable reference level for a 1-GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field for a worker, and also subject to adverse environmental conditions, including high humidity and high ambient temperature. An initial observation is that while electromagnetic fields at the occupational safety limit will contribute an additional thermal load to the tissues, and subsequently, cause an elevated temperature, the magnitude of this effect is far outweighed by that due to the conditions including the ambient temperature, relative humidity, and the type of clothing worn. It is envisaged that the computational modeling approach outlined in this paper will be suitably modified in future studies to evaluate the thermal response of a body at elevated metabolic rates, and for different body shapes and sizes including children and pregnant women.

  1. High School Students' Understanding of the Human Body System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum--"The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly…

  2. Fluid-structure interaction of a rolling restrained body of revolution at high angles of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, D.; Ishay, M.; Gottlieb, O.

    2017-03-01

    The current work investigates numerically rolling instabilities of a free-to-roll slender rigid-body of revolution placed in a wind tunnel at a high angle of attack. The resistance to the roll moment is represented by a linear torsion spring and equivalent linear damping representing friction in the bearings of a simulated wind tunnel model. The body is subjected to a three-dimensional, compressible, laminar flow. The full Navier-Stokes equations are solved using the second-order implicit finite difference Beam-Warming scheme, adapted to a curvilinear coordinate system, whereas the coupled structural second order equation of motion for roll is solved by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The body consists of a 3.5-diameter tangent ogive forebody with a 7.0-diameter long cylindrical afterbody extending aft of the nose-body junction to x/D = 10.5. We describe in detail the investigation of three angles of attack 20°, 40°, and 65°, at a Reynolds number of 30 000 (based on body diameter) and a Mach number of 0.2. Three distinct configurations are investigated as follows: a fixed body, a free-to-roll body with a weak torsion spring, and a free-to-roll body with a strong torsion spring. For each angle of attack the free-to-roll configuration portrays a distinct and different behavior pattern, including bi-stable limit-cycle oscillations. The bifurcation structure incorporates both large and small amplitude periodic roll oscillations where the latter lose their periodicity with increasing stiffness of the restraining spring culminating with distinct quasiperiodic oscillations. We note that removal of an applied upstream disturbance for a restrained body does not change the magnitude or complexity of the oscillations or of the flow patterns along the body. Depending on structure characteristics and flow conditions even a small rolling moment coefficient at the relatively low angle of attack of 20° may lead to large amplitude resonant roll oscillations.

  3. Body condition and suckling as factors influencing the duration of postpartum anestrus in cattle: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, F; Ahuja, C

    2005-01-01

    Prolonged postpartum anestrus is a main factor limiting reproductive efficiency in cattle, particularly in Bos indicus and Bos taurus/Bos indicus cows from tropical regions, because it prevents achievement of a 12 month calving interval. During anestrus, ovulation does not occur despite ovarian follicular development, because growing follicles do not mature. Although many factors affect postpartum anestrus, nutrition and suckling are the major factors influencing the resumption of postpartum ovarian cycles, as they affect hypothalamic, pituitary and ovarian activity and thus inhibit follicular development. Under-nutrition contributes to prolonged postpartum anestrus, particularly among cows dependent upon forages to meet their feed requirements and it apparently interacts with genetic, environmental or management factors to influence the duration of anestrus. The nutritional status or balance of an animal is evaluated through body condition score (BCS), as it reflects the body energy reserves available for metabolism, growth, lactation and activity. There is a converse relationship between energy balance and time to resumption of postpartum ovarian activity; inadequate nutrient intake results in loss of weight and BCS and finally cessation of estrous cycles. Suckling interferes with hypothalamic release of GnRH, provoking a marked suppression in pulsatile LH release, resulting in extended postpartum anestrus. The effects of suckling on regulation of tonic LH release are determined by the ability of the cow to identify a calf as her own or as unrelated. Vision and olfaction play critical roles in the development of the maternal-offspring bond, allowing the cow to identify her own calf, and abolition of both senses attenuates the negative effects of suckling on LH secretion. Thus, the maternal-offspring bond is essential for prolonged postpartum suckling-induced anovulation, and the suppressive influence of suckling is independent of neurosensory pathways within the

  4. An individual reproduction model sensitive to milk yield and body condition in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun-Lafleur, L; Cutullic, E; Faverdin, P; Delaby, L; Disenhaus, C

    2013-08-01

    To simulate the consequences of management in dairy herds, the use of individual-based herd models is very useful and has become common. Reproduction is a key driver of milk production and herd dynamics, whose influence has been magnified by the decrease in reproductive performance over the last decades. Moreover, feeding management influences milk yield (MY) and body reserves, which in turn influence reproductive performance. Therefore, our objective was to build an up-to-date animal reproduction model sensitive to both MY and body condition score (BCS). A dynamic and stochastic individual reproduction model was built mainly from data of a single recent long-term experiment. This model covers the whole reproductive process and is composed of a succession of discrete stochastic events, mainly calving, ovulations, conception and embryonic loss. Each reproductive step is sensitive to MY or BCS levels or changes. The model takes into account recent evolutions of reproductive performance, particularly concerning calving-to-first ovulation interval, cyclicity (normal cycle length, prevalence of prolonged luteal phase), oestrus expression and pregnancy (conception, early and late embryonic loss). A sensitivity analysis of the model to MY and BCS at calving was performed. The simulated performance was compared with observed data from the database used to build the model and from the bibliography to validate the model. Despite comprising a whole series of reproductive steps, the model made it possible to simulate realistic global reproduction outputs. It was able to well simulate the overall reproductive performance observed in farms in terms of both success rate (recalving rate) and reproduction delays (calving interval). This model has the purpose to be integrated in herd simulation models to usefully test the impact of management strategies on herd reproductive performance, and thus on calving patterns and culling rates.

  5. Effects of Environmental Conditions on Activity, Feeding, and Body Weight in Male and Female Adolescent Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomchesson, Joshua L

    2006-01-01

    .... Responses to environmental enrichment included: body weight (BW), Body Mass Index score (BMI), Lee Index score (LI), consumption of standard rat chow, Oreo cookies, and Lays potato chips, and physical activity...

  6. The Basel experience with total body irradiation for conditioning patients with acute leukemia for allogenic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speck, B.; Cornu, P.; Nissen, C.; Gratwohl, A.; Sartorius, J.

    1979-01-01

    We are reporting our experience with 13 patients suffering from end stage acute leukemia that were prepared for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation by combined chemotherapy followed by high dose cyclophosphamide (Cy) and total body irradiation (TBI). Only one patient became a long term survivor. Of the evaluable 12 patients, 6 died of interstitial pneumonia, 4 of GvH and 1 of recurrent leukemia. We conclude that adding combined chemotherapy to the standard conditioning program with Cy and TBI probably increases the risk of developing fatal interstitial pneumonia without eliminating the risk of recurrent leukemia. We suggest that allogenic marrow grafts should be performed earlier in the course of refractory acute leukemias, because in patients with end stage disease its chances of being curative are small

  7. Hypoxic areas, density-dependence and food limitation drive the body condition of a heavily exploited marine fish predator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casini, Michele; Käll, Filip; Hansson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the factors regulating fish condition is crucial in ecology and the management of exploited fish populations. The body condition of cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea has dramatically decreased during the past two decades, with large implications for the fishery relying on this re...

  8. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important wastes, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned (immobilized and packaged) high-level waste from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and, although much of the material presented here is based on information concerning high-level waste from reprocessing LWR fuel, the principles, as well as many of the details involved, are applicable to all fuel types. The report provides illustrative background material on the arising and characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The report introduces the principles important in conditioned high-level waste storage and describes the types of equipment and facilities, used or studied, for handling and storage of such waste. Finally, it discusses the safety and economic aspects that are considered in the design and operation of handling and storage facilities

  9. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  10. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heafield, W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important radioactive wastes arising from the nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes. The paper is based on an IAEA report of the same title published during 1983 in the Technical Reports Series. The paper provides illustrative background material on the characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The principles important in the storage of high-level wastes are reviewed in conjunction with the radiological and socio-political considerations involved. Four fundamentally different storage concepts are described with reference to published information and the safety aspects of particular storage concepts are discussed. Finally, overall conclusions are presented which confirm the availability of technology for constructing and operating conditioned high-level waste storage facilities for periods of at least several decades. (author)

  11. Effect of feed intake level and dietary protein content on the body temperature of pigs housed under thermo neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A; Ibarra, N; Chávez, M; Gómez, T; Suárez, A; Valle, J A; Camacho, R L; Cervantes, M

    2018-04-01

    Feed intake and diet composition appear to affect the body temperature of pigs. Two trials were conducted to analyse the effect of feed intake level and dietary protein content on the intestinal temperature (IT) of pigs housed under thermo neutral conditions. Ten pigs (64.1 ± 1.3 kg initial body weight) fitted with an ileal cannula were used. A thermometer set to register the IT at 5-min intervals was implanted into the ileum through the cannula. In both trials, the ambient temperature ranged from 19.1 to 21.6°C and the pigs were fed at 07:00 and 19:00 hr (same amount each time). In trial 1, the pigs were fed daily 1.2 or 1.8 kg of a wheat-soybean meal diet. The IT followed a similar pattern along a 24-hr period regardless the feed intake level. The IT rapidly increased up to 0.61 and 0.74°C after the morning meal and up to 0.53 and 0.47°C after the evening meal in pigs fed 1.2 and 1.8 kg/d respectively. The postprandial IT was higher in pigs fed 1.8 kg after each meal (p level. The postprandial IT did not differ between pigs fed the low protein or the high protein (p > .10). The IT rapidly increased up to 0.66 and 0.62°C after the morning meal in pigs fed the high- and low-protein diet (p  .10). In conclusion, the feed intake level affected the IT of pigs housed under TN conditions, but the dietary protein content had no effect. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Do sex, body size and reproductive condition influence the thermal preferences of a large lizard? A study in Tupinambis merianae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetto, Nicolas Rodolfo; Naretto, Sergio

    2015-10-01

    Body temperature is a key factor in physiological processes, influencing lizard performances; and life history traits are expected to generate variability of thermal preferences in different individuals. Gender, body size and reproductive condition may impose specific requirements on preferred body temperatures. If these three factors have different physiological functions and thermal requirements, then the preferred temperature may represent a compromise that optimizes these physiological functions. Therefore, the body temperatures that lizards select in a controlled environment may reflect a temperature that maximizes their physiological needs. The tegu lizard Tupinambis merianae is one of the largest lizards in South America and has wide ontogenetic variation in body size and sexual dimorphism. In the present study we evaluate intraspecific variability of thermal preferences of T. merianae. We determined the selected body temperature and the rate at which males and females attain their selected temperature, in relation to body size and reproductive condition. We also compared the behavior in the thermal gradient between males and females and between reproductive condition of individuals. Our study show that T. merianae selected body temperature within a narrow range of temperatures variation in the laboratory thermal gradient, with 36.24±1.49°C being the preferred temperature. We observed no significant differences between sex, body size and reproductive condition in thermal preferences. Accordingly, we suggest that the evaluated categories of T. merianae have similar thermal requirements. Males showed higher rates to obtain heat than females and reproductive females, higher rates than non-reproductive ones females. Moreover, males and reproductive females showed a more dynamic behavior in the thermal gradient. Therefore, even though they achieve the same selected temperature, they do it differentially. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of overwintering and habitat type on body condition and locomotion of the wolf spider Pardosa alacris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Kapilkumar; Horváth, Ádám; Gallé-Szpisjak, Nikolett; Gellért, Levente; Csata, Enikő; Gallé, Róbert

    2018-05-01

    Overwintering in temperate regions is a prominent mortality risk for invertebrates and may affect their behaviour and body condition. Pardosa alacris is a common ground dwelling spider in central European native and plantation forests, and habitat type and prey availability may play important roles in their overwintering. The effect of overwintering on body condition and behaviour of spiders in semi natural and exotic habitats is relatively unknown. Here we assess the effects of winter on spiders from native poplar and exotic pine plantations. The locomotory behaviour of P. alacris (distance covered and speed) was assessed by tracking their movement in a white circular plastic arena. We assessed body condition, body size, and total fat content. Forest type and sex had significant effects on body length. Fat content was significantly higher in the spring than in autumn, and spiders covered larger distances and were faster in autumn than in spring. Fat content had a significant negative effect on average speed. Spiders in native forests were smaller but grew more during the winter than in exotic plantations, possibly due to higher prey availability in native forests. Visually-hunting predators may significantly affect spiders. Fat spiders with better body condition moved less, and were thus less detectable by predators. However the low movement rate may result in a low rate of encountering prey items, thus lowering feeding efficiency.

  14. Comparison of Body Image and its Relationship with Body Mass Index (BMI in High School Students of Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Behdarvandi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt is not clearly specified that which of the components of body mass index (BMI affect body image and which of them do not. Given that having information in this regard is of special importance as a basis for future planning for adolescents, the present research aimed to compare body image in female and male adolescents and study its relationship with body mass index in high school students of Ahwaz, Khuzestan Province in the academic year 2015-2016.Materials and MethodsIn this descriptive-analytic study, 200 high school students were selected as the sample using the random cluster sampling method. The required data were collected using demographic questionnaire, anthropometric data checklist (height and weight, and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ. All descriptive and inferential statistics tests were performed using SPSS-17 at a confidence level of 95%.Results: The students ranged from 15 to 18 years old. Equal distribution was employed among all four grades of high school. Body mass index (BMI in male students showed a significant inverse relationship only with appearance orientation (P

  15. Relationships among Body Condition, Insulin Resistance and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Gene Expression during the Grazing Season in Mares.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaimaa Selim

    Full Text Available Obesity and insulin resistance have been shown to be risk factors for laminitis in horses. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of changes in body condition during the grazing season on insulin resistance and the expression of genes associated with obesity and insulin resistance in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT. Sixteen Finnhorse mares were grazing either on cultivated high-yielding pasture (CG or semi-natural grassland (NG from the end of May to the beginning of September. Body measurements, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT, and neck and tailhead SAT gene expressions were measured in May and September. At the end of grazing, CG had higher median body condition score (7 vs. 5.4, interquartile range 0.25 vs. 0.43; P=0.05 and body weight (618 kg vs. 572 kg ± 10.21 (mean ± SEM; P=0.02, and larger waist circumference (P=0.03 than NG. Neck fat thickness was not different between treatments. However, tailhead fat thickness was smaller in CG compared to NG in May (P=0.04, but this difference disappeared in September. Greater basal and peak insulin concentrations, and faster glucose clearance rate (P=0.03 during IVGTT were observed in CG compared to NG in September. A greater decrease in plasma non-esterified fatty acids during IVGTT (P<0.05 was noticed in CG compared to NG after grazing. There was down-regulation of insulin receptor, retinol binding protein 4, leptin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and up-regulation of adiponectin (ADIPOQ, adiponectin receptor 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene expressions in SAT of both groups during the grazing season (P<0.05. Positive correlations were observed between ADIPOQ and its receptors and between SCD and ADIPOQ in SAT (P<0.01. In conclusion, grazing on CG had a moderate effect on responses during IVGTT, but did not trigger insulin resistance. Significant temporal differences in gene expression profiles were observed during the grazing season.

  16. A high precision radiation-tolerant LVDT conditioning module

    CERN Document Server

    Masi, A; Losito, R; Peronnard, P; Secondo, R; Spiezia, G

    2014-01-01

    Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) position sensors are widely used in particle accelerators and nuclear plants, thanks to their properties of contact-less sensing, radiation tolerance, infinite resolution, good linearity and cost efficiency. Many applications require high reading accuracy, even in environments with high radiation levels, where the conditioning electronics must be located several hundred meters away from the sensor. Sometimes even at long distances the conditioning module is still exposed to ionizing radiation. Standard off-the-shelf electronic conditioning modules offer limited performances in terms of reading accuracy and long term stability already with short cables. A radiation tolerant stand-alone LVDT conditioning module has been developed using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components. The reading of the sensor output voltages is based on a sine-fit algorithm digitally implemented on an FPGA ensuring few micrometers reading accuracy even with low signal-to-noise ratios. ...

  17. Melatonin treatment in spring and reproductive recovery in sheep with different body condition score and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luridiana, S; Mura, M C; Daga, C; Farci, F; Di Stefano, M V; Zidda, F; Carcangiu, V

    2015-09-01

    With the aim to evaluate the effect of melatonin treatment on the advanced reproductive recovery in sheep with different body condition score (BCS) and age, 800 ewes were selected from two farms. These ewes (3-6 years old, multiparous and with BCS 2.5-4.0) were subdivided into two Groups (200 M and 200 C), balanced on their BCS and age. On 20 March, Group M was treated with one melatonin implant (18 mg). Group C was untreated. Males were introduced to the groups 35 days after treatment. Gestation was diagnosed between day 45 and 90 after mating by transabdominal ultrasonography. From day 150 to 190 after rams introduction, lambing date and newborns' number were recorded. The average time in days between male introduction and lambing resulted shorter in treated than in control ewes (166.4 ± 0.48 vs. 172.5 ± 0.50) (P scored 2.5-3.0 (166.1 ± 0.48 vs. 174.8 ± 0.51) (P < 0.05). We concluded that the ewes with BCS 3.5-4.0 and aged 5-6 years showed a better response to melatonin treatment in spring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationships among ketosis, serum metabolites, body condition, and reproductive outcomes in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun-Kyung; Jeong, Jae-Kwan; Choi, In-Soo; Kang, Hyun-Gu; Hur, Tai-Young; Jung, Young-Hun; Kim, Ill-Hwa

    2015-07-15

    We determined the relationships among ketosis, serum metabolites, body condition, and reproductive disorders and performance in dairy cows. Blood samples from 213 dairy cows were collected at 4 and 2 weeks prepartum, just after calving, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postpartum to measure serum β-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), glucose, total cholesterol, urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, and progesterone concentrations. Cows were grouped on the basis of the β-hydroxybutyrate concentration at 1 and/or 2 weeks postpartum into two groups: the ketotic group (≥1200 μmol/L, n = 59) and the nonketotic group (50% pus), and subclinical endometritis was diagnosed by evaluation of uterine cytology (>18% neutrophils) at 4 weeks postpartum. Ovarian cysts were diagnosed by ultrasonography, and resumption of postpartum cyclicity was evaluated by progesterone concentrations (≥1 ng/mL) at 4, 6, and 8 weeks postpartum. In the ketotic group, NEFA levels were higher (P ≤ 0.0005), whereas glucose (P ketosis, increased reproductive disorders, and decreased reproductive performance in dairy cows. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The fat cover in gilts in relation to body condition and reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Matoušek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in a set of hybrid gilts of F1 generation of Czech Large White x Czech Landrace breeds coming from a multiplication herd. The objective of the study was to test a possibility of using the measured traits, i.e. backfat thickness (BT and lean meat content (LM, for objective determination of changes in the body condition score of gilts during rearing and in relation to their subsequent fertility in parities 1. At the ultrasonic measurement in the multiplication herd the purchased gilts showed the average daily gain (ADG from birth 612.5 g, average backfat thickness (ABT 8.34 mm, loin muscle depth (LMD 48.83 mm and LM 62.26%. At the first determination of own performance traits in a production herd the values of ABT, LMD and LM were 13.26 mm, D 59.29 mm and 58.83%, respectively. In a subsequent measurement (at the onset of standing heat the respective values of ABT, LMD and LM were 15.15 mm, 62.31 mm and 57.42%. Correlation coefficients for the measured traits of own performance in relation to reproductive traits in parities 1 were mostly low, statistically insignificant.

  20. Evaluation of body condition score measured throughout lactation as an indicator of fertility in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, G; Brotherstone, S; Coffey, M P

    2004-08-01

    Body condition score (BCS) records of primiparous Holstein cows were analyzed both as a single measure per animal and as repeated measures per sire of cow. The former resulted in a single, average, genetic evaluation for each sire, and the latter resulted in separate genetic evaluations per day of lactation. Repeated measure analysis yielded genetic correlations of less than unity between days of lactation, suggesting that BCS may not be the same trait across lactation. Differences between daily genetic evaluations on d 10 or 30 and subsequent daily evaluations were used to assess BCS change at different stages of lactation. Genetic evaluations for BCS level or change were used to estimate genetic correlations between BCS measures and fertility traits in order to assess the capacity of BCS to predict fertility. Genetic correlation estimates with calving interval and non-return rate were consistently higher for daily BCS than single measure BCS evaluations, but results were not always statistically different. Genetic correlations between BCS change and fertility traits were not significantly different from zero. The product of the accuracy of BCS evaluations with their genetic correlation with the UK fertility index, comprising calving interval and non-return rate, was consistently higher for daily than for single BCS evaluations, by 28 to 53%. This product is associated with the conceptual correlated response in fertility from BCS selection and was highest for early (d 10 to 75) evaluations.

  1. Dual design resistor for high voltage conditioning and transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siggins, Timothy Lynn [Newport News, VA; Murray, Charles W [Hayes, VA; Walker, Richard L [Norfolk, VA

    2007-01-23

    A dual resistor for eliminating the requirement for two different value resistors. The dual resistor includes a conditioning resistor at a high resistance value and a run resistor at a low resistance value. The run resistor can travel inside the conditioning resistor. The run resistor is capable of being advanced by a drive assembly until an electrical path is completed through the run resistor thereby shorting out the conditioning resistor and allowing the lower resistance run resistor to take over as the current carrier.

  2. Selective predation for low body condition at the larval-juvenile transition of a coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, Andrew S; McCormick, Mark I

    2004-03-01

    Mortality is known to be high during the transition from larval to juvenile life stages in organisms that have complex life histories. We are only just beginning to understand the processes that influence which individuals survive this period of high mortality, and which traits may be beneficial. Here we document a field experiment that examines the selectivity of predation immediately following settlement to the juvenile population in a common tropical fish, Pomacentrus amboinensis (Pomacentridae). Newly metamorphosed fish were tagged and randomly placed onto replicated patches of natural habitat cleared of resident fishes. After exposure to transient predators for 3 days, fish were recollected and the attributes of survivors from patch reefs that sustained high mortality were compared to individuals from patch reefs that experienced low mortality. Seven characteristics of individuals, which were indicative of previous and present body condition, were compared between groups. Predation was found to be selective for fish that grew slowly in the latter third of their larval phase, were low in total lipids, and had a high standardized weight (Fulton's K). Traits developed in the larval phase can strongly influence the survival of individuals over this critical transition period for organisms with complex life cycles.

  3. Spatio-temporal patterns and environmental controls of small pelagic fish body condition from contrasted Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosset, Pablo; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Van Beveren, Elisabeth; Lloret, Josep; Marques, Virginie; Basilone, Gualtiero; Bonanno, Angelo; Carpi, Piera; Donato, Fortunata; Čikeš Keč, Vanja; De Felice, Andrea; Ferreri, Rosalia; Gašparević, Denis; Giráldez, Ana; Gücü, Ali; Iglesias, Magdalena; Leonori, Iole; Palomera, Isabel; Somarakis, Stylianos; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Torres, Pedro; Ventero, Ana; Zorica, Barbara; Ménard, Frédéric; Saraux, Claire

    2017-02-01

    Small pelagic fish are among the most ecologically and economically important marine fish species and are characterized by large fluctuations all over the world. In the Mediterranean Sea, low catches and biomass of anchovies and sardines have been described in some areas during the last decade, resulting in important fisheries crises. Therefore, we studied anchovy and sardine body condition variability, a key index of population health and its response to environmental and anthropogenic changes. Wide temporal and spatial patterns were investigated by analyzing separately data from scientific surveys and fisheries in eight Mediterranean areas between 1975 and 2015. Results showed that anchovy and sardine body condition as well as maximum size in some areas sharply decreased in most Mediterranean areas along years (except in the Northern Alboran Sea). Despite this general pattern, well-marked environmental differences between sub-regions were highlighted by several analyses and variations in body condition were not found to be homogeneous over all the Mediterranean Sea. Further, other analyses revealed that except for the Adriatic where major changes towards a lower body condition were concomitant with a decrease in river runoffs and chl-a concentration, no concomitant environmental regime shift was detected in other areas. Together, these analyses highlighted the current poor body condition of almost all small pelagic fish populations in the Mediterranean. Yet, global environmental indices could not explain the observed changes and the general decrease in condition might more likely come from regional environmental and/or anthropogenic (fishing) effects. A prolonged state of poor fish body condition, together with an observed reduced size and early age-at-maturity may have strong ecological, economic and social consequences all around the Mediterranean Sea.

  4. A novel human body exergy consumption formula to determine indoor thermal conditions for optimal human performance in office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Zhao, Jianing; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel human body exergy consumption formula was derived strictly according to Gagge's two-node thermal transfer model. The human body exergy consumption calculated by the formula was compared with values calculated using Shukuya's formula for a typical office environment....... The results show that human body exergy consumption calculated by either of these formulas reaches a minimum under the same thermal condition. It is shown that this is in accordance with expectation. The relation between human performance and human body exergy consumption was studied by analyzing the data...... obtained in simulated office environments in winter. The results show that human body exergy consumption and human performance are inversely as operative temperature changes from 17 to 28°C or human thermal sensation changes from −1.0 to +1.4, and that optimum thermal comfort cannot be expected to lead...

  5. Emaciated mannequins: a study of mannequin body size in high street fashion stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Aveyard, Paul

    2017-01-01

    There is concern that the body size of fashion store mannequins are too thin and promote unrealistic body ideals. To date there has been no systematic examination of the size of high street fashion store mannequins. We surveyed national fashion retailers located on the high street of two English cities. The body size of 'male' and 'female' mannequins was assessed by two blinded research assistants using visual rating scales. The average female mannequin body size was representative of a very underweight woman and 100% of female mannequins represented an underweight body size. The average male mannequin body size was significantly larger than the average female mannequin body size. Only 8% of male mannequins represented an underweight body size. The body size of mannequins used to advertise female fashion is unrealistic and would be considered medically unhealthy in humans.

  6. Age and sex dependence of body potassium based on studies of 40K under Indian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S.; Someswara Rao, M.; Nagaratnam, A.; Mishra, U.C.

    2002-01-01

    Potassium plays an important role in human life 40 K is a naturally occurring radioisotope of potassium (K) with an abundance of 0.0118%. The measurement of body 40 K in a whole-body counter (WBC) provides a sensitive technique to estimate the total body potassium (TBK). Information on TBK of Indians with age and sex is scanty. Therefore, a systematic study was taken up to generate this information using a sensitive WBC

  7. Reproduction, mastitis, and body condition of seasonally calved Holstein and Jersey cows in confinement or pasture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, S P; White, S L; Green, J T; Benson, G A

    2002-01-01

    Dairy cows in confinement and pasture-based feeding systems were compared across four spring-calving and three fall-calving replicates for differences in reproduction, mastitis, body weights, and body condition scores. Feeding systems and replicates included both Jersey and Holstein cows. Cows in confinement were fed a total mixed ration, and cows on pasture were supplemented with concentrates and provided baled hay or haylage when pasture supply was limiting. Breeding periods were for 75 d in spring or fall. Reproductive performance did not differ significantly due to feeding system or season. Jerseys had higher conception rates (59.6 vs. 49.5 +/- 3.3%) and higher percentages of cows pregnant in 75 d (78.1 vs. 57.9 +/- 3.9%) than Holsteins. Cows in confinement had 1.8 times more clinical mastitis and eight times the rate of culling for mastitis than did cows on pasture. Jerseys had half as many clinical cases of mastitis per cow as Holsteins. Only 41 +/- 5% of confinement Holsteins remained for a subsequent lactation, starting within the defined calving season compared with 51 +/- 5% of pastured Holsteins and 71 and 72 +/- 5% of Jerseys, respectively. Body weights and condition scores were generally higher for confinement cows than pastured cows, and Jerseys had higher condition scores and lower body weights than Holsteins. In summary, pastured cows had fewer clinical cases of mastitis, lower body condition scores, and lower body weights than confinement cows. Holsteins were less likely to rebreed, had more mastitis, higher culling rates, and lower body condition scores than Jerseys.

  8. Supplementing five-point body condition score with body fat percentage increases the sensitivity for assessing overweight status of small to medium sized dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arai T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gebin Li,1 Peter Lee,1 Nobuko Mori,1 Ichiro Yamamoto,1 Koh Kawasumi,1 Hisao Tanabe,2 Toshiro Arai11Department of Veterinary Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 2Komazawa Animal Hospital, Tokyo, JapanBackground and methods: Currently, five-point body condition scoring (BCS is widely used by veterinarians and clinicians to assess adiposity in dogs in Japan. However, BCS score assignment is subjective in nature, and most clinicians do not score with half points, instead preferring to round off values, thereby rendering less accurate assessments. Therefore, we sought to determine whether assessing body fat percentage using simple morphometric measurements and supplementing this with five-point BCS can have increased sensitivity for detecting increasing adiposity in overweight small-medium sized dog breeds via plasma metabolite validation.Results: Overall, lean body fat percentage was determined to be 15%–22% for male (non-neutered/neutered dogs and 15%–25% for female (nonspayed/spayed. Dogs categorized as overweight by BCS had significantly higher levels of nonesterified fatty acids (P = 0.005, whereas animals categorized as overweight by BCS + body fat percentage were observed to have significantly higher levels of nonesterified fatty acids (P = 0.006, total cholesterol (P = 0.029, and triglycerides (P = 0.001 than lean animals. The increased sensitivity due to body fat percentage for gauging alterations in plasma metabolite levels may be due to increased correlation strength. Body fat percentage correlated positively with plasma insulin (r = 0.627, P = 0.002, nonesterified fatty acids (r = 0.674, P < 0.001, total cholesterol (r = 0.825, P < 0.0001, triglycerides (r = 0.5823, P < 0.005, blood urea nitrogen (r = 0.429, P < 0.05, creatinine (r = 0.490, P = 0.021, and total protein (r = 0.737, P< 0.0001 levels, which all tend to increase as a result of increasing adiposity

  9. Level and period of realimentation to assess improvement in body condition and carcass quality in cull ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Randhir Singh; Soren, Nira Manik; Sahoo, Artabandhu; Karim, Shaikh Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Improvement in body condition was assessed in 40 cull ewes (>6 years), equally distributed in two groups and realimented with ad libitum roughage (gram straw) and two levels of concentrate feeding, i.e., 2.5 % (T(1)) of live weight (LW) and ad libitum (T(2)). Five representative animals from an initial 45 were slaughtered at the initiation of the study (0 day) and five animals from each treatment at 44, 67, and 90 days of experiment for carcass attributes. Improvement in body condition score (BCS), nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were assessed at 44, 67, and 90 days. Metabolism trial of 6-day collection of feed, feces, and urine samples was conducted on five representative ewes from each group after 60 days of feeding. The level of concentrate feeding on LW gain and BCS was significant, and the duration of realimentation showed a linear improvement (P body condition of cull ewes for quality mutton production.

  10. The effect of maternal body condition score before and during pregnancy on the glucose tolerance of adult sheep offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Roselle L; Green, Lucy R; Thompson, John; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Monk, Melanie; Sheldon, I Martin; Hanson, Mark A; Hales, C N; Ozanne, Susan E

    2008-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of diet-induced changes in maternal body condition on glucose tolerance in sheep. Welsh Mountain ewes were established, by dietary manipulation, at a body condition score of 2 (lower body condition [LBCS], n = 17) or >3 (higher body condition [HBCS], n = 19) prior to and during pregnancy. Birth weight and postnatal growth were similar in LBCS and HBCS offspring. In young adulthood, LBCS offspring had increased fasting glucose levels (3.8 +/- 0.07 vs 3.6 +/- 0.05 mM, P < .05), poorer glucose tolerance (2274 +/- 22.6 vs 2161 +/- 33 min/mM, P < .01), and reduced insulin secretion (0.58 +/- 0.05 vs 0.71 +/- 0.07 nM/min, P = .07). Increased fasting glycemia, mild glucose intolerance, and impaired initial insulin secretory response, as observed in LBCS offspring, are indictors of increased diabetes risk in humans. These findings suggest that altered maternal body composition and an imbalance between the fetal and postnatal environment influence offspring glucose tolerance.

  11. High frequency body mass measurement, feedback, and health behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooreman, P.; Scherpenzeel, A.

    We analyze weight and fat percentage measurements of respondents in an online general population panel in the Netherlands, collected using wireless scales, with an average frequency of 1.6 measurements per week. First, we document the existence of a weekly cycle; body mass is lowest on Fridays and

  12. The effect of breed and parity on curves of body condition during lactation estimated using a non-linear function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friggens, N C; Badsberg, J H

    2007-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to see if the body condition score curve during lactation could be described using a model amenable to biological interpretation, a non-linear function assuming exponential rates of change in body condition with time, and to quantify the effect of breed and parity on curves of body condition during lactation. Three breeds were represented: Danish Holstein (n = 112), Danish Red (n = 97) and Jerseys (n = 8). Cows entered the experiment at the start of first lactation and were studied during consecutive lactations (average number of lactations 2, minimum 1, maximum 3). They remained on the same dietary treatment throughout. Body condition was scored to the nearest half unit on the Danish scale (see Kristensen (1986); derived from the Lowman et al. (1976) system) from 1 to 5 on days: 2, 14, 28, 42, 56, 84, 112, 168, 224 after calving. Additionally, condition score was recorded on the day of drying off the cow, 35, 21, and 7 days before expected calving and finally on the day of calving. All condition scores were made by the trained personal on the research farm, where the same person made 92% of the scores. The temporal patterns in condition score were modelled as consisting of two underlying processes, one related to days from calving, referred to as lactation only, the other to days from (subsequent) conception, referred to as pregnancy. Both processes were assumed to be exponential functions of time. Each process was modelled separately using exponential functions, i.e. one model for lactation only and one for pregnancy, and then a combined model for both lactation only and pregnancy was fitted. The data set contained 467 lactation periods and 378 pregnancy periods. The temporal patterns in condition score of cows kept under stable and sufficient nutritional conditions were successfully described using a two component non-linear function. First lactation cows had shallower curves, they had greater condition scores at the nadir

  13. Influence of body condition score on live and carcass value of cull beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J K

    1999-10-01

    Mature beef cows (n = 88) were slaughtered to determine the influence of body condition score (BCS) on carcass and live animal value. Cows were weighed and assigned a BCS (9-point scale), 24 h before slaughter. Hide and by-products weights were recorded during harvest. After a 48-h chill period, the right side of each carcass was fabricated into boneless subprimal cuts, minor cuts, lean trim, fat, and bone. Weights were recorded at all stages of fabrication. Carcass values (U.S.$/100 kg of hot carcass weight) were calculated for U.S. Utility and U.S. Cutter grades, as well as for the Utility/Cutter mix for each BCS. Gross value included the carcass value and the value of the hide and byproducts, whereas net value was calculated after harvest and fabrication costs and by-product value were considered. Live value (U.S.$/100 kg of live weight) was computed by dividing the net value by the animal's live weight 24 h before harvest. The value of the hide and by-products for BCS-2 cows was greater (Pmix, cows designated with a BCS of 7 and 8 had greater (P.05) to BCS-7 cows. Information from this study can be used by the non-fed beef industry to establish a value-based marketing system. Data from this study would indicate that marketing cull beef cows at a BCS of 6 could optimize economic returns to both cow-calf producers and non-fed beef packers.

  14. Genetic correlations between body condition scores and fertility in dairy cattle using bivariate random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Haas, Y; Janss, L L G; Kadarmideen, H N

    2007-10-01

    Genetic correlations between body condition score (BCS) and fertility traits in dairy cattle were estimated using bivariate random regression models. BCS was recorded by the Swiss Holstein Association on 22,075 lactating heifers (primiparous cows) from 856 sires. Fertility data during first lactation were extracted for 40,736 cows. The fertility traits were days to first service (DFS), days between first and last insemination (DFLI), calving interval (CI), number of services per conception (NSPC) and conception rate to first insemination (CRFI). A bivariate model was used to estimate genetic correlations between BCS as a longitudinal trait by random regression components, and daughter's fertility at the sire level as a single lactation measurement. Heritability of BCS was 0.17, and heritabilities for fertility traits were low (0.01-0.08). Genetic correlations between BCS and fertility over the lactation varied from: -0.45 to -0.14 for DFS; -0.75 to 0.03 for DFLI; from -0.59 to -0.02 for CI; from -0.47 to 0.33 for NSPC and from 0.08 to 0.82 for CRFI. These results show (genetic) interactions between fat reserves and reproduction along the lactation trajectory of modern dairy cows, which can be useful in genetic selection as well as in management. Maximum genetic gain in fertility from indirect selection on BCS should be based on measurements taken in mid lactation when the genetic variance for BCS is largest, and the genetic correlations between BCS and fertility is strongest.

  15. High Power laser power conditioning system new discharge circuit research

    CERN Document Server

    Li Yi; Peng Han Sheng; Zhou Pei Zhang; Zheng Wan Guo; Guo Lang Fu; Chen Li Hua; Chen De Hui; Lai Gui You; Luan Yong Ping

    2002-01-01

    The new discharge circuit of power conditioning system for high power laser is studied. The theoretical model of the main discharge circuit is established. The pre-ionization circuit is studied in experiment. In addition, the explosion energy of the new large xenon lamp is successfully measured. The conclusion has been applied to 4 x 2 amplifier system

  16. Effect of hibernation and reproductive status on body mass and condition of coastal brown bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderbrand, G.V.; Schwartz, C. C.; Robbins, C.T.; Hanley, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effect of hibernation and reproductive status on changes in body mass and composition of adult female brown bears (Ursus arctos) on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. This information is fundamental to understanding nutritional ecology of wild brown bear populations. Six adult females handled in the fall and following spring (paired samples) lost 73 ± 22 kg (x̄ ± SD; 32 ± 10%) of fall body mass over 208 ± 19 days. Of this mass loss, 56 ± 22% (55 ± 22 kg) was lipid and 44 ± 22% (43 ± 21 kg) was lean body mass. Catabolism of lipid stores accounted for 88.4 ± 8.1% of the body energy used to meet maintenance demands. Overwinter differences in body composition of adult females assessed only once in either the fall (n = 21) or spring (n = 32) were similar to those of paired samples. Relative fatness of bears entering the den was positively related to the contribution of fat (%) to body mass (P < 0.01) and body energy (P < 0.01) losses during hibernation. Thus, relative fatness at the onset of fasting influences the relative proportion of lipid stores and lean body mass catabolized to meet protein and energy demands during hibernation. In the spring, lone females had greater body and lean masses than females with cubs of the year or yearlings. Lipid content was greatest in lone females in the fall. Studies using body mass and composition as indices of population health should consider season or reproductive class.

  17. Genetic analysis of efficiency traits in Austrian dairy cattle and their relationships with body condition score and lameness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köck, A; Ledinek, M; Gruber, L; Steininger, F; Fuerst-Waltl, B; Egger-Danner, C

    2018-01-01

    This study is part of a larger project whose overall objective was to evaluate the possibilities for genetic improvement of efficiency in Austrian dairy cattle. In 2014, a 1-yr data collection was carried out. Data from 6,519 cows kept on 161 farms were recorded. In addition to routinely recorded data (e.g., milk yield, fertility, disease data), data of novel traits [e.g., body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), lameness score, body measurements] and individual feeding information and feed quality were recorded on each test-day. The specific objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for efficiency (related) traits and to investigate their relationships with BCS and lameness in Austrian Fleckvieh, Brown Swiss, and Holstein cows. The following efficiency (related) traits were considered: energy-corrected milk (ECM), BW, dry matter intake (DMI), energy intake (INEL), ratio of milk output to metabolic BW (ECM/BW 0.75 ), ratio of milk output to DMI (ECM/DMI), and ratio of milk energy output to total energy intake (LE/INEL, LE = energy in milk). For Fleckvieh, the heritability estimates of the efficiency (related) traits ranged from 0.11 for LE/INEL to 0.44 for BW. Heritabilities for BCS and lameness were 0.19 and 0.07, respectively. Repeatabilities were high and ranged from 0.30 for LE/INEL to 0.83 for BW. Heritability estimates were generally lower for Brown Swiss and Holstein, but repeatabilities were in the same range as for Fleckvieh. In all 3 breeds, more-efficient cows were found to have a higher milk yield, lower BW, slightly higher DMI, and lower BCS. Higher efficiency was associated with slightly fewer lameness problems, most likely due to the lower BW (especially in Fleckvieh) and higher DMI of the more-efficient cows. Body weight and BCS were positively correlated. Therefore, when selecting for a lower BW, BCS is required as additional information because, otherwise, no distinction between large animals with low BCS and smaller animals

  18. Genetic parameters for female fertility, locomotion, body condition score, and linear type traits in Czech Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, V; Štípková, M; Lassen, J

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for fertility traits and linear type traits in the Czech Holstein dairy cattle population. Phenotypic data regarding 12 linear type traits, measured in first lactation, and 3 fertility traits, measured in each of first and second lactation, were collected from 2005 to 2009 in the progeny testing program of the Czech-Moravian Breeders Corporation. The number of animals for each linear type trait was 59,467, except for locomotion, where 53,436 animals were recorded. The 3-generation pedigree file included 164,125 animals. (Co)variance components were estimated using AI-REML in a series of bivariate analyses, which were implemented via the DMU package. Fertility traits included days from calving to first service (CF1), days open (DO1), and days from first to last service (FL1) in first lactation, and days from calving to first service (CF2), days open (DO2), and days from first to last service (FL2) in second lactation. The number of animals with fertility data varied between traits and ranged from 18,915 to 58,686. All heritability estimates for reproduction traits were low, ranging from 0.02 to 0.04. Heritability estimates for linear type traits ranged from 0.03 for locomotion to 0.39 for stature. Estimated genetic correlations between fertility traits and linear type traits were generally neutral or positive, whereas genetic correlations between body condition score and CF1, DO1, FL1, CF2 and DO2 were mostly negative, with the greatest correlation between BCS and CF2 (-0.51). Genetic correlations with locomotion were greatest for CF1 and CF2 (-0.34 for both). Results of this study show that cows that are genetically extreme for angularity, stature, and body depth tend to perform poorly for fertility traits. At the same time, cows that are genetically predisposed for low body condition score or high locomotion score are generally inferior in fertility. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association

  19. Effects of partial-body cryotherapy (- 110°C) on muscle recovery between high-intensity exercise bouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Junior, J B; Bottaro, M; Vieira, C A; Soares, S R S; Vieira, A; Cleto, V A; Cadore, E L; Coelho, D B; Simoes, H G; Brown, L E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single partial-body cryotherapy bout between training sessions on strength recovery. 12 young men (23.9±5.9 years) were randomly exposed to 2 different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) Partial-body cryotherapy (subjects were exposed to 3 min of partial-body cryotherapy at - 110 °C between 2 high-intensity training sessions); 2) Control (subjects were not exposed to partial-body cryotherapy between 2 high-intensity training sessions). Subjects were exposed to partial-body cryotherapy after the first training session. The 2 knee extension high-intensity training sessions were separated by a 40-min rest interval. Knee extension training consisted of 6 sets of 10 repetitions at 60°.s(-1) for concentric actions and 6 sets of 10 at 180.s(-1) for eccentric actions. The decrease in eccentric peak torque and total work was significantly (pcryotherapy (5.6 and 2%, respectively) when compared to control (16 and 11.6%, respectively). However, the decrease in concentric peak torque and total work was not different (p>0.05) between partial-body cryotherapy (9.4 and 6.5%, respectively) and control (7.5 and 5.2%, respectively). These results indicate that the use of partial-body cryotherapy between-training sessions can enhance eccentric muscle performance recovery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Effect of high wind conditions on AHX performance for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, P.; Datta, Anu; Verma, Vishnu; Singh, R.K.

    2013-05-01

    In case of normal shut down or station blackout condition the core decay heat is removed by Safety Grade Decay Heat Removal System (SGDHRS) in PFBR. The Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is under construction at Kalpakkam. SGDHRS remove decay heat from the core and dissipate it into the environment with the help of Air Heat Exchanger (AHX). SGDHRS consists of four redundant numbers of totally independent circuits capable of removing decay heat from the hot pool through natural convection in the primary and intermediate sodium sides as well as in the air side. Each circuit consists of a sodium to sodium heat exchanger (DHX) and a sodium to AHX connected to intermediate sodium circuit, AHX is located at a higher elevation compared to DHX. AHX is serpentine type finned tube compact heat exchanger with sodium in the tube side and air flowing over finned tubes. A tall stack provides the driving force for the natural convection of air flow through the AHX, when the dampers are opened. The AHX is placed outside of Reactor Control Building (RCB), on the roof of Steam Generator Building. Due to the presence of nearby buildings around the stack, the AHX performance under high wind condition may be affected. A CFD simulation using CFD-ACE+ code has been carried in which effect of high wind condition and nearby building on AHX performance have been studied. For high wind condition various orientation of wind movement was considered for parametric studies. AHX performance for all the cases were compared with the results that obtained for the absence of nearby buildings. A comparative table was prepared to understand how the AHX performance is effected with the high wind condition for various direction and with the presence of nearby building. It was observed that AHX performance is influenced by high wind conditions in most of the cases for with and without presence of nearby building. Hence to ensure the optimal performance of the AHX under high wind conditions its

  1. Association of Smoking with Body Weight in US High School Students, 1999-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…

  2. Deformation of high-speed meteor bodies by the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, I V; Gorshkov, A V

    2012-01-01

    We model the deformation that a meteorite can undergo during its passage through the atmosphere. First, the pressure distribution around a solid body in a flow was measured in a wind tunnel. Second, the deformation of molten tin droplets with different temperatures dropped into water was observed. Finally, a mathematical model of the fall was constructed to determine what pressure the meteorite experiences in the atmosphere and whether it is enough to deform it. (paper)

  3. Dietary behaviors and body image recognition of college students according to the self-rated health condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Joung; Lim, Ye Rom; Kwak, Ho Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study was done to investigate the relationship between the perception of body image, body weight satisfaction or dietary behavior and self-rated health status in Korean college students. Subjects, 285 college students, were divided into three groups (healthy, normal, and unhealthy) according to the answer for the self-rated health question. Information about demographic status, self-rated health condition, height and weight, perception of body image, satisfaction of body weight, concern for body weight control, dietary behavior, nutritional knowledge, and health-related characteristics collected by a self-reported questionnaire. The proportion of men and women in each group was not significantly different. The academic year, major, experience of nutritional education, and type of residence were not significantly related with self-rated health but the pocket money range was significantly associated (ppocket money range and was increased in less than 210 thousand won or over 300 thousand won pocket money ranges. There were no significant differences for age, height, weight and BMI between the groups. The body image perception and body weight satisfaction levels of healthy group was significantly higher than those of unhealthy group (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively), but the level of concern for body weight control in healthy subjects was significantly lower than that in unhealthy subjects (p<0.05). The proportion of subjects reported as healthy was significantly increased with increased frequencies of following food behaviors; weekly use of protein foods (p<0.01), vegetables (p<0.05) and dairy products (p<0.01), and food habits such as "regularity of meal time" (p<0.01), "eating in moderation" (p<0.05), and "eating breakfast" (p<0.001). Overall results suggested that the college students have tended to have a better perception of health when they have better body image perception, body weight satisfaction and dietary behaviors.

  4. Dietary plasticity in a nutrient-rich system does not influence brown bear (Ursus arctos) body condition or denning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangipane, Lindsey S.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Lafferty, Diana J. R.; Gustine, David D.; Hiller, Tim L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Mangipane, Buck A.; Hilderbrand, Grant V.

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral differences within a population can allow use of a greater range of resources among individuals. The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a generalist omnivore that occupies diverse habitats and displays considerable plasticity in food use. We evaluated whether brown bear foraging that resulted in deviations from a proposed optimal diet influenced body condition and, in turn, denning duration in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, Alaska. To assess assimilated diet, we used sectioned guard hair samples (n = 23) collected in autumn to determine stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. To index proportional contributions of meat and vegetation to assimilated diets, we compared the carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) values of hair samples with the values identified for major food categories. We then compared percentage body fat and body mass in relation to the proportion of assimilated meat in the diet using linear models. We also examined the influence of autumn percentage body fat and mass on denning duration. Percentage body fat was not influenced by the proportion of assimilated meat in the diet. Additionally, percentage body fat and body mass did not influence denning duration. However, body mass of bears assimilating proportionately more meat was greater than bears assimilating less meat. Our results provide support for previous findings that larger bears consume higher amounts of protein to maintain their body size and therefore forage further from the proposed optimal diet. Additionally, our results demonstrate that individuals can achieve similar biological outcomes (e.g., percentage body fat) despite variable foraging strategies, suggesting that individuals within generalist populations may confer an adaptive advantage through behavioral plasticity.

  5. Effects of training distance on feed intake, growth, body condition and muscle glycogen content in young Standardbred horses fed a forage-only diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringmark, S; Revold, T; Jansson, A

    2017-10-01

    This study examined feed intake, growth, body condition, muscle glycogen content and nutrition-related health in 16 Standardbred horses fed a high-energy, forage-only diet ad libitum and allocated to either a control training programme (C-group) or a training programme with the high-intensity training distance reduced by 30% (R-group), from January as 2-year olds until December as 3-year olds. Feed intake was recorded on 10 occasions during 3 consecutive days. Body weight was recorded once in a week and height, body condition score (BCS), rump fat thickness and thickness of the m. longissimus dorsi were measured at 7±3-week intervals throughout the study. Muscle biopsies of the m. gluteus medius were taken in December as 2-year olds and in November as 3-year olds and analysed for glycogen content. Nutrition-related health disorders were noted when they occurred. Horses consumed 1.7% to 2.6% dry matter of BW, corresponding to 19 to 28 MJ metabolisable energy/100 kg BW. There were no differences between training groups in feed intake or any of the body measurements. The pooled weekly BCS was maintained between 4.8 and 5.1 (root mean square error (RMSE)=0.4). Muscle glycogen content was 587 and 623 mmol/kg dry weight (RMSE=68) as 2- and 3-year olds, respectively, and there was no difference between training groups. When managed under normal conditions, no nutrition-related health disorders or stereotypic behaviours were observed. It was concluded that the training programme did not affect feed intake, growth, BCS or muscle glycogen content. In addition, the forage-only diet did not appear to prohibit muscle glycogen storage, growth or maintenance of body condition, and seemed to promote good nutrition-related health.

  6. High-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters. Experience, recommendations. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahre, P.

    1997-12-01

    The application of high-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters shows a steadily rising upward trend over the last few years. This induced the ''Arbeitskreis Inkorporationsueberwachung'' of the association ''Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V.'' to organise a meeting for joint elaboration of a guide on recommended applications of this measuring technique, based on a review of existing experience and results. A key item on the agenda of the meeting was the comparative evaluation of the Ge semiconductor detector and the NaI solid scintillation detector. (orig./CB) [de

  7. Relationship between body condition score at calving and reproductive performance in young postpartum cows grazing native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body condition score is used as a management tool to predict competency of reproduction in beef cows. Therefore, a retrospective study was performed to evaluate association of BCS at calving with subsequent pregnancy rate, days to first estrus, nutrient status (assessed by blood metabolites), and c...

  8. Cow body condition affects the hormonal release of ovarian cells and their responses to gonadotropic and metabolic hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sirotkin, A. V.; Makarevich, A. V.; Laurinčík, Jozef; Alawasel, S.; Harrath, A. H.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 3 (2018), s. 142-147 ISSN 0093-691X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : ovary * body condition * progesterone Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2016

  9. Genetic correlations between body condition score, yield and fertility in Holstein heifers estimated by random regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Koenen, E.P.C.; Jong, de G.

    2001-01-01

    Twenty type classifiers scored body condition (BCS) of 91,738 first-parity cows from 601 sires and 5518 maternal grandsires. Fertility data during first lactation were extracted for 177,220 cows, of which 67,278 also had a BCS observation, and first-lactation 305-d milk, fat, and protein yields were

  10. Developmental acclimation to low or high humidity conditions affect starvation and heat resistance of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, Ravi; Ranga, Poonam; Aggarwal, Dau Dayal

    2014-09-01

    Several Drosophila species originating from tropical humid localities are more resistant to starvation and heat stress than populations from high latitudes but mechanistic bases of such physiological changes are largely unknown. In order to test whether humidity levels affect starvation and heat resistance, we investigated developmental acclimation effects of low to high humidity conditions on the storage and utilization of energy resources, body mass, starvation survival, heat knockdown and heat survival of D. melanogaster. Isofemale lines reared under higher humidity (85% RH) stored significantly higher level of lipids and showed greater starvation survival hours but smaller in body size. In contrast, lines reared at low humidity evidenced reduced levels of body lipids and starvation resistance. Starvation resistance and lipid storage level were higher in females than males. However, the rate of utilization of lipids under starvation stress was lower for lines reared under higher humidity. Adult flies of lines reared at 65% RH and acclimated under high or low humidity condition for 200 hours also showed changes in resistance to starvation and heat but such effects were significantly lower as compared with developmental acclimation. Isofemale lines reared under higher humidity showed greater heat knockdown time and heat-shock survival. These laboratory observations on developmental and adult acclimation effects of low versus high humidity conditions have helped in explaining seasonal changes in resistance to starvation and heat of the wild-caught flies of D. melanogaster. Thus, we may suggest that wet versus drier conditions significantly affect starvation and heat resistance of D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental characterization of gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Mahabat; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmed; Khalid, Azfar; Lughmani, Waqas Akbar

    2018-05-01

    An experimental investigation of multistream gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions is carried out in this paper. Temperature increase of fuel and low engine pressure could lead to flash boiling. The spray shape is normally modified significantly under flash boiling conditions. The spray plumes expansion along with reduction in the axial momentum causes the jets to merge and creates a low-pressure area below the injector's nozzle. These effects initiate the collapse of spray cone and lead to the formation of a single jet plume or a big cluster like structure. The collapsing sprays reduces exposed surface and therefore they last longer and subsequently penetrate more. Spray plume momentum increase, jet plume reduction and spray target widening could delay or prevent the closure condition and limit the penetration (delayed formation of the cluster promotes evaporation). These spray characteristics are investigated experimentally using shadowgraphy, for five and six hole injectors, under various boundary conditions. Six hole injectors produce more collapsing sprays in comparison to five hole injector due to enhanced jet to jet interactions. The spray collapse tendency reduces with increase in injection pressure due high axial momentum of spray plumes. The spray evaporation rates of five hole injector are observed to be higher than six hole injectors. Larger spray cone angles of the six hole injectors promote less penetrating and less collapsing sprays.

  12. A high precision radiation-tolerant LVDT conditioning module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masi, A. [EN/STI Group, CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Danzeca, S. [EN/STI Group, CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); IES, F-34000 Montpellier (France); Losito, R.; Peronnard, P. [EN/STI Group, CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Secondo, R., E-mail: raffaello.secondo@cern.ch [EN/STI Group, CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Spiezia, G. [EN/STI Group, CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-05-01

    Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) position sensors are widely used in particle accelerators and nuclear plants, thanks to their properties of contact-less sensing, radiation tolerance, infinite resolution, good linearity and cost efficiency. Many applications require high reading accuracy, even in environments with high radiation levels, where the conditioning electronics must be located several hundred meters away from the sensor. Sometimes even at long distances the conditioning module is still exposed to ionizing radiation. Standard off-the-shelf electronic conditioning modules offer limited performances in terms of reading accuracy and long term stability already with short cables. A radiation tolerant stand-alone LVDT conditioning module has been developed using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components. The reading of the sensor output voltages is based on a sine-fit algorithm digitally implemented on an FPGA ensuring few micrometers reading accuracy even with low signal-to-noise ratios. The algorithm validation and board architecture are described. A full metrological characterization of the module is reported and radiation tests results are discussed.

  13. Genetic relationships between body condition score and reproduction traits in Canadian Holstein and Ayrshire first-parity cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, C; Loker, S; Gengler, N; Sewalem, A; Miglior, F

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationship between body condition score (BCS) and reproduction traits for first-parity Canadian Ayrshire and Holstein cows. Body condition scores were collected by field staff several times over the lactation in herds from Québec, and reproduction records (including both fertility and calving traits) were extracted from the official database used for the Canadian genetic evaluation of those herds. For each breed, six 2-trait animal models were run; they included random regressions that allowed the estimation of genetic correlations between BCS over the lactation and reproduction traits that are measured as a single lactation record. Analyses were undertaken on data from 108 Ayrshire herds and 342 Holstein herds. Average daily heritabilities of BCS were close to 0.13 for both breeds; these relatively low estimates might be explained by the high variability among herds and BCS evaluators. Genetic correlations between BCS and interval fertility traits (days from calving to first service, days from first service to conception, and days open) were negative and ranged between -0.77 and -0.58 for Ayrshire and between -0.31 and -0.03 for Holstein. Genetic correlations between BCS and 56-d nonreturn rate at first insemination were positive and moderate. The trends of these genetic correlations over the lactation suggest that a genetically low BCS in early lactation would increase the number of days that the primiparous cow was not pregnant and would decrease the chances of the primiparous cow to conceive at first service. Genetic correlations between BCS and calving traits were generally the strongest at calving and decreased with increasing days in milk. The correlation between BCS at calving and maternal calving ease was 0.21 for Holstein and 0.31 for Ayrshire and emphasized the relationship between fat cows around calving and dystocia. Genetic correlations between calving traits and BCS during the subsequent

  14. Antioxidant capacity contributes to protection of ketone bodies against oxidative damage induced during hypoglycemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haces, María L; Hernández-Fonseca, Karla; Medina-Campos, Omar N; Montiel, Teresa; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Massieu, Lourdes

    2008-05-01

    Ketone bodies play a key role in mammalian energy metabolism during the suckling period. Normally ketone bodies' blood concentration during adulthood is very low, although it can rise during starvation, an exogenous infusion or a ketogenic diet. Whenever ketone bodies' levels increase, their oxidation in the brain rises. For this reason they have been used as protective molecules against refractory epilepsy and in experimental models of ischemia and excitotoxicity. The mechanisms underlying the protective effect of these compounds are not completely understood. Here, we studied a possible antioxidant capacity of ketone bodies and whether it contributes to the protection against oxidative damage induced during hypoglycemia. We report for the first time the scavenging capacity of the ketone bodies, acetoacetate (AcAc) and both the physiological and non-physiological isomers of beta-hydroxybutyrate (D- and L-BHB, respectively), for diverse reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxyl radicals (.OH) were effectively scavenged by D- and L-BHB. In addition, the three ketone bodies were able to reduce cell death and ROS production induced by the glycolysis inhibitor, iodoacetate (IOA), while only D-BHB and AcAc prevented neuronal ATP decline. Finally, in an in vivo model of insulin-induced hypoglycemia, the administration of D- or L-BHB, but not of AcAc, was able to prevent the hypoglycemia-induced increase in lipid peroxidation in the rat hippocampus. Our data suggest that the antioxidant capacity contributes to protection of ketone bodies against oxidative damage in in vitro and in vivo models associated with free radical production and energy impairment.

  15. Signal Conditioning in Process of High Speed Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Hargas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of cinematic analysis with camera system depends on frame rate of used camera. Specific case of cinematic analysis is in medical research focusing on microscopic objects moving with high frequencies (cilia of respiratory epithelium. The signal acquired by high speed video acquisition system has very amount of data. This paper describes hardware parts, signal condition and software, which is used for image acquiring thru digital camera, intelligent illumination dimming hardware control and ROI statistic creation. All software parts are realized as virtual instruments.

  16. High-dose, half-body irradiation and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelssner, W.; Standke, E.; Brock, A.; Dalicho, R.; Friedrich, A.; Kunze, M.L.; Melzer, R.; Sauer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The major early reactions observable were vegetative disturbances such as nausea, vertigo, repeated vomiting, rise in temperature and pulse rate, variations in blood pressure, and diarrhea in some cases. All these symptoms disappeared quite rapidly. Seven women developed parotitis, which disappeared after a certain time, and all patients suffered from complete epilation, which was followed by enhanced piliation. There were only light mucosal changes in all patients, but many changes in the blood count. Observation of cellular immunity revealed a temporary suppression, which faded out after 3 weeks. Further side effects could be detected in the biochemical regime. The main radiation effects on the lungs and the only virtual complication encountered were three cases of pneumonitis. Apart from these, lung density measurement by CT revealed a temporary increase in density. Effects of the half-body irradiation on the heart consisted for one part of direct effects detectable in the cells of the cardiac muscle in the myocardial capillaries, and for the other by adaptive responses to changes in the hemodynamics of the lesser circulatory system. There were no signs of renal lesions or formation of cataracts. A causality can be suspected between the radiotherapy and the occurrance of two secondary carcinoma, contralateral breast cancer in one patient, and stomach cancer in another. The efficiency of the half-body irradiation is shown by the delayed occurrence of metastases, and a prolongation of survival time of incurable patients. (orig./MG) With 20 figs., 9 tabs [de

  17. High Resolution N-Body Simulations of Terrestrial Planet Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark Wallace, Spencer; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate planetesimal accretion with a direct N-body simulation of an annulus at 1 AU around a 1 M_sun star. The planetesimal ring, which initially contains N = 106 bodies is evolved through the runaway growth stage into the phase of oligarchic growth. We find that the mass distribution of planetesimals develops a bump around 1022 g shortly after the oligarchs form. This feature is absent in previous lower resolution studies. We find that this bump marks a boundary between growth modes. Below the bump mass, planetesimals are packed tightly enough together to populate first order mean motion resonances with the oligarchs. These resonances act to heat the tightly packed, low mass planetesimals, inhibiting their growth. We examine the eccentricity evolution of a dynamically hot planetary embryo embedded in an annulus of planetesimals and find that dynamical friction acts more strongly on the embryo when the planetesimals are finely resolved. This effect disappears when the annulus is made narrow enough to exclude most of the mean motion resonances. Additionally, we find that the 1022 g bump is significantly less prominent when we follow planetesimal growth with a skinny annulus.This feature, which is reminiscent of the power law break seen in the size distribution of asteroid belt objects may be an important clue for constraining the initial size of planetesimals in planet formation models.

  18. Life-history dependent relationships between body condition and immunity, between immunity indices in male Eurasian tree sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuliang; Li, Mo; Sun, Yanfeng; Wu, Wei; Kou, Guanqun; Guo, Lingling; Xing, Danning; Wu, Yuefeng; Li, Dongming; Zhao, Baohua

    2017-08-01

    In free-living animals, recent evidence indicates that innate, and acquired, immunity varies with annual variation in the demand for, and availability of, food resources. However, little is known about how animals adjust the relationships between immunity and body condition, and between innate and acquired immunity to optimize survival over winter and reproductive success during the breeding stage. Here, we measured indices of body condition (size-corrected mass [SCM], and hematocrit [Hct]), constitutive innate immunity (plasma total complement hemolysis activity [CH 50 ]) and acquired immunity (plasma immunoglobulin A [IgA]), plus heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratios, in male Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) during the wintering and the breeding stages. We found that birds during the wintering stage had higher IgA levels than those from the breeding stage. Two indices of body condition were both negatively correlated with plasma CH 50 activities, and positively with IgA levels in wintering birds, but this was not the case in the breeding birds. However, there was no correlation between CH 50 activities and IgA levels in both stages. These results suggest that the relationships between body condition and immunity can vary across life-history stage, and there are no correlations between innate and acquired immunity independent of life-history stage, in male Eurasian tree sparrows. Therefore, body condition indices predict immunological state, especially during the non-breeding stage, which can be useful indicators of individual immunocompetences for understanding the variations in innate and acquired immunity in free-living animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of body's impedance under different conditions for electro-acupuncture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.M.; Abrarov, S.; Khan, R.R.; Maqsood, R.S.; Qaiser, M.A.; Karimov, Kh. S.

    2001-01-01

    A computer controlled automated setup has been designed to investigate the body acupuncture points (bio-active points) by using a probes matrix which exerts a uniform pressure on the body. 16 probes matrix was placed in a 15 : 15 mm/sup 2/ dielectric substrate with 5 mm inter probe distance, compatible with the average diameter of the points. These probes have been designed to facilitate a semiconductor injection laser for probing of the points along with optical and/or electric signal. The bioactive points were identified by evaluating the impedance between each probe and a hand held electrode through a micro-controlled scan. This also allowed the selection of an appropriate signal - DC, AC or tidal waveform, for the electric treatment of bioactive points. It has been found that body impedance decreases with the increase of measuring voltage. Moreover, for current-voltage characteristics a nonlinearity coefficient in the range 2-3 was also observed. The study revealed that at low applied voltages 0.l V, the impedance depends on the polarity of the applied signal. Furthermore, body impedance decreases nonlinearly by increasing the probe's pressure on the skin, which may be attributed to piezo resistive effect. By using the AC and Dc measurements an appropriate body equivalent circuit is proposed in this investigation. (author)

  20. Short communication: Jersey × Holstein crossbreds compared with pure Holsteins for body weight, body condition score, fertility, and survival during the first three lactations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, B J; Hansen, L B; Hazel, A R; Seykora, A J; Johnson, D G; Linn, J G

    2012-07-01

    Crossbred cows (n=80) resulting from the use of Jersey (JE) semen on their pure Holstein (HO) dams were compared with pure HO cows (n=77) for body weight, body condition score, fertility, and survival during their first 3 lactations. Cows were in 2 research herds of the University of Minnesota and calved from September 2003 to June 2008. The JE × HO crossbred cows had significantly less body weight during the first (-56 kg), second (-67 kg), and third (-82 kg) lactations than pure HO cows. However, JE × HO cows had significantly greater body condition score during the first (2.94 vs. 2.84), second (2.97 vs. 2.84), and third (2.99 vs. 2.87) lactations than pure HO cows. For fertility, JE × HO cows had fewer days to first breeding during the first (-10.6d), second (-8.4d), and third (-12.3d) lactations than pure HO cows. Crossbred cows were not significantly different from pure HO cows for number of services during first lactation; however, JE × HO cows had significantly fewer services (2.2) than pure HO cows (2.7) during the second lactation. Also, JE × HO cows had significantly fewer days open than pure HO cows in the first (-24 d), second (-42 d), and third (-42 d) lactations. For survival, JE × HO cows were not significantly different from pure HO cows for percentage of cows calving a second time; however, a tendency existed for a higher percentage of JE × HO cows (63.8%) than pure HO cows (49.4%) to calve a third time, and a higher percentage of JE × HO cows calved a third time within 28, 34, and 40 mo of first calving than pure HO cows. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Wave Runup on a Frozen Beach Under High Energy Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, D.; Bernatchez, P.; Dumont, D.; Corriveau, M.

    2017-12-01

    High and mid-latitude beaches have typical morphological characteristics influenced by nearshore processes prevailing under ice conditions during cold season. Nearshore ice complexes (NIC) offer a natural coastal protection by covering beach sediments, while offshore ice-infested waters dissipate incoming waves. Climate change contributes to sea ice shrinking therefore reducing its protection against erosion and flooding. In the Estuary and Gulf of the St. Lawrence (ESL, GSL) (eastern Canada), sea ice cover undergoes an overall shrinking and simulated future projections tend toward a negligible effect on wave climate by 2100. Quantifying the effect of nearshore dynamics on frozen beaches is therefore imperative for coastal management as more wave energy at the coast is expected in the future. To measure the effect of a frozen beach on wave runup elevations, this study employs a continuous video recording of the swash motion at 4Hz. Video-derived wave runup statistics have been extracted during a tidal cycle on a frozen beach, using the Pointe-Lebel beach (ESL) as a test case. Timestack analysis was combined with offshore water levels and wave measurements. A comparison of runup under icy conditions (Dec. 30 2016) with a runup distribution during summer was made under similar high energy wave conditions. Results indicate high runup excursions potentially caused by lowered sediment permeability due to high pore-ice saturation in the swash zone, accentuating the overwash of the eroding coastline and thus the risk of flooding. With projected reduction in coastal sea ice cover and thus higher wave energy, this study suggests that episodes of degradation and weakening could influence the coastal flood risk in mid- and high-latitude cold environments.

  2. Atmospheric conditions during high ragweed pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Srnec, Lidija; Peternel, Renata; Madžarević, Valentina; Hrga, Ivana; Stjepanović, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    We examined the atmospheric conditions favourable to the occurrence of maximum concentrations of ragweed pollen with an extremely high risk of producing allergy. Over the 2002-2009 period, daily pollen data collected in Zagreb were used to identify two periods of high pollen concentration (> 600 grains/m3) for our analysis: period A (3-4 September 2002) and period B (6-7 September 2003). Synoptic conditions in both periods were very similar: Croatia was under the influence of a lower sector high pressure system moving slowly eastward over Eastern Europe. During the 2002-2009 period, this type of weather pattern (on ~ 70% of days), in conjunction with almost non-gradient surface pressure conditions in the area (on ~ 30% of days) characterised days when the daily pollen concentrations were higher than 400 grains/m3. Numerical experiments using a mesoscale model at fine resolution showed successful multi-day simulations reproducing the local topographic influence on wind flow and in reasonable agreement with available observations. According to the model, the relatively weak synoptic flow (predominantly from the eastern direction) allowed local thermal circulations to develop over Zagreb during both high pollen episodes. Two-hour pollen concentrations and 48-h back-trajectories indicated that regional-range transport of pollen grains from the central Pannonian Plain was the cause of the high pollen concentrations during period A. During period B, the north-westward regional-range transport in Zagreb was supplemented significantly by pronounced horizontal recirculation of pollen grains. This recirculation happened within the diurnal local circulation over the city, causing a late-evening increase in pollen concentration.

  3. Body condition score at parturition and postpartum supplemental fat effects on cow and calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, S L; Scholljegerdes, E J; Atkinson, R L; Nayigihugu, V; Paisley, S I; Rule, D C; Moss, G E; Robinson, T J; Hess, B W

    2005-12-01

    Three-year-old Angus x Gelbvieh beef cows nutritionally managed to achieve a BCS of 4 +/- 0.07 (479.3 +/- 36.3 kg of BW) or 6 +/- 0.07 (579.6 +/- 53.1 kg of BW) at parturition were used in a 2-yr experiment (n = 36/yr) to determine the effects of prepartum energy balance and postpartum lipid supplementation on cow and calf performance. Beginning 3 d postpartum, cows within each BCS were assigned randomly to be fed hay and a low-fat control supplement or supplements with either high-linoleate cracked safflower seeds or high-oleate cracked safflower seeds until d 60 of lactation. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric, and safflower seed supplements were provided to achieve 5% of DMI as fat. Ultrasonic 12th rib fat and LM area were lower (P condition over the course of the study, whereas cows in BCS 6 lost condition. No differences (P = 0.44 to 0.71) were detected for milk yield, milk energy, milk fat percentage, or milk lactose percentage because of BCS; however, milk protein percentage was less (P = 0.03) for BCS 4 cows. First-service conception rates did not differ (P = 0.22) because of BCS at parturition, but overall pregnancy rate was greater (P = 0.02) in BCS 6 cows. No differences (P = 0.48 to 0.83) were detected in calf birth weight or ADG because of BCS at parturition. Dietary lipid supplementation did not influence (P = 0.23 to 0.96) cow BW change, BCS change, 12th rib fat, LM area, milk yield, milk energy, milk fat percentage, milk lactose percentage, first service conception, overall pregnancy rates, or calf performance. Although cows in BCS of 4 at parturition seemed capable of maintaining BCS during lactation, the overall decrease in pregnancy rate indicates cows should be managed to achieve a BCS >4 before parturition to improve reproductive success.

  4. Adult survival, apparent lamb survival, and body condition of desert bighorn sheep in relation to habitat and precipitation on the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Matthew; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Cain, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The decline of desert bighorn sheep on the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (KNWR) beginning in 2003 stimulated efforts to determine the factors limiting survival and recruitment. We 1) determined pregnancy rates, body fat, and estimated survival rates of adults and lambs; 2) investigated the relationship between precipitation, forage conditions, previous year’s reproductive success, and adult body condition; 3) assessed the relative influence of body condition of adult females, precipitation, and forage characteristics on apparent survival of lambs; and 4) determined the prevalence of disease. To assess the influence of potential limiting factors on female desert bighorn sheep on the KNWR, we modeled percent body fat of adult females as a function of previous year’s reproductive effort, age class, and forage conditions (i.e., seasonal NDVI and seasonal precipitation). In addition, we assessed the relative influence of the body condition of adult females, precipitation, and forage conditions (NDVI) on length of time a lamb was observed at heel.Adult female survival was high in both 2009 (0.90 [SE = 0.05]) and 2010 (0.96 [SE = 0.03]). Apparent lamb survival to 6 months of age was 0.23 (SE = 0.05) during 2009-2010 and 0.21 (SE = 0.05) during 2010-2011 lambing seasons. Mean body fat for adult females was 12.03% (SE = 0.479) in 2009-2010 and 11.11% (SE= 0.486) in 2010-2011 and was not significantly different between years. Pregnancy rate was 100% in 2009 and 97.5% in 2010.Models containing the previous year’s reproductive effort, spring NDVI and previous year’s reproductive effort and spring precipitation best approximated data on percent body fat in adult females in 2009-2010. In 2010-2011, the two highest-ranking models included the previous year’s reproductive effort and winter NDVI and previous year’s reproductive effort, and winter and spring NDVI. None of the models assessing the influence of maternal body fat, precipitation, or forage conditions were

  5. Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, J

    1996-01-01

    In addition to the person-environment fit model (J. R. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990), a third theoretical concept is proposed to assess adverse health effects of stressful experience at work: the effort-reward imbalance model. The focus of this model is on reciprocity of exchange in occupational life where high-cost/low-gain conditions are considered particularly stressful. Variables measuring low reward in terms of low status control (e.g., lack of promotion prospects, job insecurity) in association with high extrinsic (e.g., work pressure) or intrinsic (personal coping pattern, e.g., high need for control) effort independently predict new cardiovascular events in a prospective study on blue-collar men. Furthermore, these variables partly explain prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, atherogenic lipids) in 2 independent studies. Studying adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions seems well justified, especially in view of recent developments of the labor market.

  6. Effects of high-intensity strength interval training program on body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Juránková, Michaela; Bílý, Jiří; Hrazdíra, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine effects of 10-week high-intensity strength interval training (HIIT) program on body composition. Seven women (31.0 ± 6.0 years old, 65.7 ± 9.8 kg body weight, 23.6 ± 2.8 kg*m−2 BMI, 18.6 ± 5.8 kg body fat, 26.0 ± 3.4 kg muscle mass) completed intervention program. We performed an analyze of body composition before and after training program. We focused especially on body fat and muscle mass. Each session consisted of short term bouts (until 30 s duration) w...

  7. Associations of Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Body Fat Content With Pain Conditions in Children: The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierola, Anu; Suominen, Anna Liisa; Lindi, Virpi; Viitasalo, Anna; Ikävalko, Tiina; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Kellokoski, Jari; Närhi, Matti; Lakka, Timo A

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the cross-sectional associations of sedentary behavior, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body fat content with pain conditions in prepubertal children. The participants were a population sample of 439 children aged 6 to 8 years. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, and pain conditions were assessed using questionnaires, cardiorespiratory fitness using maximal cycle ergometer test, and body fat percentage using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The associations of sedentary behavior, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body fat percentage with the risk of pain conditions were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Children in the highest sex-specific third of sedentary behavior had 1.95 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-3.17; P = .007 for trend across thirds) times higher odds of any pain than children in the lowest third. Children in the highest sex-specific third of cardiorespiratory fitness had 46% (odds ratio [OR] = .54; 95% CI, .32-.91; P = .019) lower odds of any pain and 50% (OR = .50; 95% CI, .28-.87; P = .015) lower odds of headache than children in the lowest third. Children in the highest sex-specific third of body fat percentage had 44% (OR = .56; 95% CI, .34-.93; P = .023) lower odds of any pain, 49% (OR = .51; 95% CI, .30-.86; P = .011) lower risk of multiple pain, and 48% (OR = .52; 95% CI, .31-.86; P = .010) lower odds of lower limb pain than children in the lowest third. Physical activity was not associated with pain conditions. These findings suggest that prepubertal children with high levels of sedentary behavior, low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, and low body fat content have increased likelihood of various pain conditions. This information could be used to develop strategies to prevent chronic pain in childhood. Our findings suggest that low cardiorespiratory fitness, high levels of sedentary behavior, and low body fat content are associated with increased

  8. Basic Research into High-Speed Supercavitating Bodies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stinebring, David

    2001-01-01

    Critical technologies related to SCAT development, including cavitator hydrodynamics, control surface hydrodynamics, static pressure sensing, flow noise calculations and hydrodynamics modeling of high...

  9. High-Latitude Ionospheric Dynamics During Conditions of Northward IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharber, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    In order to better understand the physical processes operating during conditions of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), in situ measurements from the Dynamics Explorer-2 (low altitude) polar satellite and simultaneous observations from the auroral imager on the Dynamics Explorer-1 (high altitude) satellite were used to investigate the relationships between optical emissions, particle precipitation, and convective flows in the high-latitude ionosphere. Field aligned current and convective flow patterns during IMF north include polar cap arcs, the theta aurora or transpolar arc, and the 'horse-collar' aurora. The initial part of the study concentrated on the electrodynamics of auroral features in the horse-collar aurora, a contracted but thickened emission region in which the dawn and dusk portions can spread to very high latitudes, while the latter part focused on the evolution of one type of IMF north auroral pattern to another, specifically the quiet-time horse-collar pattern to a theta aurora.

  10. Design and realization of high voltage disconnector condition monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinrui; Xu, Tianyang; Yang, Shuixian; Li, Buoyang

    2017-08-01

    The operation status of the high voltage disconnector directly affects the safe and stable operation of the power system. This article uses the wireless frequency hopping communication technology of the communication module to achieve the temperature acquisition of the switch contacts and high voltage bus, to introduce the current value of the loop in ECS, and judge the operation status of the disconnector by considering the ambient temperature, calculating the temperature rise; And through the acquisition of the current of drive motor in the process of switch closing and opening, and fault diagnosis of the disconnector by analyzing the change rule of the drive motor current, the condition monitoring of the high voltage disconnector is realized.

  11. Association between body condition score and cancer prognosis in dogs with lymphoma and osteosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In humans and rodents obesity appears to promote some cancers by increasing incidence, tumor aggressiveness, recurrence, and mortality. However, the relationship between obesity and cancer in dogs has not been thoroughly evaluated. Hypothesis/Objectives: We examined whether body conditio...

  12. Habitat deterioration affects antipredatory behavior, body condition, and parasite load of female Psammodromus algirus lizards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amo de Paz, L.; López, P.; Martín, J.

    2007-01-01

    Deforestation may increase predation risk for prey because it may make prey more conspicuous and limit the number of refuges suitable to avoid predators. Therefore, prey may need to increase the magnitude of escape responses. However, excessive antipredatory effort might lead to a loss of body mass

  13. The athlete's body and the global condition: Tongan rugby players in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2012-01-01

    The mobility of rugby professionals from Tonga to Japan and points beyond poses new questions about the role of the body as a mediator between the subjective and the objective, which anthropologists and other social scientists have generally examined within the confines of specific societies.

  14. Impact of boundary conditions on the development of the thermal plume above a sitting human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Popiolek, Zbigniew J.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    a sitting occupant. CFD predictions were performed to explain the reason for a skewness in the thermal plume above a sitting thermal manikin with realistic body shape, size, and surface temperature distribution, measured in a climate chamber with mean radiant temperature equal to the room air temperature...

  15. Plastic ingestion by Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes): Implications for fledgling body condition and the accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavers, Jennifer L.; Bond, Alexander L.; Hutton, Ian

    2014-01-01

    To provide much needed quantitative data on the lethal and sublethal effects of plastic pollution on marine wildlife, we sampled breast feathers and stomach contents from Flesh-footed Shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) fledglings in eastern Australia. Birds with high levels of ingested plastic exhibited reduced body condition and increased contaminant load (p < 0.05). More than 60% of fledglings exceed international targets for plastic ingestion by seabirds, with 16% of fledglings failing these targets after a single feeding (range: 0.13–3.21 g of plastic/feeding). As top predators, seabirds are considered sentinels of the marine environment. The amount of plastic ingested and corresponding damage to Flesh-footed Shearwater fledglings is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate, suggesting the condition of the Australian marine environment is poor. These findings help explain the ongoing decline of this species and are worrying in light of increasing levels of plastic pollution in our oceans. - Highlights: • Proportion of the shearwater population ingesting plastic increased over four years. • Shearwater body condition is negatively influenced by the amount of ingested plastic. • Shearwater contaminant load is positively related to the amount of ingested plastic. • Many chicks exceed international targets for ingested plastic after a single feeding. • Plastic ingestion in this study is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate. - Flesh-footed Shearwaters ingest large quantities of marine plastic, which is correlated with poor body condition and increased concentrations of trace metals such as chromium

  16. The impact of high temperatures on foraging behaviour and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High temperatures can pose significant thermoregulation challenges for endotherms, and determining how individual species respond to high temperatures will be important for predicting the impact of global warming on wild populations. Animals can adjust their behaviour or physiology to cope with higher temperatures, ...

  17. The Effect of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Power Output for the Upper Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Harvey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine and measure high intensity, intermittent upper body performance, in addition to identifying areas of the body that affect the variance in total work done during the 5 × 6 s sprint test. Fifteen males completed an upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test on a modified electro-magnetically braked cycle ergometer, which consisted of five maximal effort sprints, each 6 s in duration, separated by 24 s of passive recovery. A fly wheel braking force corresponding to 5% of the participants’ body weight was used as the implemented resistance level. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Percent (% decrement was calculated as 100 − (Total work/ideal work × 100. Significant (P < 0.05 differences were found between sprints for both absolute and relative (W, W·kg−1, W·kg−1 Lean body mass (LBM and W·kg−1 Upper body lean body mass (UBLBM peak (PP and mean (MP power. The % decrement in total work done over the five sprints was 11.4%. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that UBLBM accounts for 87% of the variance in total work done during the upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test. These results provide a descriptive analysis of upper body, high intensity intermittent exercise, demonstrating that PP and MP output decreased significantly during the upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test.

  18. Sport type and interpersonal and intrapersonal predictors of body dissatisfaction in high school female sport participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Trisha M; Davidson, Denise; Bryant, Fred B; Balague, Gloria; Bohnert, Amy M

    2013-03-01

    Through multiple group structural equation modeling analyses, path models were used to test the predictive effects of sport type and both interpersonal (i.e., mothers' body dissatisfaction, family dynamics) and intrapersonal factors (i.e., athletic self-efficacy, body mass index [BMI]) on high school female sport participants' (N=627) body dissatisfaction. Sport types were classified as esthetic/lean (i.e., gymnastics), non-esthetic/lean (i.e., cross-country), or non-esthetic/non-lean (i.e., softball). Most participants reported low body dissatisfaction, and body dissatisfaction did not differ across sport types. Nevertheless, mothers' body dissatisfaction was positively associated with daughters' body dissatisfaction for non-esthetic/lean and non-esthetic/non-lean sport participants, and high family cohesion was predictive of body dissatisfaction among non-esthetic/lean sport participants. Across sport types, higher BMI was associated with greater body dissatisfaction, whereas greater athletic self-efficacy was associated with lower body dissatisfaction. These findings highlight the complex relationship between interpersonal and intrapersonal factors and body dissatisfaction in adolescent female sport participants. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Genetic parameters for energy balance, fat /protein ratio, body condition score and disease traits in German Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttchereit, N; Stamer, E; Junge, W; Thaller, G

    2012-08-01

    Various health problems in dairy cows have been related to the magnitude and duration of the energy deficit post partum. Energy balance indicator traits like fat/protein ratio in milk and body condition score could be used in selection programmes to help predicting breeding values for health traits, but currently there is a lack of appropriate genetic parameters. Therefore, genetic correlations among energy balance, fat/protein ratio, and body condition score, and mastitis, claw and leg diseases, and metabolic disorders were estimated using linear and threshold models on data from 1693 primiparous cows recorded within the first 180 days in milk. Average daily energy balance, milk fat/protein ratio and body condition score were 8 MJ NEL, 1.13 and 2.94, respectively. Disease frequencies (% cows with at least one case) were 24.6% for mastitis, 9.7% for metabolic disorders and 28.2% for claw and leg diseases. Heritability estimates were 0.06, 0.30 and 0.34 for energy balance, fat/protein ratio and body condition score, respectively. For the disease traits, heritabilities ranged between 0.04 and 0.15. The genetic correlations were, in general, associated with large standard errors, but, although not significant, the results suggest that an improvement of overall health can be expected if energy balance traits are included into future breeding programmes. A low fat/protein ratio might serve as an indicator for metabolic stability and health of claw and legs. Between body condition and mastitis, a significant negative correlation of -0.40 was estimated. The study provides a new insight into the role energy balance traits can play as auxiliary traits for robustness of dairy cows. It was concluded that both, fat/protein ratio and body condition score, are potential variables to describe how well cows can adapt to the challenge of early lactation. However, the genetic parameters should be re-estimated on a more comprehensive data set. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Turcotte, R.P.; Chikalla, T.D.; Hench, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms requires an understanding of radiation and thermal effects, mechanical properties, volatility, and chemical durability. As a result of nuclear waste research and development programs in many countries, a good understanding of these factors is available for borosilicate glass containing high-level waste. The IAEA through its coordinated research program has contributed to this understanding. Methods used in the evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms are reviewed. In the US, this evaluation has been facilitated by the definition of standard test methods by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC), which was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 1979. The DOE has also established a 20-member Materials Review Board to peer-review the activities of the MCC. In addition to comparing waste forms, testing must be done to evaluate the behavior of waste forms in geologic repositories. Such testing is complex; accelerated tests are required to predict expected behavior for thousands of years. The tests must be multicomponent tests to ensure that all potential interactions between waste form, canister/overpack and corrosion products, backfill, intruding ground water and the repository rock, are accounted for. An overview of the status of such multicomponent testing is presented

  1. 42 CFR 485.56 - Condition of participation: Governing body and administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIALIZED PROVIDERS Conditions of Participation: Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facilities § 485.56...: Institutional budget plan. The facility must have an institutional budget plan that meets the following...

  2. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate

  3. Thermophysical Properties Measurement of High-Temperature Liquids Under Microgravity Conditions in Controlled Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masahito; Ozawa, Shumpei; Mizuno, Akotoshi; Hibiya, Taketoshi; Kawauchi, Hiroya; Murai, Kentaro; Takahashi, Suguru

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity conditions have advantages of measurement of surface tension and viscosity of metallic liquids by the oscillating drop method with an electromagnetic levitation (EML) device. Thus, we are preparing the experiments of thermophysical properties measurements using the Materials-Science Laboratories ElectroMagnetic-Levitator (MSL-EML) facilities in the international Space station (ISS). Recently, it has been identified that dependence of surface tension on oxygen partial pressure (Po2) must be considered for industrial application of surface tension values. Effect of Po2 on surface tension would apparently change viscosity from the damping oscillation model. Therefore, surface tension and viscosity must be measured simultaneously in the same atmospheric conditions. Moreover, effect of the electromagnetic force (EMF) on the surface oscillations must be clarified to obtain the ideal surface oscillation because the EMF works as the external force on the oscillating liquid droplets, so extensive EMF makes apparently the viscosity values large. In our group, using the parabolic flight levitation experimental facilities (PFLEX) the effect of Po2 and external EMF on surface oscillation of levitated liquid droplets was systematically investigated for the precise measurements of surface tension and viscosity of high temperature liquids for future ISS experiments. We performed the observation of surface oscillations of levitated liquid alloys using PFLEX on board flight experiments by Gulfstream II (G-II) airplane operated by DAS. These observations were performed under the controlled Po2 and also under the suitable EMF conditions. In these experiments, we obtained the density, the viscosity and the surface tension values of liquid Cu. From these results, we discuss about as same as reported data, and also obtained the difference of surface oscillations with the change of the EMF conditions.

  4. Body Temperatures in the Elderly: A National Study of Physiological, Social, and Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. H.; Woodward, Patricia M.; Exton-Smith, A. N.; Green, M. F.; Donnison, D. V.; Wicks, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    Two large-scale surveys of body temperatures in elderly people living at home were carried out in the winter of 1972. Most of the homes visited were cold with room temperatures below the minimum recommended by the Department of Health. Deep body temperatures below 35·5°C were found in 10% of those studied, and the difference between the skin temperature and the core temperature was also reduced in this group. Such individuals are at risk of developing hypothermia since they show evidence of some degree of thermoregulatory failure. Further research is needed, but meanwhile there are practical measures that could be taken to reduce the risk of hypothermia in the elderly. PMID:4686555

  5. A prospective study of calf factors affecting age, body size, and body condition score at first calving of holstein dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, A J; Heinrichs, B S; Harel, O; Rogers, G W; Place, N T

    2005-08-01

    Data were collected prospectively on parameters related to first calving on 18 farms located in Northeastern Pennsylvania. This project was designed to study possible residual effects of calf management practices and events occurring during the first 16 wk of life on age, BW, skeletal growth, and body condition score at first calving. Multiple imputation method for handling missing data was incorporated in these analyses. This method has the advantage over ad hoc single imputations because the appropriate error structure is maintained. Much similarity was found between the multiple imputation method and a traditional mixed model analysis, except that some estimates from the multiple imputation method seemed more logical in their effects on the parameter measured. Factors related to increased age at first calving were increased difficulty of delivery, antibiotic treatment of sick calves, increased amount of milk or milk replacer fed before weaning, reduced quality of forage fed to weaned calves, maximum humidity, mean daily temperature, and maximum ammonia levels in calf housing areas. Body weight at calving tended to increase with parity of the dam, increased amount of grain fed to calves, increased ammonia levels, and increased mean temperature of the calf housing area. Body condition score at calving tended to be positively influenced by delivery score at first calving, dam parity, and milk or milk replacer dry matter intake. Withers height at calving was positively affected by treatment of animals with antibiotics and increased mean temperature in the calf area. This study demonstrated that nutrition, housing, and management factors that affect health and growth of calves have long-term effects on the animal at least through first calving.

  6. Effects of Body Weight and Condition Changes After Parturition on the Reproductive Performance of Sahiwal and Friesian Cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indetie, D.E.; Indetie, A.; Kinywa, J.; Lukibisi, F; Musalia, L.; Bebe, B.; Wathuta, E.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition has a profound influence on reproductive performance after parturition. Cows are in a typical state of negative energy balance, because nutritional requirements for milk production and maintenance of body function exceed that ingested from the feed. This is reflected by changes in body weight and condition postpartum which influence resumption of ovarian activity. The study objectives were to assess weight and body condition changes after parturition and their influence on reproductive performance of Sahiwal and Friesian lactating cows. Forty in-calf cows comprising 20 Friesians and Sahiwals were selected and upon calving, observed for 24 weeks postpartum. Parameters recorded were weekly live weight and body condition scores postpartum while reproductive attributes included days to commencement of luteal activity and insemination. Data was analyzed using GLM of SAS. There were breed differences in weight of cows at the start of the experiment with Friesians being heavier than Sahiwals. Friesians lost a mean of 31.2 Kg from calving to commencement of luteal activity which occurred 10 weeks postpartum and improved from this loss to register a deficit of 11.3 kg at insemination which occurred 14 weeks after calving while the Sahiwals lost a mean of 27 kg after 6 weeks postpartum at commencement of luteal activity and a further 8 kg to insemination occurring 10 weeks after calving. The mean weight loss for Friesians from calving to commencement of luteal activity was 0.45 kg/day while that of Sahiwals was 0.64 kg/day. The relative weight loss was 6 and 7% for Friesians and Sahiwals respectively. The mean body condition loss for the two breeds showed Sahiwals lost less body condition at commencement of luteal activity than Friesians (-0.19 vs -0.33) and resumed cyclicity earlier than Friesians which had better recovery rates from weight and body condition depression postpartum. This shows that Friesians lose weight rapidly and quickly recover at time of

  7. An individual reproduction model sensitive to milk yield and body condition in Holstein dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Brun-Lafleur, L.; Cutullic, E.; Faverdin, P.; Delaby, L.; Disenhaus, C.

    2017-01-01

    To simulate the consequences of management in dairy herds, the use of individual-based herd models is very useful and has become common. Reproduction is a key driver of milk production and herd dynamics, whose influence has been magnified by the decrease in reproductive performance over the last decades. Moreover, feeding management influences milk yield (MY) and body reserves, which in turn influence reproductive performance. Therefore, our objective was to build an up-to-date animal reprodu...

  8. Development of an index based on ultrasonographic measurements for the objective appraisal of body condition in Andalusian horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Gimenez, T.; Aguirre-Pascasio, C.N.; Blas, I. De

    2017-07-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is an indirect measure of the level of subcutaneous fat; however, by measuring the subcutaneous fat thicknesses (SFT), the precision of the degree of fatness assessment is improved. The aims were: 1) to develop an alternative body fat scoring index (BFSI) based on ultrasonographic measurements; 2) to assess the agreement between BCS and the new index applied to Andalusian horses; 3) to adjust the BCS cut-off values (if necessary) for overweight and obesity in this breed. One hundred and sixty-six Andalusian horses were included in this cross sectional study. On each horse, BCS, body fat percentage (BF%) and ultrasonography of SFT at localized deposits were evaluated. According to BFSI five possible body categories were established. Only one horse (0.6%) was classified as emaciated, 9.0% as thin, 74.7% as normal, 11.4% as overweight and 4.2% as obese. Despite higher BCS and SFT values were observed compared to other breeds, most of the horses evaluated presented a normal body condition under the new BFSI. BCS and BFSI were significantly associated (p<0.001), however, the concordance was low (weighted Cohen’s kappa coefficient, 0.262 ± 0.071; p=0.004). Using BFSI, obese horses had significantly greater BF% than the rest of categories (p<0.001). BCS showed a good diagnostic accuracy for detection overweight (AUC = 0.759 ± 0.055; p<0.001) and obese (AUC = 0.878 ± 0.050; p=0.001) horses; redefining the cut-off values for overweight and obesity condition as 7.5/9 and 8.5/9 respectively in Andalusian horses.

  9. Effect of body condition in pregnant dairy heifers on dystocia, calf birth weight, colostral quality and quantity, reproduction, milk yield and health during first lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Adermann, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Involuntary culling of first lactation heifers and as a consequence a reduced productive life span is a central problem in dairy production. A negative influence of poor and excessive body condition on health and production parameters has been elaborately described for multiparous cows, whereas only few studies regarding optimal body condition range of pregnant heifers have been conducted. To investigate the influence of body condition during late pregnancy on health and p...

  10. Towards a better understanding of the respective effects of milk yield and body condition dynamics on reproduction in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutullic, E; Delaby, L; Gallard, Y; Disenhaus, C

    2012-03-01

    The overall reproductive performance has decreased over the last decades, involving changes in cyclicity, oestrous behaviour and fertility. High milk yield (MY), low body condition score (BCS) and large body condition (BC) loss have been identified as risk factors. However, these effects are often confounded, as high MY and body lipid reserve mobilization are correlated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the respective effects of MY and BC on post-partum ovarian cyclicity, oestrus and fertility of Holstein cows. This study provides novel information, as MY and BC change were uncoupled in the overall dataset that included 98 lactations and milk progesterone profiles. Cows were assigned to two feeding-level groups: high feed, which achieved high MY and moderate BC loss throughout lactation (8410 kg, -1.17 unit from calving to nadir BCS), and low feed, which limited MY and triggered a large BC loss (5719 kg, -1.54 unit). MY and BC had different effects at different stages of the reproductive process. Cyclicity as well as non-fertilization and early embryo mortality were mainly driven by body lipid reserves, whereas oestrous behaviour and late embryo mortality were related to MY. The results point to possible uncoupling between cyclicity, oestrus and early and late embryo survival allowing compensation along the reproductive process and leading to similar final reproductive performance. In compact calving systems, which require high pregnancy rates within a short period, higher MY strategies appear unsuitable even where BCS is maintained, owing to depressed oestrous behaviour and probably increased late embryo mortality, which delays rebreeding. Similarly, strategies that compromise cyclicity and fertility by excessively low BCS are unsuitable.

  11. [The oral cavity condition in patients with high blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiak, Joanna; Kubić-Filiks, Beata; Szymańska, Jolanta

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure in adults is estimated at ca. 30-40% of the general population. Both hypertension disease and hypertensive drugs affect the condition of the patients' oral cavity. A review of the current literature shows that disorders most frequently found in the masticatory organ of patients with hypertension include: xerostomia, changes in salivary glands, gum hypertrophy, lichenoid lesions, taste disorders, and paraesthesias. The authors emphasize that patients with high blood pressure, along with the treatment of the underlying disease, should receive prophylactic and therapeutic dental care. This would enable reduction and/or elimination of unpleasant complaints, and also help prevent the emergence of secondary disorders in the patients' oral cavity as a result of hypertension pharmacotherapy. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  12. Conditional High-Order Boltzmann Machines for Supervised Relation Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Liang; Tan, Tieniu

    2017-09-01

    Relation learning is a fundamental problem in many vision tasks. Recently, high-order Boltzmann machine and its variants have shown their great potentials in learning various types of data relation in a range of tasks. But most of these models are learned in an unsupervised way, i.e., without using relation class labels, which are not very discriminative for some challenging tasks, e.g., face verification. In this paper, with the goal to perform supervised relation learning, we introduce relation class labels into conventional high-order multiplicative interactions with pairwise input samples, and propose a conditional high-order Boltzmann Machine (CHBM), which can learn to classify the data relation in a binary classification way. To be able to deal with more complex data relation, we develop two improved variants of CHBM: 1) latent CHBM, which jointly performs relation feature learning and classification, by using a set of latent variables to block the pathway from pairwise input samples to output relation labels and 2) gated CHBM, which untangles factors of variation in data relation, by exploiting a set of latent variables to multiplicatively gate the classification of CHBM. To reduce the large number of model parameters generated by the multiplicative interactions, we approximately factorize high-order parameter tensors into multiple matrices. Then, we develop efficient supervised learning algorithms, by first pretraining the models using joint likelihood to provide good parameter initialization, and then finetuning them using conditional likelihood to enhance the discriminant ability. We apply the proposed models to a series of tasks including invariant recognition, face verification, and action similarity labeling. Experimental results demonstrate that by exploiting supervised relation labels, our models can greatly improve the performance.

  13. Lie construction affects information storage under high memory load condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiu Liu

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicate that lying consumes cognitive resources, especially working memory (WM resources. Considering the dual functions that WM might play in lying: holding the truth-related information and turning the truth into lies, the present study examined the relationship between the information storage and processing in the lie construction. To achieve that goal, a deception task based on the old/new recognition paradigm was designed, which could manipulate two levels of WM load (low-load task using 4 items and high-load task using 6 items during the deception process. The analyses based on the amplitude of the contralateral delay activity (CDA, a proved index of the number of representations being held in WM, showed that the CDA amplitude was lower in the deception process than that in the truth telling process under the high-load condition. In contrast, under the low-load condition, no CDA difference was found between the deception and truth telling processes. Therefore, we deduced that the lie construction and information storage compete for WM resources; when the available WM resources cannot meet this cognitive demand, the WM resources occupied by the information storage would be consumed by the lie construction.

  14. Lie construction affects information storage under high memory load condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqiu; Wang, Chunjie; Jiang, Haibo; He, Hongjian; Chen, Feiyan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that lying consumes cognitive resources, especially working memory (WM) resources. Considering the dual functions that WM might play in lying: holding the truth-related information and turning the truth into lies, the present study examined the relationship between the information storage and processing in the lie construction. To achieve that goal, a deception task based on the old/new recognition paradigm was designed, which could manipulate two levels of WM load (low-load task using 4 items and high-load task using 6 items) during the deception process. The analyses based on the amplitude of the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a proved index of the number of representations being held in WM, showed that the CDA amplitude was lower in the deception process than that in the truth telling process under the high-load condition. In contrast, under the low-load condition, no CDA difference was found between the deception and truth telling processes. Therefore, we deduced that the lie construction and information storage compete for WM resources; when the available WM resources cannot meet this cognitive demand, the WM resources occupied by the information storage would be consumed by the lie construction.

  15. Photogrammetry with an Unmanned Aerial System to Assess Body Condition and Growth of Blainville’s Beaked Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Body Condition and Growth of Blainville’s Beaked Whales Diane Claridge & Charlotte Dunn Bahamas Marine Mammal Research Organisation P.O. Box...second intervals to maximize the chance of obtaining “ flat ” images for unbiased photogrammetry measurements. Multiple batteries for the hexacopter...Commanders Course using satellite telemetry This project is a collaborative project between the Bahamas Marine Mammal Research Organisation , NOAA

  16. The influence of dairy cows` body condition during various stages of the reproductive cycle upon their fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Fritze, Hans - Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The feeding of dairy cows and its influence upon their fertility is gaining increasing weight in the literature. Of particular importance is the energy supply during the early period of lactation. Due to the rapid increase of milk production and the relatively slower increase of food processing capacity, the degree and duration of this period of negative energy balance has particular consequences upon the fertility. For the period of one year the body condition of 284 cows was evaluated on...

  17. Evaluation of Carcass Production of PO Cattle Based on Heart Girth Measurement, Body Condition Score and Slaughter Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Haryoko, I; Suparman, P

    2009-01-01

    The objective of study was to evaluate of carcass production of PO beef cattle based on measurement of heart girth, body condition score (BCS), and slaughter weight. It was conducted in the slaughtering house at Mersi Purwokerto city. The materials for this study were 60 heads of male PO breed cattle. Simple random sampling was used for taking samples. Data was analyzed by using multiple regression equation to determine the effects of heart girth, BCS, and slaughter weight on carcass weig...

  18. The effects of time of disease occurrence, milk yield, and body condition on fertility of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, S H; de Vries, M J; Schukken, Y H

    1999-12-01

    The associations between occurrence of diseases, milk yield, and body condition score on conception risk after first artificial insemination (AI) were analyzed in an observational study on a convenience sample of 43 farms participating in a herd health program. Data were taken from 9369 lactations, from 4382 cows inseminated between 20 and 180 d in milk from 1990 to 1996. Two logistic regression models, one containing data from all lactations and a subset containing data from 1762 lactations with body condition scoring, were used to determine pregnancy risk at first AI. The effects of herd deviation in test-day milk yield, body condition score loss, and milk fat to protein ratio changes in early lactation were significant predictors of pregnancy risk, independent of disease; days in milk; farm; and seasonal factors. Three different methods of disease parameterization (incidence rates, binomial classes dependent on the interval in days since last occurrence with respect to AI, and a linear variable weighted for this interval) produced similar results. Metritis, cystic ovarian disease, lameness, and mastitis gave odds ratios for pregnancy risk ranging from 0.35 to 1.15, largely dependent on the interval in days from final disease occurrence to first AI. Displaced abomasum, milk fever, and retained fetal membranes resulted in odds ratios for pregnancy risk of 0.25, 0.85, and 0.55, respectively. These diseases showed little relationship between fertility and the number of days since last occurrence. Results of this study confirm the negative effects of milk yield, body score condition loss, and disease on dairy cow fertility. The effects of some diseases on first service conception were strongly dependent on the interval since last disease occurrence. This was especially valid for clinical mastitis, which has an extremely weak effect on conception if occurring prior to AI and is associated with > 50% reduction in pregnancy risk if occurring in the 3 wk directly after

  19. Fractionated total body irradiation; the gastrointestinal toxicity versus the conditioning effect for bone marrow transplantation with different fractionation schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walma, E.P.; Klapwijk, W.M.; Miller, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    In most cases, bone marrow transplantation is preceded by a conditioning regimen employing irradiation and/or cytotoxic drugs. The authors are searching for better fractionation schedules in order to optimize the conditioning regimen prior to transplantation of stem-cell-enriched bone marrow. They have determined damage to the gastrointestinal tract in dogs and mice after total body irradiation in mice and dogs following a number of fractionation schedules, and these results are presented. The schedules were chosen such as to minimize the interval between irradiation and the bone marrow transplantation and to maximize clinical feasibility. (Auth./C.F.)

  20. Two-body form factors at high Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.; Keister, B.D.

    1983-02-01

    The charge form factor of a scalar deuteron at high momentum transfer is examined in a model employing scalar nucleons and mesons. With an eye toward establishing consistency criteria for more realistic calculations, several aspects of the model are examined in detail: the role of nucleon and meson singularities in the one-loop impulse diagram, the role of positive-and negative-energy nucleons, and the relationship to time-ordered perturbation theory. It is found that at large Q 2 (1) the form factor is dominated by a term in which the spectator nucleon is on the mass shell, and (2) the meson singularity structure of the d-n-p vertex function is unimportant in determining the overall high-Q 2 behaviour of the form factor

  1. Associations of prepartum body condition score with occurrence of clinical endometritis and resumption of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivar, Ali; Ahmadi, Mohammad Rahim; Vatankhah, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of periparturient body condition score on the occurrence of clinical endometritis and postpartum resumption of ovarian activity in dairy cows. Eighty-seven lactating Holstein cows, fed with a total mixed ration diet, were included into the study. Body condition scoring (using a 5-point scale with quarter-point divisions) was performed by the same investigator using the visual technique every 2 weeks, from 2 weeks before until 6 weeks after calving. Palpation of the reproductive tract and ultrasonographic assessment of ovaries for detection of corpus luteum using a rectal linear probe was also performed at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after calving. Cows with clinical endometritis had significantly lower body condition score (BCS) than normal cows at all weeks pre- and postcalving, and cows that did not ovulate until 45 days after calving had a significantly lower BCS pre- and postpartum. Cows that did not ovulate until 45 days after calving also lost more BCS from 2 weeks before to 4 weeks after calving. Besides, first ovulation after calving take occurred later in cows with clinical endometritis compared to normal cows (P < 0.05). In conclusion, low BCS is a risk factor for postpartum endometritis and delayed cyclicity in dairy cows. BCS loss from dry-off to early lactation and occurrence of clinical endometritis can significantly affect postpartum ovarian activity.

  2. High-velocity runaway stars from three-body encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Gualandris, A.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2010-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of dynamical encounters between hard, massive binaries and a very massive star (VMS; formed through runaway mergers of ordinary stars in the dense core of a young massive star cluster) to explore the hypothesis that this dynamical process could be responsible for the origin of high-velocity (≥ 200 - 400 km s-1) early or late B-type stars. We estimated the typical velocities produced in encounters between very tight massive binaries and VMSs (of mass of ≥ 200 M⊙) and found that about 3 - 4% of all encounters produce velocities ≥ 400 km s-1, while in about 2% of encounters the escapers attain velocities exceeding the Milky Ways's escape velocity. We therefore argue that the origin of high-velocity (≥ 200 - 400 km s-1) runaway stars and at least some so-called hypervelocity stars could be associated with dynamical encounters between the tightest massive binaries and VMSs formed in the cores of star clusters. We also simulated dynamical encounters between tight massive binaries and single ordinary 50 - 100 M⊙ stars. We found that from 1 to ≃ 4% of these encounters can produce runaway stars with velocities of ≥ 300 - 400 km s-1 (typical of the bound population of high-velocity halo B-type stars) and occasionally (in less than 1% of encounters) produce hypervelocity (≥ 700 km s-1) late B-type escapers.

  3. Spatial variation in water quality within the water bodies of a Peak District catchment and the contribution of moorland condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Tia; Walker, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Spatial variation in water quality within the water bodies of a Peak District catchment and the contribution of moorland condition Tia Crouch and Jonathan Walker (Moors for the Future Partnership) Upland locations are significant water supply sources providing over 70% of fresh water in Great Britain. However, the peatlands of the Peak District, Southern Pennines are highly contaminated with anthropogenically derived, atmospherically deposited pollutants, such as heavy metals. This is due to their location between the cities of Manchester and Sheffield, the centre of the 19th century English Industrial Revolution. These peatlands are also severely eroded; therefore erosion could be releasing these pollutants into the fluvial system, representing a threat to both aquatic ecosystems and drinking water supplies. These threats are regulated under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Water Supply Regulations respectively. There are two aims of this project. The first aim is to identify spatial and temporal variability of water quality within the Bamford water treatment works (WTW) catchment. This was achieved by fortnightly spot sampling at eight of the tributaries into the reservoir system. The second aim is to assess the contribution of moorland condition to water quality within the Bamford WTW catchment. Similarly, this was achieved by fortnightly spot sampling at eight moorland streams, draining from a variety of peatland conditions (bare peat, restoration, intact and heather burn). Water samples were analysed for carbon (DOC, POC & TOC), pH, hardness and a suite of heavy metals, including copper, iron and zinc. In addition, stream temperature and stage height was recorded. Preliminary results highlight a number of issues within the Bamford WTW catchment: under the WFD streams are not achieving 'good' status for pH, copper and zinc, and under the Drinking Water Standards (DWS) streams are not achieving targets for aluminium, iron and colour. For example, the

  4. Maternal body size and condition determine calf growth rates in southern right whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Fredrik; Vivier, Fabien; Charlton, Claire

    2018-01-01

    The cost of reproduction is a key parameter determining a species' life history strategy. Despite exhibiting some of the fastest offspring growth rates among mammals, the cost of reproduction in baleen whales is largely unknown since standard field metabolic techniques cannot be applied. We...... quantified the cost of reproduction for southern right whales Eubalaena australis over a 3 mo breeding season. We did this by determining the relationship between calf growth rate and maternal rate of loss in energy reserves, using repeated measurements of body volume obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle...... period, and highlights the importance of sufficient maternal energy reserves for reproduction in this capital breeding species....

  5. Previous success and current body condition determine breeding propensity in Lesser Scaup: evidence for the individual heterogeneity hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.; Cutting, Kyle A.; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Williams, Tony D.; Koons, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The decision to breed influences an individual's current and future reproduction, and the proportion of individuals that breed is an important determinant of population dynamics. Age, experience, individual quality, and environmental conditions have all been demonstrated to influence breeding propensity. To elucidate which of these factors exerts the greatest influence on breeding propensity in a temperate waterfowl, we studied female Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) breeding in southwestern Montana. Females were captured during the breeding seasons of 2007–2009, and breeding status was determined on the basis of (1) presence of an egg in the oviduct or (2) blood plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels. Presence on the study site in the previous year, a proxy for adult female success, was determined with stable isotope signatures of a primary feather collected at capture. Overall, 57% of females had evidence of breeding at the time of capture; this increased to 86% for females captured on or after peak nest initiation. Capture date and size-adjusted body condition positively influenced breeding propensity, with a declining body-condition threshold through the breeding season. We did not detect an influence of age on breeding propensity. Drought conditions negatively affected breeding propensity, reducing the proportion of breeding females to 0.85 (SE = 0.05) from 0.94 (SE = 0.03) during normal-water years. A female that was present in the previous breeding season was 5% more likely to breed than a female that was not present then. The positive correlation between age and experience makes it difficult to differentiate the roles of age, experience, and individual quality in reproductive success in vertebrates. Our results indicate that individual quality, as expressed by previous success and current body condition, may be among the most important determinants of breeding propensity in female Lesser Scaup, providing further support for the individual heterogeneity hypothesis.

  6. Prepartum feeding level and body condition score affect immunological performance in grazing dairy cows during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Joshua; McCarthy, Allison; Kay, Jane; Meier, Susanne; Walker, Caroline; Crookenden, Mallory A; Mitchell, Murray D; Loor, Juan J; Roche, John R; Heiser, Axel

    2016-03-01

    Precalving feeding level affects dry matter intake, postcalving energy balance, the risk of hepatic lipidosis and metabolic disease, and gene expression in liver and adipose tissue. These coincide with a higher risk of disease postpartum and, very likely, a failure to reach optimum production as well as reproductive targets. Current interpretation of the available evidence suggest that metabolic stressors affect the immune system of transition dairy cows and lead to reduced immunocompetence. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of precalving body condition score (BCS) and level of feeding on immunocompetence during the peripartum period. Twenty-three weeks before calving, 78 cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatment groups (n=13) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: 2 precalving BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0, based on a 10-point scale) and 3 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75, 100, and 125% of estimated requirements). Blood was sampled precalving and at 1, 2 and 4 wk after calving. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. The numbers of T helper lymphocytes (CD4+), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+), natural killer cells (CD335+), and γδ T lymphocytes (WC1+) as well as their activation status [IL-2 receptor (CD25)+ cells] were highly variable between animals, but there was no evident effect of BCS, feeding level, or time. All groups presented with an increase in expression of cytokines in unstimulated blood cells in the week after calving, although this was significant only for IFNG in the BCS 4.0 group. Analysis of in vitro-stimulated cells allowed 2 general observations: (1) cows with high energy intake precalving (125%) had increased cytokine expression precalving, and (2) all cows had increased cytokine expression in the week after calving. The present study provides evidence that prepartum feed management can affect immunocompetence during the transition period. Considering

  7. A bibliography of high energy two-body and inclusive scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gault, F.D.; Read, B.J.; Roberts, R.G.

    1977-09-01

    A bibliography is presented of the data on high energy two-body and quasi-two-body final state scattering processes. This updated edition also covers one and two-particle inclusive production. It contains references to those published papers whose main purpose is to provide data on high energy two-body and inclusive hadronic scattering cross-sections rather than just properties of the produced particles. It covers the leading high energy physics journals and the period up to June 1977. The entries are grouped by process in the order indicated in the Table of Contents, and an author index is also provided. (author)

  8. High fat diet blunts the effects of leptin on ventilation and on carotid body activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Maria J; Sacramento, Joana F; Gallego-Martin, Teresa; Olea, Elena; Melo, Bernardete F; Guarino, Maria P; Yubero, Sara; Obeso, Ana; Conde, Silvia V

    2017-12-22

    Leptin plays a role in the control of breathing, acting mainly on central nervous system; however, leptin receptors have been recently shown to be expressed in the carotid body (CB), and this finding suggests a physiological role for leptin in the regulation of CB function. Leptin increases minute ventilation in both basal and hypoxic conditions in rats. It increases the frequency of carotid sinus nerve discharge in basal conditions, as well as the release of adenosine from the CB. However, in a metabolic syndrome animal model, the effects of leptin in ventilatory control, carotid sinus nerve activity and adenosine release by the CB are blunted. Although leptin may be involved in triggering CB overactivation in initial stages of obesity and dysmetabolism, resistance to leptin signalling and blunting of responses develops in metabolic syndrome animal models. Leptin plays a role in the control of breathing, acting mainly on central nervous system structures. Leptin receptors are expressed in the carotid body (CB) and this finding has been associated with a putative physiological role of leptin in the regulation of CB function. Since, the CBs are implicated in energy metabolism, here we tested the effects of different concentrations of leptin administration on ventilatory parameters and on carotid sinus nerve (CSN) activity in control and high-fat (HF) diet fed rats, in order to clarify the role of leptin in ventilation control in metabolic disease states. We also investigated the expression of leptin receptors and the neurotransmitters involved in leptin signalling in the CBs. We found that in non-disease conditions, leptin increases minute ventilation in both basal and hypoxic conditions. However, in the HF model, the effect of leptin in ventilatory control is blunted. We also observed that HF rats display an increased frequency of CSN discharge in basal conditions that is not altered by leptin, in contrast to what is observed in control animals. Leptin did not

  9. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia: the role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body fat percentage is regarded as an important measurement for diagnosis of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the association of high body fat percentage (BF%) and lifestyle among adult women. The study was conducted on 327 women, aged 40-59 years, recruited during a health screening program. Data on ...

  10. Precise muon drift tube detectors for high background rate conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Engl, Albert; Dünnweber, Wolfgang

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS-experiment at the Large H adron Collider consists of drift tube chambers, which provide the precise m easurement of trajec- tories of traversing muons. In order to determine the moment um of the muons with high precision, the measurement of the position of the m uon in a single tube has to be more accurate than σ ≤ 100 m. The large cross section of proton-proton-collisions and th e high luminosity of the accelerator cause relevant background of neutrons and γ s in the muon spectrome- ter. During the next decade a luminosity upgrade [1] to 5 10 34 cm − 2 s − 1 is planned, which will increase the background counting rates consider ably. In this context this work deals with the further development of the existing drift chamber tech- nology to provide the required accuracy of the position meas urement under high background conditions. Two approaches of improving the dri ft tube chambers are described: • In regions of moderate background rates a faster and more lin ear ...

  11. Patterns of growth and body condition in sea otters from the Aleutian archipelago before and after the recent population decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidre, K.L.; Estes, J.A.; Tinker, M.T.; Bodkin, James L.; Monson, Daniel H.; Schneider, K.

    2006-01-01

    1. Growth models for body mass and length were fitted to data collected from 1842 sea otters Enhydra lutris shot or live-captured throughout south-west Alaska between 1967 and 2004. Growth curves were constructed for each of two main year groups: 1967–71 when the population was at or near carrying capacity and 1992–97 when the population was in steep decline. Analyses of data collected from animals caught during 2004, when the population density was very low, were precluded by a small sample size and consequently only examined incidentally to the main growth curves.2. Growth curves demonstrated a significant increase in body mass and body length at age in the 1990s. Asymptotic values of body mass were 12–18% higher in the 1990s than in the 1960s/70s, and asymptotic values for body length were 10–11% higher between the same periods. Data collected in 2004 suggest a continued increase in body size, with nearly all data points for mass and length falling significantly above the 1990s growth curves.3. In addition to larger asymptotic values for mass and length, the rate of growth towards asymptotic values was more rapid in the 1990s than in the 1960s/70s: sea otters reached 95% of asymptotic body mass and body length 1–2 years earlier in the 1990s.4. Body condition (as measured by the log mass/log length ratio) was significantly greater in males than in females. There was also an increasing trend from the 1960s/70s through 2004 despite much year-to-year variation.5. Population age structures differed significantly between the 1960s/70s and the 1990s with the latter distribution skewed toward younger age classes (indicating an altered lxfunction) suggesting almost complete relaxation of age-dependent mortality patterns (i.e. those typical of food-limited populations).6. This study spanned a period of time over which the population status of sea otters in the Aleutian archipelago declined precipitously from levels at or near equilibrium densities at

  12. Many-body problems in high temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lu.

    1991-10-01

    In this brief review the basic experimental facts about high T c superconductors are outlined. The superconducting properties of these superconductors are not very different from those of the ordinary superconductors. However, their normal state properties cannot be described by the standard Fermi liquid (FL) theory. Our current understanding of the strongly correlated models is summarized. In one dimension these systems behave like a ''Luttinger liquid'', very much distinct from the FL. In spite of the enormous efforts made in two-dimensional studies, the question of FL vs non-FL behaviour is still open. The numerical results as well as various approximation schemes are discussed. Both the single hole problem in a quantum antiferromagnet and finite doping regime are considered. (author). 104 refs, 9 figs

  13. Evaluation of the body bearing of high performance female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stech M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the results of the study of body bearing in 12 high performance female volleyball players of polish team (TPS Rumia are presented. To estimate body bearing the New-York's test of the body bearing classification was used. The results of the study have shown that asymmetrical positions of volleyball players in the time of services and attacks are contributed to formed some asymmetrical disturbances of body bearing. At the majority of sportsmen it is exhibited in omitting the left brachium and the left blade, in a right-hand scoliosis, in the tendency to a platypodia. It requires use of special preventive and adjusting exercises.

  14. Kinetic modeling of growth and lipid body induction in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under heterotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Neha; Kumar, G Dinesh; Gupta, Ravi Prakash; Mathur, Anshu Shankar; Manikandan, B; Basu, Biswajit; Tuli, Deepak Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a mathematical model to describe the biomass and (total) lipid productivity of Chlorella pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738 under heterotrophic conditions. Biomass growth rate was predicted by Droop's cell quota model, while changes observed in cell quota (utilization) under carbon excess conditions were used for the modeling and predicting the lipid accumulation rate. The model was simulated under non-limiting (excess) carbon and limiting nitrate concentration and validated with experimental data for the culture grown in batch (flask) mode under different nitrate concentrations. The present model incorporated two modes (growth and stressed) for the prediction of endogenous lipid synthesis/induction and aimed to predict the effect and response of the microalgae under nutrient starvation (stressed) conditions. MATLAB and Genetic Algorithm were employed for the prediction and validation of the model parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Procedure for conditioning high-level solidified wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hild, W; Krause, H; Scheffler, K

    1974-05-30

    The molds of glass, ceramic or basalt-similar mass in which highly radioactive wastes are incorporated are used for the conditioning of waste waters and/or of sewage or precipitating sludge or of natural water to obtain drinking water, prior to the end storage. By means of the gamma-radiation they emit, the viruses and bacteria and worm eggs are killed off as well as the poisonous, and organic substances such as, e.g., chlorated aromatics are destroyed. Furthermore, the filtration power is increased by coagulation, and the sludge is drained. Natural water is degermed. In particular, fission product mixtures of light water reactors can be incorporated in the molds. The molds are immersed in the media.

  16. CONDITIONED ANALYSIS OF HIGH-LATITUDE SOLAR WIND INTERMITTENCY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amicis, R.; Consolini, G.; Bavassano, B.; Bruno, R.

    2012-01-01

    The solar wind is a turbulent medium displaying intermittency. Its intermittent features have been widely documented and studied, showing how the intermittent character is different in fast and slow wind. In this paper, a statistical conditioned analysis of the solar wind intermittency for a period of high-latitude fast solar wind is presented. In particular, the intermittent features are investigated as a function of the Alfvénic degree of fluctuations at a given scale. The results show that the main contribution to solar wind intermittency is due to non-Alfvénic structures, while Alfvénic increments are found to be characterized by a smaller level of intermittency than the previous ones. Furthermore, the lifetime statistics of Alfvénic periods are discussed in terms of a multiscale texture of randomly oriented flux tubes.

  17. Body Type, Self-Esteem and Assertiveness among High School Students in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bruce

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between body type, self-esteem and assertiveness among adolescents of ages between 13 and 19 years. To achieve this aim, the study sampled 56 male and 94 female adolescents of the Senior High School in Accra, Ghana. Results showed that, higher self-esteem leads to assertiveness. Results also showed that body type perception affects self-esteem. It is, therefore, recommended that Guidance and Counselling officers in our schools should educate adolescent students on the three body types and the advantages associated with being one of these body types. This may help prevent developing body dysmorphic disorder, low self-esteem and non-assertiveness among students with negative perceptions of their body types and the possible effects on their personal relationships with peers, general academic performance and in- school and out-of- school life.

  18. Precise muon drift tube detectors for high background rate conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engl, Albert

    2011-08-04

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS-experiment at the Large Hadron Collider consists of drift tube chambers, which provide the precise measurement of trajectories of traversing muons. In order to determine the momentum of the muons with high precision, the measurement of the position of the muon in a single tube has to be more accurate than {sigma}{<=}100 {mu}m. The large cross section of proton-proton-collisions and the high luminosity of the accelerator cause relevant background of neutrons and {gamma}s in the muon spectrometer. During the next decade a luminosity upgrade to 5.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} is planned, which will increase the background counting rates considerably. In this context this work deals with the further development of the existing drift chamber technology to provide the required accuracy of the position measurement under high background conditions. Two approaches of improving the drift tube chambers are described: - In regions of moderate background rates a faster and more linear drift gas can provide precise position measurement without changing the existing hardware. - At very high background rates drift tube chambers consisting of tubes with a diameter of 15 mm are a valuable candidate to substitute the CSC muon chambers. The single tube resolution of the gas mixture Ar:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} in the ratio of 96:3:1 Vol %, which is more linear and faster as the currently used drift gas Ar:CO{sub 2} in the ratio of 97:3 Vol %, was determined at the Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility at Garching and at high {gamma}-background counting rates at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. The alternative gas mixture shows similar resolution without background. At high background counting rates it shows better resolution as the standard gas. To analyse the data the various parts of the setup have to be aligned precisely to each other. The change to an alternative gas mixture allows the use of the existing hardware. The second approach are drift tubes

  19. DSMC Simulation of Separated Flows About Flared Bodies at Hypersonic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, James N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a numerical study of interacting hypersonic flows at conditions that can be produced in ground-based test facilities. The computations are made with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird. The focus is on Mach 10 flows about flared axisymmetric configurations, both hollow cylinder flares and double cones. The flow conditions are those for which experiments have been or will be performed in the ONERA R5Ch low-density wind tunnel and the Calspan-University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel. The range of flow conditions, model configurations, and model sizes provides a significant range of shock/shock and shock/boundary layer interactions at low Reynolds number conditions. Results presented will highlight the sensitivity of the calculations to grid resolution, contrast the differences in flow structure for hypersonic cold flows and those of more energetic but still low enthalpy flows, and compare the present results with experimental measurements for surface heating, pressure, and extent of separation.

  20. Psychological Practice in the Bodies of Internal Affairs: Current Condition and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyanina O.A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main directions and reveals the content of psychological work in the bodies of internal affairs which is continuously implemented at each stage of staff performance. Among the leading areas of activity of psychologists are the following: professional psychological selection of candidates for service; psychological diagnosis of employees in the course of support of official activity; the study of the socio-psychological climate in the collectives and the moral and psychological state of the personnel; carrying out special psychophysiological studies using a polygraph; adaptation of young employees; professional psychological training of personnel; psychological prevention and correction of negative psychoemotional states; psychological counseling of personal, family and professional problems of employees. Taking into account the described state of the departmental psychological service, the prospective directions of its development are outlined, and the need to implement a systemic, integrated approach when solving problems related to the psychological maintenance of staff performance is emphasized.

  1. Relationships between High Impact Tropical Rainfall Events and Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, C.; Varble, A.; Zipser, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    While rainfall increases as moisture and vertical motion increase, relationships between regional environmental conditions and rainfall event characteristics remain more uncertain. Of particular importance are long duration, heavy rain rate, and significant accumulation events that contribute sizable fractions of overall precipitation over short time periods. This study seeks to establish relationships between observed rainfall event properties and environmental conditions. Event duration, rain rate, and rainfall accumulation are derived using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 3-hourly, 0.25° resolution rainfall retrieval from 2002-2013 between 10°N and 10°S. Events are accumulated into 2.5° grid boxes and matched to monthly mean total column water vapor (TCWV) and 500-hPa vertical motion (omega) in each 2.5° grid box, retrieved from ERA-interim reanalysis. Only months with greater than 3 mm/day rainfall are included to ensure sufficient sampling. 90th and 99th percentile oceanic events last more than 20% longer and have rain rates more than 20% lower than those over land for a given TCWV-omega condition. Event duration and accumulation are more sensitive to omega than TCWV over oceans, but more sensitive to TCWV than omega over land, suggesting system size, propagation speed, and/or forcing mechanism differences for land and ocean regions. Sensitivities of duration, rain rate, and accumulation to TCWV and omega increase with increasing event extremity. For 3B42 and ERA-Interim relationships, the 90th percentile oceanic event accumulation increases by 0.93 mm for every 1 Pa/min change in rising motion, but this increases to 3.7 mm for every 1 Pa/min for the 99th percentile. Over land, the 90th percentile event accumulation increases by 0.55 mm for every 1 mm increase in TCWV, whereas the 99th percentile increases by 0.90 mm for every 1 mm increase in TCWV. These changes in event accumulation are highly correlated with changes in event

  2. Age-related sex differences in body condition and telomere dynamics of red-sided garter snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Nicky; Uhrig, Emily J.; Krohmer, Randolph W.; Waye, Heather L.; Mason, Robert T.; Olsson, Mats; Whittington, Camilla M.

    2017-01-01

    Life-history strategies vary dramatically between the sexes, which may drive divergence in sex-specific senescence and mortality rates. Telomeres are tandem nucleotide repeats that protect the ends of chromosomes from erosion during cell division. Telomeres have been implicated in senescence and mortality because they tend to shorten with stress, growth and age. We investigated age-specific telomere length in female and male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis. We hypothesized that age-specific telomere length would differ between males and females given their divergent reproductive strategies. Male garter snakes emerge from hibernation with high levels of corticosterone, which facilitates energy mobilization to fuel mate-searching, courtship and mating behaviours during a two to four week aphagous breeding period at the den site. Conversely, females remain at the dens for only about 4 days and seem to invest more energy in growth and cellular maintenance, as they usually reproduce biennially. As male investment in reproduction involves a yearly bout of physiologically stressful activities, while females prioritize self-maintenance, we predicted male snakes would experience more age-specific telomere loss than females. We investigated this prediction using skeletochronology to determine the ages of individuals and qPCR to determine telomere length in a cross-sectional study. For both sexes, telomere length was positively related to body condition. Telomere length decreased with age in male garter snakes, but remained stable in female snakes. There was no correlation between telomere length and growth in either sex, suggesting that our results are a consequence of divergent selection on life histories of males and females. Different selection on the sexes may be the physiological consequence of the sexual dimorphism and mating system dynamics displayed by this species. PMID:28381620

  3. Age-related sex differences in body condition and telomere dynamics of red-sided garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Nicky; Uhrig, Emily J; Krohmer, Randolph W; Waye, Heather L; Mason, Robert T; Olsson, Mats; Whittington, Camilla M; Friesen, Christopher R

    2017-04-12

    Life-history strategies vary dramatically between the sexes, which may drive divergence in sex-specific senescence and mortality rates. Telomeres are tandem nucleotide repeats that protect the ends of chromosomes from erosion during cell division. Telomeres have been implicated in senescence and mortality because they tend to shorten with stress, growth and age. We investigated age-specific telomere length in female and male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis We hypothesized that age-specific telomere length would differ between males and females given their divergent reproductive strategies. Male garter snakes emerge from hibernation with high levels of corticosterone, which facilitates energy mobilization to fuel mate-searching, courtship and mating behaviours during a two to four week aphagous breeding period at the den site. Conversely, females remain at the dens for only about 4 days and seem to invest more energy in growth and cellular maintenance, as they usually reproduce biennially. As male investment in reproduction involves a yearly bout of physiologically stressful activities, while females prioritize self-maintenance, we predicted male snakes would experience more age-specific telomere loss than females. We investigated this prediction using skeletochronology to determine the ages of individuals and qPCR to determine telomere length in a cross-sectional study. For both sexes, telomere length was positively related to body condition. Telomere length decreased with age in male garter snakes, but remained stable in female snakes. There was no correlation between telomere length and growth in either sex, suggesting that our results are a consequence of divergent selection on life histories of males and females. Different selection on the sexes may be the physiological consequence of the sexual dimorphism and mating system dynamics displayed by this species. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Electrochemical characterization of AISI 316L stainless steel in contact with simulated body fluid under infection conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Danián Alejandro; Durán, Alicia; Ceré, Silvia Marcela

    2008-05-01

    Titanium and cobalt alloys, as well as some stainless steels, are among the most frequently used materials in orthopaedic surgery. In industrialized countries, stainless steel devices are used only for temporary implants due to their lower corrosion resistance in physiologic media when compared to other alloys. However, due to economical reasons, the use of stainless steel alloys for permanent implants is very common in developing countries. The implantation of foreign bodies is sometimes necessary in the modern medical practice. However, the complex interactions between the host and the can implant weaken the local immune system, increasing the risk of infections. Therefore, it is necessary to further study these materials as well as the characteristics of the superficial film formed in physiologic media in infection conditions in order to control their potential toxicity due to the release of metallic ions in the human body. This work presents a study of the superficial composition and the corrosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel and the influence of its main alloying elements when they are exposed to an acidic solution that simulates the change of pH that occurs when an infection develops. Aerated simulated body fluid (SBF) was employed as working solution at 37 degrees C. The pH was adjusted to 7.25 and 4 in order to reproduce normal body and disease state respectively. Corrosion resistance was measured by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and anodic polarization curves.

  5. GENDER VIOLENCE AND CONTROL BODIES: A CASE ANALYSIS OF MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE SOUTHERN STATE OF GUANAJUATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Rosas-Vargas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives from a research project on gender violence to students in middle and high Guanajuato. Surveys, interviews and workshops were applied were performed. During the course of the latter, the high level of youth reported being raped because you do not meet the image that are supposed to have the body that the media tells them to show. Anxiety over what is apparently not conducive indicates serious trouble and sometimes they have attempted suicide. In this sense, we approach the work from the idea that female bodies which are normalized, and where social norms of womanhood (Harcourt, 2011 will also resist. It is in bodies, socio-culturally constructed, where power games enroll. Butler (2010: 93 states that "we are exposed to others, and while this may be a condition of our desire, it also raises the possibility of subjugation and cruelty This results from the fact that the bodies are closely related to each other. through the material, the feel, language and a number of relationships without which we can not survive. "That is, the need for others, for recognition tell us that to meet our needs, we must be as we are told and if we are not then we will not get the recognition and yes cruelty, but as we can not survive and may reactions are self-destruction and violence. What then are the bodies that represent a problem?

  6. Body Integrity Identity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Rianne M.; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Denys, Damiaan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal

  7. Experimental study on capacitance void fraction meters for high temperature and high pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hironori; Mitsutake, Toru; Shibata, Mitsuhiko; Takase, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    The electro-void fraction meter (Capacitance type meter) was applied to higher pressure conditions of 18 MPa than BWR operating conditions of 7 MPa. The void fraction measurement system has been developed including the electrodes of void fraction measurement, instrumentation cables with mineral insulation and simplified electric circuit to provide good signal-to-noise ratio. It satisfied the performance of thermal and pressure resistance and electric insulating capacity. Calibration function for high temperature and high pressure conditions was confirmed through calibration test with 37-rod bundle against datum 19-rod bundle by the quick-shut valve method respectively under 2 MPa conditions. It was confirmed that the measured data were consistent with those measured by the quick-shut valve method. (author)

  8. Water turnover rate and total body water affected by different physiological factors under Egyptian environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The tritiated water dilution technique was used to determine the total body water (TBW) and water turnover rate (WTR), which is assumed to be similar to water intake, in water buffalo, Red Danish cattle, fat-tailed Osemi sheep and crossed Nubian-Bedouin goats and camels (Camelus dromedarius). There was a significant (P < 0.05) effect of species on TBW and WTR. The combined data of buffalo, cattle and sheep revealed a significant (P < 0.05) effect of pregnancy on TBW, but not on WTR. The combined data of buffalo and cattle showed a significantly lower TBW (P < 0.01) and a higher WTR (P < 0.05) in lactating animals than in heifers. In buffalo WTR was on average 81% higher in summer grazing (SG) than in spring. It was also 118 and 20% higher in summer non-grazing (SNG), than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant (P<0.01), except between spring and SG in heifers. The TBW was on average 12% higher in SG than in spring. It was also 18 and 5% higher in SNG than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant, except between SG and SNG in heifers and lactating cows and between spring and SG in lactating cows. (author)

  9. Relationships between luteal activity, fertility, blood metabolites and body condition score in multiparous Estonian Holstein dairy cows under different management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarütel, Jaak; Waldmann, Andres; Ling, Katri; Jaakson, Hanno; Kaart, Tanel; Leesmäe, Andres; Kärt, Olav

    2008-11-01

    The objective was to compare the relationships between luteal activity and fertility, and relate these parameters to metabolic indices and body condition changes in multiparous Estonian Holstein cows on two commercial dairy farms under different management and levels of production and nutrition (higher, H, n=54 (71 lactations) and lower, L, n=39 (39 lactations)). For statistical analysis cows were categorized according to their milk progesterone (P4) profiles as follows: normal ovarian function; delayed start of cyclicity (DC) (interval from calving to first luteal response (P45 ng/ml up to and more than 50 d respectively, followed by regular cyclicity); cessation of luteal activity (prolonged interluteal interval, P4bodies, non-esterified fatty acids, total cholesterol) and aspartate aminotransferase, body condition scores (BCS) and fertility parameters between the two farms, and also fertility parameters between the farms within P4 categories. Differences in milk fat/protein ratio, ketone body levels and BCS indicated a deeper negative energy balance (NEB) during the first month after calving on farm L. On both farms nearly 50% of the recently calved dairy cows suffered from ovarian dysfunction during the post-partum period. Delayed start of cyclicity was the most prevalent abnormal P4 profile, 25% and 28% on farms H and L, respectively. Prolonged luteal activity accounted for one-third of atypical ovarian patterns on farm H, and cessation of luteal activity on farm L. On farm L, DC cows had lower BCS values from day 10 to day 90 after calving compared with normal cows (Pcows lost more BCS (1.2 units) during the 40 d after calving than normal resumption cows (0.75 units; P<0.05). On farm H with moderate NEB the delayed start of ovulation post partum did not impair subsequent reproductive performance.

  10. Whole-body pre-cooling and heat storage during self-paced cycling performance in warm humid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, D; Taaffe, D R; Marino, F E

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect that pre-cooling the skin without a concomitant reduction in core temperature has on subsequent self-paced cycling performance under warm humid (31 degrees C and 60% relative humidity) conditions. Seven moderately trained males performed a 30 min self-paced cycling trial on two separate occasions. The conditions were counterbalanced as control or whole-body pre-cooling by water immersion so that resting skin temperature was reduced by approximately 5-6 degrees C. After pre-cooling, mean skin temperature was lower throughout exercise and rectal temperature was lower (P body sweat fell from 1.7+/-0.1 l x h(-1) to 1.2+/-0.1 l h(-1) (P < 0.05). The distance cycled increased from 14.9+/-0.8 to 15.8+/-0.7 km (P < 0.05) after pre-cooling. The results indicate that skin pre-cooling in the absence of a reduced rectal temperature is effective in reducing thermal strain and increasing the distance cycled in 30 min under warm humid conditions.

  11. Proceedings of the meeting on few-body problems in high and medium energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukawa, T.

    1985-12-01

    The study meeting on few-body problems in high and medium energy physics was held from October 3 to 5, 1985, at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Two meetings were held already concerning few body physics, but most of the participants were theorists. In this meeting, high priority was put on the attendance of experimental physicists. As a bridge between particle and nuclear physics, the few body physics in an intermediate energy region has become important recently. The topics in this meeting were meson spectroscopy, baryonium, kaon physics, muonic fusion, dibaryon, φNN system, quarks and skyrmions, NN correlation, and symmetry test in few-body system. The gists of the papers presented are collected in this book. (Kako, I.)

  12. Comparison of total body irradiation-based or non-total body irradiation-based conditioning regimens for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in pediatric leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jeong Kim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : This study aims to compare the outcome of total body irradiation (TBI- or non-TBI-containing conditioning regimens for leukemia in children. Methods : We retrospectively evaluated 77 children conditioned with TBI (n=40 or non-TBI (n=37 regimens, transplanted at Chonnam National University Hospital between January 1996 and December 2007. The type of transplantation, disease status at the time of transplant, conditioning regimen, engraftment kinetics, development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, complications, cause of deaths, overall survival (OS, and event-free survival (EFS were compared between the 2 groups. Results : Among 34 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 28 (82.4% were in the TBI group, while 72.7% (24/33 of patients with myeloid leukemia were in the non-TBI group. Although the 5-year EFS of the 2 groups was similar for all patients (62% vs 63%, the TBI group showed a better 5-year EFS than the non-TBI group when only ALL patients were analyzed (65% vs 17%; P =0.005. In acute myelogenous leukemia patients, the non-TBI group had better survival tendency (73% vs 38%; P=0.089. The incidence of GVHD, engraftment, survival, cause of death, and late complications was not different between the 2 groups. Conclusion : The TBI and non-TBI groups showed comparable results, but the TBI group showed a significantly higher 5-year EFS than the non-TBI group in ALL patients. Further prospective, randomized controlled studies involving larger number of patients are needed to assess the late-onset complications and to compare the socioeconomic quality of life.

  13. Highly variable Pliocene sea surface conditions in the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Bachem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial–interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST and ice-rafted debris (IRD in the Norwegian Sea from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian Sea underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian Sea at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic Seas, which may be linked to the expansion of sea ice in the Arctic and Nordic Seas. A warm Norwegian Sea and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic Seas due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.

  14. Environmental contaminants in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in Svalbard: Relationships with feeding ecology and body condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuglei, E.; Bustnes, J.O.; Hop, H.; Mork, T.; Bjoernfoth, H.; Bavel, B. van

    2007-01-01

    Adipose tissues from 20 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) of both sexes from Svalbard were analysed for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE), chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations. Gender (0.43 15 N from muscle samples and showed significantly positive relationship with all contaminants, with the exception of HCB concentrations. This indicates that foxes feeding at high trophic levels had higher tissue contaminant levels as a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain. - High contaminant concentrations in the coastal ecotype of arctic fox may cause toxic health effects due to huge annual cyclic variation in storage and mobilisation of adipose tissue

  15. Comparison of two long acting pre-lambing anthelmintic treatments on the productivity of ewes in low body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, C; Hodge, A; Mariadass, B

    2017-05-01

    To determine if there was a benefit from treating ewes with a low body condition score (BCS) with long acting anthelmintic products pre-lambing and to compare the effects of two commonly used treatment options. The study was conducted on a single commercial hill country sheep and beef property in the central North Island of New Zealand. Mixed age twin-bearing ewes were preselected by the farmer as being in poor condition 4 weeks before the planned start of lambing, and were sequentially drafted into three equal groups identified with coloured ear tags. The negative control group (n=199) received no anthelmintic treatment; the other two groups received either a controlled release capsule (CRC) containing abamectin, albendazole, Se and Co (n=200) or a long-acting injection of moxidectin (n=200). All ewes were body condition scored (1-5 scale) and weighed at pre-lambing, docking (65 days after treatment) and at weaning (127 days after treatment). Faecal nematode egg counts (FEC) were carried out on 10 ewes from each group at these three times. Most lambs were matched to the ewe treatment groups at weaning, and weighed. At weaning the mean body weight of ewes treated with moxidectin was 3.2 (95% CI=2.3-4.3) kg heavier than controls, and of ewes treated with CRC was 3.6 (95% CI=2.5-4.5) kg heavier than control ewes (pewes had a BCS≥3. At weaning, more ewes treated with CRC (140/194; 72%) or moxidectin (122/187; 65%) had a BCS≥3 than control ewes (55/179 (31%); pewes from the treatment groups, the mean weight at weaning of lambs from ewes treated with moxidectin was 2.6 (95% CI=1.9-3.3) kg heavier, and from ewes treated with CRC was 2.6 (95% CI=1.9-3.4) kg heavier than lambs from control ewes (pewes with low BCS pre-lambing with long acting anthelmintic treatments (moxidectin long acting injection or CRC) resulted in an increase in mean body weight of the ewes and lambs at weaning. There were no significant differences between the two pre-lambing treatments used

  16. Effect of morning bright light on body temperature, plasma cortisol and wrist motility measured during 24 hour of constant conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foret, J; Aguirre, A; Touitou, Y; Clodoré, M; Benoit, O

    1993-06-11

    Using 24 h constant conditions, time course of body temperature, plasma cortisol and wrist motility was measured in response to a 3 day morning 2 h bright light pulse. This protocol demonstrated that a 2000 lux illumination was sufficient to elicit a shift of about 2 h of temperature minimum and cortisol peak. In reference session, actimetric recordings showed a circadian time course, closely in relation with core temperature. Bright light pulse resulted in a decrease of amplitude and a disappearance of circadian pattern of actimetry.

  17. Diet, Prey Selection, and Body Condition of Age-0 Delta Smelt, Hypomesus transpacificus, in the Upper San Francisco Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Slater

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Steven B. Slater and Randall D. Baxterdoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2014v12iss3art1The Delta Smelt, an endangered fish, has suffered a long-term decline in abundance, believed to result from, in part, to changes in the pelagic food web of the upper San Francisco Estuary. To investigate the current role of food as a factor in Delta Smelt well-being, we developed reference criteria for gut fullness and body condition based on allometric growth. We then examined monthly diet, prey selectivity, and gut fullness of larvae and juvenile Delta Smelt collected April through September in 2005 and 2006 for evidence of feeding difficulties leading to reduced body condition. Calanoid copepods Eurytemora affinis and Pseudodiaptomus forbesi remained major food items during spring and from early summer through fall, respectively. Other much larger copepods and macroinvertebrates contributed in lesser numbers to the diet of older juvenile fish from mid-summer through fall. In fall, juvenile Delta Smelt periodically relied heavily on very small prey and prey potentially associated with demersal habitat, suggesting typical pelagic food items were in short supply. We found a strong positive selection for E. affinis and P. forbesi, neutral to negative selection for evasive calanoid Sinocalanus doerrii, and neutral to negative selection for the small cyclopoid copepod Limnoithona tetraspina and copepod nauplii, which were consumed only when extremely numerous in the environment. Feeding incidence was significantly higher in 2006, but among successfully feeding fish we found no between year difference in gut fullness. However, we did detect differences in fullness across months in both years. We found no difference in body condition of Delta Smelt between years yet our sample sizes were low in September when Delta Smelt reverted to feeding on very small organisms and fullness declined, so the longer-term effect remains unknown. Our findings suggest that: Delta

  18. Body condition, diet and ecosystem function of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in a fenced nature reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløjgaard, Camilla; De Barba, Marta; Taberlet, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    is therefore relevant to increase understanding of herbivores' ecosystem function and to inform management. In this study, we focused on red deer, Cervus elaphus, in a fenced nature reserve in Denmark, where the deer are managed as ecosystem engineers to contribute to biodiversity conservation. We measured...... on variation in body condition within the population. Our findings call for the need to consider the consequences of management practices, including culling or supplemental feeding, on the outcomes of habitat restoration, and more broadly underline the importance of preserving the overall breath of herbivore...... ecosystem functions for effective biodiversity conservation....

  19. Testing of high-level waste forms under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Menamin, T.

    1989-01-01

    The workshop on testing of high-level waste forms under repository conditions was held on 17 to 21 October 1988 in Cadarache, France, and sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the Commissariat a l'energie atomique (CEA) and the Savannah River Laboratory (US DOE). Participants included representatives from Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, The United Kingdom and the United States. The first part of the conference featured a workshop on in situ testing of simulated nuclear waste forms and proposed package components, with an emphasis on the materials interface interactions tests (MIIT). MIIT is a sevent-part programme that involves field testing of 15 glass and waste form systems supplied by seven countries, along with potential canister and overpack materials as well as geologic samples, in the salt geology at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA. This effort is still in progress and these proceedings document studies and findings obtained thus far. The second part of the meeting emphasized multinational experimental studies and results derived from repository systems simulation tests (RSST), which were performed in granite, clay and salt environments

  20. Physical activity, health, body mass index, sleeping habits and body complaints in Australian senior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alricsson, Marie; Domalewski, Debra; Romild, Ulla; Asplund, Ragnar

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents in the industrial world are becoming less physically active and are increasingly adopting a sedentary life-style in front of computers and television screens. to determine self-related health, physical activity, sleeping habits, prevalence of overweight, and body complaints in Australian senior high school students. Participants were 466 high school students aged 15-17 years enrolled in academic and vocational programs. A questionnaire was completed at two senior high schools with questions about weight and height, health, physical activity, type of physical activity/sport, intensity, sleeping habits, and possible injuries or complaints during the last three months. Seventy seven percent of the high school students participated in sports on a regular basis. Compared with vocational programs, more males and females in academic programs participated in sports (71% and 80% respectively) (p = .036). Males reported significantly better health than females (p sleep was reported in 82.1% of males and in 76.6% of females. In males, 44.3% were often sleepy in the daytime (females 56.6%, p sleep are factors with significant positive effect on good health, whereas overweight is a negative factor. Proper sleep habits and higher physical activity levels should be promoted among high school students, and TV viewing time and video game use restricted. Additionally, schools should provide opportunities for young people to participate in a wider range of physical activities that address their individual needs while promoting the health benefits of engaging in regular exercise.

  1. Effects of the Dietary Protein and Carbohydrate Ratio on Gut Microbiomes in Dogs of Different Body Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghong; Lauber, Christian L; Czarnecki-Maulden, Gail; Pan, Yuanlong; Hannah, Steven S

    2017-01-24

    Obesity has become a health epidemic in both humans and pets. A dysbiotic gut microbiota has been associated with obesity and other metabolic disorders. High-protein, low-carbohydrate (HPLC) diets have been recommended for body weight loss, but little is known about their effects on the canine gut microbiome. Sixty-three obese and lean Labrador retrievers and Beagles (mean age, 5.72 years) were fed a common baseline diet for 4 weeks in phase 1, followed by 4 weeks of a treatment diet, specifically, the HPLC diet (49.4% protein, 10.9% carbohydrate) or a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet (25.5% protein, 38.8% carbohydrate) in phase 2. 16S rRNA gene profiling revealed that dietary protein and carbohydrate ratios have significant impacts on gut microbial compositions. This effect appeared to be more evident in obese dogs than in lean dogs but was independent of breed. Consumption of either diet increased the bacterial evenness, but not the richness, of the gut compared to that after consumption of the baseline diet. Macronutrient composition affected taxon abundances, mainly within the predominant phyla, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes The LPHC diet appeared to favor the growth of Bacteroides uniformis and Clostridium butyricum, while the HPLC diet increased the abundances of Clostridium hiranonis, Clostridium perfringens, and Ruminococcus gnavus and enriched microbial gene networks associated with weight maintenance. In addition, we observed a decrease in the Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio and an increase in the Bacteroides to Prevotella ratio in the HPLC diet-fed dogs compared to these ratios in dogs fed other diets. Finally, analysis of the effect of diet on the predicted microbial gene network was performed using phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt). More than 50% of dogs are either overweight or obese in the United States. A dysbiotic gut microbiota is associated with obesity and other

  2. The halo bispectrum in N-body simulations with non-Gaussian initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefusatti, E.; Crocce, M.; Desjacques, V.

    2012-10-01

    We present measurements of the bispectrum of dark matter haloes in numerical simulations with non-Gaussian initial conditions of local type. We show, in the first place, that the overall effect of primordial non-Gaussianity on the halo bispectrum is larger than on the halo power spectrum when all measurable configurations are taken into account. We then compare our measurements with a tree-level perturbative prediction, finding good agreement at large scales when the constant Gaussian bias parameter, both linear and quadratic, and their constant non-Gaussian corrections are fitted for. The best-fitting values of the Gaussian bias factors and their non-Gaussian, scale-independent corrections are in qualitative agreement with the peak-background split expectations. In particular, we show that the effect of non-Gaussian initial conditions on squeezed configurations is fairly large (up to 30 per cent for fNL = 100 at redshift z = 0.5) and results from contributions of similar amplitude induced by the initial matter bispectrum, scale-dependent bias corrections as well as from non-linear matter bispectrum corrections. We show, in addition, that effects at second order in fNL are irrelevant for the range of values allowed by cosmic microwave background and galaxy power spectrum measurements, at least on the scales probed by our simulations (k > 0.01 h Mpc-1). Finally, we present a Fisher matrix analysis to assess the possibility of constraining primordial non-Gaussianity with future measurements of the galaxy bispectrum. We find that a survey with a volume of about 10 h-3 Gpc3 at mean redshift z ≃ 1 could provide an error on fNL of the order of a few. This shows the relevance of a joint analysis of galaxy power spectrum and bispectrum in future redshift surveys.

  3. Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Bonomi, Alberto G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Scholte, Jolande; Thijssen, Myriam A M A; van Berkum, Frank; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2012-10-10

    'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47.5 ± 11.9 kg) were compared after 3 and 12 months between four energy-restricted diets with 33% of energy requirement for the first 3 months, and 67% for the last 9 months: normal-protein normal-carbohydrate (NPNC), normal-protein low-carbohydrate (NPLC); high-protein normal-carbohydrate (HPNC), high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC); 24h N-analyses confirmed daily protein intakes for the normal-protein diets of 0.7 ± 0.1 and for the high-protein diets of 1.1 ± 0.2g/kg BW (pvs. NP (-11.5 ± 4 kg; -9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (pvs. NC (-12.3 ± 3 kg; -10.3 ± 1.1 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-14.7 ± 5 kg; -11.9 ± 1.6 kg) vs. HPNC (-13.8 ± 3 kg; -11.9 ± 1.8 kg) (ns); NPLC (-12.2 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.8 kg) vs. NPNC (-10.7 ± 4 kg; -8.6 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (pvs. NPNC (pvs. NP (-8.9 ± 3 kg; -7.7 ± 0.6 kg) (pvs. NC (11.1 ± 3 kg; 9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-11.6 ± 5 kg ; -8.2 ± 0.7 kg) vs. HPNC (-14.1 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.9 kg) (ns); NPNC (-8.2 ± 3 kg; -6.7 ± 0.6 kg) vs. NPLC (-9.7 ± 3 kg; -8.5 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (pvs. NPNC (pvs. all other diets reduced diastolic blood pressure more. Relationships between changes in BW, FM, FFM or metabolic parameters and energy percentage of fat in the diet were not statistically significant. Metabolic profile and fat-free-mass were improved following weight-loss. Body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein, but not on the 'low-carb' component of the diet, while it is unrelated to the concomitant fat-content of the diet. Copyright

  4. Feasibility Assessment of an ISS Artificial Gravity Conditioning Facility by Means of Multi-Body Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Mario; Baldesi, Gianluigi; Moratto, Claudio; De Wilde, Don; Bureo Dacal, Rafael; Castellsaguer, Joaquim

    2012-07-01

    limit on the maximum centre of mass eccentricity of the complete rotating system, the displacements allowed by traditional isolation mountings are incompatible with the available volume in the ISS module. Therefore, in order to manage the eccentricity, alternative counteracting measures shall be foreseen, such as an adjustable balance mass, which is carefully positioned for each astronaut at the beginning of the exercise cycle. However, during operation, the centre of mass is instantaneously disturbed by body fluid migration as well as adjustments of torso, arms and head due to the inevitable physiological degrees of freedom granted to the exercising astronaut. The influence of all the above factors on the transmitted loads is summarised in the paper; in conclusion, an automated system capable of keeping the maximum eccentricity below the allowable boundaries is foreseeable.

  5. Monitoring of high-radiation areas for the assessment of operational and body doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.J.; Tung, C.J.; Yeh, W.W.; Liao, R.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended a system of dose limits for the protection of ionizing radiation. This system was established based on the effective dose, E, and the equivalent dose to an organ or tissue, H T , to assess stochastic and deterministic effects. In radiation protection monitoring for external radiation, operational doses such as the deep dose equivalent index, H I,d , shallow dose equivalent index, H I,s , ambient dose equivalent [1,4-6], H*, directional dose equivalent, H', individual dose equivalent-penetrating, H p , and individual dose equivalent-superficial, H s , are implemented. These quantities are defined in an International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) sphere and in an anthropomorphic phantom under simplified irradiation conditions. They are useful when equivalent doses are below the corresponding limits. In the case of equivalent doses far below the limits, the exposure or air kerma is commonly applied. For workers exposed to high levels of radiation, accurate assessments of effective doses and equivalent doses may be needed in order to acquire legal and health information. In the general principles of monitoring for radiation protection of workers, ICRP recommended that: 'A graduated response is advocated for the monitoring of the workplace and for individual monitoring - graduated in the sense that a greater degree of monitoring is deemed to be necessary as doses increase of as unpredictability increases. Gradually more complex or realistic procedures should be adopted as doses become higher. Thus, at low dose equivalents (corresponding say to those within Working Condition B) dosimetric quantities might be used directly to assess exposure, since accuracy is not crucial. At intermediate dose equivalents (corresponding say to Working Condition A and slight overexposures) somewhat greater accuracy is warranted, and the conversion coefficients from dosimetric to radiation

  6. Measurement of {sup 40}K as an indicator of body potassium: Implication for diabetes and other disease conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniyan, C.G.; Mohan, G.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Sujata, R.; Haridasan, P.P.; Khan, A.H

    2003-07-01

    Potassium (K) content in 408 male workers of a rare earths processing plant was estimated using a shadow shield whole body counter. The average K content in the non-vegetarian and vegetarian group was found to be 1.5 g kg{sup -1} and 2.1 g kg{sup -1} respectively. The absorbed dose due to {sup 40}K works out to 0.18 {+-} 0.02 mGy. While the K content was found to be proportional to body build index, it is inversely proportional to slenderness. Body K was maximum in the middle aged group (35-45 y) and minimum in younger and older persons. The correlation of potassium content with some disease patterns were also studied. Diabetes mellitus patients were observed to have low K content of 0.9 {+-} 0.2 g kg{sup -1} and those who suffer from cardiovascular disorders were found to have high K content 2.7 {+-} 0.3 g kg{sup -1}. The studies showed that the depletion of body K content takes place a few years prior to the clinical detection of diabetes and it builds up a few years before the clinical detection of cardiovascular disorders. It is stressed that the medical information is preliminary as the number of subjects studied was not very large. Wider and in depth study by various groups can hopefully strengthen the observation. (author)

  7. Measurement of 40K as an indicator of body potassium: Implication for diabetes and other disease conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniyan, C.G.; Mohan, G.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Sujata, R.; Haridasan, P.P.; Khan, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Potassium (K) content in 408 male workers of a rare earths processing plant was estimated using a shadow shield whole body counter. The average K content in the non-vegetarian and vegetarian group was found to be 1.5 g kg -1 and 2.1 g kg -1 respectively. The absorbed dose due to 40 K works out to 0.18 ± 0.02 mGy. While the K content was found to be proportional to body build index, it is inversely proportional to slenderness. Body K was maximum in the middle aged group (35-45 y) and minimum in younger and older persons. The correlation of potassium content with some disease patterns were also studied. Diabetes mellitus patients were observed to have low K content of 0.9 ± 0.2 g kg -1 and those who suffer from cardiovascular disorders were found to have high K content 2.7 ± 0.3 g kg -1 . The studies showed that the depletion of body K content takes place a few years prior to the clinical detection of diabetes and it builds up a few years before the clinical detection of cardiovascular disorders. It is stressed that the medical information is preliminary as the number of subjects studied was not very large. Wider and in depth study by various groups can hopefully strengthen the observation. (author)

  8. Tribocorrosion in pressurized high temperature water: a mass flow model based on the third body approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guadalupe Maldonado, S.

    2014-07-01

    Pressurized water reactors (PWR) used for power generation are operated at elevated temperatures (280-300 °C) and under higher pressure (120-150 bar). In addition to these harsh environmental conditions some components of the PWR assemblies are subject to mechanical loading (sliding, vibration and impacts) leading to undesirable and hardly controllable material degradation phenomena. In such situations wear is determined by the complex interplay (tribocorrosion) between mechanical, material and physical-chemical phenomena. Tribocorrosion in PWR conditions is at present little understood and models need to be developed in order to predict component lifetime over several decades. The goal of this project, carried out in collaboration with the French company AREVA NP, is to develop a predictive model based on the mechanistic understanding of tribocorrosion of specific PWR components (stainless steel control assemblies, stellite grippers). The approach taken here is to describe degradation in terms of electro-chemical and mechanical material flows (third body concept of tribology) from the metal into the friction film (i.e. the oxidized film forming during rubbing on the metal surface) and from the friction film into the environment instead of simple mass loss considerations. The project involves the establishment of mechanistic models for describing the single flows based on ad-hoc tribocorrosion measurements operating at low temperature. The overall behaviour at high temperature and pressure in investigated using a dedicated tribometer (Aurore) including electrochemical control of the contact during rubbing. Physical laws describing the individual flows according to defined mechanisms and as a function of defined physical parameters were identified based on the obtained experimental results and from literature data. The physical laws were converted into mass flow rates and solved as differential equation system by considering the mass balance in compartments

  9. Fault gouge rheology under confined, high-velocity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reches, Z.; Madden, A. S.; Chen, X.

    2012-12-01

    We recently developed the experimental capability to investigate the shear properties of fine-grain gouge under confined conditions and high-velocity. The experimental system includes a rotary apparatus that can apply large displacements of tens of meters, slip velocity of 0.001- 2.0 m/s, and normal stress of 35 MPa (Reches and Lockner, 2010). The key new component is a Confined ROtary Cell (CROC) that can shear a gouge layer either dry or under pore-pressure. The pore pressure is controlled by two syringe pumps. CROC includes a ring-shape gouge chamber of 62.5 mm inner diameter, 81.25 mm outer diameter, and up to 3 mm thick gouge sample. The lower, rotating part of CROC contains the sample chamber, and the upper, stationary part includes the loading, hollow cylinder and setting for temperature, and dilation measurements, and pore-pressure control. Each side of the gouge chamber has two pairs of industrial, spring-energized, self-lubricating, teflon-graphite seals, built for particle media and can work at temperature up to 250 ded C. The space between each of the two sets of seals is pressurized by nitrogen. This design generates 'zero-differential pressure' on the inner seal (which is in contact with the gouge powder), and prevents gouge leaks. For the preliminary dry experiments, we used ~2.0 mm thick layers of room-dry kaolinite powder. Total displacements were on the order of meters and normal stress up to 4 MPa. The initial shear was accommodated by multiple internal slip surfaces within the kaolinite layer accommodated as oriented Riedel shear structures. Later, the shear was localized within a thin, plate-parallel Y-surface. The kaolinite layer was compacted at a quasi-asymptotic rate, and displayed a steady-state friction coefficient of ~ 0.5 with no clear dependence on slip velocity up to 0.15 m/s. Further experiments with loose quartz sand (grain size ~ 125 micron) included both dry runs and pore-pressure (distilled water) controlled runs. The sand was

  10. Effects of Environmental Conditions on Activity, Feeding, and Body Weight in Male and Female Adolescent Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-31

    marshmallows , etc.) gained more weight than did the rats that were provided standard chow. The animals with access to the activity wheel (activity...salami, cheese, bananas, marshmallows , milk chocolate, and peanut butter (Sclafani & Springer, 1976). In fact, adult female rats given constant...them foods that are high in fat and sugar through foods usually used for human consumption such as cream filled cookies, marshmallows , milk chocolate

  11. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Hosokawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.

  12. The Bodies Politic: Chronic Health Conditions and Voter Turnout in the 2008 Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Rahn, Wendy M

    2015-12-01

    Health policy researchers often evaluate the social and economic consequences of chronic illness, but rarely have they considered the implications of chronic illness on one important form of political participation: voting. However, if chronic illnesses--already unequally distributed in society--are associated with differential rates of voter turnout, then these inequalities in democratic representation could, in turn, produce further health inequity. In this study, we use data from eight states from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey to examine the associations between having diagnoses of five chronic conditions and turnout in the 2008 US presidential election. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and some health-related confounding factors, we find that individuals with cancer diagnoses are more likely to vote, while those with heart disease diagnoses are less likely to vote. These associations differ by race and educational status; notably, African Americans and those with lower education with cancer are even more likely to turn out to vote than whites and those with more education with cancer. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of health social movements and the role of health organizations in shaping political processes, important directions for the study of health politics. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  13. A rapid mechanism to remobilize and homogenize highly crystalline magma bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgisser, Alain; Bergantz, George W

    2011-03-10

    The largest products of magmatic activity on Earth, the great bodies of granite and their corresponding large eruptions, have a dual nature: homogeneity at the large scale and spatial and temporal heterogeneity at the small scale. This duality calls for a mechanism that selectively removes the large-scale heterogeneities associated with the incremental assembly of these magmatic systems and yet occurs rapidly despite crystal-rich, viscous conditions seemingly resistant to mixing. Here we show that a simple dynamic template can unify a wide range of apparently contradictory observations from both large plutonic bodies and volcanic systems by a mechanism of rapid remobilization (unzipping) of highly viscous crystal-rich mushes. We demonstrate that this remobilization can lead to rapid overturn and produce the observed juxtaposition of magmatic materials with very disparate ages and complex chemical zoning. What distinguishes our model is the recognition that the process has two stages. Initially, a stiff mushy magma is reheated from below, producing a reduction in crystallinity that leads to the growth of a subjacent buoyant mobile layer. When the thickening mobile layer becomes sufficiently buoyant, it penetrates the overlying viscous mushy magma. This second stage rapidly exports homogenized material from the lower mobile layer to the top of the system, and leads to partial overturn within the viscous mush itself as an additional mechanism of mixing. Model outputs illustrate that unzipping can rapidly produce large amounts of mobile magma available for eruption. The agreement between calculated and observed unzipping rates for historical eruptions at Pinatubo and at Montserrat demonstrates the general applicability of the model. This mechanism furthers our understanding of both the formation of periodically homogenized plutons (crust building) and of ignimbrites by large eruptions.

  14. QED effects in high-Z atoms; three-body potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zygelman, B.

    1983-01-01

    Electromagnetic three-body potentials were first studied by Primakoff and Holstein. Later, Chamugan and Schweber rederived these potentials and pointed out that they might be important in highly relativistic systems, however, their formulation was basically nonrelativistic. Mittleman, in a series of papers, constructed configuration space equations that included three-body potentials. His derivation started from first principles i.e. QED, and the resulting three-body potentials are more general than the Primakoff-Holstein potentials. In this thesis the contribution to the binding energy of a simple high-Z ion from the three-body potentials is calculated. In addition, the nature and structure of these potentials in greater detail are studied. Some ambiguities that arise when the transition from Fock to configuration space is made are studied in detail

  15. THE IMPACT OF MODERATE AND HIGH INTENSITY TOTAL BODY FATIGUE ON PASSING ACCURACY IN EXPERT AND NOVICE BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lyons

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the acknowledged importance of fatigue on performance in sport, ecologically sound studies investigating fatigue and its effects on sport-specific skills are surprisingly rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate and high intensity total body fatigue on passing accuracy in expert and novice basketball players. Ten novice basketball players (age: 23.30 ± 1.05 yrs and ten expert basketball players (age: 22.50 ± 0.41 yrs volunteered to participate in the study. Both groups performed the modified AAHPERD Basketball Passing Test under three different testing conditions: rest, moderate intensity and high intensity total body fatigue. Fatigue intensity was established using a percentage of the maximal number of squat thrusts performed by the participant in one minute. ANOVA with repeated measures revealed a significant (F 2,36 = 5.252, p = 0.01 level of fatigue by level of skill interaction. On examination of the mean scores it is clear that following high intensity total body fatigue there is a significant detriment in the passing performance of both novice and expert basketball players when compared to their resting scores. Fundamentally however, the detrimental impact of fatigue on passing performance is not as steep in the expert players compared to the novice players. The results suggest that expert or skilled players are better able to cope with both moderate and high intensity fatigue conditions and maintain a higher level of performance when compared to novice players. The findings of this research therefore, suggest the need for trainers and conditioning coaches in basketball to include moderate, but particularly high intensity exercise into their skills sessions. This specific training may enable players at all levels of the game to better cope with the demands of the game on court and maintain a higher standard of play

  16. Dietary cation and anion difference: Effects on milk production and body fluid distribution in lactating dairy goats under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thiet; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak; Chanpongsang, Somchai; Thammacharoen, Sumpun

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of dietary cation and anion difference (DCAD) on milk production and body fluid distribution in lactating dairy goats. Ten dairy goats were selected and divided into two groups, five animals each. Animals received either control DCAD (control, 22.81 mEq/100 g dry matter (DM)) or high DCAD (DCAD, 39.08 mEq/100 g DM). The results indicated that rectal temperature (Tr), respiration rate, milk yield and compositions did not differ between groups. But the percentage change of Tr from the DCAD group was lower than the control group between 09.00 and 13.00 hours. DM intake tended to increase in the DCAD group. Dairy goats in the DCAD group drank more water, but urinary excretion and plasma antidiuretic hormone concentration remained unchanged. Apparent water balance was higher from the DCAD group over 24 h. There was no effect of DCAD on plasma and blood volumes, but tended to increase in extracellular fluid and thereby increased total body water. The present results indicate that animals supplemented with high DCAD increase their total body water and apparent water balance. These results have contributed to the process of adaptation for evaporative cooling and would be useful in slowing down the elevation in Tr. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Effect of body condition score of does and use of bucks subjected to added artificial light on estrus response of Alpine goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Muñoz, Raymundo; Carrillo, Evaristo; Rodriguez-Martinez, Rafael; Leyva, Carlos; Mellado, Miguel; Véliz, Francisco Gerardo

    2010-08-01

    The effects of body condition score of does and exposure to sexually active bucks after exposure to long-day artificial photoperiod were examined in mature anovulatory French Alpine goat in Northern Mexico. In June, goats in good (2.3 +/- 0.2, scale 1 to 4; n = 10) or poor (1.6 +/- 0.3; n = 10) body condition were exposed during 15 day to sexually active bucks, which had been exposed to long photoperiod (16:8-h light-dark cycle, starting in December). A third group of goats in good body condition was exposed to bucks kept under the natural photoperiod of this region (26 degrees N). All goats in good body condition exposed to bucks treated with prolonged photoperiod exhibited estrus behavior, whereas only 50% of the does in poor body condition showed estrous behavior during the 15-day buck exposure. None of the does in good body condition showed estrus when exposed to bucks under natural photoperiod. These results revealed that a good body condition is required for maximum estrus response in anestrous Alpine goats and that exposure of bucks to long photoperiod in winter is essential for an adequate stimulus to reestablish estrus cycles in anovulatory Alpine does in Northern Mexico.

  18. Integrated plumage colour variation in relation to body condition, reproductive investment and laying date in the collared flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczi, Miklós; Hegyi, Gergely; Herényi, Márton; Kiss, Dorottya; Markó, Gábor; Nagy, Gergely; Rosivall, Balázs; Szöllősi, Eszter; Török, János

    2013-10-01

    The possible integration of different sexual ornaments into a composite system, and especially the information content of such ornament complexes, is poorly investigated. Many bird species display complex plumage coloration, but whether this represents one integrated or several independent sexual traits can be unclear. Collared flycatchers ( Ficedula albicollis) display melanised and depigmented plumage areas, and the spectral features (brightness and UV chroma) of these are correlated with each other across the plumage. In a 5-year dataset of male and female plumage reflectance, we examined some of the potential information content of integrated, plumage-level colour attributes by estimating their relationships to previous and current year body condition, laying date and clutch size. Females were in better condition the year before they became darker pigmented, and males in better current year condition were also darker pigmented. Female pigment-based brightness was positively, while male structurally based brightness was negatively related to current laying date. Finally, the overall UV chroma of white plumage areas in males was positively associated with current clutch size. Our results show that higher degree of pigmentation is related to better condition, while the structural colour component is associated with some aspects of reproductive investment. These results highlight the possibility that correlated aspects of a multiple plumage ornamentation system may reflect together some aspects of individual quality, thereby functioning as a composite signal.

  19. Mechanical characterization of alloys in extreme conditions of high strain rates and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, Ezio

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is the description of the mechanical characterization of alloys under extreme conditions of temperature and loading. In fact, in the frame of the Cost Action CA15102 “Solutions for Critical Raw Materials Under Extreme Conditions (CRM-EXTREME)” this aspect is crucial and many industrial applications have to consider the dynamic response of materials. Indeed, for a reduction and substitution of CRMs in alloys is necessary to design the materials and understand if the new materials behave better or if the substitution or reduction badly affect their performance. For this reason, a deep knowledge of the mechanical behaviour at high strain-rates of considered materials is required. In general, machinery manufacturing industry or transport industry as well as energy industry have important dynamic phenomena that are simultaneously affected by extended strain, high strain-rate, damage and pressure, as well as conspicuous temperature gradients. The experimental results in extreme conditions of high strain rate and high temperature of an austenitic stainless steel as well as a high-chromium tempered martensitic reduced activation steel Eurofer97 are presented.

  20. Effect of 8 days of a hypergravity condition on the sprinting speed and lower-body power of elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Matthew J; Gabbett, Tim J; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2015-03-01

    -Sprinting speed and lower-body power are considered to be key physical abilities for rugby players. A method of improving the lower-body power of athletes is simulated hypergravity. This method involves wearing a weighted vest at all times during the day for an extended period of time. There are no studies that have examined the effect of hypergravity on speed or the benefit for rugby players. An experimental group (n = 8) and a control group (n = 7) of national team rugby players took part in the study, which consisted of rugby, conditioning, speed, and strength sessions. The experimental group wore a weighted vest equating to 12% of their body mass for 8 days. All players were tested for speed and lower-body power before, 2 days after, and 9 days after the intervention. Speed testing involved the athletes completing 40-m sprints with timing lights and high-speed video cameras assessing acceleration and maximal velocity sprinting kinematics. Lower-body power was assessed using weighted countermovement jumps (CMJs). No group differences were found for sprinting speed at any point. The experimental group displayed a large decrease in acceleration ground contact time (-0.01 ± 0.005 s, d = 1.07) and a moderate increase in 15-kg CMJ velocity (0.07 ± 0.11 m·s, d = 0.71). Individual responses showed that players in the experimental group had both negative and positive speed and power responses to the training intervention. Simulated hypergravity for 8 days is likely ineffective at improving sprinting speed while undergoing standard rugby training.

  1. Plastic ingestion by Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes): Implications for fledgling body condition and the accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Bond, Alexander L; Hutton, Ian

    2014-04-01

    To provide much needed quantitative data on the lethal and sublethal effects of plastic pollution on marine wildlife, we sampled breast feathers and stomach contents from Flesh-footed Shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) fledglings in eastern Australia. Birds with high levels of ingested plastic exhibited reduced body condition and increased contaminant load (p plastic ingestion by seabirds, with 16% of fledglings failing these targets after a single feeding (range: 0.13-3.21 g of plastic/feeding). As top predators, seabirds are considered sentinels of the marine environment. The amount of plastic ingested and corresponding damage to Flesh-footed Shearwater fledglings is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate, suggesting the condition of the Australian marine environment is poor. These findings help explain the ongoing decline of this species and are worrying in light of increasing levels of plastic pollution in our oceans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlation between Health Perception, Body Image, and Eating Habits in High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ichsan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental disorders, including eating disorders, mostly begin during youth. Moreover, negative body image is found to cause unhealthy eating habits in the context of several cross-cultural settings. This study aimed to examine the correlation between health perception and body image with eating habits among high school students. Methods: A structured, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to students of a private high school in Bandung, Indonesia in June-October 2014. The questionnaire included questions about health perception, body image, eating habits, body weight and height, and also other demographic parameters. The school was selected as the study object through purposive sampling, and 140 high school students (72 male and 68 female were ramdomly selected. Results: Male and female did not show considerable differences in health perceptions. Out of 13 statements, 12 statements of male respondents showed better body image than female. While in eating habits statements, female respondents seemed to maintain healthier eating habits than male respondents. No significant correlation was observed between body image and eating habits (r=-0.015, p=0.858. There was significant correlation between health perception and eating habits (r=0.374, p<0.001. Correlation between sex and eating habits was found (p=0.020, there was not significant relationship between eating habits and Body Mass Index (BMI (p=0.368. Conclusions: The negative relationship between body image and eating habits is not significant. However there was a significant positive relationship between health perception and eating habits. Furthermore, there was correlation between sex and eating habits, while the positive relationship between eating habits and BMI was still not found.

  3. Sequestration of highly expressed mRNAs in cytoplasmic granules, P-bodies, and stress granules enhances cell viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lavut

    Full Text Available Transcriptome analyses indicate that a core 10%-15% of the yeast genome is modulated by a variety of different stresses. However, not all the induced genes undergo translation, and null mutants of many induced genes do not show elevated sensitivity to the particular stress. Elucidation of the RNA lifecycle reveals accumulation of non-translating mRNAs in cytoplasmic granules, P-bodies, and stress granules for future regulation. P-bodies contain enzymes for mRNA degradation; under stress conditions mRNAs may be transferred to stress granules for storage and return to translation. Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is elevated by stress; and here we analyzed the steady state levels, decay, and subcellular localization of the mRNA of the gene encoding the F-box protein, UFO1, that is induced by stress. Using the MS2L mRNA reporter system UFO1 mRNA was observed in granules that colocalized with P-bodies and stress granules. These P-bodies stored diverse mRNAs. Granules of two mRNAs transported prior to translation, ASH1-MS2L and OXA1-MS2L, docked with P-bodies. HSP12 mRNA that gave rise to highly elevated protein levels was not observed in granules under these stress conditions. ecd3, pat1 double mutants that are defective in P-body formation were sensitive to mRNAs expressed ectopically from strong promoters. These highly expressed mRNAs showed elevated translation compared with wild-type cells, and the viability of the mutants was strongly reduced. ecd3, pat1 mutants also exhibited increased sensitivity to different stresses. Our interpretation is that sequestration of highly expressed mRNAs in P-bodies is essential for viability. Storage of mRNAs for future regulation may contribute to the discrepancy between the steady state levels of many stress-induced mRNAs and their proteins. Sorting of mRNAs for future translation or decay by individual cells could generate potentially different phenotypes in a genetically identical

  4. Correspondence Between Physical Self-Concept and Participation in, and Fitness Change After, Biweekly Body Conditioning Classes in Sedentary Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasa, Ulrika; Paulin, Johan; Madison, Guy

    2017-02-01

    Aasa, U, Paulin, J, and Madison, G. Correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, biweekly body conditioning classes in sedentary women. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 451-461, 2017-The aims of the study were (a) to investigate the effects of participation in low impact body conditioning classes on physical fitness in sedentary women at different ages and (b) to examine the correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, the participation. Ninety-two sedentary women (mean age 44.2 years) participated in 11 weeks of biweekly classes that included cardiovascular, strength, core, endurance, and mobility exercises, all performed in synchrony with music. Cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal lifting strength, mobility, and balance tests were performed before and after the exercise period and the short-form of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S) was completed. Zero-order Spearman correlation analyses showed that women who rated the PSDQ-S dimension sport competence higher participated in a larger number of sessions (rs = 0.24, p = 0.040). At posttests, all participants had increased their balance, the participants aged 20-34 years had increased their lifting strength, and the participants aged 35-65 years had increased their cardiorespiratory fitness and mobility. Most PSDQ-S dimensions did not affect performance change, but the perception of being physically active was related to increased cardiovascular fitness. We conclude that women with a sedentary lifestyle who wish to increase their physical capacity benefit from music exercise and that inquiries about perceived sport competence and physical activity can improve recommendations made by strength and conditioning professionals.

  5. High-pressure polymorphs in Yamato-790729 L6 chondrite and their significance for collisional conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yukako; Sekine, Toshimori; Kayama, Masahiko; Miyahara, Masaaki; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2017-12-01

    Shock pressure recorded in Yamato (Y)-790729, classified as L6 type ordinary chondrite, was evaluated based on high-pressure polymorph assemblages and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of maskelynite. The host-rock of Y-790729 consists mainly of olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, plagioclase, metallic Fe-Ni, and iron-sulfide with minor amounts of phosphate and chromite. A shock-melt vein was observed in the hostrock. Ringwoodite, majorite, akimotoite, lingunite, tuite, and xieite occurred in and around the shock-melt vein. The shock pressure in the shock-melt vein is about 14-23 GPa based on the phase equilibrium diagrams of high-pressure polymorphs. Some plagioclase portions in the host-rock occurred as maskelynite. Sixteen different CL spectra of maskelynite portions were deconvolved using three assigned emission components (centered at 2.95, 3.26, and 3.88 eV). The intensity of emission component at 2.95 eV was selected as a calibrated barometer to estimate shock pressure, and the results indicate pressures of about 11-19 GPa. The difference in pressure between the shock-melt vein and host-rock might suggest heterogeneous shock conditions. Assuming an average shock pressure of 18 GPa, the impact velocity of the parent-body of Y-790729 is calculated to be 1.90 km s-1. The parent-body would be at least 10 km in size based on the incoherent formation mechanism of ringwoodite in Y-790729.

  6. Reproductive phenology of Creole horses in Ecuador in the absence of photoperiod variation: The effects of forage availability and flooding affecting body condition of mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Juan; Yoong, Washington A; Mateos, Concha; Caño Vergara, Belén; Gómez, Chian L; Macías, Verónica

    2017-12-01

    Horse reproduction tends to be seasonal. The main adjusting factor in their original temperate ranges is photoperiod variation, although it is absent in equatorial areas where horses were introduced by European colonizers. Hence, dates of reproduction in these areas may be influenced by factors affecting mares' conditions and the success of foaling. Here we study reproductive timing in Creole horses in Ecuador reared in an extensive production system. We found that foaling peaked in August. Mares' conditions showed one peak in June-July, before the start of the breeding season, and another in December, and it was highly variable along the year. Mares' conditions increased after a period of vegetation growth and thus appeared negatively associated with the increment of grass greenness (normalized difference vegetation index data). Seasonal flooding of some pasturelands during March and April appeared to seriously impair mares' conditions and probably influenced the timing of foaling toward the dry season. Our results evidenced that horse breeding in these equatorial areas tended to be seasonal and point to some key factors that influence phenology by affecting body condition of mares, which may have implications for horse biology and management. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. [Condition optimization for bio-oxidation of high-S and high-As gold concentrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caiyun; Dong, Bowen; Wang, Meijun; Ye, Zhiyong; Zheng, Tianling; Huang, Huaiguo

    2015-12-04

    To study the effects of temperature and lixivium return on the concentrate bio-oxidation and rate of gold cyanide leaching. The bioleaching of a high-sulphur (S) and high-arsenic (As) refractory gold concentrate was conducted, and we studied the effects of different temperature (40 ° and 45 °C) and lixivium return (0 and 600 mL) on the bio-oxidation efficiency. The bacterial community structure also was investigated by 16S rRNA gene clone library. The results showed that both the temperature and lixivium return significantly influenced the oxidation system. The temperature rising elevated the oxidation level, while the addition of lixivium depressed the oxidation. Dissimilarity and DCA (detrended correspondence analysis) indicated the effect of temperature on oxidation system was much greater than lixivium. The bacterial community was comprised by Acidithiocacillus caldu (71%) Leptospirillum ferriphilum (23%) and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans (6%) indicated by the clone library, and the OTU coverage based on 97% sequence similarity was as high as 93.67%. Temperature rising to 45 T would improve the oxidation efficiency while lixivium return would decrease it. This study is helpful to provide an important guiding value for the industry cost optimization of mesophile bacterial oxidation and reduction process.

  8. Constrained body shape among highly genetically divergent allopatric lineages of the supralittoral isopod Ligia occidentalis (Oniscidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Carlos A; Mateos, Mariana; DeWitt, Thomas J; Hurtado, Luis A

    2016-03-01

    Multiple highly divergent lineages have been identified within Ligia occidentalis sensu lato, a rocky supralittoral isopod distributed along a ~3000 km latitudinal gradient that encompasses several proposed marine biogeographic provinces and ecoregions in the eastern Pacific. Highly divergent lineages have nonoverlapping geographic distributions, with distributional limits that generally correspond with sharp environmental changes. Crossbreeding experiments suggest postmating reproductive barriers exist among some of them, and surveys of mitochondrial and nuclear gene markers do not show evidence of hybridization. Populations are highly isolated, some of which appear to be very small; thus, the effects of drift are expected to reduce the efficiency of selection. Large genetic divergences among lineages, marked environmental differences in their ranges, reproductive isolation, and/or high isolation of populations may have resulted in morphological differences in L. occidentalis, not detected yet by traditional taxonomy. We used landmark-based geometric morphometric analyses to test for differences in body shape among highly divergent lineages of L. occidentalis, and among populations within these lineages. We analyzed a total of 492 individuals from 53 coastal localities from the southern California Bight to Central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. We conducted discriminant function analyses (DFAs) on body shape morphometrics to assess morphological variation among genetically differentiated lineages and their populations. We also tested for associations between phylogeny and morphological variation, and whether genetic divergence is correlated to multivariate morphological divergence. We detected significant differences in body shape among highly divergent lineages, and among populations within these lineages. Nonetheless, neither lineages nor populations can be discriminated on the basis of body shape, because correct classification rates of cross

  9. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness.

  10. Eating behavior and body image perception of pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Guimarães Nobre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the eating behavior and body image perception in pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional, observational study conducted with 28 overweight pregnant women attending the first consultation in the nutrition outpatient center of a maternity hospital in Fortaleza-CE, from December 2010 to February 2011. It has been used a pre-established form containing data on the characterization of the sample (socioeconomic, obstetric, and nutritional, the BES (Binge Eating Scale to assess binge eating and BSQ (Body Shape Questionnaire to assess the severity or absence of body image disorder. The variables were presented as mean ± standard deviation and simple frequency and percentage. The Pearson’s correlation was used to verify the relation between body image and binge eating, considering p <0.05. Results: The pregnant women studied had a mean age of 29.4 ± 6.3 years and mean gestational age of 24.6 ± 8.2 weeks. It was found a prevalence of 71.5% (n=20 of body image disorder and 17.8% (n=5 of binge eating. It was also observed a direct and significant correlation between the body image perception and the degree of binge eating (r=0.4358, p=0.020. Conclusion: The high rate of body image disorder positively related to a significant binge eating indicates an unfavorable adjustment of this group of pregnant women to alterations in weight and body shape and size, which are inherent to pregnancy, standing out as group that needs special attention by the professional team. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p256

  11. Solubilities of iron and nickel oxides under high temperature and high pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ke-Chon; Jung, Yong-Ju; Yeon, Jei-Won; Jee, Kwang-Yong

    2007-01-01

    The purposes of primary coolant chemistry are to assure fuel and material integrity and to minimize out of core radiation fields. During the PWR operation, crud deposits are expected on the cladding, leading to cladding failure and raising the radioactivity. Such deposits come from the corrosion products of system surface. To achieve optimal conditions for primary coolant, basic researches on mass transfer, deposition and solubility of corrosion products are needed. The initial stage of crud formation could be the studies on the solubility of a structural material. It has been known that the solubility of metal oxides in boric acid under high temperature and high pressure condition depends on the pH and dissolved hydrogen. Thus, the effect of various pH on the solubility of metal oxide in boric acid solution was investigated in this work

  12. Nutrition of pigs kept under low and high sanitary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    It is economically and environmentally important to match the nutrient supply to the nutrient requirements in pig production. Until now, the effects of different sanitary conditions on energy and nutrient requirements are not implemented in recommendations for nutrient composition of pig diets.

  13. Design, conditioning, and performance of a high voltage, high brightness dc photoelectron gun with variable gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxson, Jared; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Dobbins, John; Liu, Xianghong; Smolenski, Karl [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    A new high voltage photoemission gun has been constructed at Cornell University which features a segmented insulator and a movable anode, allowing the cathode-anode gap to be adjusted. In this work, we describe the gun's overall mechanical and high voltage design, the surface preparation of components, as well as the clean construction methods. We present high voltage conditioning data using a 50 mm cathode-anode gap, in which the conditioning voltage exceeds 500 kV, as well as at smaller gaps. Finally, we present simulated emittance results obtained from a genetic optimization scheme using voltage values based on the conditioning data. These results indicate that for charges up to 100 pC, a 30 mm gap at 400 kV has equal or smaller 100% emittance than a 50 mm gap at 450 kV, and also a smaller core emittance, when placed as the source for the Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector with bunch length constrained to be <3 ps rms. For 100 pC up to 0.5 nC charges, the 50 mm gap has larger core emittance than the 30 mm gap, but conversely smaller 100% emittance.

  14. Melting phase relations in the Fe-S and Fe-S-O systems at core conditions in small terrestrial bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Anne; Laurenz, Vera; Davies, Christopher J.; Frost, Daniel J.

    2018-05-01

    We report an experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Fe-S and Fe-S-O systems. Experiments were performed at high temperatures (1400-1850 °C) and high pressures (14 and 20 GPa) using a multi-anvil apparatus. The results of this study are used to understand the effect of sulfur and oxygen on core dynamics in small terrestrial bodies. We observe that the formation of solid FeO grains occurs at the Fe-S liquid - Fe solid interface at high temperature ( > 1400 °C at 20 GPa). Oxygen fugacities calculated for each O-bearing sample show that redox conditions vary from ΔIW = -0.65 to 0. Considering the relative density of each phase and existing evolutionary models of terrestrial cores, we apply our experimental results to the cores of Mars and Ganymede. We suggest that the presence of FeO in small terrestrial bodies tends to contribute to outer-core compositional stratification. Depending on the redox and thermal history of the planet, FeO may also help form a transitional redox zone at the core-mantle boundary.

  15. Statistics concerning the Apollo command module water landing, including the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, sucessful impact, and body X-axis loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1971-01-01

    Statistical information for the Apollo command module water landings is presented. This information includes the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, a successful impact, and body X-axis loads of various magnitudes.

  16. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash: Clinical Investigation Into Ultra-mildness, Effective Conditioning, and Improved Consumer Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Jamie; Mollica, Leonel-Maximo; Ananthapadmanabhan, K P

    2013-06-01

    To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Biochemical and clinical assays. Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores benefits.

  17. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high Sand low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wtistite (lW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at I GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multianvil press, at temperatures up to 1850degC. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-Si02 buffer, which is approximately 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi206) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of

  18. Body condition scores at calving and their association with dairy cow performance and health in semiarid environment under two cooling systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.B. Mandour

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Under tropical environments cow’s body condition at calving may influence productivity and health performance. Therefore, the current research evaluated the impact of body condition score (BCS at calving on milk production traits and health problems of primiparous and multiparous cows raised under two cooling systems in semi-arid environment. Milk yield parameters and health disorders data at different parities were obtained from 1700 Holstein cows, which were managed under Korral Kool (KKC and fan (FC cooling systems in Saudi Arabia. The results revealed that KKC system induced high level of milk production improvement (305TM, days in milk, daily milk yield (P<0.05 compared to FC, especially in multiparous cows. There was an advantage of the high BCS group under KKC system over the FC system for peak yield and period. Cows from both cooling systems having moderate BCS outdid the other groups for total milk yield. Low BCS primiparous cows reared under KKC system were the most to suffer from stillbirth (18%, and calving ease (26.1% in winter, while high BCS were the most to be treated for mastitis (8.5% in summer. On the other hand, spring calved multiparous cows raised under FC system suffered more from lameness (21.57% - high BCS and milk fever (4.4% - moderate BCS. Further, cows having moderate BCS kept under KKC system had the highest incidence of lameness (62.2%, and abomasum displacement (4.4%. In conclusion, achieving correct BCS at calving and cooling system is important to avoid calving subsequent lactation performance and metabolic disease losses.

  19. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one

  20. Superconducting cyclotron deflector conditioning status - an experience with high voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subhash; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Bhattacharjee, Tanushyam; De, Anirban; Paul, Santanu; Pal, Gautam; Saha, Subimal; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report about the status of the electrostatic deflector which will be used in K500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata. For extraction of beams from superconducting cyclotron we have to achieve 130 kV/cm. Titanium and tungsten are used for anode and septum respectively. The deflector fits within the median plane of the superconducting magnet. We report here the voltage limit, sparking rates, dark current levels and the effects observed on conditioning. For commissioning of the superconducting cyclotron, the plan is to accelerate Neon beam of 50 MeV/n for which the required extraction voltage is 81 kV/cm and we reached up to 110 kV/cm. The conditioning test chamber is maintained at a pressure of 8.0 x 10 -7 mbar. (author)

  1. High prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms in patients seeking rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picavet, Valerie A; Prokopakis, Emmanuel P; Gabriëls, Lutgardis; Jorissen, Mark; Hellings, Peter W

    2011-08-01

    Nasal aesthetic deformities may be associated with significant body image dissatisfaction. The only diagnostic category in the current list of psychiatric disorders that directly addresses these concerns is body dysmorphic disorder. This large-scale study determined the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and its symptoms in patients seeking rhinoplasty and evaluated the clinical profile of these patients. Two hundred twenty-six patients were given questionnaires including demographic characteristics, visual analogue scales for nasal shape, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for body dysmorphic disorder to assess severity of symptoms, a generic quality-of-life questionnaire, and the Derriford Appearance Scale 59, to assess appearance-related disruption of everyday living. Independent observers scored the nasal shape. Thirty-three percent of patients showed at least moderate symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Aesthetic goals (p dysmorphic disorder scores correlated inversely with the subjective nasal scoring (n = 210, p dysmorphic disorder symptoms significantly reduced the generic quality of life (n = 160, p dysmorphic disorder symptoms in an aesthetic rhinoplasty population is high. Patients undergoing revision rhinoplasty and with psychiatric history are particularly at risk. Body dysmorphic disorder symptoms significantly reduce the quality of life and cause significant appearance-related disruption of everyday living. Risk, III.

  2. PECULIARITIES OF HEAVY METALS ACCUMULATION BY THE FRUIT BODIES OF MACROMYCETES IN THE CONDITIONS OF COMBINED RADIATION AND CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Nikolaevna Anishchenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of combined radiation and chemical contamination of forest habitats (Bryansk oblast revealed cumulative activity of basidiomycetes in relation to heavy metals, the calculated accumulation factors. Used route, the research methods of the soils, determine the gross concentration of the elements x-ray fluorescence method. The intensity of accumulation of heavy metals in fruit bodies of mushrooms were evaluated using the coefficients of accumulation (or bioaccumulation factors. Analysis of concentrations of gross pollutants showed that the maximum Pb observed in the fruit bodies of Pers. Fr., Boletus edulis Rostk. and Calocybe gambosa (Fr. Singer, the concentration of As Calocybe gambosa, Boletus edulis, Russula adusta and Xerocomus subtomentosus (L. Quél. The maximum Zn content observed in the fruit bodies of the Russula alutacea (Fr. Fr., Xerocomus subtomentosus, Tricholoma equestre (L. P. Kumm., Russula adusta and Boletus edulis, Cu and Ni – Xerocomus subtomentosus, Leccinum scabrum, Boletus erythropus, Boletus edulis, Calocybe gambosa and Xerocomus subtomentosus, Fe and Mne – Boletus erythropus, Xerocomus subtomentosus and Leccinum scabrum. The total heavy metal content maximum in the fruit bodies of Xerocomus subtomentosus, Boletus erythropus и Leccinum scabrum. On the basis of rates of accumulation of fungi are divided into three groups according to intensity of accumulation of metals: the first group consists of mushrooms, the most intensively accumulate heavy metals – Russula mairei, Leccinum scabrum and Boletus erythropus; the second fungi which are characterized by the average intensity of the accumulation of TM – Xerocomus subtomentosus, Boletus edulis and Russula alutacea; the third group includes mushrooms, which are characterized by a low degree of accumulation of individual elements of the TM – Boletus erythropus, Russula adusta and Calocybe gambosa. Mushrooms – storage Co, Cu, Zn and Sr – is Xerocomus

  3. Effect of restricted feeding under rearing on reproduction, body condition and blood metabolites of rabbit does selected for growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Naturil-Alfonso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Young rabbit females selected for growth rate can have nutritional needs which may not be met by the common practice of feed restriction during rearing in commercial rabbit production. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of two different feeding programmes: restricted and ad libitum feeding, applied in young rabbit females for one month at the end of rearing, on reproductive performance, body condition and circulating metabolic hormones and metabolites in a rabbit line selected by growth rate in 3 consecutive reproductive cycles. Thus, twenty-four 16-week-old does were randomly assigned to a group in which the daily recommended nutrient intakes were satisfied (fed restricted: 130 g/day, n=13 or a group fed to satiety (ad libitum: 235.5 g/day, n=11 during one month. Then, all does were inseminated in 3 consecutive cycles using a 42-day reproductive cycle. Measurements of does’ body weight, perirenal fat thickness and plasma leptin, non-esterified-fatty-acids (NEFA, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB and fructosamine were performed at artificial insemination (AI, parturition and weaning time in 3 consecutive cycles. Reproductive performance of does was evaluated based on fertility, litter size at parturition, prolificacy and productivity. Differences in body weight were found only in the 1st cycle, ad libitum fed females being heavier than restricted ones. Nevertheless, body weight variances disappeared in later cycles. No differences were found in perirenal fat thickness. Finally, in ad libitum fed females slight differences were found in plasma levels of NEFAs (452 vs. 258 μekv/L and 527 vs. 306 μekv/L for 1st and 2nd cycles and BOHB (0.26 vs. 0.03 mM for 2nd cycle, but disappeared in the 3rd reproductive cycle. Fertility, prolificacy and productivity was not significantly affected by the feeding programme. Nevertheless, total litter size showed to be higher in ad libitum fed females at second parturition (8.7 vs. 5.9 kits. Therefore

  4. Conditional imitation might promote cooperation under high temptations to defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qionglin; Li, Haihong; Cheng, Hongyan; Qian, Xiaolan; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Junzhong

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we introduce a conditional imitation rule into an evolutionary game, in which the imitation probabilities of individuals are determined by a function of payoff difference and two crucial parameters μ and σ. The parameter μ characterizes the most adequate goal for individuals and the parameter σ characterizes the tolerance of individuals. By using the pair approximation method and numerical simulations, we find an anomalous cooperation enhancement in which the cooperation level shows a nonmonotonic variation with the increase of temptation. The parameter μ affects the regime of the payoff parameter which supports the anomalous cooperation enhancement, whereas the parameter σ plays a decisive role on the appearance of the nonmonotonic variation of the cooperation level. Furthermore, to give explicit implications for the parameters μ and σ we present an alterative form of the conditional imitation rule based on the benefit and the cost incurred to individuals during strategy updates. In this way, we also provide a phenomenological interpretation for the nonmonotonic behavior of cooperation with the increase of temptation. The results give a clue that a higher cooperation level could be obtained under adverse environments for cooperation by applying the conditional imitation rule, which is possible to be manipulated in real life. More generally, the results in this work might point out an efficient way to maintain cooperation in the risky environments to cooperators.

  5. Circulating adiponectin concentration and body composition are altered in response to high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Cecilia M; Webb, Jessica J; Driller, Matthew W; Williams, Andrew D; Fell, James W

    2013-08-01

    Adiponectin influences metabolic adaptations that would prove beneficial to endurance athletes, and yet to date there is little known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise, and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in an athlete population. This study aimed to determine the response of plasma adiponectin concentrations to acute exercise after 2 different training programs and to determine the influence of the training on body composition. Seven state-level representative rowers (age: 19 ± 1.2 years [mean ± SD], height: 1.77 ± 0.10 m, body mass: 74.0 ± 10.7 kg, VO2peak 62.1 ± 7.0 ml·kg·min) participated in the double-blind, randomized crossover investigation. Rowers performed an incremental graded exercise test before and after completing 4 weeks of high-intensity interval ergometer training and 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training. Rowers' body composition was assessed at baseline and after each training program. Significant increases in plasma adiponectin concentration occurred in response to maximal exercise after completion of the high-intensity interval training (p = 0.016) but not after traditional ergometer rowing training (p = 0.69). The high-intensity interval training also resulted in significant increases in mean 4-minute power output (p = 0.002) and VO2peak (p = 0.05), and a decrease in body fat percentage (p = 0.022). Mean 4-minute power output, VO2peak, and body fat percentage were not significantly different after 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training (p > 0.05). Four weeks of high-intensity interval training is associated with an increase in adiponectin concentration in response to maximal exercise and a reduction in body fat percentage. The potential for changes in adiponectin concentration to reflect positive training adaptations and athlete performance level should be further explored.

  6. Alternative body sites for heat stress measurement in milking cows under tropical conditions and their relationship to the thermal discomfort of the animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Luciane S.; Savastano Junior, Holmer; Silva, Saulo L.; Balieiro, Júlio Cesar C.

    2010-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship among temperatures measured at different anatomical sites of the animal body and their daily pattern as indicative of the thermal stress in lactating dairy cows under tropical conditions. Environmental dry bulb (DBT) and black globe (BGT) temperatures and relative humidity (RH) were recorded. Rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), body surface (BST), internal base of tail (TT), vulva (VT) and auricular temperatures (AT) were collected, from 37 Black and White Holstein cows at 0700, 1300 and 1800 hours. RT showed a moderately and positive correlations with all body temperatures, ranging from 0.59 with TT to 0.64 with BST. Correlations among AT, VT and TT with RF were very similar (from 0.63 to 0.64) and were greater than those observed for RF with RT (0.55) or with BST (0.54). RF and RT were positively correlated to TT (0.63 and 0.59, respectively), AT (r = 0.63 for both) and VT ( r = 0.64 and 0.63, respectively). Positive and very high correlations were observed among AT, VT and TT (from 0.94 to 0.97) indicating good association of temperatures measured in these anatomical sites. Correlations of BST with AT and VT were positive and very similar (0.71 and 0.72, respectively) and lower with TT (0.66). The AT, TT, VT and BST presented similar patterns and follow the variations of DBT through the day. Temperatures measured at different anatomical sites of the animal body have the potential to be used as indicative of the thermal stress in lactating dairy cows.

  7. Heart rate reveals torpor at high body temperatures in lowland tropical free-tailed bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, M Teague; Rikker, Sebastian; Wikelski, Martin; Ter Maat, Andries; Pollock, Henry S; Dechmann, Dina K N

    2017-12-01

    Reduction in metabolic rate and body temperature is a common strategy for small endotherms to save energy. The daily reduction in metabolic rate and heterothermy, or torpor, is particularly pronounced in regions with a large variation in daily ambient temperature. This applies most strongly in temperate bat species (order Chiroptera), but it is less clear how tropical bats save energy if ambient temperatures remain high. However, many subtropical and tropical species use some daily heterothermy on cool days. We recorded the heart rate and the body temperature of free-ranging Pallas' mastiff bats ( Molossus molossus ) in Gamboa, Panamá, and showed that these individuals have low field metabolic rates across a wide range of body temperatures that conform to high ambient temperature. Importantly, low metabolic rates in controlled respirometry trials were best predicted by heart rate, and not body temperature . Molossus molossus enter torpor-like states characterized by low metabolic rate and heart rates at body temperatures of 32°C, and thermoconform across a range of temperatures. Flexible metabolic strategies may be far more common in tropical endotherms than currently known.

  8. Observing Planets and Small Bodies in Sputtered High Energy Atom (SHEA) Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, A.; Orsini, S.; Hsieh, K. C.; Baragiola, R.; Fama, M.; Johnson, R.; Mura, A.; Plainaki, Ch.; Sarantos, M.; Cassidy, T. A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the surfaces of bodies unprotected by either strong magnetic fields or thick atmospheres in the Solar System is caused by various processes, induced by photons, energetic ions and micrometeoroids. Among these processes, the continuous bombardment of the solar wind or energetic magnetospheric ions onto the bodies may significantly affect their surfaces, with implications for their evolution. Ion precipitation produces neutral atom releases into the exosphere through ion sputtering, with velocity distribution extending well above the particle escape limits. We refer to this component of the surface ejecta as sputtered high-energy atoms (SHEA). The use of ion sputtering emission for studying the interaction of exposed bodies (EB) with ion environments is described here. Remote sensing in SHEA in the vicinity of EB can provide mapping of the bodies exposed to ion sputtering action with temporal and mass resolution. This paper speculates on the possibility of performing remote sensing of exposed bodies using SHEA The evolution of the surfaces of bodies unprotected by either strong magnetic fields or thick atmospheres in the Solar System is caused by various processes, induced by photons, energetic ions and micrometeoroids. Among these processes, the continuous bombardment of the solar wind or energetic magnetospheric ions onto the bodies may significantly affect their surfaces, with implications for their evolution. Ion precipitation produces neutral atom releases into the exosphere through ion sputtering, with velocity distribution extending well above the particle escape limits. We refer to this component of the surface ejecta as sputtered high-energy atoms (SHEA). The use of ion sputtering emission for studying the interaction of exposed bodies (EB) with ion environments is described here. Remote sensing in SHEA in the vicinity of EB can provide mapping of the bodies exposed to ion sputtering action with temporal and mass resolution. This paper

  9. Water quality monitoring for high-priority water bodies in the Sonoran Desert network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry W. Sprouse; Robert M. Emanuel; Sara A. Strorrer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a network monitoring program for “high priority” water bodies in the Sonoran Desert Network of the National Park Service. Protocols were developed for monitoring selected waters for ten of the eleven parks in the Network. Park and network staff assisted in identifying potential locations of testing sites, local priorities, and how water quality...

  10. HIGH TEMPERATURE CORROSION RESISTANCE OF METALLIC MATERIALS IN HARSH CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Novello, Frederic; Dedry, Olivier; De Noose, Vincent; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient energy recovery from renewable sources and from waste incineration causes new problems of corrosion at high temperature. A similar situation exists for new recycling processes and new energy storage units. These corrosions are generally considered to be caused by ashes or molten salts, the composition of which differs considerably from one plant to another. Therefore, for the assessment of corrosion-resistance of advanced materials, it is essential to precisely evaluate the c...

  11. GDF-3 is an adipogenic cytokine under high fat dietary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Yang Yan; Meng Ying; Shi Yanggu

    2004-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF-3) is structurally a bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor subfamily member of the TGF-β superfamily. GDF-3 exhibits highest level of expression in white fat tissue in mice and is greatly induced by high fat diet if fat metabolic pathway is blocked. To identify its biological function, GDF-3 was overexpressed in mice by adenovirus mediated gene transfer. Mice transduced with GDF-3 displayed profound weight gain when fed with high fat diet. The phenotypes included greatly expanded adipose tissue mass, increased body adiposity, highly hypertrophic adipocytes, hepatic steatosis, and elevated plasma leptin. GDF-3 stimulated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor expression in adipocytes, a master nuclear receptor that controls adipogenesis. However, GDF-3 was not involved in blood glucose homeostasis or insulin resistance, a condition associated with obesity. In contrast, similar phenotypes were not observed in GDF-3 mice fed with normal chow, indicating that GDF-3 is only active under high lipid load. Thus, GDF-3 is a new non-diabetic adipogenic factor tightly coupled with fat metabolism

  12. The effect of level of feeding, genetic merit, body condition score and age on biological parameters of a mammary gland model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J R; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Pryce, J E; Pitman, G D; Davis, S R

    2007-03-01

    An evolutionary algorithm was applied to a mechanistic model of the mammary gland to find the parameter values that minimised the difference between predicted and actual lactation curves of milk yields in New Zealand Jersey cattle managed at different feeding levels. The effect of feeding level, genetic merit, body condition score at parturition and age on total lactation yields of milk, fat and protein, days in milk, live weight and evolutionary algorithm derived mammary gland parameters was then determined using a multiple regression model. The mechanistic model of the mammary gland was able to fit lactation curves that corresponded to actual lactation curves with a high degree of accuracy. The senescence rate of quiescent (inactive) alveoli was highest at the very low feeding level. The active alveoli population at peak lactation was highest at very low feeding levels, but lower nutritional status at this feeding level prevented high milk yields from being achieved. Genetic merit had a significant linear effect on the active alveoli population at peak and mid to late lactation, with higher values in animals, which had higher breeding values for milk yields. A type of genetic merit × feeding level scaling effect was observed for total yields of milk and fat, and total number of alveoli produced from conception until the end of lactation with the benefits of increases in genetic merit being greater at high feeding levels. A genetic merit × age scaling effect was observed for total lactation protein yields. Initial rates of differentiation of progenitor cells declined with age. Production levels of alveoli from conception to the end of lactation were lowest in 5- to 8-year-old animals; however, in these older animals, quiescent alveoli were reactivated more frequently. The active alveoli population at peak lactation and rates of active alveoli proceeding to quiescence were highest in animals of intermediate body condition scores of 4.0 to 5.0. The results

  13. Evaluation of PBL schemes in WRF for high Arctic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirova-Galabova, Hristina; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2015-01-01

    was examined through two configurations (25 vertical levels and 4km grid step, 42 vertical levels and 1.33 km grid step). WRF was run with two planetary boundary layer schemes: Mellor –Yamada – Janjic with local vertical closure and non – local Yonsei University scheme. Temporal evolution of planetary boundary...... for temperature, above 150 m for relative humidity and for all levels for wind speed. Direct comparison of model and measured data showed that vertical profiles of studied parameters were reconstructed by the model relatively better in cloudy sky conditions, compared to clear skies....

  14. Effect of body condition score at mating on the reproductive performance of Kivircik sheep under an extensive production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Murat; Altin, Tufan; Karaca, Orhan; Cemal, Ibrahim; Bardakcioglu, Husnu Erbay; Yilmaz, Onur; Taskin, Turgay

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the body condition score (BCS) of ewes before and during the mating season on their reproductive performance under an extensive production system. In this study, 240 Kivircik sheep from the flocks of two breeders were used for over a 2-year period. The flocks were fed under extensive conditions on natural pastures throughout the year. The ewes were synchronized in two different periods, one of which was 45 days before the other. Before the introduction of rams to the ewes, the ewes were weighed after measuring their BCS. Detailed records were kept for every flock in each year. We found significant effects of BCS on pregnancy rate, lambing rate (P < 0.05) and fecundity (P < 0.05). The BCS for the highest pregnancy, lambing rate, and fecundity was determined between 2.01 and 3.00, while the lowest rates for these traits were ≤ 1.50. The highest rates of the pregnancy rate, lambing rate, and fecundity and gestation productivity were 75.9%, 70.9%, 1.11 and 3.34 kg, respectively.

  15. A Comparison of the Characteristics of Planar and Axisymmetric Bluff-Body Combustors Operated under Stratified Inlet Mixture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paterakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents comparisons of the flame stabilization characteristics of axisymmetric disk and 2D slender bluff-body burner configurations, operating with inlet mixture stratification, under ultralean conditions. A double cavity propane air premixer formed along three concentric disks, supplied with a radial equivalence ratio gradient the afterbody disk recirculation, where the first flame configuration is stabilized. Planar fuel injection along the center plane of the leading face of a slender square cylinder against the approach cross-flow results in a stratified flame configuration stabilized alongside the wake formation region in the second setup. Measurements of velocities, temperatures, OH∗ and CH∗ chemiluminescence, local extinction criteria, and large-eddy simulations are employed to examine a range of ultralean and close to extinction flame conditions. The variations of the reacting front disposition within these diverse reacting wake topologies, the effect of the successive suppression of heat release on the near flame region characteristics, and the reemergence of large-scale vortical activity on approach to lean blowoff (LBO are investigated. The cross-correlation of the performance of these two popular flame holders that are at the opposite ends of current applications might offer helpful insights into more effective control measures for expanding the operational margin of a wider range of stabilization configurations.

  16. Complex interplay of body condition, life history, and prevailing environment shapes immune defenses of garter snakes in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Maria G; Cunnick, Joan E; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    The immunocompetence "pace-of-life" hypothesis proposes that fast-living organisms should invest more in innate immune defenses and less in adaptive defenses compared to slow-living ones. We found some support for this hypothesis in two life-history ecotypes of the snake Thamnophis elegans; fast-living individuals show higher levels of innate immunity compared to slow-living ones. Here, we optimized a lymphocyte proliferation assay to assess the complementary prediction that slow-living snakes should in turn show stronger adaptive defenses. We also assessed the "environmental" hypothesis that predicts that slow-living snakes should show lower levels of immune defenses (both innate and adaptive) given the harsher environment they live in. Proliferation of B- and T-lymphocytes of free-living individuals was on average higher in fast-living than slow-living snakes, opposing the pace-of-life hypothesis and supporting the environmental hypothesis. Bactericidal capacity of plasma, an index of innate immunity, did not differ between fast-living and slow-living snakes in this study, contrasting the previously documented pattern and highlighting the importance of annual environmental conditions as determinants of immune profiles of free-living animals. Our results do not negate a link between life history and immunity, as indicated by ecotype-specific relationships between lymphocyte proliferation and body condition, but suggest more subtle nuances than those currently proposed.

  17. The independent roles of cardiorespiratory fitness and sedentary time on chronic conditions and Body Mass Index in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathokostas, L; Dogra, S; Paterson, D H

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the independent influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and sedentary behavior on chronic disease incidence and body composition in older adults. A sample of 292 community dwelling men and women (mean 69.3±8.1 years) underwent maximal treadmill testing and completed questionnaires relating to their leisure-time physical activity, sedentary time, and health. The average V O2 of the sample was approximately 21 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) with the average sedentary time being over 3 hours per day. Cardiorespiratory fitness was found to be a stronger predictor of number of chronic conditions and BMI than total physical activity and sedentary. Those with a higher cardiorespiratory fitness had fewer chronic conditions and a lower BMI. No such associations were seen for either total physical activity levels or sedentary time. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger predictor of health among older adults and further highlights the importance of promoting public health guidelines for cardiorespiratory fitness.

  18. Transients from initial conditions based on Lagrangian perturbation theory in N-body simulations II: the effect of the transverse mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatekawa, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    We study the initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations for precision cosmology. In general, Zel'dovich approximation has been applied for the initial conditions of N-body simulations for a long time. These initial conditions provide incorrect higher-order growth. These error caused by setting up the initial conditions by perturbation theory is called transients. We investigated the impact of transient on non-Gaussianity of density field by performing cosmological N-body simulations with initial conditions based on first-, second-, and third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory in previous paper. In this paper, we evaluates the effect of the transverse mode in the third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory for several statistical quantities such as power spectrum and non-Gaussianty. Then we clarified that the effect of the transverse mode in the third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory is quite small

  19. Plyometric Training Improves Sprinting, Jumping and Throwing Capacities of High Level Female Volleyball Players Better Than Skill-Based Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Gjinovci, Kemal Idrizovic, Ognjen Uljevic, Damir Sekulic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an evident lack of studies on the effectiveness of plyometric- and skill-based-conditioning in volleyball. This study aimed to evaluate effects of 12-week plyometric- and volleyball-skill-based training on specific conditioning abilities in female volleyball players. The sample included 41 high-level female volleyball players (21.8 ± 2.1 years of age; 1.76 ± 0.06 cm; 60.8 ± 7.0 kg, who participated in plyometric- (n = 21, or skill-based-conditioning-program (n = 20. Both programs were performed twice per week. Participants were tested on body-height, body-mass (BM, countermovement jump (CMJ, standing broad jump (SBJ, medicine ball throw, (MBT and 20-m sprint (S20M. All tests were assessed at the study baseline (pre- and at the end of the 12-week programs (post-testing. Two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements showed significant (p<0.05 “Group x Time” effects for all variables but body-height. Plyometric group significantly reduced body-mass (trivial effect size [ES] differences; 1% average pre- to post-measurement changes, and improved their performance in S20M (moderate ES; 8%, MBT (very large ES; 25%, CMJ (large ES; 27%, and SBJ (moderate ES; 8%. Players involved in skill-based-conditioning significantly improved CMJ (large ES; 18%, SBJ (small ES; 3%, and MBT (large ES; 9%. The changes which occurred between pre- and post-testing were more inter-correlated in plyometric-group. Although both training-modalities induced positive changes in jumping- and throwing-capacities, plyometric-training is found to be more effective than skill-based conditioning in improvement of conditioning capacities of female senior volleyball players. Future studies should evaluate differential program effects in less experienced and younger players.

  20. Oxidation performance of high temperature materials under oxyfuel conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuurna, Satu; Pohjanne, Pekka; Yli-Olli, Sanni; Kinnunen, Tuomo [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2010-07-01

    Oxyfuel combustion is widely seen as a major option to facilitate carbon capture and storage (CCS) from future boiler plants utilizing clean coal technologies. Oxyfuel combustion can be expected to differ from combustion in air by e.g. modified distribution of fireside temperatures, much reduced NOx but increased levels of fireside CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and water levels due to extensive flue gas recirculation. Modified flue gas chemistry results in higher gas emissivity that can increase the thermal stresses at the heat transfer surfaces of waterwalls and superheaters. In addition, increased flue gas recirculation can increase the concentration of a number of contaminants in the deposited ash and promote fouling and corrosion. There is relatively little experimental information available about the effects of oxyfuel combustion on the performance of boiler material. In this work, the oxidation performance of steels X20CrMoV11-1 and TP347HFG has been determined at 580 C/650 C under simulated oxyfuel firing conditions. The results are presented and compared to corresponding results from simulated air firing conditions. (orig.)

  1. High-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies on disordered materials. From ambient condition to an extreme condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, Shinji; Ohishi, Yasuo; Suzuya, Kentaro; Takata, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    High-energy x-rays from synchrotron radiation source allow us to measure high-quality diffraction data of the disordered materials from under ambient condition to an extreme condition, which is necessary to reveal the detailed structure of glass, liquid, and amorphous materials. We introduce the high-energy x-ray diffraction beamline and dedicated diffractometer for glass, liquid, and amorphous materials with the recent developments of ancillary equipments. Furthermore our recent studies on the structures of disordered materials reviewed. (author)

  2. Reproductive performance response to the male effect in goats is improved when doe live weight/body condition score is increasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Calvo, L; Gatica, M C; Guzmán, J L; Zarazaga, L A

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the nutritional and metabolic cue-induced modulation of the reproductive performance response of female goats to the male effect. During natural anoestrus, 48 Blanca Andaluza does were isolated from bucks for 45 days and distributed into two groups: (1) low body weight (BW)/low body condition score (BCS) animals (LL-gain group, N=18), which were fed 1.9 times their maintenance requirements; and (2) high BW/high BCS animals (HH-loss group, N=30), which were fed 0.4 times their maintenance requirements. Following isolation, oestrous activity was recorded daily by visual observation of the marks left by harness-equipped males. Weekly blood samples were taken for the determination of progesterone, glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and leptin concentrations. Fecundity, fertility, prolificacy and productivity were also determined. Significantly greater ovarian and oestrous responses, and productivity, were observed in the LL-gain group compared to the HH-loss group (Preproductive performances of does subjected to the male effect in spring are poorer in those with a decreasing BW and BCS and better in those with increasing scores. This might be explained by the differences between groups in terms of their plasma insulin concentrations. The NEFA concentration was clearly modified by introduction to the males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A model of high-rate indentation of a cylindrical striking pin into a deformable body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalazinskaya, E. A.; Zalazinsky, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    Mathematical modeling of an impact and high-rate indentation to a significant depth of a flat-faced hard cylindrical striking pin into a massive deformable target body is carried out. With the application of the kinematic extreme theorem of the plasticity theory and the kinetic energy variation theorem, the phase trajectories of the striking pin are calculated, the initial velocity of the striking pin in the body, the limit values of the inlet duct length, and the depth of striking pin penetration into the target are determined.

  4. Localization and Retrieval of an Eyelid Metallic Foreign Body With an Oscillating Magnet and High-Resolution Ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sylvia H; Rootman, Dan B; Goh, Alice; Savar, Aaron; Goldberg, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    A patient was found to have a metallic foreign body in the left anterior orbit on CT imaging, but the foreign body was not evident on clinical examination. On high-resolution ultrasonography, an object was identified in the left upper eyelid; however, the typical shadow with metallic foreign bodies was not seen. A high-power oscillating magnet was then applied to the eyelid, which revealed a subcutaneous metallic foreign body in the left upper eyelid. When used in conjunction, the high-resolution ultrasound and oscillating magnet successfully localized and facilitated retrieval of the metallic foreign body from the left upper eyelid.

  5. Hulls and structural material waste conditioning by high pressure compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frotscher, H.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1986 KfK is developing a conditioning process. Main subjects of the investigations were the development of the production technique and the planning of the most important equipments of the process under remote conditions. The process is based on an extensive program of experiments. Inactive bulks of hulls and structural material components were compacted using maximum axial pressure load of about 300 MPa. The product density as function of press force was experimentally determinated. The mechanical loads of the press and tools were estimated for the design of these equipments. The hydraulic press consists a horizontal four-cylinder press. The maximum force of the press is 25 MN. The main advantage is the modular design of the press which is open on all sides. Especially the free accessibility from top is ensured. The report also represents relevant radiological data of the alternative product. Co-60 is the dominating activity of the product due to the effects of the heat production. An amount of 10 kg hull waste or 25 kg top and bottom pieces of the spent fuel assemblies per package is already beyond the Co-60 limit of the KONRAD regulations. The nuclear thermal power of a filled container is approximately sixty times lower compared with a vitrified HLW-container. Since the product shows thermal stability beyond 200 0 C, this it is suited for a combined disposal together with vitrified HLW-containers in salt bore holes of a geological disposal. The preliminary cost evaluation is based on a reprocessing throughput of 500 t HM per year and volume reduction factor of 5.3. Accordingly there are produced 300 waste packages with hulls only or 625 units with hulls and top and bottom pieces which require 1.6 or 2.3 millions DM respectively

  6. Pricing High-Dimensional American Options Using Local Consistency Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berridge, S.J.; Schumacher, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate a new method for pricing high-dimensional American options. The method is of finite difference type but is also related to Monte Carlo techniques in that it involves a representative sampling of the underlying variables.An approximating Markov chain is built using this sampling and

  7. Body adiposity is associated with risk of high blood pressure in Portuguese schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Gama, Augusta; Carvalhal, Isabel Mourão; Nogueira, Helena; Rosado-Marques, Vitor; Padez, Cristina

    2018-04-20

    The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) and its association with anthropometric indicators of adiposity in Portuguese schoolchildren. In this cross-sectional study, a nationally representative sample of 6-9-year-old children was analyzed. Weight and height (used to calculate body mass index [BMI]), blood pressure (BP), waist circumference (WC) and skinfold thickness (used to estimate body fat percentage [BFP]) were measured using standard techniques. BP was classified as high-normal BP or hypertension for values between the 90th and 95th percentiles or above the 95th percentile, respectively. A body adiposity index was calculated with principal component analysis using BMI, WC and BFP. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the strength of the association between anthropometric indicators and HBP. The prevalence of high-normal BP and hypertension was 4.5% and 3.7%, respectively. BP was positively correlated with all anthropometric indicators (p<0.01 for all). HBP was significantly more prevalent in females than in males and was positively associated with higher values of the assessed anthropometric indicators of adiposity, especially among females. Increased body fat predicted HBP. The use of anthropometric indicators may thus be useful in screening for HBP among Portuguese schoolchildren. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Body-size structure of Central Iberian mammal fauna reveals semidesertic conditions during the middle Miocene Global Cooling Event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Menéndez

    Full Text Available We developed new quantitative palaeoclimatic inference models based on the body-size structure of mammal faunas from the Old World tropics and applied them to the Somosaguas fossil site (middle Miocene, central Iberian Peninsula. Twenty-six mammal species have been described at this site, including proboscideans, ungulates, carnivores, insectivores, lagomorphs and rodents. Our analyses were based on multivariate and bivariate regression models correlating climatic data and body-size structure of 63 modern mammal assemblages from Sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian subcontinent. The results showed an average temperature of the coldest month higher than 26°C for the Somosaguas fossil site, a mean annual thermal amplitude around 10°C, a drought length of 10 months, and an annual total precipitation greater than 200 mm per year, which are climate conditions typical of an ecotonal zone between the savanna and desert biomes. These results are congruent with the aridity peaks described over the middle Aragonian of Spain and particularly in the local biozone E, which includes Somosaguas. The aridity increase detected in this biozone is associated with the Middle Miocene Global Cooling Event. The environment of Somosaguas around 14 Ma was similar to the current environment in the Sahel region of North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the boundary area between the Kalahari and the Namib in Southern Africa, south-central Arabia, or eastern Pakistan and northwestern India. The distribution of modern vegetation in these regions follows a complex mosaic of plant communities, dominated by scattered xerophilous shrublands, semidesert grasslands, and vegetation linked to seasonal watercourses and ponds.

  9. Body-size structure of Central Iberian mammal fauna reveals semidesertic conditions during the middle Miocene Global Cooling Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Iris; Gómez Cano, Ana R; García Yelo, Blanca A; Domingo, Laura; Domingo, M Soledad; Cantalapiedra, Juan L; Blanco, Fernando; Hernández Fernández, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    We developed new quantitative palaeoclimatic inference models based on the body-size structure of mammal faunas from the Old World tropics and applied them to the Somosaguas fossil site (middle Miocene, central Iberian Peninsula). Twenty-six mammal species have been described at this site, including proboscideans, ungulates, carnivores, insectivores, lagomorphs and rodents. Our analyses were based on multivariate and bivariate regression models correlating climatic data and body-size structure of 63 modern mammal assemblages from Sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian subcontinent. The results showed an average temperature of the coldest month higher than 26°C for the Somosaguas fossil site, a mean annual thermal amplitude around 10°C, a drought length of 10 months, and an annual total precipitation greater than 200 mm per year, which are climate conditions typical of an ecotonal zone between the savanna and desert biomes. These results are congruent with the aridity peaks described over the middle Aragonian of Spain and particularly in the local biozone E, which includes Somosaguas. The aridity increase detected in this biozone is associated with the Middle Miocene Global Cooling Event. The environment of Somosaguas around 14 Ma was similar to the current environment in the Sahel region of North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the boundary area between the Kalahari and the Namib in Southern Africa, south-central Arabia, or eastern Pakistan and northwestern India. The distribution of modern vegetation in these regions follows a complex mosaic of plant communities, dominated by scattered xerophilous shrublands, semidesert grasslands, and vegetation linked to seasonal watercourses and ponds.

  10. Surface morphology of chitin highly related with the isolated body part of butterfly (Argynnis pandora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Murat; Bitim, Betül; Mujtaba, Muhammad; Koyuncu, Turgay

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to understand the differences in the physicochemical properties of chitin samples isolated from the wings and the other body parts except the wings (OBP) of a butterfly species (Argynnis pandora). The same isolation method was used for obtaining chitin specimens from both types of body parts. The chitin content of the wings (22%) was recorded as being much higher than the OBP (8%). The extracted chitin samples were characterized via FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM, and elemental analysis techniques. Results of these characterizations revealed that the chitins from both structures (wings and OBP) were very similar, except for their surface morphologies. SEM results demonstrated one type of surface morphology for the wings and four different surface morphologies for the OBP. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that the surface morphology of the chitin is highly related with the body part. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Body Image of Highly Trained Female Athletes Engaged in Different Types of Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glapa, Agata; Banio, Adrianna; Firek, Wiesław; Ingarden, Anna; Malchrowicz-Mośko, Ewa; Markiewicz, Paweł; Płoszaj, Katarzyna; Ingarden, Mateusz; Maćkowiak, Zuzanna

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in body image across different types of sports in highly trained female athletes. Methods 242 female individuals, aged 13–30 years (M = 20.0, SD = 4.5), representing aesthetic sports (n = 56) and nonaesthetic sports (n = 186), were recruited from different sports clubs in Poland. Body image, BMI, age, the level of competition attained, and the training background of participants were recorded. Results One-way ANOVA showed differences in the body image of athletes engaged in different types of sport (F(11,230) = 4.10, p sport explained 7.1% (β = –0.263, p sporting activities at an early stage. PMID:29662894

  12. Calibration of Single High Purity Germanium Detector for Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, T.M.; Morsi, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    A new Accuscan II single germanium detector for whole body counter was installed in NRC (Egypt). The current paper concerned on calibration of single high purity germanium detector for whole body counter. Physical parameters affecting on performance of whole body counter such as linearity, minimum detectable activity and source detector distance, SDD were investigated. Counting efficiencies for the detector have been investigated in rear wall, fixed diagnostic position in air. Counting efficiencies for organ compartments such as thyroid, lung, upper and lower gastrointestinal tract have been investigated using transfer phantom in fixed diagnostic and screening positions respectively. The organ compartment efficiencies in screening geometry were higher than that value of diagnostic geometry by a factor of three. The committed dose equivalents of I-131 in thyroid were ranged from 0.073 ± 0.004 to 1.73±0.09 mSv and in lung was 0.02±0.001 mSv

  13. Body temperature and cold sensation during and following exercise under temperate room conditions in cold-sensitive young trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Aoki-Murakami, Erii; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P; Nagashima, Kei; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated cold sensation at rest and in response to exercise-induced changes in core and skin temperatures in cold-sensitive exercise trained females. Fifty-eight trained young females were screened by a questionnaire, selecting cold-sensitive (Cold-sensitive, n  = 7) and non-cold-sensitive (Control, n  = 7) individuals. Participants rested in a room at 29.5°C for ~100 min after which ambient temperature was reduced to 23.5°C where they remained resting for 60 min. Participants then performed 30-min of moderate intensity cycling (50% peak oxygen uptake) followed by a 60-min recovery. Core and mean skin temperatures and cold sensation over the whole-body and extremities (fingers and toes) were assessed throughout. Resting core temperature was lower in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group (36.4 ± 0.3 vs. 36.7 ± 0.2°C). Core temperature increased to similar levels at end-exercise (~37.2°C) and gradually returned to near preexercise rest levels at the end of recovery (>36.6°C). Whole-body cold sensation was greater in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group during resting at a room temperature of 23.5°C only without a difference in mean skin temperature between groups. In contrast, cold sensation of the extremities was greater in the Cold-sensitive group prior to, during and following exercise albeit this was not paralleled by differences in mean extremity skin temperature. We show that young trained females who are sensitive to cold exhibit augmented whole-body cold sensation during rest under temperate ambient conditions. However, this response is diminished during and following exercise. In contrast, cold sensation of extremities is augmented during resting that persists during and following exercise. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  14. High-level waste processing and conditioning: vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonniaud, R.

    1981-02-01

    The vitrification process used to treat fission product solutions at the Marcoule Vitrification Plant is described. The type of waste processed is characterized by its very high activity and the long lifetimes of some of the emitters that it contains. The performance obtained with this process is given together with the future developments envisaged. The storage of glasses is described as well as their behavior with time [fr

  15. Cellular Stress Response Gene Expression During Upper and Lower Body High Intensity Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanowicz, Andrzej; Sawczyn, Stanisław; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Mieszkowski, Jan; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Żychowska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effect of upper and lower body high-intensity exercise on chosen genes expression in athletes and non-athletes. Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (EAG) aged 20.6 ± 3.3 years and 14 physically active men (PAM) aged 19.9 ± 1.0 years performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests. Blood samples were collected before, 5 and 30 minutes after each effort to assess gene expression via PCR. Significantly higher mechanical parameters after lower body exercise was observed in both groups, for relative power (8.7 ± 1.2 W/kg in gymnasts, 7.2 ± 1.2 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01) and mean power (6.7 ± 0.7 W/kg in gymnasts, 5.4 ± 0.8 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01). No differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected for all tested genes as well as between gymnasts and physical active man. For IL-6 m-RNA time-dependent effect was observed. Because of no significant differences in expression of genes associated with cellular stress response the similar adaptive effect to exercise may be obtained so by lower and upper body exercise.

  16. Effects of prepartal body condition score and peripartal energy supply of dairy cows on postpartal lipolysis, energy balance and ketogenesis: an animal model to investigate subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kirsten; Frahm, Jana; Meyer, Ulrich; Kersten, Susanne; Reiche, Dania; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Subclinical ketosis is a metabolic disorder which often goes undiagnosed and leads to constricted performance and an impairment of general condition. In the current study subclinical ketosis was characterised by a β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration of >1·2 mmol/l in blood serum. To generate this metabolic situation, an animal model was created. The model, based on group-specific interaction of dietary energy supply and body condition, is appropriate for testing the medical effectiveness of treating this kind of ketosis and its concomitants. During the trial, 18 dairy cows (primiparous and pluriparous) were assigned, according to their body condition score (BCS) 6 weeks before expected parturition, to a normal [6.78 MJ net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg dry matter; 20% concentrate] or to a high-energy feeding group (7·71 MJ NEL/kg dry matter; 60% concentrate). Therefore cows with the highest BCS were allocated to the high-energy group to enhance the contrast with the control group. Statistical analysis was done using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Effects were declared significant when P-values were ⩽0.05. Owing to the higher energy concentration and dry matter intake, the energy intake and balance was significantly higher in the high-energy feeding group, with strong effects on lipid metabolism and health in blood and liver post partum. Within the first 2 weeks after calving, 8 out of 9 cows (89%) of the high-energy group had BHB values indicative of subclinical ketosis. These cows also had significantly higher values of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), aspartate transaminase (AST) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) post partum, as well as a raised total lipid content of the liver. RQUICKI, a calculated parameter which is based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin and NEFA to assess the insulin sensitivity, was not affected by treatment. Therefore, RQUICKI does not seem to be the right parameter for diagnosing decreased insulin sensitivity in cows

  17. High-order conservative discretizations for some cases of the rigid body motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Roman

    2008-01-01

    Modified vector fields can be used to construct high-order structure-preserving numerical integrators for ordinary differential equations. In the present Letter we consider high-order integrators based on the implicit midpoint rule, which conserve quadratic first integrals. It is shown that these integrators are particularly suitable for the rigid body motion with an additional quadratic first integral. In this case high-order integrators preserve all four first integrals of motion. The approach is illustrated on the Lagrange top (a rotationally symmetric rigid body with a fixed point on the symmetry axis). The equations of motion are considered in the space fixed frame because in this frame Lagrange top admits a neat description. The Lagrange top motion includes the spherical pendulum and the planar pendulum, which swings in a vertical plane, as particular cases

  18. Effects of Re-heating Tissue Samples to Core Body Temperature on High-Velocity Ballistic Projectile-tissue Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Caitlin; Henneberg, Maciej; Wachsberger, Christian; Maiden, Nicholas; Kumaratilake, Jaliya

    2017-11-01

    Damage produced by high-speed projectiles on organic tissue will depend on the physical properties of the tissues. Conditioning organic tissue samples to human core body temperature (37°C) prior to conducting ballistic experiments enables their behavior to closely mimic that of living tissues. To minimize autolytic changes after death, the tissues are refrigerated soon after their removal from the body and re-heated to 37°C prior to testing. This research investigates whether heating 50-mm-cube samples of porcine liver, kidney, and heart to 37°C for varying durations (maximum 7 h) can affect the penetration response of a high-speed, steel sphere projectile. Longer conditioning times for heart and liver resulted in a slight loss of velocity/energy of the projectile, but the reverse effect occurred for the kidney. Possible reasons for these trends include autolytic changes causing softening (heart and liver) and dehydration causing an increase in density (kidney). © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Decision making under conditions of high complexity and uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwell, J.

    1999-07-01

    There is a trend to move environmental policy away from a command and control position to a more market based approach. Decision making under this new approach is made more difficult for both the regulators and the regulated due in part to the constant conflict arising from the divergent expectations that participants may have for the outcome of policy deliberations and from the complexity and uncertainty inherent in the systems that are to be regulated. This change in policy reflects the maturing of environment issues from a must do towards maintenance and reasonable progress and a condition of Sustainable Development. The emerging science of Complexity Theory and the established methods of Game Theory can provide theoretical tools that can act as an aid to decision-makers as they negotiate the perplexing landscape of conflicting needs and wants. The role of these methods in the development and implementation of policy on issues associated with Sustainable Development is of considerable importance. This paper presents a review of approaches to decision making under uncertainty, from Game Theory and Complexity Theory. Data from simulations, such as the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma, and Controlled Chaos are discussed as they relate the complexity of the underlying economic and ecological systems to natural resource use and exploitation, pollution control and carrying capacity. The important role for rules and their regular review and implementation is highlighted.

  20. Extraction of Urban Water Bodies from High-Resolution Remote-Sensing Imagery Using Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate information on urban surface water is important for assessing the role it plays in urban ecosystem services in the context of human survival and climate change. The precise extraction of urban water bodies from images is of great significance for urban planning and socioeconomic development. In this paper, a novel deep-learning architecture is proposed for the extraction of urban water bodies from high-resolution remote sensing (HRRS imagery. First, an adaptive simple linear iterative clustering algorithm is applied for segmentation of the remote-sensing image into high-quality superpixels. Then, a new convolutional neural network (CNN architecture is designed that can extract useful high-level features of water bodies from input data in a complex urban background and mark the superpixel as one of two classes: an including water or no-water pixel. Finally, a high-resolution image of water-extracted superpixels is generated. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieved higher accuracy for water extraction from the high-resolution remote-sensing images than traditional approaches, and the average overall accuracy is 99.14%.

  1. High-energy gravitational scattering and the general relativistic two-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, Thibault

    2018-02-01

    A technique for translating the classical scattering function of two gravitationally interacting bodies into a corresponding (effective one-body) Hamiltonian description has been recently introduced [Phys. Rev. D 94, 104015 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.104015]. Using this technique, we derive, for the first time, to second-order in Newton's constant (i.e. one classical loop) the Hamiltonian of two point masses having an arbitrary (possibly relativistic) relative velocity. The resulting (second post-Minkowskian) Hamiltonian is found to have a tame high-energy structure which we relate both to gravitational self-force studies of large mass-ratio binary systems, and to the ultra high-energy quantum scattering results of Amati, Ciafaloni and Veneziano. We derive several consequences of our second post-Minkowskian Hamiltonian: (i) the need to use special phase-space gauges to get a tame high-energy limit; and (ii) predictions about a (rest-mass independent) linear Regge trajectory behavior of high-angular-momenta, high-energy circular orbits. Ways of testing these predictions by dedicated numerical simulations are indicated. We finally indicate a way to connect our classical results to the quantum gravitational scattering amplitude of two particles, and we urge amplitude experts to use their novel techniques to compute the two-loop scattering amplitude of scalar masses, from which one could deduce the third post-Minkowskian effective one-body Hamiltonian.

  2. Osteocalcin protects pancreatic beta cell function and survival under high glucose conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kover, Karen, E-mail: kkover@cmh.edu [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Yan, Yun; Tong, Pei Ying; Watkins, Dara; Li, Xiaoyu [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Tasch, James; Hager, Melissa [Kansas City University Medical Biosciences, Kansas City, MO (United States); Clements, Mark; Moore, Wayne V. [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States)

    2015-06-19

    Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis we cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 h. Oxidative stress and viability/mitochondrial function were measured by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} assay and Alamar Blue assay, respectively. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured as a marker of apoptosis. A functional test, glucose stimulated insulin release, was conducted and expression of genes/protein was measured by qRT-PCR/western blot/ELISA. Osteocalcin treatment significantly reduced high glucose-induced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels while maintaining viability/mitochondrial function. Osteocalcin also significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in rat islets after 48 h of high glucose exposure compared to untreated islets. As expected sustained high glucose down-regulated gene/protein expression of INS1 and BCL2 while increasing TXNIP expression. Interestingly, osteocalcin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose on gene/protein expression. We conclude that osteocalcin can protect beta cells from the negative effects of glucose-induced oxidative stress, in part, by reducing TXNIP expression, thereby preserving beta cell function and survival. - Highlights: • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced oxidative stress in beta cells. • Osteocalcin preserves beta cell function and survival under stress conditions. • Osteocalcin reduces glucose

  3. Osteocalcin protects pancreatic beta cell function and survival under high glucose conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kover, Karen; Yan, Yun; Tong, Pei Ying; Watkins, Dara; Li, Xiaoyu; Tasch, James; Hager, Melissa; Clements, Mark; Moore, Wayne V.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis we cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 h. Oxidative stress and viability/mitochondrial function were measured by H 2 O 2 assay and Alamar Blue assay, respectively. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured as a marker of apoptosis. A functional test, glucose stimulated insulin release, was conducted and expression of genes/protein was measured by qRT-PCR/western blot/ELISA. Osteocalcin treatment significantly reduced high glucose-induced H 2 O 2 levels while maintaining viability/mitochondrial function. Osteocalcin also significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in rat islets after 48 h of high glucose exposure compared to untreated islets. As expected sustained high glucose down-regulated gene/protein expression of INS1 and BCL2 while increasing TXNIP expression. Interestingly, osteocalcin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose on gene/protein expression. We conclude that osteocalcin can protect beta cells from the negative effects of glucose-induced oxidative stress, in part, by reducing TXNIP expression, thereby preserving beta cell function and survival. - Highlights: • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced oxidative stress in beta cells. • Osteocalcin preserves beta cell function and survival under stress conditions. • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced TXNIP

  4. Relationship between body condition score at calving and reproductive performance in young postpartum cows grazing native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Cox, S H; Kemp, M E; Endecott, R L; Waterman, R C; Vanleeuwen, D M; Petersen, M K

    2012-08-01

    Body condition score is used as a management tool to predict competency of reproduction in beef cows. Therefore, a retrospective study was performed to evaluate association of BCS at calving with subsequent pregnancy rate, days to first postpartum ovulation, nutrient status (assessed by blood metabolites), and calf BW change in 2- and 3-yr-old cows (n = 351) managed and selected to fit their environment of grazing native range over 6 yr at the Corona Range and Livestock Research Center, Corona, NM. Cows were managed similarly before calving, without manipulation of management, to achieve predetermined BCS at parturition. Palpable BCS (scale of 1 to 9) were determined by 2 experienced technicians before calving. Cows were classified to 1 of 3 BCS groups prior calving: BCS 4 (mean BCS = 4.3 ± 0.02), 5 (mean BCS = 5.0 ± 0.03), or 6 (mean BCS = 5.8 ± 0.06). Cows were weighed weekly after calving and serum was collected once weekly (1 yr) or twice weekly (5 yr) for progesterone analysis to estimate first postpartum ovulation beginning 35 d postpartum. Year effects also were evaluated, with years identified as either above or below average precipitation. Days to first postpartum ovulation did not differ among calving BCS groups (P = 0.93). Pregnancy rates were not influenced by calving BCS (P = 0.83; 92%, 91%, 90% for BCS 4, 5, and 6, respectively). Days to BW nadir was not influenced by BCS at calving (P = 0.95). Cow BW was different at all measuring points (P score did not influence overall pregnancy rates, indicating that young cows can have a reduced BCS and still be reproductively punctual. Therefore, these results indicate that reproductive performance of young cows with reduced BCS may not be affected when managed in extensive range conditions.

  5. Increasing nest predation will be insufficient to maintain polar bear body condition in the face of sea ice loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Cody J; Richardson, Evan; McGeachy, David; Iverson, Samuel A; Gilchrist, Hugh G; Semeniuk, Christina A D

    2017-05-01

    Climate change can influence interspecific interactions by differentially affecting species-specific phenology. In seasonal ice environments, there is evidence that polar bear predation of Arctic bird eggs is increasing because of earlier sea ice breakup, which forces polar bears into nearshore terrestrial environments where Arctic birds are nesting. Because polar bears can consume a large number of nests before becoming satiated, and because they can swim between island colonies, they could have dramatic influences on seabird and sea duck reproductive success. However, it is unclear whether nest foraging can provide an energetic benefit to polar bear populations, especially given the capacity of bird populations to redistribute in response to increasing predation pressure. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model of the predator-prey relationship between polar bears and common eiders, a common and culturally important bird species for northern peoples. Our model is composed of two types of agents (polar bear agents and common eider hen agents) whose movements and decision heuristics are based on species-specific bioenergetic and behavioral ecological principles, and are influenced by historical and extrapolated sea ice conditions. Our model reproduces empirical findings that polar bear predation of bird nests is increasing and predicts an accelerating relationship between advancing ice breakup dates and the number of nests depredated. Despite increases in nest predation, our model predicts that polar bear body condition during the ice-free period will continue to decline. Finally, our model predicts that common eider nests will become more dispersed and will move closer to the mainland in response to increasing predation, possibly increasing their exposure to land-based predators and influencing the livelihood of local people that collect eider eggs and down. These results show that predator-prey interactions can have nonlinear responses to

  6. Effects of Different Conditioning Activities on 100-m Dash Performance in High School Track and Field Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Júnior, João B; Guttierres, Ana P M; Encarnação, Irismar G A; Lima, Jorge R P; Borba, Diego A; Freitas, Eduardo D S; Bemben, Michael G; Vieira, Carlos A; Bottaro, Martim

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the effects of different conditioning activities on the 100-m dash performance of 11 male, high school track and field athletes (mean age = 16.3; SD = 1.2 years). Participants performed a 100-m dash seven minutes after each of four randomized conditioning protocols, with each condition and 100-m dash separated by 3-10 days. The conditioning protocols were (a) control, no conditioning activity; (b) weighted plyometric, three sets of 10 repetitions of alternate leg bounding with additional load of 10% of the body mass; (c) free sprint, two 20-m sprints; and (d) resisted sprint (RS), two 20-m resisted sprints using an elastic tubing tool. We obtained session ratings of perceived exertion (SRPE) immediately after each conditioning protocol. There were no significant differences between any of the three experimental conditioning activities on 100-m sprint time, but the RS protocol improved 100-m sprint time compared with the control (no conditioning) protocol ( p < .001). The RS also led to greater sprint velocity and higher SRPE compared with the control condition ( p < .01). There was no significant association between SRPE and 100-m performance ( p = .77, r = .05). These results suggest a benefit for young male track and field athletes to the elastic tubing warm-up activities prior to the 100-m dash.

  7. Body condition score of Nellore beef cows: a heritable measure to improve the selection of reproductive and maternal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A F A; Neves, H H R; Carvalheiro, R; Oliveira, J A; Queiroz, S A

    2015-08-01

    Despite the economic importance of beef cattle production in Brazil, female reproductive performance, which is strongly associated with production efficiency, is not included in the selection index of most breeding programmes due to low heritability and difficulty in measure. The body condition score (BCS) could be used as an indicator of these traits. However, so far little is known about the feasibility of using BCS as a selection tool for reproductive performance in beef cattle. In this study, we investigated the sources of variation in the BCS of Nellore beef cows, quantified its association with reproductive and maternal traits and estimated its heritability. BCS was analysed using a logistic model that included the following effects: contemporary group at weaning, cow weight and hip height, calving order, reconception together with the weight and scores of conformation and early finishing assigned to calves at weaning. In the genetic analysis, variance components of BCS were estimated through Bayesian inference by fitting an animal model that also included the aforementioned effects. The results showed that BCS was significantly associated with all of the reproductive and maternal variables analysed. The estimated posterior mean of heritability of BCS was 0.24 (highest posterior density interval at 95%: 0.093 to 0.385), indicating an involvement of additive gene action in its determination. The present findings show that BCS can be used as a selection criterion for Nellore females.

  8. Parasitic infection by larval helminths in Antarctic fishes: pathological changes and impact on the host body condition index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Work, Thierry; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Nardi, Valentina; Cipriani, Paolo; Bellisario, Bruno; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2013-07-22

    We examined pathological changes and relationship between body condition index (BCI) and parasitic infection in 5 species of fish, including 42 icefish Chionodraco hamatus (Channichtyidae), 2 dragonfish Cygnodraco mawsoni (Bathydraconidae), 30 emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii, 46 striped rock cod T. hansoni and 9 dusty rock cod T. newnesi (Nototheniidae) from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. All parasites were identified by a combination of morphology and mtDNA cytochrome-oxidase-2 sequence (mtDNA cox2) analysis, except Contracaecum osculatum s.l., for which only the latter was used. Five larval taxa were associated with pathological changes including 2 sibling species (D and E) of the C. osculatum species complex and 3 cestodes including plerocercoids of a diphyllobothridean, and 2 tetraphyllidean forms including cercoids with monolocular and bilocular bothridia. The most heavily infected hosts were C. hamatus and C. mawsoni, with C. hamatus most often infected by C. osculatum sp. D and sp. E and diphyllobothrideans, while C. mawsoni was most often infected with tetraphyllidean forms. Histologically, all fish showed varying severity of chronic inflammation associated with larval forms of helminths. Diphyllobothrideans and C. osculatum spp. were located in gastric muscularis or liver and were associated with necrosis and mild to marked fibrosis. Moderate multifocal rectal mucosal chronic inflammation was associated with attached tetraphyllidean scolices. C. hamatus showed a strong negative correlation between BCI and parasite burden.

  9. Inaccurate Assessment of Canine Body Condition Score, Bodyweight, and Pet Food Labels: A Potential Cause of Inaccurate Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa S. Yam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to investigate owners’ ability to assign the correct bodyweight (BW and body condition score (BCS to their dog and to interpret wet and dry pet food labels by estimating how much to feed daily. One hundred and seventy-four questionnaires were completed. Owner estimated BW was compared to actual BW, correct being defined within ±10% of actual BW. Correct interpretation of the total amount of food required was determined by the number of cans (±25% of cans required for wet food and grams (±20% of grams for dry food, based on the dog’s actual BW, the feeding guidelines on the label, and a comparison with the owner’s estimate. Eleven percent of owners overestimated BCS and 19% overestimated BW. Only 48% of owners could correctly estimate their dog’s BW. Only 23% and 43% of owners could correctly estimate how much wet and dry food to feed, respectively. Chi-square analysis demonstrated a significant positive association for owners correctly estimating their dog’s BW and interpreting the wet pet food label. Many owners are not aware of their pet’s BCS and BW and cannot accurately interpret pet food labels. Further owner education to improve these skills is needed if dogs are to be fed correctly.

  10. Effect of Lower and Upper Body High Intensity Training on Genes Associated with Cellular Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żychowska, Małgorzata; Kochanowicz, Andrzej; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Mieszkowski, Jan; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Sawczyn, Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of upper and lower body high intensity exercise (HIE) on select gene expression in athletes. Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (age 20.9 ± 2.6 years; weight 68.6 ± 7.2 kg; fat free mass 63.6 ± 6.7 kg; height 1.70 ± 0.04 m) performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests (WAnTs) before and after eight weeks of specific HIIT. Two milliliters of blood was collected before and after (5, 30 min, resp.) lower and upper body WAnTs, and select gene expression was determined by PCR. Eight weeks of HIIT caused a significant increase in maximal power (722 to 751 Wat), relative peak power in the lower body WAnTs (10.1 to 11 W/kg), mean power (444 to 464 W), and relative mean power (6.5 to 6.8 W/kg). No significant differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected after HIIT, and a significant decrease in the IL6/IL10 ratio was observed after lower (-2 ∧ 0.57 p = 0.0019) and upper (-2 ∧ 0.5 p = 0.03) WAnTs following eight weeks of HIIT. It is hypothesized that a similar adaptive response to exercise may be obtained by lower and upper body exercise.

  11. Effect of Lower and Upper Body High Intensity Training on Genes Associated with Cellular Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Żychowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effect of upper and lower body high intensity exercise (HIE on select gene expression in athletes. Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (age 20.9±2.6 years; weight 68.6±7.2 kg; fat free mass 63.6±6.7 kg; height 1.70±0.04 m performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests (WAnTs before and after eight weeks of specific HIIT. Two milliliters of blood was collected before and after (5, 30 min, resp. lower and upper body WAnTs, and select gene expression was determined by PCR. Eight weeks of HIIT caused a significant increase in maximal power (722 to 751 Wat, relative peak power in the lower body WAnTs (10.1 to 11 W/kg, mean power (444 to 464 W, and relative mean power (6.5 to 6.8 W/kg. No significant differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected after HIIT, and a significant decrease in the IL6/IL10 ratio was observed after lower (−2∧0.57 p=0.0019 and upper (−2∧0.5 p=0.03 WAnTs following eight weeks of HIIT. It is hypothesized that a similar adaptive response to exercise may be obtained by lower and upper body exercise.

  12. Genotype by environment interaction for adult body weights of shrimp Penaeus vannamei when grown at low and high densitie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Famula Thomas R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Shrimp is one of few marine species cultured worldwide for which several selective breeding programs are being conducted. One environmental factor that can affect the response to selection in breeding programs is the density at which the shrimp are cultured (low-medium-high. Phenotypic plasticity in the growth response to different densities might be accompanied by a significant genotype by environment interaction, evidenced by a change in heritabilities between environments and by a genetic correlation less than one for a unique trait between environments. Our goal was to understand whether different growth densities affect estimates of those genetic parameters for adult body weight (BW in the Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei. BW heritabilities were significantly different between environments, with the largest at high density. These differences resulted from both an increased additive genetic variance and a decreased environmental variance when grown at high density. The genetic correlation between BWs at the two environmental conditions was significantly less than one. Whereas these results might be suggestive for carrying out shrimp selective breeding for BW under high density conditions, further understanding of genetic correlations between growth and reproductive traits within a given environment is necessary, as there are indications of reduced reproductive fitness for shrimp grown at high densities.

  13. High-mass Star Formation and Its Initial Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C. P.

    2017-11-01

    In this thesis, we present four works on the infrared dark clouds, fragmentation and deuteration of compact and cold cores, hyper-compact (HC) HII regions, and infrared dust bubbles, respectively. They are not only the products of early high-mass star formation, but reflect different evolutionary sequences of high-mass star formation. (1) Using the IRAM (Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique) 30 m telescope, we obtained HCO^+, HNC, N_2^+, and C^{18}O emission in six IRDCs (infrared dark clouds), and study their dynamics, stability, temperature, and density. (2) Fragmentation at the earliest phases is an important process of massive star formation. Eight massive precluster clumps (G18.17, G18.21, G23.97N, G23.98, G23.44, G23.97S, G25.38, and G25.71) were selected from the SCUBA (submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array) 850 μm and 450 μm data. The VLA (Very Large Array) at 1.3 cm, PbBI at 3.5 mm and 1.3 mm, APEX (Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope) at 870 μm observations were followed up, and archival infrared data at 4.5 μm, 8.0 μm, 24 μm, and 70 μm were combined to study the fragmentation and evolution of these clumps. We explored the habitats of the massive clumps at large scale, cores/condensations at small scale, and the fragmentation process at different wavelengths. Star formation in these eight clumps may have been triggered by the UC (ultra-compact) HII regions nearby. (3) The formation of hyper-compact (HC) HII regions is an important stage in massive star formation. We present high angular resolution observations carried out with the SMA (Submillimeter Array) and the VLA (Very Large Array) toward the HC HII region G35.58-0.03. With the 1.3 mm SMA and 1.3 cm VLA, we detected a total of about 25 transitions of 8 different species and their isotopologues (CO, CH_3CN, SO_2, CH_3CCH, OCS, CS, H30α/38β, and NH_{3}). G35.58-0.03 consists of an HC HII core with electron temperature Te* ≥ 5500 K, emission measure EM ≈ 1.9×10^{9} pc

  14. Local SAR in High Pass Birdcage and TEM Body Coils for Multiple Human Body Models in Clinical Landmark Positions at 3T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Desmond TB; Wang, Zhangwei; Loew, Wolfgang; Vogel, Mika W; Hancu, Ileana

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To use EM simulations to study the effects of body type, landmark position, and RF body coil type on peak local SAR in 3T MRI. Materials and Methods Numerically computed peak local SAR for four human body models (HBMs) in three landmark positions (head, heart, pelvic) were compared for a high-pass birdcage and a transverse electromagnetic 3T body coil. Local SAR values were normalized to the IEC whole-body average SAR limit of 2.0 W/kg for normal scan mode. Results Local SAR distributions were highly variable. Consistent with previous reports, the peak local SAR values generally occurred in the neck-shoulder area, near rungs, or between tissues of greatly differing electrical properties. The HBM type significantly influenced the peak local SAR, with stockier HBMs, extending extremities towards rungs, displaying the highest SAR. There was also a trend for higher peak SAR in the head-centric and heart-centric positions. The impact of the coil-types studied was not statistically significant. Conclusion The large variability in peak local SAR indicates the need to include more than one HBM or landmark position when evaluating safety of body coils. It is recommended that a HBM with arms near the rungs be included, to create physically realizable high-SAR scenarios. PMID:21509880

  15. Body condition and stage of seasonal anestrus interact to determine the ovulatory response after male biostimulation in anovulatory Criollo × Nubian goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Avila, Hector R; Urrutia-Morales, Jorge; Espinosa-Martinez, Mario A; Gamez-Vazquez, Hector G; Jimenez-Severiano, Hector; Villagomez-Amezcua, Eugenio

    2017-06-01

    The effect of goat nutritional condition on the response to biostimulation with sexually active males during different stages of anestrus was determined. Fifty-eight Criollo × Nubian females on high and low body mass index (BMI) diets were used. Each BMI group was divided into two for biostimulation with sexually active males during May (mid-anestrus) or July (transition period). Ovulatory responses to biostimulation were characterized from serum progesterone, as well as the delay for response (first and second ovulations followed by a normal length luteal phase, O-WNLP). The percentage of goats showing one O-WNLP was greater in the high BMI group than in the low BMI group and greater during the transition period than in the mid-anestrus. However, the interaction between factors revealed that the difference between BMI groups was only significant in the transition period and the difference between stages was only significant in goats with high BMI. Occurrence of a second O-WNLP tended to be greater in the high BMI group than in the low BMI group. Response delay was shorter in the transition period than in mid-anestrus. In conclusion, female nutritional status interacting with the stage of anestrus determined the ovulatory response to male biostimulation in crossbred Criollo goats. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Defining the essential anatomical coverage provided by military body armour against high energy projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Lewis, E A; Fryer, R; Hepper, A E; Mahoney, Peter F; Clasper, Jon C

    2016-08-01

    Body armour is a type of equipment worn by military personnel that aims to prevent or reduce the damage caused by ballistic projectiles to structures within the thorax and abdomen. Such injuries remain the leading cause of potentially survivable deaths on the modern battlefield. Recent developments in computer modelling in conjunction with a programme to procure the next generation of UK military body armour has provided the impetus to re-evaluate the optimal anatomical coverage provided by military body armour against high energy projectiles. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify those anatomical structures within the thorax and abdomen that if damaged were highly likely to result in death or significant long-term morbidity. These structures were superimposed upon two designs of ceramic plate used within representative body armour systems using a computerised representation of human anatomy. Those structures requiring essential medical coverage by a plate were demonstrated to be the heart, great vessels, liver and spleen. For the 50th centile male anthropometric model used in this study, the front and rear plates from the Enhanced Combat Body Armour system only provide limited coverage, but do fulfil their original requirement. The plates from the current Mark 4a OSPREY system cover all of the structures identified in this study as requiring coverage except for the abdominal sections of the aorta and inferior vena cava. Further work on sizing of plates is recommended due to its potential to optimise essential medical coverage. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. 77 FR 32006 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; High Incidence Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Special Conditions No. 25-423-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; High Incidence... pertaining to a high incidence protection system that replaces the stall warning system during normal... the condition existing in the test or performance standard in which V SR is being used. (3) The weight...

  18. Metamaterial-based transmit and receive system for whole-body magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-high magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Tim; Liebig, Thorsten; Mallow, Johannes; Bruns, Christian; Stadler, Jörg; Mylius, Judith; Brosch, Michael; Svedja, Jan Taro; Chen, Zhichao; Rennings, Andreas; Scheich, Henning; Plaumann, Markus; Hauser, Marcus J B; Bernarding, Johannes; Erni, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at ultra-high fields (UHF), such as 7 T, provides an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and has led to unprecedented high-resolution anatomic images and brain activation maps. Although a variety of radio frequency (RF) coil architectures have been developed for imaging at UHF conditions, they usually are specialized for small volumes of interests (VoI). So far, whole-body coil resonators are not available for commercial UHF human whole-body MRI systems. The goal of the present study was the development and validation of a transmit and receive system for large VoIs that operates at a 7 T human whole-body MRI system. A Metamaterial Ring Antenna System (MRAS) consisting of several ring antennas was developed, since it allows for the imaging of extended VoIs. Furthermore, the MRAS not only requires lower intensities of the irradiated RF energy, but also provides a more confined and focused injection of excitation energy on selected body parts. The MRAS consisted of several antennas with 50 cm inner diameter, 10 cm width and 0.5 cm depth. The position of the rings was freely adjustable. Conformal resonant right-/left-handed metamaterial was used for each ring antenna with two quadrature feeding ports for RF power. The system was successfully implemented and demonstrated with both a silicone oil and a water-NaCl-isopropanol phantom as well as in vivo by acquiring whole-body images of a crab-eating macaque. The potential for future neuroimaging applications was demonstrated by the acquired high-resolution anatomic images of the macaque's head. Phantom and in vivo measurements of crab-eating macaques provided high-resolution images with large VoIs up to 40 cm in xy-direction and 45 cm in z-direction. The results of this work demonstrate the feasibility of the MRAS system for UHF MRI as proof of principle. The MRAS shows a substantial potential for MR imaging of larger volumes at 7 T UHF. This new technique may provide new diagnostic potential

  19. Plyometric Training Improves Sprinting, Jumping and Throwing Capacities of High Level Female Volleyball Players Better Than Skill-Based Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjinovci, Bahri; Idrizovic, Kemal; Uljevic, Ognjen; Sekulic, Damir

    2017-12-01

    There is an evident lack of studies on the effectiveness of plyometric- and skill-based-conditioning in volleyball. This study aimed to evaluate effects of 12-week plyometric- and volleyball-skill-based training on specific conditioning abilities in female volleyball players. The sample included 41 high-level female volleyball players (21.8 ± 2.1 years of age; 1.76 ± 0.06 cm; 60.8 ± 7.0 kg), who participated in plyometric- (n = 21), or skill-based-conditioning-program (n = 20). Both programs were performed twice per week. Participants were tested on body-height, body-mass (BM), countermovement jump (CMJ), standing broad jump (SBJ), medicine ball throw, (MBT) and 20-m sprint (S20M). All tests were assessed at the study baseline (pre-) and at the end of the 12-week programs (post-testing). Two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements showed significant (pPlyometric group significantly reduced body-mass (trivial effect size [ES] differences; 1% average pre- to post-measurement changes), and improved their performance in S20M (moderate ES; 8%), MBT (very large ES; 25%), CMJ (large ES; 27%), and SBJ (moderate ES; 8%). Players involved in skill-based-conditioning significantly improved CMJ (large ES; 18%), SBJ (small ES; 3%), and MBT (large ES; 9%). The changes which occurred between pre- and post-testing were more inter-correlated in plyometric-group. Although both training-modalities induced positive changes in jumping- and throwing-capacities, plyometric-training is found to be more effective than skill-based conditioning in improvement of conditioning capacities of female senior volleyball players. Future studies should evaluate differential program effects in less experienced and younger players.

  20. High Cable Forces Deteriorate Pinch Force Control in Voluntary-Closing Body-Powered Prostheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Hichert

    Full Text Available It is generally asserted that reliable and intuitive control of upper-limb prostheses requires adequate feedback of prosthetic finger positions and pinch forces applied to objects. Body-powered prostheses (BPPs provide the user with direct proprioceptive feedback. Currently available BPPs often require high cable operation forces, which complicates control of the forces at the terminal device. The aim of this study is to quantify the influence of high cable forces on object manipulation with voluntary-closing prostheses.Able-bodied male subjects were fitted with a bypass-prosthesis with low and high cable force settings for the prehensor. Subjects were requested to grasp and transfer a collapsible object as fast as they could without dropping or breaking it. The object had a low and a high breaking force setting.Subjects conducted significantly more successful manipulations with the low cable force setting, both for the low (33% more and high (50% object's breaking force. The time to complete the task was not different between settings during successful manipulation trials.High cable forces lead to reduced pinch force control during object manipulation. This implies that low cable operation forces should be a key design requirement for voluntary-closing BPPs.

  1. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, R. L., II; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; McCubbin, F. M.; Danielson, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high S and low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wüstite (IW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at 1 GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multi-anvil press, at temperatures up to 1850°C. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-SiO2 buffer, which is 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi2O6) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of the fate of

  2. Refolding in high hydrostatic pressure of recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies in Escherichia Coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balduino, Keli Nunes

    2009-01-01

    The expression of proteins as inclusion bodies in bacteria is a widely used alternative for production of recombinant protein. However, the aggregation is a problem often encountered during refolding of these proteins. High hydrostatic pressure are able to solubilise the inclusion bodies in the presence of low concentrations of denaturant reagents, encouraging refolding protein with high efficiency and reduce costs. This work aims to refolding of recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli from inclusion bodies using high hydrostatic pressure. Three toxins, all featuring five or more disulfide bonds were studied: NXH8, Natterin 2 and Bothropstoxin 1. Suspensions of inclusion bodies of the three proteins were pressurized to 2000 bars for 16 hours. The buffers were optimized for refolding of the three proteins. The buffer used in the refolding of NXH8 was 50 mM Tris HCl, pH 9.0 with proportion of 1GSH: 4GSSG at a concentration of 6 mM and 2 M GdnHCl. Inclusion bodies were used in O.D. (A600nm) of 0.5. After refolding process, dialysis was performed at pH 7.0. The final yield of obtaining soluble NXH8 was 40% (28,6 mg of soluble NXH8/L of culture medium). The refolding of Bothropstoxin 1 was obtained in refolding buffer of Tris HCl 50 mM, pH 7,5 with proportion of 2 GSH: GSSG 3 and concentration of 3 mM and 1 M GdnHCl. Use with a suspension of O.D. (A600nm) of 0.5. The final yield of recovery of Bothropstoxin 1 refolded was 32% (9,2 mg of refolded Bothropstoxin 1/L of culture medium). The refolding of Natterin 2 was performed in the refolding buffer: 20 mM Tris HCl pH 9.0 at a ratio of 2 GSH: 3GSSG and concentration of 10 mM and 1 M GdnHCl and inclusion bodies O.D. (A600nm) of 6.0. The yield of Natterin 2 refolded was 20% (3,7 mg/L of culture medium). Physico-chemical and biological analysis were performed by SDS-PAGE, western blot, scanning electron microscopy, biological tests in vivo and in vitro and structural. The analysis conducted in NXH8 did not show

  3. Highly Enhanced Many-Body Interactions in Anisotropic 2D Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ankur; Yan, Han; Zhang, Linglong; Sun, Xueqian; Liu, Boqing; Lu, Yuerui

    2018-05-15

    dynamics of excitons, trions, and biexcitons in reduced dimensions and fundamental many body interactions. We begin by explaining the fundamental reasons for the highly enhanced interactions in the 2D systems influenced by dielectric screening, resulting in high binding energies of excitons and trions, which are supported by theoretical calculations and experimental observations. Phosphorene has shown much higher binding energies of excitons and trions than TMD monolayers, which allows robust quasi-particles in anisotropic materials at room temperature. We also discuss the role of extrinsic defects induced in phosphorene, resulting in localized excitonic emissions in the near-infrared range, making it suitable for optical telecommunication applications. Finally, we present our vision of the exciting device applications based on the highly enhanced many body interactions in phosphorene, including exciton-polariton devices, polariton lasers, single-photon emitters, and tunable light emitting diodes (LEDs).

  4. Postpartum body condition score and results from the first test day milk as predictors of disease, fertility, yield, and culling in commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, C; Schukken, Y H; Dobbelaar, P

    1999-02-01

    The study used field data from a regular herd health service to investigate the relationships between body condition scores or first test day milk data and disease incidence, milk yield, fertility, and culling. Path model analysis with adjustment for time at risk was applied to delineate the time sequence of events. Milk fever occurred more often in fat cows, and endometritis occurred between calving and 20 d of lactation more often in thin cows. Fat cows were less likely to conceive at first service than were cows in normal condition. Fat body condition postpartum, higher first test day milk yield, and a fat to protein ratio of > 1.5 increased body condition loss. Fat or thin condition or condition loss was not related to other lactation diseases, fertility parameters, milk yield, or culling. First test day milk yield was 1.3 kg higher after milk fever and was 7.1 kg lower after displaced abomasum. Higher first test day milk yield directly increased the risk of ovarian cyst and lameness, increased 100-d milk yield, and reduced the risk of culling and indirectly decreased reproductive performance. Cows with a fat to protein ratio of > 1.5 had higher risks for ketosis, displaced abomasum, ovarian cyst, lameness, and mastitis. Those cows produced more milk but showed poor reproductive performance. Given this type of herd health data, we concluded that the first test day milk yield and the fat to protein ratio were more reliable indicators of disease, fertility, and milk yield than was body condition score or loss of body condition score.

  5. Initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations of the scalar sector of theories of Newtonian, Relativistic and Modified Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkenburg, Wessel; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We present a description for setting initial particle displacements and field values for simulations of arbitrary metric theories of gravity, for perfect and imperfect fluids with arbitrary characteristics. We extend the Zel'dovich Approximation to nontrivial theories of gravity, and show how scale dependence implies curved particle paths, even in the entirely linear regime of perturbations. For a viable choice of Effective Field Theory of Modified Gravity, initial conditions set at high redshifts are affected at the level of up to 5% at Mpc scales, which exemplifies the importance of going beyond Λ-Cold Dark Matter initial conditions for modifications of gravity outside of the quasi-static approximation. In addition, we show initial conditions for a simulation where a scalar modification of gravity is modelled in a Lagrangian particle-like description. Our description paves the way for simulations and mock galaxy catalogs under theories of gravity beyond the standard model, crucial for progress towards precision tests of gravity and cosmology

  6. Investigation on asymmetric flow over a blunt-nose slender body at high angle of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhongyang, Qi; Yankui, Wang; Lei, Wang; Qian, Li

    2017-12-01

    The asymmetric vortices over a blunt-nose slender body are investigated experimentally and numerically at a high angle of attack (AoA, α = 50°) and a Reynolds number of Re D = 1.54 × 105 on the basis of an incoming free-stream velocity and diameter (D) of the model. A micro-perturbation in the form of a hemispherical protrusion with a radius of r = 0.012D is introduced and attached on the nose of the slender body to control the behavior of the asymmetric vortices. Given the predominant role of micro perturbation in the asymmetric vortex pattern, a square wave, which is singly periodic, is observed for side-force variation by setting the circumferential angle (θ) of the micro perturbation from 0° to 360°. The asymmetric vortex pattern and the corresponding side force are manageable and highly dependent on the location of perturbation. The flow structure over the blunt-nose slender body is clarified by building a physical model of asymmetric vortex flow structure in a regular state at a high AoA (α = 50°). This model is divided into several regions by flow structure development along the model body-axis, i.e., inception region at x/D ≤ 3.0, triple-vortex region at 3.0 ≤ x/D ≤ 6.0, four-vortex region at 6.0 ≤ x/D ≤ 8.5, and five-vortex region at 8.5 ≤ x/D ≤ 12. The model reveals a complicated multi-vortex system. The associated pressure distributions and flow characteristics are discussed in detail.

  7. Enrichment increases hippocampal neurogenesis independent of blood monocyte-derived microglia presence following high-dose total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenberg, Marc J; Wells, Julia; Bartlett, Perry F; Harvey, Alan R; Vukovic, Jana

    2017-06-01

    Birth of new neurons in the hippocampus persists in the brain of adult mammals and critically underpins optimal learning and memory. The process of adult neurogenesis is significantly reduced following brain irradiation and this correlates with impaired cognitive function. In this study, we aimed to compare the long-term effects of two environmental paradigms (i.e. enriched environment and exercise) on adult neurogenesis following high-dose (10Gy) total body irradiation. When housed in standard (sedentary) conditions, irradiated mice revealed a long-lasting (up to 4 months) deficit in neurogenesis in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, the region that harbors the neurogenic niche. This depressive effect of total body irradiation on adult neurogenesis was partially alleviated by exposure to enriched environment but not voluntary exercise, where mice were single-housed with unlimited access to a running wheel. Exposure to voluntary exercise, but not enriched environment, did lead to significant increases in microglia density in the granule cell layer of the hippocampus; our study shows that these changes result from local microglia proliferation rather than recruitment and infiltration of circulating Cx 3 cr1 +/gfp blood monocytes that subsequently differentiate into microglia-like cells. In summary, latent neural precursor cells remain present in the neurogenic niche of the adult hippocampus up to 8 weeks following high-dose total body irradiation. Environmental enrichment can partially restore the adult neurogenic process in this part of the brain following high-dose irradiation, and this was found to be independent of blood monocyte-derived microglia presence. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between serum adiponectin concentration, body condition score, and peripheral tissue insulin response of dairy cows during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, J; Urh, C; Hostens, M; Van den Broeck, W; Sauerwein, H; Opsomer, G

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and peripheral tissue insulin response in dairy cows with a variable body condition score (BCS) during the dry period. Cows were selected at the beginning of the dry period based on BCS (BCS 3.75, n = 5). Animals were followed from the beginning of the dry period by weekly blood sampling and assessment of BCS and backfat thickness. Weekly blood samples were analyzed for adiponectin concentration using a bovine specific ELISA. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp tests were performed at the end of the dry period to measure peripheral tissue insulin response. Insulin dose response curves were established for both glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Regression analysis revealed that the serum concentrations of adiponectin dropped at the end of the dry period (P insulin responsiveness (reflecting the maximal effect of insulin; r = 0.76, P insulin sensitivity (reflecting the insulin concentration needed to achieve halfmaximal effect; r = -0.54, P = 0.13). At the level of the fatty acid metabolism, greater adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with lower NEFA levels during the HEC test reflecting the insulin responsiveness of the NEFA metabolism (r = -0.61, P = 0.08), whereas there was no association with the insulin sensitivity of the NEFA metabolism (r = -0.16, P = 0.67). In conclusion, serum concentrations of adiponectin were negatively associated with the BCS of dairy cows during the dry period and positively associated with insulin responsiveness of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Age and body weight effects on glucose and insulin tolerance in colony cats maintained since weaning on high dietary carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, R C; Cave, N J; Ganjam, V K; Turner, J B M; Biourge, V C

    2010-12-01

    High dietary carbohydrate is suggested to promote development of diabetes mellitus in cats. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion were assessed in young [0.8-2.3 (median = 1.1) years, n = 13] and mature [4.0-7.0 (median 5.8) years, n = 12] sexually intact females of a large (n ≅ 700) feline colony in which only dry-type diets (35% metabolizable energy as carbohydrate) were fed from weaning. Insulin sensitivity was assessed from the 'late-phase' (60-120 min) plasma insulin response of intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) and from fractional change in glycaemia from baseline 15 min after an insulin bolus (0.1 U/kg, i.v.). Insulin secretion was assessed from the 'early-phase' (0-15 min) plasma insulin response of IVGTTs. Compared to the young cats, the mature cats had greater body weights [2.3-3.8 (median = 2.9) vs. 3.0-6.3 (median = 4.0) kg, p < 0.01], greater late-phase insulin responses (p < 0.05), lower insulin-induced glycaemic changes (p = 0.06), lower early-phase insulin responses (p < 0.05), and non-significantly different rates of glucose disposal. The late-phase insulin response was correlated with body weight and age (p < 0.05). When group assignments were balanced for body weight, the age-group differences and correlations became non-significant. The findings indicate that body weight gain is more likely than dry-type diets to induce the pre-diabetic conditions of insulin resistance and secretion dysfunction. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Evaluation of biofidelity of THUMS pedestrian model under a whole-body impact conditions with a generic sedan buck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Taotao; Kim, Taewung; Bollapragada, Varun; Poulard, David; Chen, Huipeng; Panzer, Matthew B; Forman, Jason L; Crandall, Jeff R; Pipkorn, Bengt

    2017-05-29

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the biofidelity of the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS; Ver. 4.01) pedestrian finite element models (PFEM) in a whole-body pedestrian impact condition using a well-characterized generic pedestrian buck model. The biofidelity of THUMS PFEM was evaluated with respect to data from 3 full-scale postmortem human subject (PMHS) pedestrian impact tests, in which a pedestrian buck laterally struck the subjects using a pedestrian buck at 40 km/h. The pedestrian model was scaled to match the anthropometry of the target subjects and then positioned to match the pre-impact postures of the target subjects based on the 3-dimensional motion tracking data obtained during the experiments. An objective rating method was employed to quantitatively evaluate the correlation between the responses of the models and the PMHS. Injuries in the models were predicted both probabilistically and deterministically using empirical injury risk functions and strain measures, respectively, and compared with those of the target PMHS. In general, the model exhibited biofidelic kinematic responses (in the Y-Z plane) regarding trajectories (International Organization for Standardization [ISO] ratings: Y = 0.90 ± 0.11, Z = 0.89 ± 0.09), linear resultant velocities (ISO ratings: 0.83 ± 0.07), accelerations (ISO ratings: Y = 0.58 ± 0.11, Z = 0.52 ± 0.12), and angular velocities (ISO ratings: X = 0.48 ± 0.13) but exhibited stiffer leg responses and delayed head responses compared to those of the PMHS. This indicates potential biofidelity issues with the PFEM for regions below the knee and in the neck. The model also demonstrated comparable reaction forces at the buck front-end regions to those from the PMHS tests. The PFEM generally predicted the injuries that the PMHS sustained but overestimated injuries in the ankle and leg regions. Based on the data considered, the THUMS PFEM was considered to be biofidelic for this pedestrian impact condition and vehicle

  11. The Longitudinal Interplay of Adolescents' Self-Esteem and Body Image: A Conditional Autoregressive Latent Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Maiano, Christophe; Marsh, Herbert W.; Janosz, Michel; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Self-esteem and body image are central to coping successfully with the developmental challenges of adolescence. However, the current knowledge surrounding self-esteem and body image is fraught with controversy. This study attempts to clarify some of them by addressing three questions: (1) Are the intraindividual developmental trajectories of…

  12. Condição corporal e desempenho produtivo de cabras Alpinas no início de lactação Body condition and productive performance of Alpine goat in early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Pires Barbosa

    2009-11-01

    the body condition score (BCS - low (1.00 - 2.75; intermediate (2.75 - 3.50 and high (3.50 - 5.00 and evaluated from kidding to the eighth week of lactation. The feed intake and milk production were recorded on a daily basis and the body weight, body condition score and milk composition at weekly intervals. Animals with a high body condition score presented lower dry matter intake, neutral detergent fiber and crude protein compared to those with low and intermediate body condition scores. The average time for dry matter intake recovery of the animals with the three body condition scores was 16 days (2.3 weeks postpartum, and stabilization by the end of the experiment. In the sixth week of lactation, animals with low body condition score had the same body weight of animals with intermediate body condition score. There was no effect of the body condition at birth on the body condition score changes and milk production during the experiment. The milk fat content of animals with high body condition score was lower in the first two weeks postpartum compared to animals with low and intermediate body condition score. The high body condition at birth influences negatively the ad libtum intake of dairy goats in the early lactation, but when it is used feed of high quality with high energy levels, the influence of the body condition at birth is nil to variations in weight, BCS and milk production.

  13. Effects of precalving body condition score and prepartum feeding level on production, reproduction, and health parameters in pasture-based transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Meier, S; Heiser, A; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M A; Riboni, M Vailati; Loor, J J; Kay, J K

    2015-10-01

    Precalving feeding level alters postcalving energy balance, dry matter intake, the liver and adipose tissue transcriptome, hepatic lipidosis, and the risk of metabolic diseases in both high-production cows consuming total mixed rations and moderate-production cows grazing pasture. We hypothesized that the reported benefits of a controlled restriction before calving are dependent on precalving body condition score (BCS): low BCS animals would not benefit from reduced feeding levels precalving, but high BCS cows would have metabolic and immunomodulatory profiles indicative of an improved health status. One hundred sixty-one days before calving, 150 cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatment groups (n = 25) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: 2 precalving BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0; based on a 10-point scale: BCS4 and BCS5, respectively) and 3 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75, 100, and 125% of estimated requirements). Cows in the BCS4 and BCS5 groups were managed through late lactation to ensure that target calving BCS was achieved at dry off. Cows were then fed to maintain this BCS target until 3 wk before expected calving date, at which point they were managed within their allotted precalving energy intake treatments by offering different allowances of fresh pasture/cow per day. Milk production, body weight, and BCS were measured weekly; blood was sampled weekly before and after calving and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 relative to calving. Aspirated plasma was assayed for nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, haptoglobin, IL-1β, IL-6, total antioxidant capacity, and reactive oxygen species. Liver was sampled wk 1, 2, and 4 postcalving for triacylglycerol analysis. Results confirm that precalving BCS and precalving feeding level have both independent and interdependent effects on production and health characteristics of transition dairy cows. Irrespective of precalving BCS, a controlled

  14. Effect of a change in housing conditions on body weight, behavior and brain neurotransmitters in male C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarelli, Noemi; Voehringer, Patrizia; Henke, Julia; Ferger, Boris

    2017-08-30

    The development of modern housing regimes such as individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems has become very popular and attractive in order to reduce spreading of pathogenic organisms and to lower the risk to develop a laboratory animal allergy for staff members. Additionally, optimal housing of laboratory animals contributes to improve animal health status and ensures high and comparable experimental and animal welfare standards. However, it has not been clearly elucidated whether 1) a change to IVC systems have an impact on various physiological phenotypic parameters of mice when compared to conventional, standard cages and 2) if this is further affected by changing from social to single housing. Therefore, we investigated the influence of a change in housing conditions (standard cages with social housing changed to standard or IVC cages combined with social or single housing) on body weight, behavior and a neurochemical fingerprint of male C57BL/6J mice. Body weight progression was significantly reduced when changing mice to single or social IVC cages as well as in single standard cages when compared to social standard housing. Automated motor activity measurement in the open field showed that mice maintained in social husbandry with standard cages displayed the lowest exploratory behavior but the highest activity difference upon amphetamine treatment. Elevated plus maze test revealed that a change to IVC single and social housing as well as single standard housing produced anxiety-related behavior when compared to maintenance in social standard housing. Additionally, postmortem neurochemical analysis of the striatum using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection showed significant differences in striatal dopamine and serotonin turnover levels. In summary, our data indicate a crucial influence of a change in housing conditions on several mouse phenotype parameters. We propose that the maintenance of well-defined housing

  15. Analysis of the influences on plumage condition in laying hens: How suitable is a whole body plumage score as an outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campe, A; Hoes, C; Koesters, S; Froemke, C; Bougeard, S; Staack, M; Bessei, W; Manton, A; Scholz, B; Schrader, L; Thobe, P; Knierim, U

    2018-02-01

    An important indicator of the health and behavior of laying hens is their plumage condition. Various scoring systems are used, and various risk factors for feather damage have been described. Often, a summarized score of different body parts is used to describe the overall condition of the plumage of a bird. However, it has not yet been assessed whether such a whole body plumage score is a suitable outcome variable when analyzing the risk factors for plumage deterioration. Data collected within a German project on farms keeping laying hens in aviaries were analyzed to investigate whether and the extent to which information is lost when summarizing the scores of the separate body parts. Two models were fitted using multiblock redundancy analysis, in which the first model included the whole body score as one outcome variable, while the second model included the scores of the individual body parts as multiple outcome variables. Although basically similar influences could be discovered with both models, the investigation of the individual body parts allowed for consideration of the influences on each body part separately and for the identification of additional influences. Furthermore, ambivalent influences (a factor differently associated with 2 different outcomes) could be detected with this approach, and possible dilutive effects were avoided. We conclude that influences might be underestimated or even missed when modeling their explanatory power for an overall score only. Therefore, multivariate methods that allow for the consideration of individual body parts are an interesting option when investigating influences on plumage condition. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Effect of Olive Pulpe Levels in The Diet of Buffalo Calves on Physiological Body Functions and Productive Traits Under Heat Stress Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was planned to investigate the changes that occur in growth and some physiological traits in buffalo calves as a result of using olive pulp levels (20 or 40%) under different conditions in Egypt. The study was carried out on 30 male growing buffalo calves aged 14-16 months with average body weight 309 kg and including two experiments; the 1st was carried out under mild climate in winter season on 15 calves while the 2nd was conducted during heat stress conditions of summer season on another 15 calves. In each of the two periods, animals were divided into three equal groups (5 buffalo calves in each). The first group was considered as control to olive pulp levels of 0% . The second and third groups receive olive pulp with 20 and 40% of the ingredient ration, respectively. The results showed that heat stress conditions of hot period induced significant decreases in the levels of final live body weight (FLBW), daily body weight gain (DBWG), total body weight gain (TBWG), total protein, albumin, total lipids, total cholesterol, Ca, inorganic P and thyroid hormones level (T4 and T3). On the other hand, significant increase in urea-N, creatinine, GOT and GPT as compared with animals under mild conditions was recorded. Olive pulp levels in the diet affected significantly the total body gain, daily body weight gain, total cholesterol and thyroid hormones (T4 or T3). The values were lower in the group received 40% olive pulp than in the two groups received 0 and 20.0 % olive pulp. In addition, animals received 40% olive pulp showed significant increase in urea-N, creatinine, GPT, total lipids and Ca. It could be concluded that heat stress conditions of summer period induced significant depression in daily body weight gain and changed most blood components and thyroid hormones which related to physiological functions in buffalo calves. Concerning added olive pulp to the ration of buffalo calves, it could be concluded that daily body gain of buffalo calves

  17. Highly eccentric hip-hop solutions of the 2 N-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrabés, Esther; Cors, Josep M.; Pinyol, Conxita; Soler, Jaume

    2010-02-01

    We show the existence of families of hip-hop solutions in the equal-mass 2 N-body problem which are close to highly eccentric planar elliptic homographic motions of 2 N bodies plus small perpendicular non-harmonic oscillations. By introducing a parameter ɛ, the homographic motion and the smal