WorldWideScience

Sample records for high blood lead

  1. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  2. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  3. Low zinc serum levels and high blood lead levels among school-age children in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Adriyan; Panunggal, Binar; Rahfiludin, M. Zen; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2017-02-01

    The coverage of environmental lead toxicant was quiet wide. Lead exposure recently has been expected to be associated with zinc deficiency and blood indices disturbance. Emphasizing on children, which could absorb more than 50 % of lead that enters the body. Lead became the issue on the coastal area due to it has polluted the environment and waters as the source of fisheries products. This was a cross sectional study to determined nutritional status, blood lead levels, zinc serum levels, blood indices levels, fish intake among school children in coastal region of Semarang. This study was carried out on the school children aged between 8 and 12 years old in coastal region of Semarang. Nutritional status was figured out using anthropometry measurement. Blood lead and zinc serum levels were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbent Spectrophotometry (AAS) at a wavelength of 213.9 nm for zinc serum and 283.3 nm for blood lead. Blood indices was measured using auto blood hematology analyzer. Fish intake was assessed using 3-non consecutive days 24-hours food recall. The children had high lead levels (median 34.86 μg/dl, range 11.46 - 58.86 μg/dl) compared to WHO cut off. Zinc serum levels was low (median 18.10 μg/dl, range 10.25 - 41.39 μg/dl) compared to the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG cut off. Approximately 26.4% of children were anemic. This study concluded that all school children had high blood lead levels, low zinc serum, and presented microcytic hypochromic anemia. This phenomenon should be considered as public health concern.

  4. A polymorphism in AGT and AGTR1 gene is associated with lead-related high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Ki; Lee, Hwayoung; Kwon, Jun-Tack; Kim, Hak-Jae

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the association of polymorphisms in two renin-angiotensin system-related genes, expressed as angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1), with blood lead levels and lead-related blood pressure in lead-exposed male workers in Korea. A cross-sectional study involving 808 lead-exposed male workers in Korea was conducted using a restriction fragment length polymorphism-based strategy to differentiate the various genotypes of polymorphisms in the AGT and AGTR1 genes. The association of clinical characteristics with genotypes as modifiers was estimated after adjustment for age, smoking status, drinking status, body mass index and job duration of each subject. Genotype and allele frequencies of the M235T polymorphism in AGT were associated with lead-related high blood pressure status. Moreover, blood lead levels were associated with allele frequencies of the AGT M235T polymorphism. These results suggested that the M/M genotype and M allele of AGT are risk factors for lead-related high blood pressure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. High blood lead levels in ceramic folk art workers in Michoacan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, G O; Martinez, R R; Fortoul, T I; Palazuelos, E

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic folk art workers are at risk for developing lead intoxication. These workers live in small settlements, which often lack sanitation services, and these individuals work with ceramics in their homes. The study population comprised individuals of all ages from three rural communities in central Michoacan (Tzintzuntzan, Tzintzunzita, and Colonia Lazaro Cardenas). A survey questionnaire, which was provided to each individual, included questions about household characteristics, presence of a clay oven in the home, and use of lead oxide ("greta") and other hazardous products. Venous blood samples were obtained from the workers. We found lead exposure to be reduced if the home floor was covered and if the house had been painted < or =1 y prior to study. Blood lead levels exceeded the maximum level permitted, but the levels were lower than those found in the 1970s, during which time study techniques for analyzing samples differed from those used in the present study. In addition, activity patterns of the populations differed during the two studies.

  6. Blood Lead Concentration Is Not Altered by High Dose Vitamin D Supplementation in Children and Young Adults with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleau, Veronique; Herold, Rachel A; Schall, Joan I; Wagner, Julia L; Dougherty, Kelly A; Zemel, Babette S; Rutstein, Richard M; Stallings, Virginia A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Optimal vitamin D status is known to have beneficial health effects and vitamin D supplements are commonly used. It has been suggested that vitamin D supplementation may increase blood lead in children and adults with previous lead exposure. The objective was to determine the safety regarding lead toxicity during 12 weeks of high dose vitamin D3 supplementation in children and young adults with HIV. METHODS Subjects with HIV (age 8 to 24 yrs) were randomized to vitamin D3 supplementation of 4000 IU/day or 7000 IU/day and followed at 6 and 12 weeks for changes in 25D and whole blood lead concentration. This was a secondary analysis of a larger study of vitamin D3 supplementation in children and adolescents with HIV. RESULTS In 44 subjects (75% African American), the baseline mean ± SD serum 25D was 48.3 ± 18.6 nmol/L. 50% of subjects had baseline serum 25D 5.0 μg/dL at baseline or during subsequent visits. Whole blood lead and 25D were not correlated at baseline, and were negatively correlated after 12 weeks of supplementation (p= 0.014). Whole blood lead did not differ between those receiving 4000 IU versus 7000 IU of vitamin D3. CONCLUSION High dose vitamin D3 supplementation and the concomitant increased serum 25D did not result in increased whole blood lead concentration in this sample of children and young adults living in a northeastern urban city. PMID:23059649

  7. Blood Lead and Reading Readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the University of Maryland School of Nursing, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, and Department of Health, Providence, Rhode Island, evaluated the relationship between reading readiness test scores for children attending public kindergarten in Providence, RI, and state health department records of blood lead levels (BLLs.

  8. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Dec 2,2016 Stroke and high blood ... Changes That Matter • Find Tools & Resources Show Your Stroke Support! Show your stroke support with our new ...

  9. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Print ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  10. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Cholesterol What is High Blood Cholesterol? What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a ... heart disease. If Your Blood Cholesterol Is Too High Too much cholesterol in your blood is called ...

  11. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000101.htm Controlling your high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to: Stroke Heart ...

  12. Measurement Challenges at Low Blood Lead Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Kathleen L; Cheng, Po-Yung; Jarrett, Jeffery M; Makhmudov, Amir; Vance, Kathryn; Ward, Cynthia D; Jones, Robert L; Mortensen, Mary E

    2017-08-01

    In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) adopted its Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention recommendation to use a population-based reference value to identify children and environments associated with lead hazards. The current reference value of 5 μg/dL is calculated as the 97.5th percentile of the distribution of blood lead levels (BLLs) in children 1 to 5 years old from 2007 to 2010 NHANES data. We calculated and updated selected percentiles, including the 97.5th percentile, by using NHANES 2011 to 2014 blood lead data and examined demographic characteristics of children whose blood lead was ≥90th percentile value. The 97.5th percentile BLL of 3.48 µg/dL highlighted analytical laboratory and clinical interpretation challenges of blood lead measurements ≤5 μg/dL. Review of 5 years of results for target blood lead values Lead and Multi-Element Proficiency quality assurance program showed 40% unable to quantify and reported a nondetectable result at a target blood lead value of 1.48 µg/dL, compared with 5.5% at a target BLL of 4.60 µg/dL. We describe actions taken at the CDC's Environmental Health Laboratory in the National Center for Environmental Health, which measures blood lead for NHANES, to improve analytical accuracy and precision and to reduce external lead contamination during blood collection and analysis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  14. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  15. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cholesterol? To understand high blood cholesterol (ko-LES-ter- ... cholesterol from your body. What Is High Blood Cholesterol? High blood cholesterol is a condition in which ...

  16. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) A ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  17. Treating High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    About High Blood Pressure Many people in the United States die from high blood pressure. This condition usually does not cause symptoms. Most ... until it is too late. A person has high blood pressure when the blood pushes against Visit your doctor ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of things can cause hyperglycemia: ...

  19. Peripheral blood signatures of lead exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather G LaBreche

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current evidence indicates that even low-level lead (Pb exposure can have detrimental effects, especially in children. We tested the hypothesis that Pb exposure alters gene expression patterns in peripheral blood cells and that these changes reflect dose-specific alterations in the activity of particular pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 arrays, we examined gene expression changes in the peripheral blood of female Balb/c mice following exposure to per os lead acetate trihydrate or plain drinking water for two weeks and after a two-week recovery period. Data sets were RMA-normalized and dose-specific signatures were generated using established methods of supervised classification and binary regression. Pathway activity was analyzed using the ScoreSignatures module from GenePattern. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The low-level Pb signature was 93% sensitive and 100% specific in classifying samples a leave-one-out crossvalidation. The high-level Pb signature demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity in the leave-one-out crossvalidation. These two signatures exhibited dose-specificity in their ability to predict Pb exposure and had little overlap in terms of constituent genes. The signatures also seemed to reflect current levels of Pb exposure rather than past exposure. Finally, the two doses showed differential activation of cellular pathways. Low-level Pb exposure increased activity of the interferon-gamma pathway, whereas high-level Pb exposure increased activity of the E2F1 pathway.

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  2. High prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in both rural and urban Iowa newborns: Spatial patterns and area-level covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Zahrieh, David; Young, Sean G; Oleson, Jacob; Ryckman, Kelli K; Wels, Brian; Simmons, Donald L; Saftlas, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Lead in maternal blood can cross the placenta and result in elevated blood lead levels in newborns, potentially producing negative effects on neurocognitive function, particularly if combined with childhood lead exposure. Little research exists, however, into the burden of elevated blood lead levels in newborns, or the places and populations in which elevated lead levels are observed in newborns, particularly in rural settings. Using ~2300 dried bloods spots collected within 1-3 days of birth among Iowa newborns, linked with the area of mother's residence at the time of birth, we examine the spatial patterns of elevated (>5 μg/dL) blood lead levels and the ecological-level predictors of elevated blood lead levels. We find that one in five newborns exceed the 5 μg/dL action level set by the US Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). Bayesian spatial zero inflated regression indicates that elevated blood lead in newborns is associated with areas of increased pre-1940s housing and childbearing-age women with low educational status in both rural and urban settings. No differences in blood lead levels or the proportion of children exceeding 5 μg/dL are observed between urban and rural maternal residence, though a spatial cluster of elevated blood lead is observed in rural counties. These characteristics can guide the recommendation for testing of infants at well-baby appointments in places where risk factors are present, potentially leading to earlier initiation of case management. The findings also suggest that rural populations are at as great of risk of elevated blood lead levels as are urban populations. Analysis of newborn dried blood spots is an important tool for lead poisoning surveillance in newborns and can direct public health efforts towards specific places and populations where lead testing and case management will have the greatest impact.

  3. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  4. Blood lead levels and cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) as predictors of late neurodevelopment in lead poisoned children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Linda H.; Wright, Robert O.; Bellinger, David C.; Hussain, Javed; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Chettle, David R.; Pejović-Milić, Ana; woolf, Alan; Shannon, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective To find the best lead exposure assessment marker for children. Methods We recruited 11 children, calculated a cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) for the children, measured their concurrent BLL, assessed their development, and measured their bone lead level. Results Nine of 11 children had clinically significant neurodevelopment problems. CBLI and current blood lead level, but not the peak lead level, were significantly or marginally negatively associated with the full-scale IQ score. Conclusion Lead exposure at younger age significantly impacts a child’s later neurodevelopment. CBLI may be a better predictor of neurodevelopment than are current or peak blood lead levels. PMID:21827276

  5. Drinking Peroxide as 'Natural' Cure Leads to Dangerous Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163513.html Drinking Peroxide as 'Natural' Cure Leads to Dangerous Blood Clots ... 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Ingesting high-concentration hydrogen peroxide as a "natural cure" or cleansing agent may ...

  6. Blood lead levels in preschool children in Cape Town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveaux, P.; Kibel, M.A.; Dempster, W.S.; Pocock, F.; Formenti, K.

    1986-03-29

    Blood lead levels were assessed in 293 children aged between 4 and 6 years attending preschool centers in metropolitan Cape Town in order to establish the degree of lead absorption. Anthropometric data, blood count, zinc protoporphyrin and blood lead level were obtained for each child. A questionnaire was used to determine socio-economic status, dietary habits and history of pica. Thirteen children, or 4,4% of those sampled, had blood levels of greater than or equal to 30 micrograms/dl. The majority of these children lived in close proximity to one another in a socially deprived inner urban environment. Environmental sampling for lead was carried out in the homes of children with the highest blood levels as well as in the homes of a matched control group with low levels living in the same area. The only difference was a significantly higher incidence of pica in the children with high levels.

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older Adults Family Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs EXPO Volunteer ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & ...

  11. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Options for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific Sessions Journals for Professionals Professional Books Patient Access to Research ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  15. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  16. Relationship of blood lead levels to obstetric outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angell, N.F.; Lavery, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Lead represents a significant environmental hazard to pregnant women and their offspring. Exposure to high environmental levels of lead has been associated with spontaneous abortion, premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM), and preterm delivery. The relationship between lower exposures and obstetric complications is unknown. The concentration of lead in the blood was measured in 635 specimens of umbilical cord blood collected at delivery. No relationship was found between concentrations of lead in cord blood and the incidence of PROM, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, or meconium staining. Maternal and infant capillary blood was collected 24 hours post partum from 154 of these deliveries. The concentrations of lead in the blood did not vary significantly among cord, infant, and maternal samples, and the three measurements were highly correlated. Levels of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnP) were increased in cord blood as compared with mothers' blood, but no concentration-response relationships between the ratio of cord ZnP to maternal ZnP and lead were found.

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an Employer Options for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life ... blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body ...

  18. Early umbilical cord clamping contributes to elevated blood lead levels among infants with higher lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Camila M; Fornes, Raymond; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Tena Alavez, Gilberto; Eguía-Líz Cedillo, Raúl; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2007-11-01

    To investigate whether infant iron status, modified by umbilical cord clamping time and infant feeding mode, affected infant blood lead concentration at 6 months of age. Participants were a subset of women and their infants randomized to receive early (10 seconds) or delayed (2 minutes) umbilical cord clamping and were monitored to 6 months postpartum in Mexico City. Iron and lead status was analyzed in maternal, placental, and 6-month infant blood samples. Baseline maternal lead exposure data and infant feeding data at 2, 4, and 6 months were collected. In the total sample, maternal blood lead concentration, infant ferritin, and breast-feeding practices predicted infant blood lead concentration. Among infants with higher placental blood lead concentration and breast-fed infants not receiving any iron-fortified formula or milk at 6 months, early clamping increased infant blood lead concentration, an effect mediated in part via decreased infant iron status. Early cord clamping, by decreasing infant iron status, contributes to higher blood lead concentrations at 6 months of age among infants at high risk.

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Grant Money is Divided Funding the Next Generation of Brilliant Researchers Our Research Foundation Diabetes Pro: ... they build up in your blood, which can lead to ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs ...

  20. Neurohumoral blood pressure regulation in lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscolo, P.; Carmignani, M.

    1988-06-01

    Previous human studies demonstrated that lead exposure may modify the metabolism of catecholamines and of hormones controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and may affect the kallikrein-kinin system. This paper reports unpublished data on the plasma renin activity of lead-exposed workers; these results are in agreement with those of previous human and experimental studies suggesting that the synthesis or release of renin is increased after short and moderate exposure to inorganic lead and reduced whenever the exposure is prolonged. Previous experimental investigations demonstrated that lead may act on the cardiovascular system, with effects on the renin-angiotensin system, on the reactivity to stimulation of peripheral catecholaminergic receptors, on sympathetic and vagal tone, and on reactivity to the stimulation of baroreceptors. This paper reports the results of a study on male Sprague-Dawley rats that received 0, 15, 30, and 60 ..mu..g/mL of lead in drinking water for 18 months. Blood pressure was increased in the rats receiving 30 and 60 ppm of lead; cardiac inotropism was augmented only in those receiving the higher dose of the metal, and heart rate was not modified. Cardiovascular responses to agonists indicated that lead exposure affects the renin-angiotensin system and induces sympathetic hyperactivity be acting on central and peripheral sympathetic junctions increasing the responsiveness to stimulation of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoreceptors and by increasing the reactivity to stimulation of cardiac and vascular ..beta..-adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors.

  1. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  2. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain tumors Inherited conditions (problems that run in families) Thyroid problems Blood pressure rises as the baby grows. The average blood ... vomiting constantly Prevention Some causes of high blood pressure run in families. Talk to your provider before you get pregnant ...

  3. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More black women than men have high blood pressure. 2 Race of Ethnic Group Men (%) Women (%) African Americans 43.0 45.7 Mexican Americans 27.8 28.9 Whites 33.9 31.3 All 34.1 32.7 Top of Page Why Blood Pressure Matters View this graphic snapshot of blood pressure ...

  4. High blood levels of lead in children aged 6-36 months in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: A cross-sectional study of associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Karki, Khem Bahadur; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Dhimal, Bimala; Joshi, Hari Datt; Puri, Sajan; Pandey, Achyut Raj; Dhakal, Purushotam; Sharma, Arun Kumar; Raya, Ganendra Bhakta; Ansari, Imran; Groneberg, David A; Müller, Ruth; Kuch, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Young children are at greatest risk of exposure to lead and its effects. Although lead is one of the most widely used elements with known health hazard, there is little data on the blood lead level (BLL) of children in the Kathmandu Valley. Thus, this study aimed to assess factors associated with high BLL in children who were 6-36 months of age and resided in the Kathmandu Valley. In this hospital-based cross-sectional study 6-36 month-old children visiting the Paediatrics Outpatient Department of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Patan Hospital, and Siddhi Memorial Hospital were enrolled. All three hospitals are located in different areas inside the Kathmandu Valley. Written informed consent was obtained from the parents, and exposure data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Portable Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV) was used to determine BLLs in children. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Of 312 children enrolled in the study, 64.4% had BLLs ≥5μg/dl. A significant association was found between BLL and exposure to enamel paints in the household in the form of painting materials used in different parts of the house like walls, windows and doors (p = 0.001). Furthermore, multivariate analyses showed that BLLs were 4.5 times higher in children playing with dirt and dust (p = 0.006) and that children belonging to the community of lower caste/ethnicity groups had significantly higher BLLs compared to those from the upper caste groups (p = 0.02). Our study demonstrated that children living in households that have used enamel paints, children belonging to lower caste/ethnic groups, and children frequently playing with dirt and dust had significantly higher BLLs. The results of this study highlight the importance of policy decisions to limit environmental lead contamination, and to roll out awareness building measures designed to limit lead exposure and break the poverty cycle associated with chronic lead poisoning.

  5. Blood lead levels of British competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G; Maclaren, D; Taylor, C

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the potentially toxic lead particulates emitted from motor vehicles are absorbed by competitive cyclists. A time trial (n = 5), a road race (n = 5), and a sedentary control group (n = 5) were examined with respect to blood lead (PbB) levels. In the two cycling groups, the PbB levels were measured before and after (1) a time trial (80 km) held on a dual carriageway; and (2) a road race (120 km) which took place in a rural area. Mean (+/- SE) resting PbB levels for the sedentary subjects, time trialists, and road racers were 0.442 +/- 0.041, 0.490 +/- 0.111 and 0.384 +/- 0.061 mumol l-1 respectively (p > 0.05). Mean post-race PbB levels of the time trialists (0.528 +/- 0.046 mumol l-1) and road racers (0.346 +/- 0.024 mumol l-1) did not differ significantly from the pre-race levels (p > 0.05). However, after their respective races, the mean PbB level of the time trialists was higher than that of the road racers (p cycling (70% VO2 max) in a laboratory containing approximately 1 microgram m3 of airborne lead did not affect blood lead levels. All PbB levels compiled with EC regulations regarding lead exposure. Despite a positive relationship between the amount of training and the PbB levels (r = 0.64, p road racing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Environmental lead and childhood blood lead levels in US children: NHANES, 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Stacey M; Talbott, Evelyn O; Brink, LuAnn L; Wu, Candace; Sharma, Ravi K; Marsh, Gary M

    2017-03-04

    Although blood lead levels in the United States have fallen dramatically since 1980, there remain subgroups of children with high blood lead levels. We assessed the relationship between environmental lead sources and blood lead levels in children ages 1 to 5 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2006. Modeled ambient air lead levels and industrial lead releases at the census-tract level were assigned to each child's residence with adjustment for confounding factors. Of 3,223 children, 272 (8.4%) had blood lead levels ≥ 5 ug/dL. Industrial releases (2,252 vs 1,696 lbs/mi(2)) and ambient air lead levels (2.28 vs 1.75 ng/m(3)) were greater in exposed versus unexposed children. For every 10,000 lb/mi(2) increase in inverse distance squared weighted exposure, there was a 1.13% increase (95% CI: 0.45%, 1.81%) in blood lead (p = .001).

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  9. Experimental study of blood lead kinetics in estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) exposed to ingested lead shot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, K M; Jayasinghe, N; Jeffree, R A; Lim, R P

    2003-10-01

    A previous study of lead (Pb) contamination in estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Kakadu National Park, Australia, found elevated Pb levels in bone and flesh from individuals caught in habitats where hunting with lead ammunition had occurred. Lead shot was suspected as the potential source of Pb in these animals. An investigation was designed to determine if crocodiles are capable of retaining and dissolving lead shot in their stomachs and absorbing the ionic Pb into the blood. Four of the six juvenile crocodiles (C. porosus) used in the experiment were fed an initial dose of five or ten lead shot each. Most of the lead shot were retained in the stomach over the 20-week experimental period, as confirmed by stomach lavage and radiography of the stomach region. From 13 to 30% of the original weight of individual lead shot had been eroded in that time. In vitro experiments confirmed that lead shot could be dissolved under conditions simulating those known for the crocodilian stomach. Blood Pb concentrations increased by an order of magnitude within a week after dosing three crocodiles with five lead shot each, and then attained steady-state equilibrium 5-20 weeks after dosing, with blood Pb steady-state levels ranging from 278 to 363 microg/dL. The blood Pb concentration-time curves in these crocodiles followed a one-compartment model with first-order loss kinetics that yielded an apparent biological half-life for Pb in blood of about 3.4 days. Throughout the experiment, the crocodiles remained in apparent good physical condition and displayed no clinical signs of Pb toxicosis. These observations, together with the very high blood Pb levels that were sustained for several months, suggest that crocodilians may possess a relatively high degree of resistance to Pb toxicity.

  10. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir By living a healthy lifestyle, you can help keep your blood pressure in ...

  11. High blood pressure - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... number is the diastolic pressure. This measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest. Blood pressure ... Medical Professional Call your child's provider if home monitoring shows that your child's blood pressure is still high. Prevention Your child's provider will ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity ...

  13. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... already been diagnosed with high blood pressure. Try yoga and meditation. Yoga and meditation not only can strengthen your body ... Accessed Sept. 21, 2015. Hu B, et al. Effects of psychological stress on hypertension in middle-aged ...

  14. Blood Lead Levels and Health Problems of Lead Acid Battery Workers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk. Akhtar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Use of lead acid battery (LAB in Bangladesh has risen with sharp rise of motor vehicles. As result, manufacture of LAB is increasing. Most of the lead used by these industries comes from recycling of LAB. Workers in LAB industry are at risk of exposure lead and thus development of lead toxicity. Objective. The objective of this study was to measure the blood lead concentration and to assess the magnitude of health problems attributable to lead toxicity among the LAB manufacturing workers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the workers of LAB manufacturing industries located in Dhaka city. Result. Mean blood lead level (BLL among the workers was found to be high. They were found to be suffering from a number of illnesses attributable to lead toxicity. The common illnesses were frequent headache, numbness of the limbs, colic pain, nausea, tremor, and lead line on the gum. High BLL was also found to be related to hypertension and anemia of the workers. Conclusion. High BLL and illnesses attributable to lead toxicity were prevalent amongst workers of the LAB manufacturing industries, and this requires attention especially in terms of occupational hygiene and safety.

  15. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  16. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... time. High blood pressure is also called hypertension. High Blood Pressure in the United States Having high blood pressure ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes ... Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  18. A real-time-range potentiostat coupled to nano-Au-modified microband electrode array for high-speed stripping determination of human blood lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Xu, Yiwei; Zou, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping

    2017-11-15

    A novel method of real-time-range measurement, characterized by pre-sampling forecast and balanced-range switching, is introduced in this study. According to this method, raw current signals in biosensing procedures may be measured and recorded with real-time-optimized instrumental settings. A low-cost and high-performance potentiostat is developed to validate the proposed method. The transient process of real-time-range measurement is investigated to optimize sampling interval and circuit parameters. Typical time consumption of a sampling cycle is less than 100μs, which makes high-speed and real-time-range measurement possible. The proposed method also brings excellent current resolution that is better than 0.8pA. It improves weak signals in stripping determinations, and is particularly suitable for biological samples. As-fabricated potentiostat, coupled to a nano-Au-modified microband electrode array, is adopted in high-speed stripping determinations towards human blood lead levels (HBLLs). Accuracy and precision of this method are validated with certified reference material (CRM). Obtained values (4.31 ± 0.18μgL(-1)) meet with certified levels of CRM (4.24 ± 0.11μgL(-1)). Coefficient of variation percent (CV %) is no more than 5.0% for intra- or inter-assay analyses. Finally, this method is utilized for human population based study. Two groups of data, from this method and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), are analyzed using a statistic tool of t-test, and no statistically significant difference is found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between blood lead levels and blood pressures in a non-smoking healthy Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Rae; Ko, Ki Dong; Hwang, In Cheol; Suh, Heuy Sun; Kim, Kyoung Kon

    2017-09-01

    The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) has been performed every 3 years in Korea to help prevent cardiovascular mortality in the general population. Previous studies showed an association between blood lead levels and cardiovascular mortality. In order to assess the relationship between blood lead concentration and blood pressure in the healthy general population, we investigated whether blood lead levels were related to blood pressure in a non-smoking healthy population without any known medical diseases in the 2013 KNHANES. 896 (mean age 40.55±13.83 years; body mass index 23.06±3.33 kg/m(2)) subjects who had no known diseases were included among 8018 subjects. Exclusion criteria were: hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, cerebrovascular events, renal insufficiency, liver cirrhosis, thyroid dysfunction, any cardiovascular or renal disease, and any malignancy. Blood pressures were measured three times by sphygmomanometers, 5 min apart. Blood pressures were then expressed as the average between the second and third values. Height, weight, waist circumferences and blood pressure, as well as total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), white blood cell count and blood lead levels were measured. In addition, dietary components were analysed by 24 hour recall. The association between log blood lead levels and systolic/diastolic pressure was stronger after it was controlled for age, sex, education, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (p=0.048, 0.002). Furthermore, the association between log blood lead levels and systolic pressure (p=0.048) and diastolic pressure (p=0.002) was more evident when controlled for age, sex, education, BMI, waist circumference, FPG, AST and ALT. Blood lead levels are significant determinants of systolic and diastolic blood pressure

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  2. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the years led to verification of the important role of high blood pressure—especially in concert with ... is specific for that person will be an important key to improving prevention, ... an international team of investigators, funded in part by the NIH, ...

  3. High temperature superconductor current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1995-01-01

    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  4. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  5. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure » Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical ...

  7. Living with High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High ...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... High Blood Pressure Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living ... Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done in ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming ... minutes before the test. To track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care ...

  10. The relationship between environmental lead and blood lead in children: a study in environmental epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B.

    1985-01-01

    This study deals with the relationship between environmental lead and blood lead in children.Chapter 1 provides a summary of the environmental health aspects of lead. The occurrence of lead in the environment and in man is described; children are discussed as a population at risk for undue lead abso

  11. Lead Level in Umbilical Cord Blood and its Effects on Newborns Anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neda, Akbari-Nassaji; Fahimeh, Sabeti; Tahereh, Ziaei Kajbaf; Leila, Fakharzadeh; Zahra, Nazari; Bahman, Cheraghian; Narges, Cham Kouri

    2017-06-01

    High concentration of blood lead is accompanied by adverse health effects on growth of foetus and the newborn. The aim of this study was to determine umbilical cord blood lead level and its relationship with birth weight, length and head circumference of the newborns in Abadan, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 3 ml blood was collected from the umbilical cord vein in 147 newborns, immediately after the birth. Blood lead was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data collection instruments included demographic questionnaire (age of mother, gestational age, newborn gender, job and education of mother) and also data registration form (umbilical cord blood lead concentration, weight, length, and head circumference of newborn). Data was analyzed with SPSS software version 16.0. The mean of umbilical cord blood lead was determined 0.65±0.32 µg/dl (0.3-1.35 µg/dl). The decrease of birth weight with increased blood lead level was small and was not statistically significant. There was reverse significant correlation between umbilical cord blood lead level and birth length and head circumference. There was no significant correlation between blood lead and other variables such as age, weight, education and job of mother and gestational age. Umbilical blood lead level was determined umbilical cord blood lead caused decreasing birth weight, length and head circumference of the newborns.

  12. Blood lead levels following consumption of game meat in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Sucato, Sabrina; Consonni, Dario; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Moretto, Angelo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to measure lead (Pb) levels in blood (Pb-blood) in consumers of game meat, taking into account other possible sources of lead exposure. A spot blood sample was obtained from 95 subjects, and a questionnaire was used to collect general information and data on game meat consumption, hunting, wine drinking and other possible sources of lead exposure. Pb-blood was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Pb-blood was not influenced by age, sex, residence in an urban or rural area, consumption of game meat, tobacco smoking or hobbies associated with potential exposure to lead, and median Pb-blood was 1.7 (5th-95th percentile 1.0-5.3)µg/dL and 3.4 (0.9-6.1)µg/dL for game meat non-eaters and eater, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis (containing the covariates sex, age, hunting, wine drinking, game meat consumption, tobacco smoking, shooting range, and occupational exposure) found an association with hunting (Pb-blood almost double in hunters) and wine drinking (40% higher in drinkers) but not with consumption of game meat or other parameters. Whether the higher Pb-blood level was due to inhalation of lead fumes while shooting with lead ammunition, to handling lead ammunition or both could not be ascertained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Blood lead levels in children and environmental lead contamination in Miami inner city, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasana, Janvier; Hlaing, WayWay M; Siegel, Kristy A; Chamorro, Armando; Niyonsenga, Theophile

    2006-09-01

    Studies have shown that the environmental conditions of the home are important predictors of health, especially in low-income communities. Understanding the relationship between the environment and health is crucial in the management of certain diseases. One health outcome related to the home environment among urban, minority, and low-income children is childhood lead poisoning. The most common sources of lead exposure for children are lead paint in older, dilapidated housing and contaminated dust and soil produced by accumulated residue of leaded gasoline. Blood lead levels (BLL) as low as 10 microg/dL in children are associated with impaired cognitive function, behavior difficulties, and reduced intelligence. Recently, it is suggested that the standard for intervention be lowered to BLL of 5 microg/dl. The objectives of our report were to assess the prevalence of lead poisoning among children under six years of age and to quantify and test the correlations between BLL in children and lead exposure levels in their environment. This cross-sectional analysis was restricted to 75 children under six years of age who lived in 6 zip code areas of inner city Miami. These locations exhibited unacceptably high levels of lead dust and soil in areas where children live and play. Using the 5 microg/dL as the cutoff point, the prevalence of lead poisoning among the study sample was 13.33%. The study revealed that lead levels in floor dust and window sill samples were positively and significantly correlated with BLL among children (p air, and water samples were not significant. Based on this pilot study, a more comprehensive environmental study in surrounding inner city areas is warranted. Parental education on proper housecleaning techniques may also benefit those living in the high lead-exposed communities of inner city Miami.

  14. Blood Lead Levels in Children and Environmental Lead Contamination in Miami Inner City, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophile Niyonsenga

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the environmental conditions of the home are important predictors of health, especially in low-income communities. Understanding the relationship between the environment and health is crucial in the management of certain diseases. One health outcome related to the home environment among urban, minority, and low-income children is childhood lead poisoning. The most common sources of lead exposure for children are lead paint in older, dilapidated housing and contaminated dust and soil produced by accumulated residue of leaded gasoline. Blood lead levels (BLL as low as 10 μg/dL in children are associated with impaired cognitive function, behavior difficulties, and reduced intelligence. Recently, it is suggested that the standard for intervention be lowered to BLL of 5 μg /dl. The objectives of our report were to assess the prevalence of lead poisoning among children under six years of age and to quantify and test the correlations between BLL in children and lead exposure levels in their environment. This cross-sectional analysis was restricted to 75 children under six years of age who lived in 6 zip code areas of inner city Miami. These locations exhibited unacceptably high levels of lead dust and soil in areas where children live and play. Using the 5 μg/dL as the cutoff point, the prevalence of lead poisoning among the study sample was 13.33%. The study revealed that lead levels in floor dust and window sill samples were positively and significantly correlated with BLL among children (p < 0.05. However, the correlations between BLL and the soil, air, and water samples were not significant. Based on this pilot study, a more comprehensive environmental study in surrounding inner city areas is warranted. Parental education on proper housecleaning techniques may also benefit those living in the high lead-exposed communities of inner city Miami.

  15. Children's Blood Lead Seasonality in Flint, Michigan (USA), and Soil-Sourced Lead Hazard Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Filippelli, Gabriel M; Sadler, Richard C; Gonzales, Christopher R; Ball, Andrew S; Mielke, Howard W

    2016-03-25

    In Flint; MI; USA; a public health crisis resulted from the switching of the water supply from Lake Huron to a more corrosive source from the Flint River in April 2014; which caused lead to leach from water lines. Between 2010 and 2015; Flint area children's average blood lead patterns display consistent peaks in the third quarter of the year. The third quarter blood lead peaks displayed a declining trend between 2010 and 2013; then rose abruptly between the third quarters of 2013 from 3.6% blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL to a peak of about 7% in the third quarter of 2014; an increase of approximately 50%. The percentage of blood lead level ≥5 µg/dL in the first quarter of 2015 then dropped to 2.3%; which was the same percentage as the first quarter of 2014 (prior to the Flint River water source change). The Flint quarterly blood lead level peak then rose to about 6% blood lead levels ≥ 5 µg/dL in the third quarter of 2015; and then declined to about 2.5% in the fourth quarter of 2015. Soil lead data collected by Edible Flint food collaborative reveal generally higher soil lead values in the metropolitan center for Flint; with lower values in the outskirts of the city. The questions that are not being asked is why did children's blood lead levels display a seasonal blood lead pattern before the introduction of the new water supply in Flint; and what are the implications of these seasonal blood lead patterns? Based upon previous findings in Detroit and other North American cities we infer that resuspension to the air of lead in the form of dust from lead contaminated soils in Flint appears to be a persistent contribution to lead exposure of Flint children even before the change in the water supply from Lake Huron to the Flint River.

  16. Pregnancy hypertension and umbilical cord blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinowitz, M.; Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA)); Needleman, H. (Children' s Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Schoenbaum, S. (Harvard Community Health Plan, Brookline Village, MA (USA))

    Pregnancy hypertension, blood pressure during labor, and the umbilical cord blood lead concentration were assessed in 3,851 women for whom additional demographic, medical, and personal information was available. Lead levels correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure during labor. The incidence of clinically defined pregnancy hypertension, nearly 11% overall, increased with lead level. A series of multivariate models of pregnancy hypertension and of systolic blood pressure as a function of maternal age, parity, hematocrit, ponderal index, race, season, and diabetes were improved by including lead as a predictor variable. These other risk factors are not affected by the lead term. The relative risk for pregnancy hypertension doubles when lead increases from 2 to 15 {mu}g/dl. The effect is statistically strong, with a magnitude of about 3 mm for a 10 {mu}g/dl range, about the same magnitude associated with diabetes. At these observed levels (mean blood lead = 6.0 {mu}g/dl, SD = 3.3, range 0 > 35), not currently recognized as overtly toxic, lead has a small but demonstrable association with pregnancy hypertension and blood pressure at the time of delivery, but not with pre-eclampsia nor toxemia. Although this association is not likely to influence the clinical management of hypertension, it indicates that lead at typical contemporary urban levels, does effect multiple physiological functions.

  17. High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162977.html High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide And health risks may appear even ... of people around the world with elevated or high blood pressure increases, so do the number of deaths linked ...

  18. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  19. Normal blood and milk lead values in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willoughby, R.A.; Brown, G.

    1971-01-01

    A total of 193 blood samples were collected for whole blood lead determination from 158 normal young and adult horses. The overall mean and standard deviation was 10.7 +/- 8.51 ..mu..g Pb/100 gm whole blood. The highest blood lead values were found in mares at parturition and a group of foals sampled shortly after they had been weaned and during a period when they were adjusting to commercially prepared ration. The blood lead values from a group of horses reared in a large city were as low or lower than horses reared under rural conditions. Normal colostrum and milk lead values were less than 50 ..mu..g Pb/liter. 8 references, 1 table.

  20. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mmHg People read "118 over 76" millimeters of mercury. Normal Blood Pressure Normal blood pressure for adults ... health. Share your story with other women on Facebook . The Heart Truth campaign offers a variety of ...

  1. Lead shot from hunting as a source of lead in human blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Poul [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)]. E-mail: poj@dmu.dk; Pedersen, Henning Sloth [Primary Health Care Center, DK-3900 Nuuk (Greenland); Asmund, Gert [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Riget, Frank [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-07-15

    This study investigates the relationship between the intake of birds hunted with lead shot and the lead concentration in human blood. Fifty adult men from Nuuk, Greenland took part in the study. From September 2003 to June 2004 they regularly gave blood samples and recorded how many birds they ate. We found a clear relationship between the number of bird meals and blood lead and also a clear seasonal variation. The concentration was highest in mid-winter when bird consumption is at its highest. Blood lead was low (15 {mu}g/L, mean concentration) among the participants reporting not eating birds. Among those reporting to eat birds regularly, blood lead was significantly higher, up to 128 {mu}g/L (mean concentration). Concentrations depended on the frequency of bird meals: the more the bird meals, the higher the resulting blood lead. This clear relationship points to lead shot as the dominating lead source to people in Greenland. - Birds hunted with lead shot and consumed are a source of lead in human blood.

  2. Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead poisoning among children in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albalak, Rachel; Noonan, Gary; Buchanan, Sharunda; Flanders, W. Dana; Gotway-Crawford, Carol; Blumenthal, Wendy; Curtis, Gerald; McGeehin, Michael A. [Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop E-19, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Kim, Dennis; Tan, Regina [Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop D-18, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Jones, Robert L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop F-18, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Sulaiman, Rini [Swisscontact, Jl. Wijaya XII No. 44, Jakarta (Indonesia) 12160

    2003-01-01

    The phase-out of leaded gasoline began in Jakarta, Indonesia on July 1, 2001. We evaluated mean blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated BLLs of Jakarta school children and assessed risk factors for lead exposure in these children before the beginning of the phase-out activities. The study involved a population-based, cross-sectional blood lead survey that included capillary blood lead sampling and a brief questionnaire on risk factors for lead poisoning. A cluster survey design was used. Forty clusters, defined as primary schools in Jakarta, and 15 2nd- and 3rd-grade children in each cluster were randomly selected for participation in the study. The average age of children in this study was 8.6 years (range 6-12) and the geometric mean BLL of the children was 8.6 {mu}g/dl (median: 8.6 {mu}g/dl; range: 2.6-24.1 {mu}g/dl) (n=397). Thirty-five percent of children had BLLs {>=}10 {mu}g/dl and 2.4% had BLLs {>=}20 {mu}g/dl. Approximately one-fourth of children had BLLs 10-14.9 {mu}g/dl. In multivariate models, level of education of the child's primary caregiver, water collection method, home varnishing and occupational recycling of metals, other than lead, by a family member were predictors of log BLLs after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs of children who lived near a highway or major intersection were significantly higher than those of children who lived near a street with little or no traffic when level of education was not included in the model. Water collection method was a significant predictor of BLLs {>=}10 {mu}g/dl after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs in children in this study were moderately high and consistent with BLLs of children in other countries where leaded gasoline is used. With the phase-out of leaded gasoline, BLLs of children in Jakarta are expected to rapidly decline as they have in other countries that have phased lead out of gasoline.

  3. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  7. The relationship between environmental lead and blood lead in children : a study in environmental epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B.

    1985-01-01

    This study deals with the relationship between environmental lead and blood lead in children.
    Chapter 1 provides a summary of the environmental health aspects of lead. The occurrence of lead in the environment and in man is described; children are discussed as a population at

  8. Port Pirie cohort study: maternal blood lead and pregnancy outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, A.J.; Vimpani, G.V.; Robertson, E.F.; Baghurst, P.A.; Clark, P.D.

    1986-03-01

    During a three-year period, 831 pregnant women in and around Port Pirie, South Australia--a lead smelter community with longstanding lead pollution--were enrolled in a cohort study to examine prospectively the relation between body lead burden and pregnancy outcome. Three-quarters of the enrolled women were residents of the Port Pirie municipality; the other women lived in adjacent towns and countryside. At 14-20 weeks' gestation, the Port Pirie resident women had a mean blood lead concentration of 10.6 micrograms/dl, while the mean in the other (non-Port Pirie) women was 7.6 micrograms/dl. Similar differences were observed in maternal blood samples taken at 30-36 weeks, at delivery, and from the umbilical cord. These blood lead measures, in conjunction with information collected on other risk factors, were then examined in relation to pregnancy outcome. Among 749 pregnancies followed to completion, pre-term delivery was statistically significantly associated, in a dose-response manner, with maternal blood lead concentration at delivery. Mothers of late fetal deaths (stillbirths) had blood lead concentrations at 14-20 weeks' gestation similar to those of all the other women but had lower concentrations at delivery than the other women. Outcomes of pregnancy for which no association with blood lead was detected were spontaneous abortion, low birthweight (for births at term), intrauterine growth retardation, premature rupture of the membranes, and congenital anomalies.

  9. blood lead level and haematology of feral and cultured african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN

    of fish health, this present work assessed the blood lead level (BLL) and ... humans who consume such contaminated fish. ... on the physiological response of fish due ... stress conditions like exposure to ..... respiration, gill ventilation and.

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... 90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ... blood pressure is due to other conditions or medicines or if you have primary high blood pressure. ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to keep a written log of all your results. Whenever you have an appointment with the health ... appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the results of your blood pressure test, your health care ...

  13. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  14. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? Many factors can affect the cholesterol levels in your blood. You can control some ... but not others. Factors You Can Control Diet Cholesterol is found in foods that come from animal ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in ...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 readings at several medical appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... 90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  1. Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsy Amal A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anemia is a health problem among infants and children. It is often associated with a decrease in some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper and an increase in heavy metals as lead. This study was done to determine the association of blood lead level > 10 μg/dl, with the increased risk to anemia, also, to investigate the relationship between anemia and changes in blood iron, zinc and copper levels, and measure lead level in drinking water. The study is a cross-sectional performed on 60 children. Venous blood samples were taken from the studied population for estimating hematological parameters as well as iron and ferritin levels. The concentrations of zinc, copper, and lead were measured. The studied population was divided into anemic and non-anemic (control groups. The anemic group was further classified into mild, moderate and severe anemia. The study subjects were also categorized into low and high blood lead level groups. Findings Approximately 63.33% of children had blood lead levels ≥ 10 μg/dl. At the blood lead level range of 10-20 μg/dl, a significant association was found for mild and severe anemia. The blood level of iron and ferritin was found to be significantly lower in high blood lead level and anemic groups than those of the low blood lead level and control groups. Lead level in drinking water was higher than the permissible limit. Conclusion Lead level ≥ 10 μg/dl was significantly associated with anemia, decreased iron absorption and hematological parameters affection. High blood lead levels were associated with low serum iron and ferritin. Lead level in drinking water was found to be higher than the permissible limits.

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... events, such as eating breakfast, take on exaggerated importance. It's a world where a person needs a ... Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C and eAG Hypoglycemia ( ...

  3. Determination of Lead in Blood by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selander, Stig; Cramér, Kim

    1968-01-01

    Lead in blood was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, using a wet ashing procedure and a procedure in which the proteins were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid. In both methods the lead was extracted into isobutylmethylketone before measurement, using ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate as chelator. The simpler precipitation procedure was shown to give results identical with those obtained with the ashing technique. In addition, blood specimens were examined by the precipitation method and by spectral analysis, which method includes wet ashing of the samples, with good agreement. All analyses were done on blood samples from `normal' persons or from lead-exposed workers, and no additions of inorganic lead were made. The relatively simple protein precipitation technique gave accurate results and is suitable for the large-scale control of lead-exposed workers. PMID:5663425

  4. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... giving Gift and estate planning Circle of Champions Corporate sponsorship Join us at an event The Hope ... blood pressure is the #2 cause of kidney failure. It accounts for about one-fourth of all ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... how to handle this condition. Medical IDs Many people with diabetes, particularly those who use insulin, should ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin ... Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your Doctor Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific Sessions ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  13. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... possible. Practice healthy coping techniques, such as muscle relaxation, deep breathing or meditation. Getting regular physical activity ... you monitor your blood pressure at home. Practice relaxation or slow, deep breathing. Practice taking deep, slow ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C ... your doctor may change the amount of your medication or insulin or possibly the timing of when ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat Hyperglycemia? You ... Advocacy Take Action Advocacy Priorities News & Events The Cost of Diabetes Advocate Toolkit Call to Congress Research & ...

  16. Environmental lead exposure among preschool children in Shanghai, China: blood lead levels and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Cao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine blood lead levels and to identify related risk factors among children in Shanghai; to explore the lead change trend of children after industrial transformation and to provide data for policy development to control environmental lead pollution in Shanghai. METHODS: A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used. A tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer was employed to determine blood lead levels. RESULTS: The arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median of blood lead levels of 0- to 6-year-old children from Shanghai were 22.49 µg/L, 19.65 µg/L and 19.5 µg/L, including 0.26% (6/2291 with concentrations ≥100 µg/L and 2.7% (61/2291 with concentrations ≥50 µg/L. Boys' levels (23.57 µg/L were greater than those of girls (21.2 µg/L. The blood lead levels increased with age. This survey showed that the Chongming district was the highest and Yangpu district was the lowest, this result is completely opposite with the earlier survey in Shanghai. Risk factors for lead contamination included housing environment, parents' education levels, social status, hobbies, and children's nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: The blood lead levels of children in Shanghai were lower than the earlier data of Shanghai and those of published studies in China, but higher than the blood lead levels of developed countries. The blood lead levels of urban districts are higher than the central districts with the industrial transformation. Society and the government should take an active interest in childhood lead poisoning of urban areas.

  17. Investigation and Evaluation of Children's Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-05-28

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents' occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant.

  18. High Blood Pressure and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure during a previous pregnancy, have a family history of high blood pressure or mild kidney disease. The combination of birth ... Print (PDF) | Online How to Measure Your Blood Pressure (PDF) Questions To Ask ... FREE digital-only, quarterly magazine for patients, families, and caregivers, which focuses on the prevention and ...

  19. Umbilical Cord Blood Lead Levels and Neonatal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. de Cáceres

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative correlations have been found between cord blood lead levels and scores on the Brazelton Neonatal Behaviour Assessment in 30 otherwise healthy newborns. Items in the Habituation, Orientation and Regulation of state clusters, particularly those items related to self-regulatory, self-quieting and auditory habituation, showed lower scores (worse performance in those newborns with higher cord blood lead levels. These disturbances are potentially important since this type of behavior may interfere with the normal process of adaptation to their environment, leading to a less than optimal bonding between newborns and their carers.

  20. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Oct 31,2016 First, let’s define high ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  1. Importance of monitoring family members in establishing sources and pathways of lead in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, B L; Mizon, K J; Korsch, M J; Howarth, D

    1996-10-11

    High precision lead isotope measurements were undertaken to establish the sources and pathways in blood and environmental samples of five families from the Broken Hill lead mining community, New South Wales, Australia. The five families were selected from 27 families investigated to illustrate the different sources and pathways of lead into blood and the importance of monitoring the whole family. The results illustrate that although the major source of lead is from the orebody, paint and petrol can be significant contributors to both house dust and blood leads. The results also show that the sources and pathways can be from the father's occupation and hence monitoring of families is important, especially in high risk locations. In two cases, the elevated blood leads in the children did not derive from their current residence but from other residences in the community.

  2. A Study of the Relationship between Ambient Lead and Blood Bead among Gasoline-Station Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Bahrami

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of leaded gasoline in Iran cause to emit lead compounds in ambient air of gasoline stations and is known to effect on workers health in these locations. The objectives of this study were assessment of ambient lead levels and blood lead levels of gasoline station workers in Hamadan city, Iran. For this purpose, 82 samples were obtained in ambient air of gasoline station locations. Serum samples from 44 workers and 44 unexposed people were collected to determine blood lead levels. Samples were analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometry. Blood lead levels in workers and control group were 30.05 and 17.31 µg/dl, respectively. The correlation coefficient between blood lead level and ambient lead level, age as well as duration of employment were 0.44, 0.66 and 0.81, correspondingly. The highest concentration of lead was recorded at the gasoline station in the city center. A high correlation between vehicle numbers in gasoline station locations and lead concentration was determined in the city center, but with a poor correlation in the suburb of the city. 48% of exposed workers had blood lead levels more than the biological exposure limit recommended by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene (ACGIH. Using unleaded gasoline and liquefied gas together with a health program education are importance factors to reduce blood lead level in workers of gasoline stations.

  3. Relation between blood lead levels and childhood anemia in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nitin B; Laden, Francine; Guller, Ulrich; Shankar, Anoop; Kazani, Shamsah; Garshick, Eric

    2005-05-15

    Lead pollution is a substantial problem in developing countries such as India. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has defined an elevated blood lead level in children as > or = 10 microg/dl, on the basis of neurologic toxicity. The US Environmental Protection Agency suggests a threshold lead level of 20-40 microg/dl for risk of childhood anemia, but there is little information relating lead levels anemia. Therefore, the authors examined the association between lead levels as low as 10 mug/dl and anemia in Indian children under 3 years of age. Anemia was divided into categories of mild (hemoglobin level 10-10.9 g/dl), moderate (hemoglobin level 8-9.9 g/dl), and severe (hemoglobin level Lead levels lead levels > or = 10-19.9 microg/dl and 97 (9%) had levels > or = 20 microg/dl. After adjustment for child's age, duration of breastfeeding, standard of living, parent's education, father's occupation, maternal anemia, and number of children in the immediate family, children with lead levels > or = 10 microg/dl were 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 1.7) times as likely to have moderate anemia as children with lead levels anemia was 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.6). Health agencies in India should note the association of elevated blood lead levels with anemia and make further efforts to curb lead pollution and childhood anemia.

  4. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as well as kidney function and levels of calcium in your urine. Your provider may do other tests to further assess your condition, such as checking your blood levels of phosphorus (a mineral). Imaging studies also may be helpful, such as bone ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... work with your doctor to find the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health Insurance ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia ( ... Advocacy Take Action Advocacy Priorities News & Events The Cost of Diabetes Advocate ... Resources Shop Diabetes » Close nonprofit software

  8. Modeling of Blood Lead Levels in Astronauts Exposed to Lead from Microgravity-Accelerated Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H.; James, J.; Tsuji, J.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to lead has been associated with toxicity to multiple organ systems. Studies of various population groups with relatively low blood lead concentrations (adults. Cognitive effects are considered by regulatory agencies to be the most sensitive endpoint at low doses. Although 95% of the body burden of lead is stored in the bones, the adverse effects of lead correlate with the concentration of lead in the blood better than with that in the bones. NASA has found that prolonged exposure to microgravity during spaceflight results in a significant loss of bone minerals, the extent of which varies from individual to individual and from bone to bone, but generally averages about 0.5% per month. During such bone loss, lead that had been stored in bones would be released along with calcium. The effects on the concentration of lead in the blood (PbB) of various concentrations of lead in drinking water (PbW) and of lead released from bones due to accelerated osteoporosis in microgravity, as well as changes in exposure to environmental lead before, during, and after spaceflight were evaluated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that incorporated exposure to environmental lead both on earth and in flight and included temporarily increased rates of osteoporosis during spaceflight.

  9. Association of prenatal and childhood blood lead concentrations with criminal arrests in early adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Wright

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood lead exposure is a purported risk factor for antisocial behavior, but prior studies either relied on indirect measures of exposure or did not follow participants into adulthood to examine the relationship between lead exposure and criminal activity in young adults. The objective of this study was to determine if prenatal and childhood blood lead concentrations are associated with arrests for criminal offenses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Pregnant women were recruited from four prenatal clinics in Cincinnati, Ohio if they resided in areas of the city with a high concentration of older, lead-contaminated housing. We studied 250 individuals, 19 to 24 y of age, out of 376 children who were recruited at birth between 1979 and 1984. Prenatal maternal blood lead concentrations were measured during the first or early second trimester of pregnancy. Childhood blood lead concentrations were measured on a quarterly and biannual basis through 6.5 y. Study participants were examined at an inner-city pediatric clinic and the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. Total arrests and arrests for offenses involving violence were collected from official Hamilton County, Ohio criminal justice records. Main outcomes were the covariate-adjusted rate ratios (RR for total arrests and arrests for violent crimes associated with each 5 microg/dl (0.24 micromol/l increase in blood lead concentration. Adjusted total arrest rates were greater for each 5 microg/dl (0.24 micromol/l increase in blood lead concentration: RR = 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.85 for prenatal blood lead, 1.07 (95% CI 0.88-1.29 for average childhood blood lead, and 1.27 (95% CI 1.03-1.57 for 6-year blood lead. Adjusted arrest rates for violent crimes were also greater for each 5 microg/dl increase in blood lead: RR = 1.34 (95% CI 0.88-2.03 for prenatal blood lead, 1.30 (95% CI 1.03-1.64 for average childhood blood lead, and 1.48 (95% CI 1

  10. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:Dec 9,2016 Knowing the facts ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  11. Evaluation of blood zinc, calcium and blood lead levels among children aged 1-36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiaojun

    Full Text Available Background: Early childhood lead exposure is associated with numerous adverse health effects. Biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of the study is to evaluate the blood lead (Pb and total blood calcium (Ca levels; blood zinc (Zn levels. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect healthy children age 1-36 months (Mean ± SD: 1.5 ± 0.6 age, 60% boys in the study from January 2010 to September 2011. Results: The overall mean blood Pb levels were 42.18 ± 12.13 μg/L, the overall mean blood Zn and total blood Ca concentrations were 62.18 ± 12.33 μmol/L and 1.78 ± 0.13 mmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of elevated blood Pb levels in all children was 1.3%. A significant difference was found between female and male subjects for the blood Pb and Zn. After controlling for gender and age, there was a weak positive correlation between total blood Ca and Zn level. Conclusions: The blood Pb levels had a significant negative correlation with total blood Ca level after adjusting for age and gender, and these findings suggest that Pb had effect on positive blood Zn and total blood Ca levels; parents should pay more attention to the nutrition of girls.

  12. Comparison of blood lead and blood and plasma δ-aminolevulinic acid concentrations as biomarkers for lead poisoning in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwan Goo; Bischoff, Karyn; Ebel, Joseph G; Cha, Sang Ho; McCardle, James; Choi, Cheong Up

    2010-11-01

    Lead (Pb) concentrations in whole blood and δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) concentrations in plasma and whole blood from 37 cattle with suspected Pb exposure were determined in order to investigate the usefulness of ALA as a biological indicator for Pb poisoning in cattle. Cows were divided into 4 groups based on blood Pb, as follows: ppb (group 1), 30-100 ppb (group 2), 100-300 ppb (group 3), and >300 ppb (group 4). The derivatization reaction for ALA was improved by a greater than 2-fold measure in whole blood and by a 10-fold measure in plasma by adding 75 and 50 µl of 0.1 N HCl, respectively. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from ppb to 1,006 ppb (185.5 ± 254.9 ppb), with 17 samples containing >50 ppb Pb. Delta-aminolevulinic acid concentrations in whole blood and plasma ranged from ppb to 96.9 ppb (77.4 ± 8.4 ppb) and from ppb to 24.0 ppb (4.6 ± 3.8 ppb), respectively. Whole blood ALA did not correlate with blood lead concentrations in any group. Increase in plasma ALA concentration was dependent on blood Pb concentration. There was no correlation between blood Pb concentration and plasma ALA concentration in group 2 (n  =  4), but correlation coefficients were 0.736 in group 3 and 0.807 in group 4, respectively. The correlation coefficient was increased to 0.851 when groups 3 and 4 were combined. Based on these observations, in cattle, plasma ALA is a more reliable biological biomarker for Pb exposure than is blood ALA.

  13. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Abadin, Henry G.; Edward Murray, H. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels ({<=}10 {mu}g/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican-American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican-American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{>=}3.50 {mu}g/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{<=}0.7 {mu}g/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08-6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  14. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Prevention and Management of High LDL Cholesterol: What You Can Do Recommend on ... like eating a healthy diet, can help prevent high cholesterol. High low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increases ...

  15. Prenatal lead exposure and childhood blood pressure and kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skröder, Helena; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Moore, Sophie E; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Kippler, Maria; Vahter, Marie

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to lead, a common environmental pollutant, is known to cause cardiovascular and nephrotoxic effects in adults. Potential effects of early-life lead exposure on these functions are, however, less well characterized. To assess blood pressure and kidney function in preschool-aged children in relation to prenatal lead exposure. This prospective study in rural Bangladesh measured children's systolic and diastolic blood pressure in triplicate at the follow-up at 4.5±0.11 years. Their kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), calculated based on serum cystatin C concentrations, and by kidney volume, measured by sonography. Exposure to lead was assessed by concentrations in the mothers' blood (erythrocyte fraction; Ery-Pb) in gestational weeks (GW) 14 and 30, the effects of which were evaluated separately in multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses. We found no associations between maternal exposure to lead [n~1500 for GW14 and 700 for GW30] and children's blood pressure or eGFR. However, we found an inverse association between late gestation lead and kidney volume, although the sample size was limited (n=117), but not with early gestation lead (n=573). An increase of 85µg/kg in Ery-Pb (median concentration at GW30) was associated with a 6.0cm(3)/m(2) decrease in kidney volume (=0.4SD; p=0.041). After stratifying on gender, there seemed to be a somewhat stronger association in girls. Prenatal lead exposure may cause long-lasting effects on the kidney. This warrants follow-up studies in older children, as well as additional studies in other populations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Influence of social and environmental factors on dust, lead, hand lead, and blood lead levels in young children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornschein, R.L.; Succop, P.; Dietrich, K.N.; Clark, C.S.; Que Hee, S.; Hammond, P.B.

    1985-10-01

    The roles of environmental and behavioral factors in determining blood lead levels were studied in a cohort of young children living in an urban environment. The subjects were observed at 3-month intervals from birth to 24 months of age. Repeated measurements were made of the children's blood lead levels, environmental levels of lead in house dust, and in the dust found on the children's hands. A qualitative rating of the residence and of the socioeconomic status of the family was obtained. Interviews and direct observation of parent and child at home were used to evaluate various aspects of caretaker-child interactions. Data analysis consisted of a comparison of results obtained by (a) simple correlational analysis, (b) multiple regression analysis, and (c) structural equations analysis. The results demonstrated that structural equation modeling offers a useful approach to unraveling the complex interactions present in the data set. In this preliminary analysis, the suspected relationship between the levels of lead in house dust and on hands and the blood lead level was clearly demonstrated. Furthermore, the analyses indicated an important interplay between environmental sources and social factors in the determination of hand lead and blood lead levels in very young children.

  17. [Use of urine lead level as an exposure indicator and its relationship to blood lead].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Maria de Fátima Ramos; Neves, Eduardo Borba

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this work was to verify whether there are statistically significant correlation between the concentrations of lead in blood (Pb-B) and urine (Pb-U). Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used in the determination of lead concentration in biological material. Venous blood and spot urine were collected from workers occupationally exposed (95), adults (130) and children up to 15 years old (22) environmentally exposed. After a test showing significant differences between Pb-U and the three categories previously determined, cutting points for Pb-U were established to predict Pb-B values by the ROC curve. Thus, it is expected that Pb-B is lower than 10 microg.dL-(1) with Pb-U up to 0.55 microg.dL-(1), whereas lead levels in blood below 27.6 microg.dL-(1) are expected when the amount of the metal in urine is lower than 2.05 microg.dL-(1). So, urine can be used to replace blood for the assessment of the occupational exposure to lead. However, caution is advised in the case of environmental exposure, since urinary lead should be used just as an estimation of the metal content in blood.

  18. Children's blood lead levels in the lead smelting town of Port Pirie, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D; Esterman, A; Lewis, M; Roder, D; Calder, I

    1986-01-01

    This survey included 1,239 children, representing 50% of the elementary school population of the lead smelting town of Port Pirie. Of these children, 7% had a capillary blood lead level equal to or greater than 30 micrograms/dl, which is the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council's "level of concern." There was a statistically significant difference in capillary lead levels by area of residence that was independent of age, sex, soil lead, rainwater tank lead, and school attended. A case-control study indicated that the following subset of factors was most predictive of an elevated blood lead level: household members who worked with lead in their occupations; living in a house with flaking paint on the outside walls; biting finger nails; eating lunch at home on school days; when at school, appearing to have relatively dirty clothing; when at school, appearing to have relatively dirty hands; and living on a household block with a large area of exposed dirt. A program to reduce the risk of elevated blood lead levels in Port Pirie children has been introduced.

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... excused. 86 million Americans have prediabetes. Take the test. Know where you stand. sticky en -- Chef Ronaldo's ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High ... also may ask you to check readings at home or at other locations that have blood pressure ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in the office and readings taken anywhere else. ... The Heart Truth ® —a national heart disease awareness campaign for ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to check readings at home or at other locations that have blood pressure equipment and to keep ... office compared with readings taken in any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provider usually takes 2–3 readings at several medical appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the ... Researchers believe stress, which can occur during the medical appointment, causes white coat hypertension. Rate This Content: ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Spokespeople Email Alerts E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » ...

  7. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder View All Content High Blood Pressure & Kidney Disease What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... million filtering units called nephrons. How does high blood pressure affect the kidneys? High blood pressure can ...

  8. Correlation Correlation of Blood Lead Levels, Anemia and Water Source in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gurukripa, Sowmya Sanjeeva; Shetty, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to lead and its consequences is a health risk frequently encountered in developing countries.Aims & Objectives: This study was undertaken to ascertain whether the source of water poses a risk for high blood levels and consequently anemia.Material & Methods: 30 children with proven anemia and an equal number of children without anemia were enrolled in the study and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to analyse and quantify their blood lead levels. Thei...

  9. High Blood Pressure Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or "no added salt." Look for the sodium content in milligrams and the Percent Daily Value. Aim for foods that are less than 5 percent of the Daily Value of sodium. Foods with 20 percent or more Daily Value of sodium are considered high. To learn more about reading nutrition labels, see ...

  10. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth > For Teens > When Blood ... often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ...

  11. Association between blood lead and blood pressure: a population-based study in Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Lopes, Ana Carolina Bertin de; Silbergeld, Ellen Kovner; Navas-Acien, Ana; Zamoiski, Rachel; Martins, Airton da Cunha; Camargo, Alissana Ester Iakmiu; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Paoliello, Monica Maria Bastos

    2017-03-14

    Environmental lead exposure among adults may increase blood pressure and elevate the risk of hypertension. The availability of data on blood lead levels (BLL) in adult Brazilian population is scarce and population-based studies are important for screening the population exposure and also to evaluate associations with adverse health effects. The goal of this study was to examine the association of BLL with blood pressure and hypertension in a population-based study in a city in Southern Brazil. A total of 948 adults, aged 40 years or older, were randomly selected. Information on socioeconomic, dietary, lifestyle and occupational background was obtained by orally administered household interviews. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured according to the guidelines VI Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension. BLL were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were performed to evaluate associations of BLL with SBP and DBP, and with the chance of hypertension and of elevated SBP and DBP. The geometric mean of BLL was 1.97 μg/dL (95%CI:1.90-2.04 μg/dL). After multivariable adjustment, participants in the quartile 4 of blood lead presented 0.06 mm/Hg (95%CI, 0.04-0.09) average difference in DBP comparing with those in quartile 1. Participants in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution had 0.07 mmHg (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.11) higher DBP compared with those participants in the 10th percentile of blood lead. The adjusted OR for hypertension was 2.54 (95% CI, 1.17-5.53), comparing the highest to the lowest blood lead quartiles. Compared with participants in the 10th percentile of blood lead, participants in the 90th percentile presented higher OR for hypertension (OR: 2.77; 95% CI, 1.41 to 5.46). At low concentrations, BLL were positively associated with DBP and with the odds for hypertension in adults aged 40 or older. It is important to enforce lead

  12. In utero and postnatal exposure to a high-protein or high-carbohydrate diet leads to differences in adipose tissue mRNA expression and blood metabolites in kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Brittany M; Liu, Kari J; Keel, Tonya L; Graves, Thomas K; Swanson, Kelly S

    2009-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to measure the differences in body composition, adipose tissue gene expression, blood metabolite and hormone concentrations, and insulin sensitivity in kittens exposed to high-protein (HP) or high-carbohydrate (HC) nutrition in utero and through the growth period. Eight dams were randomised onto two test diets, and fed the diets throughout gestation and lactation. Male offspring were evaluated for 9 months. Kittens were weaned at 2 months of age onto the same treatment diet as the dam and were allowed to consume diets ad libitum. The HC diet contained 34.3 % crude protein (CP), 19.2 % fat and 30.8 % digestible carbohydrate, while the HP diet contained 52.9 % CP, 23.5 % fat and 10.8 % digestible carbohydrate. Blood samples were collected at 6 months after birth. Body composition was determined at 2 and 8 months of age and an intravenous glucose tolerance test, neutering and adipose tissue biopsy conducted at 8 months of age. Physical activity was quantified at 6 and 9 months. Energy intake, DM intake and body weight were not different between groups. At 2 months, blood TAG were greater (P kittens fed the HP diet. At 8 months, blood leptin was higher (P kittens fed the HC diet, while chemokine receptor 5, hormone-sensitive lipase, uncoupling protein 2, leptin and insulin receptor mRNA were greater (P kittens fed the HP diet. The present results demonstrate some of the changes in blood metabolites and hormones, physical activity and mRNA abundance that occur with feeding high protein levels to kittens.

  13. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and structural changes in carotid arteries in normotensive workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreba, Rafał; Poreba, Małgorzata; Gać, Paweł; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2011-09-01

    Occupational exposure to lead may cause an increase in blood pressure. The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of occupational exposure to lead on selected parameters of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and structural changes in carotid arteries. The study included 33 normotensive men occupationally exposed to lead and 39 unexposed men employed in administration of the foundry. All of the men underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography to determine intima-media thickness (IMT). The group of men occupationally exposed to lead manifested significantly higher mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (MDBP), mean blood pressure (MBP), pulse pressure (PP), variability of diastolic blood pressure (VDBP), and IMT than the unexposed group. The studied groups did not differ in mean values of variability of systolic blood pressure (VSBP). As compared to the unexposed group, in men exposed to lead, atherosclerotic plaques were significantly more common. In the group of persons exposed to lead the Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis revealed significant linear positive correlations between MSBP and IMT, between lead level and the number of atherosclerotic plaques, and between lead level and PP. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that higher lead level in blood and higher triglyceride concentration in blood represent independent risk factors of an increased pulse pressure in the group of individuals occupationally exposed to lead. Occupational exposure to lead can be associated with increased blood pressure and accelerated progression of atherosclerosis.

  14. The Relationship Between Blood Lead Level and Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Fatemeh; Akbari, Sedigheh Amir Ali; Dabirioskoei, Atousa; Nasiri, Malihe; Mellati, Aliosat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lead is a heavy metal to which people are commonly exposed. One of the possible mechanisms of tissue damages caused by this toxic metal is oxidative stress, which in turn may cause numerous pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between maternal Blood Lead Level (BLL) and preeclampsia. Methods The present case-control study was conducted on 158 pregnant women admitted to a hospital in Zanjan, Iran, from August 2015 to March 2016. To measure their BLL, 1.5 cc of blood was drawn from each participant. The demographic and obstetric details of the patients were recorded in a form. The potentiometric method was used to test the samples. The data obtained were analyzed by SPSS version 22, using Mann-Whitney U test, the Chi square, independent-samples t-test, Pearson product-moment correlation, and simple linear regression analysis. Results The mean BLL was 6.24±1.74 μg/dl in the control group and 8.04±3.4 μg/dl in the preeclampsia group. The two groups were matching in terms of the mother’s age and education and the household income. A significant relationship was observed between BLL and preeclampsia (p=0.028), as per every unit of increase (1 μg/dl) in BLL, systolic blood pressure increased by 0.014 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by 0.013 mm Hg (p=0.004). Conclusion The results obtained suggest a relationship between BLL and preeclampsia. Global health measures should be taken to remove the exposure to lead so as to reduce its absorption by pregnant women. PMID:28163864

  15. A multivariate linear regression model for predicting children's blood lead levels based on soil lead levels: A study at four Superfund sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin, M.D.; Sarasua, S.; Jones, P.A. (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States). Div. of Health Studies)

    1999-07-01

    For the purpose of examining the association between blood lead levels and household-specific soil lead levels, the authors used a multivariate linear regression model to find a slope factor relating soil lead levels to blood lead levels. They used previously collected data from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) multisite lead and cadmium study. The data included in the blood lead measurements of 1,015 children aged 6--71 months, and corresponding household-specific environmental samples. The environmental samples included lead in soil, house dust, interior paint, and tap water. After adjusting for income, education or the parents, presence of a smoker in the household, sex, and dust lead, and using a double log transformation, they found a slope factor of 0.1388 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09--0.19 for the dose-response relationship between the natural log of the soil lead level and the natural log of the blood lead level. The predicted blood lead level corresponding to a soil lead level of 500 mg/kg was 5.99 [micro]g/kg with a 95% prediction interval of 2.08--17.29. Predicted values and their corresponding prediction intervals varied by covariate level. The model shows that increased soil lead level is associated with elevated blood leads in children, but that predictions based on this regression model are subject to high levels of uncertainty and variability.

  16. Correlation of blood lead level with iron, zinc and calcium as well as neonatal neurobehavioral development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiguang Li; Guoping Wang; Shenghui Li; Xianguo Wu; Chunru Qi; Yingyi Liang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell in brain of undeveloped fetus cannot inhibit entrance of lead so as to cause toxic effect. Over-accumulation of lead can cause toxic effect on children's growth and development, especially on development of nervous system. Lead in fetus body is mainly derived from its mother's; therefore, blood lead reflects the level of mother's lead.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlations among blood lead level, trace elements, mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) of 3-month-old children. DESIGN: Contrast observation. SETTING: Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Shanxi Provincial Children Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 128 neonates with spontaneous delivery were provided by Shanxi Maternity and Child Care Hospital and Jiexiu Municipal Maternity and Child Care Hospital from September 2004 to January 2005. There were 76 boys and 52 girls. All subjects did not have history of ischemia and hypoxia during perinatal period and umbilical blood was accepted to be used in experiments. METHODS: ① Levels of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood: 0.5 mL umbilical blood and 2 mL blood samples were selected from neonates to measure lead content with graphite-oven atom absorption spectrum and contents of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood with atom absorption spectrum. ② Grouping: According to level of blood lead, neonates were divided into high-dosage lead group (blood lead ≥ 0.24 μmol/L) and low-dosage lead group (blood lead < 0.24 μmol/L). ③ Evaluation of neurobehavioral development: Neurobehavioral development of 3-month-old neonates was evaluated with Bayley scale, which was consisted of intelligence scale, motor scale and behavioral scale. Intelligence scale, which was expressed as intelligence development index, contained 163 items, such as adaptability, behavior, language, pilot activities, etc. Motor scale, which was expressed as mental motor development index, contained 81 items, such as vulgar

  17. High blood sugar - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High blood glucose - self care; Diabetes - high blood sugar ... Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being very thirsty or having a dry mouth Having blurry vision Having dry skin Feeling weak or tired ...

  18. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  19. High Blood Pressure Often Undiagnosed, Untreated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162996.html High Blood Pressure Often Undiagnosed, Untreated Half of mobile clinic patients ... that's often referred to as a "silent killer" -- high blood pressure, a new Canadian study reveals. High blood pressure, ...

  20. Determinants of maternal and umbilical blood lead levels: a cross-sectional study, Mosul, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jomard Raghad A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The populations who are most sensitive to lead exposure from various sources are pregnant women and their newborns. Aiming to explore the presence of correlation between maternal and cord blood lead levels and to identify potential predictors that may influence both levels, the present study has been conducted. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted covering 350 full terms maternal-newborns pairs from Mosul maternity hospitals. Data were obtained directly from women just before delivery by the use of a detailed questionnaire form. Maternal and umbilical blood lead levels were estimated using LEADCARE® Blood Lead Testing System and Kits. Results A positive significant correlation was found between maternal and cord blood lead values (r = 0.856, p = 0.001. By backward stepwise logistic regression analysis the followings emerged as significant potential predictors of high maternal blood lead: low parity, smoking and Hb level Conclusion Study results have provided baseline data needed to be transformed to decision makers to implement measures to eliminate lead from the environment and protect future generation from its deleterious effects.

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in the office and readings taken anywhere else. Researchers believe stress, which can occur during the medical appointment, causes white coat hypertension. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ...

  3. High blood pressure in a semi-urban community in south-south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    High blood pressure (BP) is a leading cause of global burden of disease ... (9%), high blood glucose and physical inactivity (6% each) ... When the burden of high blood pressure disease was ... C was information on activity and sleep pattern,.

  4. Application of Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with high-frequency modulation polarization for the direct determination of aluminum, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, manganese, nickel, lead, and thallium in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, Natalya B; Solovyev, Nikolay D; Ivanenko, Anatoly A; Ganeev, Alexander A

    2012-10-01

    Determination of aluminum (Al), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and thallium (Tl) concentrations in human blood using high-frequency modulation polarization Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was performed. No sample digestion was used in the current study. Blood samples were diluted with deionized water or 0.1 % (m/v) Triton X-100 solution for Tl. Dilution factors ranged from 1/5 per volume for Be and Tl to 1/20 per volume for Cd and Pb. For Tl, Cd, and Hg, noble metals (gold, platinum, rhodium, etc.) were applied as surface modifiers. To mitigate chloride interference, 2 % (m/v) solution of NH(4)NO(3) was used as matrix modifier for Tl and Ni assessment. The use of Pd(NO(3))(2) as oxidative modifier was necessary for blood Hg and Tl measurement. Validation of the methods was performed by analyzing two-level reference material Seronorm. The precision of the designed methods as relative SD was between 4 and 12 % (middle of a dynamic range) depending on the element. For additional validation, spiked blood samples were analyzed. Limits of detection (LoDs, 3σ, n = 10) for undiluted blood samples were 2.0 μg L(-1) for Al, 0.08 μg L(-1) for Be, 0.10 μg L(-1) for Cd, 2.2 μg L(-1) for Cr, 7 μg L(-1) for Hg, 0.4 μg L(-1) for Mn, 2.3 μg L(-1) for Ni, 3.4 μg L(-1) for Pb, and 0.5 μg L(-1) for Tl. The LoDs achieved allowed determination of Al, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb at both toxic and background levels. Be, Hg, and Tl could be reliably measured at toxic levels only. The methods developed are used for clinical diagnostics and biological monitoring of work-related exposure.

  5. 高铅血症与儿童注意缺陷多动障碍发病率的研究%Study on the incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with high level of blood lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怀远; 余晓刚; 江帆; 傅启华

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with high level of blood lead. Methods 1 047 children whose blood lead level was ≥ 100 μg/L were classified according to their sex and age. The level of blood lead was determined by automatic absorption spectrometer. Results 179 of 1047 children with ADHD were diagnosed with high level of blood lead. The total incidence of ADHD was 17.09%. The incidence of ADHD in boy group (18.90%) was higher than that in girl group (10.36%) (P < 0.005). The incidence of ADHD in the 821 children aged 6-15 years (20.71%) was significantly higher than that in the 226 children aged <6 years (3.98%) (P <0. 005). Among the children aged 6-15 years, 170 children were diagnosed as ADHD. The incidence of ADHD in boy group (661 boys) (22.39%) was significantly higher than that in girl group (160 girls) (13.75 %) (P < 0.025). Conclusions The incidence of ADHD in the children aged 6-15 years is significantly higher than that in the children aged < 6 years. The incidence of ADHD in boys aged 6-15 years is significantly higher than that in girls.%目的 探讨高铅血症儿童中注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)的发病率.方法 收集1 047例高铅血症(血铅≥100μg/L)儿童,按性别及年龄分别分组.血铅使用原子吸收光谱仪测定.结果 1 047例高铅血症儿童中共确诊ADHD 179例.总发病率为17.09%.男童中ADHD的发病率为18.90%,高于女童ADHD的发病率10.36%,(P<0.005).226例<6岁儿童ADHD发病率为3.98%,821例6~15岁儿童ADHD发病率为20.71%,2组发病率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.005).6~15岁儿童组中确诊ADHD 170例,按性别分组后661例男童中ADHD的发病率为22.39%,高于160例女童中ADHD的发病率13.75%,(P<0.025).结论 高铅血症中<6岁儿童ADHD发病率显著低于6~15岁儿童.6~15岁男童的ADHD发病率显著高于女童.

  6. Correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in Iranian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Keramati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common nutritional anaemia among children. Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in children of Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was performed on children between 1 year and 10 years, in Imam Reza teaching hospital of Mashhad, Iran, in 2010. Indeed during complete blood count (CBC, we measured iron and total iron binding capacity (TIBC by colorimetric methods, ferritin by radioimmune assay and blood lead concentration by atomic absorption method. Results were analysed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS (version 11.5, using statistical tests including independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman′s test and analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson′s or Spearman′s correlation coefficient. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: We studied 223 cases including 98 control children and 125 patients. All children had lead intoxication. Mean (±SD blood lead concentration in the control group was 57.1 ± 25.3 (ranged 20-212 μg/dl and in the patient group was 57 ± 20.4 (ranged 10.9-159 μg/dl with no significant difference (P value = 0.713. We also did not find any correlation between blood lead concentration and haemoglobin, ferritin, iron, TIBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, white blood cells (WBC and platelets. Conclusion: Based on these results, no correlation was found between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in the children. Because all children had lead intoxication, further studies in highly polluted and a comparison with a low polluted area are necessary to make a general conclusion.

  7. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  8. [Lead exposure of people living in a lead high exposure area from local diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; He, Liping; Huang, Xiao; He, Junshan

    2011-11-01

    To study the lead exposure of people living in a lead high exposure area from local diet, and to assess its health risks. Thirty five subjects were selected by random from a mining area and another 30 subjects were selected from a non-polluted area. The exposure of lead was estimated by the content of lead in drinking water and vegetables, and health risks was estimated by the levels of lead in blood and urine. The content of lead in drinking water and vegetables in the mining area was 20.6 microg/L and 1.61mg/kg (geometric mean) respectively, which were higher than that in the unpolluted area (6.0 microg/L and 0.56 mg/kg, geometric mean) (P area from diet was 16.88 microg/kg and 16.09 microg/kg respectively, which was higher than that in the unpolluted area (P 0.05). Blood lead and urine lead of inhabitants in the mining-area were higher than those in the unpolluted area. The health risks for male and female inhabitants in the mining area were 4.73 and 4.51. The health risks of lead exposure caused by diet (drinking water and food) were relatively high in the mining area.

  9. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL, 4.4 (2.4 μg/L, 10.9 (9.2 μg/L, and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L, respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01. After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car, the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01. Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations.

  10. Soil Lead and Children's Blood Lead Disparities in Pre- and Post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Howard W; Gonzales, Christopher R; Powell, Eric T

    2017-04-12

    This study appraises New Orleans soil lead and children's lead exposure before and ten years after Hurricane Katrina flooded the city. Introduction: Early childhood exposure to lead is associated with lifelong and multiple health, learning, and behavioral disorders. Lead exposure is an important factor hindering the long-term resilience and sustainability of communities. Lead exposure disproportionately affects low socioeconomic status of communities. No safe lead exposure is known and the common intervention is not effective. An essential responsibility of health practitioners is to develop an effective primary intervention. Methods: Pre- and post-Hurricane soil lead and children's blood lead data were matched by census tract communities. Soil lead and blood lead data were described, mapped, blood lead graphed as a function of soil lead, and Multi-Response Permutation Procedures statistics established disparities. Results: Simultaneous decreases occurred in soil lead accompanied by an especially large decline in children's blood lead 10 years after Hurricane Katrina. Exposure disparities still exist between children living in the interior and outer areas of the city. Conclusions: At the scale of a city, this study demonstrates that decreasing soil lead effectively reduces children's blood lead. Primary prevention of lead exposure can be accomplished by reducing soil lead in the urban environment.

  11. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... checked out by a doctor. Am I at risk for high blood pressure? Anyone can develop high blood pressure. But there are several factors that increase your risk: Being overweight or obese Not ... if I have high blood pressure? High blood pressure is often called "the silent ...

  12. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) A ... posture, and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  13. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) ... posture, and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  14. Levels of blood lead in Griffon vultures from a Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Fernando; López, Irene; Suarez, Laura; Moraleda, Virginia; Rodríguez, Casilda

    2017-09-01

    Lead is considered a highly toxic contaminant with important impacts to bird wildlife. Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) are a sensitive indicator of the level of environmental contamination due to their position at the top of the food chain and their dependence on human activities. The aim of this study was to assess susceptibility to lead intoxication in Griffon vultures admitted to Wildlife Rehabilitation Centers (WRC), measuring blood lead levels and determining if blood lead concentrations are related to clinical signs, hematological, biochemical or radiographic findings. Also, the influence of age, gender, body condition, season and primary cause of admission were evaluated. This study was realized in all Griffon vultures admitted during a period of one year in the Rehabilitation Center GREFA. Blood lead levels are measured by using anodic stripping voltammetry. In Griffon vultures, we observed that 26% of the analyzed birds presented lead levels above 20µg/dL with 74% below 20µg/dL ([Pb]lead according to sex, season of admission to the center and body condition. A negative correlation was found between levels of metal and hematocrit. No association was found between clinical signs and blood lead levels in Griffon vultures, except for digestive signs as stasis and weight loss. On numerous occasions, the intoxication in this specie is related to ingestion of lead ammunition; however, we have not detected radiographic lead in our vultures. Compared with other studies, we generally found low levels of lead in blood of Griffon vultures but the blood of all birds admitted to WRC presented detectable lead concentrations. This species apparently presents a higher sensibility to the toxic effects of this metal than that described by other authors. It have been observed that there is some evidence that suggests that subclinical levels of lead could be related with a predisposition to injury or diseases, even though these birds might be admitted for other causes. The

  15. Vitamin D receptor Fok1 polymorphism and blood lead concentration in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, Erin N.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Hornung, Richard; Wenstrup, Richard; Dietrich, Kim; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2003-01-01

    Variation in blood lead concentration is caused by a complex interaction of environmental, social, nutritional, and genetic factors. We evaluated the association between blood lead concentration and a vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism. Environmental samples and blood were analyzed for lead, nutritional and behavioral factors were assessed, and VDR -Fok1 genotype was determined in 245 children. We found a significant interaction between floor dust lead and genotype on blood lead conce...

  16. Evaluation of the use of salivary lead levels as a surrogate of blood lead or plasma lead levels in lead exposed subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Correa Rodrigues, Maria H.; Buzalaf, Maria R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas/Bioquimica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Krug, Francisco J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Gerlach, Raquel F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Morfologia, Estomatologia e Fisiologia, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Tanus-Santos, Jose E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2006-10-15

    We conducted a study to evaluate the use of parotid salivary lead (Pb-saliva) levels as a surrogate of the blood lead (Pb-B) or plasma lead levels (Pb-P) to diagnose lead exposure. The relationship between these biomarkers was assessed in a lead exposed population. Pb-saliva and Pb-P were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, while in whole blood lead was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. We studied 88 adults (31 men and 57 women) from 18 to 60 years old. Pb-saliva levels varied from 0.05 to 4.4 {mu}g/l, with a mean of 0.85 {mu}g/l. Blood lead levels varied from 32.0 to 428.0 {mu}g/l in men (mean 112.3 {mu}g/l) and from 25.0 to 263.0 {mu}g/l (mean 63.5 {mu}g/l) in women. Corresponding Pb-Ps were 0.02-2.50 {mu}g/l (mean 0.77 {mu}g/l) and 0.03-1.6 {mu}g/l (mean 0.42 {mu}g/l) in men and women, respectively. A weak correlation was found between Log Pb-saliva and Log Pb-B (r=0.277, P<0.008), and between Log Pb-saliva and Log Pb-P (r=0.280, P=0.006). The Pb-saliva/Pb-P ratio ranged from 0.20 to 18.0. Age or gender does not affect Pb-saliva levels or Pb-saliva/Pb-P ratio. Taken together, these results suggest that salivary lead may not be used as a biomarker to diagnose lead exposure nor as a surrogate of plasma lead levels at least for low to moderately lead exposed population. (orig.)

  17. [Factors associated with the blood levels of lead in residents of Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Flores, E; Alagón-Cano, J; Bobadilla, J L; Hernández-Prado, B; Ciscomani-Begoña, A

    1989-01-01

    A study aimed at detecting risk factors for high blood lead levels in Mexico City inhabitants, undertaken at the local National Institute of Public Health, is described. Measurements of blood lead levels for a sample of 300 civil servants were related to several potential risk factors. The statistical analysis was based on analysis of variance and logistic regression. The results of the analysis seem to suggest differences in blood levels by sex, zone of residence, hours of transportation and eating habits, such as the consumption of canned meals and the use of "earthenware dishes" in the preparation of meals. The nature of the study is exploratory, but it seems to suggest directions of research in the complex problem of lead levels in people of polluted cities.

  18. Case–Control Study of Blood Lead Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui-Li; Chen, Xiang-Tao; Yang, Bin; Ma, Fang-Li; Wang, Shu; Tang, Ming-liang; Hao, Ming-Gao; Ruan, Di-Yun

    2008-01-01

    Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and lead exposure are high-prevalence conditions among children. Objective Our goal was to investigate the association between ADHD and blood lead levels (BLLs) in Chinese children, adjusting for known ADHD risk factors and potential confounding variables. Methods We conducted a pair-matching case–control study with 630 ADHD cases and 630 non-ADHD controls 4–12 years of age, matched on the same age, sex, and socioeconomic status. The ...

  19. Environmental determinants of different Blood Lead Levels in children: a quantile analysis from a nationwide survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Etchevers, Anne; Le Tertre, Alain; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Bretin, Philippe; Oulhote, Youssef; Le Bot, Barbara; Glorennec, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Background: Blood Lead Levels (BLLs) have substantially decreased in recent decades in children in France. However, further reducing exposure is a public health goal because there is no clear toxicological threshold. The identification of the environmental determinants of BLLs as well as risk factors associated with high BLLs is important to update prevention strategies. We aimed to estimate the contribution of environmental sources of lead to different BLLs in childre...

  20. Changes in Blood Lead Levels Associated with Use of Chloramines in Water Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Kim, Dohyeong; Hull, Andrew P.; Paul, Christopher J.; Galeano, M. Alicia Overstreet

    2007-01-01

    Background More municipal water treatment plants are using chloramines as a disinfectant in order to reduce carcinogenic by-products. In some instances, this has coincided with an increase in lead levels in drinking water in those systems. Lead in drinking water can be a significant health risk. Objectives We sought to test the potential effect of switching to chloramines for disinfection in water treatment systems on childhood blood lead levels using data from Wayne County, located in the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Methods We constructed a unified geographic information system (GIS) that links blood lead screening data with age of housing, drinking water source, and census data for 7,270 records. The data were analyzed using both exploratory methods and more formal multivariate techniques. Results The analysis indicates that the change to chloramine disinfection may lead to an increase in blood lead levels, the impact of which is progressively mitigated in newer housing. Conclusions Introducing chloramines to reduce carcinogenic by-products may increase exposure to lead in drinking water. Our research provides guidance on adjustments in the local childhood lead poisoning prevention program that should accompany changes in water treatment. As similar research is conducted in other areas, and the underlying environmental chemistry is clarified, water treatment strategies can be optimized across the multiple objectives that municipalities face in providing high quality drinking water to local residents. PMID:17384768

  1. Primary Prevention of Lead Exposure—Blood Lead Results at Age Two Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Hansen-Turton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Philadelphia Lead Safe Homes (LSH Study was designed to evaluate whether educational and environmental interventions in the first year of life for families of newborns increased knowledge of lead exposure prevention and were associated with less elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs for these children, when compared to children receiving standard care. Methods: The current study performed descriptive statistics on the second-year BLL data for both groups and compared these using chi-square tests for proportions and unpaired t-tests for means. Results: A BLL result was found for 159 (50.6% of the 314 LSH cohort children and 331 (52.7% of the 628 control children (p = 0.1. Mean and standard deviation for age at draw was 23.8 (3.4 months versus 23.6 (3.1 months (P = 0.6. Geometric mean BLLs were 3.7 versus 3.5 µg/dL (P = 0.4. The percentages of the cohort group with a BLL of ≥20, ≥10 and ≥5 μg/dL, respectively, were 0.6%, 5% and 30%; for the controls 1.2%, 6.6%, and 25%. These percentages were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: A comparison of geometric mean BLLs and percentages above several BLL cut points drawn at age two years in a group of urban newborns benefitting from study interventions versus a group of similar urban children did not yield statistically significant differences. Both groups had relatively lower lead levels when compared to historical cohort groups, which may reflect a continuing downward trend in BLLs in U.S. children. The interventions did result in benefits to the families such as an increase in parental knowledge about lead exposure prevention and in-home wet cleaning activity, and a decrease in lead dust levels in study homes.

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office ... severity of your blood pressure, he or she can order additional tests to determine if your blood ...

  3. Announcement: National High Blood Pressure Education Month - May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major contributor to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the United States.* High blood pressure affects one third of U.S. adults, or approximately 75 million persons, yet approximately 11 million of these persons are not aware they have hypertension, and approximately 18 million are not being treated (unpublished data) (1,2).

  4. High medical consultation rates of lead workers after industrial dispute over lead effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, S.; Murata, K.; Yanagihara, S.; Ushio, K.

    1982-02-01

    Medical consultation rates were compared between a group of lead workers and two groups of non-lead workers in a newspaper company where a serious industrial dispute took place over health effects of lead three years before this study. The comparison was also made within the group of lead workers. Maximal blood lead concentrations (PbBs) ranged from 0.1 ..mu..mol/kg to 3.6 ..mu..mol/kg with an average of 1.3 ..mu..mol/kg in the past three years. The consultation rate of lead workers was significantly higher than that of both the non-lead workers, when the number of workers who consulted physicians or dentists once or more for a year per 100 workers was compared. Disease-specific consultation rates were also higher in lead workers for seven categories of diseases and injuries such as hypertensive disease and peptic ulcers. When lead workers were divided into three groups by PbB or erythrocytes delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) levels, however, no significantly high rate was found in the higher PbB groups nor lower ALAD groups in terms of general and disease-specific consultation rates. It was concluded that the industrial dispute might have been a major cause of the high consultation rate of lead workers.

  5. High-temperature superconducting current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J. R.

    1992-07-01

    The use of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) for current leads to deliver power to devices at liquid helium temperature is near commercial realization. The use of HTSs in this application has the potential to reduce refrigeration requirements and helium boiloff to values significantly lower than the theoretical best achievable with conventional leads. Considerable advantage is achieved by operating these leads with an intermediate temperature heat sink. The HTS part of the lead can be made from pressed and sintered powder. Powder-in-tube fabrication is also possible, however, the normal metal part of the lead acts as a thermal short and cannot provide much stabilization without increasing the refrigeration required. Lead stability favors designs with low current density. Such leads can be manufactured with today's technology, and lower refrigeration results from the same allowable burnout time. Higher current densities result in lower boiloff for the same lead length, but bumout times can be very short. In comparing experiment to theory, the density of helium vapor needs to be accounted for in calculating the expected boiloff. For very low-loss leads, two-dimensional heat transfer and the state of the dewar near the leads may play a dominant role in lead performance.

  6. Blood and hair lead in children with different extents of iron deficiency in Karachi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ataur Rahman, Muhammad; Rahman, Bushra [Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 (Pakistan); Saeed Ahmad, Muhammad [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Blann, Andrew [Department of Medicine, City Hospital, Birmingham B18 7QH, United Kingdom. (United Kingdom); Ahmed, Nessar, E-mail: N.Ahmed@mmu.ac.uk [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Childhood iron deficiency has a high incidence in Pakistan. Some but not all studies have shown that dietary iron deficiency may cause increased absorption of lead as both compete for the same transporters in the small intestine. Therefore, children in Pakistan, residing in heavily polluted cities like Karachi may be prone to lead poisoning. This hypothesis was tested by investigating blood and hair lead concentrations in children from Karachi who were divided into four groups of iron status; normal, borderline iron deficiency, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective observational study was conducted where 269 children were categorized into four groups of iron status using the World Health Organization criteria and one based on soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood iron status was determined using a full blood count, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation and soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood lead was determined by graphite atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas hair lead was assessed using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher in children with iron deficiency anaemia (mean [95% confidence intervals] were 24.9 [22.6-27.2] {mu}g/dL) compared to those with normal iron status (19.1 [16.8-21.4] {mu}g/dL) using WHO criteria. In contrast, hair lead content was not significantly different in children of different iron status. Our findings reinforce the importance of not only reducing environmental lead pollution but also the development of national health strategies to reduce childhood iron deficiency in Pakistan.

  7. Blood lead levels of wild Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and black scoters (Melanitta nigra) in Alaska using a portable blood lead analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Corrine S.; Luebbert, Joanne; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Schamber, Jason L.; Rosenberg, Daniel H.

    2006-01-01

    Sea duck populations are declining in Alaska. The reasons for the decline are not known; environmental lead exposure is one suspected cause. Thirty wild Steller's eider ducks (Polysticta stelleri) and 40 wild black scoter ducks (Melanitta nigra) were tested for blood lead levels using a portable blood lead analyzer (LeadCare; ESA, Inc., Chelmsford, Massachusetts 01824, USA). Sixty-seven and one-tenth percent of the sea ducks had undetectable blood lead levels, 30.0% had values indicating normal or background lead exposure, and 2.9% had values indicating lead exposure. None of the birds had values indicating lead toxicity, and no birds demonstrated clinical signs of toxicity. Birds in areas with higher human population density had higher blood lead levels than those in less densely populated areas. This is the first time a portable blood lead analyzer has been utilized with sea ducks in a field setting. Because it provides immediate results, it is valuable as a screening tool for investigators carrying out surgical procedures on birds in the field as well as establishing baseline blood lead data on sea ducks. Lead exposure does occur in wild sea ducks, and the study indicates that additional research is needed in order to determine the role environmental lead plays in declining sea duck populations.

  8. Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to a Heart Attack Updated:Dec ... sheet This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  9. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  10. A multivariate linear regression model for predicting children's blood lead levels based on soil lead levels: A study at four superfund sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, M D; Sarasua, S; Jones, P A

    1999-07-01

    For the purpose of examining the association between blood lead levels and household-specific soil lead levels, we used a multivariate linear regression model to find a slope factor relating soil lead levels to blood lead levels. We used previously collected data from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) multisite lead and cadmium study. The data included the blood lead measurements (0.5 to 40.2 microg/dL) of 1015 children aged 6-71 months, and corresponding household-specific environmental samples. The environmental samples included lead in soil (18.1-9980 mg/kg), house dust (5.2-71,000 mg/kg), interior paint (0-16.5 mg/cm2), and tap water (0.3-103 microg/L). After adjusting for income, education of the parents, presence of a smoker in the household, sex, and dust lead, and using a double log transformation, we found a slope factor of 0.1388 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09-0.19 for the dose-response relationship between the natural log of the soil lead level and the natural log of the blood lead level. The predicted blood lead level corresponding to a soil lead level of 500 mg/kg was 5.99 microg/kg with a 95% prediction interval of 2. 08-17.29. Predicted values and their corresponding prediction intervals varied by covariate level. The model shows that increased soil lead level is associated with elevated blood leads in children, but that predictions based on this regression model are subject to high levels of uncertainty and variability.

  11. Impacts of Elevated Prenatal Blood Lead on Trace Element Status and Pregnancy Outcomes in Occupationally Non-exposed Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Obuna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Lead toxicity has been reported to affect hematopoietic, nervous, reproductive, cardiovascular and urinary tract systems. Many investigators have so far studied the effects of high blood lead levels on pregnancy outcomes.Objective: To investigate the effects of elevated maternal blood lead during pregnancy on some trace elements and pregnancy outcomes.Methods: Blood lead and plasma copper, iron and zinc were measured in 349 pregnant women with a mean±SD age of 27.0±4.8 years, and gestational age of 21.8±3.1 weeks, at recruitment using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Maternal and fetal outcomes were recorded during follow-up and at delivery, respectively. A blood lead level of ≥10 µg/dL was considered high.Results: Women with elevated blood lead had significantly higher plasma copper and iron and lower plasma zinc than women with low blood lead level (Conclusion: Complications of pregnancy may be induced by a high blood lead level possibly through the alterations in trace element metabolism.

  12. Reductions in blood lead overestimate reductions in brain lead following repeated succimer regimens in a rodent model of childhood lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangle, Diane E; Strawderman, Myla S; Smith, Donald; Kuypers, Mareike; Strupp, Barbara J

    2004-03-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of succimer chelation in reducing blood and brain lead levels, the relative efficacy of the drug in the two tissues is less well understood. This issue is important because blood lead levels after chelation are used clinically to estimate reductions in the brain, the most critical organ in considering lead-induced neurotoxicity. The present study was designed to further investigate this issue, using multiple chelation regimens. Long-Evans rats were exposed to one of three lead exposure regimens from birth until postnatal day 40, followed by treatment with succimer (one or two 3-week regimens) or vehicle. The results indicated that one succimer regimen was significantly superior to vehicle treatment in lowering lead levels in both blood and brain across the entire 8-week follow-up period. Similarly, a second succimer regimen offered significant additional benefit relative to one regimen for both blood and brain across the 4-week follow-up period. However, several findings revealed that succimer-induced reductions in brain lead lagged behind reductions in blood lead and were generally smaller in magnitude. Furthermore, a rebound was detected in blood, but not brain, lead levels after both succimer regimens. Given the results of this study, we urge caution in using blood lead as a surrogate for brain lead levels, particularly during and immediately after chelation treatment when reductions in blood lead levels overestimate reductions in brain lead levels. The present results suggest that, in clinical use, succimer treatment may need to extend beyond the point at which blood lead levels have dropped to an "acceptable" target value in order to effectively reduce brain lead levels and minimize neurotoxicity.

  13. Determinants of blood-lead levels in children in Callao and Lima metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza Rocío

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine blood lead levels in urban populations of children (n=2 510 and women (n=874 in the early postpartum in certain districts of Lima and Callao, and to correlate those levels with particular exposures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between July 1998 and January 1999 cross sectional study was conducted. The study population was selected using three sampling strategies in the government operated school system and from public pediatric and maternity hospitals at Lima and Callao, Peru. Study personnel were trained to collect finger stick blood samples with a protocol that minimizes external lead contamination. Lead determinations in blood and environmental samples were performed at the study site using portable anodic striping voltamenters. To determine the simultaneous effects of different predictors on blood lead levels, multivariate regression models were used to estimate adjusted mean differences. RESULTS: The mean blood lead level in the children studied was 9.9 µg/dl ranging from I µg/dl to 64 µg/dl with 29% of the children displaying values greater than 10 µg/dl and 9.4% at levels greater than 20 µg/dl. Among the women, the mean was 3.5 µg/dl (SD=2.4 µg/dl, and 2.4% (n=21 displayed levels greater than 10 µg/dl. Important differences were observed between the sample locations, and the highest levels were documented in the port region near Callao. The mean level of blood lead in this group was 25.6 µg/dl (SD=4.6 µg/dl, while among the rest of the sample it was 7.1 µg/dl (SD=5.1 µg/dl. The presence of a mineral storage area signified a difference in exposure in excess of 13 µg/dl for children living near the port area in contrast to the other children who were not as close to such fixed sources of lead exposure. For the participants in Lima, the risk of showing levels above 10 µg/dl was associated with exposure to high vehicular traffic. CONCLUSIONS: In metropolitan Lima, we conclude that the mean blood lead levels of

  14. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Moya-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Elevated blood lead levels (BLL and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far.Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed.At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83, and 128 infants (63% had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%. Twenty-five infants (12.5% had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L. Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048 and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03 in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators.Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs according to the Institute of Health Metrics. In conclusion, due

  15. Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 10,2017 The importance of stress ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  16. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Oct 31,2016 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  17. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  18. High Blood Pressure: Keep the Beat Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Keep the Beat Recipes Past Issues / Fall 2011 ... 65 million American adults—one in three—with high blood pressure, you have probably heard the advice, "watch your ...

  19. Relationship Between Total and Bioaccessible Lead on Children's Blood Lead Levels in Urban Residential Philadelphia Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradham, Karen D; Nelson, Clay M; Kelly, Jack; Pomales, Ana; Scruton, Karen; Dignam, Tim; Misenheimer, John C; Li, Kevin; Obenour, Daniel R; Thomas, David J

    2017-09-05

    Relationships between total soil or bioaccessible lead (Pb), measured using an in vitro bioaccessibility assay, and children's blood lead levels (BLL) were investigated in an urban neighborhood in Philadelphia, PA, with a history of soil Pb contamination. Soil samples from 38 homes were analyzed to determine whether accounting for the bioaccessible Pb fraction improves statistical relationships with children's BLLs. Total soil Pb concentration ranged from 58 to 2821 mg/kg; the bioaccessible Pb concentration ranged from 47 to 2567 mg/kg. Children's BLLs ranged from 0.3 to 9.8 μg/dL. Hierarchical models were used to compare relationships between total or bioaccessible Pb in soil and children's BLLs. Total soil Pb concentration as the predictor accounted for 23% of the variability in child BLL; bioaccessible soil Pb concentration as the predictor accounted for 26% of BLL variability. A bootstrapping analysis confirmed a significant increase in R(2) for the model using bioaccessible soil Pb concentration as the predictor with 99.0% of bootstraps showing a positive increase. Estimated increases of 1.3 μg/dL and 1.5 μg/dL in BLL per 1000 mg/kg Pb in soil were observed for this study area using total and bioaccessible Pb concentrations, respectively. Children's age did not contribute significantly to the prediction of BLLs.

  20. High medical consultation rates of lead workers after industrial dispute over lead effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, S.; Murata, K.; Yanagihara, S.; Ushio, K.

    1982-02-01

    Medical consultation rates were compared between a group of lead workers (346 males) and two groups of non-lead workers (317 and 329 males) in a newspaper company where a serious industrial dispute took place over health effects of lead three years before this study. The comparison was also made within the group of lead workers. Maximal blood lead concentrations (PbBs) ranged from 0.1 mumol/kg to 3.6 mumol/kg (74 microgram/100 g) with an average of 1.3 mumol/kg in the past three years. Ages averaged 35 years in lead workers, and 34 and 30 years in non-lead workers, the ranges being 19-55 years in all. The consultation rate of lead workers was significantly higher than that of both the non-lead workers (P less than 0.001), when the number of workers who consulted physicians or dentists once or more for a year per 100 workers (general consultation rate) was compared. Disease-specific consultation rates were also higher in lead workers for seven categories of diseases and injuries such as hypertensive disease and peptic ulcers. When lead workers were divided into three groups by PbB or erythrocytes delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) levels, however, no significantly high rate was found in the higher PhB groups not lower ALAD groups in terms of general and disease-specific consultation rates. It was concluded that the industrial dispute might have been a major cause of the high consultation rate of lead workers.

  1. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... Lifestyle Habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can raise your risk for high blood pressure, and they include: Eating too much sodium or ...

  2. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-03-11

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2-85.0) and 46.6 (36.5-60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring's consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children's BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children's BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure.

  3. Interpreting and managing blood lead levels of less than 10 microg/dL in children and reducing childhood exposure to lead: recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Helen J; Campbell, Carla; Brown, Mary Jean

    2007-11-01

    Lead is a common environmental contaminant. Lead exposure is a preventable risk that exists in all areas of the United States. In children, lead is associated with impaired cognitive, motor, behavioral, and physical abilities. In 1991, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defined the blood lead level that should prompt public health actions as 10 microg/dL. Concurrently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also recognized that a blood lead level of 10 microg/dL did not define a threshold for the harmful effects of lead. Research conducted since 1991 has strengthened the evidence that children's physical and mental development can be affected at blood lead levels of children they examine, provide families with lead-prevention counseling, and follow blood lead screening recommendations established for their areas. As circumstances permit, clinicians should consider referral to developmental programs for children at high risk for exposure to lead and more frequent rescreening of children with blood lead levels approaching 10 microg/dL. In addition, clinicians should direct parents to agencies and sources of information that will help them establish a lead-safe environment for their children. For these preventive strategies to succeed, partnerships between health care providers, families, and local public health and housing programs should be strengthened.

  4. Investigation and Evaluation of Children’s Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents’ occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p < 0.05. Four risk factors for elevated blood lead levels were found by logistic regression analysis, including younger age, male, shorter distance from the recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant.

  5. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or focusing on something calm or peaceful Performing yoga or tai chi Meditating Medicines Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to stop or slow some of the body’s functions that cause high blood pressure. Medicines to lower ...

  6. Cardiovascular responses to lead are biphasic, while methylmercury, but not inorganic mercury, monotonically increases blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Mirhosseini, Naghmeh; Siciliano, Steven D; Weber, Lynn P

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack and stroke, are the major cause of death worldwide. It is well known that a high number of environmental and physiological risk factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Although risk factors are additive, increased blood pressure (hypertension) is the greatest risk factor. Over the last two decades, a growing number of epidemiological studies associate environmental exposure to lead or mercury species with hypertension. However, cardiovascular effects beyond blood pressure are rarely studied and thresholds for effect are not yet clear. To explore effects of lead or mercury species on the cardiovascular system, normal male Wistar rats were exposed to a range of doses of lead, inorganic mercury or methylmercury through the drinking water for four weeks. High-resolution ultrasound was used to measure heart and vascular function (carotid artery blood flow) at baseline and at the end of the exposure, while blood pressure was measured directly in the femoral artery at the end of the 4-week exposure. After 4 weeks, blood pressure responses to lead were biphasic. Low lead levels decreased blood pressure, dilated the carotid artery and increased cardiac output. At higher lead doses, rats had increased blood pressure. In contrast, methylmercury-exposed rats had increased blood pressure at all doses despite dilated carotid arteries. Inorganic mercury did not show any significant cardiovascular effects. Based on the current study, the benchmark dose level 10% (BMDL10s) for systolic blood pressure for lead, inorganic mercury and methylmercury are 1.1, 1.3 and 1.0 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively. However, similar total mercury blood levels attributed to inorganic mercury or methylmercury produced strikingly different results with inorganic mercury having no observable effect on the cardiovascular system but methylmercury increasing systolic and pulse pressures. Therefore, adverse cardiovascular effects cannot be

  7. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  8. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  9. Predictors of blood lead levels in agricultural villages practicing wastewater irrigation in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, E; Villanueva, J; Sanin, L H

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether the agricultural use of untreated wastewater (i.e. crop irrigation) was associated with elevated blood lead levels in a farming population in the Mezquital Valley and which risk factors, other than exposure to untreated wastewater, were associated with elevated blood lead levels, lead levels were measured in venous blood obtained from 735 individuals. Blood samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Food habits and dietary intake were gathered by interview, using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The average blood lead level was 7.8 microg/dL (SD 4.66 microg/dL; range 1.2-36.7 microg/dL). 23% of the study population had blood lead levels exceeding 10 microg/dL. The use of lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) was significantly associated with elevated lead levels (p = farming-related occupations (e.g., technicians, factory workers). p = 0.005, 0.08, and 0.001, respectively. When the analysis was stratified by the use of LGC for food preparation, an inverse relationship between higher daily calcium intake and blood lead level was detected (beta = - 0.040, p = < 0.05). Thus, blood lead levels were positively associated with the use of LGC. Calcium intake showed a protective effect, maybe by decreasing absorption of lead in the gastrointestinal tract. No association between occupational exposure to untreated wastewater or crop consumption and blood lead levels was detected. Further environmental and health surveillance is recommended.

  10. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: The use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Leonard J.S. [Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)], E-mail: ljtsuji@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Wainman, Bruce C. [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Martin, Ian D. [Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Sutherland, Celine [Attawapiskat First Nation Health Services, Attawapiskat, Ontario, P0L 1A0 (Canada); Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre [Centre de toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1V 5B3 (Canada); Nieboer, Evert [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromso, Tromso N-9037 (Norway)

    2008-11-01

    Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected from participants prior to the traditional spring harvest of water birds, as well as post-harvest. Blood-lead levels and stable lead isotope ratios prior to, and after the harvest were determined by ICP-MS. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. All participants consumed water birds harvested with lead shotshell during the period of study. For the group excluding six males who were potentially exposed to other sources of lead (as revealed through a questionnaire), paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests showed consistent results: significant (p < 0.05) increases in blood-lead concentrations and blood levels of {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb towards the mean values we previously reported for lead shotshell pellets; and a significant decrease in {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb values towards the mean for lead shotshell pellets. However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb hold true, but there was not a significant increase in blood-lead level after the hunt. It appears that the activity of hunting (i.e., use of a shotgun) was also an important route of lead exposure. The banning of lead shotshell for all game hunting would eliminate a source of environmental lead for all people who use firearms and/or eat wild game.

  11. Blood lead levels among children aged 0 to 6 years in 16 cities of China, 2004-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-hua; TAN Zang-wen; JIA Ni; FAN Zhao-yang; ZHANG Shuai-ming; L(U) Yan-yu; CHEN Li

    2013-01-01

    Background The adverse health effects of lead for children under 6 years are well known.Studies to assess the lead exposure among children in China are small in sample size and lack of national representative data.The aim of this study therefore was to describe blood lead levels and identify risk factors for lead exposure among children aged 0 to 6 years living in 16 cities in China.Methods We analyzed data from blood lead levels surveillance in China carried out in 16 large cities between 2004 and 2008.A stratified clustered random sampling strategy was used.A total of 69 968 children aged 0 to 6 years were included.We conducted multiple Logistic regression analyses to explore risk factors to high blood lead level.Results The geometric mean blood lead level of the children was 4.50 μg/dl (median:4.90 μg/dl; IQR:3.20-7.00 μg/dl).Overall prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl among 0-to 6-year-old children was 7.57%.But the proportion of blood lead level ≥5.00 but <10.00 μg/dl was 42.12%.Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (4.63 μg/dl) than in girls (4.35 μg/dl) (P <0.0001).The geometric mean blood lead levels and prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl increased with age (P <0.0001 for the two trends).After controlling for sociodemographic,dietary and behavior factors,multivariable analysis indicated that lower maternal education,male gender,younger age,often biting pencil or/and toys,walking or playing for long time on the street,not washing hands before eating are major risk factors for higher lead levels.Conclusions The blood lead levels among Chinese children in urban areas are lower than previous studies but close to those of developed countries.However,children with low lead exposure account for almost half and the sociodemographic factors (age,male sex,and low mother education level) continue to be associated with higher blood lead levels.

  12. High blood pressure in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, D A; Oparil, S

    1997-01-01

    There is a sexual dimorphism in blood pressure of humans and experimental animals: males tend to have higher blood pressure than females with functional ovaries, while ovariectomy or menopause tends to abolish the sexual dimorphism and cause females to develop a "male" pattern of blood pressure. Hypertensive male laboratory animals tend to have NaCl-sensitive blood pressure, while females are NaCl resistant unless their ovaries are removed, in which case NaCl sensitivity appears. The hormonal basis of NaCl sensitivity of blood pressure and of the sexual dimorphism of hypertension remains to be defined. Synthetic estrogens and progestins, as found in oral contraceptives, tend to elevate blood pressure, while naturally occurring estrogens lower it, or have no effect. Hypertension increases cardiovascular risk in women, as well as men, although the benefits of antihypertensive treatment have been more difficult to demonstrate in women. In the population of the United States, women are more aware of their hypertension, more likely to be treated medically, and more likely to have their blood pressure controlled.

  13. Determinants of blood lead levels in an adult population from a mining area in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos Paoliello, M. M.; Mello de Capitani, E.; Gonçalves da Cunha, F.; Carvalho, M. De Fatima; Matsuo, T.; Sakuma, A.; Ribeiro Figueiredo, B.

    2003-05-01

    During the last fifty year the Ribeira river valley, Brazil, had been under the influence of the full activity of a huge lead refinery and mining along the riverside. The plant completely stopped all kind of industrial activities at the end of 1995, and part of the worker population and their families still remain living nearby in smal communities. The objective of the present study was to assess the deterninants of blood lead levels (BLL) in these nining areas, where residual environmental contamination from the past industrial activity still remains. Blood samples of 350 adults aged 15 to 70, residing in areas around the mine and the refinery were collected. A questionnaire was given in order to gather information on food habits, current and former residential places occupationnal activities, among other variables. Blood lead concentrations were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using Zeeman background correction. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the independent contribution of selected variables in predicting BLL in those subjects. The following variables showed significant association with high BLL: residential area close to the lead refinery, former dwelling at the refinery village, male gender, smoking habits, and consume of fruits from home back yard.

  14. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as eclampsia--the second leading cause of maternal death in the U.S. Preeclampsia is also a leading cause of fetal complications, which include low birth weight, premature birth, and stillbirth. There is no proven way ...

  15. Elevated blood-lead levels in first nation people of Northern Ontario Canada: policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Martin, I D; Weber, J-P; Sutherland, C; Liberda, E N; Nieboer, E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the preliminary impact of the Canadian "non-toxic" shotshell policy, for the hunting of migratory game birds, by examining blood-lead levels of First Nations people living in sub-arctic Canada. If the use of lead shotshell was the major source of lead exposure as has been postulated and the ban on the use of lead shotshell for hunting migratory birds was immediately effective, we would expect that blood-lead levels would be typical of a geographic area remote from industrialization. Our findings present some concern in that approximately 18% of the 196 First Nations people examined had blood-lead levels > or =100 microg/L.

  16. Combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls and non-chemical risk factors on blood pressure in NHANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Junenette L., E-mail: petersj@bu.edu; Patricia Fabian, M., E-mail: pfabian@bu.edu; Levy, Jonathan I., E-mail: jonlevy@bu.edu

    2014-07-15

    High blood pressure is associated with exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical risk factors, but epidemiological analyses to date have not assessed the combined effects of both chemical and non-chemical stressors on human populations in the context of cumulative risk assessment. We developed a novel modeling approach to evaluate the combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and multiple non-chemical risk factors on four blood pressure measures using data for adults aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008). We developed predictive models for chemical and other stressors. Structural equation models were applied to account for complex associations among predictors of stressors as well as blood pressure. Models showed that blood lead, serum PCBs, and established non-chemical stressors were significantly associated with blood pressure. Lead was the chemical stressor most predictive of diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure, while PCBs had a greater influence on systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and blood cadmium was not a significant predictor of blood pressure. The simultaneously fit exposure models explained 34%, 43% and 52% of the variance for lead, cadmium and PCBs, respectively. The structural equation models were developed using predictors available from public data streams (e.g., U.S. Census), which would allow the models to be applied to any U.S. population exposed to these multiple stressors in order to identify high risk subpopulations, direct intervention strategies, and inform public policy. - Highlights: • We evaluated joint impact of chemical and non-chemical stressors on blood pressure. • We built predictive models for lead, cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). • Our approach allows joint evaluation of predictors from population-specific data. • Lead, PCBs and established non-chemical stressors were related to blood pressure.

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Spokespeople Email Alerts E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs ... track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care provider may ask you to ...

  18. Deficits in cognitive function and achievement in Mexican first-graders with low blood lead concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Canfield, Richard L; López, Patricia; Rosado, Jorge L; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Cebrián, Mariano E; Rico, Javier Alatorre; Ronquillo, Dolores; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2006-03-01

    Elevated blood lead levels in children are associated with lower scores on tests of cognitive functioning. Recent studies have reported inverse relations between lifetime exposure and intellectual functioning at blood lead concentrations below 10 microg/dL, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) level of concern. We report associations between blood lead and cognitive performance for first-grade Mexican children living near a metal foundry. Using a cross-sectional design, we examined the relation between children's concurrent blood lead concentrations (mean (SD) 11.4 microg/dL (6.1)) and their performance on 14 tests of global or specific cognitive functions. The blood lead-cognition relations were modeled using both linear and nonlinear methods. After adjustment for covariates, a higher blood lead level was associated with poorer cognitive performance on several cognitive tests. Segmented linear regressions revealed significant effects of lead but only for the segments defined by a concurrent blood lead concentration below 10-14 microg/dL. One implication of these findings is that at the age of 7 years, even in the absence of information on lead exposure in infancy and early childhood, a test result with blood lead < 10 microg/dL should not be considered safe. Together with other recent findings, these results add to the empirical base of support available for evaluating the adequacy of current screening guidelines and for motivating efforts at primary prevention of childhood lead exposure.

  19. Association of blood lead (Pb and plasma homocysteine: a cross sectional survey in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Yakub

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High blood lead (Pb and hyperhomocysteinemia have been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD. Mean blood Pb and mean plasma homocysteine levels have been reported to be high in Pakistani population. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship of blood Pb to the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia in a low income urban population of Karachi, Pakistan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cross sectional survey, 872 healthy adults (355 males, 517 females; age 18-60 years were recruited from a low income urban population of Karachi. Fasting venous blood was obtained and assessed for blood Pb and plasma/serum homocysteine, folate, pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, a coenzymic form of vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. The study population had median (IQR blood Pb of 10.82 microg/dL (8.29-13.60. Prevalence of high blood Pb (levels>10 microg/dL was higher in males compared to females (62.5% males vs 56% females; p value=0.05. Mean+/-SD/median (IQR value of plasma homocysteine was significantly higher in the highest quartile of blood Pb compared to the lowest quartile 16.13+/-11.2 micromol/L vs 13.28+/-9.7micromol/L/13.15 (10.33-17.81 micromol/L vs 11.09 (8.65 14.31 micromol/L (p value<0.001. Daily consumption of fruit juice had a positive influence on both levels of plasma homocysteine and blood Pb. Compared with the lowest quartile of blood Pb, the OR for hyperhomocysteinemia was 1.69 (95% CI, 1.00 to 2.85 for the fourth quartile when the model was adjusted for age, gender, folate and vitamin B12. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study showed a relationship between blood Pb and hyperhomocysteinemia in a general population of Karachi, Pakistan. The harmful effect of Pb on cardiovascular system could be due to its association with hyperhomocysteinemia.

  20. Comparative assessment of blood lead levels of automobile technicians in organised and roadside garages in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment.

  1. Investigation and Evaluation of Children’s Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents’ occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant. PMID:27240393

  2. High Speed Blood and Transfusion Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-14

    used to calculate percent hemolysis of red blood cells. Plasma Free Hemoglobin Assay - pRBCs samples were assayed for plasma free hemoglobin (PFH...resulting in high temperatures gradients that preludes blood hemolysis if fluid flow stops. • The solenoid valve has been replaced with a valve of a more...pRBCs to test efficacy. Both pre and post cartridge blood samples were evaluated to determine if any damage may have occurred to blood cells. The

  3. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, C. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: LY@sinap.ac.cn; Li, Y.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zou, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, G.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Normura, M. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, Oho, Tsukuba 305 (Japan); Zhu, G.Y. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N{sub {epsilon}} bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO{sub 2} decreases.

  4. Low-level lead exposure and elevations in blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ellen M; Navas-Acien, Ana; Herbstman, Julie B; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L; Halden, Rolf U; Witter, Frank R; Goldman, Lynn R

    2011-05-01

    Lead exposure is associated with elevated blood pressure during pregnancy; however, the magnitude of this relationship at low exposure levels is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between low-level lead exposure and blood pressure during late pregnancy. We collected admission and maximum (based on systolic) blood pressures during labor and delivery among 285 women in Baltimore, Maryland. We measured umbilical cord blood lead using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable models were adjusted for age, race, median household income, parity, smoking during pregnancy, prepregnancy body mass index, and anemia. These models were used to calculate benchmark dose values. Geometric mean cord blood lead was 0.66 μg/dL (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.70). Comparing blood pressure measurements between those in the highest and those in the lowest quartile of lead exposure, we observed a 6.87-mmHg (1.51-12.21 mmHg) increase in admission systolic blood pressure and a 4.40-mmHg (0.21-8.59 mmHg) increase in admission diastolic blood pressure after adjustment for confounders. Corresponding values for maximum blood pressure increase were 7.72 (1.83-13.60) and 8.33 (1.14-15.53) mmHg. Benchmark dose lower limit values for a 1-SD increase in blood pressure were blood lead for all blood pressure end points. A significant association between low-level lead exposures and elevations in maternal blood pressure during labor and delivery can be observed at umbilical blood lead levels < 2 μg/dL.

  5. Many People Don't Take Their High Blood Pressure Meds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163928.html Many People Don't Take Their High Blood Pressure Meds: Study Failure to follow doctors' orders leads ... 20 percent of patients seeking care for stubborn high blood pressure take all the medicine they're supposed to, ...

  6. Association of food consumption during pregnancy with mercury and lead levels in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Gyuyeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Hai-Joong; Kim, Sungjoo; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Soo Ran

    2016-09-01

    In utero exposure to mercury and lead has been linked to various adverse health effects related to growth and development. However, there was no evidence on the relationship between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood. Therefore we measured mercury and lead levels in bloods, urines, and cord bloods obtained from 302 pregnant women and estimated relationships between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood to identify perinatal mercury and lead exposures originated from foods during pregnancy. Relationship between food consumption and mercury or lead level was estimated using a generalized linear model after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), delivery experience, income, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for mercury and age, BMI, cesarean section, delivery experience, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for lead. Fish consumption was positively associated with mercury level in cord blood (p=0.0135), while cereal and vegetable consumptions were positively associated with lead level in cord blood (p=0.0517 for cereal and p=0.0504 for vegetable). Furthermore, tea consumption restrained increase of lead level in cord blood (p=0.0014). Our findings support that mercury or lead exposure in Korean pregnant women may come from frequent fish and cereal or vegetable consumption while tea consumption may decrease lead exposure in pregnant women. Therefore, careful intervention through food consumption should be considered.

  7. Lead distribution in the saliva and blood fractions of rats after intraperitoneal injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, N; P'an, A Y

    1984-07-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 1, 2 or 3 i.p. injections of lead acetate (100 mg/kg) and sacrificed 24 h, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days after the last injection. Lead concentration was determined by flameless AAS technique in whole blood, plasma, plasma filtrate, saliva and submaxillary gland tissue. The concentration of lead in saliva was about 5% of whole blood lead concentration and around 61% of plasma filtrate lead level. Saliva lead concentration was significantly related both to whole blood lead concentration and plasma filtrate lead concentration (r = 0.78, P less than 0.001; r = 0.80, P = 0.001 respectively). Lead was present in the submaxillary gland tissue; the amount of lead increased with increasing amounts administered.

  8. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: the use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-11-01

    Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected from participants prior to the traditional spring harvest of water birds, as well as post-harvest. Blood-lead levels and stable lead isotope ratios prior to, and after the harvest were determined by ICP-MS. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. All participants consumed water birds harvested with lead shotshell during the period of study. For the group excluding six males who were potentially exposed to other sources of lead (as revealed through a questionnaire), paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests showed consistent results: significant (plead concentrations and blood levels of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb towards the mean values we previously reported for lead shotshell pellets; and a significant decrease in (208)Pb/(206)Pb values towards the mean for lead shotshell pellets. However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions for (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb hold true, but there was not a significant increase in blood-lead level after the hunt. It appears that the activity of hunting (i.e., use of a shotgun) was also an important route of lead exposure. The banning of lead shotshell for all game hunting would eliminate a source of environmental lead for all people who use firearms and/or eat wild game.

  9. Trend of childhood blood lead levels in cities of China in recent 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Zhang, Shuaiming; Tan, Zangwen; Dai, Yaohua

    2017-02-01

    The adverse effects of lead on human especially childhood have been well established. Largely due to the phase out of lead in gasoline, blood lead levels (BLLs) had declined substantially all over the world including China. In 2004, 2007, 2010, and 2013, we conducted a continuous project including 47,346 children aged 0-6 years old from 11 cities all over China to show how the decline happened and to explore what to do next to improve the BLLs of children of China. Our data shown the BLLs of Chinese children decreased from 46.38, 43.58, 38.95 to 37.17 μg/L, but the decline was not enough. These decline was mainly because of the number decrease of children with high BLLs. Integrated strategy should be used to promote the BLLs of Chinese children, like striving to improve the environment, setting new cutoff for high BLLs, and establishing routine blood lead screening.

  10. High Blood Pressure and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fewer nutrients. This can lead to slow growth, low birth weight or preterm birth. Prematurity can lead to ... previous pregnancy, your doctor might recommend a daily low-dose aspirin — between 60 and 81 milligrams — beginning late in your first trimester. Your health care provider ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites News & ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  13. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged lead tests in children aged lead in the water, the water advisory likely reduced tap water consumption and increased consumption of bottled water. Characterizing exposure to lead contaminated drinking water among children aged <6 years living in Flint can help guide appropriate interventions.

  14. BLOOD LEAD AND SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MENSES IN U.S. GIRLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood Lead and Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in U.S. Girls. *T. Wu, P. Mendola, and G.M. Buck (SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214)Purpose: To investigate the association between blood lead and puberty (presence of public hair, breast development, and menarch...

  15. CHRONOBIOLOGY OF HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.; Bakken, E. E.; Wang, Z.; Tarquini, R.; Perfetto, F.; Laffi, G.; Maggioni, C.; Kumagai, Y.; Homolka, P.; Havelková, A.; Dušek, J.; Svačinová, H.; Siegelová, J.; Fišer, B.

    2008-01-01

    BIOCOS, the project aimed at studying BIOlogical systems in their COSmos, has obtained a great deal of expertise in the fields of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitoring and of marker rhythmometry for the purposes of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Prolonging the monitoring reduces the uncertainty in the estimation of circadian parameters; the current recommendation of BIOCOS requires monitoring for at least 7 days. The BIOCOS approach consists of a parametric and a non-parametric analysis of the data, in which the results from the individual subject are being compared with gender- and age-specified reference values in health. Chronobiological designs can offer important new information regarding the optimization of treatment by timing its administration as a function of circadian and other rhythms. New technological developments are needed to close the loop between the monitoring of blood pressure and the administration of antihypertensive drugs. PMID:19122770

  16. Blood lead level and seizure: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shah Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is one of the most serious and fast-growing problems in the world of today. Lead poisoning is a threatening environmental situation with the potential of causing irreversible health issues and serious negative consequences in adults and children. Lead proves to have almost no clear biological function. However, once it enters the body, it is known to cause severe health effects, which might be irreversible. In this article, we aimed to review the related literature to find evidence concerning the effect of lead toxicity on CNS, particularly its role in febrile convulsion. In this review, PubMed database was searched using MeSH terms. One hundred and fifty seven articles were retrieved, most of which were irrelevant to the topic. After a thorough search in PubMed and Google Scholar, seizure was shown to be one of the consequences of lead toxicity, but there was no evidence of epilepsy or febrile convulsion, induced by this metal contamination.

  17. Elevation of blood ciclosporin levels by voriconazole leading to leukoencephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Caihong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report that one 18-year-old female patient with no epilepsia history developed severe epileptiform seizures while she was receiving "ciclosporin A (CsA-mycophenolate-methylprednisolone" antirejection therapy after combining one week′s voriconazole administration following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. Her blood concentration of CsA was 378 ng/ml (elevated ↑64%, contrasted with the level before the addition of voriconazole on the second day of admission, and the MRI of head showed leukoencephalopathy in bilateral occipital and left frontal lobe on the 4 th day of admission. The most likely mechanism is that because of voriconazole′s enzyme inhibition and CsA as the substrate of hepatic enzymes, voriconazole elevated the blood concentration of CsA and enhanced its toxicity. This case highlights the importance of clinical pharmacists joining the medical team and optimizing the patients′ treatment protocols by performing a systematic literature research, accumulating the knowledge of the potential drug interaction and examining prescriptions.

  18. Fetal Growth Retardation And Its Relationship To Maternal Blood Lead Levels, Antioxidants And Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragab H. EL-Yamani* and Ahmed E. Karim

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead intoxication in human being has been documented since the second century BC and its deleterious effects continue to be a major health hazard for the population, it is demonstrated that lead exposure might decrease the defense mechanism of the cell to the oxidative stress, and therefore, elevate the reactive oxygen species (ROS generation which enhance vascular reactivity. Since vitamin E (Vit. E and vitamin C (Vit. C are natural antioxidants, changes in their status may reflect alterations in free radical production rate and their concentrations are biological markers of oxidative stress. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between maternal blood lead levels and the antioxidants Vit.E and Vit.C in a step to understand the mechanism of action of lead and its possible influence on maternal blood pressure and fetal growth at the lower community exposure levels. The study included, 42 patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH with or without proteinuria, 31 patients with fetal growth retardation (FGR and 23 women with uncomplicated pregnancy. We demonstrated that, the maternal blood lead levels were significantly high in the PIH (30.5 ±0.978 µg/dl and FGR groups (28.87 ±1.21 µg/dl as compared with the uncomplicated pregnancy group (17.82 ±110µg/dl at P0.00l Vit.E concentrations were significantly lower in both PIH and FGR (0.941 ±0.033 mg/dl and 0.866 ± 0.055 mg/dl respectively when compared with normal group (2.00±0.085 mg/dl. Regarding Vit.C in the 2 studied groups there was significantly low levels in PIH group (0.772 ±0.030 mg/dl and FGR (0.847 ±0.039 mg/dl in comparison with control group (l.23 ±0.06 mg/dl. We observed significant negative correlation between maternal blood lead levels and Vit.E in PIH and FGR group. A significant negative correlation was also observed between maternal lead levels and Vit.C in both studied groups. We concluded that high blood lead levels in pregnancy are associated

  19. [High blood pressure and physical exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosner, P; Gremeaux, V; Bosquet, L; Herpin, D

    2014-06-01

    High blood pressure is a frequent pathology with many cardiovascular complications. As highlighted in guidelines, the therapeutic management of hypertension relies on non-pharmacological measures, which are diet and regular physical activity, but both patients and physicians are reluctant to physical activity prescription. To acquire the conviction that physical activity is beneficial, necessary and possible, we can take into account some fundamental and clinical studies, as well as the feedback of our clinical practice. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension contributes to increase this risk. Conversely, regular practice of physical activity decreases very significantly the risk by up to 60%. The acute blood pressure changes during exercise and post-exercise hypotension differs according to the dynamic component (endurance or aerobic and/or strength exercises), but the repetition of the sessions leads to the chronic hypotensive benefit of physical activity. Moreover, physical activity prescription must take into account the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, the control of the hypertension, and the opportunities and desires of the patient in order to promote good adherence and beneficial lifestyle change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [Parental education to reduce blood lead levels in children with mild and moderate lead poisoning: a randomized controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-ming; Yan, Chong-huai; Wu, Sheng-hu; Shi, Rong

    2004-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of parental education on reducing lead exposure of children by examining the changes in blood lead levels of children whose parents receiving or not receiving educational intervention. Two hundred children with confirmed blood lead levels beyond 100 microg/L were selected. They were randomized into two groups, 107 children in study group and 93 in control. At the beginning of the study, parents of both study and control groups were called for interview to complete KABP questionnaire and lead study questionnaire. The study group was provided with interventional measures while control group was not contacted until the end of study. Intervention of parental education was undertaken by means of a TV program, a set of slides and a brochure, and focused on the questions regarding harmful effects of lead poisoning, the sources of environmental lead and prevention of this preventable disease. Tests for blood lead level were repeated for both study and control groups 3 months after the determination of the initial blood lead level. All the relevant knowledge of health effect, lead sources and prevention of childhood lead poisoning of participating parents of study group were improved significantly (chi(2) = 14.06, 13.07, 10.08, 28.26, P parents control group also were significantly improved in the sub-catalogs of concept and prevention (chi(2) = 7.69, 8.64, P parents' behavior in study group was improved accordingly and significantly. Less children ate popcorn (chi(2) = 4.08, P parents changed their coat or took shower or washed hands before going home after work (chi(2) = 4.00, P control group only the number of kids playing on road side was decreased significantly (chi(2) = 9.60, P control (t = 3.398, P parents' occupational exposure to lead, the improvement of knowledge about prevention of childhood lead poisoning, the chang of habit of snacks intake, parents' education levels, the change of attitude of parents for the childhood lead

  1. Temporal pattern in the effect of postnatal blood lead level on intellectual development of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaas, L; Rothenberg, S J; Perroni, E; Martínez, S; Hernández, C; Hernández, R M

    2000-01-01

    To determine the temporal pattern of the effect of postnatal blood lead level on the General Cognitive Index (GCI) of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, we used data from 112 children of the Mexico City Prospective Lead Study with complete evaluations from 36 to 60 months of age at 6-month intervals. We measured blood lead level every 6 months from 6 to 54 months. We controlled for 5-min Apgar, birth weight, birth order, sex, socioeconomic level, maternal IQ, and maximum maternal educational level in a repeated measures ANCOVA using child blood lead level grouped by 6-18 month (geometric mean 10.1 microg/dl, range 3.5-37.0 microg/dl), 24-36 month (geometric mean 9.7 microg/dl, range 3.0-42.7 microg/dl), and 42-54 month (geometric mean 8.4 microg/dl, range 2.5-44.8 microg/dl) averages. There were significant interactions between the 6-18 month blood lead level and age with GCI as the endpoint and between 24-36 month blood lead level and age. The regression coefficient of blood lead at 6-18 months became more negative with age until 48 months, when the rate of decline moderated (linear polynomial contrast p=0. 047). The regression coefficient of blood lead at 24-36 months with CGI became more negative as well from 36 to 48 months but then started decreasing toward zero from 48 to 60 months (quadratic polynomial contrast p=0.019). Significant between-subjects lead effects on GCI were found for 24-36 month blood lead level at 48 months (p=0.021) and at 54 months (p=0.073). The greatest effect (at 48 months) was a 5.8-point GCI decrease with each natural log unit increase in blood lead. Significant between-subjects lead effects on GCI were found for 42-54 month blood lead level at 54 months (p=0. 040) and at 60 months (p=0.060). The effect of postnatal blood lead level on GCI reaches its maximum approximately 1-3 years later, and then becomes less evident. Four to five years of age appears to be a critical period for the manifestation of the earlier postnatal

  2. Vehicular traffic as a determinant of blood-lead levels in children: A pilot study in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romieu, I. (Oficina Panamericana de la Salud (Mexico)); Palazuelos, E. (Hospital ABC (Mexico)); Meneses, F. (Direccion General de Epidemiologia (Mexico)); Hernandez-Avila, M. (Centro de Investigaciones en Salud Publica, Morelos (Mexico))

    The major determinants of blood-lead levels were studied in 90 children who attended an outpatient pediatric clinic in Mexico City. All children, who were from 1-10 y of age, were from homes for which socioeconomic status had been categorized as medium to high. Blood-lead levels ranged from 0.17 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.008) to 1.21 (SD = 0.06 [mu]mol/l). The main determinant of blood-lead levels was place of residence. Children who lived on private streets (i.e., low-traffic areas) had a significantly lower blood-lead level than children who lived on large avenues and who resided close to main roads ([rho] = .0001, r[sup 2] = .27). This observation documented high exposure levels among children who live in Mexico City and suggested that leaded fuel used in Mexico could play an important role in determining blood-lead levels in this population. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmel La-Llave-León

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood lead levels (BLLs and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD activity are considered biomarkers of lead exposure and lead toxicity, respectively. The present study was designed to investigate the association between BLLs and ALAD activity in pregnant women from Durango, Mexico. A total of 633 pregnant women aged 13–43 years participated in this study. Blood lead was measured by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. ALAD activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Mean blood lead was 2.09 ± 2.34 µg/dL; and 26 women (4.1% crossed the Centers for Disease Control (CDC recommended level of 5 µg/dL. ALAD activity was significantly lower in women with levels of lead ≥5 µg/dL compared to those with BLLs < 5 µg/dL (p = 0.002. To reduce the influence of extreme values on the statistical analysis, BLLs were analyzed by quartiles. A significant negative correlation between blood lead and ALAD activity was observed in the fourth quartile of BLLs (r = −0.113; p < 0.01. Among women with blood lead concentrations ≥2.2 µg/dL ALAD activity was negatively correlated with BLLs (r = −0.413; p < 0.01. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that inhibition of ALAD in pregnant women may occur at levels of lead in blood above 2.2 µg/dL.

  4. Association Between Blood Lead and the Risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Kwee, Lydia C.; Allen, Kelli D.; Umbach, David M.; Ye, Weimin; Watson, Mary; Keller, Jean; Oddone, Eugene Z.; Sandler, Dale P.; Schmidt, Silke; Kamel, Freya

    2010-01-01

    The authors conducted a 2003–2007 case-control study including 184 cases and 194 controls to examine the association between blood lead and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) among US veterans and to explore the influence on this association of bone turnover and genetic factors related to lead toxicokinetics. Blood lead, plasma biomarkers of bone formation (procollagen type 1 amino-terminal peptide (PINP)) and resorption (C-terminal telopeptides of type 1 collagen (CTX)), and the K59N polymorphism in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase gene, ALAD, were measured. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of blood lead with ALS were estimated with unconditional logistic regression after adjustment for age and bone turnover. Blood lead levels were higher among cases compared with controls (P < 0.0001, age adjusted). A doubling of blood lead was associated with a 1.9-fold increased risk of ALS (95% confidence interval: 1.3, 2.7) after adjustment for age and CTX. Additional adjustment for PINP did not alter the results. Significant lead-ALS associations were observed in substrata of PINP and CTX levels. The K59N polymorphism in the ALAD gene did not modify the lead-ALS association (P = 0.32). These results extend earlier findings by accounting for bone turnover in confirming the association between elevated blood lead level and higher risk of ALS. PMID:20406759

  5. Increased DNA damage in blood cells of rat treated with lead as assessed by comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arif

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that oxidative stress is the key player in the pathogenesis of lead-induced toxicity. The present study investigated lead induced oxidative DNA damage, if any in rat blood cells by alkaline comet assay. Lead was administered intraperitoneally to rats at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for 5 days consecutively. Blood collected on day six from sacrificed lead-treated rats was used to assess the extent of DNA damage by comet assay which entailed measurement of comet length, olive tail moment, tail DNA (% and tail length. The results showed that treatment with lead significantly increased DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, our data suggests that lead treatment is associated with oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in rat blood cells which could be used as an early bio-marker of lead-toxicity.

  6. Blood, urine, and hair kinetic analysis following an acute lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, G; Keutgens, A; Schoofs, R; Kotolenko, S; Denooz, R; Charlier, C

    2011-01-01

    A case of lead exposure resulting from the accidental ingestion of a lead-containing solution is reported. Because of clinical management rapidly performed through chelation therapy by 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate sodium and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, blood lead levels of this 51-year-old patient were moderate (412.9 μg/L) and no clinical symptoms were observed. Numerous blood and urine samples were collected for kinetic analysis of lead elimination. However, we report the first case in which hair samples were analyzed to determine the excretion level of lead after acute intoxication.

  7. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: cord blood levels and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guxens, Mònica; Casas, Maribel; Murcia, Mario; Ruiz, María; Amurrio, Ascensión; Rebagliato, Marisa; Marina, Loreto Santa; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2011-05-01

    Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2μg/dL). A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06μg/dL and 19μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2μg/dL. In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The relationship between blood lead levels and occupational exposure in a pregnant population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La-Llave-León, Osmel; Salas Pacheco, José Manuel; Estrada Martínez, Sergio; Esquivel Rodríguez, Eloísa; Castellanos Juárez, Francisco X; Sandoval Carrillo, Ada; Lechuga Quiñones, Angélica María; Vázquez Alanís, Fernando; García Vargas, Gonzalo; Méndez Hernández, Edna Madai; Duarte Sustaita, Jaime

    2016-12-07

    Pregnant women exposed to lead are at risk of suffering reproductive damages, such as miscarriage, preeclampsia, premature delivery and low birth weight. Despite that the workplace offers the greatest potential for lead exposure, there is relatively little information about occupational exposure to lead during pregnancy. This study aims to assess the association between blood lead levels and occupational exposure in pregnant women from Durango, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a population of 299 pregnant women. Blood lead was measured in 31 women who worked in jobs where lead is used (exposed group) and 268 who did not work in those places (control group). Chi-square test was applied to compare exposed and control groups with regard to blood lead levels. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Multivariable regression analysis was applied to determine significant predictors of blood lead concentrations in the exposed group. Exposed women had higher blood lead levels than those in the control group (4.00 ± 4.08 μg/dL vs 2.65 ± 1.75 μg/dL, p = 0.002). Furthermore, women in the exposed group had 3.82 times higher probability of having blood lead levels ≥ 5 μg/dL than those in the control group. Wearing of special workwear, changing clothes after work, living near a painting store, printing office, junkyard or rubbish dump, and washing the workwear together with other clothes resulted as significant predictors of elevated blood lead levels in the exposed group. Pregnant working women may be at risk of lead poisoning because of occupational and environmental exposure. The risk increases if they do not improve the use of protective equipment and their personal hygiene.

  9. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuAnn L. Brink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007 by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas.

  10. Blood lead levels of traffic- and gasoline-exposed professionals in the city of Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapaki, E N; Varelas, P N; Syrigou, A I; Spanaki, M V; Andreadou, E; Kakami, A E; Papageorgiou, C T

    1998-01-01

    During the past 10 y, blood lead levels in the population of Athens, Greece, have decreased steadily. This decrease has paralleled the reduction of tetraethyl lead in gasoline and the introduction of unleaded fuel. Blood lead levels and other parameters were studied in 42 gas-station employees, 47 taxi drivers, 47 bus drivers, and 36 controls, all of whom worked in Athens. The blood lead levels did not differ significantly among the four groups (5.64+/-1.7 microg/dl, 5.96+/-1.7 microg/dl, 5.88+/-1.3 microg/dl, and 5.76+/-1.7 microg/dl, respectively). Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (i.e., aspartate aminotransferase) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (i.e., alanine aminotransferase) were elevated in gas-station employees, and the former was elevated in taxi drivers. Gas-station employees who smoked had higher blood lead levels than their nonsmoking counterparts. The absence of any difference in the blood lead levels of individuals for whom physical examinations were either normal or abnormal suggests that either lead was not the cause of increased blood lead levels or that its contribution may have been important in the past.

  11. Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on nitric oxide metabolites and systolic blood pressure in rats exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Amani; Ali, Noroozzadeh; Reza, Badalzadeh; Ali, Khoshbaten

    2010-04-01

    Extended exposure to low levels of lead causes high blood pressure in human and laboratory animals. The mechanism is not completely recognized, but it is relatively implicated with generation of free radicals, oxidant agents such as ROS, and decrease of available nitric oxide (NO). In this study, we have demonstrated the effect of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant on nitric oxide metabolites and systolic blood pressure in rats exposed to low levels of lead. The adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were divided into four groups: control, lead acetate (receiving 100 ppm lead acetate in drinking water), lead acetate plus ascorbic acid (receiving 100 ppm lead acetate and 1 g/l ascorbic acid in drinking water), and ascorbic acid (receiving 1 g/l ascorbic acid in drinking water) groups. The animals were anesthetized with ketamin/xylazine (50 and 7 mg/kg, respectively, ip) and systolic blood pressure was then measured from the tail of the animals by a sphygmomanometer. Nitric oxide levels in serum were measured indirectly by evaluation of its stable metabolites (total nitrite and nitrate (NOchi)). After 8 and 12 weeks, systolic blood pressure in the lead acetate group was significantly elevated compared to the control group. Ascorbic acid supplementation could prevent the systolic blood pressure rise in the lead acetate plus ascorbic acid group and there was no significant difference relative to the control group. The serum NOchi levels in lead acetate group significantly decreased in relation to the control group, but this reduction was not significantly different between the lead acetate plus ascorbic acid group and the control group. Results of this study suggest that ascorbic acid as an antioxidant prevents the lead induced hypertension. This effect may be mediated by inhibition of NOchi oxidation and thereby increasing availability of NO.

  12. Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on nitric oxide metabolites and systolic blood pressure in rats exposed to lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extended exposure to low levels of lead causes high blood pressure in human and laboratory animals. The mechanism is not completely recognized, but it is relatively implicated with generation of free radicals, oxidant agents such as ROS, and decrease of available nitric oxide (NO. In this study, we have demonstrated the effect of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant on nitric oxide metabolites and systolic blood pressure in rats exposed to low levels of lead. Materials and Methods: The adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were divided into four groups: control, lead acetate (receiving 100 ppm lead acetate in drinking water, lead acetate plus ascorbic acid (receiving 100 ppm lead acetate and 1 g/l ascorbic acid in drinking water, and ascorbic acid (receiving 1 g/l ascorbic acid in drinking water groups. The animals were anesthetized with ketamin/xylazine (50 and 7 mg/kg, respectively, ip and systolic blood pressure was then measured from the tail of the animals by a sphygmomanometer. Nitric oxide levels in serum were measured indirectly by evaluation of its stable metabolites (total nitrite and nitrate (NOc. Results: After 8 and 12 weeks, systolic blood pressure in the lead acetate group was significantly elevated compared to the control group. Ascorbic acid supplementation could prevent the systolic blood pressure rise in the lead acetate plus ascorbic acid group and there was no significant difference relative to the control group. The serum NOc levels in lead acetate group significantly decreased in relation to the control group, but this reduction was not significantly different between the lead acetate plus ascorbic acid group and the control group. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that ascorbic acid as an antioxidant prevents the lead induced hypertension. This effect may be mediated by inhibition of NOc oxidation and thereby increasing availability of NO.

  13. Environmental determinants of different blood lead levels in children: a quantile analysis from a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchevers, Anne; Le Tertre, Alain; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Bretin, Philippe; Oulhote, Youssef; Le Bot, Barbara; Glorennec, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) have substantially decreased in recent decades in children in France. However, further reducing exposure is a public health goal because there is no clear toxicological threshold. The identification of the environmental determinants of BLLs as well as risk factors associated with high BLLs is important to update prevention strategies. We aimed to estimate the contribution of environmental sources of lead to different BLLs in children in France. We enrolled 484 children aged from 6months to 6years, in a nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2008-2009. We measured lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples (water, soils, household settled dusts, paints, cosmetics and traditional cookware). We performed two models: a multivariate generalized additive model on the geometric mean (GM), and a quantile regression model on the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th quantile of BLLs. The GM of BLLs was 13.8μg/L (=1.38μg/dL) (95% confidence intervals (CI): 12.7-14.9) and the 90th quantile was 25.7μg/L (CI: 24.2-29.5). Household and common area dust, tap water, interior paint, ceramic cookware, traditional cosmetics, playground soil and dust, and environmental tobacco smoke were associated with the GM of BLLs. Household dust and tap water made the largest contributions to both the GM and the 90th quantile of BLLs. The concentration of lead in dust was positively correlated with all quantiles of BLLs even at low concentrations. Lead concentrations in tap water above 5μg/L were also positively correlated with the GM, 75th and 90th quantiles of BLLs in children drinking tap water. Preventative actions must target household settled dust and tap water to reduce the BLLs of children in France. The use of traditional cosmetics should be avoided whereas ceramic cookware should be limited to decorative purposes.

  14. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... names are given for the drugs in each group.Find your drug. Then read some basic information about your kind of drug. Types of High Blood Pressure Medicines ACE Inhibitors Beta Blockers Calcium Channel Blockers ...

  15. High Blood Pressure May Hike Dementia Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161398.html High Blood Pressure May Hike Dementia Risk New statement from American Heart Association warns ... in middle age, might open the door to dementia, the American Heart Association warns in a new ...

  16. SCREENING OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN FOR BLOOD LEAD LEVELS AT KIMS HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakala

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to screen preschool children for blood lead level with an objective to estimate ZPP levels among preschool children attending OPD and admitted to wards and to confirm blood lead levels in children whose ZPP is>_35ugm/dl. METHODS: hospital based descriptive study conducted at KIMS, BANGALORE from 1st July 2007 to 31st July 2008. 100 preschool children aged between 1 to 6 years who came to OPD and were admitted, were chosen randomly. Data was collected in a simple questionnaire which included demographic, clinical, investigations. Venous blood, 2 ml was drawn and estimated for ZPP. If ZPP >_ 35ugm/dl, then blood samples were estimated for blood lead levels. The data collected in this study was analyzed statistically using chi square test and standard normal variate (Z test for proportions. RESULTS: Out of 100 children, 37% of them had ZPP > 35 ugm/dl .Among these 20% had blood level more >10ugm/dl. Socio economic status affects lead exposure with poor socio economic status group being most prone for lead absorption. Among the 20% who had blood lead levels >10 ugm/dl, 15% of them belonged to urban area and 5% belonged to rural area. Location of the house of children in this study was observed that in industrial area were 85%, mechanic factory were 7%, battery factory were 3%, automobile and cottage industry were 2% . Among 100 children, 57 had hemoglobin % of > 10 gm and 43 were anemic having hemoglobin <10 gm%. CONCLUSION: As lead poisoning patients can be asymptomatic or symptomatic with only vague presentations, screening of blood lead levels should be made as a routine investigation. Awareness should be created regarding the sources of lead, its exposure and potential health effects

  17. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen

    2014-12-01

    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p Incense burning in the home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p incense burning at home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity.

  18. Relationship between blood lead concentrations and learning achievement among primary school children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Ho, Chi-Kung; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Tsai, Jin-Lian; Wu, Ting-Shan; Wu, Trong-Neng

    2002-05-01

    Over the past 20 years lead has been proven to exert an influence on the intelligence of children. Especially for children exposed to environmental lead, average blood lead was often lower than the officially recognized intoxication level. Because Kaohsiung is an industrial area in Taiwan and lead exposure is an important environmental issue, we attempted to ascertain the extent to which environmental lead influences the achievement of primary school children. We randomly selected 934 children from 32 primary schools in 11 districts of Kaohsiung City. Blood lead levels of the children were checked, and they were administered a questionnaire about their family information. Scores of several courses were used in this study on the relationship between a child's blood lead and his or her academic performance (Ranking with his or her classmates), including Chinese (reading and writing short Chinese articles), Mathematics, History and Society, and Natural Science. Multiple regression models were done with adjustments for the confounding effects of their parents' socioeconomic levels. The mean (SD) of 934 blood lead level was 5.50 (1.86) microg/dL. Spearman's coefficient showed that class rankings in Chinese, Mathematics, Natural Science, and History and Society were all strongly associated with blood lead levels (Pmultiple regression models revealed that blood lead level exerts a stronger influence on children's language ability (Chinese) than on their ability to calculate (Mathematics). Our results suggest that environmental lead exposure adversely affects a child's academic achievement, making a direct link between exposure to lead and academic attainment. 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  19. A comparison of blood lead levels in bald eagles from two regions on the great plains of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M J; Restani, M; Harmata, A R; Bortolotti, G R; Wayland, M E

    1998-10-01

    The connection between bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and the consumption of waterfowl, lead shotshell pellet ingestion, and subsequent lead exposure is well documented in the United States and is presumed also to be widespread in Canada. We compared blood lead concentrations in samples from bald eagles ranging in age from 0.5- to 1.5-yr-old at Galloway Bay, Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 97) during October-November, 1992-95 and Hauser Lake, Montana, USA (n = 81) during October-December, 1990-94, within the Great Plains region of North America. Abundant prey are available in the form of hunter-injured waterfowl in Saskatchewan and spawning salmon in Montana; both areas attract large numbers of mid-continent bald eagles during fall migration. Blood lead concentrations suggestive of recent lead exposure (> 0.201 microgram/ml) were found in 32% and 8% of eagles at Hauser Lake and Galloway Bay, respectively, when samples from each study area were analyzed independently at two laboratories. To determine if this difference was an artifact of interlaboratory variation, we determined a correction factor by reanalyzing 14 Saskatchewan blood samples at each laboratory and predicted blood lead concentrations from Hauser Lake had the samples been analyzed at the Canadian laboratory. Adjusted blood lead concentrations of samples from Hauser Lake indicated that 21% of eagles were recently exposed to lead, a proportion not significantly different from the proportion of the same exposure category at Galloway Bay. Our data do not support the supposition that a large proportion of bald eagles feeding on waterfowl in areas of high hunting pressure will be exposed to lead via consumption of lead shotshell pellets in waterfowl.

  20. Examining pica in NYC pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Candalla, Barbara M; Ehrlich, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    We sought to describe the impact of pica, the craving for and intentional ingestion of substances not defined as food, as a risk factor for lead poisoning in New York City (NYC) pregnant women. In order to describe pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) who report pica, NYC health department data from 491 cases of lead-poisoned pregnant women from January 2001 to June 2009 were reviewed. Descriptive frequencies were obtained for women reporting pica. Data were compared between women reporting and not reporting pica. In NYC, of the 43 (9%) lead-poisoned pregnant women reporting pica, 42 (97.7%) were immigrants and 28 (64.6%) had consumed soil. Compared to lead-poisoned pregnant women not reporting pica, women reporting pica had higher peak BLLs (29.5 vs. 23.8 μg/dL, P = 0.0001), were more likely to have had a BLL ≥ 45 μg/dL (OR = 3.3, 95% CI, 1.25, 8.68) and receive chelation (OR = 10.88, 95% CI, 1.49, 79.25), more likely to have emigrated from Mexico (OR = 3.05, 95% CI, 1.38–6.72), and less likely to have completed high school (OR = indeterminate; 0 vs. 34%; P = 0.003). Among NYC lead-poisoned pregnant women, pica was associated with higher peak BLLs. Providers in NYC, and possibly other urban settings, should be vigilant and question pregnant women, especially immigrants, about pica and strongly consider testing this at-risk population for lead poisoning.

  1. Impact of low blood lead concentrations on IQ and school performance in Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghong Liu

    Full Text Available Examine the relationships between blood lead concentrations and children's intelligence quotient (IQ and school performance.Participants were 1341 children (738 boys and 603 girls from Jintan, China. Blood lead concentrations were measured when children were 3-5 years old. IQ was assessed using the Chinese version and norms of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised when children were 6 years old. School performance was assessed by standardized city tests on 3 major subjects (Chinese, Math, and English [as a foreign language] when children were age 8-10 years.Mean blood lead concentration was 6.43 µg/dL (SD = 2.64. For blood lead concentrations, 7.8% of children (n = 105 had ≥10.0 µg/dL, 13.8% (n = 185 had 8.0 to <10.0 µg/dL, and 78.4% (n = 1051 had <8.0 µg/dL. Compared to children with blood lead concentrations <8 µg/dL, those with blood lead concentrations ≥8 µg/dL scored 2-3 points lower in IQ and 5-6 points lower in school tests. There were no significant differences in IQ or school tests between children with blood lead concentrations groups 8-10 and ≥10 µg/dL. After adjustment for child and family characteristics and IQ, blood lead concentrations ≥10 µg/dL vs <8 µg/dL at ages 3-5 years was associated with reduced scores on school tests at age 8-10 years (Chinese, β = -3.54, 95%CI = -6.46, -0.63; Math, β = -4.63, 95%CI = -7.86, -1.40; English, β = -4.66, 95%CI = -8.09, -1.23. IQ partially mediated the relationship between elevated blood lead concentrations and later school performance.Findings support that blood lead concentrations in early childhood, even <10 µg/dL, have a long-term negative impact on cognitive development. The association between blood lead concentrations 8-10 µg/dL and cognitive development needs further study in Chinese children and children from other developing countries.

  2. Peripheral blood and bone marrow cell status of white rats with long-term lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudakova, A.I.; Shevchenko, Z.H.T.; Nosova, L.I.

    Blood test and bone marrow examination in experiments with albino rats weighing 100-110 g subjected to long-term lead influence (1% lead acetate per os) showed availability of reticulocytosis with thrombocytopenia (on the 62d day) and thrombocytosis on the 92d day of the experiment) in peripheral blood. Reduction of the bone marrow neutrophil index and leuko-erythroblastic ration due to an increase of an erythroblastic radicle was recorded in the bone marrow.

  3. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Public Health Laboratory of Alava, Direccion de Salud Publica, Gobierno Vasco, Santiago 11, 01002, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Av de Alicante KM 87, 03550, Sant Joan d' Alacant (Spain); Ibarluzea, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Departamento de Sanidad Gobierno Vasco, Subdireccion de Salud Publica de Gipuzkoa, Avenida de Navarra 4, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Biodonostia, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica, San Sebastian (Spain); Guxens, Monica [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, Maribel [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Maria [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2011-05-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. {>=} vs < 2 {mu}g/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 {mu}g/dL and 19 {mu}g/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. {yields} Cord blood Pb levels in

  4. The relationship between blood lead levels and morbidities among workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalahasthi, Ravi Babu; Barman, Tapu; Rajmohan, H R

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find the relationship between blood lead levels (BLLs) and morbidities among 391 male workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage batteries. A predesigned questionnaire was used to collect information on subjective health complaints and clinical observation made during a clinical examination. In addition to monitoring of BLL, other laboratory parameters investigated included hematological and urine-δ-aminolevulinic acid levels. Logistic regression method was used to evaluate the relationship between BLL and morbidities. The BLL among workers was associated with an odd ratio of respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), and musculoskeletal (MSD) morbidities. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and packed cell volume variables were associated with respiratory problems. The variables of alcohol consumption and hematological parameters were associated with GI complaints. Systolic blood pressure was related to MSD in workers exposed to Pb during the manufacturing process.

  5. Lead, mercury, and organochlorine compound levels in cord blood in Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhainds, M; Levallois, P; Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P

    1999-01-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate blood levels of lead, mercury, and organochlorine compounds in newborns in the Province of Quebec. During 1993 to 1995, we carried out a survey in 10 hospitals located in southern Quebec. During that time, umbilical cord blood samples were obtained from 1109 newborns, and we analyzed each for lead, mercury, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, and 11 chlorinated pesticides. We used the geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (CI) to describe the results. Mean concentrations of lead and mercury in cord blood were 0.076 micromol/l (95% CI = 0.074, 0.079) and 4.82 nmol/l (95% CI = 4.56, 5.08), respectively. The mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1260) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene were 0.514 microg/I (95% CI = .493, 0.536) and 0.412 microg/l (95% CI = 0.390, 0.435), respectively. We observed a statistically significant relationship between maternal age and cord blood concentrations of (a) lead, (b) mercury, (c) polychlorinated biphenyls, and (d) dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene. In addition, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with cord blood lead levels. The cord blood concentrations of lead, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene we measured in our study were the lowest levels recently reported in industrialized countries. The results of this study underline the role of public health authorities in the evaluation of biological levels of environmental contaminants among children for the assessment of risk of adverse health effects.

  6. Mobile Phone Use, Blood Lead Levels, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Yoon-Hwan; Ha, Mina; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Hong, Yun-Chul; Leem, Jong-Han; Sakong, Joon; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Chul Gab; Kang, Dongmug; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Nam

    2013-01-01

    Background Concerns have developed for the possible negative health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure to children’s brains. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the association between mobile phone use and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) considering the modifying effect of lead exposure. Methods A total of 2,422 children at 27 elementary schools in 10 Korean cities were examined and followed up 2 years later. Parents or guardians were administered a questionnaire including the Korean version of the ADHD rating scale and questions about mobile phone use, as well as socio-demographic factors. The ADHD symptom risk for mobile phone use was estimated at two time points using logistic regression and combined over 2 years using the generalized estimating equation model with repeatedly measured variables of mobile phone use, blood lead, and ADHD symptoms, adjusted for covariates. Results The ADHD symptom risk associated with mobile phone use for voice calls but the association was limited to children exposed to relatively high lead. Conclusions The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to lead and RF from mobile phone use was associated with increased ADHD symptom risk, although possible reverse causality could not be ruled out. PMID:23555766

  7. Mobile phone use, blood lead levels, and attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms in children: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Hwan Byun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concerns have developed for the possible negative health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF exposure to children's brains. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the association between mobile phone use and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD considering the modifying effect of lead exposure. METHODS: A total of 2,422 children at 27 elementary schools in 10 Korean cities were examined and followed up 2 years later. Parents or guardians were administered a questionnaire including the Korean version of the ADHD rating scale and questions about mobile phone use, as well as socio-demographic factors. The ADHD symptom risk for mobile phone use was estimated at two time points using logistic regression and combined over 2 years using the generalized estimating equation model with repeatedly measured variables of mobile phone use, blood lead, and ADHD symptoms, adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: The ADHD symptom risk associated with mobile phone use for voice calls but the association was limited to children exposed to relatively high lead. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to lead and RF from mobile phone use was associated with increased ADHD symptom risk, although possible reverse causality could not be ruled out.

  8. Reappraisal of Blood Lead Levels and Relation to Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase, Zinc Protoporphyrin and Urinary ALA Level in Thai Normal Adults and Lead Exposed Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharachai Rujirojkul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available All studied participants of 65 lead-exposed workers and 52 non lead-exposed persons who voluntarily participated and signed consents were interviewed about their working duration, type of work, risk behavior and personal data. Blood and urine samples were drawn for PbB, d-ALAD, ZPP and ALAU analysis respectively. The mean PbB level for workers in lead smelters, 22.4 +/- 17.9 microgram/dl (range 1.3-67.2 microgram/dl was found higher than that for the non-exposed persons (mean = 5.0 +/- 2.4 microgram/dl, range 2.0-13.2 microgram/dl. In relative to previous studies, mean PbB concentration found in the unexposed persons tended to decreased follows the reduced use of leaded gasoline in 1996 in Thailand. A highly significant negative correlation (R2 = 0.86 was observed between PbB concentration and d-ALAD activities among lead exposed persons. Statistical analysis showed that d-ALAD activities significantly decreased (p10 microgram/dl. ZPP measurement is simple and inexpensive, but less sensitive and could be used for screening only in those high lead contaminated persons (PbB>40 microgram/dl. ALAU measurement cannot be served as early biochemical indices of lead exposure both in lead exposed and non-lead exposed persons.

  9. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La-Llave-León, Osmel; Méndez-Hernández, Edna M; Castellanos-Juárez, Francisco X; Esquivel-Rodríguez, Eloísa; Vázquez-Alaniz, Fernando; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Duarte-Sustaita, Jaime; Candelas-Rangel, Jorge L; Salas-Pacheco, José M

    2017-04-18

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity are considered biomarkers of lead exposure and lead toxicity, respectively. The present study was designed to investigate the association between BLLs and ALAD activity in pregnant women from Durango, Mexico. A total of 633 pregnant women aged 13-43 years participated in this study. Blood lead was measured by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. ALAD activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Mean blood lead was 2.09 ± 2.34 µg/dL; and 26 women (4.1%) crossed the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommended level of 5 µg/dL. ALAD activity was significantly lower in women with levels of lead ≥5 µg/dL compared to those with BLLs lead and ALAD activity was observed in the fourth quartile of BLLs (r = -0.113; p lead concentrations ≥2.2 µg/dL ALAD activity was negatively correlated with BLLs (r = -0.413; p lead in blood above 2.2 µg/dL.

  10. Proximity of residence to an old mineral storage site in Chile and blood lead levels in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Lisboa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that an old mineral storage site removed in 1998 due to high lead content, remains as a source of exposure in the city of Antofagasta, Chile. The aim was to determine the association between blood lead levels in children and the residential proximity to the old mineral storage site. A cross sectional study was conducted with 185 children aged 7 to 16 years. The outcome variable was blood lead levels measured in 2005. The exposure variable was the distance between the current residence and the old mineral storage site. The distance was measured in meters by Geographic Information System (GIS. The median blood lead level in 2005 was 3.3μg/dL (interquartile range ‒ IQR: 2.0-4.3. A significant inverse association was found between the residential distance to the old mineral storage site and the blood lead levels in children, after adjusting by confounders (β: -0.04; 95%CI: -0.09; -0.01. This result suggests that the old mineral storage site continues to be a source of lead exposure for the children living nearby.

  11. The Relation Between Blood Lead Levels and Osteoporosis in Turkish Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurver Turfaner Ertürk

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a toxic heavy element which is to 90% deposited in bone until the 6th decade and is given to the blood with pregnancy, lactation and physiologic osteoporosis. When it is over certain amounts it may cause osteoporosis and an increase in cardiac events and cancer. In order to evaluate the effect of menopause and osteoporosis on blood lead 20 post-menopausal osteoporotic, 19 non-osteoporotic and 21 pre-menopausal women were selected and their blood levels were measured. In post-menopausal women, its relation with bone mineral density was also investigated. There was no difference between osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic women and pre and postmenopausal women in terms of blood lead (Pb. There was no relation between age and Pb levels but in non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women there was a negative correlation between Pb levels and duration of menopause. There was no relation between bone mineral density and blood lead whereas blood lead and environmental pollution displayed a meaningful correlation.

  12. Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children

    OpenAIRE

    Morsy Amal A; Abd el-hafez Manal A; Zaher Manal M; Hegazy Amal A; Saleh Raya A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Anemia is a health problem among infants and children. It is often associated with a decrease in some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper) and an increase in heavy metals as lead. This study was done to determine the association of blood lead level > 10 μg/dl, with the increased risk to anemia, also, to investigate the relationship between anemia and changes in blood iron, zinc and copper levels, and measure lead level in drinking water. The study is a cross-sectional perfo...

  13. Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead poisoning in children and caregivers in Chuuk State, Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lisa M; Kim, Dennis; Yomai, Anamaria; Meyer, Pamela A; Noonan, Gary P; Huff, Daniel; Flanders, W D

    2005-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a preventable environmental disease. Children and developing fetuses are especially vulnerable; even low blood lead levels (BLLs) are linked with learning and behavioral problems. We assessed children's and their caregivers' BLLs and risk factors for lead exposure in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia. Children aged 2-6 years were randomly selected within 20 randomly selected villages. Children and caregivers provided venous blood, and caregivers offered information about possible risk factors for lead exposure. Mean BLLs were 39 microg/l for children and 16 microg/l for caregivers. Children with BLLs of > or = 100 microg/l (elevated) were 22.9 (95% CI: 4.5-116.0) times more likely to have a caregiver with an elevated BLL, 6.2 (95% CI: 1.4-27.3) times more likely to live on an outer island, and 3.4 (95% CI: 1.7-6.9) times more likely to have a family member who made lead fishing weights than did other children even after controlling for age and sex. For children, 61% of elevated BLLs could be attributed to making fishing weights. Caregivers with elevated BLLs were 5.9 (95% CI: 1.5-23.7) times more likely to live in a household that melted batteries than other caregivers even after controlling for age and education. For caregivers, 37% of the elevated BLLs could be attributed to melting batteries. The association of elevated BLLs in children and their caregiver suggests a common environmental exposure. Melting batteries to make fishing sinkers is a preventable source of lead exposure for children and their caregivers in Chuuk. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Weight and blood pressure response to weight management and sibutramine in diabetic and non-diabetic high-risk patients: an analysis from the 6-week lead-in period of the sibutramine cardiovascular outcomes (SCOUT) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Gaal, L F; Caterson, I D; Coutinho, W

    2010-01-01

    To assess treatment responses to sibutramine and weight management in diabetic patients during the lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial.......To assess treatment responses to sibutramine and weight management in diabetic patients during the lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial....

  15. Too Many Americans Have High Blood Pressure, Doctors Warn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163468.html Too Many Americans Have High Blood Pressure, Doctors Warn With February designated National Heart Month, ... physicians warns that too many Americans struggle with high blood pressure. High blood pressure is a major risk factor ...

  16. High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung, and Blood Institute Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know Page Content Children can have high blood pressure. Did you know that children could have high ...

  17. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  18. Stunting is associated with blood lead concentration among Bangladeshi children aged 2-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Kelsey M; Valeri, Linda; Shankar, A H; Hasan, Md Omar Sharif Ibne; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rodrigues, Ema G; Christiani, David C; Wright, Robert O; Bellinger, David C; Mazumdar, Maitreyi

    2016-11-04

    Lead toxicity is of particular public health concern given its near ubiquitous distribution in nature and established neurotoxicant properties. Similar in its ubiquity and ability to inhibit neurodevelopment, early childhood stunting affects an estimated 34 % of children under 5 in low- and middle-income countries. Both lead and stunting have been shown to be associated with decreased neurodevelopment, although the relationship between these childhood burdens is underexplored. The association between lead exposure and stunting has been previously established, yet limited data are available on susceptibility windows. Whole blood lead samples were collected from rural Bangladeshi children at delivery (umbilical cord blood) and at age 20-40 months (fingerstick blood). Stunting was determined using the Child Growth Standards developed from the World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study. Children with height for age lead levels were 3.1 (1.6-6.3) μg/dl and 4.2 (1.7-7.6) μg/dl, respectively. In adjusted multivariable regression models, the odds of stunting at 20-40 months increased by 1.12 per μg/dl increase in blood lead level (OR = 1.12, 95 % CI: 1.02-1.22). No association was found between cord blood lead level and risk of stunting (OR = 0.97, 95 % CI: 0.94-1.00). There is a significant association between stunting and concurrent lead exposure at age 20-40 months. This association is slightly attenuated after controlling for study clinic site. Additional research including more precise timing of lead exposure during these critical 20-40 months is needed.

  19. Elevated blood lead levels and reading readiness at the start of kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaine, Pat; Navas-Acien, Ana; Lee, Rebecca; Simon, Peter; Diener-West, Marie; Agnew, Jacqueline

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between blood lead levels (BLLs) and reading readiness at kindergarten entry, an early marker of school performance, in a diverse urban school population. Kindergarten reading readiness test scores for children attending public kindergarten in Providence, Rhode Island, were linked to state health department records of blood lead testing by using individual identifiers. The study population (N = 3406) was 59% Hispanic. For each child, the geometric mean BLL was estimated by using all previously reported BLLs. Analyses were adjusted for gender, age, year enrolled, race, child language, and free/reduced lunch status as a measure of socioeconomic status. The median geometric mean BLL was 4.2 µg/dL; 20% of children had at least 1 venous BLL ≥10 µg/dL. Compared with children with BLLs reading readiness were 1.21 (1.19 to 1.23) and 1.56 (1.51 to 1.60) for children with BLLs of 5 to 9 and ≥10 µg/dL, respectively. On average, reading readiness scores decreased by 4.5 (95% CI: -2.9 to -6.2) and 10.0 (95% CI: -7.0 to -13.3) points for children with BLLs of 5 to 9 and ≥10 µg/dL, respectively, compared with BLLs reading readiness at kindergarten entry. The high prevalence of elevated BLLs warrants additional investigation in other high-risk US populations. Results suggest benefits from additional collaboration between public health, public education, and community data providers.

  20. Environmental factors predicting blood lead levels in pregnant women in the UK: the ALSPAC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Taylor

    Full Text Available Lead is a widespread environmental toxin. The behaviour and academic performance of children can be adversely affected even at low blood lead levels (BLL of 5-10 µg/dl. An important contribution to the infant's lead load is provided by maternal transfer during pregnancy.Our aim was to determine BLL in a large cohort of pregnant women in the UK and to identify the factors that contribute to BLL in pregnant women.Pregnant women resident in the Avon area of the UK were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC in 1991-1992. Whole blood samples were collected at median gestational age of 11 weeks and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n = 4285. Self-completion postal questionnaires were used to collect data during pregnancy on lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS v19.The mean±SD BLL was 3.67±1.47 (median 3.41, range 0.41-19.14 µg/dl. Higher educational qualification was found to be one of the strongest independent predictor of BLL in an adjusted backwards stepwise logistic regression to predict maternal BLL <5 or ≥5 µg/dl (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.42; p<0.001. Other predictive factors included cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, and heating the home with a coal fire, with some evidence for iron and calcium intake having protective effects.The mean BLL in this group of pregnant women is higher than has been found in similar populations in developed countries. The finding that high education attainment was independently associated with higher BLL was unexpected and currently unexplained. Reduction in maternal lead levels can best be undertaken by reducing intake of the social drugs cigarettes, alcohol and caffeine, although further investigation of the effect of calcium on lead levels is needed.

  1. Disposition of lead (Pb in blood of rats following oral exposure to lipstick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi-Moghaddam H.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Information about the health risks that might be associated with lipstick consumption effects is scarce in the literature. The present work investigated the bioaccumulation of lead (Pb in blood of rats originated from lipstick sample. First, Lead contents were determined in 12 different brands of lipsticks. Lead was detected in all the studied samples. The average lead content in 14 lipsticks samples was 12.2 PPM wet wt. Then, one brand was selected for feeding to the rats and amount of oral exposing in the three doses was calculated. Sixty rats were used for the experiment. Animals were divided into 4 groups of 15 animals each. While 1group served as control group, the remaining 3 groups were exposed to lipstick through oral gavage for 12 weeks. Results show that, exposure to the lipstick cause significantly disposition of lead in the blood of rats.

  2. Comparison between lead levels in blood and bone tissue of rock doves (Columba livia) treated with lead acetate or exposed to the environment of Alcala de Henares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, M.C.; Gonzalez, M. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    1992-06-01

    The increase in the amount of lead released into the environment in developed countries during the last two to three decades has resulted in a significant increase in lead levels in organisms from completely different environments. Several surveys have been made in urban areas with high traffic densities in an attempt to identify plant and animal species that might reflect environmental metal concentrations so that those species could be used as sensitive biological indicators of heavy metal contamination. Studies of lead accumulation in U.K. rock doves imply that use of this species as a pollution indicator would facilitate periodic monitoring of chronic lead exposure conditions in the urban environment. Laboratory investigations cannot readily reflect environmental conditions since the validity of extrapolating laboratory results, where high doses are administered over short-time periods, to the natural environment has been seriously questioned. The present study was made on four rock dove (Columbia livia) populations: two groups (males and females) were dosed with lead acetate in the laboratory and two groups of males were housed in different parts of the city of Alcala de Henares. Data on lead bioaccumulation were collected in two situations: the first was in a laboratory with controlled amounts of lead, while in the second situation the amounts reflected the actual environmental levels in Alcala de Henares. Lead levels were determined in two tissues: blood, which is the target of first impact in possible acute situations; and bone, which is the main tissue where lead accumulates and, therefore, very important during chronic exposure. The study focused on the following three items: (1) lead tissue distribution; (2) variation with habitat; and (3) an evaluation of the levels of lead contamination in the city of Alcala de Henares. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Wade Hampton High School: Leading Like Generals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principal Leadership, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article features Wade Hampton High School in Greenville County, South Carolina. Named for Wade Hampton III--a Civil War hero, a US senator, and a governor--Wade Hampton High School celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2010 in a beautiful, modern, state-of-the-art facility built on the original school site in 2007. Although most of the 1,600…

  4. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  5. Childhood lead poisoning data for California by county, age, and blood lead level for the years 2007-2009; and age of housing data for 2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts and percentages of blood lead levels among children tested for lead poisoning during 2007-2009 within California . The data are...

  6. Aging, High Altitude, and Blood Pressure: A Complex Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parati, Gianfranco; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Torlasco, Camilla; Salvi, Paolo; Lombardi, Carolina; Bilo, Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Parati, Gianfranco, Juan Eugenio Ochoa, Camilla Torlasco, Paolo Salvi, Carolina Lombardi, and Grzegorz Bilo. Aging, high altitude, and blood pressure: A complex relationship. High Alt Biol Med 16:97-109, 2015.--Both aging and high altitude exposure may induce important changes in BP regulation, leading to significant increases in BP levels. By inducing atherosclerotic changes, stiffening of large arteries, renal dysfunction, and arterial baroreflex impairment, advancing age may induce progressive increases in systolic BP levels, promoting development and progression of arterial hypertension. It is also known, although mainly from studies in young or middle-aged subjects, that exposure to high altitude may influence different mechanisms involved in BP regulation (i.e., neural central and reflex control of sympathetic activity), leading to important increases in BP levels. The evidence is less clear, however, on whether and to what extent advancing age may influence the BP response to acute or chronic high altitude exposure. This is a question not only of scientific interest but also of practical relevance given the consistent number of elderly individuals who are exposed for short time periods (either for leisure or work) or live permanently at high altitude, in whom arterial hypertension is frequently observed. This article will review the evidence available on the relationship between aging and blood pressure levels at high altitude, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this complex association, as well as some questions of practical interest regarding antihypertensive treatment in elderly subjects, and the effects of antihypertensive drugs on blood pressure response during high altitude exposure.

  7. Using LEADS to shift to high performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Shauna; Hagge, Erna

    2016-03-01

    Health systems across Canada are tasked to measure results of all their strategic initiatives. Included in most strategic plans is leadership development. How to measure leadership effectiveness in relation to organizational objectives is key in determining organizational effectiveness. The following findings offer considerations for a 21(st)-century approach to shifting to high-performance systems.

  8. Correlation Between Blood Lead Level and Hemoglobin Level in Mitrovica Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutllovci-Zogaj, Drita; Krasniqi, Selvete; Elezaj, Isa; Ramadani, Naser; Gjergji, Tahire; Zogaj, Dukagjin; Kutllovci, Arben; Jaka, Arbëresha; Ukëhaxhaj, Antigona; Gashi, Sanije; Bince, Ergyl

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead level and concentration level of hemoglobin in the blood of children involved in research. Material and methods: The research included 250 children of which 31(12.4%) kindergarten children, 166 (66.4%) of primary school pupils in Mitrovica and 53(21.2%) of primary school pupils in Shtime as control group. From the 250 children included in the survey 129 or 51.6% were female children and 48.4% male children. Children were selected randomly, while tests for concentration of Pb and blood hemoglobin were done at the National Institute of Public Health. Results: The average value of blood lead level of Mitrovica pupils was 2.4 µg/dL (SD±1.9µg/dL), range 0.5 to 16.3µg/dL. The average value of blood lead level of Shtime pupils was 2.3µg/dL (SD±0.7µg/dL), range 1.2 to 5.2 µg/dL with no statistical difference (P = 0.191). The average value of blood lead level in kindergarten children of Mitrovica was 3.8µg/dL (SD±1.3µg/dL), range 2.2 to 7.7µg/dL with significant difference between the average values of blood lead levels of pupils and kindergarten children of Mitrovica (P <0.0001). The average value of hemoglobin in the pupils of Mitrovica was 14.0g/dL(SD± 3.7g/dL), range 9.4 to 25.6 g/dL. The average value of hemoglobin to pupils of Shtime was 11.4g/dl(SD±0.8 g/dl), range 9.2 to 13.0 g/dl with significant difference between mean values of hemoglobin pupils of Mitrovica and Shtime (U ‘= 6440.0, P <0.0001). With Spearman correlation is found significant correlation of a medium scale (r = -0.305, df = 248, p <0.0001) between blood lead levels and hemoglobin level in the blood. PMID:25568564

  9. Association of blood lead levels with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms among Chinese pregnant women in Wuhan city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associated with bone resorption, were also studied. A total of 973 women, including 234, 249, and 248 women in their first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, and 242 non-pregnant women, were recruited at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Health Center.BLLs were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR were identified with the TaqMan probe method.The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation of BLLs was 16.2 (1.78 μg/L for all participants. All the studied MTHFR alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed the following results. Among the pregnant women, those that carried MTHFR 677CC (i.e. wild-genotype homozygote and 1298CC (i.e. mutant-genotype homozygote exhibited higher BLLs than those that carried 677CT/TT (standardized β = 0.074, P = 0.042 and 1298AC/AA (standardized β = 0.077, P = 0.035 when other covariates (e.g., age, no. of children, education and income, etc. were adjusted. The BLLs of pregnant women consistently decreased during the pregnancy and these levels positively correlated with BMI (standard β = 0.086-0.096, P<0.05.The 1298CC mutant-type homozygote in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for high BLLs among low-level environmental lead-exposed Chinese pregnant women, whose BLLs consistently decreased during gestation.

  10. Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162446.html Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure People who added this practice to a healthy ... elevated blood pressure] are likely to develop hypertension [high blood pressure] unless they improve their lifestyle," said study author ...

  11. Pilot study for utilization of dried blood spots for screening of lead, mercury and cadmium in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sanwat N; Butala, Steven J M; Ball, R Wayne; Braniff, Christopher T

    2009-03-01

    The exposure of pregnant women and young children to environmental pollutants is an ongoing concern of state and local public health departments. Of primary concern is the exposure to lead in lead-based paints, methyl mercury in contaminated fish and cadmium present at mining sites. The feasibility, utility and methodology of using blood spot cards collected for new born health screening purposes was studied for use in conducting routine state-wide surveillance of blood lead, mercury and cadmium levels in infants. Homogeneity of different lots of blank filter paper was examined. Mass measurements (weights) of filter paper punches were taken across three different lots of filter paper. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using one-way ANOVA, which indicated no significant difference in the means of all three lots, but high variances were noted. The three metals were examined in three different lots of filter papers purchased from the manufacturer. The lots had measurable amounts of cadmium and lead, but not mercury. Lead spike values were observed for roughly about 7% of the blank samples, indicating heterogeneous distribution of this metal. Statistical analysis of the data was also performed using a two-way ANOVA calculation with Tukey's pairwise comparisons. The results found that total mean metal loadings across the three lots were different. The concentration of the metals can be different from each other and the concentration of any one metal can differ across lots. Stability at different concentrations of the heavy metals in blood spotted onto filter paper with time and storage conditions was examined. Results indicate acceptable performance for at least 8.5 months for lead (near CDC's concern level) and for mercury (near NRC's concern level). The filter paper and blood spots were analyzed for metals using an acid extraction, followed by analysis using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Blood spot cards were studied from four

  12. Blood lead, anemia, and short stature are independently associated with cognitive performance in Mexican school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Lopez, Patricia; Rosado, Jorge L; García Vargas, Gonzalo; Alatorre Rico, Javier; Ronquillo, Dolores; Cebrián, Mariano E; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2004-02-01

    Lead exposure and nutritional factors are both associated with cognitive performance. Lead toxicity and nutritional status are also associated with each other. We examined whether nutritional status variables account for part or all of the association between cognitive performance and lead exposure. First-grade children (n = 724) ages 6-8 y, attending Mexican public schools located in the vicinity of a metal foundry were asked to participate and 602 enrolled in the study. Blood lead, iron status, anemia, anthropometry, and cognitive function were assessed. Results from 7 standardized tests are presented here. The mean blood lead concentration was 11.5 +/- 6.1 micro g/dL (0.56 +/- 0.30 micro mol/L) and 50% of the children had concentrations >10 micro g/dL (0.48 micro mol/L). The prevalence of mild anemia (lead was negatively associated with 4 cognitive tests and was also inversely correlated with iron status, height-for-age Z scores, and head circumference. In multivariate models, the association between lead and cognitive performance was not strongly affected by nutritional variables, suggesting that the relation of lead to cognition is not explained by lead's relation to iron deficiency anemia or growth retardation. In multivariate models, hemoglobin concentration was also positively associated with Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Number Sequencing performance, whereas serum ferritin was negatively related to the Coding subscale of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Revised Mexican Version (WISC-RM).

  13. Blood Lead, Urine Lead and Blood Test Results of Lead Exposed Workers%铅作业工人血铅、尿铅和血常规检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊宁; 刘凤兰; 蒋培荣

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To compare the difference of levels of blood lead, urine lead and hemoglobin between workers with lead exposure and workers without lead exposure, and understand the health status of workers with long-term lead exposure. [ Methods ] Level determination of blood lead, urine lead and hemoglobin were performed on 400 workers with lead exposure and 120 workers without lead exposure from a storage battery factory in Tianjin in 2009. The results were analyzed statistically. [Results] Hemoglobin levels in lead-exposed workers were lower than those in non lead-exposed workers, while the blood lead, urine lead levels were significantly higher than those in non lead-exposed workers( P <0.01). The blood lead level was negatively associated with the hemoglobin level(r = -0.442). The relevance between urine lead level and blood lead, hemoglobin level is not ideal respectively (r values were -0.026 and -0.018). [ Conclusion]Long-term low lead exposure can induce blood lead and urine lead levels elevated. While the decrease of lead with severe fluctuation of urine lead are induced by many factors, so these indexes can not accurately reflect the lead volume in the body and have less correlation with other indexes.%目的 比较铅作业工人和非铅作业工人血铅、尿铅和血红蛋白浓度的差异.了解长期低铅作业工人的健康状况.方法 对2009年天津市某蓄电池厂400例铅作业工人和120例非铅作业工人分别进行血铅、尿铅和血红蛋白浓度的测定,并对结果进行统计学处理.结果 铅作业组血红蛋白浓度低于非铅作业组.而血铅、尿铅浓度均显著高于非铅作业组(P<0.01).并且血铅和血红蛋白浓度间呈负相关性(r=-0.442),尿铅与血铅和血红蛋白间的相关性均不理想(r值分别为-0.026和-0.018).结论 长期低铅作业可导致人体血铅尿铅升高,血红蛋白降低,但尿铅浓度波动大,且影响因素多,不能精确反映体内铅积蓄量,结果与其他指标的相关性较差.

  14. The elusiveness of population-wide high blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Paul K

    2015-03-18

    High blood pressure (hypertension) is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is highly prevalent in the US general population, especially in those who are old, African American, or socially disadvantaged. Prevalence is also high and increasing worldwide. Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension have improved over time, but there is still considerable room for improvement. The optimal solution to this health challenge varies by country. Several nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions are well proven as effective means to prevent hypertension and improve control rates in those with established hypertension. Better prevention and control of hypertension will yield substantial general population health benefits and remain high priorities in public health.

  15. Interlaboratory Comparison of Lead and Cadmium in Blood, Urine, and Aqueous Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulev, P. E.; Solgaard, Per Bent; Tjell, Jens Christian

    1978-01-01

    Analysis for lead and cadmium in biological liquids (blood and urine) is difficult. Results of such analyses from five laboratories are compared for samples with known additions of lead and cadmium. The data, evaluated in terms of inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility and accuracy, suggest t...... that laboratories should voluntarily participate in quality control programs. Users of routine laboratories are advised to use their own quality control program...

  16. Toxicants in folk remedies: implications of elevated blood lead in an American-born infant due to imported diaper powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowski, Mateusz P; Morman, Suzette A; Plumlee, Geoffrey S; Law, Terence; Kellogg, Mark; Woolf, Alan D

    2016-10-04

    Though most childhood lead exposure in the USA results from ingestion of lead-based paint dust, non-paint sources are increasingly implicated. We present interdisciplinary findings from and policy implications of a case of elevated blood lead (13-18 mcg/dL, reference level folk diaper powder. Analyses showed the powder contains 62 % lead by weight (primarily lead oxide) and elevated antimony [1000 parts per million (ppm)], arsenic (55 ppm), bismuth (110 ppm), and thallium (31 ppm). These metals are highly bioaccessible in simulated gastric fluids, but only slightly bioaccessible in simulated lung fluids and simulated urine, suggesting that the primary lead exposure routes were ingestion via hand-mouth transmission and ingestion of inhaled dusts cleared from the respiratory tract. Four weeks after discontinuing use of the powder, the infant's venous blood lead level was 8 mcg/dL. Unregulated, imported folk remedies can be a source of toxicant exposure. Additional research on import policy, product regulation, public health surveillance, and culturally sensitive risk communication is needed to develop efficacious risk reduction strategies in the USA. The more widespread use of contaminated folk remedies in the countries from which they originate is a substantial concern.

  17. Factors associated with elevated blood lead levels in inner ·city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cent of children had blood lead levels;;:' 25 ~g/dl, the present USA 'action' level. Dusty homes and homes in a poor state of repair, over-crowding, low parental education and income .... potential ill-effects associated with increased exposure.

  18. Effects of lead and mercury on the blood proteome of children

    OpenAIRE

    Birdsall, Robert E.; Kiley, Michael P.; Segu, Zaneer M.; Christopher D. Palmer; Madera, Milan; Gump, Brooks B.; MacKenzie, James A.; Parsons,Patrick J.; Mechref, Yehia; Novotny, Milos V.; Bendinskas, Kestutis G.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metal exposure in children has been associated with a variety of physiological and neurological problems. The goal of this study was to utilize proteomics to enhance the understanding of biochemical interactions responsible for the health problems related to lead and mercury exposure at concentrations well below CDC guidelines. Blood plasma and serum samples from 34 children were ...

  19. Blood Lead Levels During Pregnancy and Its Influencing Factors in Nanjing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang-sheng Liu; Jia-hu Hao; Juan Shi; Chun-fang Dai; Xi-rong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Objective Toinvestigate the blood lead levels (BLLs) in the duration of pregnancy and 6-12 weeks after delivery, and analyze the influencing factors of BLLs in healthy pregnant women.MethodsPregnant women were recruited from September 2009 to February 2010 at the prenatalclinic inNanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital. Altogether 174 healthy pregnant women without pregnant or obstetric complications or abnormal pregnancy outcomes were enrolled as the gravidagroup, and 120 healthy non-pregnant women as the control group. BLLs during pregnancy were determinedby flame atomic absorption spectroscopy.ResultsBLLs in all the three pregnancy trimesters and postpartum were 59.8±24.3, 55.4±20.1,55.9±19.7, and 67.6±17.4 μg/L, respectively, and the mean BLL in control group was 67.5±21.3 μg/L. BLLs during all the three trimesters were lower in the gravida group than in the control group (P=0.043, 0.021, and 0.028). Furthermore, occupations, nutrients supplementation, and time ofhouse/apartmentpainted were associated with BLLs in pregnant women. Lead-related occupations, cosmetics use, and livingin a house painted less than 1 year beforeare risk factors of high BLLs among pregnant women, while calcium, iron, zinc, and milk supplements are protective factors.Conclusion Supplementing calcium, iron, zinc, and milk, or avoiding contact with risk factors may help people, especially pregnant women, to reduce lead exposure.

  20. Blood lead, calcium, and phosphorus in women with preeclampsia in Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikechukwu, Ikaraoha Chidiebere; Ojareva, Oforofuo Isreal Agware; Ibhagbemien, Anetor John; Okhoaretor, Okogbo Felix; Oluwatomi, Okusanya Babasola; Akhalufo, Okogbenin Sylvanus; Oluwagbenga, Alonge Temitope; Chigaekwu, Mbadiwe Nkeiruka

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of blood lead (BPb) and its relationship with calcium and phosphorus in the development of preeclampsia in Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 59 preclamptics, 150 normal pregnant, and 122 nonpregnant women. Blood lead and serum Ca and P were determined. Blood lead was significantly higher (p < .001), whereas serum Ca and P were significantly lower (p < .001) in preclamptics than in normal pregnant women (60.2 ± 12.8 vs 26.3 ± 8.0 μg/dL for Pb, 1.39 ± 0.33 vs 2.03 ± 0.22 mmol/L for Ca, and 0.76 ± 0.10 vs 0.99 ± 0.13 mmol/L for P, respectively). There was significant increase (p < .05) in BPb and decreases (p < .01) in serum Ca and P in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (35.7 ± 18.0 vs 13.1 ± 6.4 μg/dL for Pb, 1.85 ± 0.33 vs 2.33 ± 0.20 mmol/L for Ca, and 0.93 ± 0.38 vs 1.24 ± 0.26 mmol/L for P). Also, BPb was negatively correlated with serum Ca and, P, and positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures in pregnancy (r = -.804 for Ca, r = -.728 for P, r = .908 for SBP, and r = .842 for DBP) and preeclampsia (p < .01). It appears that increase in blood lead, which parallels decreases in serum calcium and phosphorus, may be related to the development and progression of preeclampsia in this environment.

  1. High risk of lead contamination for scavengers in an area with high moose hunting success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg x L(-1), more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting.

  2. High risk of lead contamination for scavengers in an area with high moose hunting success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legagneux

    Full Text Available Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax, captured during the moose (Alces alces hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg x L(-1, more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus, golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting.

  3. Causality pattern of the blood lead, monoamine oxidase A, and serotonin levels in brass home industry workers chronically exposed to lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Marianti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyse the effects of lead (Pb chronic exposure on blood lead levels, Monoamine oxidase A enzyme (MAO A and serotonin levels of brass craftsmen in Pati, Central Java, Indonesia, and to examine the connections among these three variables. The brass home industry area was polluted by lead. Thus, it chronically exposes the workers to lead pollution. Therefore, their blood lead level increased and later raised the level of MAO A and reduced the level of serotonin. Path analysis results show that the path coefficient (ñ of lead effects in decreasing serotonin through MAO A pathway is -0.411. Furthermore, lead effects that directly affect serotonin level without passing through MAO A pathway is -0.391 with residual coefficient (e of 0.572. In conclusion, the increase of blood lead level causes an increase in level of MAO A and drop in the level of serotonin.

  4. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha, E-mail: kayaalti@ankara.edu.tr; Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-02-15

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  5. Blood Lead Concentrations in Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting by early childhood. Lead is a toxic metal shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Several studies have investigated the possible association between exposure to lead and ASD, but their findings are conflicting. Using data from 100 ASD cases (2–8 years of age) and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls, we investigated the association between blood lead concentrations (BLC) and ASD in Jamaican children. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as exposure to potential lead sources. We used General Linear Models (GLM) to assess the association of BLC with ASD status as well as with sources of exposure to lead. In univariable GLM, we found a significant difference between geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.25 μg/dL cases vs. 2.73 μg/dL controls, p lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.55 μg/dL vs. 2.72 μg/dL, p = 0.64). Our results do not support an association between BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We have identified significant confounders when assessing an association between ASD and BLC. PMID:25546274

  6. Lead in human blood and milk from nursing women living near a smelter in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namihira, D. (Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro (Mexico)); Saldivar, L.; Pustilnik, N.; Carreon, G.J.; Salinas, M.E. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1993-01-01

    The lead content in gasoline in Mexico City is the highest in the world (1g/L). The use of gasoline containing lead as an antiknock agent has been considered the major anthropogenic lead source in the area. Lead levels in breast milk and blood were determined in women living within a 200-m radius of 3 smelters in Mexico City. All samples were analyzed on a Perkin Elmer 460 atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with HGA 2200. The mean blood lead level was 45.88 [mu]g/dl (SD 19.88 [mu]g/dl), and the geometric mean of milk lead level was 2.47 [mu]g/100 ml. The correlation coefficient of these two variables was 0.88. Using the mean value of lead found in breast milk, an infant of 5.5 kg would ingest 8.1 [mu]g/kg/d in his diet. The daily permissible intake (DPI) established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1972 for an adult is 5.0 [mu]g/kg/d. 32 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Menopause and High Blood Pressure: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure (hypertension) Is there a connection between menopause and high blood pressure? Answers from Shannon K. ... Tommaso, M.D. Blood pressure generally increases after menopause. Some doctors think this increase suggests that hormonal ...

  8. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  9. Dietary spermidine for lowering high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Andreas; Schroeder, Sabrina; Pendl, Tobias; Harger, Alexandra; Stekovic, Slaven; Schipke, Julia; Magnes, Christoph; Schmidt, Albrecht; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Dammbrueck, Christopher; Gross, Angelina S; Herbst, Viktoria; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Pietrocola, Federico; Pieber, Thomas R; Sigrist, Stephan J; Linke, Wolfgang A; Mühlfeld, Christian; Sadoshima, Junichi; Dengjel, Joern; Kiechl, Stefan; Kroemer, Guido; Sedej, Simon; Madeo, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Loss of cardiac macroautophagy/autophagy impairs heart function, and evidence accumulates that an increased autophagic flux may protect against cardiovascular disease. We therefore tested the protective capacity of the natural autophagy inducer spermidine in animal models of aging and hypertension, which both represent major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Dietary spermidine elicits cardioprotective effects in aged mice through enhancing cardiac autophagy and mitophagy. In salt-sensitive rats, spermidine supplementation also delays the development of hypertensive heart disease, coinciding with reduced arterial blood pressure. The high blood pressure-lowering effect likely results from improved global arginine bioavailability and protection from hypertension-associated renal damage. The polyamine spermidine is naturally present in human diets, though to a varying amount depending on food type and preparation. In humans, high dietary spermidine intake correlates with reduced blood pressure and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and related death. Altogether, spermidine represents a cardio- and vascular-protective autophagy inducer that can be readily integrated in common diets. PMID:28118075

  10. Assessment of leaching potential of highly leaded jewelry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D; Newman, Breinn E; Clever, Ashley

    2010-05-15

    Lead is a potent neurotoxin particularly toxic to young children, and in response to recent poisonings of children and high levels of lead contamination in children's jewelry, US regulatory standards for lead content in these items have become much more stringent. Parents are often advised to throw out suspect items in the trash. While household wastes are generally exempt from consideration as hazardous waste, the potential for leaching of hazardous quantities of lead from such items is unknown. A modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), in which intact jewelry components were subjected to leaching, was used to evaluate the potential for leaching of lead from highly leaded jewelry. Of 62 jewelry components tested, 61 exceeded the US regulatory standard for lead of 5mg/L, and leachate lead concentrations averaged 1460 mg/L. Twenty-six of the component items tested yielded TCLP lead concentrations exceeding 1000 mg/L. These results demonstrate that highly leaded jewelry items may leach significant amounts of lead, and provide another reason to remove lead from these products. Furthermore, these results suggest that while the volume of such items in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream is small, they have the potential to contribute significant quantities of lead to MSW leachates.

  11. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  12. Blood lead concentrations in wild birds from a polluted mining region at Villa de La Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa-Vargas, Leonardo; Mejia-Saavedra, Jose J; Monzalvo-Santos, Karina; Puebla-Olivares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the concentrations of lead in bird blood samples from a mining region in central Mexico and to compare concentrations among several different feeding guilds. The study took place in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosi in a region known as "Villa de la Paz." This is one of the most intensely exploited mining regions in central Mexico and has been actively mined for over four centuries. Lead concentrations from bird blood samples taken from four polluted sites were significantly higher than those from a control, unpolluted site (F = 6.3, P birds from a highly polluted site were higher than those from a site that has intermediate pollution levels (P birds had significantly lower lead concentrations compared to granivores, frugivores-insectivores, and omnivores (F = 4.86, P = 0.004), and a large proportion of all individuals had blood lead concentrations indicative of low, sub-lethal toxic effects. Finally, in two polluted sites, remarkably small numbers of insectivore-frugivores, and granivores were trapped, and in one polluted site a large number of insectivores was trapped (X(2) = 29.9, P = 0.03), and no differences in proportions of migrants and non-migrants were found among sampling sites (X(2) = 0.6, P = 0.96). To date, it has not been determined to what extent constant exposure to these levels of pollution can influence health at the individual level, lifespan, and, therefore, population demography of birds from this region.

  13. [Blood lead levels during pregnancy in th the newborn period. Study of the population of Bari].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, R; Laforgia, N; Crollo, E; Mautone, A; Iolascon, A

    1998-01-01

    Blood lead levels during pregnancy and in neonates immediately after birth have been evaluated, showing higher values in mothers compared to neonates (5.81 +/- 3.05 vs 4.87 +/- 3.60 micrograms/100 ml) and a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal levels (r = 0.82). On the basis of the results derived from the population examined, it has been observed that 6% of newborns have blood lead levels higher than 10 micrograms/100 ml a value recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC, Atlanta, USA) as a limit for toxicity in children. Moreover, neonatal Pb levels were higher than those found in infants from 6 to 12 months (4.87 +/- 3.60 vs 2.24 +/- 0.54 micrograms/100 ml). During the first week of life there is a steady decrease of blood lead levels, together with increasing renal lead excretion. This study was carried out at the "Dipartimento di Biomedicina dell'Età Evolutiva" University of Bari, southern Italy.

  14. CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the MMWR Science Clips High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Out of Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... cdc.gov/GISCVH2/ High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol Among US Adults SOURCES: National Health and Nutrition ...

  15. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found? Who is at risk? What are the health effects of lead? Get educational material about lead Get certified as a Lead Abatement Worker, or other abatement discipline Lead in drinking water Lead air pollution Test your child Check and maintain your home ...

  16. Environmental lead exposure is associated with visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability in the US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramawi, Mohammed F; Delongchamp, Robert; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Liu, Youcheng; Abouelenien, Saly; Fischbach, Lori; Jadhav, Supriya

    2015-04-01

    The association between environmental lead exposure and blood pressure variability, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is unexplored and unknown. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that lead exposure is associated with blood pressure variability. American participants 17 years of age or older from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III were included in the analysis. Participants' blood lead concentrations expressed as micrograms per deciliter were determined. The standard deviations of visit-to-visit systolic and diastolic blood pressure were calculated to determine blood pressure variability. Multivariable regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, race, smoking and socioeconomic status were employed. The participants' mean age and mean blood lead concentration were 42.72 years and 3.44 mcg/dl, respectively. Systolic blood pressure variability was significantly associated with environmental lead exposure after adjusting for the effect of the confounders. The unadjusted and adjusted means of visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability and the β coefficient of lead exposure were 3.44, 3.33 mcg/dl, β coefficient = 0.07, P environmental lead exposure and systolic blood pressure variability. Screening adults with fluctuating blood pressure for lead exposure could be warranted.

  17. High blood pressure in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Bluhm, Brian

    2012-04-01

    High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked by physicians. Normal blood pressure values for children and adolescents are based on age, sex, and height, and are available in standardized tables. Prehypertension is defined as a blood pressure in at least the 90th percentile, but less than the 95th percentile, for age, sex, and height, or a measurement of 120/80 mm Hg or greater. Hypertension is defined as blood pressure in the 95th percentile or greater. A secondary etiology of hypertension is much more likely in children than in adults, with renal parenchymal disease and renovascular disease being the most common. Overweight and obesity are strongly correlated with primary hypertension in children. A history and physical examination are needed for all children with newly diagnosed hypertension to help rule out underlying medical disorders. Children with hypertension should also be screened for other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia, and should be evaluated for target organ damage with a retinal examination and echocardiography. Hypertension in children is treated with lifestyle changes, including weight loss for those who are overweight or obese; a healthy, low-sodium diet; regular physical activity; and avoidance of tobacco and alcohol. Children with symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, target organ damage, diabetes, or persistent hypertension despite nonpharmacologic measures should be treated with antihypertensive medications. Thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers are safe, effective, and well tolerated in children.

  18. High-pressure processing for preservation of blood products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, A.M.; Ven, van der C.; Gouwerok, C.W.N.; Korte, de D.

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities of high pressure as a preservation method for human blood products were evaluated by examining the functional properties of blood fractions, after high-pressure processing at conditions which potentially inactivate micro-organisms and viruses. Blood platelets, red blood cells and

  19. For People with Diabetes or High Blood Pressure: Get Checked for Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language URL Español For People with Diabetes or High Blood Pressure: Get Checked for Kidney Disease Page Content Make ... I be checked for kidney disease? Diabetes and high blood pressure can damage the kidneys and lead to kidney ...

  20. Distribution of blood lead, blood cadmium, urinary cadmium, and urinary arsenic levels in employees of a copper smelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Weber, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Nicholson, W.J.; Campbell, C.; Malkin, J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1984-02-01

    A cross-sectional medical examination of a copper smelter work force included determination of blood lead (Pb-B), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), blood cadmium (Cd-B), urinary cadmium (Cd-U), and urinary arsenic (As-U), since it was known that such metal impurities were present in the copper concentrate. A total of 776 copper smelter employees (680 active and 96 retirees and ex-employees) were examined. Another 144 men, never employed in the smelter, but who had worked in copper mines (and sometimes in gold mines) were also examined. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, Cd-B, and As-U were significantly higher in active copper smelter employees than in retirees or miners, indicating exposure and absorption in the copper smelter. Significant correlations between Pb-B and Cd-B, and Cd-U and As-U were present, confirming the common source of absorption. Although there was evidence for an increased lead absorption, this was very moderate, with practically no Pb-B levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl. A marked effect of smoking on blood cadmium levels was present; nevertheless, for all smoking categories Cd-B levels were significantly higher in active employees, indicating the independent contribution of exposure to cadmium in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 ..mu..g/g creatinine, the generally accepted critical level for the kidney, but was higher than 2 ..mu..g/g cretinine, a level very rarely exceeded in the general population, in a sizable proportion of those examined. The highest Cd-U levels were found in retired copper smelter employees; age might have been a contributing factor, besides a longer duration of exposure in the smelter.

  1. High temperature superconducting current leads for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    1999-01-01

    The large hadron collider (LHC) will be equipped with about 8000 superconducting magnets. Some 3380 leads will feed the currents ranging from 60 to 13000 A. To reduce the heat inleak into the liquid helium, CERN aims to use high temperature superconducting material for leads having current ratings between 600 and 13000 A. Specifications have been written for 13000 A current leads, incorporating a high temperature superconducting section, for the main of the LHC, and contracts have been placed with several firms for the supply of prototypes for comparative testing. The leads used for feeding locally the 60 and 120 A dipole orbit correctors will be conventional conduction cooledmagnets resistive leads. An optimized lead of variable cross section has been tested, and an integral design has been initiated. This report describes the design status of the current leads for the LHC, emphasizing, for the different solutions, the principle of optimization and the choice of cooling methods. (8 refs).

  2. Further evidence of a fall in blood lead levels in Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Elwood, P; Toothill, C

    1986-01-01

    Random samples of residents in North Wales, some of whom had been seen in 1976 and others in 1981, were seen again in 1984. Blood lead estimations indicated that there had been a fall of about 5% per year. This is similar to the fall we estimated from two previous studies in Wales and is comparable to changes described in the USA and New Zealand.

  3. Toxicants in folk remedies: Implications of elevated blood lead in an American-born infant due to imported diaper powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowski, Mateusz P.; Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Law, Terence; Kellogg, Mark; Woolf, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Though most childhood lead exposure in the USA results from ingestion of lead-based paint dust, non-paint sources are increasingly implicated. We present interdisciplinary findings from and policy implications of a case of elevated blood lead (13–18 mcg/dL, reference level arsenic (55 ppm), bismuth (110 ppm), and thallium (31 ppm). These metals are highly bioaccessible in simulated gastric fluids, but only slightly bioaccessible in simulated lung fluids and simulated urine, suggesting that the primary lead exposure routes were ingestion via hand-mouth transmission and ingestion of inhaled dusts cleared from the respiratory tract. Four weeks after discontinuing use of the powder, the infant’s venous blood lead level was 8 mcg/dL. Unregulated, imported folk remedies can be a source of toxicant exposure. Additional research on import policy, product regulation, public health surveillance, and culturally sensitive risk communication is needed to develop efficacious risk reduction strategies in the USA. The more widespread use of contaminated folk remedies in the countries from which they originate is a substantial concern.

  4. A comparison of blood lead levels between migrant and native lead workers before and after implementation of a new employment permit system for migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2011-01-01

    We compared the blood lead and other lead biomarkers between migrant and native workers with a focus on the impact of the legal employment permit system that was effective from 2003, which required employers to provide mandatory annual health examinations for migrant workers on lead biomarkers in 1997 and 2005. The mean blood lead level of migrant workers was 59.5 ± 19.4 μg/dl, yielding 47% of lead poisoning cases, which was significantly higher than that of native workers (36.8 ± 14.5 μg/dl; 11% of lead poisoning cases) in 1997 before enactment of the act. The overall mean blood ZPP levels and ALAU of migrant workers were significantly higher than those of native workers. In 2005, after new migrant worker regulations were instituted, the mean value of above lead biomarkers workers was still significantly higher than that of native workers, but the magnitude of the differences was smaller compared with the difference in 1997. We confirmed that the 2003 regulations played an important role in improving the health of migrant workers in the lead industry in terms of their blood lead levels and other lead biomarkers.

  5. Effects of Very Low Blood Lead Levels on Neurobehavioral Performances of Male Policemen in Kota Bharu, Kelantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Norlen; Nordin, Rusli

    2004-01-01

    Many published studies that examined the effect of lead exposure on neurobehavioral performances were conducted in confined manufacturing environment with low to moderate blood lead levels as a marker of exposure. This study was conducted in a general environmental setting with very low exposure intensity and blood lead levels. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of very low blood lead levels (below 10 μg/dl) on the neurobehavioral performances of policemen in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. The study, conducted between August 25th and October 20th 2001, was cross-sectional in design and comprised of 89 policemen working in Kota Bharu district. The lead concentration of venous blood was determined using graphite furnace absorption spectrometer. We assessed neurobehavioral performances using the WHO Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery (NCTB). The mean blood lead concentration was 2.5 + 1.0 mg/dl. Among the seven tests performed, the positive effect of blood lead on Benton visual retention was not significant after controlling for the confounding effect of smoke-dose. This study suggested that very low blood lead levels have no significant effects on the neurobehavioral performances. Therefore, more studies with blood lead levels below the recommended environmental limit of 10 mg/dl, as recommended by Centers for Disease Control (CDC), be conducted in order to justify that limit. PMID:22973122

  6. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Buser, Melanie C. [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Mevissen, Meike [Division of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Portier, Christopher J. [National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/ATSDR, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

  7. Evidence that cognitive deficit in children is associated not only with iron deficiency, but also with blood lead concentration: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Kim, Yangho

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether blood lead concentrations are elevated in iron-deficient children, and to examine the association between iron deficiency and/or elevated blood lead concentration and cognitive deficits in children. The present study is a component of the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. The study cohort consisted of 194 children who underwent testing of blood lead and serum C-reactive proteins (CRPs) and ferritin concentrations, and the Korean version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, revised edition (WPPSI-R), at 60 months of age. In addition, the mothers' blood lead concentrations during pregnancy were included in the analyses. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between high blood lead and low serum ferritin concentrations, after adjustment for covariates, in children, as well as to analyze the association of verbal IQ with serum ferritin and blood lead concentrations. Lead and ferritin concentrations were inversely and significantly associated in children after adjustment for covariates. Moreover, both concentrations were associated with verbal IQ, after adjustment for covariates, and each was associated with cognitive deficits after adjustment for the other. Sobel test statistics showed that blood lead concentration was a significant partial mediator for the relationship between iron deficiency and verbal IQ. Due to the results discussed in the present study, cognitive deficit in children seems to be associated not only with iron deficiency, but also with blood lead concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High blood pressure (hypertension) Is it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon ... Cirelli C, et al. Definition and consequences of sleep deprivation. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 24, ...

  9. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke Updated:Sep ... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ...

  10. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  11. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  12. High Blood Pressure Rates Have Doubled Worldwide Since 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162069.html High Blood Pressure Rates Have Doubled Worldwide Since 1975 Most of ... News) -- The number of people worldwide with high blood pressure has nearly doubled over the past 40 years, ...

  13. Optimization of high-temperature superconductor current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, S. Y.; Hull, J. R.; Chyu, M. C.

    Methods to improve the performance of high-temperature superconducting current leads are analyzed. Designs are considered that are inherently safe from burnup, even if the lead enters the normal state. The effect of a tapered lead that takes advantage of the increase in critical current density with decreasing temperature will decrease helium boiloff by about a factor of two for an area ratio of four. A new concept, in which Ag powder is distributed in increasing concentration from the cold end to the hot end of the lead in sintered YBCO, is shown to have comparable performance to that of leads made with Ag-alloy sheaths. Performance of the best inherently safe designs is about one order of magnitude better than that of optimized nonsuperconducting leads. BSCCO leads with Ag-alloy sheaths show improved performance for Au fractions up to about 3%, after which increases in Au fraction yield negligible performance improvement.

  14. Lung function decline and blood lead among residents nearby to industrial complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Yun-Suk; Oh, Aeri; Kho, Young Lim; Paek, Domyung

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: This study was to ascertain the risk factors of pulmonary function decline (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV(1)], forced vital capacity [FVC]) among those exposed to lead in the vicinity of industrial complex. METHODS: In total, 263 men and women, aged over 30, were recruited from two cities during a 2-year follow-up. Spirometry testing was conducted first at baseline and then after 2-years of follow-up. The change in FVC and FEV(1) during the study period was analyzed according to blood lead (BPb), urinary cotinine, and 1-hydroxypyrene, after controlling for sex, height, baseline FVC or FEV(1), and airway hyperresponsiveness. RESULTS: With increase in age, both FEV(1) and FVC declined. More marked decline in FVC was noted for men than for women (p variables, especially height (p variables, blood lead level was also significantly associated with the decline of FVC. CONCLUSIONS: Even though the decline in FEV(1) and FVC with aging was within a normal range, people with smaller height were more vulnerable to the decline of both FEV(1) and FVC and especially higher level of BPb was accompanied with larger decline of FVC. Oxidative stress in relation to lead accumulation in adult may contribute to rapid aging of pulmonary function.

  15. Blood lead concentrations in free-ranging Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jonathan K; Combrink, Xander; Myburgh, Jan G; Downs, Colleen T

    2016-07-01

    Generally crocodilians have received little attention with regard to the effects of lead toxicity despite their trophic status as apex, generalist predators that utilize both aquatic and terrestrial habitats, thereby exposing them to a potentially wide range of environmental contaminants. During July-October 2010 we collected whole blood from 34 sub-adult and adult free-ranging Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from three separate populations in northeastern South Africa in order to analyze their blood lead concentrations (BPb). Concentrations ranged from below detectability (crocodile size and population sampled. On average, crocodiles had higher BPbs at Lake St Lucia than at Ndumo Game Reserve or Kosi Bay, which we attribute to lead sinker ingestion during normal gastrolith acquisition. No clinical effects of lead toxicosis were observed in these crocodiles, even though the highest concentration (960 μg/dL) we report represents the most elevated BPb recorded to date for a free-ranging vertebrate. Although we suggest adult Nile crocodiles are likely tolerant of elevated Pb body burdens, experimental studies on other crocodilian species suggest the BPb levels reported here may have harmful or fatal effects to egg development and hatchling health. In light of recent Nile crocodile nesting declines in South Africa we urge further BPb monitoring and ecotoxicology research on reproductive females and embryos.

  16. Effect of succimer on growth of preschool children with moderate blood lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Karen E; Salganik, Mikhail; Campbell, Carla; Rhoads, George G; Rubin, Judith; Berger, Omer; Ware, James H; Rogan, Walter

    2004-02-01

    Growth deficits associated with lead exposure might be ameliorated by chelation. We examined the effect of succimer on growth in 780 children 12-33 months old who had blood lead levels of 20-44 microg/dL and were randomized to receive up to three 26-day courses of succimer or placebo in a multicenter, double-blind trial. The difference in changes in weight and height between succimer and placebo groups at 1-34 months was calculated by fitting cubic splines. The difference in height change in children on succimer compared with placebo was -0.27 cm [95% confidence interval (95% CI), -0.42 to -0.11] from baseline to 9 months, when 99% of children had completed treatment, and -0.43 cm (95% CI, -0.77 to -0.09) during 34 months of follow-up. Similar differences in weight gain were not statistically significant. Although succimer lowers blood lead in moderately lead-poisoned children, it does not have a beneficial effect on growth and may have an adverse effect.

  17. Preliminary indications of blood lead concentrations, among occupationally exposed and non exposed Palestinians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutaz A. Al-Qutob

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the lower rate of exposure to leaded compounds in the past ten years, due to reducedlead petrol concentrations in the ambient air and improvement in environmental control measures, leadpoisoning is still an occupational and environmental disease of great concern in public health. Thepresence of other sources of lead exposure after the ban of leaded gasoline could be a risk factor forelevated blood lead concentrations. In this study blood lead levels (BLL were screened in bothoccupationally and non-occupationally exposed groups in the Palestinian Territories by inductive coupledplasma-mass spectrometry (Agilent 7500 ICP-MS. The non-occupationally exposed groups included 18normal healthy smoker males, 18 non smoker males, and 18 females. Occupationally exposed groupsinclude 25 workers in the assaying and refining of gold and 19 workers in auto-repair garages. Data wasanalyzed using the statistical computer package (SPSS. Mean blood lead levels of all groups were belowthe action level according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC and Occupational Safety and HealthAdministration (OSHA (<10 μg/dL. No statistical significant differences were found between workersgroup and control groups. In the control group, a paired t-test showed a statistically significant difference(p<0.05 between the female group and smoker male group. There was no correlation with age for allgroups except the female group and auto-repair workers which showed significant correlation (p<0.05with both age and years of work. This could be contributed to differences in genetic make-up, chemicalexposure history and age related decreased function of the detoxification processes. Since mean BLL(3.66 μg/dL of the control group was comparable to economically advantaged countries like USA (1.6μg/dL and those with low mean of (1.96 μg/dL like Jordan, lead is not considered a majorenvironmental pollutant in Palestine and the screening is recommended only at the workers in

  18. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undarmaa Enkhbat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™ and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99 μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187 μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001. The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297 μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190 μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004. The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001. Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15. The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01 when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically

  19. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M.; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D’Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99) μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187) μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297) μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190) μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant

  20. Blood lead determinants and the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in firearm users in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Aguilar Madrid

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify blood lead predictors and the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in firearm users of public security in Mexico. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 65 males. We obtained socio-occupational data and determined venous blood lead (blood (B, lead (Pb – BPb, as well as neuropsychiatric symptoms using the Q-16 questionnaire. A multiple linear regression model was constructed to assess determinants of BPb. Results: The mean age in the study group was 34.8 years (standard deviation (SD = 6.9, range: 21–60; the mean number of years spent in the company amounted to 14 years (SD = 8.5, range: 1–48. Twenty percent of the respondents (N = 13 used leaded glazed clay pottery (lead (Pb, glazed (G, and clay pottery (C – PbGC in the kitchen. During practice they fired a mean of 72 shots (SD = 60, range: 20–250, and during their whole duration of employment 5483 shots (SD = 8322.5, range: 200–50 000. The mean BPb was 7.6 μg/dl (SD = 6.8, range: 2.7–51.7. Two caretakers from the firing range had 29.6 μg/dl and 51.7 μg/dl BPb. The subjects who had shooting practice sessions ≥ 12 times a year reported a greater percentage of miscarriages in their partners (24% vs. 0%. Twelve percent of the respondents showed an increase in neuropsychiatric symptoms. The BPb multiple linear regression model explained R2 = 44.15%, as follows: those who had ≥ 12 practice sessions per year – β = 0.5339 and those who used PbGC – β = 0.3651. Conclusions: Using firearms and PbGC contributes to the increased BPb in the studied personnel. The determinants of BPb were: shooting practices >12 times a year and using PbGC. Blood lead concentrations reported in the study, despite being low, are a health risk, as evidenced by the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  1. Blood lead, hearing thresholds, and neurobehavioral development in children and youth (journal version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J.; Otto, D.

    1987-01-01

    NHANES II audiometry data were used to confirm a previously observed link between blood lead (PbB) level and hearing threshold. Other indicators of neurological development, such as age at which a child first sat up, walked, and spoke, and the presence of speech difficulties and hyperactivity were also examined to determine if they were significantly related to lead exposure. The probability of elevated hearing thresholds at 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz increased significantly (P<0.0001) with increasing PbB for both ears. PbB levels were also significantly related to delays in the age at which children first sat up, walked, and spoke and to the probability that a child was hyperactive. Lead was not related to the probability of a child having a previously diagnosed speech impairment.

  2. Blood Lead Concentrations of Children in the United States: A Comparison of States Using Two Very Large Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Keneil K; Oleske, James M; Gomez, Hernan F; Davidow, Amy L; Bogden, John D

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether there are substantial differences by state between 2 large datasets in the proportion of children with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs); to identify states in which the percentage of elevated BLLs is high in either or both datasets; and to compare the percentage of elevated BLLs in individual states with those of children living in Flint, Michigan, during the months when these children were exposed to lead-contaminated drinking water. Tables of BLLs for individual states from the Quest Diagnostics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention datasets for 2014-2015, containing more than 3 million BLLs of young children?lead exposure (primary prevention) and identify children with elevated BLLs (secondary prevention). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Benzene exposure, assessed by urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, in urban children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, V.M.; Fitzwilliam, A.; Peters, H.L.; Groopman, J.D. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using trans, trans-muconic acid (MA) as a biomarker of environmental benzene exposure. A secondary aim was to provide data on the extent of exposure to selected toxicants in a unique population consisting of inner-city children who were already overexposed to one urban hazard, lead. Potential sources of benzene were assessed by a questionnaire. Exposure biomarkers included urinary MA and cotinine and blood lead. Mean MA was 176.6 {plus_minus} 341.7 ng/mg creatinine in the 79 children who participated. A wide range of values was found with as many as 10.1%, depending on the comparison study, above the highest levels reported in adults not exposed by occupation. Mean MA was increased in children evaluated in the afternoon compared to morning, those at or above the median for time spent playing near the street, and those studied in the first half of the investigation. MA levels were not associated with blood lead or, consistently, with either questionnaire environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) data or cotinine. As expected, the mean blood lead level was elevated (23.6 {mu}g/dl). Mean cotinine was also increased at 79.2 ng/mg creatinine. We conclude that the use of MA as a biomarker for environmental benzene exposure is feasible since it was detectable in 72% of subjects with a wide range of values present. In future studies, correlation of MA with personal air sampling in environmental exposure will be essential to fully interpret the significance of these findings. In addition, these inner-city children comprise a high risk group for exposure to environmental toxicants including ETS, lead, and probably benzene, based on questionnaire sources and its presence in ETS. 22 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whites. • Heredity —A tendency to have high blood pressure runs in families. • Age — In general, the older you get, the greater your chance of developing high blood pressure. • Sex — Men tend to develop high blood pressure ...

  5. Let's Talk about High Blood Pressure and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stroke. How does high blood pressure increase stroke risk? High blood pressure is the single most important risk factor for ... vessel ruptures over time. Who is at higher risk for HBP? People with a family history of high blood pressure African-Americans People age 35 or older People ...

  6. Blood lead, parental marital status and the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in elementary school children: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Jun; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Lim, Myung Ho; Lim, Ji-Ae; Ha, Mina

    2016-02-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the blood lead level and parental marital status that might influence the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in school-aged children. The participants in the survey included elementary school children, and they were followed up biennially. The participants' parents or caregivers were administered a questionnaire including ADHD rating scale. Among 2967 who were not suspected to have ADHD at baseline survey, 2195 children who took follow-up test for ADHD were evaluated. The incidence rate of suspected ADHD was 5.0% (107 cases) during the two years of the follow-up period. The geometric mean blood lead level was 1.56μg/dL. Relative risk ratio for ADHD was estimated using logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for potential confounders, ADHD developed more frequently in children with blood lead levels of >2.17μg/dL (highest quartile) (RR 1.552, 95% CI 1.002-2.403) and in children with a single parent (RR 1.805, 95% CI 1.002-3.254). The RR was 3.567 (95% CI 1.595-7.980) in children with relatively high blood lead levels (>2.17μg/dL) from single-parent families, compared with those with low blood lead and a two-parent family. The ADHD risk in association with blood lead level was modified by family status.

  7. Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Franson, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low ( Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

  8. Blood pressure in relation to environmental lead exposure in the national health and nutrition examination survey 2003 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Azusa; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Gu, Yu-Mei; Jacobs, Lotte; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Yan-Ping; Nawrot, Tim S; Staessen, Jan A

    2015-01-01

    In view of the declining environmental lead exposure in the United States, we analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2010) for association of blood pressure and hypertension with blood lead. The 12 725 participants included 21.1% blacks, 20.5% Hispanics, 58.4% whites, and 48.7% women. Blacks compared with non-Blacks had higher systolic and diastolic pressures (126.5 versus 123.9 and 71.9 versus 69.6 mm Hg) and higher hypertension prevalence (44.7 versus 36.8%). Blood lead was lower in whites than in non-whites (1.46 versus 1.57 μg/dL) and in women than in men (1.25 versus 1.80 μg/dL). In multivariable analyses of all participants, blood lead doubling was associated with higher (P≤0.0007) systolic and diastolic pressure (+0.76 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-1.13 and +0.43 mm Hg; 0.18-0.68), but not with the odds of hypertension (0.95; 0.90-1.01; P=0.11). Associations with blood lead were nonsignificant (P≥0.09) for systolic pressure in women and for diastolic pressure in non-whites. Among men, systolic pressure increased with blood lead (P≤0.060) with effect sizes associated with blood lead doubling ranging from +0.65 mm Hg in whites to +1.61 mm Hg in blacks. For systolic pressure, interactions of ethnicity and sex with blood lead were all significant (P≤0.019). In conclusion, small and inconsistent effect sizes in the associations of blood pressure with blood lead likely exclude current environmental lead exposure as a major hypertension cause in the United States. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Revisiting mobilisation of skeletal lead during pregnancy based on monthly sampling and cord/maternal blood lead relationships confirm placental transfer of lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; Mizon, Karen; Korsch, Michael; Taylor, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Lead (Pb) can be released from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation and transferred to the infant. Most support for this hypothesis comes from blood Pb (PbB) studies involving limited sampling during pregnancy, the maximum usually being five samplings, including at delivery. We provide longitudinal data for PbB concentrations and Pb isotopic ratios for three cohorts of pregnant females (n = 31), two of which are based on monthly sampling and the other on quarterly sampling. We also provide data for samples collected post-partum. The data are compared with changes observed in a matched, by country and age, non-pregnant control cohort (n = 5). The monthly data illustrate the variability between subjects, which is also apparent when the data are compared on a trimester basis. Mixed model analyses showed that, in the third trimester, the mean PbB level was significantly lower for women (n = 10) who took a calcium (Ca) supplement (PbB 1.6 µg/dL) than those whose Ca intake was low (low-Ca cohort; n = 15; PbB 2.5 µg/dL) because low Ca means more mobilisation is required for homoeostasis so that more Pb was mobilised from the skeleton. For women who took the supplement, post-partum PbB levels were significantly higher than those in the other periods (2.7 vs 1.4-1.6 µg/dL). For women in the low-Ca cohort, PbB levels were higher at post-partum than in pre-pregnancy and in the first and second trimesters (3.1 vs 1.8 µg/dL), while the levels in the third trimester were higher than those in the first and second trimesters. Importantly, the increase in PbB during gestation was delayed until the third trimester in the Ca-supplemented cohort compared with the low-Ca cohort. Regression analysis showed that the changes over trimester were very similar for PbB and the (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratio providing convincing evidence for extra mobilisation of Pb from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation. Isotopic ratios in the cord blood samples were similar to

  10. Effects of Environmental Lead Pollution on Blood Lead and Sex Hormone Levels among Occupationally Exposed Group in An E-waste Dismantling Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan; LU Xiao Song; LI Ding Long; YU Yun Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of environmental multi-media lead pollution on blood lead and sex hormone levels among lead exposed males engaged in E-waste dismantling, and the correlation between confounding factors and sex hormone levels. Methods An E-waste dismantling area in Taizhou of Zhejiang Province was selected as the research site. One hundred and fifty two samples were collected from the groundwater, soil, rice, corn, chicken, and pork in the dismantling area. The effects of the multi-media lead pollution on the male blood lead and sex hormone levels of FSH, LH, and T, as well as the correlation with confounding factors, were studied. Results The blood lead concentrations in the males aged under 31, from 31 to 45 and from 46 to 60 were 98.55, 100.23, and 101.45μg/L , respectively. Of all the environmental media lead exposures, the groundwater, rice and soil were main contributing factors to the lead accumulation in humans. FSH and LH levels increased with the age while the T levels decreased with the age instead. There was a significant correlation between the FSH and LH levels and wearing masks. Conclusion There was correlation between the FSH, LH, and T levels, and the mean values of lead concentrations in environmental media, and the sex hormone levels were correlated with the confounding factor of wearing masks.

  11. Elevated blood-lead levels among children living in the rural Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Travis J; Solon, Orville; Quimbo, Stella A; Tan, Cheryl May C; Butrick, Elizabeth; Peabody, John W

    2007-09-01

    Generally, lead poisoning is not considered a significant environmental hazard for children in rural areas of developing countries. With a prospectively designed policy experiment, the research community and the government are conducting a broad-based investigation to introduce and evaluate the impact of health policy reforms on children in a rural area of the Philippines - the Quality Improvement Demonstration Study (QIDS). As part of this study, we researched lead exposure in children under the age of five. We sampled a population of children from the Visayas region in the central Philippines, covering approximately one third of the country's geographical area. From December 2003 to September 2004, the survey collected blood lead levels (BLL) together with demographic, socioeconomic and child health data points. Supplemental field-testing among a sub-sample of the most exposed children assessed the sources of environmental lead exposure. Among children in this study, 21% (601 of 2861 children) had BLL greater than 10 microg/dl. BLL were associated independently with age, haemoglobin concentration, water source, roofing material, expenditures and history of breastfeeding. A follow-up assessment of possible environmental exposures among the sub-sample of children with elevated BLL revealed no single or predominant exposure source. Instead, there appear to be multiple potential sources, such as fossil-fuel combustion, lead paint (in or around 38% of homes) and household items. Elevated BLL are common among children in the Visayas, and may signify an under-recognized threat to children living in rural areas of other developing nations. This setting has varied environmental sources of lead. Observed correlates of BLL may be of clinical, environmental and public health utility to identify and mitigate the consequences of lead toxicity.

  12. Interrupted time series analysis of children's blood lead levels: A case study of lead hazard control program in Syracuse, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Liyang; Zhang, Lianjun; Zhen, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Children's blood lead concentrations have been closely monitored over the last two decades in the United States. The bio-monitoring surveillance data collected in local agencies reflected the local temporal trends of children's blood lead levels (BLLs). However, the analysis and modeling of the long-term time series of BLLs have rarely been reported. We attempted to quantify the long-term trends of children's BLLs in the city of Syracuse, New York and evaluate the impacts of local lead poisoning prevention programs and Lead Hazard Control Program on reducing the children's BLLs. We applied interrupted time series analysis on the monthly time series of BLLs surveillance data and used ARMA (autoregressive and moving average) models to measure the average children's blood lead level shift and detect the seasonal pattern change. Our results showed that there were three intervention stages over the past 20 years to reduce children's BLLs in the city of Syracuse, NY. The average of children's BLLs was significantly decreased after the interventions, declining from 8.77μg/dL to 3.94μg/dL during1992 to 2011. The seasonal variation diminished over the past decade, but more short term influences were in the variation. The lead hazard control treatment intervention proved effective in reducing the children's blood lead levels in Syracuse, NY. Also, the reduction of the seasonal variation of children's BLLs reflected the impacts of the local lead-based paint mitigation program. The replacement of window and door was the major cost of lead house abatement. However, soil lead was not considered a major source of lead hazard in our analysis.

  13. High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audiences Contact The Health Information Center High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need To Know Table of Contents ... Lifestyle Changes (TLC) Drug Treatment Resources Why Is Cholesterol Important? Your blood cholesterol level has a lot ...

  14. What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure? Because diagnosis is based on blood pressure readings, ... damaged from chronic high blood pressure. Complications of High Blood Pressure When blood pressure stays high over time, it ...

  15. Stimulation of human red blood cells leads to Ca2+-mediated intercellular adhesion

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Patrick; Nguyen, Duc Bach; Müller, Torsten; Bernhardt, Ingolf; Kaestner, Lars; Wagner, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are a major component of blood clots, which form physiologically as a response to injury or pathologically in thrombosis. The active participation of RBCs in thrombus solidification has been previously proposed but not yet experimentally proven. Holographic optical tweezers and single-cell force spectroscopy were used to study potential cell-cell adhesion between RBCs. Irreversible intercellular adhesion of RBCs could be induced by stimulation with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a compound known to be released by activated platelets. We identified Ca2+ as an essential player in the signaling cascade by directly inducing Ca2+ influx using A23187. Elevation of the internal Ca2+ concentration leads to an intercellular adhesion of RBCs similar to that induced by LPA stimulation. Using single-cell force spectroscopy, the adhesion of the RBCs was identified to be approximately 100 pN, a value large enough to be of significance inside a blood clot or in pathological situations like the vasco-occ...

  16. An assessment of contemporary atomic spectroscopic techniques for the determination of lead in blood and urine matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Patrick J.; Geraghty, Ciaran; Verostek, Mary Frances

    2001-09-01

    The preparation and validation of a number of clinical reference materials for the determination of lead in blood and urine is described. Four candidate blood lead reference materials (Lots, 047-050), and four candidate urine lead reference materials (Lots, 034, 035, 037 and 038), containing physiologically-bound lead at clinically relevant concentrations, were circulated to up to 21 selected laboratories specializing in this analysis. Results from two interlaboratory studies were used to establish certified values and uncertainty estimates for these reference materials. These data also provided an assessment of current laboratory techniques for the measurement of lead in blood and urine. For the blood lead measurements, four laboratories used electrothermal atomization AAS, three used anodic stripping voltammetry and one used both ETAAS and ICP-MS. For the urine lead measurements, 11 laboratories used ETAAS (most with Zeeman background correction) and 10 used ICP-MS. Certified blood lead concentrations, ±S.D., ranged from 5.9±0.4 μg/dl (0.28±0.02 μmol/l) to 76.0±2.2 μg/dl (3.67±0.11 μmol/l) and urine lead concentrations ranged from 98±5 μg/l (0.47±0.02 μmol/l) to 641±36 μg/l (3.09±0.17 μmol/l). The highest concentration blood lead material was subjected to multiple analyses using ETAAS over an extended time period. The data indicate that more stringent internal quality control practices are necessary to improve long-term precision. While the certification of blood lead materials was accomplished in a manner consistent with established practices, the urine lead materials proved more troublesome, particularly at concentrations above 600 μg/l (2.90 μmol/l).

  17. Epidemiologic Characteristics of Children with Blood Lead Levels ≥45 μg/dL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brett; Faciano, Andrew; Tsega, Adey; Ehrlich, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    To identify risk factors and describe outcomes for children newly identified with blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥45 µg/dL in New York City (NYC) during 2004-2010 to promote timely identification as well as inform clinical practice and public health policy. Inclusion criteria were residence in NYC and an elevated confirmatory venous test within 2 weeks of the initial BLL ≥45 µg/dL. Data collected during case coordination of these children were linked with blood testing data and home inspection reports. Children with BLLs ≥45 µg/dL also were compared with the general population of children younger than 18 years of age in NYC. A total of 145 children lead poisoning has declined in the US, severe cases still occur. Physicians should be especially vigilant in certain at-risk populations including children who eat paint chips or soil, spend time outside the US (particularly in Pakistan), use imported products, or have developmental delays or sickle cell disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Appendix I Appendix II Tables Figures State Programs Alabama Alaska Arizona ... Tool Kit Resources Healthy Homes and Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks File Formats Help: ...

  19. 90° Neutron emission from high energy protons and lead ions on a thin lead target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, S.; Birattari, C.; Foglio Para, A.; Mitaroff, A.; Silari, M.; Ulrici, L.

    2002-01-01

    The neutron emission from a relatively thin lead target bombarded by beams of high energy protons/pions and lead ions was measured at CERN in one of the secondary beam lines of the Super Proton Synchrotron for radiation protection and shielding calculations. Measurements were performed with three different beams: 208Pb 82+ lead ions at 40 GeV/ c per nucleon and 158 GeV/ c per nucleon, and 40 GeV/ c mixed protons/pions. The neutron yield and spectral fluence per incident ion on target were measured at 90° with respect to beam direction. Monte-Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code were performed for the case of protons and pions and the results found in good agreement with the experimental data. A comparison between simulations and experiment for protons, pions and lead ions have shown that—for such high energy heavy ion beams—a reasonable estimate can be carried out by scaling the result of a Monte-Carlo calculation for protons by the projectile mass number to the power of 0.80-0.84.

  20. Association of Blood Pressure with Exposure to Lead and Cadmium: Analysis of Data from the 2008-2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Ahn, Jaeouk; Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Chan Boo; Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho

    2016-11-01

    We examined the association of blood pressure with blood levels of cadmium, lead, and their combination in a representative sample of adults from South Korea (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2013). This cross-sectional study enrolled subjects who were at least 19 years-old, completed a health examination survey, and had blood measurements of lead and cadmium. We estimated the adjusted mean differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure associated with doubling of blood lead and cadmium by regression of blood pressure against log2-transformed blood metals and their tertiles after covariate adjustment. Adjusted odds ratios for hypertension and prehypertension were calculated for log2-transformed blood levels of lead and cadmium and their tertiles. In the general population of Korea, blood lead level was associated with increased BP and risk of hypertension. Blood cadmium levels had a stronger association with elevated blood pressure and risk of hypertension than blood lead levels, and these associations remained significant after statistical adjustment for blood lead. The combination of blood lead and cadmium was more strongly associated with elevated blood pressure than exposure to each individual metal. In females, there was a stronger relationship between blood pressure and blood levels of these metals by analyzing interaction model. After adjustment for confounding factors, there were significant associations of blood pressure with the level of blood lead, cadmium, and their combination in adults from South Korea.

  1. High-power lead-acid batteries for different applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Rainer

    High-power lead-acid batteries have been used for a rather long time in various applications, especially for uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) and starting of automobiles. Future automotive service requires, in addition to cold-cranking performance, the combination of high-power capability, a very good charge-acceptance, and an excellent cycle-life. Such applications include stop-start, regenerative braking, and soft, mild and full hybrid vehicles. For UPS, there has been a clear tendency to shorter discharge times and higher discharge rates. During the past decades, the specific power of lead-acid batteries has been raised steadily and there is still, room for further improvement. This paper gives an overview of the progress made in the development of high-power lead-acid batteries and focuses on stationary and automotive applications.

  2. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hye Kyung [Severance Institute for Vascular and Metabolic Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Soo, E-mail: yschang@yuhs.ac [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Chul Woo [Severance Institute for Vascular and Metabolic Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R{sup 2}=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV{sub 1}/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations.

  3. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have certain medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus , thrombophilia , or lupus • are obese •had in vitro fertilization ... an abnormal amount of protein in the urine. Thrombophilia: A condition in which the blood does not ...

  4. Decreasing the cutoff for elevated blood lead (EBL) can decrease the screening sensitivity for EBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Laura J; Bordash, Frank R; Ubben, Kathy J; Landmark, James D; Stickle, Douglas F

    2013-03-01

    Change in the definition of elevated blood lead (EBL) from greater than or equal to 10 μg/dL (cutoff A) to greater than or equal to 5 μg/dL (cutoff B) was recently endorsed in the United States. A potential effect of this change is to decrease the screening sensitivity for EBL detection. We demonstrate this effect by simulated sampling of an example patient distribution for lead. Using lead-dependent assay imprecision, simulated sampling of the patient distribution tracked individual misclassifications relative to the EBL cutoff. Decreasing the EBL cutoff from A to B reduced screening sensitivity for EBL detection in this population to less than 90%, a decrease of 4%. The result was due to the fact that, for B, a greater fraction of the EBL population was near the EBL cutoff and therefore subject to misclassification due to assay imprecision. The effect of the decreased EBL cutoff to reduce EBL screening sensitivity is likely to apply to EBL screening programs generally.

  5. New Orleans before and after Hurricanes Katrina/Rita: a quasi-experiment of the association between soil lead and children's blood lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Sammy; Mielke, Howard W; Gonzales, Christopher R; Powell, Eric T; Weiler, Stephan

    2010-06-15

    Prior to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (HKR), significant associations were noted between soil lead (SL) and blood lead (BL) in New Orleans. Engineering failure of New Orleans levees and canal walls after HKR set the stage for a quasi-experiment to evaluate BL responses by 13 306 children to reductions in SL. High density soil surveying conducted in 46 census tracts before HKR was repeated after the flood. Paired t test results show that SL decreased from 328.54 to 203.33 mg/kg post-HKR (t = 3.296, p or =50% decrease in SL. Also individual BL in children was predicted as a function of SL, adjusting for age, year of observation, and depth of flood waters. At the individual scale, BL decreased significantly in post-HKR as a function of SL, with BL decreases ranging from b = -1.20 to -1.65 microg/dL, depending on the decline of SL and whether children were born in the post-HKR period. Our results support policy to improve soil conditions for children.

  6. Blood Metal Concentrations of Manganese, Lead, and Cadmium in Relation to Serum Ferritin Levels in Ohio Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to assess fcrritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents....

  7. Blood Metal Concentrations of Manganese, Lead, and Cadmium in Relation to Serum Ferritin Levels in Ohio Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to assess fcrritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents....

  8. High-temperature lead-free solder alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nachiappan, Vivek Chidambaram; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hald, John

    2011-01-01

    For lead-free solders in the high-temperature regime, unfortunately, a limited number of alloying systems are available. These are Bi based alloys, gold involving alloys and Zn–Al based alloys. Based on these systems, possible candidate alloys were designed to have a melting range between 270°C a...

  9. Transient analysis and burnout of high temperature superconducting current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, S. Y.; Hull, J. R.

    The transient behaviour of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads operated between liquid helium and liquid nitrogen temperatures is analysed for burnout conditions upon transition of the HTS into the normal state. Leads composed of HTS only and of HTS sheathed by pure silver or silver alloy are investigated numerically for temperature-dependent properties and analytically for temperature-independent properties. For lower values of shape factor (current density times length), the lead can be operated indefinitely without burnout. At higher values of shape factor, the lead reaches burnout in a finite time. With high current densities, the leads heat adiabatically. For a fixed shape factor, low current densities are desired to achieve long burnout times. To achieve a low helium boil-off rate in the superconducting state without danger of burnout, there is a preferred temperature dependence for thermal conductivity, and silver alloy sheaths are preferred to pure silver sheaths. However, for a given current density, pure silver sheaths take longer to burn out.

  10. Concentrations of lead in blood, hair and saliva of German children living in three different areas of traffic density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, M.; Pesch, A.; Rostek, U. [Institute of Hygiene, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany); Begerow, J.; Ranft, U. [Medical Institute of Environmental Hygiene at the Heinrich-Heine-University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schmitz, N.; Idel, H. [Institute of Hygiene, Heinrich-Heine-University, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2002-10-07

    Lead contents in hair, whole blood and saliva were determined for 245 healthy children (121 male, 124 female, age: 8-10 years) from three residential areas of Duesseldorf (North-Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) with different traffic densities. The geometric mean for the lead content in hair was found to be 0.87 {mu}g/g (range: 0.2-9.9 {mu}g/g) for the entire test group. While the levels of lead in hair in the suburban population were significantly lower than in the two city centre populations, no significant difference concerning the lead content in hair could be detected in the latter. The geometric mean for lead concentration in whole blood amounted to 25.0 {mu}g/l (range: 8.0-154 {mu}g/l). There was no significant difference between the sub-groups. The lead concentrations found in saliva were rather low (range: <1.5-47.0 {mu}g/l). Of the values, 89% were below the detection limit of 1.5 {mu}g/l. Due to reduced levels of lead in fuel, the present study exposes that the amount of lead in the children examined has further decreased compared to preceding surveys. The correlation between the lead content in hair and the road traffic density was not corroborated by the findings with regard to amounts of lead found in blood, indicating that residual lead from fuel does not result in a substantial burden of lead found in the whole body. In contrast to levels of lead found in blood, levels of lead found in hair may be influenced more by environmental conditions. Saliva is not a suitable material for biological monitoring with respect to lead exposure in children.

  11. Lead powder use for skin care and elevated blood lead level among children in a Chinese rural area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Si-Hao; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, We N-Juan; Li, Jin; Liu, Ba O-Ying

    ...) in children, we studied 222 children up to 14-years old living in a Chinese rural area and administered a face to face interview with their parents to collect information on lead powder use and other potential exposure...

  12. Blood pressure in childhood : epidemiological probes into the aetiology of high blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hofman (Albert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractHigh arterial blood pressure takes a heavy toll in western populations (1 ). Its causes are still largely unknown, but its sequelae, a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, have been referred to as "a modern scourge" (2). High blood pressure of unknown cause, or essential hyperte

  13. Blood pressure in childhood : epidemiological probes into the aetiology of high blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hofman (Albert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractHigh arterial blood pressure takes a heavy toll in western populations (1 ). Its causes are still largely unknown, but its sequelae, a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, have been referred to as "a modern scourge" (2). High blood pressure of unknown cause, or

  14. High-temperature thermoelectric behavior of lead telluride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P Singh; C M Bhandari

    2004-06-01

    Usefulness of a material in thermoelectric devices is temperature specific. The central problem in thermoelectric material research is the selection of materials with high figure-of-merit in the given temperature range of operation. It is of considerable interest to know the utility range of the material, which is decided by the degrading effect of minority carrier conduction. Lead telluride is among the best-known materials for use in the temperature range 400—900 K. This paper presents a detailed theoretical investigation of the role of minority carriers in degrading the thermoelectric properties of lead telluride and outlines the temperature range for optimal performance.

  15. Lead concentration in blood of school children from copper mining area and the level of somatic development at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Sławińska-Ochla

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to assess the relations between lead intoxication in children at younger school age and the level of somatic development at birth. Materials and Methods. The research includes 717 children and adolescents 7–15 years old from LegnickoGłogowski copper mining region, which live in the vincity of „Głogów”, „Legnica” copper industrial plants and flotation tank reservoir „Żelazny most”. The analysis contained measures such as birth height, birth weight, Apgar score points, and blood lead level in 2007 and 2008. The whole blood lead level (Pb-B was indicated using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS with electrothermic atomization by certified The Foundation for Children From The Copper Basin laboratory. Results.Rural childrenwere noted forsignificantly higher blood lead levelsthan urban peers. Also boysin comparison to girls had higher blood lead levels. Regardless of gender and place of residence there were no significant correlation between blood lead level and body mass at birth. Conclusion. The biological state of the organism at the moment of birth has no connection with the susceptibility to absorption of lead in the later phases of ontogenesis: the earlier school age and adlescence.

  16. {delta}-ALAD activity variations in red blood cells in response to lead accumulation in rock doves (Columba livia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M.; Tejedor, M.C. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    1992-10-01

    The enzyme {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase ({delta}-ALAD, E.C. 4.2.1.24), catalyses the second step of the haeme biosynthetic pathway and is required to maintain the haemoglobin and cytochrome content in red cells. {delta}-ALAD is not only found in bone marrow cells, the major site of haeme synthesis, but also in circulating erythrocytes and other tissues. An inverse correlation was found between {delta}-ALAD activity in red blood cells and lead concentration in the blood. The degree of {delta}-ALAD inhibition in erythrocytes has been widely accepted as a standard bioassay to detect acute and chronic lead exposure in humans and in avians. The value of this parameter as an indicator for environmental lead has been often reported in doves and Scanlon. In lead-treated rats, an increase in {delta}-ALAD activity in bone marrow cells and in blood samples was shown by radioimmunoassay at 5 and 9 days after the treatment. Similarly, the amount of {delta}-ALAD seems to be more sensitive to lead in avian species than in mammals, the usefulness of blood {delta}-ALAD activity as an index of lead exposure has already been questioned by Hutton in the pigeon and by Jaffe et al. in humans. The present investigation studied the toxic effects of lead on rock dove red blood cell {delta}-ALAD activity in two situations: in doves treated with lead acetate in the laboratory and in doves exposed to the environment of Alcala de Henares. The final lead blood concentrations were lower in the environmental than in the laboratory doves. {delta}-ALAD activity in bone marrow cells and the relationships between lead accumulation and enzyme activity in red cells, are examined. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. 铅作业工人血铅、尿铅和锌原卟啉测定结果分析%Results analysis of blood lead , urine lead and zinc protoporphyrin determination in workers exposed to lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛红艳

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较铅作业工人和非铅作业工人血铅、尿铅浓度、红细胞锌原卟啉和血常规的差异,探讨铅作业工人红细胞锌原卟啉和血铅、尿铅浓度的相关性.方法 以蓄电池企业的252名铅作业工人作为接铅组,电子厂205名非铅作业工人作为对照组,测定血铅、尿铅浓度、红细胞锌原卟啉和血常规,并对结果进行统计学处理.结果 接铅组血红蛋白含量低于对照组(P<0.05),白细胞和红细胞、血小板则无差异(P>0.05),接铅组红细胞锌原卟啉、血铅、尿铅浓度均显著高于对照组(P<0.01),尿铅与红细胞锌原卟啉的相关系数(r) =0.166,血铅与红细胞锌原卟啉的相关系数r=0.406.结论 长期接触铅可导致血铅、尿铅浓度和红细胞锌原卟啉升高,血红蛋白降低,对白细胞、红细胞、血小板无明显影响,血铅与红细胞锌原卟咻的相关性较尿铅与红细胞锌原卟啉的相关性好.%[ Objective] To compare the differences of blood lead , urine lead and zinc protoporphyrin determination between workers with lead exposure and workers without lead exposure, and explore the correlation ? between erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin and blood lead level, urine lead level of workers. [ Methods] A total of 252 lead exposed workers from a storage battery manufacture were selected as lead exposure group, another 205 workers without lead exposure from a electronics Factory as control group. The determination of blood lead level, urinary lead level, erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin and blood routine examination were performed, and the results were statistically analyzed. [ Results] Hemoglobin content of lead exposure group was significantly lower than that of control group (P<0.05) , while leukocytes, erythrocytes and blood platelet were not significantly different (P>0.05). Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin , blood lead , urinary lead concentration of lead exposure group were higher than those of control

  18. Relationships of diet-related blood parameters and blood lead levels with psychopathology and aggression in forensic psychiatric inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaalberg, A.; Wielders, J.; Bulten, B.H.; Staak, C.P.F. van der; Wouters, A.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Earlier studies have suggested associations between diet-related blood parameters and both aggression and psychopathological symptoms, but little is known about this in forensic psychiatric inpatients. Aim: This article aims to explore the levels of diet-related blood parameters and

  19. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help prevent seizures. If your condition or the baby’s condition worsens, prompt delivery will be needed. What steps can I take ... of the heart and blood vessels. Cesarean Delivery: Delivery of a baby through surgical incisions made in the mother’s abdomen ...

  20. Lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood levels and related factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, E. [Pediatrics Service, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida (Spain); Ballabriga, A.; Dominguez, C. [Centre d`Investigacions en Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Vall d`Hebron Hospitals, School of Medicine, Pediatrics Department, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    1998-12-11

    A cross-sectional was conducted on 254 individuals not occupationally exposed to lead to determine the degree of lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood lead levels (BPb) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) by haemofluorimetry. Blood lead levels were analysed with respect to individuals` age, sex, area of residence, the season of the year the blood was drawn and ZPP. Mean blood lead in our series was 0.22{+-}0.011 {mu}mol/l (mean{+-}S.E.); no significant differences were found with respect to area of residence, sex or season. A linear relationship was observed between BPb and individuals` age (BPb=0.08+0.05xage; r=0.37). The prevalence of lead intoxication (BPb>0.48 {mu}mol/l) was 7.1%. No linear relationship was observed between BPb and ZPP. ZPP determination does not appear to be a good screening method for lead intoxication since it presents low specificity and sensitivity values with an area below the ROC curve similar to the null value line (area below the curve=0.5052, IC 95%=0.443-0.568). We conclude that lead exposure does not constitute a serious health problem in the area studied, since BPb levels found are far below the toxic limit and the prevalence of intoxication is similar to that reported in other studies conducted in other developed countries

  1. Blood lead level and types of aviation fuel in aircraft maintenance crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Ju; Gu, Hye-Min; Lee, Suk-Ho

    2013-10-01

    This study inquired into any significant difference in blood lead levels (BLLs) among aircraft maintenance crews at the air-bases, each with a different aviation fuel in use, and confirmed an environmental impact of leaded aviation gasoline (AVGAS). This study included a total of 256 male aircraft maintenance personnel, among whom 105 used only AVGAS as their aviation fuel, while 151 used only jet propellant 8 (JP-8), a kerosene variety. BLLs were measured and the data on related factors were obtained. The arithmetic and geometric means of BLLs of the personnel at the airbases that used only AVGAS were 4.20 microg x dl(-1) and 4.01 microg x dl(-1) and that used only JP-8 were 3.79 microg x dl(-1) and 3.57 microg x dl(-1), respectively. The BLLs of the maintenance crew of the main workspace that was located within a 200-m distance from the runway were higher than those of the main workspace that was located 200 m or farther from the runway. The longer the work hours in the runway or the longer the work duration, the higher the BLLs of the maintenance crew. This investigation exposed the fact that a body's BLL could be increased by AVGAS emissions through the examination of aircraft maintenance crew. This result is in agreement with results of previous studies that suggest proximity to an airport may be associated with elevated BLLs for adults and children. Collectively, the results of the current study and previous research suggest that long-duration inhabitation and/or activities in close proximity to an air facility should be limited given that lead poses known health risks.

  2. Inadequate prenatal care and elevated blood lead levels among children born in Providence, Rhode Island: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Anna; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Shenassa, Edmond D

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether children born to mothers receiving inadequate prenatal care are at an increased risk for having an elevated blood lead level during early childhood. The authors conducted a population-based study of children born in Providence, Rhode Island, from 1997 to 2001 whose mothers had received adequate, intermediate, or inadequate prenatal care. The children's blood lead levels were compared between groups using bivariate and logistic regression. To understand the regulatory implications and public health impact of changing the definition of an elevated blood lead level, "elevated" was defined as 5 microg/dL, 10 microg/dL, and 15 microg/dL. Children born to mothers who received inadequate prenatal care were at an elevated risk for having an elevated blood lead level later in life. This relationship remained statistically significant for each definition of elevated blood lead level and after controlling for other socio-economic status measures and birthweight (at 5 microg/dL, odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09, 1.68, p = 0.006; at 10 microg/dL, OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.26, 2.24, p prenatal care provision could help identify women possibly experiencing ongoing lead exposure and help reduce or prevent exposures to their offspring.

  3. Dirty Air, High Blood Pressure Linked

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应树道

    2001-01-01

    贵刊去年第6期曾刊登一短文,题目是:盐,迫升血压之元凶。读了该文,我开始严格控制每日的食盐摄入量,再附以药物治疗,血压果然趋于平稳。近日上网,遇一奇文,意思是人的血压与空气污染状况有涉!根据对2600个成年人的调查,得出了这样的结论:Pollution may cause changes in the part of the nervous system that controls blood pressure.文章又同时说明:Exactly how pollution might cause blood pressure to climb remains unclear.人体之奥妙由此可见一斑。

  4. 470 Relationship of Blood Lead Levels with Total Ige in Teenagers with Environmental Exposure in Torreon Coahuila, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Meza-Velazquez, Rocío; Goytia Acevedo, Raquel Concepción; García-Arenas, Guadalupe; Calderon Aranda, Emma S.; Gonzalez, Manuel Rosales; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Maravilla-Domínguez, Aurora; Cebrian, Mariano Enrique; Rosado, Jorge Luis; Stoltzfus, Rebeca; García Vargas, Gonzalo Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Background There are precedents that suggest gender differences in the relationship of lead in blood with serum total IgE. The aim of this study was to evaluate in a population of teenagers attending 9 schools in Torreon, Coahuila, the relationship of lead in blood with total IgE and their dependence on gender. Methods We included 230 teenagers (105 females, 125 males) between 11 and 14 years of age, from a cohort of children evaluated for its history of lead exposure since 2000. Clinical dia...

  5. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... atrial fibrillation has more than five times the risk of stroke.” “Because high blood pressure is so frequent, affecting tens of millions of ... is a more potent risk factor.” The two risk factors are also related to each other: High blood pressure is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. Middle- ...

  6. What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications Updated:Jan 18,2017 Is medication ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  7. Americans with High Blood Pressure Still Eating Too Much Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163977.html Americans With High Blood Pressure Still Eating Too Much Salt Average sodium intake ... March 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For Americans with high blood pressure, cutting back on salt is an important way ...

  8. Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure Updated:Mar 10,2017 Fighting back against the “ ... Follow us on Twitter Follow us on Facebook High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  9. Blood pressure changes associated with sibutramine and weight management - an analysis from the 6-week lead-in period of the sibutramine cardiovascular outcomes trial (SCOUT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, A M; Caterson, I D; Coutinho, W

    2009-01-01

    of a cardiovascular event. During the 6-week lead-in period, 10,742 patients received sibutramine and weight management. Vital sign changes were assessed post hoc by initial blood pressure (mmHg) categorized as normal (high-normal (130 to hypertensive (>or=140/>or=90); weight change...... in the class of antihypertensive medication used and who did not report an increase in antihypertensive medication use were analysed. RESULTS: At entry, approximately 50% of patients were hypertensive and 26% were high-normal. In hypertensive patients, blood pressure changes (mmHg) decreased by median [5th, 95.......5 systolic [-15.0, 19.5] and 1.0 diastolic [-10.5, 13.0] (p hypertensive had a lower blood pressure category at end-point. Concomitant antihypertensive medication classes did not affect blood pressure...

  10. [Factors related to the blood lead level in children 6 to 30 months old in the Prospective Lead Study in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, S J; Schnaas-Arrieta, L; Pérez-Guerrero, I A; Hernández-Cervantes, R; Martínez-Medina, S; Perroni-Hernández, E

    1993-01-01

    A majority of the sample of children (N = 160-121, ages 6-30 months) from the Mexico City Prospective Lead Study exceeds the lowest limit action level (10 micrograms/dl) of the Centers for Disease Control standards for childhood lead exposure. Over one-third of the sample at 18 months and 24 months exceeds the action level (15 micrograms/dl) for aggressive intervention. Diet plays an important role in regulating early childhood blood lead levels. Fresh milk and breast feeding are associated with lower lead levels, but extended breast feeding is related to elevated lead levels. Low income and poor maternal education are associated with higher lead concentration in children. Child consumption of canned milk and juice, up to this date, is associated with elevated child lead levels. Canned products sealed with lead are disappearing from Mexican markets. Efforts to improve childhood nutrition and poverty may be expected to have the additional benefit of lowering lead levels of Mexican children.

  11. The Astro-H high temperature superconductor lead assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, E. R.; James, B. L.; Hait, T. P.; Oliver, A.; Sullivan, D. F.

    2014-11-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument, one of several instruments on JAXA's Astro-H mission, will observe diffuse X-ray sources with unparalleled spectral resolution using a microcalorimeter array operating at 50 mK. The array is cooled with a multi-stage Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator mounted on a 40 l helium tank. The tank is at the center of a typical 'shell in shell' cryostat, with the innermost shield cooled by a JT cryocooler, and successive outer shields cooled by stirling-cycle cryocoolers. To achieve a multi-year liquid helium lifetime and to avoid exceeding the limited capacity of the JT cooler, very strict requirements are placed on every source of heat leak into these surfaces from the higher temperature shields. However, each ADR stage draws a maximum of 2 A, and the Wiedemann-Franz Law precludes even an optimized set of normal-metal leads capable of such high current from achieving the required low thermal conductance. Instead, a set of lead assemblies have been developed based on narrow high temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes derived from commercially available coated conductors. Although the HTS tapes are flexible and have high tensile strength, they are extremely sensitive to damage through a number of mechanisms. A robust set of assemblies have been developed that provide mechanical support to the tapes, provide appropriate interfaces at either end, and yet still meet the challenging thermal requirements. An Engineering Model (EM) set of HTS lead assemblies have survived environmental testing, both as individual units and as part of the EM cryostat, and have performed without problem in recent operation of the EM instrument. The Flight Model (FM) HTS lead assemblies are currently nearing completion.

  12. Blood Lead Level and Δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity in Pre-Menopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R Elezaj

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To describe the relationship of blood lead levels (BLL and blood, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase(ALAD activity and haematocrit value(Hct to menopause , were examined 17 pre-or perimenopausal (PreM and 17 postmenopausal women (PosMfrom Prishtina City, the capital ofRepublic Kosovo. The mean age of the PreM women was 28.8 years (21-46, with a mean blood lead level of 1.2 μg/dL (SD=0.583 μg/dL , the mean blood ALAD activity53.2 U/LE (SD= 2.8 U/LE and haematocrit value42.1 % (SD= 4.3 %. The mean age of the PosM women was 53.6 years (43-67, with a mean blood lead level1.9 μg/dL (SD=0.94 μg/dL, the mean blood ALAD activity 44.4 U/LE(SD=7.2 U/LE and haematocrit value 42.1 % ( SD= 4.3 % and 42.2 % (SD=4.4 %. The BPb level of PosM women was significantly higher (P<0.001 in comparison with the BPb level in PreM women. The blood ALAD activity of PosM was significantly inhibited (P<0.002 in comparison with blood ALAD activity in PreM women. The haematocrit values were relatively unchanged. There was established significantly negative correlation between BPb and blood ALAD activity (r=- 0.605; P<0.01 in the PreM women.These results support the hypothesis that release of bone lead stores increases during menopause and constitutes an internal source of exposure possibly associated with adverse health effects on women in menopause transition.

  13. Physical Activity and Blood Lead Concentration in Korea: Study Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, Jeongbae; Lee, Hye-Eun

    2016-06-01

    Physical activity normally has a positive influence on health, however it can be detrimental in the presence of air pollution. Lead, a heavy metal with established adverse health effects, is a major air pollutant. We evaluated the correlation between blood lead concentration and physical activity using data collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed after dividing participants according to whether they were in the top 25% in the distribution of blood lead concentration (i.e., ≥ 2.76 µg/dL), with physical activity level as an independent variable and adjusting for factors such as age, sex, drinking, smoking, body mass index, region, and occupation. The high physical activity group had greater odds of having a blood lead concentration higher than 2.76 µg/dL (odds ratio 1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.51) compared to the low physical activity group. Furthermore, blood lead concentration is correlated with increasing physical activity.

  14. Association between blood lead levels and environmental exposure among Saudi schoolchildren in certain districts of Al-Madinah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolaly MA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Adnan Zolaly1, Manal Ibrahim Hanafi2,3, Nashaat Shawky4, Khalid el-Harbi1, Ahmed M Mohamadin5,61Pediatric Department, 2Family and Community Medicine Department, Medical College, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia; 3Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 4Ophthalmology Department, Medical College, 5Chemistry for Health Sciences Department, Deanery of Academic Services, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia; 6Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, EgyptIntroduction: Both occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a serious problem in many developing and industrializing countries. When humans are exposed to high levels of lead, there is damage to almost all organs and organ systems (most importantly, the central nervous system, kidneys, and blood, which often culminates in death.Objective: To estimate the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs and to identify the sources of environmental exposure and potential risk factors for elevated BLLs among Saudi schoolchildren.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to May 2010. The study population included 557 Saudi school students of both sexes. A multistage random sampling technique was used. Information about socioeconomic status, house and school construction, and parents' education and employment was collected using questionnaires. Lead was analyzed in a blood sample using an atomic absorption technique and hemoglobin was measured using a Sysmex hematological analyzer.Results: The mean BLL was 4.94 ± 3.38 µg/dL (range 0.45–26.3 µg/dL. A total of 19% had BLLs <1.0 µg/dL, 16% had BLLs <2.5 µg/dL, 15% had BLLs <5.0 µg/dL, 20% had BLLs <7.5 µg/dL, 25% had BLLs <10.0 µg/dL, and about 6% had BLLs >10.0 µg/dL. Analysis of odds by controlling all risk factors (adjusted odds ratio [OR] that affect BLLs (≥10 µg/dL indicated

  15. Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead exposure among pregnant women in western French Guiana: the role of manioc consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbaud, Diane; Restrepo, Marion; Louison, Anne; Boukhari, Rachida; Ardillon, Vanessa; Carles, Gabriel; Lambert, Véronique; Jolivet, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Concerns regarding lead (Pb) poisoning in French Guiana first arose in 2011 following the discovery of excessively high levels of the metal amongst children in a small neighborhood without any apparent source of Pb. Since 2012, blood lead level (BLL) measurement has been proposed for all pregnant women in western French Guiana. The aim of this study was to determine BLL in pregnant women in this region and identify factors associated with elevated BLL. An observational study of a consecutive sample of women who delivered in the maternity ward of the hospital was conducted. Risk factors were investigated using a questionnaire administered postdelivery by midwives (N = 531). Approximately 25 and 5% of women displayed BLL of ≥50 μg/L and ≥100 µg/L, respectively. The geometric mean was 32.6 μg/L. Factors that were significantly associated with an elevated BLL after modeling (multivariate linear regression) included place of residence along the Maroni river, low level of education, daily consumption of manioc derivatives, weekly and daily consumption or personal preparation of manioc flour during pregnancy, and weekly consumption of wild game. This study provides insight into the regional and social disparities in BLL in French Guiana and potential sources of exposure. Evidence indicates that foods that are primarily produced and consumed in the Guiana Shield significantly affect BLL levels. Taken together with existing data, our results demonstrate that specific actions in terms of prevention, screening, and care are required to be adapted and put into place in order to reduce exposure.

  16. Engineering design of a high-temperature superconductor current lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, R. C.; Cha, Y. S.; Hull, J. R.; Daugherty, M. A.; Buckles, W. E.

    As part of the US Department of Energy's Superconductivity Pilot Center Program, Argonne National Laboratory and Superconductivity, Inc., are developing high-temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads suitable for application to superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. The principal objective of the development program is to design, construct, and evaluate the performance of HTS current leads suitable for near-term applications. Supporting objectives are to (1) develop performance criteria; (2) develop a detailed design; (3) analyze performance; (4) gain manufacturing experience in the areas of materials and components procurement, fabrication and assembly, quality assurance, and cost; (5) measure performance of critical components and the overall assembly; (6) identify design uncertainties and develop a program for their study; and (7) develop application-acceptance criteria.

  17. A Western Diet Pattern Is Associated with Higher Concentrations of Blood and Bone Lead among Middle-Aged and Elderly Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Ding, Ning; Tucker, Katherine L; Weisskopf, Marc G; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2017-07-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of overall dietary pattern on lead concentration.Objective: We examined the association of overall dietary patterns, derived from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, with bone and blood lead concentrations.Methods: These longitudinal analyses included mostly non-Hispanic white, middle-aged-to-elderly men from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Long-term lead exposures were measured as tibia and patella lead concentrations by using K-shell-X-ray fluorescence. Short-term lead exposures were measured as blood lead concentrations by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Dietary pattern scores were derived by using factor analysis. Linear mixed-effects models were utilized to predict blood lead concentrations among 983 men, aged 44-92 y at baseline, with a total of 3273 observations (during 1987-2008). We constructed linear regression models to determine the relations between dietary patterns and bone lead concentrations among 649 participants with an age range of 49-93 y.Results: Two major dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruit, legumes, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, and seafood; and a Western dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of processed meat, red meat, refined grains, high-fat dairy products, French fries, butter, and eggs. After adjusting for age, smoking status, body mass index, total energy intake, education, occupation, neighborhood-based education and income level, men in the highest tertile of the Western pattern score (compared with the lowest) had 0.91 μg/dL (95% CI: 0.41, 1.42 μg/dL) higher blood lead, 5.96 μg/g (95% CI: 1.76, 10.16 μg/g) higher patella lead, and 3.83 μg/g (95% CI: 0.97, 6.70 μg/g) higher tibia lead. No significant association was detected with the prudent dietary pattern in the adjusted model.Conclusions: These findings suggest that the Western diet is associated with a

  18. Association of anemia, child and family characteristics with elevated blood lead concentrations in preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirolo, Elena I; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    Elevated blood lead levels (BPbs) have been identified in Uruguayan children in the La Teja neighborhood of Montevideo, but the extent of lead exposure in other city areas is unknown. Sources and predictors of exposure also remain understudied in this population. In 2007, the authors screened lead and hemoglobin levels in capillary blood of 222 preschool children from several areas of Montevideo, Uruguay, and identified predictors of elevated BPbs. Mean BPb was 9.0 +/- 6.0 microg/dL and 32.9% of children had levels >or= 10microg/dL. Mean hemoglobin level was 10.5 +/- 1.5 g/dL, with 44.1% having levels lead exposure, and fewer family possessions were also associated with higher BPbs. Pediatric lead exposure is a public health problem in Uruguay, with children experiencing elevated BPbs at a young age.

  19. Low Blood Lead Levels and educational achievement in 7-8 year old children in the Community of Madrid (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Ordóñez Iriarte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead affects the behavioral and cognitive functions of children. The current lead safety level for avoiding these adverse effects is still controversial.Methods of study: A cross-sectional study included 511 children from 23 primary schools within the Comunidad de Madrid (the Madrid Region –including the city of Madrid and the large urban-industrial conurbation of satellite towns surrounding it, Spain. The children’s blood lead levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In addition, the teachers completed an eight-item questionnaire about the children’s behavior and academic achievement. Parents filled in a self-completion survey about the sociodemographic variables of the children and the family.Results: The mean Blood Lead Level (BLL of the children was 4.1 μg/dL SD 1.6 μg/dL (log transformed 3.8 μg/dL SD 0.2 μg/dL. Multivariate analysis controlling for relevant sociodemographic cofactors (among others, sex, age and educational level of the parents showed a negative association, but this was not statistically significant.Conclusions: Despite the low blood lead levels found in the children of the Comunidad de Madrid (Spain and the design limitations of the study, the results obtained suggest the existence of a harmful, but not statistically significant, effect of blood lead on the behavior and academic achievement of children.

  20. A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Gupta; Y Hayashi; A Jain; S Karthikeyan; S Kawakami; K C Ravindran; S C Tonwar

    2005-08-01

    A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator has been designed with a timing performance comparable to state-of-the-art, commercially available discriminators. A timing error of 16 ps is achieved under ideal operating conditions. Under more realistic operating conditions the discriminator displays a timing error of 90 ps. It has an intrinsic double pulse resolution of 4 ns which is better than most commercial discriminators. A low-cost discriminator is an essential requirement of the GRAPES-3 experiment where a large number of discriminator channels are used.

  1. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Krabbe, Hans G.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e. g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior st

  2. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Finck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives.

  3. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  4. Growth of lead-tin telluride crystals under high gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel, L. L.; Turchaninov, A. M.; Shumaev, O. V.; Bandeira, I. N.; An, C. Y.; Rappl, P. H. O.

    1992-04-01

    The influence of high gravity environment on several growth habits of lead-tin telluride crystals began to be investigated. Preliminary experiments with Pb 0.8Sn 0.2te grown by the Bridgman technique had been made at the centrifuge facilities of the Y.A. Gagarin Cosmonauts Center in the USSR, using accelerations of 5 g, 5.2 g and 8 g. The Sn distribution for these crystals was compared with that obtained for growth at normal gravity and the results show the existence of significant compositional inhomogeneities along the axial direction. Convection currents at high gravity seem to help multiple nucleation and subsequent random orientation of growth. Analyses of carrier concentrations as well as morphological characteristics were also made.

  5. Blood pressure relationship to nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation, renal function, and renal blood flow in rats exposed to low lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Nurcan; Arifoglu, Canan; Süer, Cem; Keskinol, Leyla

    2005-05-01

    The results of experiments designed to show that inhibition of nitric oxide production in rats exposed to low lead levels increases vascular resistance, decreases renal blood flow and glomerular function, and enhances oxidative stress. Forty-five adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Group A was used as controls and consisted of rats that received no treatment; group B acted as NO-inhibited controls by receiving L-NAME (N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester) as the NO inhibitor; group C was injected intraperitoneally with 8 mg/kg lead acetate for 2 wk; and group D receiving lead acetate plus L-NAME. Compared to healthy controls, significant elevation of the mean (pbpu) in the controls, 488+/-220 bpu in the L-NAME controls, 1050+/-458 bpu in the lead-treated group, and 878+/-487 bpu in the Pb plus L-NAME group. Low-level lead exposure did not change the urinary flow rate, creatinine clearance, and the creatinine, potassium, phosphorus, glucose, and protein excretion in 24-h urine. In the lead plus NO-inhibited rats, a significant decrease in sodium ion excretion was observed (p<0.01). The NO levels of the lead exposed, L-NAME-treated controls, and L-NAME plus lead-exposed groups are significantly lower compared to untreated controls: p<0.002, p<0.001, and p<0.01, respectively. When compared to untreated controls, the plasma malondialdehyde levels were not significantly different in the lead exposed, lead plus L-NAME, and L-NAME control groups. These results suggest that lead-induced hypertension might be related to a decrease of NO and consequent vasoconstriction, rather than to a decrease of renal blood flow or to decreases in renal sodium.

  6. Blood lead levels in the adult Victorian population: results from the Victorian Health Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsall, Liza M; de Gooyer, Tanyth E; Carey, Marion; Vaughan, Loretta; Ansari, Zahid

    2013-06-01

    To estimate blood lead levels (BLLs) in the adult Victorian population and compare the distribution of BLLs with the current national reference level to better inform public health prevention and management of lead toxicity. Population-based cross-sectional health measurement survey of 50 randomly selected Census Collection Districts (CDs) throughout Victoria. The Victorian Health Monitor (VHM) was conducted over 12 months from May 2009 to April 2010. One eligible person (aged 18-75 years) from each household selected within each CD was randomly selected to participate. Persons with an intellectual disability and pregnant women were excluded from the sampling frame. BLLs were obtained from 3,622 of the 3,653 (99%) VHM participants. The geometric mean and median BLLs from the adult sample were 0.070 μmol/L (95%CI, 0.068-0.073) and 0.05 μmol/L (range: 0.05 to 1.22 μmol/L), respectively. Elevated BLLs (≥0.483 μmol/L or ≥10 μg/dL) were identified in 19 participants (0.7%; 95%CI, 0.3-1.6). Additionally, 86 participants (1.8%; 95%CI, 1.3-2.4) were identified with BLLs between 0.242 and <0.483 μmol/L (5 to <10 μg/dL). The geometric mean BLL was significantly higher for males, compared with females (0.077 μmol/L vs 0.064 μmol/L; p<0.001). BLLs increased significantly with age for both sexes. The first population estimates of BLLs in Victorian adults indicate the average adult BLL to be well below the current national reference level. However, some groups of the population have BLLs at which adverse effects may occur. Implications : The results provide baseline estimates for future population health surveillance and comparison with studies of at-risk groups. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. Blood Lead Levels in Andean Infants and Young Children in Ecuador: An International Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Counter, S; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure in infants and children remains an international health concern. Blood lead (PbB) levels of a cohort of 130 Ecuadorian infants and young children aged 0.33 to 5.8 yr were compared to values reported for similar age groups in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the United States. The mean PbB level for the total group of 130 Ecuadorian infants and young children in this study was 29.4 μg/dl (SD: 24.3; range: 3.0-128.2; median: 21.7; geometric mean: 20.7 μg/dl). The mean PbB level for the 0-2 yr age group (infants) was 33.6 μg/dl (SD: 28.9; median: 22.0; range: 3.9-119.7; geometric mean: 23.6 μg/dl), while the average PbB level for the 3-5 yr age group (young children) was 27.9 μg/dl (SD: 22.5: median: 22; range: 3-128.2; geometric mean: 19.8 μg/dl). The difference between the mean PbB levels for the infants and young children was not statistically significant. The average PbB level of 32.6 μg/dl for males was not statistically different from the mean PbB level of 26.3 μg/dl for females. The PbB levels observed in Ecuadorian infants and young children in this investigation were elevated above the World Health Organization (WHO) level of concern of 10 μg/dl and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) current reference value of 5 μg/dl. Values were comparable to concentrations found in Pakistan, where occupational use of Pb is prevalent. These findings further indicate that infants and young children exposed to Pb from Pb glazing of ceramics in Andean Ecuadorian villages exhibit greater potential metal-mediated poisoning than children of similar ages in Asia, Europe, other Latin American countries, and the United States.

  8. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that are naturally low in salt, cholesterol, and saturated fats. You will also include foods that are high ... AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of ...

  9. How Is High Blood Cholesterol Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for total and HDL cholesterol does not require fasting. If your total cholesterol is 200 mg/dL ... triglyceride level include: Overweight and obesity Lack of physical activity Cigarette smoking Excessive alcohol use A very high ...

  10. Continual Decrease in Blood Lead Level in Americans: United States National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey 1999-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Man-Fung; Cheung, Ching-Lung; Cheung, Tommy Tsang; Cheung, Bernard Man Yung

    2016-11-01

    Lead is toxic and affects neurodevelopment in children even at low levels. There has been a long-term effort in the United States to reduce exposure to lead in the environment. We studied the latest US population blood lead levels and analyzed its trend. Blood lead levels in 63,890 participants of the National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey 1999-2014 were analyzed using SPSS Complex Samples v22.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY). Mean blood lead levels and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.65 μg/dL (1.62-1.68), 1.44 μg/dL (1.42-1.47), 1.43 μg/dL (1.40-1.45), 1.29 μg/dL (1.27-1.32), 1.27 μg/dL (1.25-1.29), 1.12 μg/dL (1.10-1.14), 0.97 μg/dL (0.95-0.99), and 0.84 μg/dL (0.82-0.86) in 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014, respectively. Blood lead levels decreased significantly (P lead level ≥5 μg/dL were 9.9% (95% CI, 7.5-12.9), 7.4% (95% CI, 5.9-9.4), 5.3% (95% CI, 4.1-6.9), 2.9% (95% CI, 2.1-3.9), 3.1% (95% CI, 2.0-4.8), 2.1% (95% CI, 1.5-3.1), 2.0% (95% CI, 1.0-3.6), and 0.5% (95% CI, 0.3-1.0) in 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014, respectively. The decreasing trend was significant (P lead level was 3.48 μg/dL. Blood lead levels have been decreasing in the US population. The reference level also should decrease. It is still important to monitor blood lead levels in the population, especially among pregnant women and children aged 1 to 5 years. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... natural sources of potassium. For example, a medium banana has about 420 mg of potassium and half ... high blood pressure. Learn more Get a fact sheet on following a heart-healthy diet: English | Spanish ...

  12. High blood pressure in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossello, Enrico; Simoni, David

    2016-06-22

    High blood pressure and cognitive impairment often coexist in old age, but their pathophysiological association is complex. Several longitudinal studies have shown that high blood pressure at midlife is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia, although this association is much less clear in old age. The effect of blood pressure lowering in reducing the risk of dementia is only borderline significant in clinical trials of older subjects, partly due to the insufficient follow-up time. Conversely, dementia onset is associated with a decrease of blood pressure values, probably secondary to neurodegeneration. Prognostic effect of blood pressure values in cognitively impaired older subjects is still unclear, with aggressive blood pressure lowering being potentially harmful in this patients category. Brief cognitive screening, coupled with simple motor assessment, are warranted to identify frail older subjects who need a more cautious approach to antihypertensive treatment. Values obtained with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring seem more useful than clinical ones to predict the outcome of cognitively impaired older subjects. Future studies should identify the most appropriate blood pressure targets in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

  13. Blood lead levels, δ-ALAD inhibition, and hemoglobin content in blood of giant toad (Rhinella marina) to assess lead exposure in three areas surrounding an industrial complex in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César Arturo; González-Mille, Donaji Josefina; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván

    2013-02-01

    The Coatzacoalcos Region in Veracruz, Mexico houses one of the most important industrial complexes in Mexico and Latin America. Lead is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant which represents a great risk to human health and ecosystems. Amphibian populations have been recognized as biomonitors of changes in environmental conditions. The purpose of this research is to measure exposure to lead and evaluate hematological and biochemical effects in specimens of giant toads (Rhinella marina) taken from three areas surrounding an industrial complex in the Coatzacoalcos River downstream. Lead levels in toads' blood are between 10.8 and 70.6 μg/dL and are significantly higher in industrial sites. We have found a significant decrease in the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity in blood from 35.3 to 78 % for the urban-industrial and industrial sites, respectively. In addition, we have identified a strong inverse relationship between the δ-ALAD activity and the blood lead levels (r = -0.84, p < 0.001). Hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin levels, as well as the condition factor, are found to be lower at industrial sites compared with the reference sites. Our results suggest that the R. marina can be considered a good biomonitor of the δ-ALAD activity inhibition and hematological alterations at low lead concentrations.

  14. Classification of High Blood Pressure Persons Vs Normal Blood Pressure Persons Using Voice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The human voice is remarkable, complex and delicate. All parts of the body play some role in voice production and may be responsible for voice dysfunction. The larynx contains muscles that are surrounded by blood vessels connected to circulatory system. The pressure of blood in these vessels should be related with dynamic variation of vocal cord parameters. These parameters are directly related with acoustic properties of speech. Acoustic voice analysis can be used to characterize the pathological voices. This paper presents the classification of high blood pressure and normal with the aid of voice signal recorded from the patients. Various features have been extracted from the voice signal of healthy persons and persons suffering from high blood pressure. Simulation results show differences in the parameter values of healthy and pathological persons. Then an optimum feature vector is prepared and kmean classification algorithm was implemented for data classification. The 79% classification efficiency was obtained.

  15. Monitoring the effects of exposure to lead and cadmium in working and living environment through standard biochemical blood parameters and liver endonucleases activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ružica S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals as pollutants in the working and living environment are a serious health and environmental problem because they are toxic, non-biodegradable, accumulate in living systems and have a long half-life in soil. Sources of lead contamination are combustion products in the chemical industry and metallurgy, industrial waste water, landfills, traffic etc. Lead enters into the body via the food chain and drinking water. In the body lead is deposited in the liver, kidneys, brain and mineral tissues. Excretion of lead causes damage to the epithelial cells of certain organs. High level exposure to cadmium is usually the result of environmental pollution by human activities. Exposure to cadmium can lead to acute and chronic tissue damage of various organs, including liver and kidneys in humans and in animals. In this paper we analyzed the effects of lead and cadmium exposure, in working and living environment, on the model system of experimental animals, particularly the activity of certain liver enzymes, acid and alkaline DNase, and standard biochemical blood parameters. The study showed that lead and cadmium significantly affect the protein content, red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit, and the activity of liver enzymes. This harmful effect of this toxic metal can be reduced by the supplements.

  16. Association of Childhood Blood Lead Levels With Cognitive Function and Socioeconomic Status at Age 38 Years and With IQ Change and Socioeconomic Mobility Between Childhood and Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Aaron; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Broadbent, Jonathan; Harrington, Honalee; Sugden, Karen; Houts, Renate M; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2017-03-28

    Many children in the United States and around the world are exposed to lead, a developmental neurotoxin. The long-term cognitive and socioeconomic consequences of lead exposure are uncertain. To test the hypothesis that childhood lead exposure is associated with cognitive function and socioeconomic status in adulthood and with changes in IQ and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and midlife. A prospective cohort study based on a population-representative 1972-1973 birth cohort from New Zealand; the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study observed participants to age 38 years (until December 2012). Childhood lead exposure ascertained as blood lead levels measured at age 11 years. High blood lead levels were observed among children from all socioeconomic status levels in this cohort. The IQ (primary outcome) and indexes of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed (secondary outcomes) were assessed at age 38 years using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV; IQ range, 40-160). Socioeconomic status (primary outcome) was assessed at age 38 years using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index-2006 (NZSEI-06; range, 10 [lowest]-90 [highest]). Of 1037 original participants, 1007 were alive at age 38 years, of whom 565 (56%) had been lead tested at age 11 years (54% male; 93% white). Mean (SD) blood lead level at age 11 years was 10.99 (4.63) µg/dL. Among blood-tested participants included at age 38 years, mean WAIS-IV score was 101.16 (14.82) and mean NZSEI-06 score was 49.75 (17.12). After adjusting for maternal IQ, childhood IQ, and childhood socioeconomic status, each 5-µg/dL higher level of blood lead in childhood was associated with a 1.61-point lower score (95% CI, -2.48 to -0.74) in adult IQ, a 2.07-point lower score (95% CI, -3.14 to -1.01) in perceptual reasoning, and a 1.26-point lower score (95% CI, -2.38 to -0.14) in working memory. Associations of childhood blood lead level with deficits in

  17. The association between low levels of lead in blood and occupational noise-induced hearing loss in steel workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiang, Han-Yueh [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yen-Jean, Mei-Chu [Division of Family Medicine, E-Da Hospital, Taiwan, ROC 1, E-Da Rd., Jiau-Shu Tsuen, Yan-Chau Shiang, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, ROC (China); I-Shou University, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, ROC 1, Sec. 1, Syuecheng Rd., Da-Shu Shiang, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Jung-Der, E-mail: jdwang@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC No. 1, Chang-Teh St., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2009-12-15

    As the use of leaded gasoline has ceased in the last decade, background lead exposure has generally been reduced. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of low-level lead exposure on human hearing loss. This study was conducted in a steel plant and 412 workers were recruited from all over the plant. Personal information such as demographics and work history was obtained through a questionnaire. All subjects took part in an audiometric examination of hearing thresholds, for both ears, with air-conducted pure tones at frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz. Subjects' blood samples were collected and analyzed for levels of manganese, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead with inductive couple plasma-mass spectrometry. Meanwhile, noise levels in different working zones were determined using a sound level meter with A-weighting network. Only subjects with hearing loss difference of no more than 15 dB between both ears and had no congenital abnormalities were included in further data analysis. Lead was the only metal in blood found significantly correlated with hearing loss for most tested sound frequencies (p < 0.05 to p < 0.0001). After adjustment for age and noise level, the logistic regression model analysis indicated that elevated blood lead over 7 {mu}g/dL was significantly associated with hearing loss at the sound frequencies of 3000 through 8000 Hz with odds ratios raging from 3.06 to 6.26 (p < 0.05 {approx} p < 0.005). We concluded that elevated blood lead at level below 10 {mu}g/dL might enhance the noise-induced hearing loss. Future research needs to further explore the detailed mechanism.

  18. Relationship between blood lead concentration and nutritional status among Malay primary school children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, S M; Hashim, Z; Marjan, Z M; Abdullah, A S; Hashim, J H

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the relationship between blood lead concentration and nutritional status among primary school children in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 225 Malay students, 113 male and 112 female, aged 6.3 to 9.8 were selected through a stratified random sampling method. The random blood samples were collected and blood lead concentration was measured by a Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The nutrient intake was determined by the 24-hour Dietary Recall method and Food Frequency Questionnaire. An anthropometric assessment was reported according to growth indices (z-scores of weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height). The mean blood lead concentration was low (3.4 +/- 1.91 ug/dL) and was significantly different between gender. Only 14.7% of the respondents fulfilled the daily energy requirement. The protein and iron intakes were adequate for a majority of the children. However, 34.7% of the total children showed inadequate intake of calcium. The energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate intakes were significantly different by gender, that is, males had better intake than females. Majority of respondents had normal mean z-score of growth indices. Ten percent of the respondents were underweight, 2.8% wasted and 5.4% stunted. Multiple linear regression showed inverse significant relationships between blood lead concentration with children's age (beta = -0.647, p per capita income (beta = -0.001, p = 0.018). There were inverse significant relationships between blood lead concentration with children's age (beta = -0.877, p = 0.001) and calcium intake (beta = -0.011, p = 0.014) and positive significant relationship with weight-for-height (beta = 0.326, p = 0.041) among those with inadequate calcium intake. Among children with inadequate energy intake, children's age (beta = -0.621, p per capita income (beta = -0.001, p = 0.025) and protein intake (beta = -0.019, p = 0.027) were inversely and significantly related

  19. Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, George J; Nuñez, Alberto; Garcia, Rafael A

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic polymeric flocculants are used extensively for wastewater remediation, soil stabilization, and reduction in water leakage from unlined canals. Sources of highly active, inexpensive, renewable flocculants are needed to replace synthetic flocculants. High kaolin flocculant activity was documented for bovine blood (BB) and blood plasma with several anticoagulant treatments. BB serum also had high flocculant activity. To address the hypothesis that some blood proteins have strong flocculating activity, the BB proteins were separated by SEC. Then, the major proteins of the flocculant-active fractions were separated by SDS-PAGE. Identity of the major protein components was determined by tryptic digestion and peptide analysis by MALDI TOF MS. The sequence of selected peptides was confirmed using TOF/TOF-MS/MS fragmentation. Hemoglobin dimer (subunits α and β) was identified as the major protein component of the active fraction in BB; its high flocculation activity was confirmed by testing a commercial sample of hemoglobin. In the same manner, three proteins from blood plasma (fibrinogen, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin) were found to be highly active flocculants, but bovine serum albumin, α-globulin, and β-globulin were not flocculants. On a mass basis, hemoglobin, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin were as effective as anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), a widely used synthetic flocculant. The blood proteins acted faster than PAM, and unlike PAM, the blood proteins flocculants did not require calcium salts for their activity.

  20. Covering sleeves can shield the high-voltage coils from lead chatter in an integrated bipolar ICD lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Joshua M; Sauer, William H; Garcia, Fermin C; Krautkramer, Michael J; Verdino, Ralph J

    2007-02-01

    Integrated bipolar implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads use the distal high-voltage coil as both the ventricular sensing anode and the distal shocking electrode. Mechanical interactions between the distal ICD coil and other intracardiac leads have been reported to result in electrical oversensing and inappropriate ICD therapies. We sought to determine whether covering sleeves over the high-voltage coils of an integrated bipolar ICD lead could prevent sensed artefact from mechanical lead interactions. Endotak Reliance 0157 and Endotak Reliance-G 0185 leads, the latter with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) sleeves covering the high-voltage coils, were connected to ICD generators and the leads were submerged in saline. Device programmers were used to communicate with the ICD generators, providing real-time electrogram recording throughout testing. A series of mechanical interactions were performed with the ICD leads, including sliding and striking each distal coil against metal and non-metal components of other ICD and pacemaker leads. All direct metal-metal interactions resulted in sensed electrical artefact, including interactions between the bare ICD coil and another bare ICD coil or metal pacemaker ring. Identical mechanical interactions where metal-metal contact was prevented due to an interposed ePTFE covering sleeve were electrically silent with no sensed artefact. A covering sleeve over the distal high-voltage coil of an integrated bipolar ICD lead can mechanically shield the lead from metal-metal interactions, which might otherwise result in sensed artefact and inappropriate ICD therapies or withholding of pacing output. This finding has implications for lead selection when a new ICD lead is to be implanted adjacent to abandoned intracardiac leads or lead fragments.

  1. The Role of Blood Lead, Cadmium, Zinc and Copper in Development and Severity of Acne Vulgaris in a Nigerian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikaraoha, C I; Mbadiwe, N C; Anyanwu, C J; Odekhian, J; Nwadike, C N; Amah, H C

    2017-04-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common skin disorder affecting human beings. There is a paucity of report on the role of heavy metals-lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd)-globally, and trace metals-zinc (Zn) and copper (Cd)-particularly in Nigeria in the development/severity of acne vulgaris. This study is aimed to determine the blood levels of some heavy metals-cadmium and lead-and trace metals-zinc and copper-in acne vulgaris sufferers in a Nigerian population. Venous blood samples were collected from a total number of 90 non-obese female subjects consisting of 30 mild, 30 moderate and 30 severe acne vulgaris sufferers for blood Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn determination. They were age-matched with 60 females without acne vulgaris who served as the control subjects. Acne sufferers had significantly higher blood Cd and Pb (P = 0.0143 and P = 0.0001 respectively) and non-significantly different blood levels of Cu and Zn (P = 0.910 and P = 0.2140 respectively) compared to controls. There were significant progressive increases in blood levels of Cd and Pb (P = 0.0330 and P = 0.0001 respectively) and non-significant differences in the mean blood level of Cu and Zn (P = 0.1821 and P = 0.2728 respectively) from mild to moderate and severe acne vulgaris sufferers. Increases in blood Cd and Pb may play critical roles in the pathogenesis/severity of acne vulgaris, while Cu and Zn seem to play less significant roles in the development of this disorder in this environment.

  2. [Unfavorable outcome of aggressive lowering of high blood pressure. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperczkó, Diána; Csécsei, Péter; Komáromy, Hedvig; Szapáry, László; Fehér, Gergely

    2014-10-19

    Cerebral autoregulation is essential in the maintenance of cerebral blood flow. Due to this autoregulation, cerebral perfusion is constant in healthy subjects if blood pressure values are between 50-150 mmHg. In hypertensive patients the curve is right-shifted towards higher blood pressure values (pathological autoregulation). Aggressive blood pressure reduction can lead to severe ischaemia. The authors report the history of a 73-year-old man with the background history of widespread atherosclerotic disease. The patient complained about headache and dizziness and was found to have high blood pressure (160/100 mmHg) and increased blood glucose (14.8 mmol/l). Prior to his admission an aggressive blood pressure and blood sugar reduction was carried out and, within a short period of time he became unconscious and was transferred to the department of the authors with the possible diagnosis of brainstem stroke. On admission the patient was unresponsive, comatose with brainstem symptoms. Urgent brain computed tomography failed to show any acute alterations. However, repeat CT scan revealed extensive bilateral space occupying ischemic changes involving in territories of both internal carotid arteries with consequent brainstem compression. Computed tomography angiography confirmed bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion. The authors conclude that intensive blood pressure reduction result in ischemic lesions via hypoperfusion especially in patients with widespread atherosclerotic disease and significant carotid vessel pathology.

  3. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Lakshmi Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs. Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2% were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%. Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  4. Elevated blood lead in California adults, 1987: results of a statewide surveillance program based on laboratory reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizlish, N; Rudolph, L; Sutton, P; Jones, J R; Kizer, K W

    1990-08-01

    California medical laboratories that test for blood lead are required to report results exceeding 1.21 mumols/L (25 micrograms/dl). Between April and December 1987, the California Department of Health Services received 3,077 blood lead reports from 34 laboratories for 1,293 civilian, non-institutionalized adults. Approximately 1 percent of all reports exceeded 3.87 mumols/L (80 micrograms/dl), 7 percent exceeded 2.42 mumols/L (50 micrograms/dl), and 21 percent exceeded 1.93 mumols/L (40 micrograms/dl). Individuals tested were overwhelmingly male (94 percent), disproportionately Hispanic surnamed (44 percent), and most often residents of Los Angeles County (81 percent). Workers in lead smelting, battery manufacturing, and brass foundries accounted for nearly 80 percent of reports. Construction, radiator repair, pottery and ceramics manufacturing, and gun firing ranges accounted for the remainder. All adults with reports of greater than or equal to 2.90 mumols/L who were contacted reported on occupational exposure. Approximately half were not in routine medical monitoring programs. Despite OSHA standards, elevated blood lead with the potential for serious acute and chronic lead poisoning in California adults remains a significant public health and major occupational health concern.

  5. Low blood lead level effects on intelligence: can a dose-response curve be determined from the epidemiological data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, W; Kahn, C M

    2014-02-01

    CONTEXT. Recent publications have graphically demonstrated a curvilinear relationship between measures of intelligence and blood lead levels at low concentrations (dose-response curves. METHODS. Random data based on varied distributions were constructed to simulate a previous study using a single, randomly generated covariate income (Inc) to demonstrate the impact of normally versus exponentially distributed data on the shape of the graph of intelligence quotient (IQ) versus blood lead. We also used an existing database of US blood lead levels and constructed a similar model of income and IQ using both assumptions of distribution for the intermediate variable income. RESULTS. When both lead and income are exponentially distributed, the graph of lead and IQ will be a curve. CONCLUSION. The apparent shape of a dose-response relationship from simulated epidemiological data is nonlinear when one variable and a covariate are exponentially distributed. A non-linear biological relationship should not be assumed and in fact may be the least likely explanation. The use of observational epidemiological data to discern a dose-response relationship between two variables may be misleading.

  6. Association of childhood blood-lead levels with cognitive function and socioeconomic status at age 38 years and with IQ change and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Aaron; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Broadbent, Jonathan; Harrington, Honalee; Sugden, Karen; Houts, Renate M.; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Many children in the US and around the world are exposed to lead, a developmental neurotoxin. The long-term cognitive and socioeconomic consequences of lead exposure are uncertain. Objective To test the hypothesis that childhood lead exposure is associated with cognitive function and socioeconomic status in adulthood and with changes in IQ and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and midlife. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective cohort study based on a population-representative 1972–73 birth cohort from New Zealand, the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, followed to age 38 years (December, 2012). Exposure Childhood lead exposure ascertained as blood-lead levels measured at 11 years. High blood-lead levels were observed among children from all socioeconomic status levels in this cohort. Main Outcomes and Measures The IQ (primary outcome) and indexes of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed (secondary outcomes) were assessed at 38 years using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–IV (WAIS-IV; IQ range 40–160). Socioeconomic status (primary outcome) was assessed at 38 years using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index-2006, (NZSEI-06; range 10=lowest-90=highest). Results Of 1037 original participants, 1007 were alive at 38 years, of whom 565 (56%) had been lead tested at 11 years (54% male; 93% white). Mean blood-lead level at 11 years was 10.99μg/dL (SD=4.63). Among blood-tested participants included at 38 years, mean WAIS-IV score was 101.16 (SD=14.82) and mean NZSEI-06 score was 49.75 (SD=17.12). After adjusting for maternal IQ, childhood IQ, and childhood socioeconomic status, each 5μg/dL higher level of blood-lead in childhood was associated with a 1.61-point lower score (95%CI:−2.48, −0.74) in adult IQ, a 2.07-point lower score (95%CI: −3.14, −1.01) in Perceptual Reasoning, and a 1.26-point lower score (95%CI: −2.38, −0.14) in Working Memory. Lead

  7. Highly sensitive detection of Staphylococcus aureus directly from patient blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmapriya P Banada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid detection of bloodstream infections (BSIs can be lifesaving. We investigated the sample processing and assay parameters necessary for highly-sensitive detection of bloodstream bacteria, using Staphylococcus aureus as a model pathogen and an automated fluidic sample processing-polymerase chain reaction (PCR platform as a model diagnostic system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared a short 128 bp amplicon hemi-nested PCR and a relatively shorter 79 bp amplicon nested PCR targeting the S. aureus nuc and sodA genes, respectively. The sodA nested assay showed an enhanced limit of detection (LOD of 5 genomic copies per reaction or 10 colony forming units (CFU per ml blood over 50 copies per reaction or 50 CFU/ml for the nuc assay. To establish optimal extraction protocols, we investigated the relative abundance of the bacteria in different components of the blood (white blood cells (WBCs, plasma or whole blood, using the above assays. The blood samples were obtained from the patients who were culture positive for S. aureus. Whole blood resulted in maximum PCR positives with sodA assay (90% positive as opposed to cell-associated bacteria (in WBCs (71% samples positive or free bacterial DNA in plasma (62.5% samples positive. Both the assays were further tested for direct detection of S. aureus in patient whole blood samples that were contemporaneous culture positive. S. aureus was detected in 40/45 of culture-positive patients (sensitivity 89%, 95% CI 0.75-0.96 and 0/59 negative controls with the sodA assay (specificity 100%, 95% CI 0.92-1. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a highly sensitive two-hour assay for detection of sepsis causing bacteria like S. aureus directly in 1 ml of whole blood, without the need for blood culture.

  8. 血铅中毒对少年儿童生长发育的影响%The Influence of Blood Lead Poisoning to Children's Growth and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何九军

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a highly toxic heavy metal element. It do not have any physiological function in the human body. With the improvement of blood lead level, it can produce toxic effects in the blood, nerve, kidney, endocrine and immune system. Based on relevant research data, the author summarizes the influence factors of blood lead poisoning to children's growth and development and puts forward some suggestions on reducing the children lead poisoning contact and promote children's health.%铅是一种毒性极强的重金属元素,在人体内无任何生理作用。随人体内血铅水平的提高,可对全身血液、神经、肾脏、内分泌和免疫等系统产生毒性作用。在查阅相关研究资料的基础上,综述了血铅中毒对儿童生长发育的影响因素,并针对减少少年儿童铅污染接触,促进少年儿童健康提出了建议。

  9. Progress in engineering high strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhiy O Leontsev and Richard E Eitel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concerns are strongly driving the need to replace the lead-based piezoelectric materials currently employed as multilayer actuators. The current review describes both compositional and structural engineering approaches to achieve enhanced piezoelectric properties in lead-free materials. The review of the compositional engineering approach focuses on compositional tuning of the properties and phase behavior in three promising families of lead-free perovskite ferroelectrics: the titanate, alkaline niobate and bismuth perovskites and their solid solutions. The 'structural engineering' approaches focus instead on optimization of microstructural features including grain size, grain orientation or texture, ferroelectric domain size and electrical bias field as potential paths to induce large piezoelectric properties in lead-free piezoceramics. It is suggested that a combination of both compositional and novel structural engineering approaches will be required in order to realize viable lead-free alternatives to current lead-based materials for piezoelectric actuator applications.

  10. Neurodevelopmental outcomes among 2- to 3-year-old children in Bangladesh with elevated blood lead and exposure to arsenic and manganese in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ema G; Bellinger, David C; Valeri, Linda; Hasan, Md Omar Sharif Ibne; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Golam, Mostofa; Kile, Molly L; Christiani, David C; Wright, Robert O; Mazumdar, Maitreyi

    2016-03-12

    The people of Bangladesh are currently exposed to high concentrations of arsenic and manganese in drinking water, as well as elevated lead in many regions. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between environmental exposure to these contaminants and neurodevelopmental outcomes among Bangladeshi children. We evaluated data from 524 children, members of an ongoing prospective birth cohort established to study the effects of prenatal and early childhood arsenic exposure in the Sirajdikhan and Pabna Districts of Bangladesh. Water was collected from the family's primary drinking source during the first trimester of pregnancy and at ages 1, 12 and 20-40 months. At age 20-40 months, blood lead was measured and neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed using a translated, culturally-adapted version of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III). Median blood lead concentrations were higher in Sirajdikhan than Pabna (7.6 vs. water arsenic concentrations were lower (1.5 vs 25.7 μg/L, p water arsenic was associated with decreased cognitive scores in Pabna (β = -0.06, SE = 0.03, p = 0.05). Water manganese was associated with fine motor scores in an inverse-U relationship in Pabna. Where blood lead levels are high, lead is associated with decreased cognitive scores on the BSID-III, and effects of other metals are not detected. In the setting of lower lead levels, the adverse effects of arsenic and manganese on neurodevelopment are observed.

  11. Reference values of lead in blood and related factors among Korean adolescents: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Min-Gyu; Park, Mi-Jung; Kim, Shin-Hye

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the reference values and factors influencing blood lead levels among Korean adolescents. Methods The study population consisted of 1,585 adolescents (801 males, 784 females; aged 10-19 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2013. We analyzed blood lead concentrations in relation to demographic/lifestyle characteristics for all participants. "Reference values" of blood lead levels were calculated as the uppe...

  12. Early high-sodium solid diet does not affect sodium intake, sodium preference, blood volume and blood pressure in adult Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnal, Marcin; Drapala, Adrian; Sikora, Mariusz; Zera, Tymoteusz

    2011-07-01

    A high-Na diet may lead to the development of hypertension in both humans and rats; however, the causes of Na intake in amounts greater than physiologically needed as well as the mechanisms whereby high-Na food elevates blood pressure are not clear. Therefore, we decided to test the hypothesis that a high-Na diet introduced after suckling affects Na intake, food preference, resting blood pressure and blood volume in adult rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into three groups and placed on either a high-Na (3.28%), a medium-Na (0.82%) or a regular diet (0.22%) with the same energy content for 8 weeks. Subsequently, food preference, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were evaluated. When offered a choice of diets, all the groups preferred the regular chow, and there was no significant difference in total Na intake between the groups. When the rats experienced the change from their initial chow to a new one with different Na content, they continued to eat the same amount of food. Body weight, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, the results show that a high-Na diet introduced immediately after suckling does not affect Na preference and Na intake in adult WKY rats. Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that both blood volume and arterial blood pressure are highly protected in normotensive rats on a high-Na diet.

  13. Hepatitis C Virus Infection May Lead to Slower Emergence of P. falciparum in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollomo, Benjamin; Mezui-Me-Ndong, Jérome; Noulin, Florian; Lachard, Isabelle; Ndong-Atome, Guy-Roger; Makuwa, Maria; Roques, Pierre; Branger, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Mazier, Dominique; Bisser, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Background Areas endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) overlap in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. HBV and HCV infections develop in the liver, where takes place the first development stage of P. falciparum before its further spread in blood. The complex mechanisms involved in the development of hepatitis may potentially influence the development of the liver stage of malaria parasites. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of these interactions could provide new pathophysiological insights for treatment strategies in Malaria. Methodology We studied a cohort of 319 individuals living in a village where the three infections are prevalent. The patients were initially given a curative antimalarial treatment and were then monitored for the emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood, fortnightly for one year, by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. Principal Findings At inclusion, 65 (20.4%) subjects had detectable malaria parasites in blood, 36 (11.3%) were HBV chronic carriers, and 61 (18.9%) were HCV chronic carriers. During follow-up, asexual P. falciparum forms were detected in the blood of 203 patients. The median time to P. falciparum emergence in blood was respectively 140 and 120 days in HBV- and HBV+ individuals, and 135 and 224 days in HCV- and HCV+ individuals. HCV carriage was associated with delayed emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood relative to patients without HCV infection. Conclusions This pilot study represents first tentative evidence of a potential epidemiological interaction between HBV, HCV and P. falciparum infections. Age is an important confounding factor in this setting however multivariate analysis points to an interaction between P. falciparum and HCV at the hepatic level with a slower emergence of P. falciparum in HCV chronic carriers. More in depth analysis are necessary to unravel the basis of hepatic interactions between these two pathogens, which could help in

  14. Hepatitis C virus infection may lead to slower emergence of P. falciparum in blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areas endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV overlap in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. HBV and HCV infections develop in the liver, where takes place the first development stage of P. falciparum before its further spread in blood. The complex mechanisms involved in the development of hepatitis may potentially influence the development of the liver stage of malaria parasites. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of these interactions could provide new pathophysiological insights for treatment strategies in Malaria. METHODOLOGY: We studied a cohort of 319 individuals living in a village where the three infections are prevalent. The patients were initially given a curative antimalarial treatment and were then monitored for the emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood, fortnightly for one year, by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At inclusion, 65 (20.4% subjects had detectable malaria parasites in blood, 36 (11.3% were HBV chronic carriers, and 61 (18.9% were HCV chronic carriers. During follow-up, asexual P. falciparum forms were detected in the blood of 203 patients. The median time to P. falciparum emergence in blood was respectively 140 and 120 days in HBV- and HBV+ individuals, and 135 and 224 days in HCV- and HCV+ individuals. HCV carriage was associated with delayed emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood relative to patients without HCV infection. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study represents first tentative evidence of a potential epidemiological interaction between HBV, HCV and P. falciparum infections. Age is an important confounding factor in this setting however multivariate analysis points to an interaction between P. falciparum and HCV at the hepatic level with a slower emergence of P. falciparum in HCV chronic carriers. More in depth analysis are necessary to unravel the basis of hepatic interactions between these two pathogens

  15. Racial differences in hypertension: implications for high blood pressure management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackland, Daniel T

    2014-08-01

    The racial disparity in hypertension and hypertension-related outcomes has been recognized for decades with African Americans with greater risks than Caucasians. Blood pressure levels have consistently been higher for African Americans with an earlier onset of hypertension. Although awareness and treatment levels of high blood pressure have been similar, racial differences in control rates are evident. The higher blood pressure levels for African Americans are associated with higher rates of stroke, end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. The reasons for the racial disparities in elevated blood pressure and hypertension-related outcomes risk remain unclear. However, the implications of the disparities of hypertension for prevention and clinical management are substantial, identifying African American men and women with excel hypertension risk and warranting interventions focused on these differences. In addition, focused research to identify the factors attributed to these disparities in risk burden is an essential need to address the evidence gaps.

  16. Highly sensitive optical sensor system for blood leakage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Jie, Chen; Sanae, Mizuno; Touma, Yasunori

    A highly sensitive method for the detection of blood leakage has been developed, and a practical sensor system for blood concentration measurement has been constructed. The present method is based on the attenuation of laser light by blood cells. The effects of the fluctuations of the incident laser light power are eliminated by normalizing the attenuated light intensity by the incident light intensity. A part of the incident laser light is reflected by a beam splitter mounted at the entrance of the test cell, of which the power is measured to provide base data for normalization. The optical path is extended to enhance sensitivity by using a pair of side mirrors. This multi-reflection method is very effective to increase sensitivity; the maximum sensitivity obtained for blood concentration is about 4 X 10 -6 by volume, which is significantly higher than that of the conventional sensors.

  17. Viral metagenomics applied to blood donors and recipients at high risk for blood-borne infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Virginie; Laperche, Syria; Cheval, Justine; Muth, Erika; Dubois, Myriam; Boizeau, Laure; Hébert, Charles; Lionnet, François; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Eloit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background Characterisation of human-associated viral communities is essential for epidemiological surveillance and to be able to anticipate new potential threats for blood transfusion safety. In high-resource countries, the risk of blood-borne agent transmission of well-known viruses (HBV, HCV, HIV and HTLV) is currently considered to be under control. However, other unknown or unsuspected viruses may be transmitted to recipients by blood-derived products. To investigate this, the virome of plasma from individuals at high risk for parenterally and sexually transmitted infections was analysed by high throughput sequencing (HTS). Materials and methods Purified nucleic acids from two pools of 50 samples from recipients of multiple transfusions, and three pools containing seven plasma samples from either HBV−, HCV− or HIV-infected blood donors, were submitted to HTS. Results Sequences from resident anelloviruses and HPgV were evidenced in all pools. HBV and HCV sequences were detected in pools containing 3.8×103 IU/mL of HBV-DNA and 1.7×105 IU/mL of HCV-RNA, respectively, whereas no HIV sequence was found in a pool of 150 copies/mL of HIV-RNA. This suggests a lack of sensitivity in HTS performance in detecting low levels of virus. In addition, this study identified other issues, including laboratory contaminants and the uncertainty of taxonomic assignment of short sequence. No sequence suggestive of a new viral species was identified. Discussion This study did not identify any new blood-borne virus in high-risk individuals. However, rare and/or viruses present at very low titre could have escaped our protocol. Our results demonstrate the positive contribution of HTS in the detection of viral sequences in blood donations. PMID:27136432

  18. Study on the relationship of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children's blood lead level%注意缺陷多动障碍与儿童血铅水平的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛晓昱; 吴媛; 冀永娟; 周长虹

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To confer attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children's blood lead level of relationship.[Methods]Using atomic absorption spectrometry, for the same period 162 cases of ADHD children and child health care clinic in the medical examination of 181 cases of healthy children's blood lead level of statistical analysis.[Results]The results of ADHD children, the boy's high blood lead level was higher than that of girls (P<0.01), the boy 's lead poisoning rate was also higher than that of girls (P<0.05).More dynamic, attention-impaired children's blood lead level of children's blood lead level was significantly higher (P<0.01).[Conclusions]The children's hyperactivity, attention disorder related to the high blood lead level of children.Therefore, it is significant to carry out a wide range of children blood lead ADHD and children's blood lead level%[目的]探讨注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)与儿童血铅水平的关系.[方法]使用原子吸收光谱法,对162例ADHD儿童和同期在儿保门诊进行体检的181例健康儿童的血铅水平进行比较分析.[结果]ADHD儿童的血铅明显高于对照组儿童的血铅水平(P<0.01).ADHD儿童中男童的高血铅率显著高于女童(P<0.05),不同年龄阶段铅中毒率具差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论]ADHD与儿童高血铅水平相关,积极开展儿童防铅工作对ADHD的治疗具有一定的意义.

  19. Leisure-Time Exercise Could Lower Your Risk of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Leisure-time exercise could lower your risk of high blood pressure American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report September ... copyright American Heart Association Download (1.4 MB) High Blood Pressure A high blood pressure reading. copyright American Heart ...

  20. Effect of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: High blood pressure is the most important risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure. Method: This study was quasi-experimentalwith apretest-posttest and control group design. The sample consisted of 30 patients with high blood pressure refering to Kangavar Healthcare center that were selected through convenience sampling and...

  1. Association of maternal and child blood lead and hemoglobin levels with maternal perceptions of parenting their young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Ardoino, Graciela; Ciccariello, Daniela; Mañay, Nelly; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Cook, Casey A; Queirolo, Elena I

    2011-12-01

    Biological and psychosocial factors affect child development and behavior. Whereas biological underpinnings behind the neurotoxic effects of lead are studied extensively, the effects of psychosocial factors contributing to poor behavioral outcomes in lead-exposed children are not well understood. Parental attributes and practices may moderate or mediate the effects of lead on children's behavioral outcomes. We investigated the hypothesis that maternal and child lead and hemoglobin levels are associated with maternal perceptions of their parenting. Specifically, we hypothesized that children with higher blood lead (BLL) and lower hemoglobin concentrations would be associated with poorer maternal self-assessments of their parenting skills or the mother-child relationship. Children aged 13-55 months and their mothers (n=109) were recruited from among the participants of a previous lead and anemia screening study and from preschools in Montevideo, Uruguay. The mother-child pair attended two study visits: one to collect biological samples and answer demographic and child questionnaires, including statements regarding parenting; and a second to evaluate maternal IQ, depression and stress, and child development. Of the children, 51.6% had blood lead concentrations (BLLs) ≥ 5 μg/dL, 18.0% had anemia, and 8% had both conditions. Among mothers, 48.4% had BLLs ≥ 5 μg/dL, 16.0% had anemia, and 11% had both. BLLs ≥ 5 μg/dL in mother or child were associated with lower maternal perceptions of being skilled at discipline (pchildren explore and play (pparenting and family interactions need to be considered as potentially contributing factors to poorer outcomes in lead-exposed children.

  2. Effects of pollution on lead and cadmium concentration and correlation with biochemical parameters in blood of human population nearby Kosovo thermo power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zeneli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an investigation of lead and cadmium pollution of Kosovo environment as a result of outflow from the coal processing industry. In a comparative study of lead and cadmium concentration in blood of human population of two different environments in Kosovo, one nearby Kosovo Thermo Power Plants, (Obiliq a highly polluted environment and the other that is considered as relatively clean rural environment (Dragash. Analysis has shown that emission of particulate in fly ash from Thermo Power Plants during 2005 has exceeded EU standards by 400-500% and that lead concentration was 18mg kg-1 and cadmium concentration was -1 of ash. A series of determinations of lead and cadmium concentrations in blood of population that lives in this environment, have shown direct effects in biochemical parameters CRE (Creatinin, DB (Direct Bilirubine, TB (Total Bilirubine, AST (Aspartat Aminotransferaza, CK (Creatin Kinaza and CHE (Cholenisteraza in human organism. The results that were achieved in this study showed a significant difference in average lead and cadmium concentration in the blood of the investigated group of peoples that lives in the area near by the Power Plants, from a control group that lives in a rural unpolluted environment. Lead and cadmium has been analyzed in 50 samples taken from persons from industrial zone and 25 samples in controlled group. The level of lead concentration was 23.0-112.1 µg L-1in geometric average 46.05 µg L-1, cadmium concentration was 0.44-6.02 µg L-1 in geometric average of 1.56µg L-1. Controlled group from the rural relatively clean environment showed lead concentration of 6.7-33.8 µg L-1 in geometric avarage 17.76 µg L-1 and cadmium concentration of 0.21-1.8 µg L-1 or in geometric average of 0.73 µg L-1. In conclusion in exposed subjects, pollution from coal burning in Power Plant is very important factor for level of lead and cadmium concentration in blood of tested population.

  3. Chagas disease, a risk factor for high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicco, Miguel Hernán; Rodeles, Luz; Yódice, Agustina; Marcipar, Iván

    2014-12-01

    Chagas disease is a parasite infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Its most common complications is chronic Chagas heart disease but impairments of the systemic vasculature also has been observed. Although the different mechanisms that regulate blood pressure are disrupted, to our knowledge data on the association of hypertension and chronic Chagas disease are scarce. In this regard we evaluate whether Chagas disease constitutes a high blood pressure risk factor. We recruited 200 individuals, half of them with positive serology for T. cruzi. They were subjected to a complete clinical examination. The mean age of sampled individuals was 46.7 ± 12.3, and the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 124 ± 12 mmHg and 82 ± 10 mmHg, respectively. There were no between-group differences regarding age, sex distribution or body mass index. Chagas disease contributed significantly to high blood pressure (OR = 4, 95% CI 1.8323-7.0864, p = 0.0002). Our results reveal an important association between Chagas disease and high blood pressure, which should be contemplated by physicians in order to promote preventive cardiovascular actions in patients with Chagas disease.

  4. High-resolution ultrasound imaging and noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of blood variables in peripheral blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is being widely used in clinics to obtain diagnostic information non-invasively and in real time. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging platform, Vevo (VisualSonics, Inc.) provides in vivo, real-time images with exceptional resolution (up to 30 microns) using high-frequency transducers (up to 80 MHz). Recently, we built optoacoustic systems for probing radial artery and peripheral veins that can be used for noninvasive monitoring of total hemoglobin concentration, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and concentration of important endogenous and exogenous chromophores (such as ICG). In this work we used the high-resolution ultrasound imaging system Vevo 770 for visualization of the radial artery and peripheral veins and acquired corresponding optoacoustic signals from them using the optoacoustic systems. Analysis of the optoacoustic data with a specially developed algorithm allowed for measurement of blood oxygenation in the blood vessels as well as for continuous, real-time monitoring of arterial and venous blood oxygenation. Our results indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic technique (unlike pure optical approaches and other noninvasive techniques) is capable of accurate peripheral venous oxygenation measurement; and 2) peripheral venous oxygenation is dependent on skin temperature and local hemodynamics. Moreover, we performed for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) a comparative study of optoacoustic arterial oximetry and a standard pulse oximeter in humans and demonstrated superior performance of the optoacoustic arterial oximeter, in particular at low blood flow.

  5. Risk factors associated with the blood lead levels of children in the Community of Madrid in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Ordóñez-Iriarte

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lead is a toxic element for humans, with children being the most vulnerable population.Objective: To find out the risk factors associated to the existing blood lead levels (BLLs of children in the Community of Madrid, after 9 years of lead being banned in gasoline.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010 with a sample of 85 children, less than 15 years of age, recruited via the outpatients’ service of the Pediatrics Department of the Hospital Clínico San Carlos in Madrid. Routine blood tests provided the opportunity for determining other blood parameters. Lead levels were measured using electrothermal-atomization atomic absorption spectrometry with the Zeeman-effect background correction. In addition, a survey was undertaken directed to the parents for gathering information about a series of socioeconomic and environmental variables.Results: The arithmetic mean of the BLLs in the children was 1.1 μg/dL (SD=0.7 μg/dL with a range from 0.1 μg/dL to 3.4 μg/dL. The geometric mean was 0.9 μg/dL (SD= 1.1 μg/dL. The risk factors associated to these BLLs are the following: playing in the street; low educational level of the parents; leisure activities of one of the parents linked to lead; tobacco smoking of the father; and drinking tap water.Conclusions: The BLLs of the children in the Community of Madrid have decreased, but there are still sociodemographic and environmental risk factors associated to the present levels.

  6. Incubation of human blood fractions leads to changes in apparent miRNA abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Jørgensen, Stine Thuen; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    A basic investigation on the presence and composition of miRNA species and their reaction to in vitro incubation and stimulation (borosilicate glass beads), in plasma, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), red blood cells (RBC), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells...... in significant changes in the abundance of miR-21, miR-155, Let-7c and Let 7f in plasma, miR-21, miR-23a and miR-150 in RBC and miR-15b, miR-126, miR155 and Let-7g in PBMC, while no change was seen in PRP and PMN. Interestingly, in the samples incubated with glass beads, no miRNAs were significantly affected...... in plasma, RBC, PBMC and PMN, while expression of miR-25, miR15a, miR-126 and miR223 was significantly changed in PRP. Thus, PRP, as the only blood fraction depended on stimulation to change its miRNA profile upon incubation. For the other fractions, stimulation either leveled out the changes induced...

  7. Risk of cardiovascular events among women with high normal blood pressure or blood pressure progression: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Conen, David; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie E.; Glynn, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiovascular risk among women with high normal blood pressure (130-9/85-9 mm Hg) against those with normal blood pressure (120-9/75-84 mm Hg) and those with baseline hypertension.

  8. Risk of cardiovascular events among women with high normal blood pressure or blood pressure progression: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Conen, David; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie E.; Glynn, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiovascular risk among women with high normal blood pressure (130-9/85-9 mm Hg) against those with normal blood pressure (120-9/75-84 mm Hg) and those with baseline hypertension.

  9. National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

  10. Abnormal blood flow in the sublingual microcirculation at high altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, D.S.; Ince, C.; Goedhart, P.; Levett, D.Z.H.; Grocott, M.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first direct observations of deranged microcirculatory blood flow at high altitude, using sidestream dark-field imaging. Images of the sublingual microcirculation were obtained from a group of 12 volunteers during a climbing expedition to Cho Oyu (8,201 m) in the Himalayas.

  11. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Relevance Strategic Designs: 8. High Tech High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

    2008-01-01

    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…

  12. Persistent increase of blood lead level and suppression of δ-ALAD activity in northern bobwhite quail orally dosed with even a single 2-mm spent lead shot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, S D; Kerr, R; Holladay, J P; Meldrum, B; Williams, S M; Gogal, R M

    2012-10-01

    Birds that display grit ingestion behavior are potentially at risk of lead (Pb) poisoning from mistaken ingestion of spent Pb shot pellets. The majority of available studies designed to assess such risk have used unspent shot pellets rather than field-obtained spent shot, which is oxidized and otherwise changed by weathering. Available studies also often administered more or heavier shot pellets to a bird than it might be expected to ingest. The current study dosed northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) weighing 194.6 ± 23.1 g (female birds) and 199.3 ± 12.2 g (male birds) with one to three spent no. 9 Pb shot collected from a skeet range, with particular interest in the toxicity that may occur from ingestion of a single 2-mm, 50 mg shot. An 8 week post-dosing clinical observation period was employed, over which feed consumption, body weight, blood Pb levels, and a battery of blood physiological parameters were made. Weight loss occurred in the birds, including male birds dosed with one Pb pellet. Erythrocyte delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) levels were decreased for the duration of the study across exposures and to levels associated with injury in wild bird populations. Decreased ALAD was particularly severe in female birds dosed with one Pb pellet and was still 92 % decreased at 8 weeks after dosing. Together, these results suggest that inadvertent ingestion of a single no. 9 Pb shot pellet can adversely affect the health of northern bobwhite quail.

  13. Stem cell factor leads to reduced blood processing during apheresis or the use of whole blood aliquots to support dose-intensive chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, A; Testa, N G

    1998-07-01

    The addition of stem cell factor (SCF) to G-CSF and chemotherapy results in a dose-dependent, significantly increased mobilisation of peripheral blood progenitor cells compared with the use of chemotherapy and G-CSF alone. The enhanced mobilisation may benefit patients in several ways. Firstly, in clinical settings where currently multiple aphereses are having to be performed to obtain a specified target number of cells, the addition of SCF may lead to a reduction in this number. Alternatively, when only a single apheresis is currently being performed to obtain sufficient cells then the addition of SCF to the mobilisation regimen would allow between 5- and 8-fold reduction in the volume of blood required to be processed during the apheresis procedure to obtain a specified target of GM-CFC, CD34+ cells and LTC-IC for those receiving the highest dose of SCF (20 microg/kg) plus G-CSF following chemotherapy compared with those patients receiving G-CSF alone following chemotherapy. The increased mobilisation resulting from the addition of SCF to the regimen makes feasible the use of whole blood aliquots to support dose-intensive therapy. We have calculated that in patients mobilised using cyclophosphamide 3 g/m2, SCF 20 microg/kg and G-CSF 5 microg/kg a median 512 ml aliquot of whole blood would contain 2 x 10(6)/kg CD34+ cells and over 3.7 x 10(5)/kg GM-CFC. This aliquot would be sufficient to rescue the patient following a myeloablative therapy. Significantly, because less individual variation was seen after the administration of SCF the patient who showed the worst mobilisation in that group would have the usually required content of 2 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg and 1 x 10(5) GM-CFC/kg in only 731 ml of blood.

  14. Useful and Fast Method for Blood Lead and Cadmium Determination Using ICP-MS and GF-AAS; Validation Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Brodzka, Renata; Janasik, Beata

    2016-03-01

    In case of clinical analysis, especially in blood lead (Pb-B) and cadmium (Cd-B) determination, the accuracy and precision of the method are crucial. The objective of this article is to present a simple and useful method for Pb-B and Cd-B determination using ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) as well as GF-AAS (graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry). The principle of the method is based on the deproteinization of blood samples by addition of 5% nitric acid that eliminates the presence of the protein in the samples, thereby excluding the influence of the organic matrix on the result determinations. A comparison of the two techniques ICP-MS and GF-AAS was established for Pb and Cd determinations in the same 40 blood samples collected from lead workers. The results showed that validation parameters for ICP-MS and GF-AAS were similar, however better for ICP-MS for Pb-B determinations. The detection limit (3×SD) for Pb-B determinations for ICP-MS and GF-AAS was, respectively, 0.16 and 1.0 μg/l, and for Cd-B it was, respectively, 0.08 and 0.02 μg/l. Correlation coefficients (rs) for comparable Pb-B and Cd-B determinations, using these two techniques, showed very good statistically significant correlations and were r = 0.9988, P < 0.0001 for Pb-B and r = 0.9949, P < 0.0001 for Cd-B. The obtained results indicate that the method of deproteinization of blood samples is still the best way to eliminate spectral interferences and influence of the organic matter. The elaborated method is especially dedicated to clinical laboratories and determined low concentrations of lead and cadmium in biological samples. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. High speed optical holography of retinal blood flow

    CERN Document Server

    Pellizzari, Mathilde; Degardin, Julie; Sahel, Jose-Alain; Fink, Mathias; Paques, Michel; Atlan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We performed non-invasive video imaging of retinal blood flow in a pigmented rat by holographic interferometry of near-infrared laser light backscattered by retinal tissue, beating against an off-axis reference beam sampled at a frame rate of 39 kHz with a high throughput camera. Local Doppler contrasts emerged from the envelopes of short-time Fourier transforms and the phase of autocorrelation functions of holograms rendered by Fresnel transformation. This approach permitted imaging of blood flow in large retinal vessels (30 microns diameter) over 400 by 400 pixels with a spatial resolution of 8 microns and a temporal resolution of 6.5 ms.

  16. Bismuth-lead oxide, a new highly conductive oxygen materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honnart, F.; Boivin, J.C.; Thomas, D.; Vries, de K.J.

    1983-01-01

    The transport properties of an oxygen-deficient solid solution containing lead and bismuth oxides have been investigated. The conductivity is larger than 1 (ω× cm)−1 at 600 °C. Thermogalvanic measurements confirm that no significant electronic contribution occurs in the range 1–10−3atm p O2. The hea

  17. Method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a high temperature super-conducting transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golner, Thomas M.; Mehta, Shirish P.

    2005-07-26

    A method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a super-conducting transformer is provided that includes a first super-conducting coil set, a second super-conducting coil set, and a third super-conducting coil set. The first, second and third super-conducting coil sets are connected via an insulated interconnect system that includes insulated conductors and insulated connectors that are utilized to connect the first, second, and third super-conducting coil sets to the high voltage leads.

  18. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Levine, G.F. (California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services)

    1993-01-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  19. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Levine, G.F. [California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services

    1993-05-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  20. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Levine, G.F. [California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services

    1993-05-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  1. Exposure of young children to household water lead in the Montreal area (Canada): the potential influence of winter-to-summer changes in water lead levels on children's blood lead concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngueta, G; Prévost, M; Deshommes, E; Abdous, B; Gauvin, D; Levallois, P

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water represents a potential source of lead exposure. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in household water lead levels (WLLs), and to predict the impact of these variations on BLLs in young children. A study was conducted from September, 2009 to March, 2010 in 305 homes, with a follow-up survey carried out from June to September 2011 in a subsample of 100 homes randomly selected. The first 1-L sample was drawn after 5 min of flushing, followed by a further 4 consecutive 1-L samples after 30 min of stagnation. Non-linear regression and general linear mixed models were used for modelling seasonal effects on WLL. The batchrun mode of Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model was used to predict the impact of changes in WLL on children's blood lead levels (BLLs). The magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in average concentrations of lead corresponded to 6.55 μg/L in homes served by lead service lines (LSL+ homes) and merely 0.30 μg/L in homes without lead service lines. For stagnant samples, the value reached 10.55 μg/L in 'LSL+ homes' and remained very low (0.36 μg/L) in 'LSL- homes'. The change in the probability of BLLs ≥5 μg/dL due to winter-to-summer changes in WLL was increased from water.

  2. Efficacy of flavonoids in the management of high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jaime L; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G

    2015-12-01

    Plant compounds such as flavonoids have been reported to exert beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Information on the effects of isolated individual flavonoids for management of high blood pressure, however, is more limited. This review is focused on the flavonoids, as isolated outside of the food matrix, from the 5 main subgroups consumed in the Western diet (flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins), along with their effects on hypertension, including the potential mechanisms for regulating blood pressure. Flavonoids from all 5 subgroups have been shown to attenuate a rise in or to reduce blood pressure during several pathological conditions (hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus). Flavones, flavonols, flavanones, and flavanols were able to modulate blood pressure by restoring endothelial function, either directly, by affecting nitric oxide levels, or indirectly, through other pathways. Quercetin had the most consistent blood pressure-lowering effect in animal and human studies, irrespective of dose, duration, or disease status. However, further research on the safety and efficacy of the flavonoids is required before any of them can be used by humans, presumably in supplement form, at the doses required for therapeutic benefit.

  3. Decreased blood hepatitis B surface antibody levels linked to e-waste lead exposure in preschool children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xijin [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jian [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Guo, Pi [Department of Public Health, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Fu, Tingzao; Dai, Yifeng [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Lin, Stanley L. [Department of Pathophysiology and Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Huo, Xia, E-mail: xhuo@stu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Secondary exploratory analyses displayed a correlation of blood Pb to HBsAb levels. • Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze two-phase data. • Children from an e-waste area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers. • Nearly 50% of Pb-exposed children fail to develop sufficient HBV immunity. • Different vaccination strategies are required for in e-waste areas. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental contaminant that can profoundly affect the immune system in vaccinated children. To explore the association between blood Pb and HBsAb levels in children chronically exposed to Pb, we measured hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers, to reflect the immune response in the children of Guiyu, an electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) recycling area well known for environmental Pb contamination. We performed secondary exploratory analyses of blood Pb levels and plasma HBsAb titers in samples, taken in two phases between 2011 and 2012, from 590 children from Guiyu (exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). Children living in the exposed area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers compared with children from the reference area. At each phase, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) showed that HBsAb titers were significantly negatively associated with child blood Pb levels. This work shows that a decreased immune response to hepatitis B vaccine and immune system might have potential harm to children with chronic Pb exposure. Importantly, nearly 50% of chronically exposed children failed to develop sufficient immunity to hepatitis in response to vaccination. Thus different vaccination strategies are needed for children living under conditions of chronic Pb exposure.

  4. The Application of Lead-in in Junior High School English Teaching%The Application of Lead- in in Junior High School English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹华清

    2016-01-01

    Lead-in, a way of leading students to study, is the warming-up of the whole teaching process, which aims at getting students into the best state of study in the shortest possible time. Combined with contents from Go for It, this paper mainly deals with the requirements and methods of lead-in for stimulating junior high students' learning interest. In English class, scientific methods of lead-in can easily attract students' attention and stimulate their strong interests.

  5. "One-drop-of-blood" electroanalysis of lead levels in blood using a foam-like mesoporous polymer of melamine-formaldehyde and disposable screen-printed electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanfang; Xu, Lubin; Li, Shuying; Chen, Qi; Yang, Daoshan; Chen, Lingxin; Wang, Hua

    2015-03-21

    A foam-like mesoporous polymer of melamine-formaldehyde (mPMF) was synthesized and further deposited on disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) for the electroanalysis of Pb(2+) ions in blood. Investigations indicate that the prepared mPMF is ultrastable in water, showing a mesoporous structure and an amine-rich composition, as characterized by electronic microscopy images and IR spectra. Importantly, it possesses a highly-selective chelating ability and a powerful absorbent capacity for Pb(2+) ions. By way of solid-state PbCl2 voltammetry, the mPMF-modified sensor could allow for the detection of Pb(2+) ions in one drop of blood with a high detection selectivity, sensitivity (down to about 0.10 μg L(-1) Pb(2+) ions) and reproducibility. Such a simple "one-drop-of-blood" electroanalysis method equipped with disposable SPEs and a portable electrochemical transducer can be tailored for the field-deployable or on-site monitoring of blood Pb(2+) levels in the clinical laboratory.

  6. Leading Change: Transitioning the AFMS into a High Reliability Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Employees want to know when the change is going to occur; lack of details leads to speculation and rumor, causing concern and workplace disruption...front, demonstrating how to implement the new culture in the workplace .34 People fear the unknown, and leaders can overcome this by successfully...designed to improve patient safety, communication and clinic teamwork skills. The AFMS could collaborate with the Agency for Healthcare Research and

  7. Cryogenic Test of High Temperature Superconducting Current Leads at Enea

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A; Chambouvet, P; Della Corte, A; Di Zenobio, A; Fiamozzi-Zignani, C; Mayorga, J; Napolitano, M; Turtu, S; Viola, R

    2006-01-01

    The LHC (Large Hadron Collider), the accelerator being constructed on the CERN site, involves the operation of more than 8000 superconducting magnets of various current ratings. Essential elements for the powering of these magnets are the HTS current leads. These devices provide the electrical link between the warm cables from/to the power converter and the low temperature superconducting bus bars bringing the current from/to the cryo-magnets. Thus they operate in a temperature range between room temperature and liquid helium temperature. The operation of the LHC will require more than 1000 HTS current leads operating at currents ranging from 600 A to 13000 A. Cryogenic tests of the series of 13000 A and 6000 A HTS current leads are made at ENEA in the framework of a CERN-ENEA collaboration. This report gives an overview of the experimental set-up built in ENEA. The set-up was designed following the typical criterion of a scientific experiment but it was dimensioned to satisfy the schedule of an i...

  8. [Uncontrolled factors of blood pressure in essential hypertension: from "patient's high blood pressure" to "hypertensive patient"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

    2014-04-01

    Hypertension is a significant medical and public health issue which puts an enormous burden on health care resources and the community. It is a chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure (BP) is elevated. Serious complications including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases would be preventable if the rise in BP with age could be prevented or diminished. The majority of hypertensive patients require long-term treatment. Oral antihypertensive drugs, lifestyle modification including exercise and dietary modification are milestones for hypertension therapy. However, the control rate of hypertension hasn't reached the expected requirements currently. "Three lows" status quo, just low awareness, low treatment, and low control, are still the major problems confronting modern medicine. Recently, uncontrolled factors of blood pressure are widely concerned, which include insomnia, constipation, mood disorders, exogenous, etc. What's more, the control strategies of hypertension should not only pay close attention to "patient's high blood pressure", but also to "hypertensive patient". Therefore, the treatment of uncontrolled factors of blood pressure plays an important role in hypertensive therapy, which could be further research priorities.

  9. Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Nirla Gomes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Moreira, Rafaella Pessoa; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2010-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 310 individuals with high blood pressure. The prevalence of the diagnosis of sedentary lifestyle was 60%. The more common defining characteristics were "lack of physical conditioning" and "lack of practice for physical exercises." The nursing diagnosis was associated with age and presence of diabetes. Individuals who presented with a sedentary lifestyle related to lack of motivation were significantly younger. This study showed a high prevalence of "sedentary lifestyle" and its associations with age and the presence of diabetes. IMPLICATIONS TO NURSING PRACTICE: The acknowledgement of "sedentary lifestyle" contributes to the choice for nursing interventions that promote physical activity centered on the subject and the surroundings.

  10. Mobile Phone Use, Blood Lead Levels, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Hwan Byun; Mina Ha; Ho-Jang Kwon; Yun-Chul Hong; Jong-Han Leem; Joon Sakong; Su Young Kim; Chul Gab Lee; Dongmug Kang; Hyung-Do Choi; Nam Kim

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concerns have developed for the possible negative health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure to children's brains. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the association between mobile phone use and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) considering the modifying effect of lead exposure. METHODS: A total of 2,422 children at 27 elementary schools in 10 Korean cities were examined and followed up 2 years later. P...

  11. Cadmium and Lead in Blood Cockle (Anadara granosa) from Asajaya, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Md. Faruk; Hamdan, Sinin; Rahman, Md. Rezaur

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations were ranged from 1.35 ± 0.16 to 2.22 ± 0.34 µg/g (dry weight) and 2.65 ± 0.34 to 4.36 ± 0.53 µg/g (dry weight) for Cd and Pb, respectively, in blood cockle Anadara granosa from four sites of Sabang River, namely, Kampung Sambir, Kampung Tambirat, Beliong Temple, and Kampung Tanjung Apong, which are located at Asajaya, Sarawak, Malaysia. All values exceeded safety limits set by Malaysian Food Regulation (1985). It may be the cause of serious human health problems after long term consumption. Thus, consumer should have consciousness about such type of seafood from mentioned sites and need further investigation. PMID:25538965

  12. Cadmium and Lead in Blood Cockle (Anadara granosa from Asajaya, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Faruk Hossen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations were ranged from 1.35±0.16 to 2.22±0.34 µg/g (dry weight and 2.65±0.34 to 4.36±0.53 µg/g (dry weight for Cd and Pb, respectively, in blood cockle Anadara granosa from four sites of Sabang River, namely, Kampung Sambir, Kampung Tambirat, Beliong Temple, and Kampung Tanjung Apong, which are located at Asajaya, Sarawak, Malaysia. All values exceeded safety limits set by Malaysian Food Regulation (1985. It may be the cause of serious human health problems after long term consumption. Thus, consumer should have consciousness about such type of seafood from mentioned sites and need further investigation.

  13. Temporal stochasticity leads to nondeterministic chaos in a model for blood cell production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehr, R.; Agur, Z. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Applied Mathematics

    1993-12-01

    All types of blood cells are formed by differentiation from a small population of pluripotent stem cells in the bone marrow. This population should maintain the balance between self-renewal and differentiation, even under severe perturbations, e.g. the massive cell death caused by chemotherapy or irradiation. The authors constructed a cellular-automata model for bone marrow dynamics, which retrieves its homeostatic capabilities even under periodic perturbations with constant or random amplitude. However, temporally stochastic perturbations result in a chaotic-like behavior. Several methods of analysis failed to distinguish between the time series in this case and a chaotic time series, although the chaotic-like behavior has no deterministic source.

  14. Cadmium and lead in blood cockle (Anadara granosa) from Asajaya, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Md Faruk; Hamdan, Sinin; Rahman, Md Rezaur

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations were ranged from 1.35 ± 0.16 to 2.22 ± 0.34 µg/g (dry weight) and 2.65 ± 0.34 to 4.36 ± 0.53 µg/g (dry weight) for Cd and Pb, respectively, in blood cockle Anadara granosa from four sites of Sabang River, namely, Kampung Sambir, Kampung Tambirat, Beliong Temple, and Kampung Tanjung Apong, which are located at Asajaya, Sarawak, Malaysia. All values exceeded safety limits set by Malaysian Food Regulation (1985). It may be the cause of serious human health problems after long term consumption. Thus, consumer should have consciousness about such type of seafood from mentioned sites and need further investigation.

  15. Association of Blood and Semen Lead and Zinc Level with Semen Parameter in the Male Partner of Infertile Couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, P; Hossain, M M; Rahman, D; Rahman, M W; Mugni, C R; Sumon, G M; Hossain, H B; Hossain, H N

    2015-07-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out in Center for Assisted Reproduction, Dhaka, and in the Department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2012 to December 2012. The study population was 71 consecutive male partners of infertile couple suffering from at least one year of infertility. Lead and Zinc level was measured in blood and semen in the male partner of infertile couple and compared with semen parameters. Serum zinc at different values did not show any statistically significant change in semen volume, total count of sperm and total motility of sperm. At serum zinc level 80-sperm (54.00 ± 46.67 million/ml) but was not statistically significant. Rapid linear motility and normal sperm morphology was also highest at values 80-zinc level > 90 μg/dl semen lead level was significantly higher (120.73 ± 58.02 μg/dl) and showed statistically significant decrease in rapid linear motility and normal sperm morphology. Total count of sperm was lowest at blood zinc level of 70-Sperm morphology also showed statistically significant improvement at Serum zinc values of 80-zinc level of values 80-zinc levels higher as well as lower than values 80-< 90 μg/dl was associated with increased semen lead values and with negative impact on semen parameters.

  16. Photogenerated Exciton Dissociation in Highly Coupled Lead Salt Nanocrystal Assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2010-05-12

    Internanocrystal coupling induced excitons dissociation in lead salt nanocrystal assemblies is investigated. By combining transient photoluminescence spectroscopy, grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, and time-resolved electric force microscopy, we show that excitons can dissociate, without the aid of an external bias or chemical potential gradient, via tunneling through a potential barrier when the coupling energy is comparable to the exciton binding energy. Our results have important implications for the design of nanocrystal-based optoelectronic devices. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  17. Can Genetic Analysis of Putative Blood Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers Lead to Identification of Susceptibility Loci?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Barber

    Full Text Available Although 24 Alzheimer's disease (AD risk loci have been reliably identified, a large portion of the predicted heritability for AD remains unexplained. It is expected that additional loci of small effect will be identified with an increased sample size. However, the cost of a significant increase in Case-Control sample size is prohibitive. The current study tests whether exploring the genetic basis of endophenotypes, in this case based on putative blood biomarkers for AD, can accelerate the identification of susceptibility loci using modest sample sizes. Each endophenotype was used as the outcome variable in an independent GWAS. Endophenotypes were based on circulating concentrations of proteins that contributed significantly to a published blood-based predictive algorithm for AD. Endophenotypes included Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP1, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM1, Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP, Beta2 Microglobulin (B2M, Factor VII (F7, Adiponectin (ADN and Tenascin C (TN-C. Across the seven endophenotypes, 47 SNPs were associated with outcome with a p-value ≤1x10(-7. Each signal was further characterized with respect to known genetic loci associated with AD. Signals for several endophenotypes were observed in the vicinity of CR1, MS4A6A/MS4A4E, PICALM, CLU, and PTK2B. The strongest signal was observed in association with Factor VII levels and was located within the F7 gene. Additional signals were observed in MAP3K13, ZNF320, ATP9B and TREM1. Conditional regression analyses suggested that the SNPs contributed to variation in protein concentration independent of AD status. The identification of two putatively novel AD loci (in the Factor VII and ATP9B genes, which have not been located in previous studies despite massive sample sizes, highlights the benefits of an endophenotypic approach for resolving the genetic basis for complex diseases. The coincidence of several of the endophenotypic signals with known AD loci may point

  18. Correlation Between the Concentration of Lead in the Blood of Dogs and People Living in the Same Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monkiewicz Jerzy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The studies, conducted between 2010 and 2012, involved 102 dogs and 505 people from Lower Silesia (LS, 104 dogs and 578 people from the Legnica - Głogów Copper Mining Region (LGCMR, and 101 dogs and 897 people from the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (USIR. A significant positive correlation between blood lead concentration (BLC in dogs and people living in the same environment was found. Moreover, the data revealed an increase in BLC in dogs and people with the progressive aging of the body. The highest average BLC in dogs and humans were reported in the LGCMR followed by USIR and LS.

  19. A Novel ABO Gene Variant Leads to Discrepant Results in Forward/Reverse and Molecular Blood Grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Meike; Halm-Heinrich, Ines; Parkner, Andreas; Rink, Gabriele; Heim, Marcell U; Bugert, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Discrepant results in antigen and reverse ABO blood typing are often caused by a variant ABO gene. Molecular analysis can help to characterize such variants. Here, we describe the identification of a novel ABO gene variant in a patient with aberrant ABO phenotype and discrepant genotyping results. A patient with discrepant results in automated forward and reverse ABO phenotyping was further investigated by serological (gel and tube technique) and molecular (commercial and inhouse PCR-SSP, DNA sequencing) methods. A PCR-SSP system was established to screen the novel mutation in 1,820 blood donors. Standard serological tests confirmed blood group O, however, only anti-B isoagglutinins were present. A monoclonal anti-AB antibody detected very weak agglutination in gel technique. Standard ABO genotyping using PCR-SSP led to discrepant results (O(1)/O(1) or O(1)/A) depending on the test system used. ABO exon re-sequencing identified a novel missense mutation in exon 6 at position 248A>G (Asp83Gly) in the binding region of PCR-SSP primers for the detection of 261G alleles. Blood donors with regular ABO blood groups were all negative for the 248G allele designated Aw34. The novel ABO gene variant Aw34 is associated with very weak A antigen expression and absent anti-A isoagglutinins. The mutation is located in exon 6 close to the O(1)-specific 261G deletion in the binding region of PCR-SSP primers. Presumably, depending on the primer concentration used in commercial ABO genotyping kits, the mutation could lead to a false-negative reaction.

  20. Characterization of high-current, high-temperature superconductor current lead elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, R.C.; Evans, D.J.; Fisher, B.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Brockenborough, W.E.; Roberts, P.R.; Rodenbush, A.J. [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The refrigeration loads of current leads for superconducting magnets can be significantly reduced by using high-temperature superconductor (HTS) leads. An HTS conductor type that is well suited for this application is a laminated sintered stack of HTS powder-in-tube (PIT) tapes. The superconducting elements are normally characterized by their manufacturer by measuring critical currents at 77 K in self field. Additional characterization, which correlates electrical performance at 77 K and at lower temperatures with applied magnetic fields, provides the current lead designer and conductor element manufacturer with critical information. For HTS conductor elements comprising a laminated and sintered stack of Bi-2223 PIT tapes having an alloyed Ag sheath, this characterization uses variable applied fields and operating temperatures.

  1. Blood coagulation using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc V.; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2014-03-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) technology provides a feasible method of achieving thermal coagulation during surgical procedures. One of the potential clinical benefits of HIFU can induce immediate hemostasis without suturing. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a HIFU system for blood coagulation on severe vascular injury. ngHIFU treatment was implemented immediately after bleeding in artery. The ultrasound probe was made of piezoelectric material, generating a central frequency of 2.0 MHz as well as an ellipsoidal focal spot of 2 mm in lateral dimension and 10 mm in axial dimension. Acoustic coagulation was employed on a perfused chicken artery model in vitro. A surgical incision (1 to 2 mm long) was made with a scapel on the arterial wall, and heparinized autologous blood was made to leak out from the incision with a syringe pump. A total of 5 femoral artery incisions was treated with the HIFU beam. The intensity of 4500 W/cm2 at the focus was applied for all treatments. Complete hemostasis was achieved in all treatments, along with the treatment times of 25 to 50 seconds. The estimated intraoperative blood loss was from 2 to 5 mL. The proposed HIFU system may provide an effective method for immediate blood coagulation for arteries and veins in clinical applications.

  2. Effects of lead exposure on the concentration of cadmium, selenium and values of morphology in the blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozłowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Heavy metals, including cadmium and lead are both environmental and industrial toxins which cause metabolic disorders. Effects of these elements are long lasting and usually take a long time to show themselves. Also of importance is the active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, which is also a source of heavy metals. Heavy metals exhibit nephrotoxic activity, hepatotoxic and neurotoxic, and mutagenic and carcinogenic activity. This study aimed to determine the relationship between occupational exposure to lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd and the level of selenium (Se, and values of morphology of employees of zinc and lead smelter. Material and methods. 334 occupationally exposed males (tested group and 60 males not exposed (control group were involved in the study. The men were between 19 and 62 years of age. The study population lived and/or worked in the industrial region of Upper Silesia. Blood cadmium concentration (Cd-B, blood lead concentration (Pb-B and serum concentrations of Se (Se-S were studied. The level of elements was determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. Results. The average concentration of each metal in the exposed group was 2.42±2.20 µg/l (Cd-B, 33±9.6 µg/dl (Pb-B and 73.99±20.44 µg/l (Se-S. In the entire study population (exposed and control, a statistically significant negative linear relationship was found between Pb-B and Se-S (r=–0.16, p<0.05. There was no correlation between Cd-B and Se-S, whereas a statistically significant positive correlation was observed between Pb-B and Cd-B (r=0.48, p<0.05. Spearman Rank Correlation analysis showed that in the study population there was observed statistically significant (p<0.05 negative correlation between Se-S in smokers group. Conclusions. Higher concentrations of Cd and Pb were observed in the exposed group compared to the control group. Occupational exposure to cadmium and lead may be a factor lowering the blood Se in the tested group. The most

  3. Quench propagation in High Temperature Superconducting materials integrated in high current leads

    CERN Document Server

    Milani, D

    2001-01-01

    High temperature superconductors (HTS) have been integrated in the high current leads for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), under construction at CERN, in order to reduce the heat leak into the liquid helium bath due to the joule effect. The use of the HTS technology in the lower part of the current leads allowed to significantly reduce the heat charge on the cryogenic system. Hybrid current leads have been designed to fulfill the LHC requirements with respect to thermal load; several tests have been performed to study the lead behavior especially during a quench transient. Quench experiments have been performed at CERN on 13 kA prototypes to determine the adequate design and protection. In all the tests it is possible to know the temperature profile of the HTS only with the help of quench simulations that model the thermo-hydraulic processes during quench. The development of a theoretical model for the simulation allows reducing the number of test to perform and to scale the experimental result to other curre...

  4. Lack of association of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase polymorphisms with blood lead levels and hemoglobin in Romanian women from a lead-contaminated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabstein, Sylvia; Unfried, Klaus; Ranft, Ulrich; Illig, Thomas; Kolz, Melanie; Mambetova, Chinara; Vlad, Mariana; Roman, Cecilia; Weiss, Tobias; Becker, Doreen; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate

    2008-01-01

    As part of a project on environmental pollution, this study aimed to evaluate associations between blood lead (BPb) levels, hemoglobin (Hb) content, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) gene in 129 unrelated women from Romania. Five SNPs (rs1805313, rs2228083, rs1805312, rs1800435, rs1139488) were analyzed with respect to haplotype structure and impact on BPb levels and Hb content with proportional odds and analysis of covariance models. Combinations of SNPs were rare (16%). Low haplotype diversity was found with seven haplotypes. One rare haplotype implied the C allele of rs1800435, often referred to as the ALAD2 allele (frequency 8.6%). The putative risk genotype (CC) occurred in only one woman with BPb below 0.5 microg/dl. Median BPb was 4.8 microg/dl and differed markedly by community with a level of 12.5 microg/dl near a mining-spill region. Hb was regular (interquartile range 12.3-13.7 g/dl) and not correlated with BPb, although quantitatively lower in women living near the spill region. No significant associations were found for BPb or Hb with SNPs, haplotypes, or diplotypes. BPb levels were higher in this region than in populations from industrialized countries but without hematotoxic effects. An impact of ALAD2 on BPb or Hb was not seen in these women.

  5. 血铅水平对儿童健康危害的调查及其干预措施%Blood Lead Level on Children's Health Hazard Survey and its Intervention Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴彩娥; 龚妍宁; 刘知华; 杨华

    2012-01-01

      Objective To the attractors among the children aged 0 to 6 blood lead level screening, children high blood lead analysis of relevant factors. Methods 0~6 years, 2983 cases of children in the cluster sampling blood lead level detection and calcium, iron, and zinc determination of trace elements, and relative factor questionnaire survey. Results 2983 cases of children blood lead in 17-183 assessmentμg/L, and between the average (76.51+/-53.37μg/L, testing out high blood lead children in 856 cases, the detection rate is 28.7%, and the blood lead quartile 100μg/L group of child's serum calcium, zinc, hot metal significantly below the average blood lead<100μg/L groups of children are statistically significant differences, (P<0.01);High blood lead children see more repeated respiratory infection, sweat, hyperactivity inattention, to junk food such as anorexia;Cause children high blood lead the related risk factors are:living conditions, and father/mother engaged in relevant work, housing recent lead a decoration, family members have smoking habits, parents, children in eating habits, etc. Conclusion High blood lead children in more, lead poisoning in children growth great harm to children's blood lead level for regular screening for the high blood lead children to take active corresponding intervention measures, improve the level of children's health, promote children's healthy development.%  目的对我区0~6岁儿童血铅水平进行筛查,分析儿童高血铅的相关因素.方法对0~6岁2983例儿童进行整群抽样血铅水平检测及钙、铁、锌微量元素测定,并进行相关因素问卷调查.结果2983例儿童血铅检测值在17~183μg/L之间,平均(76.51±53.37)μg/L,检测出高血铅儿童856例,检出率为28.7%,血铅≥100μg/L组儿童的血清钙、锌、铁水平均显著低于血铅<100μg/L组儿童,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01);高血铅儿童多见反复呼吸道感染、多汗、多动注意力不集中、偏

  6. Atmospheric and children's blood lead as indicators of vehicular traffic and other emission sources in Mumbai, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, R.M.; Raghunath, R.; Vinod Kumar, A.; Sastry, V.N.; Sadasivan, S. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, 400 085 Mumbai (India)

    2001-02-21

    Average concentration of Pb in atmospheric air particulates in different suburbs of Mumbai was studied for almost a decade and its spatial and temporal profiles are discussed in relation to emission sources. In general the concentration of Pb in all the residential suburban atmosphere is well below the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB, 1994) prescribed limit of 1.5 {mu}g m{sup -3} barring a few exceptions for some residential/industrial sites, such as those of Thane and Kurla scrap yards. The correlation between blood lead of children and air lead reveals that the blood Pb level in children could increase by 3.6 {mu}g dl{sup -1} for an incremental rise of 1.0 {mu}g Pb m{sup -3} of air. The temporal profile of air Pb values indicates a decreasing trend in residential suburbs (Khar: 1984, 0.39 {mu}g m{sup -3}; 1996, 0.17 {mu}g m{sup -3}) as well as in suburban residential areas with low traffic (Goregaon: 1984, 0.53 {mu}g m{sup -3}; 1996, 0.30 {mu}g m{sup -3})

  7. Vitamin D and high blood pressure: causal association or epiphenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Burgess, Stephen; Munroe, Patricia B; Khan, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    High plasma levels of vitamin D are associated with a reduced risk of high blood pressure, but whether this association is causal remains to be ascertained. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials, to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and supplemented these results with a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the causal relationship between vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]) and BP. Pooled random effects meta-analysis of weighted mean differences across 16 trials of vitamin D supplementation showed a non-significant reduction in SBP (-0.94, 95% CI -2.98, 1.10 mmHg) and DBP (-0.52, 95% CI -1.18, 0.14 mmHg), with evidence of heterogeneity (I(2) = 67.9%, P causal effects of a doubling of genetically-elevated risk of vitamin D deficiency were 0.14 mmHg (95% CI -0.19, 0.47, P = 0.42), and 0.12 mmHg (95% CI -0.09, 0.33, P = 0.25) on SBP and DBP respectively. Additional evidence from genetic data are directionally consistent with clinical trial data, though underpowered to reliably demonstrate a strong causal effect of vitamin D status on BP. Further investigation may be warranted.

  8. High speed optical holography of retinal blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzari, M; Simonutti, M; Degardin, J; Sahel, J-A; Fink, M; Paques, M; Atlan, M

    2016-08-01

    We performed noninvasive video imaging of retinal blood flow in a pigmented rat by holographic interferometry of near-infrared laser light backscattered by retinal tissue, beating against an off-axis reference beam sampled at a frame rate of 39 kHz with a high throughput camera. Local Doppler contrasts emerged from the envelopes of short-time Fourier transforms and the phase of autocorrelation functions of holograms rendered by Fresnel transformation. This approach permitted imaging of blood flow in large retinal vessels (∼30 microns diameter) over 400×400  pixels with a spatial resolution of ∼8 microns and a temporal resolution of ∼6.5  ms.

  9. Biosynthesis of lead nanoparticles by the aquatic water fern, Salvinia minima Baker, when exposed to high lead concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Longoria, E; Trejo-Guillén, K; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Avalos-Borja, M; Andrade-Canto, S B; Leal-Alvarado, D A; Santamaría, J M

    2014-02-01

    Salvinia minima Baker is a small floating aquatic fern that is efficient for the removal and storage of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. In this study, we report that lead removal by S. minima causes large accumulation of lead inside the cells in the form of nanoparticles (PbNPs). The accumulation pattern of lead was analyzed in both, submerged root-like modified fronds (here named "roots"), and in its aerial leaf-like fronds ("leaves"). Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed the biosynthesis of PbNPs by the plant. In both, roots and leaves, PbNPs were found to accumulate almost exclusively at the cell wall and closely associated to the cell membrane. Two types of PbNPs shapes were found in cells of both tissues, those associated to the cell wall were quasi-spherical with 17.2±4.2 nm of diameter, while those associated to the cell membrane/cytoplasm were elongated. Elongated particles were 53.7±29.6 nm in length and 11.1±2.4 nm wide. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) results indicate that cellulose, lignin and pectin are the major components that may be acting as the reducing agents for lead ions; these findings strongly suggest the potential use of this fern to further explore the bio-assisted synthesis of heavy metal nanostructures.

  10. Drugs for treatment of very high blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duley, Lelia; Meher, Shireen; Jones, Leanne

    2013-07-31

    Very high blood pressure during pregnancy poses a serious threat to women and their babies. The aim of antihypertensive therapy is to lower blood pressure quickly but safety, to avoid complications. Antihypertensive drugs lower blood pressure but their comparative effectiveness and safety, and impact on other substantive outcomes is uncertain. To compare different antihypertensive drugs for very high blood pressure during pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (9 January 2013). Studies were randomised trials. Participants were women with severe hypertension during pregnancy. Interventions were comparisons of one antihypertensive drug with another. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed trial quality. Two review authors extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Thirty-five trials (3573 women) with 15 comparisons were included. Women allocated calcium channel blockers were less likely to have persistent high blood pressure compared to those allocated hydralazine (six trials, 313 women; 8% versus 22%; risk ratio (RR) 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21 to 0.66). Ketanserin was associated with more persistent high blood pressure than hydralazine (three trials, 180 women; 27% versus 6%; RR 4.79, 95% CI 1.95 to 11.73), but fewer side-effects (three trials, 120 women; RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.53) and a lower risk of HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and lowered platelets) syndrome (one trial, 44 women; RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.81).Labetalol was associated with a lower risk of hypotension compared to diazoxide (one trial 90 women; RR 0.06, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.99) and a lower risk of caesarean section (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.02), although both were borderline for statistical significance.Both nimodipine and magnesium sulphate were associated with a high incidence of persistent high blood pressure, but this risk was lower for nimodipine compared to magnesium sulphate (one trial

  11. 90 deg.Neutron emission from high energy protons and lead ions on a thin lead target

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Foglio-Para, A; Mitaroff, W A; Silari, Marco; Ulrici, L

    2002-01-01

    The neutron emission from a relatively thin lead target bombarded by beams of high energy protons/pions and lead ions was measured at CERN in one of the secondary beam lines of the Super Proton Synchrotron for radiation protection and shielding calculations. Measurements were performed with three different beams: sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb sup 8 sup 2 sup + lead ions at 40 GeV/c per nucleon and 158 GeV/c per nucleon, and 40 GeV/c mixed protons/pions. The neutron yield and spectral fluence per incident ion on target were measured at 90 deg.with respect to beam direction. Monte-Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code were performed for the case of protons and pions and the results found in good agreement with the experimental data. A comparison between simulations and experiment for protons, pions and lead ions have shown that--for such high energy heavy ion beams--a reasonable estimate can be carried out by scaling the result of a Monte-Carlo calculation for protons by the projectile mass number to the power of 0.80-0...

  12. Lead dioxide electrodes for high potential anodic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. VELICHENKO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Doping of PbO2 by cations (Fe3+, Co2+ and Ni2+, by F- and by cations and F- simultaneously is discussed as a way of improving the stability and electrochemical activity in processes occurring at high potentials. Doping allows the control of the amount of structural water in an oxide. Radiotracer experiments showed that high electrodeposition current densities favour the segregation of incorporated tritium (protons at the surface. On the other hand, fluorine doping results in a marked decrease in the amount of surface oxygen species. The influence of doping with metal cations strongly depends on the nature of the metal. Iron behaves like fluorine, while nickel causes an accumulation of surface oxygen species. Doped PbO2 electrodes have quite good activities for the electrogeneration of ozone. In particular, Fe and Co doped PbO2 showed a current efficiency of 15–20 % for this process. This result is relevant to our recent studies on “cathodic oxidation”, i.e., an ozone mediated electrochemical method in which an O2 stream is used to sweep the O2/O3 gas mixture produced at a PbO2 anode into the cathodic compartment of the same electrochemical cell containing polluting species.

  13. Association of lead concentration in colostrum, maternal and cord blood with newborn weight in polluted vs. non-polluted areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golmohammadi T.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead poisoning has proven to be one of the most important environmental health problems among developing countries with both direct and indirect effects on human life. Lead is known to cross the blood-brain barrier and placenta, and accumulates in soft and hard tissues. Lead can be excreted in urine, stool, milk, sweat, nails and saliva. During pregnancy and lactation, lead is released from bones into the blood along with Ca2+. The toxic effects of lead on various human tissues have been studied extensively, but few studies have addressed its impact on fetal development during pregnancy. Blood levels of lead are higher in people living in lead-polluted regions. It has been reported that Tehran (central and southern parts is the most problematic city in terms of lead poisoning.Methods: From 86 sets of mothers and newborns in a non-polluted area of rural Rasht, Iran, we examined specimens of maternal blood, cord blood and colostrum (86×3=258 and specimens from 85 sets of mothers and newborns in a polluted area of Tehran, Iran (85×3=255 for lead levels using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS and analyzed the results by t-test, SPSS, and linear regression.Results: The mean blood lead concentrations of mothers, cord blood of newborns and colostrum were 7.6±4.1, 5.9±3 and 4.2±2.5 μg/dl, respectively, in the non-polluted area and 9.1±8.4, 6.5±5.2 and 5.8±5.5 μg/dl, respectively, in the polluted area. The mean weights of the newborns in non-polluted and polluted areas were 3.2±0.5 kg and 3.2±4.5 kg, respectively.Conclusions: Our data revealed an association between mean concentrations in blood lead of mothers and newborns and between mean concentrations of colostrum lead and newborn blood lead in both areas (p=0.01. There was no association between mean blood lead concentration of mothers with the weight of their newborns (p=0.89.

  14. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  15. Synoptic conditions leading to extremely high temperatures in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García

    Full Text Available Extremely hot days (EHD in Madrid have been analysed to determine the synoptic patterns that produce EHDs during the period of 1955–1998. An EHD is defined as a day with maximum temperature higher than 36.5°C, a value which is the threshold for the intense effects on mortatility and it coincides with the 95 percentile of the series. Two different situations have been detected as being responsible for an EHD occurrence, one more dynamical, produced by southern fluxes, and another associated with a stagnation situation over Iberia of a longer duration. Both account for 92% of the total number of days, thus providing an efficient classification framework. A circulation index has been derived to characterise and forecast an EHD occurrence. This paper shows that EHD occur in Madrid during short duration events, and no long heat waves, like those recorded in other cities, are present. Additionally, no clear pattern can be detected in the EHD frequency; the occurrence is tied to changes in the summer location of the Azores high.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Climatology; synoptic-scale meteorology; general or miscellaneous

  16. Synoptic conditions leading to extremely high temperatures in Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, R.; Prieto, L.; Hernandez, E.; Teso, T. del [Dept. Fisica de la Tierra II, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Univ. Camplutense de Madrid (Spain); Diaz, J. [Centro Universitario de Salud Publica, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2002-02-01

    Extremely hot days (EHD) in Madrid have been analysed to determine the synoptic patterns that produce EHDs during the period of 1955-1998. An EHD is defined as a day with maximum temperature higher than 36.5 C, a value which is the threshold for the intense effects on mortatility and it coincides with the 95 percentile of the series. Two different situations have been detected as being responsible for an EHD occurrence, one more dynamical, produced by southern fluxes, and another associated with a stagnation situation over Iberia of a longer duration. Both account for 92% of the total number of days, thus providing an efficient classification framework. A circulation index has been derived to characterise and forecast an EHD occurrence. This paper shows that EHD occur in Madrid during short duration events, and no long heat waves, like those recorded in other cities, are present. Additionally, no clear pattern can be detected in the EHD frequency; the occurrence is tied to changes in the summer location of the Azores high. (orig.)

  17. High altitude hypoxia and blood pressure dysregulation in adult chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, E A; Salinas, C E; Blanco, C E; Villena, M; Giussani, D A

    2013-02-01

    Although it is accepted that impaired placental perfusion in complicated pregnancy can slow fetal growth and programme an increased risk of cardiovascular dysfunction at adulthood, the relative contribution of reductions in fetal nutrition and in fetal oxygenation as the triggering stimulus remains unclear. By combining high altitude (HA) with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of HA hypoxia on embryonic growth and cardiovascular development before hatching. This study isolated the effects of developmental hypoxia on cardiovascular function measured in vivo in conscious adult male and female chickens. Chick embryos were incubated, hatched and raised at sea level (SL, nine males and nine females) or incubated, hatched and raised at HA (seven males and seven females). At 6 months of age, vascular catheters were inserted under general anaesthesia. Five days later, basal blood gas status, basal cardiovascular function and cardiac baroreflex responses were investigated. HA chickens had significantly lower basal arterial PO2 and haemoglobin saturation, and significantly higher haematocrit than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. HA chickens had significantly lower arterial blood pressure than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. Although the gain of the arterial baroreflex was decreased in HA relative to SL male chickens, it was increased in HA relative to SL female chickens. We show that development at HA lowers basal arterial blood pressure and alters baroreflex sensitivity in a sex-dependent manner at adulthood.

  18. R&D on Resistive Heat Exchangers for HTS High Rated Current Leads%R&D on Resistive Heat Exchangers for HTS High Rated Current Leads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕延芳

    2011-01-01

    The HTS current leads of superconducting magnets for large scale fusion devices and high energy particle colliders can reduce the power consumption for cooling by 2/3 compared with conventional leads. The resistive sections of high-rated current leads are usually made of a heat exchanger cooled by gas flow. The supply of the cooling mass flow incurs more than 90% of the cooling cost for the HTS leads. The mass flow rate requirement depends not only on the length and material of the resistive heat exchanger, but also on the heat transfer coefficient and HEX surface, the joint resistance at the cold end of a sheet-stack HEX with a larger specific presented in the paper. The test results of efficiency can be achieved. and its cooling approach. The design and operation surface and a much smaller hydraulic diameter are an HTS lead optimized for 8 kA show that a 98.4%

  19. Blood pressure percentile charts to identify high or low blood pressure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Ashish; Bell, Cynthia; Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Samuels, Joshua

    2016-07-19

    The goal was to develop familiar blood pressure (BP) charts representing BP percentile curves similar to CDC growth charts to improve screening of both high and low BP in children. Since height accounts for substantially more BP variability than age and is a more direct measure of body size and maturation in children, height-specific BP percentile curves were drawn separately for males and females. We used the 2004 Fourth Report data source and equations to calculate the BP threshold value for each gender and 5 cm height group. By slightly underestimating a child's BP percentile for high BP and slightly overestimating a child's BP percentile for low BP, these charts guarantee 100 % sensitivity in detecting abnormal BP. Sensitivity and specificity of the chart cut-offs were confirmed in a sample of 1254 healthy children from a school-based blood pressure screening program. The 1st, 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 95th, and 99th BP percentile curves are depicted in the chart for each corresponding gender and height from 85 to 190 cm, mimicking the ubiquitous CDC "growth charts". Shaded areas of the chart differentiate abnormal BP status categories: hypotension, normal BP, prehypertension, Stage 1 hypertension, and Stage 2 hypertension. Sensitivity was confirmed to be 100 % with specificity above 94 %. These simplified BP charts improve upon currently available BP screening reference with the following features: (a) tracking BP longitudinally in an individual child, (b) full physiological range of BP percentiles represented in percentile curve format for rapid identification both high and low BP, (c) easy to use with absolute height alone avoiding the additional step of determining height percentile, (d) incorporation of adult threshold for pre-hypertension to assist in accurate transition from adolescence into adulthood, (e) high sensitivity and specificity to ensure all children at risk are identified with very few false positives.

  20. Chronic Diarrhea Associated with High Teriflunomide Blood Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Duquette, André; Frenette, Anne Julie; Doré, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report the case of a patient treated with leflunomide that presented with chronic diarrhea associated with high teriflunomide blood concentration. Case Summary An 84-year-old woman taking leflunomide 20 mg once daily for the past 2 years to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was investigated for severe chronic diarrhea that had been worsening for the past 5 months. The patient’s general condition progressively deteriorated and included electrolyte imbalances and a transient loss of ...