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Sample records for high blood ethanol

  1. Acute effects of ethanol and ethanol plus furosemide on pancreatic capillary blood flow in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, J A; Cooper-Vastola, S A; Meirelles, R F; Bagchi, S; Caboclo, J L; Holm, C; Eisenberg, M M

    1993-07-01

    The effects of intravenous ethanol and ethanol plus furosemide on pancreatic capillary blood flow (PCBF) were investigated using a laser-Doppler flowmeter. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 4 groups: (1) control, (2) 80% ethanol, (3) 80% ethanol plus furosemide, and (4) furosemide. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were monitored. Levels of serum amylase, calcium, electrolytes, ethanol, and furosemide (groups 3 and 4) were measured, and samples of pancreatic tissue were obtained. The ethanol and furosemide levels were statistically different (p 0.05) between groups 1 and 4. Histopathologic analysis revealed swollen acini in group 2 and sparse focal necrosis without acinar swelling in group 3. The depressant effect of ethanol on PCBF may be the result of its direct action on pancreatic cells causing edema and capillary compression rather than on primary vascular control mechanisms that adjust blood flow. Furosemide counters this effect.

  2. Chronic free-choice drinking in crossed high alcohol preferring mice leads to sustained blood ethanol levels and metabolic tolerance without evidence of liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David; Buckingham, Amy; Ross, Ruth Ann; Halcomb, Meredith; Grahame, Nicholas

    2013-02-01

    Crossed high alcohol preferring (cHAP) mice were selectively bred from a cross of the HAP1 × HAP2 replicate lines, and we demonstrate blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) during free-choice drinking that are reminiscent of those observed in alcohol-dependent humans. Therefore, this line may provide an unprecedented opportunity to learn about the consequences of excessive voluntary ethanol (EtOH) consumption, including metabolic tolerance and liver pathology. Cytochrome p450 2E1 (CYP2E1) induction plays a prominent role in driving both metabolic tolerance and EtOH-induced liver injury. In this report, we sought to characterize cHAP drinking by assessing whether pharmacologically relevant BEC levels are sustained throughout the active portion of the light-dark cycle. Given that cHAP intakes and BECs are similar to those observed in mice given an EtOH liquid diet, we assessed whether free-choice exposure results in metabolic tolerance, hepatic enzyme induction, and hepatic steatosis. In experiment 1, blood samples were taken across the dark portion of a 12:12 light-dark cycle to examine the pattern of EtOH accumulation in these mice. In experiments 1 and 2, mice were injected with EtOH following 3 to 4 weeks of access to water or 10% EtOH and water, and blood samples were taken to assess metabolic tolerance. In experiment 3, 24 mice had 4 weeks of access to 10% EtOH and water or water alone, followed by necropsy and hepatological assessment. In experiment 1, cHAP mice mean BEC values exceeded 80 mg/dl at all sampling points and approached 200 mg/dl during the middle of the dark cycle. In experiments 1 and 2, EtOH-exposed mice metabolized EtOH faster than EtOH-naïve mice, demonstrating metabolic tolerance (p alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. These results demonstrate that excessive intake by cHAP mice results in sustained BECs throughout the active period, leading to the development of metabolic tolerance and evidence of CYP2E1 induction

  3. Effects of ethanol on red blood cell rheological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabai, M; Detterich, J A; Wenby, R B; Toth, K; Meiselman, H J

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of red wine is associated with a decreased risk of several cardiovascular diseases (e.g., coronary artery disease, stroke), but unfortunately literature reports regarding ethanol's effects on hemorheological parameters are not concordant. In the present study, red blood cell (RBC) deformability was tested via laser ektacytometry (LORCA, 0.3-30 Pa) using two approaches: 1) addition of ethanol to whole blood at 0.25%-2% followed by incubation and testing in ethanol-free LORCA medium; 2) addition of ethanol to the LORCA medium at 0.25%-6% then testing untreated native RBC in these media. The effects of ethanol on deformability for oxidatively stressed RBC were investigated as were changes of RBC aggregation (Myrenne Aggregometer) for cells in autologous plasma or 3% 70 kDa dextran. Significant dose-related increases of RBC deformability were observed at 0.25% (p health benefits of moderate wine consumption require further investigation.

  4. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15% ethanol tolerance. High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential application in ethanologenic fermentations. Data presented in this study revealed that Orc 6 yeast isolate tolerated osmotic stress above 12% (w/v) sorbitol and 15% (w/v) sucrose equivalent of osmotic pressure ...

  5. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential application ... sources include cashew, apple juice (Osho, 2005), palm ... choice for fermentation (Chandra and Panchal, 2003). Yeasts ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  7. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  8. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  9. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  12. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

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  13. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  15. High ethanol tolerance of the thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producer Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie Just; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The low ethanol tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria, generally less than 2% (v/v) ethanol, is one of the main limiting factors for their potential use for second generation fuel ethanol production. In this work, the tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG 1L1...... to exogenously added ethanol was studied in a continuous immobilized reactor system at a growth temperature of 70 degrees C. Ethanol tolerance was evaluated based on inhibition of fermentative performance e.g.. inhibition of substrate conversion. At the highest ethanol concentration tested (8.3% v/v), the strain...... was able to convert 42% of the xylose initially present, indicating that this ethanol concentration is not the upper limit tolerated by the strain. Long-term strain adaptation to high ethanol concentrations (6 - 8.3%) resulted in an improvement of xylose conversion by 25% at an ethanol concentration of 5...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  5. High blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Hyperglycemia - self care; High blood glucose - self care; Diabetes - high blood sugar References American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2017: 4. Lifestyle management and 6. Glycemic targets. Diabetes Care . 2017;40( ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  8. High blood pressure - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007696.htm High blood pressure - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  9. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  10. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  11. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  12. Water-insoluble fractions of botanical foods lower blood ethanol levels in rats by physically maintaining the ethanol solution after ethanol administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Oshima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have analyzed the functions of foods and dietary constituents in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. However, few studies have reported the function of dietary fibers in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. Objective: We assessed the effects of botanical foods that contain dietary fibers on alcohol metabolism. Methods: The ability of the water-insoluble fraction (WIF of 18 kinds of botanical foods to maintain 15% (v/v ethanol solution was examined using easily handled filtration. A simple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC in F344 rats 4 h after the ingestion of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol following dosage of 2.5% (w/v WIF of the experimental botanical foods. Furthermore, the supernatant (6.3 Brix; water-soluble fraction and precipitate (WIF of tomato, with a strong ethanol-maintaining ability, were obtained and BEC and the residual gastric ethanol in rats were determined 2 h after the administration of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol and the individuals fractions. Results: The filtered volumes of dropped ethanol solutions containing all the botanical foods tested except green peas were decreased compared with the ethanol solution without WIF (control. There was a significant correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC. There was no significant difference in the residual gastric ethanol between controls and the supernatant group; however, it was increased significantly in the WIF group than in controls or the supernatant group. Consistent with this, BEC reached a similar level in controls and the supernatant group but significantly decreased in the WIF group compared with controls or the supernatant group. Conclusions: These findings suggest that WIFs of botanical foods, which are mostly water-insoluble dietary fibers, possess the ability to absorb ethanol-containing solutions, and this ability correlates

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  15. The effect of blood injection for the prevention of Ethanol reflux after intrahepatic Ethanol injection in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Choon Yul; Kim, Bum Soo; Hahn, Seong Tai; Lee, Jae Mun; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1998-01-01

    To reduce ethanol reflux from the needle channel by injecting rat blood immediately after the injection of ethanol into rat liver. The first experiment involved 33 rat livers which were divided into four groups (three livers in group 1;ten in groups 2, 3, and 4). Group 1 animals were used as controls, and 0.1ml saline was injected into the liver; in group 2, ethanol-Tc-99m-O 4 - mixed solution (0.1ml, 0.2mCi) was injected into the liver;in groups 3 and 4, the needle channel was blocked with 0.02ml of fresh blood and old blood, respectively, after the injection of ethanol. After removing the needle, a 3cm round filter paper was laid on each injection site to absorb refluxed ethanol-T c -99m-O 4 - mixed solution from the liver, and each paper was then counted by a gamma camera unit. In the second experiment, 33rats were divided into four groups (three rats in group 1;ten in groups 2, 3, and 4). Group 1 animals were used as controls, and after exposing the left lateral lobe of the liver, 0.05 ml of saline was injected;in group 2, 0.05 ml of ethanol was injected into the livder;in groups 3 and 4 the needle channel was blocked with 0.02 ml of fresh blood and old blood, respectively, after the injection of ethanol. After ten days, peritoneal adhesions were scored macroscopically and microscopically. In the first experiment using ethanol- T c -99m-O 4 - mixed solution, groups blocked with blood after the injection of mixed solution showed lower gamma counts than the group injected with mixed solution only (p-value=3D0.0002). The group blocked with old blood showed the lowest count. Macroscopical and microscopical examination of peritoneal adhesions indicated that the grade of adhesion was lower in groups blocked with blood than in the group injected with ethanol onluy (p-value=3D0.0261 and 0.0163, respectively). The above results suggest that an injection of blood after an injection of ethanol is a very effective way of preventing reflux from the liver.=20

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  17. High ethanol yields using Aspergillus oryzae koji and corn media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziffer, J.; Iosif, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    High ethanol and stillage solids were achieved using whole corn mashes. Ethanol yields of 14% (98.5% of theory) and stillage levels of approximately 23% were obtained in 74-90 hours using mild acid pretreatment with A. oryzae wheat bran koji saccharification. High ethanol yields were also obtained with bacterial amylase, instead of the acid treatment, when the sterilization step was omitted. The implications of ethanol fermentation process modifications are explored.

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  1. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other risk factors, like diabetes, you may need treatment. How does high blood pressure affect pregnant women? A few women will get ... HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health ... High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Women and Diabetes Heart ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease ... than planned or exercised less than planned. You have stress from an illness, such as a cold or flu. You have ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your ... glucose is above 240 mg/dl, check your urine for ketones. If you have ketones, do not ...

  6. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney disease, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome Read less Unhealthy lifestyle habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can increase the risk of high blood pressure. These habits include: Unhealthy eating patterns, such as eating too much sodium ...

  7. High blood pressure - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure is found. This is called essential hypertension. High blood pressure that is caused by another medical condition or medicine you are taking is called secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension may be due to: Chronic ...

  8. High Blood Pressure

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    ... factors Diabetes High blood pressure Family history Obesity Race/ethnicity Full list of causes and risk factors ... give Give monthly Memorials and tributes Donate a car Donate gently used items Stock donation Workplace giving ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  10. Ethanol affects acylated and total ghrelin levels in peripheral blood of alcohol-dependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Michal; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Geppert, Bogna; Wachowiak, Roman; Dyr, Wanda; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

    2013-07-01

    There is a hypothesis that ghrelin could take part in the central effects of alcohol as well as function as a peripheral indicator of the changes which occur during long-term alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between alcohol concentration and acylated and total form of ghrelin after a single administration of alcohol (intraperitoneal, i.p.) (experiment 1) and prolonged ethanol consumption (experiment 2). The study was performed using Wistar alcohol preferring (PR) and non-preferring (NP) rats and rats from inbred line (Warsaw High Preferring, WHP; Warsaw Low Preferring, WLP). It was found that ghrelin in ethanol-naive WHP animals showed a significantly lower level when compared with the ethanol-naive WLP or Wistar rats. After acute ethanol administration in doses of 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg, i.p., the simple (WHP) or inverse (WLP and Wistar) relationship between alcohol concentration and both form of ghrelin levels in plasma were found. Chronic alcohol intake in all groups of rats led to decrease of acylated ghrelin concentration. PR and WHP rats, after chronic alcohol drinking, had lower levels of both form of ghrelin in comparison with NP and WLP rats, respectively, and the observed differences in ghrelin levels were in inverse relationship with their alcohol intake. In conclusion, it is suggested that there is a strong relationship between alcohol administration or intake, ethanol concentration in blood and both active and total ghrelin level in the experimental animals, and that ghrelin plasma concentration can be a marker of alcohol drinking predisposition. © 2013 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... around 4:00 a.m. to 5:00 a.m.). What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia? The signs and symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  15. The Effect of Ethanol Intoxication on the Spectral Characteristics for Blood Components of White Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Korobova O.; Dudok T.; Trach I.; Moroz O.; Vlokh I.; Vlokh R.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to studying, with the aid of different organic dyes, the transmittance spectra of hemoglobin and immunoglobulin G extracted from the blood of laboratory rats, which have been chronically intoxicated with ethanol. The differences in the spectra are detected, when compare with those for the control group. It is shown that the presence of ethanol in blood probably leads to uncoiling partially the hemoglobin molecules. The essential difference is also found in the tra...

  16. Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Newboulda Laevis on Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    ethanol extract Newbouldia laevis and the fifth group received a reference standard, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). Treatment ... presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids. Conclusion: ..... City for his technical assistance in the course.

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term ... body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of things can cause hyperglycemia: If ...

  19. Influence of high temperature and ethanol on thermostable lignocellulolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia; Jørgensen, Henning

    2013-01-01

    the influence of temperature and ethanol on enzyme activity and stability in the distillation step, where most enzymes are inactivated due to high temperatures. Two enzyme mixtures, a mesophilic and a thermostable mixture, were exposed to typical process conditions [temperatures from 55 to 65 °C and up to 5...... % ethanol (w/v)] followed by specific enzyme activity analyses and SDS-PAGE. The thermostable and mesophilic mixture remained active at up to 65 and 55 °C, respectively. When the enzyme mixtures reached their maximum temperature limit, ethanol had a remarkable influence on enzyme activity, e.g., the more...... ethanol, the faster the inactivation. The reason could be the hydrophobic interaction of ethanol on the tertiary structure of the enzyme protein. The thermostable mixture was more tolerant to temperature and ethanol and could therefore be a potential candidate for recycling after distillation....

  20. Adaptation to High Ethanol Reveals Complex Evolutionary Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Voordeckers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to high levels of ethanol is an ecologically and industrially relevant phenotype of microbes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex trait remain largely unknown. Here, we use long-term experimental evolution of isogenic yeast populations of different initial ploidy to study adaptation to increasing levels of ethanol. Whole-genome sequencing of more than 30 evolved populations and over 100 adapted clones isolated throughout this two-year evolution experiment revealed how a complex interplay of de novo single nucleotide mutations, copy number variation, ploidy changes, mutator phenotypes, and clonal interference led to a significant increase in ethanol tolerance. Although the specific mutations differ between different evolved lineages, application of a novel computational pipeline, PheNetic, revealed that many mutations target functional modules involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and respiration. Measuring the fitness effects of selected mutations introduced in non-evolved ethanol-sensitive cells revealed several adaptive mutations that had previously not been implicated in ethanol tolerance, including mutations in PRT1, VPS70 and MEX67. Interestingly, variation in VPS70 was recently identified as a QTL for ethanol tolerance in an industrial bio-ethanol strain. Taken together, our results show how, in contrast to adaptation to some other stresses, adaptation to a continuous complex and severe stress involves interplay of different evolutionary mechanisms. In addition, our study reveals functional modules involved in ethanol resistance and identifies several mutations that could help to improve the ethanol tolerance of industrial yeasts.

  1. Randomized Controlled Ethanol Cookstove Intervention and Blood Pressure in Pregnant Nigerian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Donee; Northcross, Amanda; Wilson, Nathaniel; Dutta, Anindita; Pandya, Rishi; Ibigbami, Tope; Adu, Damilola; Olamijulo, John; Morhason-Bello, Oludare; Karrison, Theodore; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Olopade, Christopher O

    2017-06-15

    Hypertension during pregnancy is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Exposure to household air pollution elevates blood pressure (BP). To investigate the ability of a clean cookstove intervention to lower BP during pregnancy. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in Nigeria. Pregnant women cooking with kerosene or firewood were randomly assigned to an ethanol arm (n = 162) or a control arm (n = 162). BP measurements were taken during six antenatal visits. In the primary analysis, we compared ethanol users with control subjects. In subgroup analyses, we compared baseline kerosene users assigned to the intervention with kerosene control subjects and compared baseline firewood users assigned to ethanol with firewood control subjects. The change in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) over time was significantly different between ethanol users and control subjects (P = 0.040); systolic blood pressure (SBP) did not differ (P = 0.86). In subgroup analyses, there was no significant intervention effect for SBP; a significant difference for DBP (P = 0.031) existed among preintervention kerosene users. At the last visit, mean DBP was 2.8 mm Hg higher in control subjects than in ethanol users (3.6 mm Hg greater in control subjects than in ethanol users among preintervention kerosene users), and 6.4% of control subjects were hypertensive (SBP ≥140 and/or DBP ≥90 mm Hg) versus 1.9% of ethanol users (P = 0.051). Among preintervention kerosene users, 8.8% of control subjects were hypertensive compared with 1.8% of ethanol users (P = 0.029). To our knowledge, this is the first cookstove randomized controlled trial examining prenatal BP. Ethanol cookstoves have potential to reduce DBP and hypertension during pregnancy. Accordingly, clean cooking fuels may reduce adverse health impacts associated with household air pollution. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02394574).

  2. Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Newboulda Laevis on Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate anti-diabetic effect of the ethanol leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Alloxan (150 mg/kg) was administered to wistar albino rats via the intraperitoneal route. The diabetic rats were then placed in 5 groups, following stabilization of hyperglycemia.

  3. Ethanol-induced increase in portal blood glow: Role of adenosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrego, H.; Carmichael, F.J.; Saldivia, V.; Giles, H.G.; Sandrin, S.; Israel, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism by which ethanol induces an increase in portal vein blood flow was studied in rats using radiolabeled microspheres. Ethanol by gavage resulted in an increase of 50-70% in portal vein blood flow. The ethanol-induced increase in portal blood flow was suppressed by the adenosine receptor blocker 8-phenyltheophylline. By itself, 8-phenyltheophylline was without effect on cardiac output or portal blood flow. Adenosine infusion resulted in a dose-dependent increase in portal blood flow. This adenosine-induced increase in portal blood flow was inhibited by 8-phenyltheophylline in a dose-dependent manner. Both alcohol and adenosine significantly reduced preportal vascular resistance by 40% and 60%, respectively. These effects were fully suppressed by 8-phenyltheophylline. It is concluded that adenosine is a likely candidate to mediate the ethanol-induced increase in portal vein blood flow. It is suggested that an increase in circulating acetate and liver hypoxia may mediate the effects of alcohol by increasing tissue and interstitial adenosine levels

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is above 240 ... ketones. If you have ketones, do not exercise. Exercising when ketones are present may make your blood ...

  5. Development of Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Sensitization and Relapse Drinking in Mice Selected for High or Low Ethanol Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F.; Grahame, Nicholas J.; Becker, Howard C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that high alcohol consumption is associated with low withdrawal susceptiblility, while at the same time, other studies have shown that exposure to ethanol vapor increases alcohol drinking in rats and mice. In the present studies, we sought to shed light on this seeming contradiction by using mice selectively bred for High- (HAP) and Low- (LAP) Alcohol Preference, first, assessing these lines for differences in signs of ethanol withdrawal and second, for differences in the efficacy of intermittent alcohol vapor exposure on elevating subsequent ethanol intake. Methods Experiment 1 examined whether these lines of mice differed in ethanol withdrawal-induced CNS hyperexcitability and the development of sensitization to this effect following intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. Adult HAP and LAP lines (replicates 1 and 2), and the C3H/HeNcr inbred strain (included as a control genotype for comparison purposes) received intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor and were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal-induced seizures assessed by scoring handling-induced convulsions (HIC). Experiment 2 examined the influence of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on voluntary ethanol drinking. Adult male and female HAP-2 and LAP-2 mice, along with male C57BL/6J (included as comparative controls) were trained to drink 10% ethanol using a limited access (2 hr/day) 2-bottle choice paradigm. After stable baseline daily intake was established, mice received chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure in inhalation chambers. Ethanol intake sessions resumed 72 hr after final ethanol (or air) exposure for 5 consecutive days. Results Following chronic ethanol treatment, LAP mice exhibited overall greater withdrawal seizure activity compared to HAP mice. In Experiment 2, chronic ethanol exposure/withdrawal resulted in a significant increase in ethanol intake in male C57BL/6J, and modestly elevated intake in HAP-2 male mice. Ethanol intake for male control mice

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ... I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is ...

  7. Simultaneous determination of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, and ethanol in human blood by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, J; Chiadmi, F; Gandon, V; Chariot, P

    2014-01-01

    Methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, and ethanol, which are commonly used as biomarkers of several diseases, in acute intoxications, and forensic settings, can be detected and quantified in biological fluids. Gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry techniques are complex, require highly trained personnel and expensive materials. Gas chromatographic determinations of ethanol, methanol, and acetone have been reported in one study with suboptimal accuracy. Our objective was to improve the assessment of these compounds in human blood using GC with flame ionization detection. An amount of 50 µl of blood was diluted with 300 µl of sterile water, 40 µl of 10% sodium tungstate, and 20 µl of 1% sulphuric acid. After centrifugation, 1 µl of the supernatant was injected into the gas chromatograph. We used a dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column of 30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 µm. We observed linear correlations from 7.5 to 240 mg/l for methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone and from 75 to 2400 mg/l for ethanol. Precision at concentrations 15, 60, and 120 mg/l for methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone and 150, 600, and 1200 mg/ml for ethanol were 0.8-6.9%. Ranges of accuracy were 94.7-98.9% for methanol, 91.2-97.4% for acetaldehyde, 96.1-98.7% for acetone, and 105.5-111.6% for ethanol. Limits of detection were 0.80 mg/l for methanol, 0.61 mg/l for acetaldehyde, 0.58 mg/l for acetone, and 0.53 mg/l for ethanol. This method is suitable for routine clinical and forensic practices.

  8. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:May 4,2018 Knowing the facts ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  9. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  10. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page ... and-how-tos, . In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood ...

  12. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000101.htm Controlling your high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to: Stroke Heart ...

  13. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Sveding, Per Viktor; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    .e. spruce) this has been difficult to reach. The main reason behind this difference is the higher recalcitrance of woody substrates which require harsher pretreatment conditions, thus generating higher amounts of inhibitory compounds, ultimately lowering fermentation performances. In this work we studied...... ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to similar to 20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings....... In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ...

  15. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  16. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption during ethanol withdrawal in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsen, R; Barry, D I; Hertz, M M; Klinken, L

    1979-09-14

    The ethanol withdrawal syndrome in man and animals is characterized by signs of CNS hyperactivity although a direct measurement of a physiological variable reflecting this CNS hyperactivity has never been performed in untreated man or in animals. We induced ethanol dependence in the rat by means of intragastric intubation with a 20% w/v ethanol solution, thus keeping the animals in a state of continuous severe intoxication for 3--4 days; during the subsequent state of withdrawal characterized by tremor, rigidity, stereotyped movements and general seizures a 25% increase in cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO2) could be measured; this increase was not due to catecholamines originating from adrenal medulla as adrenomedullectomized animals showed a similar increase in CMRO2 (28%); the withdrawing animals showed a corresponding cerebral blood flow (CBF) increase. The elevated CMRO2 and CBF could be reduced to normal by administration of a beta-adrenergic receptor blocker (propranolol 2 mg/kg i.v.), and hence the increased CMRO2 during ethanol withdrawal could be related to catecholaminergic systems in the brain, e.g. the noradrenergic locus coeruleus system which is anatomically well suited as a general activating system. This interpretation is supported by the earlier neurochemical finding of an increased cerebral noradrenaline turnover during ethanol withdrawal. The exact mechanism underlying the increased cerebral oxygen consumption during ethanol withdrawal and the effect of propranolol on cerebral function during this condition remains to be clarified.

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for ... is checking your blood glucose often. Ask your doctor how often you should ... associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat Hyperglycemia? ...

  18. High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Steve [Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Leiby, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio Uria [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oladosu, Gbadebo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Maxwell L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The United States government has been promoting increased use of biofuels, including ethanol from non-food feedstocks, through policies contained in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The objective is to enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and provide economic benefits. However, the United States has reached the ethanol blend wall, where more ethanol is produced domestically than can be blended into standard gasoline. Nearly all ethanol is blended at 10 volume percent (vol%) in gasoline. At the same time, the introduction of more stringent standards for fuel economy and GHG tailpipe emissions is driving research to increase the efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engines. Advanced strategies for increasing SI engine efficiency are enabled by higher octane number (more highly knock-resistant) fuels. Ethanol has a research octane number (RON) of 109, compared to typical U.S. regular gasoline at 91-93. Accordingly, high RON ethanol blends containing 20 vol% to 40 vol% ethanol are being extensively studied as fuels that enable design of more efficient engines. These blends are referred to as high-octane fuel (HOF) in this report. HOF could enable dramatic growth in the U.S. ethanol industry, with consequent energy security and GHG emission benefits, while also supporting introduction of more efficient vehicles. HOF could provide the additional ethanol demand necessary for more widespread deployment of cellulosic ethanol. However, the potential of HOF can be realized only if it is adopted by the motor fuel marketplace. This study assesses the feasibility, economics, and logistics of this adoption by the four required participants--drivers, vehicle manufacturers, fuel retailers, and fuel producers. It first assesses the benefits that could motivate these participants to adopt HOF. Then it focuses on the drawbacks and barriers that these participants could face when adopting HOF and proposes strategies--including incentives and

  19. [The determination of the ethanol elimination rate in the blood based on its concentration in the exhaled air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhova, L M; Erlykina, E I; Andriianova, N A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to calculate the blood ethanol level from its content in the exhaled air. The plot of the blood ethanol level versus its content in the exhaled air was constructed and used to determine the rate of ethanol elimination from the blood. The result proved to lie within the range corresponding to the normal-for-age values. These data put in question the opinion of the independent specialist about disturbances in the alcohol dehydrogenase activity in blood manifested as a considerable increase of the rate of acetaldehyde reduction to ethanol with the decreasing ethanol dehydration rate. It is concluded that the prfoposed algorithm can be recommended for the application in the practical work of various expert services.

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication ... Learning at Camp Find a Camp Fundraising Events Step Out Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... EXPO Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Camp ... when ketones are present may make your blood glucose level go even higher. You'll need to work with your doctor ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future- ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral ... someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia ( ... compact USB drives that can carry a person's full medical record for use in an emergency. How ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... blood, which can lead to ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs immediate treatment. Symptoms include: Shortness ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral ... 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... blood glucose level go even higher. You'll need to work with your doctor to find the ... lead to ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs immediate treatment. Symptoms include: Shortness of breath Breath ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ... Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health ... EXPOs Awareness Programs Wellness Lives Here Become a Member American ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood ... have a medical ID with them at all times. In the event of a severe hypoglycemic episode, ...

  13. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Feb 27,2018 First, let’s define high ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  14. Ethanol suppression of peripheral blood mononuclear cell trafficking across brain endothelial cells in immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola C Hudson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lola C Hudson1, Brenda A Colby1, Rick B Meeker21Department of Molecular Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: Earlier studies suggested that the combination of alcohol use and immunodeficiency virus infection resulted in more severe neurologic disease than either condition individually. These deleterious interactions could be due to increased immune cell and virus trafficking or may result from interactions between ethanol and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated toxicity within the brain. To determine the extent to which increased trafficking played a role, we examined the effect of ethanol on the migration of different peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs subsets across a brain endothelial cell monolayer. We utilized combinations of feline brain endothelial cells with astrocytes, and/or microglia with either acute exposure to 0.08 g/dL ethanol, a combination of ethanol and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, or FIV alone. Adherence of PBMCs to endothelium was increased in all combinations of cells with the addition of ethanol. Despite increased PBMC adhesion with ethanol treatment, transmigration of B cells, monocytes, CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells was not increased and was actually decreased in the presence of astrocytes. Expression of three common adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1, ICAM2, and vascular cell adhesion molecule, was unchanged or slightly decreased by ethanol. This indicated that although adherence is increased by ethanol it is not due to an increased expression of adhesion molecules. RANTES, MIP1α, MIP1β, and MCP-1 mRNA expression was also studied in brain endothelial cells, astrocytes and microglia by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Ethanol treatment of astrocytes resulted in modest changes of

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ... Pinterest Youtube Instagram Diabetes Stops Here Blog Online Community Site ... Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ... de Cure Women's Series Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Become a Volunteer American Diabetes Month® American Diabetes Association ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home ... work with your doctor to find the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose ... down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your ...

  18. Determination of Ethanol in Blood Samples Using Partial Least Square Regression Applied to Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açikgöz, Güneş; Hamamci, Berna; Yildiz, Abdulkadir

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol consumption triggers toxic effect to organs and tissues in the human body. The risks are essentially thought to be related to ethanol content in alcoholic beverages. The identification of ethanol in blood samples requires rapid, minimal sample handling, and non-destructive analysis, such as Raman Spectroscopy. This study aims to apply Raman Spectroscopy for identification of ethanol in blood samples. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized to obtain Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) spectra of blood samples. The SERS spectra were used for Partial Least Square (PLS) for determining ethanol quantitatively. To apply PLS method, 920~820 cm -1 band interval was chosen and the spectral changes of the observed concentrations statistically associated with each other. The blood samples were examined according to this model and the quantity of ethanol was determined as that: first a calibration method was established. A strong relationship was observed between known concentration values and the values obtained by PLS method (R 2 = 1). Second instead of then, quantities of ethanol in 40 blood samples were predicted according to the calibration method. Quantitative analysis of the ethanol in the blood was done by analyzing the data obtained by Raman spectroscopy and the PLS method.

  19. High Blood Pressure - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Being 8 - High Blood Pressure - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... Being 8 - High Blood Pressure - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) ( ...

  20. Comparative polygenic analysis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and tolerance to high ethanol levels of cell proliferation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago M Pais

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to accumulate ≥17% ethanol (v/v by fermentation in the absence of cell proliferation. The genetic basis of this unique capacity is unknown. Up to now, all research has focused on tolerance of yeast cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. Comparison of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation in 68 yeast strains showed a poor correlation, but higher ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation clearly increased the likelihood of superior maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify the polygenic basis of these two complex traits using segregants from a cross of a haploid derivative of the sake strain CBS1585 and the lab strain BY. From a total of 301 segregants, 22 superior segregants accumulating ≥17% ethanol in small-scale fermentations and 32 superior segregants growing in the presence of 18% ethanol, were separately pooled and sequenced. Plotting SNP variant frequency against chromosomal position revealed eleven and eight Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs for the two traits, respectively, and showed that the genetic basis of the two traits is partially different. Fine-mapping and Reciprocal Hemizygosity Analysis identified ADE1, URA3, and KIN3, encoding a protein kinase involved in DNA damage repair, as specific causative genes for maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. These genes, as well as the previously identified MKT1 gene, were not linked in this genetic background to tolerance of cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. The superior KIN3 allele contained two SNPs, which are absent in all yeast strains sequenced up to now. This work provides the first insight in the genetic basis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity in yeast and reveals for the first time the importance of DNA damage repair in yeast ethanol tolerance.

  1. Lack of effects of a "sobering" product, "Eezup!", on the blood ethanol and congener alcohol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunder, Cora; Hain, Sarah; Koelzer, Sarah C; Paulke, Alexander; Verhoff, Marcel A; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-09-01

    The lifestyle product 'Eezup!' appeared on the German market and promised to normalize energy metabolism. Among vitamins (B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , C, E and zinc), rice protein and fructose the addition of alcohol dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes is a novel approach. The product was advertised as capable of boosting the rate of alcohol elimination. Seventeen subjects (11 men, 6 women, 19-58 years old), participated in a two-way crossover drinking study. Unfiltered wheat beer (4.4g% alcohol content) was drank within one hour to reach blood alcohol concentrations of 1‰ (1g/kg whole blood). On one day "Eezup!" was taken according to the manufacturer's instructions before and after drinking which was substituted for a placebo on the second test day. Blood samples were taken during 9h and ethanol and congener alcohols were determined. A comparison of C max , t max , area under the curve (AUC) for ethanol and congener alcohols, and the hourly elimination rate of ethanol (β 60 ) was performed to investigate an effect of Eezup!. Ethanol concentrations (Cmax) were in the range of 0,63-1,00‰ (median 0,85‰) and 0.62-1.22‰ (median 0.84‰) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition, respectively, and not statistically different. Also t max (1-2.5h) and AUCs did not differ. The ethanol elimination rates were 0.16‰/h (0.14-0.19‰/h) and 0.17‰/h (0.14-0.22 ‰/h) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition without significant difference. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the congener alcohols (1-propanol, isobutanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol) as well as of methanol did also not differ. The results of the present study failed to show any effect of the sobering product "Eezup!" on the amount of ethanol and congener alcohols absorbed (C max , t max, AUC) and on the ethanol elimination rate (β 60 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of ethanol leaf extracts of Ficus Glumosa on fasting blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normal saline 5ml/kg, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of Ficus glumosa ethanol leaves extract respectively via ip while Group V received insulin 6 iu/kg. Fasting blood sugar levels were measured at one day intervals for 7 days. Rats were sacrifice for the Serum liver enzymes and liver the tissue for analysis on the 7 day ...

  3. Role of ethanol leaf extracts of Ficus glumosa on fasting blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normal saline 5ml/kg, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of Ficus glumosa ethanol leaves extract respectively via ip while Group V received insulin 6 iu/kg. Fasting blood sugar levels were measured at one day intervals for 7 days. Rats were sacrifice for the Serum liver enzymes and liver tissue for th analysis on the 7 day.

  4. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannella, David; Sveding, Per Viktor; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High solids (30% dry matter) pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. • Horizontal rotary reactor for hydrolysis and fermentation. • In situ hydrolysates detoxification using inhibitors adsorbing PEI polymer. • 50% of inhibitors recovered as by-product, recyclability of PEI polymer up to 5 times. • 76% of maximum theoretical ethanol was fermented at final concentration of 51 g/kg. - Abstract: Performing the bioethanol production process at high solids loading is a requirement for economic feasibility at industrial scale. So far this has successfully been achieved using wheat straw and other agricultural residues at 30% of water insoluble solids (WIS), but for softwood species (i.e. spruce) this has been difficult to reach. The main reason behind this difference is the higher recalcitrance of woody substrates which require harsher pretreatment conditions, thus generating higher amounts of inhibitory compounds, ultimately lowering fermentation performances. In this work we studied ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to ∼20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings. In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble polyelectrolyte polymer (polyethylenimine, PEI) to absorb inhibitory compounds in the material. On average 50% removal and recovery of the main inhibitors (HMF, furfural, acetic acid and formic acid) was achieved dosing 1.5% w/w of soluble PEI. The use of PEI was compatible with operating the process at high solids loadings and enabled fermentation of hydrolysates, which

  5. Does the clinical use of ethanol-based hand sanitizer elevate blood alcohol levels? A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael A; Rosin, Alex; Levsky, Marc E; Patel, Manish M; Gregory, Timothy J D; Crystal, Chad S

    2006-11-01

    Ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs) are used in most health care facilities in the United States. Infection control personnel advocate the use of generous quantities of EBHS before and after contact with patients. Although it is assumed that little systemic absorption of ethanol occurs during EBHS use, many alcohols are absorbed to varying degrees via the transdermal route. Ethanol intoxication by employees in the medical workplace is a potentially serious finding, and it is of forensic and medical-legal importance to elucidate the effects of frequent use of EBHS upon serum blood ethanol levels (BELs). To investigate the effect of frequent use of EBHS upon serum blood ethanol concentrations, we prospectively studied 5 volunteers undergoing frequent application of EBHS. Enrolled subjects applied 5 mL of the product (62% denatured ethyl alcohol manufactured by Kimberley-Clark, Roswell, GA) to both hands and rubbed until dry. This activity was repeated 50 times over 4 hours. Participants had their blood drawn before as well as after completing the study. Each participant was without alcohol exposure during the 12 hours preceding the study. Five volunteers were enrolled. All had an initial blood ethanol level of less than 5 mg/dL. All 5 participants completed the 4-hour study. There were no noted adverse reactions during the study. Blood ethanol level upon completion of the 50 applications of EBHS was less than 5 mg/dL in all 5 study participants. The results of this study demonstrate that use of ethanol-based hand sanitizers, when frequently used in accordance with labeling, do not raise serum blood ethanol levels.

  6. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol - high; Lipid disorders; Hyperlipoproteinemia; Hyperlipidemia; Dyslipidemia; Hypercholesterolemia ... There are many types of cholesterol. The ones talked about most are: ... lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol -- often called "good" cholesterol ...

  7. High Blood Pressure and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is known as gestational hypertension, a form of secondary hypertension caused by the pregnancy that usually disappears after delivery. If the mother is not treated, high blood pressure can be dangerous to both the mother ...

  8. Psoriasis and high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihbegovic, Eldina Malkic; Hadzigrahic, Nermina; Suljagic, Edin; Kurtalic, Nermina; Sadic, Sena; Zejcirovic, Alema; Mujacic, Almina

    2015-02-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin ailment which can be connected with an increased occurrence of other illnesses, including high blood pressure. A prospective study has been conducted which included 70 patients affected by psoriasis, both genders, older than 18 years. Average age being 47,14 (SD= ±15,41) years, from that there were 36 men or 51,43 and 34 women or 48,57%. Average duration of psoriasis was 15,52 (SD=±12,54) years. Frequency of high blood pressure in those affected by psoriasis was 54,28%. Average age of the patients with psoriasis and high blood pressure was 53,79 year (SD=±14,15) and average duration of psoriasis was 17,19 years (SD=±13,51). Average values of PASI score were 16,65. Increase in values of PASI score and high blood pressure were statistically highly related (r=0,36, p=0,0001). Psoriasis was related to high blood pressure and there was a correlation between the severity of psoriasis and high blood pressure.

  9. The highly selective orexin/hypocretin 1 receptor antagonist GSK1059865 potently reduces ethanol drinking in ethanol dependent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Moorman, David E; Aston-Jones, Gary; Becker, Howard C

    2016-04-01

    The orexin/hypocretin (ORX) system plays a major role in motivation for natural and drug rewards. In particular, a number of studies have shown that ORX signaling through the orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) regulates alcohol seeking and consumption. Despite the association between ORX signaling and motivation for alcohol, no study to date has investigated what role the ORX system plays in alcohol dependence, an understanding of which would have significant clinical relevance. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the highly selective OX1R antagonist GSK1059865 on voluntary ethanol intake in ethanol-dependent and control non-dependent mice. Mice were subjected to a protocol in which they were evaluated for baseline ethanol intake and then exposed to intermittent ethanol or air exposure in inhalation chambers. Each cycle of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE), or air, exposure was followed by a test of ethanol intake. Once the expected effect of increased voluntary ethanol intake was obtained in ethanol dependent mice, mice were tested for the effect of GSK1059865 on ethanol and sucrose intake. Treatment with GSK1059865 significantly decreased ethanol drinking in a dose-dependent manner in CIE-exposed mice. In contrast GSK1059865 decreased drinking in air-exposed mice only at the highest dose used. There was no effect of GSK1059865 on sucrose intake. Thus, ORX signaling through the OX1R, using a highly-selective antagonist, has a profound influence on high levels of alcohol drinking induced in a dependence paradigm, but limited or no influence on moderate alcohol drinking or sucrose drinking. These results indicate that the ORX system may be an important target system for treating disorders of compulsive reward seeking such as alcoholism and other addictions in which motivation is strongly elevated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... excused. 86 million Americans have prediabetes. Take the test. Know where you stand. sticky en -- Chef Ronaldo's ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  12. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Parents / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... High Blood Pressure) Treated? Print What Is Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)? Blood pressure is the pressure of blood against ...

  13. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth / For Teens / When Blood ... often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ...

  15. High-pressure pyrolysis and oxidation of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob M.; Glarborg, Peter

    2018-01-01

    against the present data as well as ignition delay times and flame speed measurements from literature. The model predicted the onset of fuel conversion and the composition of products from the flow reactor experiments fairly well. It also predicted well ignition delays above 900 K whereas it overpredicted...... reported flame speeds slightly. The results of sensitivity analyses revealed the importance of the reaction between ethanol and the hydroperoxyl radical for ignition at high pressure and intermediate temperatures. An accurate determination of the rate coefficients for this reaction is important to improve......The pyrolysis and oxidation of ethanol has been investigated at temperatures of 600–900 K, a pressure of 50 bar and residence times of 4.3–6.8 s in a laminar flow reactor. The experiments, conducted with mixtures highly diluted in nitrogen, covered fuel-air equivalence ratios (Φ) of 0.1, 1.0, 43...

  16. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of high blood pressure? Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  17. African Americans and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? African Americans in the U.S. have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) than ...

  18. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Click here for the Color Version (PDF 533KB) High blood pressure is a serious illness. High blood pressure is ...

  19. Derived thermodynamic properties for the (ethanol + decane) and (carbon dioxide + ethanol + decane) systems at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora-López, Héctor S.; Galicia-Luna, Luis A.; Elizalde-Solis, Octavio; Hernández-Rosales, Irma P.; Méndez-Lango, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimental density data are reported for (ethanol + decane) and (ethanol + decane + CO 2 ) mixtures. ► Compressed liquid densities were measured in a vibrating tube densimeter from (313 to 363) K. ► Excess molar volumes for (ethanol + decane) mixtures are positive. ► The presence of carbon dioxide in the (ethanol + decane) mixture causes negative excess molar volumes. - Abstract: Volumetric properties for the binary (ethanol + decane) and ternary (ethanol + decane + carbon dioxide) systems are reported from (313 to 363) K and pressures up to 20 MPa. Compressed liquid densities of both systems were measured in a vibrating tube densimeter at different compositions. Binary mixtures {x 1 ethanol + (1-x 1 ) decane} were prepared at x 1 = 0.0937, 0.1011, 0.2507, 0.4963, 0.7526, 0.9014. Compositions for the ternary system were prepared by varying the ethanol/decane relation and trying to keep constant the presence of carbon dioxide at about 0.2 mole fraction. These were {x 1 ethanol + x 2 decane + (1-x 1 -x 2 ) carbon dioxide} x 1 = 0.0657, 0.1986, 0.4087, 0.6042, 0.7109. Density results were correlated using an empirical model with five parameters. Deviations between experimental and calculated values agree and are within the experimental uncertainty. Isobaric expansivity, isothermal compressibility, thermal pressure coefficient, and internal pressure have been calculated for both binary and ternary systems using the empirical model.

  20. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  1. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ...

  2. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  3. High-throughput detection of ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in a microdroplet platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalde-Cela, Sara; Gould, Anna; Liu, Xin; Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G; Abell, Chris

    2015-05-06

    Ethanol production by microorganisms is an important renewable energy source. Most processes involve fermentation of sugars from plant feedstock, but there is increasing interest in direct ethanol production by photosynthetic organisms. To facilitate this, a high-throughput screening technique for the detection of ethanol is required. Here, a method for the quantitative detection of ethanol in a microdroplet-based platform is described that can be used for screening cyanobacterial strains to identify those with the highest ethanol productivity levels. The detection of ethanol by enzymatic assay was optimized both in bulk and in microdroplets. In parallel, the encapsulation of engineered ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in microdroplets and their growth dynamics in microdroplet reservoirs were demonstrated. The combination of modular microdroplet operations including droplet generation for cyanobacteria encapsulation, droplet re-injection and pico-injection, and laser-induced fluorescence, were used to create this new platform to screen genetically engineered strains of cyanobacteria with different levels of ethanol production.

  4. Implications of Industrial Processing Strategy on Cellulosic Ethanol Production at High Solids Concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David

    The production of cellulosic ethanol is a biochemical process of not edible biomasses which contain the cellulose. The process involves the use of enzymes to hydrolyze the cellulose in fermentable sugars to finally produce ethanol via fermentative microorganisms (i.e. yeasts). These biomasses...... are the leftover of agricultural productions (straws), not edible crops (giant reed) or wood, thus the ethanol so produced is also called second generation (or 2G ethanol), which differs from the first generation produced from starch (sugar beets mostly). In the industrial production of cellulosic ethanol high...... solids strategy resulted critical for its cost effectiveness: high concentration of initial biomass it will lead to high concentration of the final product (ethanol), thus more convenient to isolate. This thesis investigate the implementation of a high solids loading concept into cellulosic ethanol...

  5. How do yeast cells become tolerant to high ethanol concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek, Tim; Verstrepen, Kevin J.; Voordeckers, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The brewer’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae displays a much higher ethanol tolerance compared to most other organisms, and it is therefore commonly used for the industrial production of bioethanol and alcoholic beverages. However, the genetic determinants underlying this yeast’s exceptional ethanol...... and challenges involved in obtaining superior industrial yeasts with improved ethanol tolerance....

  6. Ethanol Values During College Football Season: University Policy Change and Emergency Department Blood Ethanol Values From 2006 Through 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Fine, Amelia C; Harland, Karisa; House, Hans R; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2016-11-01

    Tailgating is popular at many college football games. However, it is known to contribute to binge drinking and alcohol intoxication, which are common public health challenges. To use laboratory data to measure changes in plasma ethanol levels observed in a large state university emergency department after a series of reforms were enacted to reduce binge drinking. We performed a retrospective chart review on all serum ethanol levels measured at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics on weekends from 2006 through 2014. Data were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression after controlling for significant covariates. A total of 5437 patients had ethanol levels recorded on weekends. After the implementation of policy changes, there was a significant reduction in the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of ethanol values reported in the severe intoxication range (≥240 mg/dL; AOR = 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-0.92). The policy changes implemented in 2009 in an attempt to reduce binge drinking are associated with a decreased likelihood of an ethanol result being in the severe intoxication range. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Ethanol-induced increase in portal blood flow: Role of acetate and A1- and A2-adenosine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, F.J.; Saldivia, V.; Varghese, G.A.; Israel, Y.; Orrego, H.

    1988-01-01

    The increase in portal blood flow induced by ethanol appears to be adenosine mediated. Acetate, which is released by the liver during ethanol metabolism, is known to increase adenosine levels in tissues and in blood. The effects of acetate on portal blood flow were investigated in rats using the microsphere technique. The intravenous infusion of acetate resulted in vasodilation of the preportal vasculature and in a dose-dependent increase in portal blood flow. This acetate-induced increase in portal blood flow was suppressed by the adenosine receptor blocker, 8-phenyltheophylline. Using the A 1 -adenosine receptor agonist N-6-cyclohexyl adenosine and the A 2 -agonist 5'-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine, we demonstrate that the effect of adenosine on the preportal vasculature is mediated by the A 2 -subtype of adenosine receptors. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the increase in portal blood flow after ethanol administration results from a preportal vasodilatory effect of adenosine formed from acetate metabolism in extrahepatic tissues

  8. Osmolality - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water loss Poisoning from harmful substances such as ethanol , methanol , or ethylene glycol Problems producing urine In ... may be due to: Diabetes insipidus High blood sugar level ( hyperglycemia ) High level of nitrogen waste products ...

  9. Characterization of an alcoholic hepatic steatosis model induced by ethanol and high-fat diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Alves de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic liver disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of liver damage, which increases when ethanol is associated with high-fat diets (HFD. This work aimed to establish a model of alcoholic hepatic steatosis (AHS by using a combination of 10% ethanol and sunflower seeds as the source of HFD. Male rats received water or 10% ethanol and regular chow diet and/or HFD, which consisted of sunflower seeds. The food consumption, liquid intake and body weight of the rats were monitored for 30 days. After this period, blood was collected for biochemical evaluation, and liver samples were collected for histological, mitochondrial enzyme activity and oxidative stress analyses. Our results indicated that the combination of 10% ethanol and HFD induced micro- and macrosteatosis and hepatocyte tumefaction, decreased the levels of reduced glutathione and glutathione S-transferase activity and increased the level of lipoperoxidation and superoxide dismutase activity. The mitochondrial oxidation of NADH and succinate were partially inhibited. Complexes I and II were the main inhibition sites. Hepatic steatosis was successfully induced after 4 weeks of the diet, and the liver function was modified. The combination of 10% ethanol and sunflower seeds as an HFD produced an inexpensive model to study AHS in rats.

  10. Increased expression of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr18 leads to increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production in high gravity alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Miguel C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The understanding of the molecular basis of yeast tolerance to ethanol may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic fermentations. A set of 21 genes encoding multidrug transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC Superfamily and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS in S. cerevisiae were scrutinized for a role in ethanol stress resistance. Results A yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter encoded by the PDR18 gene, proposed to play a role in the incorporation of ergosterol in the yeast plasma membrane, was found to confer resistance to growth inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 expression was seen to contribute to decreased 3 H-ethanol intracellular concentrations and decreased plasma membrane permeabilization of yeast cells challenged with inhibitory ethanol concentrations. Given the increased tolerance to ethanol of cells expressing PDR18, the final concentration of ethanol produced during high gravity alcoholic fermentation by yeast cells devoid of PDR18 was lower than the final ethanol concentration produced by the corresponding parental strain. Moreover, an engineered yeast strain in which the PDR18 promoter was replaced in the genome by the stronger PDR5 promoter, leading to increased PDR18 mRNA levels during alcoholic fermentation, was able to attain a 6 % higher ethanol concentration and a 17 % higher ethanol production yield than the parental strain. The improved fermentative performance of yeast cells over-expressing PDR18 was found to correlate with their increased ethanol tolerance and ability to restrain plasma membrane permeabilization induced throughout high gravity fermentation. Conclusions PDR18 gene over-expression increases yeast ethanol tolerance and fermentation performance leading to the production of highly inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 overexpression in industrial yeast strains appears to be a promising approach to

  11. What Is High Blood Pressure Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a medicine calendar. • Set a reminder on your smartphone. What types of medicine may be prescribed? One ... High Blood Pressure Medicine? What are their side effects? For many people, high blood pressure medicine can ...

  12. High blood pressure - medicine-related

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by using a chemical substance or medicine. ... of the arteries There are several types of high blood pressure : Essential hypertension has no cause that can be ...

  13. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  14. Highly ordered Pd nanowire arrays as effective electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation in direct alcohol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, C.W. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang, H. [Departement of Applied Chemistry, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan 523106 (China); Shen, P.K. [School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yet-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Jiang, S.P.

    2007-12-03

    Pd nanowire arrays (NWAs) with high electrochemically active surface area are successfully fabricated using anodized aluminum oxide electrodeposition. The electrocatalytic activity and stability of the Pd NWAs for ethanol electrooxidation are not only significantly higher that of conventional Pd film electrodes, but also higher than that of well-established commercial PtRu/C electrocatalysts. The Pd NWAs show great potential as electrocatalysts for ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline media in direct ethanol fuel cells. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Transmicrocatheter local injection of ethanol to treat hepatocellular carcinoma with high flow arteriovenous shunts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Shouhai; Shan Hong; Jiang Zaibo; Huang Mingsheng; Zhu Kangshun; Li Zhengran; Meng Xiaochun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical effect of embolization therapy in treating the high flow hepatic arteriovenous shunts in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by locally injected ethanol through microcatheter. Methods: Forty-one branches of arteriovenous shunts were treated by local ethanol infusion through microcatheter in 29 patients suffered with HCC. Angiography was performed to observe the embolization effect and influence to non-targeted vessels. Result: Forty-one branches of arteriovenous shunts in 29 patients were injected with ethanol locally. Each single shunt was infused 1-6 times. The dose of ethanol was 2-3 ml per time, and the total dose of ethanol was 2-12 ml. All shunting tracts were embolized, and all non-target vessels were protected fluently. Iodine-oil deposition was well in continued TACE. Their syndromes were improved or disappeared. Conclusion: Transmicrocatheter injection of ethanol could safely and effectively treat the hepatic arteriovenous shunts and make advantages to TACE in HCC

  16. A Shortcut to the Production of High Ethanol Concentration from Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Guo Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger SL-09, a newly isolated exoinulinase-hyperproducing strain, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Z-06, with high ethanol tolerance, were used in a fed-batch process for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber mash and flour. S. cerevisiae Z-06 utilized 98 % of the total sugar and produced 19.6 % of ethanol in 48 h. In this process the conversion efficiency of the fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke and the production of ethanol were 90 % of the theoretical ethanol yield and the cost of the production of flour was cut nearly into half.

  17. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  18. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  19. Very high gravity ethanol fermentation by flocculating yeast under redox potential-controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chen-Guang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very high gravity (VHG fermentation using medium in excess of 250 g/L sugars for more than 15% (v ethanol can save energy consumption, not only for ethanol distillation, but also for distillage treatment; however, stuck fermentation with prolonged fermentation time and more sugars unfermented is the biggest challenge. Controlling redox potential (ORP during VHG fermentation benefits biomass accumulation and improvement of yeast cell viability that is affected by osmotic pressure and ethanol inhibition, enhancing ethanol productivity and yield, the most important techno-economic aspect of fuel ethanol production. Results Batch fermentation was performed under different ORP conditions using the flocculating yeast and media containing glucose of 201 ± 3.1, 252 ± 2.9 and 298 ± 3.8 g/L. Compared with ethanol fermentation by non-flocculating yeast, different ORP profiles were observed with the flocculating yeast due to the morphological change associated with the flocculation of yeast cells. When ORP was controlled at −100 mV, ethanol fermentation with the high gravity (HG media containing glucose of 201 ± 3.1 and 252 ± 2.9 g/L was completed at 32 and 56 h, respectively, producing 93.0 ± 1.3 and 120.0 ± 1.8 g/L ethanol, correspondingly. In contrast, there were 24.0 ± 0.4 and 17.0 ± 0.3 g/L glucose remained unfermented without ORP control. As high as 131.0 ± 1.8 g/L ethanol was produced at 72 h when ORP was controlled at −150 mV for the VHG fermentation with medium containing 298 ± 3.8 g/L glucose, since yeast cell viability was improved more significantly. Conclusions No lag phase was observed during ethanol fermentation with the flocculating yeast, and the implementation of ORP control improved ethanol productivity and yield. When ORP was controlled at −150 mV, more reducing power was available for yeast cells to survive, which in turn improved their viability and VHG

  20. Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Kekos, Dimitris; Loizidou, Maria; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2014-01-08

    Environmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Household food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. In conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could lead to an increase of the overall

  1. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis).

  2. “Jello® Shots” and Cocktails as Ethanol Vehicles: Parametric Studies with High- and Low-Saccharin-Consuming Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy K. Dess

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Naïve humans and rats voluntarily consume little ethanol at concentrations above ~6% due to its aversive flavor. Developing procedures that boost intake of ethanol or ethanol-paired flavors facilitates research on neural mechanisms of ethanol-associated behaviors and helps identify variables that modulate ethanol intake outside of the lab. The present study explored the impact on consumption of ethanol and ethanol-paired flavors of nutritionally significant parametric variations: ethanol vehicle (gelatin or solution, with or without polycose; ethanol concentration (4% or 10%; and feeding status (chow deprived or ad lib. during flavor conditioning and flavor preference testing. Individual differences were modeled by testing rats of lines selectively bred for high (HiS or low (LoS saccharin intake. A previously reported preference for ethanol-paired flavors was replicated when ethanol had been drunk during conditioning. However, indifference or aversion to ethanol-paired flavors generally obtained when ethanol had been eaten in gelatin during conditioning, regardless of ethanol concentration, feeding status, or caloric value of the vehicle. Modest sex and line variations occurred. Engaging different behavioral systems when eating gelatin, rather than drinking solution, may account for these findings. Implications for parameter selection in future neurobiological research and for understanding conditions that influence ethanol intake outside of the lab are discussed.

  3. High-temperature ethanol production using thermotolerant yeast newly isolated from Greater Mekong Subregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiya Techaparin

    Full Text Available Abstract The application of high-potential thermotolerant yeasts is a key factor for successful ethanol production at high temperatures. Two hundred and thirty-four yeast isolates from Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS countries, i.e., Thailand, The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR and Vietnam were obtained. Five thermotolerant yeasts, designated Saccharomyces cerevisiae KKU-VN8, KKU-VN20, and KKU-VN27, Pichia kudriavzevii KKU-TH33 and P. kudriavzevii KKU-TH43, demonstrated high temperature and ethanol tolerance levels up to 45 °C and 13% (v/v, respectively. All five strains produced higher ethanol concentrations and exhibited greater productivities and yields than the industrial strain S. cerevisiae TISTR5606 during high-temperature fermentation at 40 °C and 43 °C. S. cerevisiae KKU-VN8 demonstrated the best performance for ethanol production from glucose at 37 °C with an ethanol concentration of 72.69 g/L, a productivity of 1.59 g/L/h and a theoretical ethanol yield of 86.27%. The optimal conditions for ethanol production of S. cerevisiae KKU-VN8 from sweet sorghum juice (SSJ at 40 °C were achieved using the Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD. The maximal ethanol concentration obtained during fermentation was 89.32 g/L, with a productivity of 2.48 g/L/h and a theoretical ethanol yield of 96.32%. Thus, the newly isolated thermotolerant S. cerevisiae KKU-VN8 exhibits a great potential for commercial-scale ethanol production in the future.

  4. Ethyl glucuronide in vitreous humor and blood postmortem specimens: analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and interpreting results of neo-formation of ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Vezzoli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG, a stable and sensitive marker that is specific to alcohol intake, finds many applications both in the forensic toxicology and clinical fields. Aim. The aim of the study is to examine the possibility of using a cadaveric biological matrix, vitreous humor (VH, to determine EtG as a marker of recent ethanol use. Methods. The blood, taken from the femoral vein, and the VH were obtained from 63 autopsy cases. Analysis of the EtG was performed using an LC/MS/MS system. Analyses of the ethanol and putrefaction biomarkers, such as acetaldehyde and n-propanol, were performed using the HS-GC/FID technique in both the matrices. Results. In 17 cases, both ethanol and EtG were absent in both matrices.Nineteen cases presented ethanol in blood from 0.05 to 0.30 g/L, EtG-Blood concentration from 0.02 to 3.27 mg/L, and EtG-VH concentration from 0.01 mg/L to 2.88 mg/L. Thirteen cases presented ethanol in blood > 0.05 g/L but EtG concentration in blood and VH lower than 0.01 mg/L, are part of these 8 samples presented acetic aldehyde and n- propanol in blood or VH, means identification of putrefaction indicators. Fourteen cases presented ethanol in blood > 0.46 and EtG concentration in blood and VH higher than 0.01 mg/L. Conclusions. The determination of EtG in biological material is important in those cases where the intake of ethanol appears doubtful, as it allows us to exclude the possibility of any post-mortem formation of ethanol.

  5. Effect of lawsonia innermis (linn) leaves ethanolic extract on blood glucose and malondialdehyde level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indah Sari, Mutiara; Ilyas, Syafruddin; Widyawati, Tri; Anjelir Antika, Maya

    2018-03-01

    The case of diabetes mellitus (DM) tends to increase worldwide. DM triggers the oxidative stress condition that caused by the increasing of free radical. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of giving ethanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis (Linn) leaves to the glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar male rats. The powder of dry leaves of L.inermis was macerated in ethanol 96% to obtain ethanolic extract (LLEE).Thirty five of rats were divided into five groups, ie. K (normal and given 0.9% NaCl solution ), P1-P4 were induced using alloxan (120 mg/kg) intraperitoneally to get diabetic condition. Diabetic rats then were treated as follows: P1 (given 0.9% NaCl solution) P2 (LLEE (200 mg/kg BW), P3 (LLEE (400 mg/kg BW)), P4 ( LLEE (600 mg/kg BW)). All groups were treated for 28 days. The fasting blood glucose levels were measured at day 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 whereas MDA levels were measured at the end of treatment. The result showed that LLEE improved blood glucose level (BGLs) of alloxan-induced diabetic rats significantly (p 0.5). The study concluded that LLEE have antihyperglycemic properties.

  6. Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 The importance of stress ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  7. Characteristics of an immobilized yeast cell system using very high gravity for the fermentation of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hairui; Yu, Jianliang; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2012-09-01

    The characteristics of ethanol production by immobilized yeast cells were investigated for both repeated batch fermentation and continuous fermentation. With an initial sugar concentration of 280 g/L during the repeated batch fermentation, more than 98% of total sugar was consumed in 65 h with an average ethanol concentration and ethanol yield of 130.12 g/L and 0.477 g ethanol/g consumed sugar, respectively. The immobilized yeast cell system was reliable for at least 10 batches and for a period of 28 days without accompanying the regeneration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inside the carriers. The multistage continuous fermentation was carried out in a five-stage column bioreactor with a total working volume of 3.75 L. The bioreactor was operated for 26 days at a dilution rate of 0.015 h(-1). The ethanol concentration of the effluent reached 130.77 g/L ethanol while an average 8.18 g/L residual sugar remained. Due to the high osmotic pressure and toxic ethanol, considerable yeast cells died without regeneration, especially in the last two stages, which led to the breakdown of the whole system of multistage continuous fermentation.

  8. The preparation and ethanol fermentation of high-concentration sugars from steam-explosion corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Fengqin; Yin, Shuangyao; Ren, Tianbao; Song, Andong

    2015-05-01

    In the field of biofuel ethanol, high-concentration- reducing sugars made from cellulosic materials lay the foundation for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. In this study, corn stover was pre-treated in a process combining chemical methods and steam explosion; the cellulosic hydrolyzed sugars obtained by fed-batch saccharification were then used as the carbon source for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1308, Angel yeast, and Issatchenkia orientalis were shake-cultured with Pachysolen tannophilus P-01 for fermentation. Results implied that the ethanol yields from the three types of mixed strains were 4.85 g/100 mL, 4.57 g/100 mL, and 5.02 g/100 mL (separately) at yield rates of 91.6, 89.3, and 92.2%, respectively. Therefore, it was inferred that shock-fermentation using mixed strains achieved a higher ethanol yield at a greater rate in a shorter fermentation period. This study provided a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the fermentation of industrial high-concentrated cellulosic ethanol.

  9. A novel non-invasive electrochemical biosensing device for in situ determination of the alcohol content in blood by monitoring ethanol in sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamella, M; Campuzano, S; Manso, J; González de Rivera, G; López-Colino, F; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2014-01-02

    A non-invasive, passive and simple to use skin surface based sensing device for determining the blood's ethanol content (BAC) by monitoring transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) is designed and developed. The proposed prototype is based on bienzyme amperometric composite biosensors that are sensitive to the variation of ethanol concentration. The prototype correlates, through previous calibration set-up, the amperometric signal generated from ethanol in sweat with its content in blood in a short period of time. The characteristics of this sensor device permit determination of the ethanol concentration in isolated and in continuous form, giving information of the BAC of a subject either in a given moment or its evolution during long periods of time (8h). Moreover, as the measurements are performed in a biological fluid, the evaluated individual is not able to alter the result of the analysis. The maximum limit of ethanol in blood allowed by legislation is included within the linear range of the device (0.0005-0.6 g L(-1)). Moreover, the device shows higher sensitivity than the breathalyzers marketed at the moment, allowing the monitoring of the ethanol content in blood to be obtained just 5 min after ingestion of the alcoholic drink. The comparison of the obtained results using the proposed device in the analysis of 40 volunteers with those provided by the gas chromatographic reference method for determination of BAC pointed out that there were no significant differences between both methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancement of ethanol production from green liquor-ethanol-pretreated sugarcane bagasse by glucose-xylose cofermentation at high solid loadings with mixed Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yanzhi; Li, Pengfei; Lei, Fuhou; Xing, Yang; Jiang, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Efficient cofermentation of glucose and xylose is necessary for economically feasible bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we demonstrate pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) with green liquor (GL) combined with ethanol (GL-Ethanol) by adding different GL amounts. The common Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CSC) and thermophilic S. cerevisiae (TSC) strains were used and different yeast cell mass ratios (CSC to TSC) were compared. The simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSF/SSCF) process was performed by 5-20% (w/v) dry substrate (DS) solid loadings to determine optimal conditions for the co-consumption of glucose and xylose. Compared to previous studies that tested fermentation of glucose using only the CSC, we obtained higher ethanol yield and concentration (92.80% and 23.22 g/L) with 1.5 mL GL/g-DS GL-Ethanol-pretreated SCB at 5% (w/v) solid loading and a CSC-to-TSC yeast cell mass ratio of 1:2 (w/w). Using 10% (w/v) solid loading under the same conditions, the ethanol concentration increased to 42.53 g/L but the ethanol yield decreased to 84.99%. In addition, an increase in the solid loading up to a certain point led to an increase in the ethanol concentration from 1.5 mL GL/g-DS-pretreated SCB. The highest ethanol concentration (68.24 g/L) was obtained with 15% (w/v) solid loading, using a CSC-to-TSC yeast cell mass ratio of 1:3 (w/w). GL-Ethanol pretreatment is a promising pretreatment method for improving both glucan and xylan conversion efficiencies of SCB. There was a competitive relationship between the two yeast strains, and the glucose and xylose utilization ability of the TSC was better than that of the CSC. Ethanol concentration was obviously increased at high solid loading, but the yield decreased as a result of an increase in the viscosity and inhibitor levels in the fermentation system. Finally, the SSCF of GL-Ethanol-pretreated SCB with mixed S. cerevisiae strains increased ethanol concentration and was an

  11. Performance enhancement of direct ethanol fuel cell using Nafion composites with high volume fraction of titania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, B. R.; Isidoro, R. A.; Santiago, E. I.; Fonseca, F. C.

    2014-12-01

    The present study reports on the performance enhancement of direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) at 130 °C with Nafion-titania composite electrolytes prepared by sol-gel technique and containing high volume fractions of the ceramic phase. It is found that for high volume fractions of titania (>10 vol%) the ethanol uptake of composites is largely reduced while the proton conductivity at high-temperatures is weakly dependent on the titania content. Such tradeoff between alcohol uptake and conductivity resulted in a boost of DEFC performance at high temperatures using Nafion-titania composites with high fraction of the inorganic phase.

  12. Different pituitary. beta. -endorphin and adrenal cortisol response to ethanol in individuals with high and low risk for future development of alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianoulakis, C.G.; Beliveau, D.; Angelogianni, P.; Meaney, M.; Thavundayil, J.; Tawar, V.; Dumas, M. (McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the activity of the adrenal gland and the pituitary {beta}-endorphin system in individuals from families with a 3 generation history of alcoholism, High Risk group, or from families without history of alcoholism, Low Risk group. On the day of testing, blood sample was taken at 9:00 a.m., then the subject drank a placebo drink or an ethanol solution. Additional blood samples were taken at 15, 45 and 120 minutes post-drink. Results indicated that individuals of the High Risk group had lower basal levels of {beta}-endorphin like immunoreactivity ({beta}-EPLIR) than individuals of the Low Risk group. The dose of 0.5 g ethanol/kg B.Wt. induced an induce an increase in the plasma content of {beta}-EPLIR of the High Risk group, but not of the Low Risk group. In the Low Risk group ethanol did not induce an increase above the 9:00 a.m. levels, however, it attenuated the {beta}-endorphin decrease overtime, observed following the placebo drink. Analysis of {beta}-endorphin-like peptides in the plasma of the High Risk group, with Sephadex G-75 chromatography indicated that the major component of the plasma {beta}-EPLIR was {beta}-lipotropin. Plasma cortisol levels, following ethanol intake, presented a small increase in the High Risk group but not in the Low Risk group.

  13. What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reduction Cholesterol What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides? Cholesterol travels to the body’s cells through the ... doctor about medicines that can help. What are triglycerides? Triglycerides are the most common type of fat ...

  14. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecologists f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ034 PREGNANCY Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy • What is ... is chronic hypertension during pregnancy managed? • What is preeclampsia? • When does preeclampsia occur? • What causes preeclampsia? • What ...

  15. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.

  16. Ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in Warsaw Alcohol High-Preferring (WHP) and Warsaw Alcohol Low-Preferring (WLP) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyr, Wanda; Wyszogrodzka, Edyta; Paterak, Justyna; Siwińska-Ziółkowska, Agnieszka; Małkowska, Anna; Polak, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The aversive action of the pharmacological properties of ethanol was studied in selectively bred Warsaw Alcohol High-Preferring (WHP) and Warsaw Alcohol Low-Preferring (WLP) rats. For this study, a conditioned-taste aversion test was used. Male WHP and WLP rats were submitted to daily 20-min sessions for 5 days, in which a saccharin solution (1.0 g/L) was available (pre-conditioning phase). Next, this drinking was paired with the injection of ethanol (0, 0.5, 1.0 g/kg), intraperitoneally [i.p.] immediately after removal of the saccharin bottle (conditioning phase). Afterward, the choice between the saccharin solution and water was extended for 18 subsequent days for 20-min daily sessions (post-conditioning phase). Both doses of ethanol did not produce an aversion to saccharin in WLP and WHP rats in the conditioning phase. However, injection of the 1.0 g/kg dose of ethanol produced an aversion in WLP rats that was detected by a decrease in saccharin intake at days 1, 3, 7, and 10 of the post-conditioning phase, with a decrease in saccharin preference for 16 days of the post-conditioning phase. Conditioned taste aversion, measured as a decrease in saccharin intake and saccharin preference, was only visible in WHP rats at day 1 and day 3 of the post-conditioning phase. This difference between WLP and WHP rats was apparent despite similar blood ethanol levels in both rat lines following injection of 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg of ethanol. These results may suggest differing levels of aversion to the post-ingestional effects of ethanol between WLP and WHP rats. These differing levels of aversion may contribute to the selected line difference in ethanol preference in WHP and WLP rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Retrograde Transvenous Ethanol Embolization of High-flow Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, Edwin van der; Baalen, Jary M. van; Pattynama, Peter M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical efficiency and complications in patients treated with retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow AVMs is a technique that can be used to treat AVMs with a dominant outflow vein whenever conventional interventional procedures have proved insufficient. Methods: This is a retrospective study of the clinical effectiveness and complications of retrograde embolization in five patients who had previously undergone multiple arterial embolization procedures without clinical success. Results: Clinical outcomes were good in all patients but were achieved at the cost of serious, although transient, complications in three patients. Conclusion: Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization is a highly effective therapy for high-flow AVMs. However, because of the high complication rate, it should be reserved as a last resort, to be used after conventional treatment options have failed.

  18. The effect of cynanchi wilfordii radix ethanol extracts upon irradiated rat's blood and organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Oh; Choi, Jun Hyeok; Shin, Ji Hye; Min, Byung In [Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Do Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The development of radioprotector is being actively conducted in order to reduce the damage from over radiation exposure at radiation accident or radiation therapy. So this study was confirmed for radiation protective effects using the Cynanchi wilfordii Radix that has been known to be effective for antioxidant activity, anti-cancer, immune enhancing effects. The method of this study was administered orally Cynanchi wilfordii Radix ethanol extracts to Sprague Dawley Rat(SD Rat) for 14 days once a day, while measuring changed blood cell, spleen index, liver and uterus tissue along the change in time of 1, 4, 7 and 21 days after X-ray beam of 7 Gy irradiation. As the result of the experiment, the experimental group's rats which are administered with Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix ethanol extracts showed a rapid recovery in white blood cell count(p < 0.05) and spleen index(p < 0.05). In addition, condensation of nuclei, cytoplasmic swelling, and inflammatory cell infiltration in experimental group's liver cell was decreased more than in irradiation group's component. Further, experimental group's Uterine gland decreased the apoptosis more than irradiation group's components did. It is expected that Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix extracts will be useful as a new radioprotector. With above in mind, this paper may provide appropriate implications with the field of emergency management such as radiation accident.

  19. Effects of ethanol and phenobarbital treatments on the pharmacokinetics of toluene in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, R S; Nakajima, T

    1992-01-01

    Rats were exposed to toluene at a wide range of concentrations from 50 to 4000 ppm for six hours, and the effects of ethanol and phenobarbital (PB) treatments on the pharmacokinetics of toluene metabolism were investigated. Ethanol treatment influenced toluene metabolism mainly at low exposure concentrations. Thus ethanol accelerated the clearance of toluene from blood only when the blood concentration of toluene was not high (less than 360 microM), and ethanol increased hippuric acid (HA) ex...

  20. Consolidated bioprocessing strategy for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by Kluyveromyces marxianus under high gravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W J; Chang, B L; Ren, J G; Liu, J P; Bai, F W; Li, Y Y

    2012-01-01

    Developing an innovative process for ethanol fermentation from Jerusalem artichoke tubers under very high gravity (VHG) conditions. A consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) strategy that integrated inulinase production, saccharification of inulin contained in Jerusalem artichoke tubers and ethanol production from sugars released from inulin by the enzyme was developed with the inulinase-producing yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus Y179 and fed-batch operation. The impact of inoculum age, aeration, the supplementation of pectinase and nutrients on the ethanol fermentation performance of the CBP system was studied. Although inulinase activities increased with the extension of the seed incubation time, its contribution to ethanol production was negligible because vigorously growing yeast cells harvested earlier carried out ethanol fermentation more efficiently. Thus, the overnight incubation that has been practised in ethanol production from starch-based feedstocks is recommended. Aeration facilitated the fermentation process, but compromised ethanol yield because of the negative Crabtree effect of the species, and increases the risk of contamination under industrial conditions. Therefore, nonaeration conditions are preferred for the CBP system. Pectinase supplementation reduced viscosity of the fermentation broth and improved ethanol production performance, particularly under high gravity conditions, but the enzyme cost should be carefully balanced. Medium optimization was performed, and ethanol concentration as high as 94·2 g l(-1) was achieved when 0·15 g l(-1) K(2) HPO(4) was supplemented, which presents a significant progress in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers. A CBP system using K. marxianus is suitable for efficient ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers under VHG conditions. Jerusalem artichoke tubers are an alternative to grain-based feedstocks for ethanol production. The high ethanol concentration achieved using K. marxianus with the

  1. Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David

    2014-01-01

    Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from...... of the ethanol production, but this can be compensated by reducing the impact of enzyme production and use, and by polyethylene glycol addition at high dry matter content. The results also show that the renewable and non-renewable energy use resulting from the different process configurations ultimately...

  2. Tunable catalytic properties of bi-functional mixed oxides in ethanol conversion to high value compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gray, Michel J.; Job, Heather M.; Smith, Colin D.; Wang, Yong

    2016-04-10

    tA highly versatile ethanol conversion process to selectively generate high value compounds is pre-sented here. By changing the reaction temperature, ethanol can be selectively converted to >C2alcohols/oxygenates or phenolic compounds over hydrotalcite derived bi-functional MgO–Al2O3cata-lyst via complex cascade mechanism. Reaction temperature plays a role in whether aldol condensationor the acetone formation is the path taken in changing the product composition. This article containsthe catalytic activity comparison between the mono-functional and physical mixture counterpart to thehydrotalcite derived mixed oxides and the detailed discussion on the reaction mechanisms.

  3. Sequential high gravity ethanol fermentation and anaerobic digestion of steam explosion and organosolv pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsimpouras, Constantinos; Zacharopoulou, Maria; Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul; Topakas, Evangelos

    2017-11-01

    The present work investigates the suitability of pretreated corn stover (CS) to serve as feedstock for high gravity (HG) ethanol production at solids-content of 24wt%. Steam explosion, with and without the addition of H 2 SO 4 , and organosolv pretreated CS samples underwent a liquefaction/saccharification step followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Maximum ethanol concentration of ca. 76g/L (78.3% ethanol yield) was obtained from steam exploded CS (SECS) with 0.2% H 2 SO 4 . Organosolv pretreated CS (OCS) also resulted in high ethanol concentration of ca. 65g/L (62.3% ethanol yield). Moreover, methane production through anaerobic digestion (AD) was conducted from fermentation residues and resulted in maximum methane yields of ca. 120 and 69mL/g volatile solids (VS) for SECS and OCS samples, respectively. The results indicated that the implementation of a liquefaction/saccharification step before SSF employing a liquefaction reactor seemed to handle HG conditions adequately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High activity of cubic PtRh alloys supported on graphene towards ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lu; Jiang, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Bin-Wei; Cai, Yuan-Rong; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2014-07-21

    Cubic PtRh alloys supported on graphene (PtxRhy/GN) with different atomic ratio of Pt and Rh were directly synthesized for the first time using the modified polyol method with Br(-) for the shape-directing agents. The process didn't use surface-capping agents such as PVP that easily occupy the active sites of electrocatalysts and are difficult to remove. Graphene is the key factor for cubic shape besides Br(-) and keeping catalysts high-dispersed. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of these electrocatalysts. The results showed that they were composed of homogeneous cubic PtRh alloys. Traditional electrochemical methods, such as cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, were used to investigate the electrocatalytic properties of PtxRhy/GN towards ethanol electrooxidation. It can be seen that PtxRhy/GN with all atomic ratios exhibited high catalytic activity, and the most active one has a composition with Pt : Rh = 9 : 1 atomic ratio. Electrochemical in situ FTIR spectroscopy was used to evaluate the cleavage of C-C bond in ethanol at room temperature in acidic solutions, the results illustrated that Rh in an alloy can promote the split of C-C bond in ethanol, and the alloy catalyst with atomic ratio Pt : Rh = 1 : 1 showed obviously better performance for the C-C bond breaking in ethanol and higher selectivity for the enhanced activity of ethanol complete oxidation to CO2 than alloys with other ratios of Pt and Rh. The investigation indicates that high activity of PtxRhy/GN electrocatalyst towards ethanol oxidation is due to the specific shape of alloys and the synergistic effect of two metal elements as well as graphene support.

  5. High postnatal susceptibility of hippocampal cytoskeleton in response to ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Karina Pires; Heimfarth, Luana; Pierozan, Paula; Ferreira, Fernanda; Loureiro, Samanta Oliveira; Fernandes, Carolina Gonçalves; Carvalho, Rônan Vivian; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2015-11-01

    Ethanol exposure to offspring during pregnancy and lactation leads to developmental disorders, including central nervous system dysfunction. In the present work, we have studied the effect of chronic ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on the phosphorylating system associated with the astrocytic and neuronal intermediate filament (IF) proteins: glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neurofilament (NF) subunits of low, medium, and high molecular weight (NFL, NFM, and NFH, respectively) in 9- and 21-day-old pups. Female rats were fed with 20% ethanol in their drinking water during pregnancy and lactation. The homeostasis of the IF phosphorylation was not altered in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, or hippocampus of 9-day-old pups. However, GFAP, NFL, and NFM were hyperphosphorylated in the hippocampus of 21-day-old pups. PKA had been activated in the hippocampus, and Ser55 in the N-terminal region of NFL was hyperphosphorylated. In addition, JNK/MAPK was activated and KSP repeats in the C-terminal region of NFM were hyperphosphorylated in the hippocampus of 21-day-old pups. Decreased NFH immunocontent but an unaltered total NFH/phosphoNFH ratio suggested altered stoichiometry of NFs in the hippocampus of ethanol-exposed 21-day-old pups. In contrast to the high susceptibility of hippocampal cytoskeleton in developing rats, the homeostasis of the cytoskeleton of ethanol-fed adult females was not altered. Disruption of the cytoskeletal homeostasis in neural cells supports the view that regions of the brain are differentially vulnerable to alcohol insult during pregnancy and lactation, suggesting that modulation of JNK/MAPK and PKA signaling cascades target the hippocampal cytoskeleton in a window of vulnerability in 21-day-old pups. Our findings are relevant, since disruption of the cytoskeleton in immature hippocampus could contribute to later hippocampal damage associated with ethanol toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of different SSF conditions on ethanol production from corn stover at high solids loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne; Bondesson, Pia-Maria; Galbe, Mats

    2015-01-01

    In this study, three different kinds of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of washed pretreated corn stover with water-insoluble solids (WIS) content of 20% were investigated to find which one resulted in highest ethanol yield at high-solids loadings. The different methods were...

  7. Rapid and highly efficient growth of graphene on copper by chemical vapor deposition of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisi, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.lisi@enea.it [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Surface Technology Laboratory, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Buonocore, Francesco; Dikonimos, Theodoros; Leoni, Enrico [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Surface Technology Laboratory, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Faggio, Giuliana; Messina, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell' Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Morandi, Vittorio; Ortolani, Luca [CNR-IMM Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Capasso, Andrea [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Surface Technology Laboratory, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)

    2014-11-28

    The growth of graphene by chemical vapor deposition on metal foils is a promising technique to deliver large-area films with high electron mobility. Nowadays, the chemical vapor deposition of hydrocarbons on copper is the most investigated synthesis method, although many other carbon precursors and metal substrates are used too. Among these, ethanol is a safe and inexpensive precursor that seems to offer favorable synthesis kinetics. We explored the growth of graphene on copper from ethanol, focusing on processes of short duration (up to one min). We investigated the produced films by electron microscopy, Raman and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. A graphene film with high crystalline quality was found to cover the entire copper catalyst substrate in just 20 s, making ethanol appear as a more efficient carbon feedstock than methane and other commonly used precursors. - Highlights: • Graphene films were grown by fast chemical vapor deposition of ethanol on copper. • High-temperature/short-time growth produced highly crystalline graphene. • The copper substrate was entirely covered by a graphene film in just 20 s. • Addition of H{sub 2} had a negligible effect on the crystalline quality.

  8. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  9. High Level Ethanol Production by Nitrogen and Osmoprotectant Supplementation under Very High Gravity Fermentation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachaya Chan-u-tit

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of nutrient supplements i.e., yeast extract (1, 3 and 5 g·L−1, dried spent yeast (DSY: 4, 12 and 20 g·L−1 and osmoprotectant (glycine: 1, 3 and 5 g·L−1 to improve the efficiency of ethanol production from a synthetic medium under very high gravity (VHG fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP 01 was performed using a statistical method, an L9 (34 orthogonal array design. The synthetic medium contained 280 g·L−1 of sucrose as a sole carbon source. When the fermentation was carried out at 30 °C, the ethanol concentration (P, yield (Yp/s and productivity (Qp without supplementation were 95.3 g·L−1, 0.49 g·g−1 and 1.70 g·L−1·h−1, respectively. According to the orthogonal results, the order of influence on the P and Qp values were yeast extract > glycine > DSY, and the optimum nutrient concentrations were yeast extract, 3; DSY, 4 and glycine, 5 g·L−1, respectively. The verification experiment using these parameters found that the P, Yp/s and Qp values were 119.9 g·L−1, 0.49 g g−1 and 2.14 g·L−1·h−1, respectively. These values were not different from those of the synthetic medium supplemented with 9 g·L−1 of yeast extract, indicating that DSY could be used to replace some amount of yeast extract. When sweet sorghum juice cv. KKU40 containing 280 g·L−1 of total sugar supplemented with the three nutrients at the optimum concentrations was used as the ethanol production medium, the P value (120.0 g·L−1 was not changed, but the Qp value was increased to 2.50 g·L−1·h−1.

  10. Stress and High Blood Pressure: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress and high blood pressure: What's the connection? Stress and long-term high blood pressure may not be linked, but taking steps to reduce your stress can improve your general health, including your blood ...

  11. High Titer Ethanol and Lignosulfonate Production from SPORL Pretreated Poplar at Pilot Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Haifeng [Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Energy and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States); Zhu, J. Y., E-mail: jzhu@fs.fed.us; Gleisner, Roland [Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States); Qiu, Xueqing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Horn, Eric [BioPulping International, Inc., Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-04-27

    Poplar NE222 (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh × P. nigra L.) wood chips were pretreated in a 390 L pilot-scale rotating wood-pulping digester using a dilute sulfite solution of approximately pH 1.8 at 160°C for 40 min for bioconversion to ethanol and lignosulfonate (LS). An estimated combined hydrolysis factor (CHF) of 3.3 was used to scale the sulfite pretreatment temperature and time from laboratory bench scale experiments, which balanced sugar yield and inhibitor formation to facilitate high titer ethanol production through fermentation using S. cerevisiae YRH400 without detoxification. A terminal ethanol titer of 43.6 g L{sup -1} with a yield of 247 L tonne wood{sup -1} was achieved at total solids loading of 20%. The relatively low ethanol yield compared with yield from Sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL)-pretreated softwoods was due to inefficient utilization of xylose. The LS from SPORL has a substantially higher phenolic group (Ph-OH) content, though it was less sulfonated and had a lower molecular weight than a purified commercial softwood LS, and therefore has potential for certain commercial markets and future novel applications through further processing. The conversion efficiency achieved through process integration and simplification, demonstrated here, has significant importance to the entire supply chain of biofuel production from woody biomass.

  12. High titer ethanol and lignosulfonate production from SPORL pretreated poplar at pilot-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyong (J.Y. eZhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poplar NE222 (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh × P. nigra L. wood chips were pretreated in a 390 L pilot-scale rotating wood-pulping digester using a dilute sulfite solution of approximately pH  1.8 at 160°C for 40 min for bioconversion to ethanol and lignosulfonate (LS. An estimated combined hydrolysis factor (CHF of 3.3 was used to scale the pretreatment temperature and time from laboratory bench scale experiments, which balanced sugar yield and inhibitor formation to facilitate high titer ethanol production through fermentation using S. cerevisiae YRH400 without detoxification. A terminal ethanol titer of 43.6 g L-1 with a yield of 247 L tonne wood-1 was achieved at total solids loading of 20%. The relatively low ethanol yield compared with yield from SPORL-pretreated softwoods was due to inefficient utilization of xylose. The LS from SPORL has a substantially higher phenolic group (Ph-OH content although it is less sulfonated and has a lower molecular weight than a purified commercial softwood LS, and therefore has potential for certain commercial markets and future novel applications through further processing.

  13. Simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation at high corn stover solids loading in a helical stirring bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Chu, Deqiang; Huang, Juan; Yu, Zhanchun; Dai, Gance; Bao, Jie

    2010-03-01

    The higher ethanol titer inevitably requires higher solids loading during the simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as the feedstock. The mixing between the solid lignocellulose and the liquid enzyme is crucially important. In this study, a bioreactor with a novel helical impeller was designed and applied to the SSF operation of the steam explosion pretreated corn stover under different solids loadings and different enzyme dosages. The performances using the helical impeller and the common Rushton impeller were compared and analyzed by measuring rheological properties and the mixing energy consumption. The results showed that the new designed stirring system had better performances in the saccharification yield, ethanol titer, and energy cost than those of the Rushton impeller stirring. The mixing energy consumption under different solids loadings and enzyme dosages during SSF operation were analyzed and compared to the thermal energy in the ethanol produced. A balance for achieving the optimal energy cost between the increased mixing energy cost and the reduced distillation energy cost at the high solids loading should be made. The potentials of the new bioreactor were tested under various SSF conditions for obtaining optimal ethanol yield and titer. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Phase behaviour measurements for the system (carbon dioxide + biodiesel + ethanol) at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, Odilon A.S.; Silva, Fabiano R.; Ramos, Luiz P.; Lenzi, Marcelo K.; Ndiaye, Papa M.; Corazza, Marcos L.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Comparison between ethyl and methyl esters in a pressure-composition of {CO 2 (1) + biodiesel(2)} at 303.15 K (triangles), 323.15 K (squares) and 343.15 K (circles). Open symbols are ethyl biodiesel (this work) and closed symbols are methyl biodiesel data by Pinto et al. Highlights: ► We measured phase behaviour for the system involving {CO 2 + biodiesel + ethanol}. ► The saturation pressures were obtained using a variable-volume view cell. ► The experimental data were modelled using PR-vdW2 and PR-WS equations of state. - Abstract: This work reports phase equilibrium measurements for binary system {CO 2 (1) + biodiesel(2)} and ternary system {CO 2 (1) + biodiesel(2) + ethanol(3)}. The biodiesel (ethyl esters) used in this work was produced from soybean oil, purified and characterised following the standard specification for subsequent use. Nowadays, great interest in biodiesel production processes at supercritical and/or pressurised solvents is observed, such as, non-catalytic supercritical biodiesel production and enzyme-catalyzed biodiesel production, besides the supercritical CO 2 can be an interesting alternative to glycerol separation in the biodiesel purification step. Towards this, the main goal of this work is to study the phase behaviour at high pressure for the binary and ternary systems involving CO 2 , biodiesel and ethanol. Experiments were carried out in a high pressure variable-volume view cell with operating temperatures ranging from (303.15 to 343.15) K and pressures up to 25 MPa. The CO 2 molar fraction ranged from 0.4213 to 0.9855 for the system {CO 2 (1) + biodiesel(2)}, 0.4263 to 0.9781 for the system {CO 2 (1) + biodiesel(2) + ethanol(3)} with a biodiesel to ethanol molar ratio of (1:3), and 0.4317 to 0.9787 for the system {CO 2 (1) + biodiesel(2) + ethanol(3)} with a biodiesel to ethanol molar ratio of (1:8). For the systems investigated, vapour–liquid (VL), liquid–liquid (LL) and vapour–liquid–liquid (VLL

  15. Development of High-Productivity Continuous Ethanol Production using PVA-Immobilized Zymomonas mobilis in an Immobilized-Cells Fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol as one of renewable energy was being considered an excellent alternative clean-burning fuel to replace gasoline. Continuous ethanol fermentation systems had offered important economic advantages compared to traditional systems. Fermentation rates were significantly improved, especially when continuous fermentation was integrated with cell immobilization techniques to enrich the cells concentration in fermentor. Growing cells of Zymomonas mobilis immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA gel beads were employed in an immobilized-cells fermentor for continuous ethanol fermentation from glucose. The glucose loading, dilution rate, and cells loading were varied in order to determine which best condition employed in obtaining both high ethanol production and low residual glucose with high dilution rate. In this study, 20 g/L, 100 g/L, 125 g/L and 150 g/L of glucose concentration and 20% (w/v, 40% (w/v and 50% (w/v of cells loading were employed with range of dilution rate at 0.25 to 1 h-1. The most stable production was obtained for 25 days by employing 100 g/L of glucose loading. Meanwhile, the results also exhibited that 125 g/L of glucose loading as well as 40% (w/v of cells loading yielded high ethanol concentration, high ethanol productivity, and acceptable residual glucose at 62.97 g/L, 15.74 g/L/h and 0.16 g/L, respectively. Furthermore, the dilution rate of 4 hour with 100 g/L and 40% (w/v of glucose and cells loading was considered as the optimum condition with ethanol production, ethanol productivity and residual glucose obtained were 49.89 g/L, 12.47 g/L/h, and 2.04 g/L, respectively. This recent study investigated ethanol inhibition as well. The present research had proved that high sugar concentration was successfully converted to ethanol. These achieved results were promising for further study.

  16. Ru-assisted synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites with high activity for ethanol electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Bin, Duan; Yang, Beibei; Wang, Caiqin; Ren, Fangfang; Du, Yukou

    2015-07-01

    Due to the specific physical and chemical properties of a highly branched noble metal, the controllable synthesis has attracted much attention. This article reports the synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites by a facile method using an oil bath in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, potassium bromide and ascorbic acid. The morphology, structure, and composition of the as-prepared catalysts were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the electrochemical measurement, the as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 bimetallic nanodendrites provide a large electrochemically active surface area and exhibit high peak current density in the forward scan toward ethanol electrooxidation, which is nearly four times higher than those of a pure Pd catalyst. The as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 catalysts also exhibit significantly enhanced cycling stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium, which are mainly ascribed to the synergetic effect between Pd and Ru. This indicates that the Pd7/Ru1 catalysts should have great potential applications in direct ethanol fuel cells.Due to the specific physical and chemical properties of a highly branched noble metal, the controllable synthesis has attracted much attention. This article reports the synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites by a facile method using an oil bath in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, potassium bromide and ascorbic acid. The morphology, structure, and composition of the as-prepared catalysts were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the electrochemical measurement, the as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 bimetallic nanodendrites provide a large electrochemically active surface area and exhibit high peak current density in the forward scan toward ethanol electrooxidation, which is nearly four times higher than those of a pure Pd catalyst. The as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 catalysts also exhibit significantly

  17. HIGH ALTITUDES EFFECTS ON HEMATOLOGIC BLOOD PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasim Rushiti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The approach and the objective of this experiment are consistent with the determination of changes of blood parameters after the stay of the students at an altitude of 1800-2300 meters, for a ten-day long ski course. In this paper are included a total of 64 students of the Faculty of Sport Sciences in Prishtina, of the age group of 19-25 (the average age is 21. All students previously have undergone a medical check for TA, arterial pulse and respiratory rate. In particular, the health situation is of subjects was examined, then, all students, at the same time, gave blood for analysis. In this experiment, three main hematologic parameters were taken in consideration: such as hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells. The same analyses were carried out after the 10-day stay at a high altitude. The results of the experiment have shown significant changes after the ten-day stay at high altitude, despite the previous results that show changes only after the twenty-day stay in such elevations.

  18. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  19. Summary of High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, Timothy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Alleman, Teresa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fioroni, Gina [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Huff, Shean P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kass, Michael D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leiby, Paul Newsome [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio Uria [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McCormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oladosu, Gbadebo A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Szybist, James P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thomas, John F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); West, Brian H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of light-duty vehicles are pursuing a broad portfolio of technologies to reduce CO2 emissions and improve fuel economy. Central to this effort is higher efficiency spark ignition (SI) engines, including technologies reliant on higher compression ratios and fuels with improved anti-knock properties, such as gasoline with significantly increased octane numbers. Ethanol has an inherently high octane number and would be an ideal octane booster for lower-octane petroleum blendstocks. In fact, recently published data from Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories (Splitter and Szybist, 2014a, 2014b; Szybist, 2010; Szybist and West, 2013) and OEMs (Anderson, 2013) and discussions with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggest the potential of a new high octane fuel (HOF) with 25–40 vol % of ethanol to assist in reaching Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions goals. This mid-level ethanol content fuel, with a research octane number (RON) of about 100, appears to enable efficiency improvements in a suitably calibrated and designed engine/vehicle system that are sufficient to offset its lower energy density (Jung, 2013; Thomas, et al, 2015). This efficiency improvement would offset the tank mileage (range) loss typically seen for ethanol blends in conventional gasoline and flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). The prospects for such a fuel are additionally attractive because it can be used legally in over 18 million FFVs currently on the road. Thus the legacy FFV fleet can serve as a bridge by providing a market for the new fuel immediately, so that future vehicles will have improved efficiency as the new fuel becomes widespread. In this way, HOF can simultaneously help improve fuel economy while expanding the ethanol market in the United States via a growing market for an ethanol blend higher than E10. The DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office initiated a collaborative research program

  20. Design of highly selective ethanol dehydration nanocatalysts for ethylene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Natalie; Kostetskyy, Pavlo; Mpourmpakis, Giannis

    2018-02-22

    Rational design of catalysts for selective conversion of alcohols to olefins is key since product selectivity remains an issue due to competing etherification reactions. Using first principles calculations and chemical rules, we designed novel metal-oxide-protected metal nanoclusters (M 13 X 4 O 12 , with M = Cu, Ag, and Au and X = Al, Ga, and In) exhibiting strong Lewis acid sites on their surface, active for the selective formation of olefins from alcohols. These symmetrical nanocatalysts, due to their curvature, show unfavorable etherification chemistries, while favoring the olefin production. Furthermore, we determined that water removal and regeneration of the nanocatalysts is more feasible compared to the equivalent strong acid sites on solid acids used for alcohol dehydration. Our results demonstrate an exceptional stability of these new nanostructures with the most energetically favorable being Cu-based. Thus, the high selectivity and stability of these in-silico-predicted novel nanoclusters (e.g. Cu 13 Al 4 O 12 ) make them attractive catalysts for the selective dehydration of alcohols to olefins.

  1. Ethanol fermentation from molasses at high temperature by thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 and energy assessment for recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Diptarka; Ghosh, Prasenjit; Ghosh, Debashish; Suman, Sunil Kumar; Khan, Rashmi; Agrawal, Deepti; Adhikari, Dilip K

    2014-10-01

    High temperature ethanol fermentation from sugarcane molasses B using thermophilic Crabtree-positive yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 was carried out in batch bioreactor system. Strain was found to have a maximum specific ethanol productivity of 0.688 g/g/h with 92 % theoretical ethanol yield. Aeration and initial sugar concentration were tuning parameters to regulate metabolic pathways of the strain for either cell mass or higher ethanol production during growth with an optimum sugar to cell ratio 33:1 requisite for fermentation. An assessment of ethanol recovery from fermentation broth via simulation study illustrated that distillation-based conventional recovery was significantly better in terms of energy efficiency and overall mass recovery in comparison to coupled solvent extraction-azeotropic distillation technique for the same.

  2. Porous bimetallic PdNi catalyst with high electrocatalytic activity for ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yue; Bin, Duan; Yan, Bo; Du, Yukou; Majima, Tetsuro; Zhou, Weiqiang

    2017-05-01

    Porous bimetallic PdNi catalysts were fabricated by a novel method, namely, reduction of Pd and Ni oxides prepared via calcining the complex chelate of PdNi-dimethylglyoxime (PdNi-dmg). The morphology and composition of the as-prepared PdNi were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of PdNi catalysts towards ethanol electrooxidation were also studied by electrochemical impedance spectrometry (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) measurement. In comparison with porous Pd and commercial Pd/C catalysts, porous structural PdNi catalysts showed higher electrocatalytic activity and durability for ethanol electrooxidation, which may be ascribed to Pd and Ni property, large electroactive surface area and high electron transfer property. The Ni exist in the catalyst in the form of the nickel hydroxides (Ni(OH) 2 and NiOOH) which have a high electron and proton conductivity enhances the catalytic activity of the catalysts. All results highlight the great potential application of the calcination-reduction method for synthesizing high active porous PdNi catalysts in direct ethanol fuel cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbon supported ultrafine gold phosphorus nanoparticles as highly efficient electrocatalyst for alkaline ethanol oxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tongfei; Fu, Gengtao; Su, Jiahui; Wang, Yi; Lv, Yinjie; Zou, Xiuyong; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Xu, Lin; Sun, Dongmei; Tang, Yawen

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We develop a new kind of carbon supported gold-phosphorus (Au-P/C) electrocatalyst by a facile and novel phosphorus reduction method, and demonstrate the Au-P/C is a highly active and stable electrocatalyst for the ethanol oxidation reaction. - Highlights: • Au-P/C catalyst is synthesized by a facile and novel white-phosphorus reduce method. • AuP particles with ultrafine particle-size are uniformly dispersed on carbon support. • Au-P/C catalyst exhibits much higher content of P 0 than reported metal/P catalysts. • Au-P/C catalysts show excellent catalytic properties for ethanol oxidation reaction. - Abstract: Herein, we develop a new kind of carbon supported gold-phosphorus (Au-P/C) electrocatalyst for the alkaline ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). The Au-P/C catalysts with different Au/P ratio (i.e., AuP/C, Au 3 P 2 /C and Au 4 P 3 /C) can be obtained by a facile and novel hot-reflux method with white phosphorus (P 4 ) as reductant and ethanol as solvent. The crystal structure, composition and particle-size of the Au-P/C catalysts are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), etc. The results demonstrate that Au-P/C catalysts present an alloy phase with the high content of P, ultrafine particle-size and high dispersity on carbon support, which results in excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability towards the EOR compared with that of the free-phosphorus Au/C catalyst. In addition, among the various Au-P/C catalysts with different Au/P ratio, the AuP/C sample exhibits the best electrocatalytic performance in comparison with other Au 3 P 2 /C and Au 4 P 3 /C samples.

  4. Production of inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood monocytes in chronic alcoholism: relationship with ethanol intake and liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laso, Francisco Javier; Vaquero, José Miguel; Almeida, Julia; Marcos, Miguel; Orfao, Alberto

    2007-09-01

    Controversial results have been reported about the effects of alcoholism on the functionality of monocytes. In the present study we analyze the effects of chronic alcoholism on the intracellular production of inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood (PB) monocytes. Spontaneous and in vitro-stimulated production of interleukin (IL) 1alpha (TNFalpha) by PB monocytes was analyzed at the single level by flow cytometry in chronic alcoholics without liver disease and active ethanol (EtOH) intake (AWLD group), as well as in patients with alcohol liver cirrhosis (ALC group), who were either actively drinking (ALCET group) or with alcohol withdrawal (ALCAW group). A significantly increased spontaneous production of IL1beta, IL6, IL12, and TNFalpha was observed on PB monocytes among AWLD individuals. Conversely, circulating monocytes form ALCET patients showed an abnormally low spontaneous and stimulated production of inflammatory cytokines. No significant changes were observed in ALCAW group as regards production of IL1beta, IL6, IL12, and TNFalpha. Our results show an altered pattern of production of inflammatory cytokines in PB monocytes from chronic alcoholic patients, the exact abnormalities observed depending on both the status of EtOH intake and the existence of alcoholic liver disease. Copyright 2007 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  5. Direct ethanol production from cellulosic materials at high temperature using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus displaying cellulolytic enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanase, Shuhei; Yamada, Ryosuke; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Hideki [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Organization of Advanced Science and Technology

    2010-09-15

    To exploit cellulosic materials for fuel ethanol production, a microorganism capable of high temperature and simultaneous saccharification-fermentation has been required. However, a major drawback is the optimum temperature for the saccharification and fermentation. Most ethanol-fermenting microbes have an optimum temperature for ethanol fermentation ranging between 28 C and 37 C, while the activity of cellulolytic enzymes is highest at around 50 C and significantly decreases with a decrease in temperature. Therefore, in the present study, a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus, which has high growth and fermentation at elevated temperatures, was used as a producer of ethanol from cellulose. The strain was genetically engineered to display Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase and Aspergillus aculeatus {beta}-glucosidase on the cell surface, which successfully converts a cellulosic {beta}-glucan to ethanol directly at 48 C with a yield of 4.24 g/l from 10 g/l within 12 h. The yield (in grams of ethanol produced per gram of {beta}-glucan consumed) was 0.47 g/g, which corresponds to 92.2% of the theoretical yield. This indicates that high-temperature cellulose fermentation to ethanol can be efficiently accomplished using a recombinant K. marxianus strain displaying thermostable cellulolytic enzymes on the cell surface. (orig.)

  6. Insights from the Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Point to High Affinity Glucose Transporters as Targets for Enhancing Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S.; Nugent, Brian; Mullins, Ewen; Doohan, Fiona M.

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is the most-widely used biofuel in the world today. Lignocellulosic plant biomass derived from agricultural residue can be converted to ethanol via microbial bioprocessing. Fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum can simultaneously saccharify straw to sugars and ferment sugars to ethanol. But there are many bottlenecks that need to be overcome to increase the efficacy of microbial production of ethanol from straw, not least enhancement of the rate of fermentation of both hexose and pentose sugars. This research tested the hypothesis that the rate of sugar uptake by F. oxysporum would enhance the ethanol yields from lignocellulosic straw and that high affinity glucose transporters can enhance ethanol yields from this substrate. We characterized a novel hexose transporter (Hxt) from this fungus. The F. oxysporum Hxt represents a novel transporter with homology to yeast glucose signaling/transporter proteins Rgt2 and Snf3, but it lacks their C-terminal domain which is necessary for glucose signalling. Its expression level decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium and in a glucose uptake study the Km(glucose) was 0.9 mM, which indicated that the protein is a high affinity glucose transporter. Post-translational gene silencing or over expression of the Hxt in F. oxysporum directly affected the glucose and xylose transport capacity and ethanol yielded by F. oxysporum from straw, glucose and xylose. Thus we conclude that this Hxt has the capacity to transport both C5 and C6 sugars and to enhance ethanol yields from lignocellulosic material. This study has confirmed that high affinity glucose transporters are ideal candidates for improving ethanol yields from lignocellulose because their activity and level of expression is high in low glucose concentrations, which is very common during the process of consolidated processing. PMID:23382943

  7. Insights from the fungus Fusarium oxysporum point to high affinity glucose transporters as targets for enhancing ethanol production from lignocellulose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin S Ali

    Full Text Available Ethanol is the most-widely used biofuel in the world today. Lignocellulosic plant biomass derived from agricultural residue can be converted to ethanol via microbial bioprocessing. Fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum can simultaneously saccharify straw to sugars and ferment sugars to ethanol. But there are many bottlenecks that need to be overcome to increase the efficacy of microbial production of ethanol from straw, not least enhancement of the rate of fermentation of both hexose and pentose sugars. This research tested the hypothesis that the rate of sugar uptake by F. oxysporum would enhance the ethanol yields from lignocellulosic straw and that high affinity glucose transporters can enhance ethanol yields from this substrate. We characterized a novel hexose transporter (Hxt from this fungus. The F. oxysporum Hxt represents a novel transporter with homology to yeast glucose signaling/transporter proteins Rgt2 and Snf3, but it lacks their C-terminal domain which is necessary for glucose signalling. Its expression level decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium and in a glucose uptake study the Km((glucose was 0.9 mM, which indicated that the protein is a high affinity glucose transporter. Post-translational gene silencing or over expression of the Hxt in F. oxysporum directly affected the glucose and xylose transport capacity and ethanol yielded by F. oxysporum from straw, glucose and xylose. Thus we conclude that this Hxt has the capacity to transport both C5 and C6 sugars and to enhance ethanol yields from lignocellulosic material. This study has confirmed that high affinity glucose transporters are ideal candidates for improving ethanol yields from lignocellulose because their activity and level of expression is high in low glucose concentrations, which is very common during the process of consolidated processing.

  8. Effect of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B and -7 polymorphisms on blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in healthy subjects with a history of moderate alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Roberta; Iuliano, Luigi; Vecchioni, Alessia; Arzani, Dario; Milic, Mirta; Annunziata, Francesca; Zerbinati, Chiara; Capoluongo, Ettore; Bonassi, Stefano; McKay, James D; Boccia, Stefania

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes on blood acetaldehyde and ethanol levels after alcohol ingestion, and to measure the genotoxic effect of smoking and ethanol on the buccal cells, also controlling for ADH variants. We recruited healthy Italian subjects with at least a moderate history of alcohol consumption. All subjects were given an alcoholic drink of 0.4 g ethanol /kg of body weight. Blood venous samples were collected at baseline, and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ingestion. Buccal cells were collected before ethanol ingestion. Sixty subjects were enrolled in the study. Individuals with the ADH1B GG genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0mM (IQR 3.4-7.2), and those with the ADH1B GT/TT genotype had 4.7mM (IQR 4.2-4.8). Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH1B GG genotype and 1.6μM (IQR 1.5-1.7) for ADH1B CG/GG genotype. Individuals with the ADH7 CC genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0mM (IQR 3.3-7.2), while 5.0mM (IQR 4.7-5.6) was in those with the ADH7 CG/GG genotype. Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5 μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH7 CC genotype and 1.5 μM (IQR 1.4-1.6) for ADH7 CG/GG genotypes. A non-significant increase in the frequency of karyolitic and pyknotic cells was found in the group of heavy drinkers and current smokers, when compared to the moderate drinkers and the non-smokers. Our study does not support the hypothesis that ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes affect blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Characterization of very high gravity ethanol fermentation of corn mash. Effect of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devantier, R. [Starch, Applied Discovery, Research and Development, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, S. [Starch, Applied Discovery, Research and Development, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Olsson, L. [Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-09-01

    Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics such as the ethanol yield and volumetric and specific productivity were determined. It was shown that higher glucoamylase doses and/or pre-saccharification accelerated the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process and increased the final ethanol concentration from 106 to 126 g/kg although the maximal specific growth rate was decreased. Ethanol production was not only growth related, as more than half of the total saccharides were consumed and more than half of the ethanol was produced during the stationary phase. Furthermore, a high stress tolerance of the applied yeast strain was found to be crucial for the outcome of the fermentation process, both with regard to residual saccharides and final ethanol concentration. The increased formation of cell mass when a well-suited strain was applied increased the final ethanol concentration, since a more complete fermentation was achieved. (orig.)

  10. High cell density cultures produced by internal retention: application in continuous ethanol fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Carola Pérez

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol has provoked great interest due to its potential as an alternative fuel. Nevertheless, fermentation processes must be developed by increasing the low volumetric productivity achieved in conventional cultures (batch or continuous to make this product become economically competitive. This can be achieved by using techniques leading to high cell concentration and reducing inhibition by the end-product. One of the frequently employed methods involves cell recycling. This work thus developed a membrane reactor incorporating a filtration module with 5 u,m stainless steel tubular units inside a 3L stirred jar fermenter for investigating its application in continuous ethanol production. The effects of cell concentration and transmembrane pressure difference on permeate flux were evaluated for testing the filtration module's performance. The internal cell retention system was operated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae continuous culture derived from sucrose, once fermentation conditions had been selected (30 °C, 1.25 -1.75 vvm, pH 4.5. Filter unit permeability was maintained by applying pulses of air. More than 97% of the grown cells were retained in the fermenter, reaching 51 g/L cell concentration and 8.51 g/L.h average ethanol productivity in culture with internal cell retention; this was twice that obtained in a conventional continuous culture. Key words: Membrane reactor, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alcoholic fermentation, cell recycling.

  11. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  12. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  13. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure, AFib and Your Risk of Stroke Updated:Aug ... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ...

  14. Gene expression cross-profiling in genetically modified industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during high-temperature ethanol production from xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ku Syahidah Ku; Sakamoto, Takatoshi; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-01-10

    Production of ethanol from xylose at high temperature would be an economical approach since it reduces risk of contamination and allows both the saccharification and fermentation steps in SSF to be running at elevated temperature. Eight recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains developed from industrial strains were constructed and subjected to high-temperature fermentation at 38 °C. The best performing strain was sun049T, which produced up to 15.2 g/L ethanol (63% of the theoretical production), followed by sun048T and sun588T, both with 14.1 g/L ethanol produced. Via transcriptomic analysis, expression profiling of the top three best ethanol producing strains compared to a negative control strain, sun473T, led to the discovery of genes in common that were regulated in the same direction. Identification of the 20 most highly up-regulated and the 20 most highly down-regulated genes indicated that the cells regulate their central metabolism and maintain the integrity of the cell walls in response to high temperature. We also speculate that cross-protection in the cells occurs, allowing them to maintain ethanol production at higher concentration under heat stress than the negative controls. This report provides further transcriptomics information in the interest of producing a robust microorganism for high-temperature ethanol production utilizing xylose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of ethanol at high temperatures in the fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke juice and a simple medium by Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, M.F.; Correia, I.S.; Novais, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Temperatures as high as 36 degrees C and 40 degrees C did not negatively affect the ethanol productivity of Jerusalem artichoke (J.a.) juice batch fermentation and the final concentrations of ethanol were close to those produced at lower temperatures. At higher process temperatures (36-40 degrees C), ethanol toxicity in Kluyveromyces marxianus was less important during the fermentation of J.a. juice as compared with a simple medium. In simple medium, the heat-sticking of fermentation was observed and the percentage of unfermented sugars steeply increased from 28 degrees C up to 40 degrees C. (Refs. 13).

  16. Moderate ethanol administration accentuates cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction and mitochondrial injury in high fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Lei, Yonghong; Wang, Qiurong; Esberg, Lucy B; Huang, Zaixing; Scott, Glenda I; Li, Xue; Ren, Jun

    2015-03-18

    Light to moderate drinking confers cardioprotection although it remains unclear with regards to the role of moderate drinking on cardiac function in obesity. This study was designed to examine the impact of moderate ethanol intake on myocardial function in high fat diet intake-induced obesity and the mechanism(s) involved with a focus on mitochondrial integrity. C57BL/6 mice were fed low or high fat diet for 16 weeks prior to ethanol challenge (1g/kg/d for 3 days). Cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, myocardial histology, and mitochondrial integrity [aconitase activity and the mitochondrial proteins SOD1, UCP-2 and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)] were assessed 24h after the final ethanol challenge. Fat diet intake compromised cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties (depressed peak shortening and maximal velocities of shortening/relengthening, prolonged duration of relengthening, dampened intracellular Ca(2+) rise and clearance without affecting duration of shortening). Although moderate ethanol challenge failed to alter cardiomyocyte mechanical property under low fat diet intake, it accentuated high fat diet intake-induced changes in cardiomyocyte contractile function and intracellular Ca(2+) handling. Moderate ethanol challenge failed to affect fat diet intake-induced cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by H&E staining. High fat diet intake reduced myocardial aconitase activity, downregulated levels of mitochondrial protein UCP-2, PGC-1α, SOD1 and interrupted intracellular Ca(2+) regulatory proteins, the effect of which was augmented by moderate ethanol challenge. Neither high fat diet intake nor moderate ethanol challenge affected protein or mRNA levels as well as phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β in mouse hearts. Taken together, our data revealed that moderate ethanol challenge accentuated high fat diet-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) anomalies as well as mitochondrial injury. Copyright

  17. Life?cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Matty; Xiros, Charilaos; Tillman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Development of more sustainable biofuel production processes is ongoing, and technology to run these processes at a high dry matter content, also called high-gravity conditions, is one option. This paper presents the results of a life?cycle assessment (LCA) of such a technology currently in development for the production of bio-ethanol from spruce wood chips. Results The cradle-to-gate LCA used lab results from a set of 30 experiments (or process configurations) in which the main p...

  18. [High blood pressure and physical exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosner, P; Gremeaux, V; Bosquet, L; Herpin, D

    2014-06-01

    High blood pressure is a frequent pathology with many cardiovascular complications. As highlighted in guidelines, the therapeutic management of hypertension relies on non-pharmacological measures, which are diet and regular physical activity, but both patients and physicians are reluctant to physical activity prescription. To acquire the conviction that physical activity is beneficial, necessary and possible, we can take into account some fundamental and clinical studies, as well as the feedback of our clinical practice. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension contributes to increase this risk. Conversely, regular practice of physical activity decreases very significantly the risk by up to 60%. The acute blood pressure changes during exercise and post-exercise hypotension differs according to the dynamic component (endurance or aerobic and/or strength exercises), but the repetition of the sessions leads to the chronic hypotensive benefit of physical activity. Moreover, physical activity prescription must take into account the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, the control of the hypertension, and the opportunities and desires of the patient in order to promote good adherence and beneficial lifestyle change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic effects of maternal ethanol and low-protein intake on growth and blood measurements of beagle pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Switzer, B.R.; Anderson, J.J.B.; Pick, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Pups used in this study were born to nulliparous, purebred female beagles fed either 17% control (CP) or 8.5% low protein (LP) diets and were given twice daily either 1.8 g/kg ethanol (E) or an equivalent isocaloric dose of sucrose (S) throughout pregnancy. After parturition, all mothers were fed the CP diet and no E or S. On day 1 and each week up to 4 weeks, the weight (WT), crown-rump length (LT) and head circumference (HC) of the pups were measured. These measurements were taken for a post-weaning subset at 6, 8 and 10 weeks. Blood samples were collected each week. At birth, mean WT, LT and HC were significantly lower in pups from E-mothers as compared to S-mothers with either CP or LP diets. The birth WT, LT and HC were significantly lower when mothers were fed LP as compared to the CP diet with either S or E. The prenatal effects of E and LP were significantly associated with lower pup WT, HT and hematocrit values, but not HC up to 4 weeks. At 10 weeks, the growth measurements and hematocrits were significantly lower with prenatal E exposure but not with LP. Pup red cell levels of folate were significantly lower with prenatal E during the first 4 weeks, whereas the effect of prenatal LP but not E was significant at 10 weeks. These data suggest that growth parameters and hematocrit values of pups prenatally exposed to E do not catch up to those of pups from S-mothers fed either diet

  20. Direct Fungal Production of Ethanol from High-Solids Pulps by the Ethanol-fermenting White-rot Fungus Phlebia sp. MG-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Kamei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A white-rot fungus, Phlebia sp. MG-60, was applied to the fermentation of high-solid loadings of unbleached hardwood kraft pulp (UHKP without the addition of commercial cellulase. From 4.7% UHKP, 19.6 g L-1 ethanol was produced, equivalent to 61.7% of the theoretical maximum. The highest ethanol concentration (25.9 g L-1, or 46.7% of the theoretical maximum was observed in the culture containing 9.1% UHKP. The highest filter paper activity (FPase was observed in the culture containing 4.7% UHKP, while the production of FPase in the 16.5% UHKP culture was very low. Temporarily removing the silicone plug from Erlenmeyer flasks, which relieved the pressure and allowed a small amount of aeration, improved the yield of ethanol produced from the 9.1% UHKP, which reached as high as 37.3 g L-1. These results indicated that production of cellulase and ensuing saccharification and fermentation by Phlebia sp. MG-60 is affected by water content and benefits from a small amount of aeration.

  1. Anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of Murraya koenigii (L leaves in high fatty diet rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin V. Tembhurne

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic and anti-obesity activities of of Murraya koenigii leaves. Method: The study was performed in high fatty diet induced obesity rats. After 15 days baseline period the treatments animals were received ethanolic extract of Murraya koenigii leaves (300 and 500 mg/kg in high fatty diet rats. All the treatments were given for one month. On 30th day all the fasted animals received an intraperitoneal injection of glucose (1 g/kg for glucose tolerance test. At the end of study body weight, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood glucose level were measured. Results: The results demonstrate clearly that repeated oral administration of Murraya koenigii leaves evoked a potent anti-hyperglycaemic activity in high fat diet obese rats. Postprandial hyperglycaemic peaks were significantly lower in plant-treated experimental groups. In other hand, high fatty diet group increased the both total cholesterol and triglycerides levels as compared to control group. While administration of Murraya koenigii leaves significantly decreased in both cholesterol as well as triglycerides. Conclusions: We can conclude that Murraya koenigii leaves evokes potent anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-obesity effects. This fact could support their use by the diabetes patient for controlling body weight as well as maintains the glycemic level.

  2. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis (Amla on Glucose Homeostasis in Rats Fed with High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi S. Kanthe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emblica officinalis contains many biological active components which are found to have some medicinal properties against diseases. Aim and Objectives: To assess hypolipidemic and glucose regulatory actions of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis (EEO on High Fat Diet (HFD fed experimental rats. Material and Methods: Twenty four rats were divided into four groups, having six rats in each group as following; Group I- Control (20% fat; Group II (EEO 100 mg/kg/b w; Group III (30% fat and Group IV (30% fat + EEO 100 mg/kg/b w. The treatment was continued for 21 days. Gravimetric parameters and lipid profiles of all the groups were measured. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT, fasting and postprandial glucose and fasting insulin levels were estimated. Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated. Statistical analysis was done. Results: Significant alteration in serum lipid profile, fasting and post prandial blood glucose levels and fasting insulin level were observed in rats of Group III fed with high fat diet. Supplementation of EEO improved both of glycemic and lipid profiles in rats of Group IV fed with high fat diet. Conclusion: Results from the study indicate the beneficial role of EEO on dyslipidemia and glucose homeostasis in rats treated with high fat diet.

  3. Characterization of very high gravity ethanol fermentation of corn mash. Effect of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and yeast strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devantier, Rasmus; Pedersen, S; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics such as the ......Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics...... such as the ethanol yield and volumetric and specific productivity were determined. It was shown that higher glucoamylase doses and/or pre-saccharification accelerated the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process and increased the final ethanol concentration from 106 to 126 g/kg although the maximal...... specific growth rate was decreased. Ethanol production was not only growth related, as more than half of the total saccharides were consumed and more than half of the ethanol was produced during the stationary phase. Furthermore, a high stress tolerance of the applied yeast strain was found to be crucial...

  4. Simultaneous determination of ethanol's four types of non-oxidative metabolites in human whole blood by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Zheng, Feng; Lin, Zebin; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Yu, Tianfang; Liu, Yuming; Huang, Zhibin; Li, Jiaolun; Yan, Jie; Rao, Yulan

    2017-04-22

    The importance of ethanol non-oxidative metabolites as the specific biomarkers of alcohol consumption in clinical and forensic settings is increasingly acknowledged. Simultaneous determination of these metabolites can provide a wealth of information like drinking habit and history, but it was difficult to achieve because of their wide range of polarity. This work describes development and validation of a simple liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for 4 types of ethanol non-oxidative metabolites (ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, fatty acid ethyl esters and phosphatidylethanols) in 50 μL of human whole blood. Pretreatment method, column and MS conditions were optimized. For the first time, the four types of ethanol non-oxidative metabolites with enormous discrepancies of property were simultaneously extracted and analyzed in one run within 40 min. The limits of detections (LODs) were among 0.1-10 ng/mL, and good linearity was obtained. Deviations in precision and accuracy were all lower than 15% at three QC levels. This method was then applied to two forensic samples, resulting in information on drinking habits and drinking time which were very useful for the interpretation of the blood alcohol results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hierarchical Pd-Sn alloy nanosheet dendrites: an economical and highly active catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, An-Liang; Ou, Yan-Nan; Li, Qi; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Wen-Xia; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Li, Gao-Ren

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical alloy nanosheet dendrites (ANSDs) are highly favorable for superior catalytic performance and efficient utilization of catalyst because of the special characteristics of alloys, nanosheets, and dendritic nanostructures. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a facile and efficient electrodeposition approach for the controllable synthesis of Pd-Sn ANSDs with high surface area. These synthesized Pd-Sn ANSDs exhibit high electrocatalytic activity and superior long-term cycle stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The enhanced electrocataytic activity of Pd-Sn ANSDs may be attributed to Pd-Sn alloys, nanosheet dendrite induced promotional effect, large number of active sites on dendrite surface, large surface area, and good electrical contact with the base electrode. Because of the simple implement and high flexibility, the proposed approach can be considered as a general and powerful strategy to synthesize the alloy electrocatalysts with high surface areas and open dendritic nanostructures.

  6. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Possibly. It's thought that ... hours a night could be linked to increased blood pressure. People who sleep five hours or less a ...

  7. Highly improved sensibility and selectivity ethanol sensor of mesoporous Fe-doped NiO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. Q.; Wei, J. Q.; Xu, J. C.; Jin, H. X.; Jin, D. F.; Peng, X. L.; Hong, B.; Li, J.; Yang, Y. T.; Ge, H. L.; Wang, Xinqing

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, nickel oxides (NiO) and iron (Fe)-doped NiO nanowires (NWs) with the various doping content (from 1 to 9 at%) were synthesized by using SBA-15 templates with the nanocasting method. All samples were synthesized in the same conditions and exhibited the same mesoporous-structures, uniform diameter, and defects. Mesoporous-structures with high surface area created more active sites for the adsorption of oxygen on the surface of all samples, resulting in the smaller surface resistance in air. The impurity energy levels from the donor Fe-doping provided electrons to neutralize the holes of p-type Fe-doped NiO NWs, which greatly enhanced the total resistance. The comparative gas-sensing study between NiO NWs and Fe-doped NiO NWs indicated that the high-valence donor Fe-doping obviously improved the ethanol sensitivity and selectivity for Fe-doped NiO NWs. And Ni0.94Fe0.06O1.03 NWs sensor presented the highest sensitivity of 14.30 toward ethanol gas at 320 °C for the high-valence metal-doping.

  8. Solanum nigrum Protects against Hepatic Fibrosis via Suppression of Hyperglycemia in High-Fat/Ethanol Diet-Induced Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Jeng Tai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs signal through the receptor for AGE (RAGE, which can lead to hepatic fibrosis in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. We investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts from Solanum nigrum (AESN on AGEs-induced RAGE signaling and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs and hyperglycemia induced by high-fat diet with ethanol. Methods: An animal model was used to evaluate the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of AESN in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 30% with ethanol (10%. Male Wistar rats (4 weeks of age were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6: (1 control (basal diet; (2 HFD (30% + ethanol (10% (HFD/ethanol; (3 HFD/ethanol + AESN (100 mg/kg, oral administration; and (4 HFD/ethanol + pioglitazone (10 mg/kg, oral administration and treated with HFD for 6 months in the presence or absence of 10% ethanol in dietary water. Results: We found that AESN improved insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and downregulated lipogenesis via regulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, PPARγ co-activator (PGC-1α, carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, and fatty acid synthase (FAS mRNA levels in the liver of HFD/ethanol-treated rats. In turn, AESN may delay and inhibit the progression of hepatic fibrosis, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA inhibition and MMP-2 production. Conclusions: These results suggest that AESN may be further explored as a novel anti-fibrotic strategy for the prevention of liver disease.

  9. High-temperature fermentation. How can processes for ethanol production at high temperatures become superior to the traditional process using mesophilic yeast?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Banat, Babiker M.A.; Hoshida, Hisashi; Nonklang, Sanom; Akada, Rinji [Yamaguchi Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Ube (Japan). Dept. of Applied Molecular Bioscience; Ano, Akihiko [Iwata Chemical Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    The process of ethanol fermentation has a long history in the production of alcoholic drinks, but much larger scale production of ethanol is now required to enable its use as a substituent of gasoline fuels at 3%, 10%, or 85% (referred to as E3, E10, and E85, respectively). Compared with fossil fuels, the production costs are a major issue for the production of fuel ethanol. There are a number of possible approaches to delivering cost-effective fuel ethanol production from different biomass sources, but we focus in our current report on high-temperature fermentation using a newly isolated thermotolerant strain of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. We demonstrate that a 5 C increase only in the fermentation temperature can greatly affect the fuel ethanol production costs. We contend that this approach may also be applicable to the other microbial fermentations systems and propose that thermotolerant mesophilic microorganisms have considerable potential for the development of future fermentation technologies. (orig.)

  10. Cytotoxic and antioxidative potentials of ethanolic extract of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) leaves on human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Duarte, Antonia Eliene; Barros, Luiz Marivando; Elekofehinti, Olusola Olalekan; Matias, Edinardo Fagner Ferreira; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Sanmi, Adekunle Adeniran; Boligon, Aline Augusti; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Posser, Thaís; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Kamdem, Jean Paul

    2016-12-01

    Eugenia uniflora is used in the Brazilian folk medicine to treat intestinal disorders and hypertension. However, scanty information exist on its potential toxicity to human, and little is known on its antioxidant activity in biological system. Hence, we investigated for the first time the potential toxic effects of ethanolic extract (EtOH) of E. uniflora (EEEU) in human leukocytes and erythrocytes, as well as its influence on membrane erythrocytes osmotic fragility. In addition, EEEU was chemically characterized and its antioxidant capacity was evaluated. We found that EEEU (1-480μg/mL) caused neither cytotoxicity nor DNA damage evaluated by Trypan blue and Comet assay, respectively. EEEU (1-480μg/mL) did not have any effect on membrane erythrocytes fragility. In addition, EEEU inhibited Fe 2+ -induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain and liver homogenates, and scavenged the DPPH radical. EEEU presented some polyphenolic compounds with high content such as quercetin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, luteolin and ellagic acid, which may be at least in part responsible for its beneficial effects. Our results suggest that consumption of EEEU at relatively higher concentrations may not result in toxicity. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies should be conducted to ascertain its safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. High stable suspension of magnetite nanoparticles in ethanol by using sono-synthesized nanomagnetite in polyol medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastami, Tahereh Rohani; Entezari, Mohammad H.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The sonochemical synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles was carried out in EG without any surfactant. • The nanoparticles with sizes ∼24 nm were composed of small building blocks with sizes ∼2 nm. • The hydrophilic magnetite nanoparticles were stable in ethanol even after 8 months. • Ultrasonic intensity showed a crucial role on the obtained high stable magnetite nanoparticles in ethanol. - Abstract: The sonochemical synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles was carried out at relatively low temperature (80 °C) in ethylene glycol (EG) as a polyol solvent. The particle size was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The magnetite nanoparticles with an average size of 24 nm were composed of small building blocks with an average size of 2–3 nm and the particles exhibited nearly spherical shape. The surface characterization was investigated by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The stability of magnetite nanoparticles was studied in ethanol as a polar solvent. The nanoparticles showed an enhanced stability in ethanol which is due to the hydrophilic surface of the particles. The colloidal stability of magnetite nanoparticles in ethanol was monitored by UV–visible spectrophotometer. According to the results, the nanoparticles synthesized in 30 min of sonication with intensity of 35 W/cm 2 (50%) led to a maximum stability in ethanol as a polar solvent with respect to the other applied intensities. The obtained magnetite nanoparticles were stable for more than12 months

  12. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in early adolescent and adult male rats: effects on tolerance, social behavior, and ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, Margaret; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2011-08-01

    Given the prevalence of alcohol use in adolescence, it is important to understand the consequences of chronic ethanol exposure during this critical period in development. The purpose of this study was to assess possible age-related differences in susceptibility to tolerance development to ethanol-induced sedation and withdrawal-related anxiety, as well as voluntary ethanol intake after chronic exposure to relatively high doses of ethanol during adolescence or adulthood. Juvenile/adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five 10-day exposure conditions: chronic ethanol (4 g/kg every 48 hours), chronic saline (equivalent volume every 24 hours), chronic saline/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), nonmanipulated/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), or nonmanipulated. For assessment of tolerance development, duration of the loss of righting reflex (LORR) and blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) upon regaining of righting reflex (RORR) were tested on the first and last ethanol exposure days in the chronic ethanol group, with both saline and nonmanipulated animals likewise challenged on the last exposure day. Withdrawal-induced anxiety was indexed in a social interaction test 24 hours after the last ethanol exposure, with ethanol-naïve chronic saline and nonmanipulated animals serving as controls. Voluntary intake was assessed 48 hours after the chronic exposure period in chronic ethanol, chronic saline and nonmanipulated animals using an 8-day 2 bottle choice, limited-access ethanol intake procedure. In general, adolescent animals showed shorter durations of LORR and higher BECs upon RORR than adults on the first and last ethanol exposure days, regardless of chronic exposure condition. Adults, but not adolescents, developed chronic tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol, tolerance that appeared to be metabolic in nature. Social deficits were observed after chronic ethanol in both adolescents and adults

  13. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or technician places a strip of chemically treated paper, called a dipstick, into the urine. Patches on the dipstick change color when blood or protein is present in urine. Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. A health care provider uses ...

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 stress response during high-temperature ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Hyun; Jin, Ingnyol; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2013-03-01

    Fuel ethanol production is far more costly to produce than fossil fuels. There are a number of approaches to cost-effective fuel ethanol production from biomass. We characterized stress response of thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 during glucose-based batch fermentation at high temperature (40°C). S. cerevisiae KNU5377 (KNU5377) transcription factors (Hsf1, Msn2/4, and Yap1), metabolic enzymes (hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase), antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin 3, thioredoxin reductase, and porin), and molecular chaperones and its cofactors (Hsp104, Hsp82, Hsp60, Hsp42, Hsp30, Hsp26, Cpr1, Sti1, and Zpr1) are upregulated during fermentation, in comparison to S. cerevisiae S288C (S288C). Expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased significantly in KNU5377 cells. In addition, cellular hydroperoxide and protein oxidation, particularly lipid peroxidation of triosephosphate isomerase, was lower in KNU5377 than in S288C. Thus, KNU5377 activates various cell rescue proteins through transcription activators, improving tolerance and increasing alcohol yield by rapidly responding to fermentation stress through redox homeostasis and proteostasis.

  15. Effects of High Octane Ethanol Blends on Four Legacy Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and a Turbocharged GDI Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian H [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huff, Shean P [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting engine and vehicle research to investigate the potential of high-octane fuels to improve fuel economy. Ethanol has very high research octane number (RON) and heat of vaporization (HoV), properties that make it an excellent spark ignition engine fuel. The prospects of increasing both the ethanol content and the octane number of the gasoline pool has the potential to enable improved fuel economy in future vehicles with downsized, downsped engines. This report describes a small study to explore the potential performance benefits of high octane ethanol blends in the legacy fleet. There are over 17 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the road today in the United States, vehicles capable of using any fuel from E0 to E85. If a future high-octane blend for dedicated vehicles is on the horizon, the nation is faced with the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. If today’s FFVs can see a performance advantage with a high octane ethanol blend such as E25 or E30, then perhaps consumer demand for this fuel can serve as a bridge to future dedicated vehicles. Experiments were performed with four FFVs using a 10% ethanol fuel (E10) with 88 pump octane, and a market gasoline blended with ethanol to make a 30% by volume ethanol fuel (E30) with 94 pump octane. The research octane numbers were 92.4 for the E10 fuel and 100.7 for the E30 fuel. Two vehicles had gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines, and two featured port fuel injection (PFI). Significant wide open throttle (WOT) performance improvements were measured for three of the four FFVs, with one vehicle showing no change. Additionally, a conventional (non-FFV) vehicle with a small turbocharged direct-injected engine was tested with a regular grade of gasoline with no ethanol (E0) and a splash blend of this same fuel with 15% ethanol by volume (E15). RON was increased from 90.7 for the E0 to 97.8 for the E15 blend. Significant wide open throttle and thermal efficiency performance

  16. Announcement: National High Blood Pressure Education Month - May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major contributor to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the United States.* High blood pressure affects one third of U.S. adults, or approximately 75 million persons, yet approximately 11 million of these persons are not aware they have hypertension, and approximately 18 million are not being treated (unpublished data) (1,2).

  17. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.

  18. Performance comparison between ethanol phase-change immersion and active water cooling for solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiping; Wen, Chen; Huang, Qunwu; Kang, Xue; Chen, Miao; Wang, Huilin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal performances of ethanol phase-change immersion and active water cooling are compared. • Effects of operation parameters on ethanol phase-change immersion are studied. • Optimum filling ratio is 30% for ethanol phase-change immersion cooling system. • Exergy efficiency of ethanol phase-change immersion method increases by 57%. - Abstract: This paper presents an optimized ethanol phase-change immersion cooling method to obtain lower temperature of dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system. The thermal performances of this system were compared with a conventional active water cooling system with minichannels from the perspectives of start-up characteristic, temperature uniformity, thermal resistance and heat transfer coefficient. This paper also explored the influences of liquid filling ratio, absolute pressure and water flow rate on thermal performances. Dense-array LEDs were used to simulate heat power of solar cells worked under high concentration ratios. It can be observed that the optimal filling ratio was 30% in which the thermal resistance was 0.479 °C/W and the heat transfer coefficient was 9726.21 W/(m 2 ·°C). To quantify the quality of energy output of two cooling systems, exergy analysis are conducted and maximum exergy efficiencies were 17.70% and 11.27%, respectively. The experimental results represent an improvement towards thermal performances of ethanol phase-change immersion cooling system due to the reduction in contact thermal resistance. This study improves the operation control and applications for ethanol phase-change immersion cooling technology.

  19. Blood pressure in childhood : epidemiological probes into the aetiology of high blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hofman (Albert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractHigh arterial blood pressure takes a heavy toll in western populations (1 ). Its causes are still largely unknown, but its sequelae, a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, have been referred to as "a modern scourge" (2). High blood pressure of unknown cause, or

  20. High-level ethanol production from starch by a flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain displaying cell-surface glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, A.; Shigechi, H.; Abe, M.; Uyama, K. [Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kobe Univ., Nadaku, Kobe (Japan); Matsumoto, T.; Fukuda, H. [Div. of Molecular Science, Kobe Univ., Nadaku, Kobe (Japan); Takahashi, S.; Ueda, M.; Tanaka, A. [Dept. of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Kyoto Univ., Sakyoku, Kyoto (Japan); Kishimoto, M. [Dept. of Biotechnology, Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    A Strain of host yeast YF207, which is a tryptophan auxotroph and shows strong flocculation ability, was obtained from Saccharomyces diastaticus ATCC60712 and S. cerevisiae W303-1B by tetrad analysis. The plasmid pGA11, which is a multicopy plasmid for cell-surface expression of the Rhyzopus oryzae glucoamylase/{alpha}-agglutinin fusion protein, was then introduced into this flocculent yeast strain (YF207/pGA11). Yeast YF207/pGA11 grew rapidly under aerobic condition (dissolved oxygen 2.0 ppm), using soluble starch. The harvested cells were used for batch fermentation of soluble starch to ethanol under anaerobic condition and showed high ethanol production rates (0.71 g h{sup -1} I{sup -1}) without a time lag, because glucoamylase was immobilized on the yeast cell surface. During repeated utilization of cells for fermentation, YF207/pGA11 maintained high ethanol production rates over 300 h. Moreover, in fed-batch fermentation with YF207/pGA11 for approximately 120 h, the ethanol concentration reached up to 50 g I{sup -1}. In conclusion, flocculent yeast cells displaying cell-surface glucoamylase are considered to be very effective for the direct fermentation of soluble starch to ethanol. (orig.)

  1. Antihypercholesterolemic activity of ethanolic extract of Buchholzia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a condition characterised with high level of cholesterol in the blood. Objectives: The effect of ethanolic extract of Buchholzia coriacea (EEBC) on the lipid profile levels and extent of lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemic albino rats was investigated in this study. Methods: Thirty ...

  2. Novel DDR Processing of Corn Stover Achieves High Monomeric Sugar Concentrations from Enzymatic Hydrolysis (230 g/L) and High Ethanol Concentration (10% v/v) During Fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Jennings, Ed; Shekiro, Joe; Kuhn, Erik M.; O' Brien, Marykate; Wang, Wei; Schell, Daniel J.; Himmel, Mike; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2015-04-03

    Distilling and purifying ethanol, butanol, and other products from second and later generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating cost for biofuels production. The energy costs associated with distillation affects plant gate and life cycle analysis costs. Lower titers in fermentation due to lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment increase both energy and production costs. In addition, higher titers decrease the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels. Therefore, increasing biofuels titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuels production for several decades. In this work, we achieved over 200 g/L of monomeric sugars after high solids enzymatic hydrolysis using the novel deacetylation and disc refining (DDR) process on corn stover. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations from the DDR process allowed ethanol titers as high as 82 g/L in 22 hours, which translates into approximately 10 vol% ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 10 vol% ethanol in fermentation derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps has been reported. Techno-economic analysis shows the higher titer ethanol achieved from the DDR process could significantly reduce the minimum ethanol selling price from cellulosic biomass.

  3. Production of ethanol and feed by high dry matter hydrolysis and fermentation of palm kernel press cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Sanadi, Anand R; Felby, Claus; Lange, Niels Erik Krebs; Fischer, Morten; Ernst, Steffen

    2010-05-01

    Palm kernel press cake (PKC) is a residue from palm oil extraction presently only used as a low protein feed supplement. PKC contains 50% fermentable hexose sugars present in the form of glucan and mainly galactomannan. This makes PKC an interesting feedstock for processing into bioethanol or in other biorefinery processes. Using a combination of mannanase, beta-mannosidase, and cellulases, it was possible without any pretreatment to hydrolyze PKC at solid concentrations of 35% dry matter with mannose yields up to 88% of theoretical. Fermentation was tested using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in both a separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) setup. The hydrolysates could readily be fermented without addition of nutrients and with average fermentation yields of 0.43 +/- 0.02 g/g based on consumed mannose and glucose. Employing SSF, final ethanol concentrations of 70 g/kg was achieved in 216 h, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 70% of theoretical or 200 g ethanol/kg PKC. Testing various enzyme mixtures revealed that including cellulases in combination with mannanases significantly improved ethanol yields. Processing PKC to ethanol resulted in a solid residue enriched in protein from 17% to 28%, a 70% increase, thereby potentially making a high-protein containing feed supplement.

  4. HIGH PERMEABILITY MEMBRANES FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...

  5. What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications Updated:Jan 18,2017 Is medication ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  6. How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 Understanding the heart-healthy ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  7. How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Jan 29,2018 ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  8. High Blood Pressure and Cold Remedies: Which Are Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counter cold remedies safe for people who have high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Over- ... remedies aren't off-limits if you have high blood pressure, but it's important to make careful choices. Among ...

  9. Overexpression of pyruvate decarboxylase in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha results in increased ethanol yield in high-temperature fermentation of xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchuk, Olena P; Voronovsky, Andriy Y; Stasyk, Oleh V; Gayda, Galina Z; Gonchar, Mykhailo V; Abbas, Charles A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2008-11-01

    Improvement of xylose fermentation is of great importance to the fuel ethanol industry. The nonconventional thermotolerant yeast Hansenula polymorpha naturally ferments xylose to ethanol at high temperatures (48-50 degrees C). Introduction of a mutation that impairs ethanol reutilization in H. polymorpha led to an increase in ethanol yield from xylose. The native and heterologous (Kluyveromyces lactis) PDC1 genes coding for pyruvate decarboxylase were expressed at high levels in H. polymorpha under the control of the strong constitutive promoter of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GAPDH). This resulted in increased pyruvate decarboxylase activity and improved ethanol production from xylose. The introduction of multiple copies of the H. polymorpha PDC1 gene driven by the strong constitutive promoter led to a 20-fold increase in pyruvate decarboxylase activity and up to a threefold elevation of ethanol production.

  10. High efficient ethanol and VFAs production from gas fermentation: effect of acetate, gas and inoculum microbial composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Gammal, Maie; Abou-Shanab, Reda; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    In bioindustry, syngas fermentation is a promising technology for biofuel production without the use of plant biomass as sugar-based feedstock. The aim of this study was to identify optimal conditions for high efficient ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production from synthetic gas...... fatty acids and ethanol was achieved by the pure culture (Clostridium ragsdalei). Depending on the headspace gas composition, VFA concentrations were up to 300% higher after fermentation with Clostridium ragsdalei compared to fermentation with mixed culture. The preferred gas composition with respect...

  11. High blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yasuhiro; Kono, Syoichiro; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Narai, Hisashi; Omori, Nobuhiko

    2009-11-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of acute phase blood pressure in patients with acute ischemic stroke by determining whether or not it contributes to clinical outcome. We studied 515 consecutive patients admitted within the first 48 hours after the onset of ischemic strokes, employing systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements recorded within 36 hours after admission. High blood pressure was defined when the mean of at least 2 blood pressure measurements was ≥200 mmHg systolic and/or ≥110 mmHg diastolic at 6 to 24 hours after admission or ≥180 mmHg systolic and/or ≥105 mmHg diastolic at 24 to 36 hours after admission. The high blood pressure group was found to include 16% of the patients. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, stroke history, carotid artery stenosis, leukoaraiosis, NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission and mortality were not significantly correlated with either the high blood pressure or non-high blood pressure group. High blood pressure on admission was significantly associated with a past history of hypertension, kidney disease, the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on discharge and the length of stay. On logistic regression analysis, with no previous history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and kidney disease were independent risk factors associated with the presence of high blood pressure [odds ratio (OR), 1.85 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-3.22), 1.89 (95% CI: 1.11-3.22), and 3.31 (95% CI: 1.36-8.04), respectively]. Multi-organ injury may be presented in acute stroke patients with high blood pressure. Patients with high blood pressure had a poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.

  12. Cultivation and utilization of Jerusalem artichoke for ethanol, single cell protein, and high-fructose syrup production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajpai, P.K.; Bajpai, Pratima (Thapar Corporate Research and Development Center, Patiala (IN). Div. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering)

    1991-04-01

    Jerusalem artichoke has one of the highest carbohydrate yields of the known agricultural crops and has many distinct advantages over traditional crops. This brief review presents data on the yield and composition of Jerusalem artichoke, techniques of carbohydrate extraction and its utilization for the production of ethanol, single cell protein (SCP), and high-fructose syrup, along with economic considerations. (author).

  13. Decreases in blood ethanol concentrations during storage at 4 °C for 12 months were the same for specimens kept in glass or plastic tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Jones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stability of ethanol was investigated in blood specimens in glass or plastic evacuated tubes after storage in a refrigerator at 4 °C for up to 12 months. Methods: Sterile blood, from a local hospital, was divided into 50 mL portions and spiked with aqueous ethanol (10% w/v to give target concentrations of 0.20, 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00 g/L. Ethanol was determined in blood by headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC with an analytical imprecision of <3% (coefficient of variation, CV%. Aliquots of blood were re-analysed after 2, 7, 14, 28, 91, 182 and 364 days of storage at 4 °C. Results: The standard deviation (SD of analysis by HS-GC was 0.0059 g/L at 0.20 g/L and 0.0342 g/L at 3.00 g/L, corresponding to CVs of 2.9% and 1.1%, respectively. The decreases in blood ethanol content were analytically significant after 14–28 days of storage for both glass and plastic tubes The mean (lowest and highest loss of ethanol after 12 months storage was 0.111 g/L (0.084–0.129 g/L for glass tubes and 0.112 g/L (0.088–0.140 g/L for plastic tubes. The corresponding percentage losses of ethanol were 43–45% at a starting concentration of 0.20 g/L and 3.9–4.1% at 3.00 g/L. Conclusion: The concentration of ethanol in blood gradually decreases during storage at 4 °C. After 12 months storage the absolute decrease in concentration was ~0.11 g/L when the starting concentration ranged from 0.20 to 3.0 g/L. Decreases in ethanol content were the same for specimens kept in glass or plastic evacuated tubes. Keywords: Alcohol, Analysis, Blood, Ethanol stability, Plastic vs glass tubes, Storage conditions

  14. HIGH ALTITUDES EFFECTS ON HEMATOLOGIC BLOOD PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Hasim Rushiti; Florian Miftari; Besim Halilaj

    2015-01-01

    The approach and the objective of this experiment are consistent with the determination of changes of blood parameters after the stay of the students at an altitude of 1800-2300 meters, for a ten-day long ski course. In this paper are included a total of 64 students of the Faculty of Sport Sciences in Prishtina, of the age group of 19-25 (the average age is 21). All students previously have undergone a medical check for TA, arterial pulse and respiratory rate. In particular, the health situat...

  15. High Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease in Children: A Guide for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease in Children Print Email High ... such as the heart and brain. What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of your blood ...

  16. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Krabbe, Hans G.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e. g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior

  17. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  18. Towards high water permeability in triazine-framework-based microporous membranes for dehydration of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu Pan; Wang, Huan; Chung, Tai Shung

    2015-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of a series of triazine framework-based microporous (TFM) membranes under different conditions has been explored in this work. The pristine TFM membrane is in situ fabricated in the course of polymer synthesis via a facile Brønsted-acid-catalyzed cyclotrimerizaiton reaction. The as-synthesized polymer exhibits a microporous network with high thermal stability. The free volume size of the TFM membranes gradually evolved from a unimodal distribution to a bimodal distribution under annealing, as analyzed by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The emergence of the bimodal distribution is probably ascribed to the synergetic effect of quenching and thermal cyclization reaction. In addition, the fractional free volume (FFV) of the membranes presents a concave trend with increasing annealing temperature. Vapor sorption tests reveal that the mass transport properties are closely associated with the free volume evolution, which provides an optimal condition for dehydration of biofuels. A promising separation performance with extremely high water permeability has been attained for dehydration of an 85 wt % ethanol aqueous solution at 45 °C. The study on the free volume evolution of the TFM membranes may provide useful insights about the microstructure and mass transport behavior of the microporous polymeric materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Nutrition label experience, obesity, high blood pressure, and high blood lipids in a cohort of 42,750 Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpeekool, Wimalin; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kirk, Martyn; Banwell, Cathy; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition labels have been promoted for nearly two decades in Thailand to educate people about healthy eating and to combat nutrient-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). But little is known about how nutrition labels are experienced and whether they are linked with better health. Our objective was to investigate the associations between nutrition label experience, obesity and nutrient-related NCDs in Thai consumers. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with a nationwide cohort of 42,750 distance learning Thai adult students enrolled in an Open University in 2013. We measured exposure as nutrition label experience (read, understand, use). Health outcomes were high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and high Body Mass Index (overweight at risk and obesity). Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between nutrition label experience and health outcome adjusting for sociodemographic attributes, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake. Frequent nutrition label use varied by cohort attributes and health outcomes and was least for those with low physical activity and high blood pressure. Being male, older, an urban resident or with low physical activity was associated with increasing high blood pressure and high blood lipids. Compared to those who read, understand and use nutrition labels, participants who did not (read, understand, and use), were more likely to report high blood pressure (Adjusted Odds Ratio 1.33; 1.17-1.51), high blood lipids (AOR 1.26; 1.14-1.39), and obesity (AOR 1.23; 1.13-1.33), but were not more likely to be overweight at risk (AOR 1.06; 0.97-1.16). We found cross-sectional associations between low nutrition label experience and increased likelihood of high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and obesity among Thai adults. Nutrition label education should be promoted as part of a public health approach to appropriate food choices and better lifestyles to reduce obesity and nutrient-related NCDs.

  20. Nutrition label experience, obesity, high blood pressure, and high blood lipids in a cohort of 42,750 Thai adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimalin Rimpeekool

    Full Text Available Nutrition labels have been promoted for nearly two decades in Thailand to educate people about healthy eating and to combat nutrient-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs. But little is known about how nutrition labels are experienced and whether they are linked with better health. Our objective was to investigate the associations between nutrition label experience, obesity and nutrient-related NCDs in Thai consumers.A cross-sectional study was undertaken with a nationwide cohort of 42,750 distance learning Thai adult students enrolled in an Open University in 2013. We measured exposure as nutrition label experience (read, understand, use. Health outcomes were high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and high Body Mass Index (overweight at risk and obesity. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between nutrition label experience and health outcome adjusting for sociodemographic attributes, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake.Frequent nutrition label use varied by cohort attributes and health outcomes and was least for those with low physical activity and high blood pressure. Being male, older, an urban resident or with low physical activity was associated with increasing high blood pressure and high blood lipids. Compared to those who read, understand and use nutrition labels, participants who did not (read, understand, and use, were more likely to report high blood pressure (Adjusted Odds Ratio 1.33; 1.17-1.51, high blood lipids (AOR 1.26; 1.14-1.39, and obesity (AOR 1.23; 1.13-1.33, but were not more likely to be overweight at risk (AOR 1.06; 0.97-1.16.We found cross-sectional associations between low nutrition label experience and increased likelihood of high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and obesity among Thai adults. Nutrition label education should be promoted as part of a public health approach to appropriate food choices and better lifestyles to reduce obesity and nutrient-related NCDs.

  1. Chronic administration of ethanol with high vitamin A supplementation in a liquid diet to rats does not cause liver fibrosis. 2. Biochemical observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, W. F.; Bosma, A.; Hendriks, H. F.; Blaner, W. S.; van Leeuwen, R. E.; van Thiel-de Ruiter, G. C.; Wilson, J. H.; Knook, D. L.; Brouwer, A.

    1991-01-01

    The inability of the 'ethanol/high vitamin A Lieber-DeCarli diet' to induce liver fibrosis in two different rat strains was further evaluated by determining changes in parameters of liver cell damage and of retinoid and lipid metabolism. In the ethanol/vitamin A-treated group, slight but constant

  2. High blood pressure in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossello, Enrico; Simoni, David

    2016-06-22

    High blood pressure and cognitive impairment often coexist in old age, but their pathophysiological association is complex. Several longitudinal studies have shown that high blood pressure at midlife is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia, although this association is much less clear in old age. The effect of blood pressure lowering in reducing the risk of dementia is only borderline significant in clinical trials of older subjects, partly due to the insufficient follow-up time. Conversely, dementia onset is associated with a decrease of blood pressure values, probably secondary to neurodegeneration. Prognostic effect of blood pressure values in cognitively impaired older subjects is still unclear, with aggressive blood pressure lowering being potentially harmful in this patients category. Brief cognitive screening, coupled with simple motor assessment, are warranted to identify frail older subjects who need a more cautious approach to antihypertensive treatment. Values obtained with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring seem more useful than clinical ones to predict the outcome of cognitively impaired older subjects. Future studies should identify the most appropriate blood pressure targets in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

  3. High Ethanol Contents of Spirit Drinks in Kibera Slums, Kenya: Implications for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex O. Okaru

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits (n = 11 and the artisanal spirit drink, ‘chang’aa’, (n = 28. The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS respectively. The ranges for alcoholic strength were 42.8–85.8% vol and 28.3–56.7% vol for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively, while the pH ranges were 3.3–4.2 and 4.4–4.8 for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively. The majority of volatiles were found in artisanal spirits and they included higher alcohols, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds. The alcoholic strength of all the artisanal spirits (100% and 91% of the licit spirits was above the 40% vol of standard spirits such as vodka. The high ethanol content of the alcohol products was the only element of public health significance in this study.

  4. High Ethanol Contents of Spirit Drinks in Kibera Slums, Kenya: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaru, Alex O; Abuga, Kennedy O; Kibwage, Isaac O; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2017-10-17

    Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits ( n = 11) and the artisanal spirit drink, ' chang'aa' , ( n = 28). The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The ranges for alcoholic strength were 42.8-85.8% vol and 28.3-56.7% vol for chang'aa and licit spirit drinks respectively, while the pH ranges were 3.3-4.2 and 4.4-4.8 for chang'aa and licit spirit drinks respectively. The majority of volatiles were found in artisanal spirits and they included higher alcohols, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds. The alcoholic strength of all the artisanal spirits (100%) and 91% of the licit spirits was above the 40% vol of standard spirits such as vodka. The high ethanol content of the alcohol products was the only element of public health significance in this study.

  5. Efficient fermentation of xylose to ethanol at high formic acid concentrations by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Matsuda, Fumio [Kobe Univ., Hyogo (Japan). Organization of Advanced Science and Technology; Sung, Kyung-mo; Sanda, Tomoya; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ., Hyogo (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering

    2011-05-15

    Recombinant yeast strains highly tolerant to formic acid during xylose fermentation were constructed. Microarray analysis of xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain overexpressing endogenous xylulokinase in addition to xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase from Pichia stipitis revealed that upregulation of formate dehydrogenase genes (FDH1 and FDH2) was one of the most prominent transcriptional events against excess formic acid. The quantification of formic acid in medium indicated that the innate activity of FDH was too weak to detoxify formic acid. To reinforce the capability for formic acid breakdown, the FDH1 gene was additionally overexpressed in the xylose-metabolizing recombinant yeast. This modification allowed the yeast to rapidly decompose excess formic acid. The yield and final ethanol concentration in the presence of 20 mM formic acid is as essentially same as that of control. The fermentation profile also indicated that the production of xylitol and glycerol, major by-products in xylose fermentation, was not affected by the upregulation of FDH activity. (orig.)

  6. How to Prevent High Blood Pressure: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Understanding Blood Pressure Readings (American Heart Association) Weightlifting: Bad for Your Blood Pressure? (Mayo Foundation for ... High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy Nutrition Quitting Smoking Stress National Institutes of Health The ...

  7. Association between parity and breastfeeding with maternal high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Samantha J; Chiu, Christine L; Lujic, Sanja; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how parity and breastfeeding were associated with maternal high blood pressure, and how age modifies this association. Baseline data for 74,785 women were sourced from the 45 and Up Study, Australia. These women were 45 years of age or older, had an intact uterus, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure before pregnancy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 99% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between giving birth, breastfeeding, lifetime breastfeeding duration, and average breastfeeding per child with high blood pressure were estimated using logistic regression. The combination of parity and breastfeeding was associated with lower odds of having high blood pressure (adjusted OR, 0.89; 99% CI, 0.82-0.97; P high blood pressure when compared with parous women who never breastfed. The odds were lower with longer breastfeeding durations and were no longer significant in the majority of women over the age of 64 years. Women should be encouraged to breastfeed for as long as possible and a woman's breastfeeding history should be taken into account when assessing her likelihood of high blood pressure in later life. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crago, Christine L.; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO 2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  9. Rat muscle blood flows during high-speed locomotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.B.; Laughlin, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    We previously studied blood flow distribution within and among rat muscles as a function of speed from walking (15 m/min) through galloping (75 m/min) on a motor-driven treadmill. The results showed that muscle blood flows continued to increase as a function of speed through 75 m/min. The purpose of the present study was to have rats run up to maximal treadmill speeds to determine if blood flows in the muscles reach a plateau as a function of running speed over the animals normal range of locomotory speeds. Muscle blood flows were measured with radiolabeled microspheres at 1 min of running at 75, 90, and 105 m/min in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The data indicate that even at these relatively high treadmill speeds there was still no clear evidence of a plateau in blood flow in most of the hindlimb muscles. Flows in most muscles continued to increase as a function of speed. These observed patterns of blood flow vs. running speed may have resulted from the rigorous selection of rats that were capable of performing the high-intensity exercise and thus only be representative of a highly specific population of animals. On the other hand, the data could be interpreted to indicate that the cardiovascular potential during exercise is considerably higher in laboratory rats than has normally been assumed and that inadequate blood flow delivery to the muscles does not serve as a major limitation to their locomotory performance

  10. Breeding and fermentation characterization of Pachysolen Tannophilus mutant with high ethanol productivity from xylose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Lijun; Chu Kaiqing; Yang Peizhou

    2011-01-01

    Currently, few strains can utilize xylose to produce ethanol with very low productivity. By the method of mutation breeding to these strains the rate of lignocellulosic utilization could be improved. In this study, the initial Pachysolen tannophilus As 2.1585 was treated by N + ions implantation of 15 keV. The survival curve showed a saddle model. Considering the survival rate and range of positive mutation, the N + ions implantation of 12.5 × 10 14 ions/cm for mutation breeding of Pachysolen tannophilus was selected. A Pachysolen tannophilus mutant mut-54, which had perfect genetic stability of producing ethanol was screened out after continuous 7 passages. The mut-54 had a higher xylose consumption rate, biomass accumulation and ability of ethanol-resistant than the parent strain. Compared with the parent strain, the ethanol concentration fermented by the mut-54 for 72 h increased by 12.74%, which was more suitable for producing ethanol from xylose than the parent strain. (authors)

  11. High catalytic activity of ultrafine nanoporous palladium for electro-oxidation of methanol, ethanol, and formic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Weimin; Qi, Zhen; Zhao, Changchun; Ji, Hong; Zhang, Zhonghua [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Nanoporous palladium (NPPd) with ultrafine ligament size of 3-6 nm was fabricated by dealloying of an Al-Pd alloy in an alkaline solution. Electrochemical measurements indicate that NPPd exhibits significantly high electrochemical active specific surface area (23 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}), and high catalytic activity for electro-oxidation of methanol, ethanol, and formic acid. Mass activities can reach 149, 148, 262 mA mg{sup -1} for the oxidation of methanol, ethanol and formic acid, respectively. Moreover, superior steady-state activities can be observed for all the electro-oxidation processes. NPPd will be a promising candidate for the anode catalyst for direct alcohol or formic acid fuel cells. (author)

  12. BOOGIE: Predicting Blood Groups from High Throughput Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giollo, Manuel; Minervini, Giovanni; Scalzotto, Marta; Leonardi, Emanuela; Ferrari, Carlo; Tosatto, Silvio C E

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed an incredible growth in the amount of available genotype data due to high throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques. This information may be used to predict phenotypes of medical relevance, and pave the way towards personalized medicine. Blood phenotypes (e.g. ABO and Rh) are a purely genetic trait that has been extensively studied for decades, with currently over thirty known blood groups. Given the public availability of blood group data, it is of interest to predict these phenotypes from HTS data which may translate into more accurate blood typing in clinical practice. Here we propose BOOGIE, a fast predictor for the inference of blood groups from single nucleotide variant (SNV) databases. We focus on the prediction of thirty blood groups ranging from the well known ABO and Rh, to the less studied Junior or Diego. BOOGIE correctly predicted the blood group with 94% accuracy for the Personal Genome Project whole genome profiles where good quality SNV annotation was available. Additionally, our tool produces a high quality haplotype phase, which is of interest in the context of ethnicity-specific polymorphisms or traits. The versatility and simplicity of the analysis make it easily interpretable and allow easy extension of the protocol towards other phenotypes. BOOGIE can be downloaded from URL http://protein.bio.unipd.it/download/.

  13. Facile synthesis of a platinum-lead oxide nanocomposite catalyst with high activity and durability for ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Hong-Hui; Chen, De-Hao; Zhou, Zhi-You; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2012-12-21

    Aimed at searching for highly active and stable nano-scale Pt-based catalysts that can improve significantly the energy conversion efficiency of direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs), a novel Pt-PbO(x) nanocomposite (Pt-PbO(x) NC) catalyst with a mean size of 3.23 nm was synthesized through a simple wet chemistry method without using a surfactant, organometallic precursors and high temperature. Electrocatalytic tests demonstrated that the as-prepared Pt-PbO(x) NC catalyst possesses a much higher catalytic activity and a longer durability than Pt nanoparticles (nm-Pt) and commercial Pt black catalysts for ethanol electrooxidation. For instance, Pt-PbO(x) NC showed an onset potential that was 30 mV and 44 mV less positive, together with a peak current density 1.7 and 2.6 times higher than those observed for nm-Pt and Pt black catalysts in the cyclic voltammogram tests. The ratio of current densities per unit Pt mass on Pt-PbO(x) NC, nm-Pt and Pt black catalysts is 27.3 : 3.4 : 1 for the long-term (2 hours) chronoamperometric experiments measured at -0.4 V (vs. SCE). In situ FTIR spectroscopic studies revealed that the activity of breaking C-C bonds of ethanol of the Pt-PbO(x) NC is as high as 5.17 times that of the nm-Pt, which illustrates a high efficiency of ethanol oxidation to CO(2) on the as-prepared Pt-PbO(x) NC catalyst.

  14. Life cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Matty; Xiros, Charilaos; Tillman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Development of more sustainable biofuel production processes is ongoing, and technology to run these processes at a high dry matter content, also called high-gravity conditions, is one option. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of such a technology currently in development for the production of bio-ethanol from spruce wood chips. The cradle-to-gate LCA used lab results from a set of 30 experiments (or process configurations) in which the main process variable was the detoxification strategy applied to the pretreated feedstock material. The results of the assessment show that a process configuration, in which washing of the pretreated slurry is the detoxification strategy, leads to the lowest environmental impact of the process. Enzyme production and use are the main contributors to the environmental impact in all process configurations, and strategies to significantly reduce this contribution are enzyme recycling and on-site enzyme production. Furthermore, a strong linear correlation between the ethanol yield of a configuration and its environmental impact is demonstrated, and the selected environmental impacts show a very strong cross-correlation ([Formula: see text] in all cases) which may be used to reduce the number of impact categories considered from four to one (in this case, global warming potential). Lastly, a comparison with results of an LCA of ethanol production under high-gravity conditions using wheat straw shows that the environmental performance does not significantly differ when using spruce wood chips. For this comparison, it is shown that eutrophication potential also needs to be considered due to the fertilizer use in wheat cultivation. The LCA points out the environmental hotspots in the ethanol production process, and thus provides input to the further development of the high-gravity technology. Reducing the number of impact categories based only on cross-correlations should be done with caution. Knowledge of the

  15. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  16. High-pressure density measurements for the binary system ethanol plus heptane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, G.; Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Baylaucq, A.

    2006-01-01

    The density of the asymmetrical binary system composed of ethanol and heptane has been measured (630 points) for nine different compositions including the pure compounds at five temperatures in the range (293.15 to 333.15) K and 14 isobars up to 65 MPa with a vibrating-tube densimeter, The experi......The density of the asymmetrical binary system composed of ethanol and heptane has been measured (630 points) for nine different compositions including the pure compounds at five temperatures in the range (293.15 to 333.15) K and 14 isobars up to 65 MPa with a vibrating-tube densimeter...

  17. High solid simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of wet oxidized corn stover to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, E.; Klinke, H.B.; Reczey, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study ethanol was produced from corn stover pretreated by alkaline and acidic wet oxidation (WO) (195 degreesC, 15 min, 12 bar oxygen) followed by nonisothermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In the first step of the SSF, small amounts of cellulases were added at 50...... increase of substrate concentration reduced the ethanol yield significant as a result of insufficient mass transfer. It was also shown that the fermentation could be followed with an easy monitoring system based on the weight loss of the produced CO2. (C) 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  18. Sodium citrate assisted facile synthesis of AuPd alloy networks for ethanol electrooxidation with high activity and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanling; Zhu, Zhijun; Lu, Xiaolin; Zhou, H. Susan

    2016-10-01

    The direct ethanol fuel cell is an emerging energy conversion device for which palladium is considered as the one of the most effective components for anode catalyst, however, its widespread application has been still limited by the activity and durability of the anode catalyst. In this work, AuPd alloy networks (NWs) are synthesized using H2PdCl4 and HAuCl4 as precursors reduced by NaBH4 in the presence of sodium citrate (SC). The results reveal that SC plays significant role in network structure, resulting in the enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the catalyst. This self-supported AuPd NWs catalyst exhibits much higher electrochemical catalytic activity than commercial Pd/C catalyst toward ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline solution. Significantly, AuPd NWs catalyst shows extremely high durability at the beginning of the chronoamperometry test, and as high as 49% of the mass current density (1.41 A/mgPd) remains after 4000 s current-time test at -0.3 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in N2-saturated KOH-ethanol solution. This strategy provides a facile method for the preparation of alloy networks with high electrochemical activity, and can be potentially expanded to a variety of electrochemical applications.

  19. High-Efficiency Palladium Nanoparticles Supported on Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Modified Fullerene [60] for Ethanol Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qing; Bai, Zhengyu; Shi, Min; Yang, Lin; Qiao, Jinli; Jiang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • C 60 support provides new ways to develop catalyst materials for its distorted structure. • Pd nanoparticles with uniform size and high dispersion have been successfully assembled on HP-β-CD-C 60 in aqueous solution. • Pd/HP-β-CD-C 60 shows very promising catalytic activity for ethanol oxidation. - Abstract: In this paper, Palladium nanoparticles with uniform size and high dispersion have been successfully assembled on hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) modified C 60 (abbreviated as HP-β-CD-C 60 ) via a sodium borohydride reduction process. According to the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements, the average particle size of the as-prepared Pd nanoparticles dispersed on HP-β-CD modified C 60 is 2.7 nm. Electrochemical studies reveal that the Pd/HP-β-CD-C 60 modified electrode shows a significantly high electrocatalytic activity, much more negative onset potentials and better stability than electrodes modified by other electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation, which indicates that it is a better potential candidate for application in a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC)

  20. Quantitative evaluation of yeast's requirement for glycerol formation in very high ethanol performance fed-batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevoigt Elke

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycerol is the major by-product accounting for up to 5% of the carbon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanolic fermentation. Decreasing glycerol formation may redirect part of the carbon toward ethanol production. However, abolishment of glycerol formation strongly affects yeast's robustness towards different types of stress occurring in an industrial process. In order to assess whether glycerol production can be reduced to a certain extent without jeopardising growth and stress tolerance, the yeast's capacity to synthesize glycerol was adjusted by fine-tuning the activity of the rate-controlling enzyme glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH. Two engineered strains whose specific GPDH activity was significantly reduced by two different degrees were comprehensively characterized in a previously developed Very High Ethanol Performance (VHEP fed-batch process. Results The prototrophic strain CEN.PK113-7D was chosen for decreasing glycerol formation capacity. The fine-tuned reduction of specific GPDH activity was achieved by replacing the native GPD1 promoter in the yeast genome by previously generated well-characterized TEF promoter mutant versions in a gpd2Δ background. Two TEF promoter mutant versions were selected for this study, resulting in a residual GPDH activity of 55 and 6%, respectively. The corresponding strains were referred to here as TEFmut7 and TEFmut2. The genetic modifications were accompanied to a strong reduction in glycerol yield on glucose; the level of reduction compared to the wild-type was 61% in TEFmut7 and 88% in TEFmut2. The overall ethanol production yield on glucose was improved from 0.43 g g-1 in the wild type to 0.44 g g-1 measured in TEFmut7 and 0.45 g g-1 in TEFmut2. Although maximal growth rate in the engineered strains was reduced by 20 and 30%, for TEFmut7 and TEFmut2 respectively, strains' ethanol stress robustness was hardly affected; i.e. values for final ethanol concentration (117 ± 4 g

  1. Highly stable and active Ni-doped ordered mesoporous carbon catalyst on the steam reforming of ethanol application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Y.Z. Chiou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel one-step direct synthesis of nickel embedded in an ordered mesoporous carbon catalyst (NiOMC is done in a basic medium of nonaqueous solution by a solvent evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The NiOMC sample is characterized by a variety of analytical and spectroscopy techniques, e.g., N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and temperature-programed reduction (TPR. In this study, the NiOMC catalyst is found to exhibit superior catalytic activity for the steam reforming of ethanol (SRE, showing high hydrogen selectivity and durability. Ethanol can be completely converted at 350 °C over the NiOMC catalyst. Also, the durability of the NiOMC catalyst on the SRE reaction exceeds 100 h at 450 °C, with SH2 approaching 65% and SCO of less than 1%.

  2. Hierarchical porous ZnO microflowers with ultra-high ethanol gas-sensing at low concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liming; Yue, He; Li, Haiying; Liu, Li; Li, Yu; Du, Liting; Duan, Haojie; Klyui, N. I.

    2018-05-01

    Hierarchical porous and non-porous ZnO microflowers have been successfully fabricated by hydrothermal method. Their crystal structure, morphology and gas-sensing properties were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical gas sensing intelligent analysis system (CGS). Compared with hierarchical non-porous ZnO microflowers, hierarchical porous ZnO microflowers exhibited ultra-high sensitivity with 50 ppm ethanol at 260 °C and the response is 110, which is 1.8 times higher than that of non-porous ZnO microflowers. Moreover, the lowest concentration limit of hierarchical porous ZnO microflowers (non-porous ZnO microflowers) to ethanol is 0.1 (1) ppm, the response value is 1.6 (1).

  3. Nanofibrillated Cellulose (NFC: A High-Value Co-Product that Improves the Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Song

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic ethanol is a sustainable alternative to petroleum as a transportation fuel, which could be made biologically from agricultural and forestry residues, municipal waste, or herbaceous and woody crops. Instead of putting efforts on steps overcoming the natural resistance of plants to biological breakdown, our study proposes a unique pathway to improve the outcome of the process by co-producing high-value nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC, offering a new economic leverage for cellulosic ethanol to compete with fossil fuels in the near future. In this study, glucose has been produced by commercial enzymes while the residual solids are converted into NFC via sonification. Here, we report the morphology of fibers changed through the process and yield of glucose in the enzymatic hydrolysis step.

  4. High temperature dilute phosphoric acid pretreatment of corn stover for furfural and ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfural was produced from corn stover by one stage pretreatment process using dilute H3PO4 and solid residues following furfural production were used for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL- Y2034. A series of experiments were conducted at varied temperatures (140-200 oC) and acid ...

  5. Facile synthesis of highly active PdAu nanowire networks as self-supported electrocatalyst for ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Wang, Jin; Wang, Erkang

    2014-06-25

    In recent years, direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are attracting increasing attention owing to their wide applications. However, a significant challenge in the development of DEFC technology is the urgent need for highly active anode catalysts for the ethanol oxidation reaction. In this work, a facile and reproducible method for the high-yield synthesis of PdAu nanowire networks is demonstrated. The whole synthetic process is very simple, just mixing Na2PdCl4, HAuCl4, and KBr in an aqueous solution and using polyvinylpyrrolidone as a protective reagent while sodium borohydride as a reductant. The whole synthetic process can be simply performed at room temperature and completed in 30 min, which can greatly simplify the synthetic process and lower the preparation cost. Electrochemical catalytic measurement results prove that the as-prepared catalysts exhibit dramatically enhanced electrocatalytic activity for ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline solution. The facile synthetic process and excellent catalytic performance of the as-prepared catalysts demonstrate that they can be used as a promising catalyst for DEFCs.

  6. High efficient ethanol and VFAs production from gas fermentation: effect of acetate, gas and inoculum microbial composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Gammal, Maie; Abou-Shanab, Reda; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    In bioindustry, syngas fermentation is a promising technology for biofuel production without the use of plant biomass as sugar-based feedstock. The aim of this study was to identify optimal conditions for high efficient ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production from synthetic gas fermenta......In bioindustry, syngas fermentation is a promising technology for biofuel production without the use of plant biomass as sugar-based feedstock. The aim of this study was to identify optimal conditions for high efficient ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production from synthetic gas...... fatty acids and ethanol was achieved by the pure culture (Clostridium ragsdalei). Depending on the headspace gas composition, VFA concentrations were up to 300% higher after fermentation with Clostridium ragsdalei compared to fermentation with mixed culture. The preferred gas composition with respect...... to highest VFA concentration was pure CO (100%) regardless of microbial composition of the inoculum and media composition. The addition of acetate had a negative impact on the VFA formation which was depending on the initial gas composition in head space....

  7. Concentration-Dependent Protection by Ethanol Extract of Propolis against γ-Ray-Induced Chromosome Damage in Human Blood Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Montoro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioprotection with natural products may be relevant to the mitigation of ionizing radiation-induced damage in mammalian systems; in this sense, propolis extracts have shown effects such as antioxidant, antitumoral, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulant. We report for the first time a cytogenetic study to evaluate the radioprotective effect, in vitro, of propolis against radiation-induced chromosomal damage. Lymphocytes were cultured with increasing concentrations of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP, including 20, 40, 120, 250, 500, 750, 1000, and 2000 μg mL−1 and then exposed to 2 Gy γ-rays. A significant and concentration-dependent decrease is observed in the frequency of chromosome aberrations in samples treated with EEP. The protection against the formation of dicentrics was concentration-dependent, with a maximum protection at 120 μg mL−1 of EEP. The observed frequency of dicentrics is described as negative exponential function, indicating that the maximum protectible fraction of dicentrics is approximately 44%. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities are the mechanisms that these substances use to protect cells from ionizing radiation.

  8. High-sensitive nitrogen dioxide and ethanol gas sensor using a reduced graphene oxide-loaded double split ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Azad, Prakrati; Akhtar, M. J.; Kar, Kamal K.

    2017-08-01

    A reduced graphene oxide (rGO) incorporated double split ring resonator (DSRR) portable microwave gas sensor is proposed in this work. The sensor is fabricated using two major steps: the DSRR is fabricated on the FR-4 substrate, which is excited by a high impedance microstrip line. The rGO is synthesized via a chemical route and coated inside the smaller ring of the DSRR. The SEM micrographs reveal crumpled sheets of rGO that provide a large surface area, and the XRD patterns of the as-synthesized rGO reveal the two-dimensional structure of the rGO nanosheets. The sensor performance is measured at room temperature using 100-400 ppm of ethanol and NO2 target gases. At 400 ppm, the sensor reveals a shift of 420 and 390 MHz in the S 21 frequency for NO2 and ethanol gases, respectively. The frequency shifts of 130 and 120 MHz in the S 21 resonance frequency are obtained for NO2 and ethanol gases, respectively, at a very low concentration of 100 ppm. The high sensitivity of the proposed rGO gas sensor is achieved due to the combined effect of the large surface area of the rGO responsible for accommodating more gas molecules, and its increased conductivity due to the transfer of the electron from the rGO. Moreover, an exceedingly short response time is observed for NO2 in comparison to ethanol, which allows the proposed sensor to be used for the selective detection of NO2 in a harsh environment. The overall approach used in this study is quite simple, and has great potential to enhance the gas detection behaviour of rGO.

  9. Highly improved ethanol gas-sensing performance of mesoporous nickel oxides nanowires with the stannum donor doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junqi; Li, Xiaoqing; Han, Yanbing; Xu, Jingcai; Jin, Hongxiao; Jin, Dingfeng; Peng, Xiaoling; Hong, Bo; Li, Jing; Yang, Yanting; Ge, Hongliang; Wang, Xinqing

    2018-06-01

    Mesoporous nickel oxides (NiO) and stannum(Sn)-doped NiO nanowires (NWs) were synthesized by using SBA-15 templates with the nanocasting method. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometry, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherm and UV–vis spectrum were used to characterize the phase structure, components and microstructure of the as-prepared samples. The gas-sensing analysis indicated that the Sn-doping could greatly improve the ethanol sensitivity for mesoporous NiO NWs. With the increasing Sn content, the ethanol sensitivity increased from 2.16 for NiO NWs up to the maximum of 15.60 for Ni0.962Sn0.038O1.038, and then decreased to 12.24 for Ni0.946Sn0.054O1.054 to 100 ppm ethanol gas at 340 °C. The high surface area from the Sn-doping improved the adsorption of oxygen on the surface of NiO NWs, resulting in the smaller surface resistance in air. Furthermore, owing to the recombination of the holes in hole-accumulation lay with the electrons from the donor impurity level and the increasing the body defects for Sn-doping, the total resistance in ethanol gas enhanced greatly. It was concluded that the sensitivity of Sn-doped NiO NWs based sensor could be greatly improved by the higher surface area and high-valence donor substitution from Sn-doping.

  10. Enzymatic hydrolysis at high-solids loadings for the conversion of agave bagasse to fuel ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspeta, Luis; Caro-Bermúdez, Mario A.; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Martinez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Conversion of agave bagasse to fuel ethanol. • Ethanosolv-pretreatment variables were statistically adjusted. • 91% of total sugars found in agave bagasse were recovered. • 225 g/L glucose from 30%-consistency hydrolysis using mini-reactors with peg-mixers. • 0.25 g of ethanol per g of dry agave bagasse was obtained. - Abstract: Agave bagasse is the lignocellulosic residue accumulated during the production of alcoholic beverages in Mexico and is a potential feedstock for the production of biofuels. A factorial design was used to investigate the effect of temperature, residence time and concentrations of acid and ethanol on ethanosolv pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of agave bagasse. This method and the use of a stirred in-house-made mini-reactor increased the digestibility of agave bagasse from 30% observed with the dilute-acid method to 98%; also allowed reducing the quantity of enzymes used to hydrolyze samples with solid loadings of 30% w/w and glucose concentrations up to 225 g/L were obtained in the enzymatic hydrolysates. Overall this process allows the recovery of 91% of the total fermentable sugars contained in the agave bagasse (0.51 g/g) and 69% of total lignin as co-product (0.11 g/g). The maximum ethanol yield under optimal conditions using an industrial yeast strain for the fermentation was 0.25 g/g of dry agave bagasse, which is 86% of the maximum theoretical (0.29 g/g). The effect of the glucose concentration and solid loading on the conversion of cellulose to glucose is discussed, in addition to prospective production of about 50 million liters of fuel ethanol using agave bagasse residues from the tequila industry as a potential solution to the disposal problems

  11. Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of high dry matter wet-exploded wheat straw at low enzyme loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, T.I.; Hou, Xiaoru; Hilstrøm, Troels

    2008-01-01

    was the most efficient in enhancing overall convertibility of the raw material to sugars and minimizing generation of furfural as a by-product. For scale-up of the process, high dry matter (DM) concentrations of 15-20% will be necessary. However, high DM hydrolysis and fermentation are limited by high...... and a low enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g cellulose in an industrial acceptable time frame of 96 h. Cellulose and hemicellulose conversion from enzymatic hydrolysis were 70 and 68%, respectively, and an overall ethanol yield from SSF was 68%....

  12. Chagas disease, a risk factor for high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicco, Miguel Hernán; Rodeles, Luz; Yódice, Agustina; Marcipar, Iván

    2014-12-01

    Chagas disease is a parasite infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Its most common complications is chronic Chagas heart disease but impairments of the systemic vasculature also has been observed. Although the different mechanisms that regulate blood pressure are disrupted, to our knowledge data on the association of hypertension and chronic Chagas disease are scarce. In this regard we evaluate whether Chagas disease constitutes a high blood pressure risk factor. We recruited 200 individuals, half of them with positive serology for T. cruzi. They were subjected to a complete clinical examination. The mean age of sampled individuals was 46.7 ± 12.3, and the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 124 ± 12 mmHg and 82 ± 10 mmHg, respectively. There were no between-group differences regarding age, sex distribution or body mass index. Chagas disease contributed significantly to high blood pressure (OR = 4, 95% CI 1.8323-7.0864, p = 0.0002). Our results reveal an important association between Chagas disease and high blood pressure, which should be contemplated by physicians in order to promote preventive cardiovascular actions in patients with Chagas disease.

  13. Taste-aversion-prone (TAP) rats and taste-aversion-resistant (TAR) rats differ in ethanol self-administration, but not in ethanol clearance or general consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, T Edward; Whitford-Stoddard, Jennifer L; Elkins, Ralph L

    2004-05-01

    Taste-aversion (TA)-prone (TAP) rats and TA-resistant (TAR) rats have been developed by means of bidirectional selective breeding on the basis of their behavioral responses to a TA conditioning paradigm. The TA conditioning involved the pairing of an emetic-class agent (cyclophosphamide) with a novel saccharin solution as the conditioned stimulus. Despite the absence of ethanol in the selective breeding process, these rat lines differ widely in ethanol self-administration. In the current study, blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined after 9 days of limited (2 h per day) access to a simultaneous, two-bottle choice of a 10% ethanol in water solution [volume/volume (vol./vol.)] or plain water. The BACs correlated highly with ethanol intake among TAR rats, but an insufficient number of TAP rats yielded measurable BACs to make the same comparison within this rat line. The same rats were subsequently exposed to 24-h access of a two-bottle choice (10% ethanol or plain water) for 8 days. Ethanol consumption during the 24-h access period correlated highly with that seen during limited access. Subsequent TA conditioning with these rats yielded line-typical differences in saccharin preferences. In a separate group of rats, ethanol clearance was determined by measuring BACs at 1, 4, and 7 h after injection of a 2.5-g/kg dose of ethanol. Ethanol clearance was not different between the two lines. Furthermore, the lines did not differ with respect to food and water consumption. Therefore, the TAP rat-TAR rat differences in ethanol consumption cannot be attributed to line differences in ethanol metabolism or in general consummatory behavior. The findings support our contention that the line differences in ethanol consumption are mediated by differences in TA-related mechanisms. The findings are discussed with respect to genetically based differences in the subjective experience of ethanol.

  14. Ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolleurp, F; Daugulis, A J

    1985-05-01

    Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce the effect of end-product inhibition through the use of a water-immiscible phase which removes fermentation products in situ. This has the beneficial effect of not only removing inhibitory products as they are formed (thus keeping reaction rates high) but also has the potential for reducing product recovery costs. We have chosen to examine the ethanol fermentation as a model system for end product inhibition and extractive fermentation, and have developed a computer model predicting the productivity enhancement possible with this technique. The model predicts an ethanol productivity of 82.6 g/L-h if a glucose feed of 750 g/L is fermented with a solvent having a distribution coefficient of 0.5 at a dilution rate of 5.0 h . This is more than 10 times higher than for a conventional chemostat fermentation of a 250 g/L glucose feed. In light of this, a systematic approach to extractive fermentation has been undertaken involving the screening of more than 1,000 solvents for their extractive properties. UNIFAC and UNIQUAC estimates of distribution coefficients and selectivities were compiled and ranked in a database, together with other important physical properties, such as density, surface tension and viscosity. Preliminary shake-flask and chemostat biocompatibility studies on the most promising solvents have been undertaken. The previous predictive, data base and experimental results are discussed.

  15. High-resolution ultrasound imaging and noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of blood variables in peripheral blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is being widely used in clinics to obtain diagnostic information non-invasively and in real time. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging platform, Vevo (VisualSonics, Inc.) provides in vivo, real-time images with exceptional resolution (up to 30 microns) using high-frequency transducers (up to 80 MHz). Recently, we built optoacoustic systems for probing radial artery and peripheral veins that can be used for noninvasive monitoring of total hemoglobin concentration, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and concentration of important endogenous and exogenous chromophores (such as ICG). In this work we used the high-resolution ultrasound imaging system Vevo 770 for visualization of the radial artery and peripheral veins and acquired corresponding optoacoustic signals from them using the optoacoustic systems. Analysis of the optoacoustic data with a specially developed algorithm allowed for measurement of blood oxygenation in the blood vessels as well as for continuous, real-time monitoring of arterial and venous blood oxygenation. Our results indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic technique (unlike pure optical approaches and other noninvasive techniques) is capable of accurate peripheral venous oxygenation measurement; and 2) peripheral venous oxygenation is dependent on skin temperature and local hemodynamics. Moreover, we performed for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) a comparative study of optoacoustic arterial oximetry and a standard pulse oximeter in humans and demonstrated superior performance of the optoacoustic arterial oximeter, in particular at low blood flow.

  16. Do new cellulolytic enzyme preparations affect the industrial strategies for high solids lignocellulosic ethanol production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    proven essential for economic feasibility at industrial scale. Historically, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was found to give better ethanol yields compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), but data in literature are typically based on operating the process at low dry...... matter conditions. In this work the impact of selected enzyme preparation and processing strategy (SHF, presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation—PSSF, and SSF) on final ethanol yield and overall performance was investigated with pretreated wheat straw up to 30% DM...... cellulose to around 94%, revealing that the most relevant products could be accounted for. One observation was the presence of oxidized sugar (gluconic acid) upon enzymatic hydrolysis with the latest enzyme preparation. Experiments showed gluconic acid formation by recently discovered enzymatic class...

  17. A highly sensitive and durable electrical sensor for liquid ethanol using thermally-oxidized mesoporous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harraz, Farid A.; Ismail, Adel A.; Al-Sayari, S. A.; Al-Hajry, A.; Al-Assiri, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    A capacitive detection of liquid ethanol using reactive, thermally oxidized films constructed from electrochemically synthesized porous silicon (PSi) is demonstrated. The sensor elements are fabricated as meso-PSi (pore sizes hydrophobic PSi surface exhibited almost a half sensitivity of the thermal oxide sensor. The response to water is achieved only at the oxidized surface and found to be ∼one quarter of the ethanol sensitivity, dependent on parameters such as vapor pressure and surface tension. The capacitance response retains ∼92% of its initial value after continuous nine cyclic runs and the sensors presumably keep long-term stability after three weeks storage, demonstrating excellent durability and storage stability. The observed behavior in current system is likely explained by the interface interaction due to dipole moment effect. The results suggest that the current sensor structure and design can be easily made to produce notably higher sensitivities for reversible detection of various analytes.

  18. Phase equilibrium measurements and thermodynamic modelling for the system (CO2 + ethyl palmitate + ethanol) at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaschi, Priscilla S.; Mafra, Marcos R.; Ndiaye, Papa M.; Corazza, Marcos L.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ethyl palmitate and biodiesel comparison in a pressure–composition diagram for the systems (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate + biodiesel), at different temperatures. Highlights: ► We measured VLE, LLE, and VLLE for the system (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate + ethanol). ► The saturation pressures were obtained using a variable-volume view cell. ► Phase envelope of (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate) is different that (CO 2 + soybean oil biodiesel). ► The experimental data were modeled using PR-vdW2 and PR–WS equations of state. - Abstract: This work reports phase equilibrium measurements for the binary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2)} and ternary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2) + ethanol(3)} systems at high pressures. There is currently great interest in biodiesel production processes involving supercritical and/or pressurized solvents, such as non-catalytic supercritical biodiesel production and enzyme-catalysed biodiesel production. Also, supercritical CO 2 can offer an interesting alternative for glycerol separation in the biodiesel purification step in a water-free process. In this context, the main goal of this work was to investigate the phase behaviour of binary and ternary systems involving CO 2 , a pure constituent of biodiesel ethyl palmitate and ethanol. Experiments were carried out in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell with operating temperatures ranging from (303.15 to 353.15) K and pressures up to 21 MPa. The CO 2 mole fraction ranged from 0.5033 to 0.9913 for the binary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2)} system and from 0.4436 to 0.9712 for ternary system {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2) + ethanol(3)} system with ethyl ester to ethanol molar ratios of (1:6), (1:3), and (1:1). For the systems investigated, vapour–liquid (VL), liquid–liquid (LL) and vapour–liquid–liquid (VLL) phase transitions were observed. The experimental data sets were successfully modeled using the Peng–Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals

  19. [Health and exercise: effects of exercise on high blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Nanri, H; Himeno, E

    1993-09-01

    Many factors, such as genetic, psychological, environmental, and socioeconomical factors, influence the health of individuals. Recently behavioral risks which cause preventable chronic diseases or premature death have been increasing. These risk factors are mainly due to living habits, such as over-eating, less exercise and psychological stress. Physical activity or fitness is reported to be inversely associated with morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases diabetes mellitus, cancer and so on. Hypertension has also been reported to be associated with low physical fitness in cross-sectional studies. We have so far reported a significant blood pressure reduction in mild hypertensive patients who completed mild intensity exercise training in well controlled studies. Exercise seemed to modify the multiple factors that might participate in raising and maintaining high blood pressure. The mechanisms of lowering blood pressure by exercise training are mainly due to a depletion of blood volume or the reduction of both cardiac output and the sympathetic tone. They were supported by the evidence of increased levels of prostaglandin E, dopamine, taurine, and decreased levels of plasma norepinephrine and endogenous ouavain-like substance. In this article, we have reviewed the physiological and biochemical roles of exercise, the effects of exercise on high blood pressure, and the hypotensive mechanism of mild aerobic exercise hypertensive patients.

  20. Continuous high-solids corn liquefaction and fermentation with stripping of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frank; Marquez, Marco A; Johnston, David B; Goldberg, Neil M; Hicks, Kevin B

    2010-06-01

    Removal of ethanol from the fermentor during fermentation can increase productivity and reduce the costs for dewatering the product and coproduct. One approach is to recycle the fermentor contents through a stripping column, where a non-condensable gas removes ethanol to a condenser. Previous research showed that this approach is feasible. Savings of $0.03 per gallon were predicted at 34% corn dry solids. Greater savings were predicted at higher concentration. Now the feasibility has been demonstrated at over 40% corn dry solids, using a continuous corn liquefaction system. A pilot plant, that continuously fed corn meal at more than one bushel (25 kg) per day, was operated for 60 consecutive days, continuously converting 95% of starch and producing 88% of the maximum theoretical yield of ethanol. A computer simulation was used to analyze the results. The fermentation and stripping systems were not significantly affected when the CO(2) stripping gas was partially replaced by nitrogen or air, potentially lowering costs associated with the gas recycle loop. It was concluded that previous estimates of potential cost savings are still valid. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

  2. A Nutrition Curriculum for Families with High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Rosanne P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A nutrition curriculum for elementary and secondary school students with high blood pressure was implemented as part of a Dietary/Exercise Alteration Program trial. Reduced sodium and energy intake and increased potassium intake were promoted. Materials and methods of the program are described. (Author/DF)

  3. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to high blood pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To estimate the burden of disease attributable to high blood pressure (BP) in adults aged 30 years and older in South Africa in 2000. Design. World Health Organization comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology was followed. Mean systolic BP (SBP) estimates by age and sex were obtained from the 1998 ...

  4. Prevalence of malnutrition and high blood pressure amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, underweight in children is projected to decline except in Sub-Sahara Africa. This study assessed the prevalence of malnutrition and its correlation with high blood pressure among adolescents in a semi-urban Nigerian setting. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among adolescent school children in ...

  5. Northern contaminant mixtures induced morphological and functional changes in human coronary artery endothelial cells under culture conditions typifying high fat/sugar diet and ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Maria; Yan, Jin; Ulhaq, Saad; Coughlan, Melanie; Laziyan, Mahemuti; Willmore, William; Jin, Xiaolei

    2013-11-16

    It has been reported that Northern populations are exposed to mixtures of various environmental contaminants unique to the Arctic (Northern contaminant mixtures - NCM) at a large range of concentrations, depending on their geological location, age, lifestyle and dietary habits. To determine if these contaminants may contribute to a cardiovascular health risk, especially when combined with a high fat and sugar diet and ethanol exposure, we treated human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with two mixtures of 4 organic (NCM1) or 22 organic and inorganic (NCM2) chemicals detected in Northerners' blood during 2004-2005 in the presence or absence of low-density lipoprotein (1.5mg/ml), very-low-density lipoprotein (1.0mg/ml) and glucose (10mmol/L) (LVG), and in the absence or presence of 0.1% ethanol. After 24h of exposure, cell morphology and markers of cytotoxicity and endothelial function were examined. NCM1 treatment did not affect cell viability, but increased cell size, disrupted cell membrane integrity, and decreased cell density, uptake of small peptides, release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), while causing no changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression and nitric oxide (NO) release. In contrast, NCM2 decreased cell viability, total protein yield, uptake of small peptides, eNOS protein expression, and NO release and caused membrane damage, but caused no changes in the secretion of ET-1, prostacyclin and PAI. The presence of LVG and/or alcohol did or did not influence the effects of NCM1 or NCM2 depending on the endpoint and the mixture examined. These results suggested that the effects of one or one group of contaminants may be altered by the presence of other contaminants, and that with or without the interaction of high fat and sugar diet and/or ethanol exposure, NCMs at the concentrations used caused endothelial dysfunction in vitro. It remains to be investigated if these effects of NCMs also

  6. “Drinking in the Dark” (DID) Procedures: A Model of Binge-Like Ethanol Drinking in Non-Dependent Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Todd E.; Navarro, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an overview of an animal model of binge-like ethanol drinking that has come to be called “drinking in the dark” (DID), a procedure that promotes high levels of ethanol drinking and pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in ethanol-preferring strains of mice. Originally described by Rhodes et al. (2005), the most common variation of the DID procedure, using singly housed mice, involves replacing the water bottle with a bottle containing 20% ethanol for 2 to 4 hours, beginning 3 hours into the dark cycle. Using this procedure, high ethanol drinking strains of mice (e.g., C57BL/6J) typically consume enough ethanol to achieve BECs greater than 100 mg/dL and to exhibit behavioral evidence of intoxication. This limited access procedure takes advantage of the time in the animal’s dark cycle in which the levels of ingestive behaviors are high, yet high ethanol intake does not appear to stem from caloric need. Mice have the choice of drinking or avoiding the ethanol solution, eliminating the stressful conditions that are inherent in other models of binge-like ethanol exposure in which ethanol is administered by the experimenter, and in some cases, potentially painful. The DID procedure is a high throughput approach that does not require extensive training or the inclusion of sweet compounds to motivate high levels of ethanol intake. The high throughput nature of the DID procedure makes it useful for rapid screening of pharmacological targets that are protective against binge-like drinking and for identifying strains of mice that exhibit binge-like drinking behavior. Additionally, the simplicity of DID procedures allows for easy integration into other paradigms, such as prenatal ethanol exposure and adolescent ethanol drinking. It is suggested that the DID model is a useful tool for studying the neurobiology and genetics underlying binge-like ethanol drinking, and may be useful for studying the transition to ethanol

  7. Ethanol production and maximum cell growth are highly correlated with membrane lipid composition during fermentation as determined by lipidomic analysis of 22 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Clark M; Lozada-Contreras, Michelle; Jiranek, Vladimir; Longo, Marjorie L; Block, David E

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing ethanol yield during fermentation is important for efficient production of fuel alcohol, as well as wine and other alcoholic beverages. However, increasing ethanol concentrations during fermentation can create problems that result in arrested or sluggish sugar-to-ethanol conversion. The fundamental cellular basis for these problem fermentations, however, is not well understood. Small-scale fermentations were performed in a synthetic grape must using 22 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (primarily wine strains) with various degrees of ethanol tolerance to assess the correlation between lipid composition and fermentation kinetic parameters. Lipids were extracted at several fermentation time points representing different growth phases of the yeast to quantitatively analyze phospholipids and ergosterol utilizing atmospheric pressure ionization-mass spectrometry methods. Lipid profiling of individual fermentations indicated that yeast lipid class profiles do not shift dramatically in composition over the course of fermentation. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data was performed using partial least-squares linear regression modeling to correlate lipid composition data with fermentation kinetic data. The results indicate a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.91) between the overall lipid composition and the final ethanol concentration (wt/wt), an indicator of strain ethanol tolerance. One potential component of ethanol tolerance, the maximum yeast cell concentration, was also found to be a strong function of lipid composition (R(2) = 0.97). Specifically, strains unable to complete fermentation were associated with high phosphatidylinositol levels early in fermentation. Yeast strains that achieved the highest cell densities and ethanol concentrations were positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine species similar to those known to decrease the perturbing effects of ethanol in model membrane systems.

  8. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Levine, G.F. (California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services)

    1993-01-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  9. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Levine, G.F. [California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services

    1993-05-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  10. Cellulosic ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Bruun, Sander; Jørgensen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield) from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.......5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw) and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could...... be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher...

  11. Repeated light-dark phase shifts modulate voluntary ethanol intake in male and female high alcohol-drinking (HAD1) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James W; Fixaris, Michael C; Belanger, Gabriel V; Rosenwasser, Alan M

    2007-10-01

    Chronic disruption of sleep and other circadian biological rhythms, such as occurs in shift work or in frequent transmeridian travel, appears to represent a significant source of allostatic load, leading to the emergence of stress-related physical and psychological illness. Recent animal experiments have shown that these negative health effects may be effectively modeled by exposure to repeated phase shifts of the daily light-dark (LD) cycle. As chronobiological disturbances are thought to promote relapse in abstinent alcoholics, and may also be associated with increased risk of subsequent alcohol abuse in nonalcoholic populations, the present experiment was designed to examine the effects of repeated LD phase shifts on voluntary ethanol intake in rats. A selectively bred, high alcohol-drinking (HAD1) rat line was utilized to increase the likelihood of excessive alcoholic-like drinking. Male and female rats of the selectively bred HAD1 rat line were maintained individually under a LD 12:12 cycle with both ethanol (10% v/v) and water available continuously. Animals in the experimental group were subjected to repeated 6-hour LD phase advances at 3 to 4 week intervals, while control rats were maintained under a stable LD cycle throughout the study. Contact-sensing drinkometers were used to monitor circadian lick patterns, and ethanol and water intakes were recorded weekly. Control males showed progressively increasing ethanol intake and ethanol preference over the course of the study, but males exposed to chronic LD phase shifts exhibited gradual decreases in ethanol drinking. In contrast, control females displayed decreasing ethanol intake and ethanol preference over the course of the experiment, while females exposed to experimental LD phase shifts exhibited a slight increase in ethanol drinking. Chronic circadian desynchrony induced by repeated LD phase shifts resulted in sex-specific modulation of voluntary ethanol intake, reducing ethanol intake in males while

  12. Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Nirla Gomes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Moreira, Rafaella Pessoa; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2010-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 310 individuals with high blood pressure. The prevalence of the diagnosis of sedentary lifestyle was 60%. The more common defining characteristics were "lack of physical conditioning" and "lack of practice for physical exercises." The nursing diagnosis was associated with age and presence of diabetes. Individuals who presented with a sedentary lifestyle related to lack of motivation were significantly younger. This study showed a high prevalence of "sedentary lifestyle" and its associations with age and the presence of diabetes. IMPLICATIONS TO NURSING PRACTICE: The acknowledgement of "sedentary lifestyle" contributes to the choice for nursing interventions that promote physical activity centered on the subject and the surroundings.

  13. Prevalence of pre-high blood pressure and high blood pressure among non-overweight children and adolescents using international blood pressure references in developed regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Changwei; Xu, Shuang; Wang, Hua; Wang, Wenming; Shen, Hui

    2017-09-01

    There is a lack of data on the prevalence of pre-high blood pressure (PreHBP) and high blood pressure (HBP), based on recent international blood pressure references, in non-overweight children and adolescents. To describe the prevalence of PreHBP and HBP in non-overweight children and adolescents in developed regions of China. In total, 588 097 non-overweight children and adolescents aged 6-17 years from the National Surveys on Chinese Students' Constitution and Health in 2015 were included. The prevalence of PreHBP was 13.41% and subjects in urban areas had a higher prevalence of PreHBP (14.14%) than those in rural areas (12.92%). Subjects in regions with a high (13.56%) or moderate (13.61%) socioeconomic status showed a higher prevalence of PreHBP than those in regions with a relatively low socioeconomic status (12.76%). A similar pattern was found for the prevalence of HBP, and the prevalence of HBP was 18.25% for all participants, 20.55% for subjects in urban areas, 16.71% in rural areas, 18.76% in high socioeconomic areas, 18.62% in moderate socioeconomic areas and 16.70% in relatively low socioeconomic areas. A large proportion of non-overweight children and adolescents had elevated blood pressure and there were urban-rural and socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of elevated blood pressure.

  14. Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derr, Dan [Logos Technologies, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

  15. High-concentration graphene dispersion stabilized by block copolymers in ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Suguna; Lee, Hyang Moo; Cheong, In Woo

    2017-07-01

    This article describes a comprehensive study for the preparation of graphene dispersions by liquid-phase exfoliation using amphiphilic diblock copolymers; poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(styrene) (PEO-b-PS), poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PEO-b-PVP), and poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(pyrenemethyl methacrylate) (PEO-b-PPy) with similar block lengths. Block copolymers were prepared from PEO using the Steglich coupling reaction followed by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Graphite platelets (G) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were used as graphene sources. The dispersion stability of graphene in ethanol was comparatively investigated by on-line turbidity, and the graphene concentration in the dispersions was determined gravimetrically. Our results revealed that the graphene dispersions with PEO-b-PVP were much more stable and included graphene with fewer defects than that with PEO-b-PS or PEO-b-PPy, as confirmed by turbidity and Raman analyses. Gravimetry confirmed that graphene concentrations up to 1.7 and 1.8mg/mL could be obtained from G and rGO dispersions, respectively, using PEO-b-PVP after one week. Distinctions in adhesion forces of PS, VP, PPy block units with graphene surface and the variation in solubility of the block copolymers in ethanol medium significantly affected the stability of the graphene dispersion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [The oral cavity condition in patients with high blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiak, Joanna; Kubić-Filiks, Beata; Szymańska, Jolanta

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure in adults is estimated at ca. 30-40% of the general population. Both hypertension disease and hypertensive drugs affect the condition of the patients' oral cavity. A review of the current literature shows that disorders most frequently found in the masticatory organ of patients with hypertension include: xerostomia, changes in salivary glands, gum hypertrophy, lichenoid lesions, taste disorders, and paraesthesias. The authors emphasize that patients with high blood pressure, along with the treatment of the underlying disease, should receive prophylactic and therapeutic dental care. This would enable reduction and/or elimination of unpleasant complaints, and also help prevent the emergence of secondary disorders in the patients' oral cavity as a result of hypertension pharmacotherapy. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  17. Improving ethanol fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in very high-gravity fermentation through chemical mutagenesis and meiotic recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Ding, Wen-Tao; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Wang, Jing-Yu [Tianjin Univ. (China). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering

    2011-08-15

    Genome shuffling is an efficient way to improve complex phenotypes under the control of multiple genes. For the improvement of strain's performance in very high-gravity (VHG) fermentation, we developed a new method of genome shuffling. A diploid ste2/ste2 strain was subjected to EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) mutagenesis followed by meiotic recombination-mediated genome shuffling. The resulting haploid progenies were intrapopulation sterile and therefore haploid recombinant cells with improved phenotypes were directly selected under selection condition. In VHG fermentation, strain WS1D and WS5D obtained by this approach exhibited remarkably enhanced tolerance to ethanol and osmolarity, increased metabolic rate, and 15.12% and 15.59% increased ethanol yield compared to the starting strain W303D, respectively. These results verified the feasibility of the strain improvement strategy and suggested that it is a powerful and high throughput method for development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with desired phenotypes that is complex and cannot be addressed with rational approaches. (orig.)

  18. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of very high gravity (VHG) potato mash for the production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Fujiwara, Maki; Wang, Xiaohui; Seyama, Tomoko; Shiroma, Riki; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Tokuyasu, Ken [National Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Mukojima, Nobuhiro [National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, NARO, 9-4 Shinsei-minami, Memuro-cho, Kasai-gun, Hokkaido 082-0071 (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of very high gravity (VHG) potato mash, containing 304 g L{sup -1} of dissolved carbohydrates, was carried out for ethanol production. Potato tubers were ground into a mash, which was highly viscous. Mash viscosity was reduced by the pretreatment with mixed enzyme preparations of pectinase, cellulase and hemicellulase. The enzymatic pretreatment established the use of VHG mash with a suitable viscosity. Starch in the pretreated mash was liquefied to maltodextrins by the action of thermo-stable {alpha}-amylase at 85 C. SSF of liquefied mash was performed at 30 C with the simultaneous addition of glucoamylase, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and ammonium sulfate as a nitrogen source for the yeast. The optimal glucoamylase loading, ammonium sulfate concentration and fermentation time were 1.65 AGU g{sup -1}, 30.2 mM and 61.5 h, respectively, obtained using the response surface methodology (RSM). Ammonium sulfate supplementation was necessary to avoid stuck fermentation under VHG condition. Using the optimized condition, ethanol yield of 16.61% (v/v) was achieved, which was equivalent to 89.7% of the theoretical yield. (author)

  19. Regulation of operant oral ethanol self-administration: a dose-response curve study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Yowell, Quinn V; Ron, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    Oral ethanol self-administration procedures in rats are useful preclinical tools for the evaluation of potential new pharmacotherapies as well as for the investigation into the etiology of alcohol abuse disorders and addiction. Determination of the effects of a potential treatment on a full ethanol dose-response curve should be essential to predict its clinical efficacy. Unfortunately, this approach has not been fully explored because of the aversive taste reaction to moderate to high doses of ethanol, which may interfere with consumption. In this study, we set out to determine whether a meaningful dose-response curve for oral ethanol self-administration can be obtained in rats. Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer a 20% ethanol solution in an operant procedure following a history of excessive voluntary ethanol intake. After stabilization of ethanol self-administration, the concentration of the solution was varied from 2.5 to 60% (v/v), and operant and drinking behaviors, as well as blood ethanol concentration (BEC), were evaluated following the self-administration of a 20, 40, and 60% ethanol solution. Varying the concentration of ethanol from 2.5 to 60% after the development of excessive ethanol consumption led to a typical inverted U-shaped dose-response curve. Importantly, rats adapted their level and pattern of responding to changes in ethanol concentration to obtain a constant level of intake and BEC, suggesting that their operant behavior is mainly driven by the motivation to obtain a specific pharmacological effect of ethanol. This procedure can be a useful and straightforward tool for the evaluation of the effects of new potential pharmacotherapies for the treatment of alcohol abuse disorders. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Elevated preoperative blood pressures in adult surgical patients are highly predictive of elevated home blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Robert B; Nwozuzu, Adambeke; Zafar, Jill; Chen, Eric; Kigwana, Simon; Monteiro, Miriam M; Charchaflieh, Jean; Sophanphattana, Sophisa; Dai, Feng; Burg, Matthew M

    2018-04-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement during the presurgical assessment has been suggested as a way to improve longitudinal detection and treatment of hypertension. The relationship between BP measured during this assessment and home blood pressure (HBP), a better indicator of hypertension, is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the positive predictive value of presurgical BP for predicting elevated HBP. We prospectively enrolled 200 patients at a presurgical evaluation clinic with clinic blood pressures (CBPs) ≥130/85 mm Hg, as measured using a previously validated automated upper-arm device (Welch Allyn Vital Sign Monitor 6000 Series), to undergo daily HBP monitoring (Omron Model BP742N) between the index clinic visit and their day of surgery. Elevated HBP was defined, per American Heart Association guidelines, as mean systolic HBP ≥135 mm Hg or mean diastolic HBP ≥85 mm Hg. Of the 200 participants, 188 (94%) returned their home blood pressure monitors with valid data. The median number of HBP recordings was 10 (interquartile range, 7-14). Presurgical CBP thresholds of 140/90, 150/95, and 160/100 mm Hg yielded positive predictive values (95% confidence interval) for elevated HBP of 84.1% (0.78-0.89), 87.5% (0.81-0.92), and 94.6% (0.87-0.99), respectively. In contrast, self-reported BP control, antihypertensive treatment, availability of primary care, and preoperative pain scores demonstrated poor agreement with elevated HBP. Elevated preoperative CBP is highly predictive of longitudinally elevated HBP. BP measurement during presurgical assessment may provide a way to improve longitudinal detection and treatment of hypertension. Copyright © 2018 American Heart Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Selectively bred crossed high-alcohol-preferring mice drink to intoxication and develop functional tolerance, but not locomotor sensitization during free-choice ethanol access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; Kasten, Chelsea R; Boehm, Stephen L; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Crossed high-alcohol-preferring (cHAP) mice were selectively bred from a cross of the HAP1 × HAP2 replicate lines and demonstrate blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) during free-choice drinking reminiscent of those observed in alcohol-dependent humans. In this report, we investigated the relationship between free-choice drinking, intoxication, tolerance, and sensitization in cHAP mice. We hypothesized that initially mice would become ataxic after drinking alcohol, but that increased drinking over days would be accompanied by increasing tolerance to the ataxic effects of ethanol (EtOH). Male and female cHAP mice had free-choice access to 10% EtOH and water (E), while Water mice (W) had access to water alone. In experiment 1, the first drinking experience was monitored during the dark portion of the cycle. Once E mice reached an average intake rate of ≥1.5 g/kg/h, they, along with W mice, were tested for footslips on a balance beam, and BECs were assessed. In experiments 2, 3, and 4, after varying durations of free-choice 10% EtOH access (0, 3, 14, or 21 days), mice were challenged with 20% EtOH and tested for number of footslips on a balance beam or locomotor stimulant response. Blood was sampled for BEC determination. We found that cHAP mice rapidly acquire alcohol intakes that lead to ataxia. Over time, cHAP mice developed behavioral tolerance to the ataxic effects of alcohol, paralleled by escalating alcohol consumption. However, locomotor sensitization did not develop following 14 days of free-choice EtOH access. Overall, we observed increases in free-choice drinking with extended alcohol access paralleled by increases in functional tolerance, but not locomotor sensitization. These data support our hypothesis that escalating free-choice drinking over days in cHAP mice is driven by tolerance to alcohol's behavioral effects. These data are the first to demonstrate that escalating free-choice consumption is accompanied by increasing alcohol tolerance. In

  2. [Vascular adrenal cyst causing difficult to control high blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Escudero, D; Torres Roca, M; Hernández Contreras, M E; Sánchez Rodríguez, C; Oñate Celdrán, J

    Hypertension is a prevalent disease in developed countries. Adrenal masses, and especially adrenal cysts, are a rare and usually asymptomatic finding, which can go unnoticed or be detected as incidental findings in imaging tests. These circumstances make the multidisciplinary approach mandatory. The case is presented on a 72 year-old woman with uncontrolled high blood pressure referred to the Urology Department due to the incidental finding of a right retroperitoneal mass. A functional and imaging study was performed, establishing a diagnosis of adrenal cyst causing hypertensive symptoms. A literature search was performed in order to assess diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. With the diagnosis of adrenal cyst causing uncontrolled high blood pressure, a right laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed. After surgery the patient has maintained blood pressure within the normal range. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for the management of rare diseases. The surgical approach, if possible, should be laparoscopic. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009...... and November 2011, we offered haematology consultations to blood donors with repeated haemoglobin concentration (Hb) above the WHO limit for polycythaemia vera (PV) (10·2 and 11·5 mm/16·5 and 18·5 g/dl for women and men, respectively). Investigation of such donors included Hb, haematocrit, mean cell volume......, erythropoietin, ferritin, platelet count and leucocyte count, JAK2 V617 and JAK2 exon12 analysis, as well as other routine measurements. Results  Among 46 such donors, 39 had a history of smoking, which contributes to erythrocytosis. Two had PV, five had severe hypertension, one of them because of renal artery...

  4. Pt-Richcore/Sn-Richsubsurface/Ptskin Nanocubes As Highly Active and Stable Electrocatalysts for the Ethanol Oxidation Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, Rubén; Arán-Ais, Rosa M; Padgett, Elliot; Muller, David A; Lázaro, Ma Jesús; Solla-Gullón, José; Feliu, Juan M; Pastor, Elena; Abruña, Héctor D

    2018-03-14

    Direct ethanol fuel cells are one of the most promising electrochemical energy conversion devices for portable, mobile and stationary power applications. However, more efficient and stable and less expensive electrocatalysts are still required. Interestingly, the electrochemical performance of the electrocatalysts toward the ethanol oxidation reaction can be remarkably enhanced by exploiting the benefits of structural and compositional sensitivity and control. Here, we describe the synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical behavior of cubic Pt-Sn nanoparticles. The electrochemical activity of the cubic Pt-Sn nanoparticles was found to be about three times higher than that obtained with unshaped Pt-Sn nanoparticles and six times higher than that of Pt nanocubes. In addition, stability tests indicated the electrocatalyst preserves its morphology and remains well-dispersed on the carbon support after 5000 potential cycles, while a cubic (pure) Pt catalyst exhibited severe agglomeration of the nanoparticles after a similar stability testing protocol. A detailed analysis of the elemental distribution in the nanoparticles by STEM-EELS indicated that Sn dissolves from the outer part of the shell after potential cycling, forming a ∼0.5 nm Pt skin. This particular atomic composition profile having a Pt-rich core, a Sn-rich subsurface layer, and a Pt-skin surface structure is responsible for the high activity and stability.

  5. Drugs for treatment of very high blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duley, Lelia; Meher, Shireen; Jones, Leanne

    2013-07-31

    Very high blood pressure during pregnancy poses a serious threat to women and their babies. The aim of antihypertensive therapy is to lower blood pressure quickly but safety, to avoid complications. Antihypertensive drugs lower blood pressure but their comparative effectiveness and safety, and impact on other substantive outcomes is uncertain. To compare different antihypertensive drugs for very high blood pressure during pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (9 January 2013). Studies were randomised trials. Participants were women with severe hypertension during pregnancy. Interventions were comparisons of one antihypertensive drug with another. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed trial quality. Two review authors extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Thirty-five trials (3573 women) with 15 comparisons were included. Women allocated calcium channel blockers were less likely to have persistent high blood pressure compared to those allocated hydralazine (six trials, 313 women; 8% versus 22%; risk ratio (RR) 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21 to 0.66). Ketanserin was associated with more persistent high blood pressure than hydralazine (three trials, 180 women; 27% versus 6%; RR 4.79, 95% CI 1.95 to 11.73), but fewer side-effects (three trials, 120 women; RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.53) and a lower risk of HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and lowered platelets) syndrome (one trial, 44 women; RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.81).Labetalol was associated with a lower risk of hypotension compared to diazoxide (one trial 90 women; RR 0.06, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.99) and a lower risk of caesarean section (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.02), although both were borderline for statistical significance.Both nimodipine and magnesium sulphate were associated with a high incidence of persistent high blood pressure, but this risk was lower for nimodipine compared to magnesium sulphate (one trial

  6. Influence of fiber degradation and concentration of fermentable sugars on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of high-solids spruce slurry to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Kerstin; Galbe, Mats; Zacchi, Guido

    2013-10-08

    Saccharification and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic materials, such as spruce, should be performed at high solids contents in order to reduce the cost of the produced bioethanol. However, this has been shown to result in reduced ethanol yields or a complete lack of ethanol production. Previous studies have shown inconsistent results when prehydrolysis is performed at a higher temperature prior to the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of steam-pretreated lignocellulosic materials. In some cases, a significant increase in overall ethanol yield was reported, while in others, a slight decrease in ethanol yield was observed. In order to investigate the influence of prehydrolysis on high-solids SSF of steam-pretreated spruce slurry, in the present study, the presence of fibers and inhibitors, degree of fiber degradation and initial fermentable sugar concentration has been studied. SSF of whole steam-pretreated spruce slurry at a solids content of 13.7% water-insoluble solids (WIS) resulted in a very low overall ethanol yield, mostly due to poor fermentation. The yeast was, however, able to ferment the washed slurry and the liquid fraction of the pretreated slurry. Performing prehydrolysis at 48°C for 22 hours prior to SSF of the whole pretreated slurry increased the overall ethanol yield from 3.9 to 62.1%. The initial concentration of fermentable sugars in SSF could not explain the increase in ethanol yield in SSF with prehydrolysis. Although the viscosity of the material did not appear to decrease significantly during prehydrolysis, the degradation of the fibers prior to the addition of the yeast had a positive effect on ethanol yield when using whole steam-pretreated spruce slurry. The results of the present study suggest that the increase in ethanol yield from SSF when performing prehydrolysis is a result of fiber degradation rather than a decrease in viscosity. The increased concentration of fermentable sugars at the beginning of the

  7. Electrochemical Partial Reforming of Ethanol into Ethyl Acetate Using Ultrathin Co3O4 Nanosheets as a Highly Selective Anode Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Qin, Qing; Zhao, Xiaojing; Xu, Chaofa; Hu, Chengyi; Mo, Shiguang; Wang, Yu Olivia; Lin, Shuichao; Tang, Zichao; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2016-08-24

    Electrochemical partial reforming of organics provides an alternative strategy to produce valuable organic compounds while generating H2 under mild conditions. In this work, highly selective electrochemical reforming of ethanol into ethyl acetate is successfully achieved by using ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets with exposed (111) facets as an anode catalyst. Those nanosheets were synthesized by a one-pot, templateless hydrothermal method with the use of ammonia. NH3 was demonstrated critical to the overall formation of ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. With abundant active sites on Co3O4 (111), the as-synthesized ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activities toward water and ethanol oxidations in alkaline media. More importantly, over the Co3O4 nanosheets, the electrooxidation from ethanol to ethyl acetate was so selective that no other oxidation products were yielded. With such a high selectivity, an electrolyzer cell using Co3O4 nanosheets as the anode electrocatalyst and Ni-Mo nanopowders as the cathode electrocatalyst has been successfully built for ethanol reforming. The electrolyzer cell was readily driven by a 1.5 V battery to achieve the effective production of both H2 and ethyl acetate. After the bulk electrolysis, about 95% of ethanol was electrochemically reformed into ethyl acetate. This work opens up new opportunities in designing a material system for building unique devices to generate both hydrogen and high-value organics at room temperature by utilizing electric energy from renewable sources.

  8. A quantitative metabolomics study of high sodium response in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinhe; Condruz, Stefan; Chen, Jingkui; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Hemicellulose hydrolysates, sugar-rich feedstocks used in biobutanol refinery, are normally obtained by adding sodium hydroxide in the hydrolyze process. However, the resulting high sodium concentration in the hydrolysate inhibits ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation, and thus limits the use of these low-cost feedstocks. We have thus studied the effect of high sodium on the metabolic behavior of Clostridium acetobutyricum ATCC 824, with xylose as the carbon source. At a threshold sodium concentration of 200 mM, a decrease of the maximum cell dry weight (−19.50 ± 0.85%) and of ABE yield (−35.14 ± 3.50% acetone, −33.37 ± 0.74% butanol, −22.95 ± 1.81% ethanol) were observed compared to control culture. However, solvents specific productivities were not affected by supplementing sodium. The main effects of high sodium on cell metabolism were observed in acidogenesis, during which we observed the accumulation of ATP and NADH, and the inhibition of the pentose phosphate (PPP) and the glycolytic pathways with up to 80.73 ± 1.47% and 68.84 ± 3.42% decrease of the associated metabolic intermediates, respectively. However, the NADP+-to-NADPH ratio was constant for the whole culture duration, a phenomenon explaining the robustness of solvents specific productivities. Therefore, high sodium, which inhibited biomass growth through coordinated metabolic effects, interestingly triggered cell robustness on solvents specific productivity. PMID:27321153

  9. Simultaneous determination of ethanol's four types of non-oxidative metabolites in human whole blood by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Zheng, Feng; Lin, Zebin

    2017-01-01

    The importance of ethanol non-oxidative metabolites as the specific biomarkers of alcohol consumption in clinical and forensic settings is increasingly acknowledged. Simultaneous determination of these metabolites can provide a wealth of information like drinking habit and history, but it was dif......The importance of ethanol non-oxidative metabolites as the specific biomarkers of alcohol consumption in clinical and forensic settings is increasingly acknowledged. Simultaneous determination of these metabolites can provide a wealth of information like drinking habit and history...

  10. Racial and gender discrimination: risk factors for high blood pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N

    1990-01-01

    Despite controversy as to the biologic and/or social meaning of 'race' and 'sex', few public health studies have directly examined the impact of racial or gender discrimination on health. One plausible condition they might affect is hypertension, since stress and internalized anger may constitute important risk factors for this disease. The present investigation therefore sought to determine the feasibility of asking questions pertaining to race- and gender-biased treatment plus response to unfair treatment, and to assess their predictive value regarding self-reported high blood pressure. Using random-digit dialing, 51 black and 50 white women, ages 20-80, who resided in Alameda County, CA in 1987, were identified and interviewed by phone. Among black respondents, those who stated they usually accepted and kept quiet about unfair treatment were 4.4 times more likely to report hypertension than women who said they took action and talked to others (P = 0.01 for linear trend); no clear association existed among white respondents. The age-adjusted risk of high blood pressure among black respondents who recounted experiencing zero instances of race- and gender-biased treatment was 2.6 times greater than that of black women who reported one or more such instances (95% CI = 0.7, 10.5). Among white respondents, gender discrimination was not associated with hypertension. These results suggest that an internalized response to unfair treatment, plus non-reporting of race and gender discrimination, may constitute risk factors for high blood pressure among black women. They also bolster the view that subjective appraisal of stressors may be inversely associated with risk of hypertension.

  11. Phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species by peripheral blood phagocytes in patients with different stages of alcohol-induced liver disease: effect of acute exposure to low ethanol concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Schäfer, C.; Paulus, S. B.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In rodents, the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) after chronic alcohol feeding was shown to depend on the activity of enzymes that are necessary for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytes. The aim of this study was to determine the formation of ROS...... by resting and challenged phagocytes of patients with different stages of ALD in the presence of ethanol concentrations commonly found in the blood of alcohol abusers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The release of ROS and the phagocytosis of bacteria by neutrophils and monocytes obtained from 60 patients, who were...... produced significantly more ROS than those of healthy controls. Basal values of ROS production from neutrophils correlated closely to markers of the severity of ALD. ROS formation was depressed dose-dependently by ethanol in the healthy controls but not in alcohol abusers. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the ROS...

  12. Stretching of red blood cells at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, J. E.; Ristenpart, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) in flow has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this Rapid Communication, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that both the Kelvin-Voigt and Skalak viscoelastic models capture the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 2000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  13. Ag-Modified In2O3 Nanoparticles for Highly Sensitive and Selective Ethanol Alarming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxiao Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pure In2O3 nanoparticles are prepared by a facile precipitation method and are further modified by Ag. The synthesized samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman and UV-Vis spectra. The results show the successful heterojunction formation between Ag and In2O3. Gas sensing property measurements show that the 5 mol % Ag-modified In2O3 sensor has the response of 67 to 50 ppm ethanol, and fast response and recovery time of 22.3 and 11.7 s. The response is over one magnitude higher than that of pure In2O3, which can be attributed to the enhanced catalytic activity of Ag-modified In2O3 as compared with the pure one. The mechanism of the gas sensor can be explained by the spillover effect of Ag, which enhances the oxygen adsorption onto the surface of In2O3 and thus give rise to the higher activity and larger surface barrier height.

  14. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  15. Recycling cellulases for cellulosic ethanol production at industrial relevant conditions: potential and temperature dependency at high solid processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindedam, Jane; Haven, Mai Østergaard; Chylenski, Piotr; Jørgensen, Henning; Felby, Claus

    2013-11-01

    Different versions of two commercial cellulases were tested for their recyclability of enzymatic activity at high dry matter processes (12% or 25% DM). Recyclability was assessed by measuring remaining enzyme activity in fermentation broth and the ability of enzymes to hydrolyse fresh, pretreated wheat straw. Industrial conditions were used to study the impact of hydrolysis temperature (40 or 50°C) and residence time on recyclability. Enzyme recycling at 12% DM indicated that hydrolysis at 50°C, though ideal for ethanol yield, should be kept short or carried out at lower temperature to preserve enzymatic activity. Best results for enzyme recycling at 25% DM was 59% and 41% of original enzyme load for a Celluclast:Novozyme188 mixture and a modern cellulase preparation, respectively. However, issues with stability of enzymes and their strong adsorption to residual solids still pose a challenge for applicable methods in enzyme recycling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Weekend ethanol consumption and high-sucrose diet: resveratrol effects on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, lipid profile, oxidative stress and hepatic energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Katiucha Karolina Honório Ribeiro; Souza, Gisele Aparecida; Seiva, Fábio Rodrigues Ferreira; Ebaid, Geovana Xavier; Novelli, Ethel Lourenzi Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    The present study analyzed the association between weekend ethanol and high-sucrose diet on oxygen consumption, lipid profile, oxidative stress and hepatic energy metabolism. Because resveratrol (RS, 3,5,4'-trans-trihydroxystilbene) has been implicated as a modulator of alcohol-independent cardiovascular protection attributed to red wine, we also determined whether RS could change the damage done by this lifestyle. Male Wistar 24 rats receiving standard chow were divided into four groups (n = 6/group): (C) water throughout the experimental period; (E) 30% ethanol 3 days/week, water 4 days/week; (ES) a mixture of 30% ethanol and 30% sucrose 3 days/week, drinking 30% sucrose 4 days/week; (ESR) 30% ethanol and 30% sucrose containing 6 mg/l RS 3 days/week, drinking 30% sucrose 4 days/week. After 70 days the body weight was highest in ESR rats. E rats had higher energy expenditure (resting metabolic rate), oxygen consumption (VO(2)), fat oxidation, serum triacylglycerol (TG) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) than C. ES rats normalized calorimetric parameters and enhanced carbohydrate oxidation. ESR ameliorated calorimetric parameters, reduced TG, VLDL and lipid hydroperoxide/total antioxidant substances, as well enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL/TG ratio. Hepatic hydroxyacyl coenzyme-A dehydrogenase (OHADH)/citrate synthase ratio was lower in E and ES rats than in C. OHADH was highest in ESR rats. The present study brought new insights on weekend alcohol consumption, demonstrating for the first time, that this pattern of ethanol exposure induced dyslipidemic profile, calorimetric and hepatic metabolic changes which resemble that of the alcoholism. No synergistic effects were found with weekend ethanol and high-sucrose intake. RS was advantageous in weekend drinking and high-sucrose intake condition ameliorating hepatic metabolism and improving risk factors for cardiovascular damage.

  17. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE LEADS TO GREATER ETHANOL-INDUCED APPETITIVE REINFORCEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M.; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol’s reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol’s aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30–45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance. PMID:22698870

  18. Effects and Interactions of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure, a Post-Weaning High-Fat Diet and Gender on Adult Hypercholesterolemia Occurrence in Offspring Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yongjian; Luo, Hanwen; Hu, Shuwei; Wu, Yimeng; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) could induce intrauterine programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism, resulting in intrauterine growth retardation and susceptibility to adult hypercholesterolemia in offspring. This study aimed to analyse the effects and interactions of PEE, a post-weaning high-fat diet (HFD) and gender on the occurrence of adult hypercholesterolemia in offspring rats. Wistar female rats were treated with ethanol (4 g/kg.d) at gestational days 11-20. The offspring were given a normal diet or HFD after weaning, and the blood cholesterol metabolism phenotype and expression of hepatic cholesterol metabolism related genes were detected in 24-week-old offspring. Furthermore, the interactions among PEE, HFD, and gender on hypercholesterolemia occurrence were analysed. PEE increased the serum total cholesterol (TCH) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and decreased the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level in adult offspring rats; the changes in female offspring were greater than those in males. At the same time, the mRNA expression levels of hepatic cholesterol metabolic enzymes (apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1))-were increased, while the mRNA expression levels of the scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) and LDL receptor (LDLR) were decreased. Furthermore, a three-way ANOVA showed there were interactions among PEE, post-weaning HFD and gender. For PEE offspring, a post-weaning HFD aggravated the elevated hepatic ApoB and CYP7A1 expression and reduced SR-B1 and LDLR expression; the changes in hepatic SR-B1 and CYP7A1 expression were greater in female HFD rats than in males. Our findings suggest that a post-weaning HFD could aggravate offspring hypercholesterolemia caused by PEE and that this mechanism might be associated with hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders that are aggravated by a post-weaning HFD; hepatic cholesterol metabolism was more sensitive to

  19. The effects of nicotine on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversions in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Jennifer A; Busse, Gregory D; Roma, Peter G; Chen, Scott A; Barr, Christina S; Riley, Anthony L

    2008-04-01

    Overall drug acceptability is thought to be a function of the balance between its rewarding and aversive effects, the latter of which is reportedly affected by polydrug use. Given that nicotine and alcohol are commonly co-used, the present experiments sought to assess nicotine's impact on ethanol's aversive effects within a conditioned taste aversion design. Experiment 1 examined various doses of nicotine (0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 mg/kg) to determine a behaviorally active dose, and experiment 2 examined various doses of ethanol (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg) to determine a dose that produced intermediate aversions. Experiment 3 then examined the aversive effects of nicotine (0.8 mg/kg) and ethanol (1.0 g/kg) alone and in combination. Additionally, nicotine's effects on blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) and ethanol-induced hypothermia were examined. Nicotine and ethanol combined produced aversions significantly greater than those produced by either drug alone or the summed aversive effects of the individual compounds. These effects were unrelated to changes in BAC, but nicotine and ethanol combined produced a prolonged hypothermic effect which may contribute to the increased aversions induced by the combination. These data demonstrate that nicotine may interact with ethanol, increasing ethanol's aversive effects. Although the rewarding effects of concurrently administered nicotine and ethanol were not assessed, these data do indicate that the reported high incidence of nicotine and ethanol co-use is unlikely due to reductions in the aversiveness of ethanol with concurrently administered nicotine. It is more likely attributable to nicotine-related changes in ethanol's rewarding effects.

  20. Methodological modifications on quantification of phosphatidylethanol in blood from humans abusing alcohol, using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradottir Steina

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylethanol (PEth is an abnormal phospholipid formed slowly in cell membranes by a transphosphatidylation reaction from phosphatidylcholine in the presence of ethanol and catalyzed by the enzyme phospholipase D. PEth in blood is a promising new marker of ethanol abuse depending on the high specificity and sensitivity of this marker. None of the biological markers used in clinical routine at the present time are sensitive and specific enough for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse. The method for PEth analysis includes lipid extraction of whole blood, a one-hour HPLC separation of lipids and ELSD (evaporative light scattering detection of PEth. Results Methodological improvements are presented which comprise a simpler extraction procedure, the use of phosphatidylbutanol as internal standard and a new algorithm for evaluation of unknown samples. It is further demonstrated that equal test results are obtained with blood collected in standard test tubes with EDTA as with the previously used heparinized test tubes. The PEth content in blood samples is stable for three weeks in the refrigerator. Conclusion Methodological changes make the method more suitable for routine laboratory use, lower the limit of quantification (LOQ and improve precision.

  1. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on......-line measurement of stress markers in blood. However, the impact of the blood sampling itself on the corticosterone levels in blood is unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the frequency of blood sampling influences the plasma corticosterone levels in male and female rats. During anaesthesia...... the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels...

  2. Social opportunity and ethanol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Burger, Kelly M; Di Poce, Jason; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2004-11-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of pairings of ethanol sipper conditioned stimulus (CS) with social opportunity unconditioned stimulus (US) on ethanol sipper CS-directed drinking in rats. In both experiments, rats were deprived of neither food nor water, and initiation of drinking of unsweetened 3% ethanol was evaluated, as were the effects of increasing the concentration of unsweetened ethanol (3-10%) across sessions. In Experiment 1, Group Paired (n=8) received 35 trials per session wherein the ethanol sipper CS was presented for 10 s immediately prior to 15 s of social opportunity US. All rats initiated sipper CS-directed drinking of 3% ethanol. Increasing the concentration of ethanol in the sipper CS [(3%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% (vol./vol.)] across sessions induced escalation of daily g/kg ethanol intake. To evaluate the hypothesis that the drinking in Group Paired was due to autoshaping, Experiment 2 included a pseudoconditioning control that received sipper CS and social opportunity US randomly with respect to one another. All rats in Group Paired (n=6) and in Group Random (n=6) initiated sipper CS-directed drinking of 3% ethanol and daily mean g/kg ethanol intake in the two groups was comparable. Also comparable was daily g/kg ethanol intake, which increased for both groups with the availability of higher concentrations of ethanol in the sipper CS, up to a maximum of approximately 0.8 g/kg ethanol intake of 10% ethanol. Results indicate that random presentations of ethanol sipper CS and social opportunity US induced reliable initiation and escalation of ethanol intake, and close temporally contiguous presentations of CS and US did not induce still additional ethanol intake. This may indicate that autoshaping CR performance is not induced by these procedures, or that high levels of ethanol intake induced by factors related to pseudoconditioning produces a ceiling effect. Implications for ethanol drinking in humans are discussed.

  3. Effect of ethanol and pH on the adsorption of acetaminophen (paracetamol) to high surface activated charcoal, in vitro studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle R; Christophersen, A Bolette

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) intoxication often in combination with ethanol, is seen commonly in overdose cases. Doses of several grams might be close to the maximum adsorption capacity of the standard treatment dose (50g) of activated charcoal. The aim of this study was to determine...... the maximum adsorption capacity for paracetamol for two types of high surface-activated charcoal [Carbomix and Norit Ready-To-Use (not yet registered trademark in Denmark) both from Norit Cosmara, Amersfoort, The Netherlands] in simulated in vivo environments: At pH 1.2 (gastric environment), at pH 7.......2 (intestinal environment), and with and without 10% ethanol. METHODS: Activated charcoal, at both gastric or intestinal pHs, and paracetamol were mixed, resulting in activated charcoal-paracetamol ratios from 10:] to 1:1. In trials with ethanol, some of the gastric or intestinal fluid was replaced...

  4. Use of a crossed high alcohol preferring (cHAP) mouse model with the NIAAA-model of chronic-binge ethanol intake to study liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kyle J; Nazari, Shayan S; Jacobs, W Carl; Grahame, Nicholas J; McKillop, Iain H

    2017-11-01

    This study sought to compare mice bred to preferentially consume high amounts of alcohol (crossed-high alcohol preferring, cHAP) to c57BL/6 (C57) mice using a chronic-binge ethanol ingestion model to induce alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Male C57 and cHAP mice were randomized to a Lieber-DeCarli control (LDC) diet, Lieber-DeCarli 5% (v/v) ethanol (LDE) diet or free-choice between 10% (v/v) ethanol in drinking water (EtOH-DW) and DW. After 4 weeks mice were gavaged with either 9 g/kg maltose-dextrin (LDC+MD) or 5 g/kg EtOH (LDE+Binge, EtOH-DW+Binge). Nine hours later tissue and serum were collected and analyzed. cHAP mice on EtOH-DW consumed significantly more ethanol than cHAP or C57 mice maintained on LDE. However, cHAP and C57 mice on the LDE+Binge regiment had greater hepatosteatosis and overall degree of liver injury compared to EtOH-DW+Binge. Changes in pro-inflammatory gene expression was more pronounced in cHAP mice than C57 mice. Analysis of liver enzymes revealed a robust induction of CYP2E1 in C57 and cHAP mice maintained on EtOH-DW+Binge or LDE+Binge. However, while C57 mice exhibited higher basal hepatic glutathione than cHAP mice, these mice appeared more susceptible to oxidative stress following LDE+Binge than cHAP counterparts. Despite cHAP mice consuming more total ethanol prior to gavage when maintained on EtOH-DW, LDE followed by gavage created a more severe model of ALD in both C57 and cHAP mice. These data suggest factors other than total amount of alcohol consumed affect degree of ALD development in the chronic-binge model in cHAP mice. cHAP mice voluntarily consume high amounts of ethanol and exhibited hepatic injury when subject to chronic-binge ethanol feeding with the Lieber-DeCarli diet. However, hepatic injury was reduced in cHAP mice in a chronic-binge model following voluntary high ethanol consumption in drinking water. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethanol Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Paul J; Doroudgar, Shadi; Van Dyke, Priscilla

    2017-12-01

    Ethanol abuse can lead to negative consequences that oftentimes result in criminal charges and civil lawsuits. When an individual is suspected of driving under the influence, law enforcement agents can determine the extent of intoxication by measuring the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and performing a standardized field sobriety test. The BAC is dependent on rates of absorption, distribution, and elimination, which are influenced mostly by the dose of ethanol ingested and rate of consumption. Other factors contributing to BAC are gender, body mass and composition, food effects, type of alcohol, and chronic alcohol exposure. Because of individual variability in ethanol pharmacology and toxicology, careful extrapolation and interpretation of the BAC is needed, to justify an arrest and assignment of criminal liability. This review provides a summary of the pharmacokinetic properties of ethanol and the clinical effects of acute intoxication as they relate to common forensic questions. Concerns regarding the extrapolation of BAC and the implications of impaired memory caused by alcohol-induced blackouts are discussed. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  6. Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about Bayer Consumer Health. HBP Resources Risk Calculator Animation Library Track Your Blood Pressure: Print (PDF) | Online ... Pressure Tracker Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  7. Use of sugarcane molasses "B" as an alternative for ethanol production with wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 at high sugar concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, C L; Torrestiana-Sánchez, B; Salgado-Cervantes, M A; García, P G Mendoza; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2012-05-01

    Molasses "B" is a rich co-product of the sugarcane process. It is obtained from the second step of crystallization and is richer in fermentable sugars (50-65%) than the final molasses, with a lower non-sugar solid content (18-33%); this co-product also contains good vitamin and mineral levels. The use of molasses "B" for ethanol production could be a good option for the sugarcane industry when cane sugar prices diminish in the market. In a complex medium like molasses, osmotolerance is a desirable characteristic for ethanol producing strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of molasses "B" for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 (a wild-type yeast isolated from sugarcane molasses) using different initial sugar concentrations (70-291 g L(-1)), two inoculum sizes and the addition of nutrients such as yeast extract, urea, and ammonium sulphate to the culture medium. The results obtained showed that the strain was able to grow at 291 g L(-1) total sugars in molasses "B" medium; the addition of nutrients to the culture medium did not produce a statistically significant difference. This yeast exhibits high osmotolerance in this medium, producing high ethanol yields (0.41 g g(-1)). The best conditions for ethanol production were 220 g L(-1) initial total sugars in molasses "B" medium, pH 5.5, using an inoculum size of 6 × 10(6) cell mL(-1); ethanol production was 85 g L(-1), productivity 3.8 g L(-1 )h(-1) with 90% preserved cell viability.

  8. Recurrence of primary aldosteronism after percutaneous ethanol injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Chi Chang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenalectomy is the definite treatment for aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA. Percutaneous ethanol or acetic acid injection with computed tomography (CT guidance has been described as a safe, noninvasive, and effective alternative treatment modality in patients with high surgical risk. We report on a man who was 49 years of age and presented with treatment-resistant hypertension and was later diagnosed with APA. CT-guided percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI was performed for this high surgical risk patient. He had aldosteronism recurrence 4 years after the ethanol injection, so a second PEI was performed. The tumor size was reduced and his blood pressure was normalized. Therefore, we suggest that clinicians should closely check aldosterone to renin ration and potassium level if percutaneous chemical ablation is considered in functioning adrenal adenomas.

  9. High blood pressure in school children: prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivers Patrick A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. Methods Elementary school children (n = 1,066 were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI, gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was used to determine HBP. Comparisons between children with and without HBP were utilized. The crude and multiple logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. Results Females, Hispanics, overweight children, and children with AN had an increased likelihood of HBP. Overweight children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile and those with AN were at least twice as likely to present with HBP after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusion Twenty one percent of school children had HBP, especially the prevalence was higher among the overweight and Hispanic group. The association identified here can be used as independent markers for increased likelihood of HBP in children.

  10. Low-Temperature Oxidation of H2/CH4/C2H6/Ethanol/DME: Experiments and Modelling at High Pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob M.; Glarborg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this work was to measure the oxidation characteristics of H2, CH4, C2H6, DME,and ethanol at high pressures (20—100 bar) and low to intermediate temperatures (450—900K) in a laminar flow reactor. Furthermore, a detailed chemical kinetic model was sought to address the oxidation of ...

  11. [Effect on the microbicidal efficacy of formaldehyde, glutardialdehyde, peracetic acid, chloramine T (N-chloro-4-toluenesulfonamide), m-cresol, ethanol and benzyldimethyldodecacylammonium bromide by blood (model experiments for chemical disinfection of instruments)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicher, G; Peters, J

    1998-02-01

    small concentration factors: 1.3 and 1.6. The microbicidal efficacy of ethanol, formaldehyde and m-cresol soap solution was not or only slightly altered by the amount of blood in the solution of the microbicidal agent.

  12. [The activity of formaldehyde, glutardialdehyde, peracetic acid, chloramine T (N-chlor-4-toluolsulfonamide), m-cresol, ethanol and benzyldimethyldodecylammonium bromide against bacteria which are found in coagulated blood. (Model studies for chemical disinfection of instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicher, G; Peters, J

    1991-05-01

    decreased in the beginning and increased again from an amount of ca. 100 microliter blood per test area. For all other active substances, the required concentration of these substances increased with the amount of blood used. The curve obtained for ethanol exhibited the lowest slope. The slope of the curves increased in the following order: ethanol, m-cresol, peracetic acid, chloramine T, glutardialdehyde, benzyldimethyldodecylammoniumbromide. The curves for chloramine T and glutardialdehyde nearly paralleled each other.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  13. Ethanol does not delay muscle recovery but decreases testosterone/cortisol ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugvad, Anders; Haugvad, Lars; Hamarsland, Håvard; Paulsen, Gøran

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of ethanol consumption on recovery from traditional resistance exercise in recreationally trained individuals. Nine recreationally trained volunteers (eight males and one female, 26 ± 4 yr, 81 ± 4 kg) conducted four resistance exercise sessions and consumed a low (0.6 (females) and 0.7 (males) g · kg(-1) body mass) or a high dose (1.2 or 1.4 g · kg(-1) body mass) of ethanol 1-2.5 h after exercise on two occasions. The first session was for familiarization with the tests and exercises and was performed without ethanol consumption. As a control trial, alcohol-free drinks were consumed after the exercise session. The sequence of trials, with low and high ethanol doses and alcohol-free drinks (control), was randomized. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) (knee extension), electrically stimulated contractions (knee extension), squat jumps, and hand grip strength were assessed 10-15 min and 12 and 24 h after the ethanol/placebo drinks. In addition to a baseline sample, blood was collected 1, 12, and 24 h after the ethanol/placebo drinks. The exercise session comprised 4 × 8 repetition maximum of squats, leg presses, and knee extensions. MVC were reduced by 13%-15% immediately after the exercise sessions (P squat jump performance were recovered 24 h after ethanol drinks. MVC was not fully recovered at 24 h in the control trial. Compared with those in the control, cortisol increased and the free testosterone/cortisol ratio were reduced after the high ethanol dose (P < 0.01). Neither a low nor a high dose of ethanol adversely affected recovery of muscle function after resistance exercise in recreationally strength-trained individuals. However, the increased cortisol levels and reduced testosterone/cortisol ratio after the high ethanol dose could translate into long-term negative effects.

  14. Highly Ordered Periodic Au/TiO₂ Hetero-Nanostructures for Plasmon-Induced Enhancement of the Activity and Stability for Ethanol Electro-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhao; Wang, Qiyu; Zheng, Weitao; Cui, Xiaoqiang

    2016-03-02

    The catalytic electro-oxidation of ethanol is the essential technique for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) in the area of alternative energy for the ability of converting the chemical energy of alcohol into the electric energy directly. Developing highly efficient and stable electrode materials with antipoisoning ability for ethanol electro-oxidation remains a challenge. A highly ordered periodic Au-nanoparticle (NP)-decorated bilayer TiO2 nanotube (BTNT) heteronanostructure was fabricated by a two-step anodic oxidation of Ti foil and the subsequent photoreduction of HAuCl4. The plasmon-induced charge separation on the heterointerface of Au/TiO2 electrode enhances the electrocatalytic activity and stability for the ethanol oxidation under visible light irradiation. The highly ordered periodic heterostructure on the electrode surface enhanced the light harvesting and led to the greater performance of ethanol electro-oxidation under irradiation compared with the ordinary Au NPs-decorated monolayer TiO2 nanotube (MTNT). This novel Au/TiO2 electrode also performed a self-cleaning property under visible light attributed to the enhanced electro-oxidation of the adsorbed intermediates. This light-driven enhancement of the electrochemical performances provides a development strategy for the design and construction of DAFCs.

  15. The origin of high activity but low CO(2) selectivity on binary PtSn in the direct ethanol fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia-Mei; Sheng, Tian; Lin, Xiao; Kavanagh, Richard; Hamer, Philip; Hu, Peijun; Hardacre, Christopher; Martinez-Bonastre, Alex; Sharman, Jonathan; Thompsett, David; Lin, Wen-Feng

    2014-05-28

    The most active binary PtSn catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cell applications has been studied at 20 °C and 60 °C, using variable temperature electrochemical in situ FTIR. In comparison with Pt, binary PtSn inhibits ethanol dissociation to CO(a), but promotes partial oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetic acid. Increasing the temperature from 20 °C to 60 °C facilitates both ethanol dissociation to CO(a) and then further oxidation to CO2, leading to an increased selectivity towards CO2; however, acetaldehyde and acetic acid are still the main products. Potential-dependent phase diagrams for surface oxidants of OH(a) formation on Pt(111), Pt(211) and Sn modified Pt(111) and Pt(211) surfaces have been determined using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is shown that Sn promotes the formation of OH(a) with a lower onset potential on the Pt(111) surface, whereas an increase in the onset potential is found upon modification of the (211) surface. In addition, Sn inhibits the Pt(211) step edge with respect to ethanol C-C bond breaking compared with that found on the pure Pt, which reduces the formation of CO(a). Sn was also found to facilitate ethanol dehydrogenation and partial oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetic acid which, combined with the more facile OH(a) formation on the Pt(111) surface, gives us a clear understanding of the experimentally determined results. This combined electrochemical in situ FTIR and DFT study provides, for the first time, an insight into the long-term puzzling features of the high activity but low CO2 production found on binary PtSn ethanol fuel cell catalysts.

  16. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  17. Co-solvent pretreatment reduces costly enzyme requirements for high sugar and ethanol yields from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Yen; Cai, Charles M; Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2015-05-22

    We introduce a new pretreatment called co-solvent-enhanced lignocellulosic fractionation (CELF) to reduce enzyme costs dramatically for high sugar yields from hemicellulose and cellulose, which is essential for the low-cost conversion of biomass to fuels. CELF employs THF miscible with aqueous dilute acid to obtain up to 95 % theoretical yield of glucose, xylose, and arabinose from corn stover even if coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis at only 2 mgenzyme  gglucan (-1) . The unusually high saccharification with such low enzyme loadings can be attributed to a very high lignin removal, which is supported by compositional analysis, fractal kinetic modeling, and SEM imaging. Subsequently, nearly pure lignin product can be precipitated by the evaporation of volatile THF for recovery and recycling. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of CELF-pretreated solids with low enzyme loadings and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced twice as much ethanol as that from dilute-acid-pretreated solids if both were optimized for corn stover. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Nursing Education in High Blood Pressure Control. Report of the Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. High Blood Pressure Information Center.

    This curriculum guide on high blood pressure (hypertension) for nursing educators has five sections: (1) Introduction and Objectives provides information regarding the establishment and objectives of the National Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control and briefly discusses nursing's role in hypertension control; (2) Goals…

  19. Ethanol-metabolizing pathways in deermice. Estimation of flux calculated from isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderman, J.; Takagi, T.; Lieber, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    The apparent deuterium isotope effects on Vmax/Km (D(V/K] of ethanol oxidation in two deermouse strains (one having and one lacking hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH] were used to calculate flux through the ADH, microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS), and catalase pathways. In vitro, D(V/K) values were 3.22 for ADH, 1.13 for MEOS, and 1.83 for catalase under physiological conditions of pH, temperature, and ionic strength. In vivo, in deermice lacking ADH (ADH-), D(V/K) was 1.20 +/- 0.09 (mean +/- S.E.) at 7.0 +/- 0.5 mM blood ethanol and 1.08 +/- 0.10 at 57.8 +/- 10.2 mM blood ethanol, consistent with ethanol oxidation principally by MEOS. Pretreatment of ADH- animals with the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole did not significantly change D(V/K). ADH+ deermice exhibited D(V/K) values of 1.87 +/- 0.06 (untreated), 1.71 +/- 0.13 (pretreated with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole), and 1.24 +/- 0.13 (after the ADH inhibitor, 4-methylpyrazole) at 5-7 mM blood ethanol levels. At elevated blood ethanol concentrations (58.1 +/- 2.4 mM), a D(V/K) of 1.37 +/- 0.21 was measured in the ADH+ strain. For measured D(V/K) values to accurately reflect pathway contributions, initial reaction conditions are essential. These were shown to exist by the following criteria: negligible fractional conversion of substrate to product and no measurable back reaction in deermice having a reversible enzyme (ADH). Thus, calculations from D(V/K) indicate that, even when ADH is present, non-ADH pathways (mostly MEOS) participate significantly in ethanol metabolism at all concentrations tested and play a major role at high levels

  20. Cell recycle batch fermentation of high-solid lignocellulose using a recombinant cellulase-displaying yeast strain for high yield ethanol production in consolidated bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Yuki; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a scheme of cell recycle batch fermentation (CRBF) of high-solid lignocellulosic materials. Two-phase separation consisting of rough removal of lignocellulosic residues by low-speed centrifugation and solid-liquid separation enabled effective collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with decreased lignin and ash. Five consecutive batch fermentation of 200 g/L rice straw hydrothermally pretreated led to an average ethanol titer of 34.5 g/L. Moreover, the display of cellulases on the recombinant yeast cell surface increased ethanol titer to 42.2 g/L. After, five-cycle fermentation, only 3.3 g/L sugar was retained in the fermentation medium, because cellulase displayed on the cell surface hydrolyzed cellulose that was not hydrolyzed by commercial cellulases or free secreted cellulases. Fermentation ability of the recombinant strain was successfully kept during a five-cycle repeated batch fermentation with 86.3% of theoretical yield based on starting biomass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Renal function evaluation in the aged with normal blood pressure and high blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob Filho, W.; Carvalho Filho, E.T. de; Papaleo Netto, M.; Baptista, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-four patients older than 65 years were divided into two groups according to their ages: I - 66 to 74 years (17 patients), II - 75 and over (17 patients). These elderly patients were also divided according to their arterial blood pressure level (BP): A - normal BP (14 patients), B high BP (20 patients). None of these patients presented any other disease that could affect kidney function, nor have used drugs that could interfere on the BP or on the kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasmatic flow (ERPF) were analysed by radioisotopic techniques. Furthermore the filtration fraction (FF) was evaluated by the GFR/ERPF ratio. The observed GFR, ERPF and FF variations in the age groups or in normotensive and hypertensive patients were not significant, but we could assume that the physiopathological mechanisms that cause a decreased GFR in consequence of age or of systemic hypertension could be of different origins. Thus in the old hypertensive patients, alterations in the autoregulated hemodynamic mechanism could occur. (author) [pt

  2. Managing Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) in the Hospital: a Patient's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) in the Hospital A Patient’s Guide Hyperglycemia is the medical term for blood glucose (sugar) ... org/guidelines/index.cfm). www.hormone.org Managing Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) in the Hospital Patient Guide ...

  3. Anaerobic digestion of corn ethanol thin stillage in batch and by high-rate down-flow fixed film reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, A; Kennedy, K J

    2012-01-01

    Thin stillage (CTS) from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant was evaluated as a carbon source for anaerobic digestion (AD) by batch and high rate semi-continuous down-flow stationary fixed film (DSFF) reactors. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays were carried out with CTS concentrations ranging from approximately 2,460-27,172 mg total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) per litre, achieved by diluting CTS with clean water or a combination of clean water and treated effluent. High TCOD, SCOD and volatile solids (VS) removal efficiencies of 85 ± 2, 94 ± 0 and 82 ± 1% were achieved for CTS diluted with only clean water at an organic concentration of 21,177 mg TCOD per litre, with a methane yield of 0.30 L methane per gram TCOD(removed) at standard temperature and pressure (STP, 0 °C and 1 atmosphere). Batch studies investigating the use of treated effluent for dilution showed promising results. Continuous studies employed two mesophilic DSFF anaerobic digesters treating thin stillage, operated at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 20, 14.3, 8.7, 6.3, 5 and 4.2 d. Successful digestion was achieved up to an organic loading rate (OLR) of approximately 7.4 g TCOD L(-1)d(-1) at a 5 d HRT with a yield of 2.05 LCH(4) L(-1)d(-1) (at STP) and TCOD and VS removal efficiencies of 89 ± 3 and 85 ± 3%, respectively.

  4. Sustaining fermentation in high-gravity ethanol production by feeding yeast to a temperature-profiled multifeed simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Johan O; Wang, Ruifei; Novy, Vera; Franzén, Carl Johan

    2017-01-01

    Considerable progress is being made in ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks by fermentation, but negative effects of inhibitors on fermenting microorganisms are still challenging. Feeding preadapted cells has shown positive effects by sustaining fermentation in high-gravity simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF). Loss of cell viability has been reported in several SSCF studies on different substrates and seems to be the main reason for the declining ethanol production toward the end of the process. Here, we investigate how the combination of yeast preadaptation and feeding, cell flocculation, and temperature reduction improves the cell viability in SSCF of steam pretreated wheat straw. More than 50% cell viability was lost during the first 24 h of high-gravity SSCF. No beneficial effects of adding selected nutrients were observed in shake flask SSCF. Ethanol concentrations greater than 50 g L -1 led to significant loss of viability and prevented further fermentation in SSCF. The benefits of feeding preadapted yeast cells were marginal at later stages of SSCF. Yeast flocculation did not improve the viability but simplified cell harvest and improved the feasibility of the cell feeding strategy in demo scale. Cultivation at 30 °C instead of 35 °C increased cell survival significantly on solid media containing ethanol and inhibitors. Similarly, in multifeed SSCF, cells maintained the viability and fermentation capacity when the temperature was reduced from 35 to 30 °C during the process, but hydrolysis yields were compromised. By combining the yeast feeding and temperature change, an ethanol concentration of 65 g L -1 , equivalent to 70% of the theoretical yield, was obtained in multifeed SSCF on pretreated wheat straw. In demo scale, the process with flocculating yeast and temperature profile resulted in 5% (w/w) ethanol, equivalent to 53% of the theoretical yield. Multifeed SSCF was further developed by means of a

  5. Awareness of high blood pressure status, treatment and control in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    west LGA of Edo State to assess the level of awareness of high blood pressure status, treatment and control. Cluster sampling method was used to select participants and data collection was by researcher administered questionnaire. Blood ...

  6. Family Adaptability and Cohesion and High Blood Pressure among Urban African American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-01-01

    African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family functioning, specifically family adaptability, in African American women who are at risk for high blood pressure or diagnosed with high blood pressure to minimize complications associated with hypertension. PMID:21076625

  7. Effects of Vigabatrin, an Irreversible GABA Transaminase Inhibitor, on Ethanol Reinforcement and Ethanol Discriminative Stimuli in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, William C.; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Deleon, Christopher P.; Middaugh, Lawrence D.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the irreversible gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase inhibitor, γ-vinyl GABA (Vigabatrin; VGB) would reduce ethanol reinforcement and enhance the discriminative stimulus effect of ethanol, effectively reducing ethanol intake. The present studies used adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice in well-established operant, two-bottle choice consumption, locomotor activity and ethanol discrimination procedures, to examine comprehensively the effects of VGB on ethanol-supported behaviors. VGB dose-dependently reduced operant responding for ethanol as well as ethanol consumption for long periods of time. Importantly, a low dose (200 mg/kg) of VGB was selective for reducing ethanol responding without altering intake of food or water reinforcement. Higher VGB doses (>200 mg/kg) still reduced ethanol intake, but also significantly increased water consumption and, more modestly, increased food consumption. While not affecting locomotor activity on its own, VGB interacted with ethanol to reduce the stimulatory effects of ethanol on locomotion. Finally, VGB (200 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol as evidenced by significant left-ward and up-ward shifts in ethanol generalization curves. Interestingly, VGB treatment was associated with slight increases in blood ethanol concentrations. The reduction in ethanol intake by VGB appears to be related to the ability of VGB to potentiate the pharmacological effects of ethanol. PMID:22336593

  8. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  9. Intensive trapping of blood-fed Anopheles darlingi in Amazonian Peru reveals unexpectedly high proportions of avian blood-meals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Moreno

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Neotropics, has been considered to be highly anthropophilic. However, many behavioral aspects of this species remain unknown, such as the range of blood-meal sources. Barrier screens were used to collect resting Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes from 2013 to 2015 in three riverine localities (Lupuna, Cahuide and Santa Emilia in Amazonian Peru. Overall, the Human Blood Index (HBI ranged from 0.58-0.87, with no significant variation among years or sites. Blood-meal analysis revealed that humans are the most common blood source, followed by avian hosts (Galliformes-chickens and turkeys, and human/Galliforme mixed-meals. The Forage Ratio and Selection Index both show a strong preference for Galliformes over humans in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our data show that 30% of An. darlingi fed on more than one host, including combinations of dogs, pigs, goats and rats. There appears to be a pattern of host choice in An. darlingi, with varying proportions of mosquitoes feeding only on humans, only on Galliformes and some taking mixed-meals of blood (human plus Galliforme, which was detected in the three sites in different years, indicating that there could be a structure to these populations based on blood-feeding preferences. Mosquito age, estimated in two localities, Lupuna and Cahuide, ranged widely between sites and years. This variation may reflect the range of local environmental factors that influence longevity or possibly potential changes in the ability of the mosquito to transmit the parasite. Of 6,204 resting An. darlingi tested for Plasmodium infection, 0.42% were infected with P. vivax. This study provides evidence for the first time of the usefulness of barrier screens for the collection of blood-fed resting mosquitoes to calculate the Human Blood Index (HBI and other blood-meal sources in a neotropical malaria endemic setting.

  10. High-loading-substrate enzymatic hydrolysis of palm plantation waste followed by unsterilized-mixed-culture fermentation for bio-ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardant, Teuku Beuna; Winarni, Ina; Sukmana, Hadid

    2017-01-01

    It was desired to obtain a general formula for producing bio-ethanol from any part of lignocelluloses wastes that came from palm oil industries due to its abundance. Optimum condition that obtained by using RSM for conducting high-loading-substrate enzymatic hydrolysis of palm oil empty fruit bunch was applied to palm oil trunks and then followed by unsterilized fermentation for producing bio-ethanol. From several optimized conditions investigated, the resulted ethanol concentration could reach 7.92 %v by using 36.5 %w of palm oil trunks but the results were averagely 2.46 %v lower than palm oil empty fruit bunch. The results was statistically compared and showed best correlative coefficient at 0.808 (in scale 0-1) which support the conclusion that the optimum condition for empty fruit bunch and trunks are similar. Utilization of mixed-culture yeast was investigated to produce ethanol from unsterilized hydrolysis product but the improvement wasn't significant compares to single culture yeast.

  11. High field 27Al MAS NMR and TPD studies of active sites in ethanol dehydration using thermally treated transitional aluminas as catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Xu, Suochang; Kwak, Ja Hun; Hu, Mary Y.; Wan, Chuan; Zhao, Zhenchao; Szanyi, Janos; Bao, Xinhe; Han, Xiuwen; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles H. F.

    2016-04-01

    High field quantitative 27Al MAS NMR and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ethanol are used to study the surface and phase transformation of gamma-Al2O3 during calcination in the temperature range of 500 to 1300 degrees C. Following ethanol adsorption, ethylene is generated during TPD with a desorption temperature > 200 degrees C. With increasing calcination temperature prior to TPD, the amount of ethylene produced decreases monotonically. Significantly, 27Al MAS NMR reveals that the amount of penta-coordinate Al3+ ions (Lewis acid sites) also decreases with increasing calcination temperature. In fact, a strong correlation between the amount of penta-coordinate Al3+ ions and the amount of strongly adsorbed ethanol molecules (i.e., the ones that convert to ethylene during TPD) is obtained. This result indicates that the penta-coordinate aluminum sites are the catalytic active sites on alumina surfaces during ethanol dehydration reaction across the entire course of gamma- to alpha-Al2O3 phase transformations.

  12. Extraction efficiency of water, ethanol and supereritical carbon dioxide for amide content from fruit of piper sarmentosum using colorimetry and high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, K.; Ismail, Z.; Ibrahim, P.

    2010-01-01

    Extraction is important for both natural product research and preparation of extracts to be used as raw materials for phytopharamaceuticals. Selection of a suitable solvent as well as type of extraction is prerequisite to prepare extracts enriched with particular type of compounds with peculiar activities. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the extraction efficiency of water, ethanol and supercritical CO/sub 2/ for amides from fruit of Piper sarmentosum using colorimetry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pulverized fruit material was extracted by reflux using water and ethanol, and supercritical CO/sub 2/ at 60 degree c and operating pressure of 3000,4 000, 6000, 7000 and 8000 psi. The colorimetric analysis indicated that except the water extracts, total amide content in different extracts was not significantly different (P<0.05). Similarly, HPLC analysis using pellitorine, sarmentine and sarrnentosine as markers indicated that except water extracts, total content of the markers in different extracts was not significantly different (P<0.05). These results indicate that extraction efficiency of ethanol for amides is comparable to that of supercritical CO/sub 2/. Hence, ethanol may be used to prepare amide enriched extracts without using costly equipment and operating expertise. (author)

  13. Ethanol dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Uyazán; Iván Dario Gil; J L Aguilar; Gerardo Rodríguez Niño; Luis Alfonso Caicedo

    2004-01-01

    This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the op...

  14. Ethanol dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Uyazán

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the operational, energy consumption and industrial services points of view.

  15. Antiobesity Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Laminaria japonica Areshoung in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong Sun Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminaria japonica Areshoung, a widely consumed marine vegetable, has traditionally been used in Korean maternal health. The present study investigated the antiobesity effects of Laminaria japonica Areshoung ethanol extract (LE and its molecular mechanism in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were separately fed a normal diet or a high-calorie high-fat diet for 6 weeks; then they were treated with LE or tea catechin for another 6 weeks. LE administration significantly decreased the body weight gain, fat-pad weights, and serum and hepatic lipid levels in HD-induced obese rats. The histological analysis revealed that LE-treated group showed a significantly decreased number of lipid droplets and size of adipocytes compared to the HD group. To elucidate the mechanism of action of LE, the levels of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in the liver and skeletal muscle. LE treatment resulted in an increased expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes in obese rats. Conversely, the expression of the fat intake-related gene (ACC2 and lipogenesis-related genes was reduced by LE treatment. Additionally, LE treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and its direct downstream protein, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in fatty acid synthesis pathway. These findings demonstrate that LE treatment has a protective effect against a high-fat-diet-induced obesity in rats through regulation of expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis.

  16. Recent advances on conversion and co-production of acetone-butanol-ethanol into high value-added bioproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Fengxue; Dong, Weiliang; Jiang, Yujia; Ma, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Wenming; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Min

    2018-06-01

    Butanol is an important bulk chemical and has been regarded as an advanced biofuel. Large-scale production of butanol has been applied for more than 100 years, but its production through acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process by solventogenic Clostridium species is still not economically viable due to the low butanol titer and yield caused by the toxicity of butanol and a by-product, such as acetone. Renewed interest in biobutanol as a biofuel has spurred technological advances to strain modification and fermentation process design. Especially, with the development of interdisciplinary processes, the sole product or even the mixture of ABE produced through ABE fermentation process can be further used as platform chemicals for high value added product production through enzymatic or chemical catalysis. This review aims to comprehensively summarize the most recent advances on the conversion of acetone, butanol and ABE mixture into various products, such as isopropanol, butyl-butyrate and higher-molecular mass alkanes. Additionally, co-production of other value added products with ABE was also discussed.

  17. High Performance Nanocatalysts Supported on Micro/Nano Carbon Structures Using Ethanol Immersion Pretreatment for Micro DMFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Liang-You; Wu, Yi-Shiuan; Chang, Chaun; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, highly dense platinum (Pt) nanocatalysts were successfully deposited on the hydrophilically-treated nano/micro carbon supports with an ethanol (EtOH) immersion pretreatment and an acidic treatment for the performance improvement of methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). In order to thoroughly immerse the three-dimensional, interwoven structures of the carbon cloth fibers with a 6 M sulfuric acid surface modification, which increasing more oxygen-containing functional groups on the surfaces of the carbon supports, the EtOH immersion pretreatment of the carbon supports was utilized prior to the sulfuric acid treatment. Subsequently, Pt catalysts were reduced on the modified carbon supports by a homemade open-loop reduction system (OLRS) [1] For comparisons, carbon cloth (CC) and carbon nanotube on CC (CNT/CC) supports were employed with and without EtOH immersion pretreatments before Pt catalyst reduction. In the cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves, the electrosorption charges of hydrogen ion (Q H ) and the peak current density (I P ) of the fabricated Pt/CC and Pt/CNT/CC electrodes with the EtOH immersion pretreatments can efficiently be enhanced due to more active Pt sites for electrocatalytic reactions

  18. High hydrostatic pressure activates gene expression that leads to ethanol production enhancement in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae distillery strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravim, Fernanda; Lippman, Soyeon I.; da Silva, Lucas F.; Souza, Diego T.; Fernandes, A. Alberto R.; Masuda, Claudio A.; Broach, James R.

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is a stress that exerts broad effects on microorganisms with characteristics similar to those of common environmental stresses. In this study, we aimed to identify genetic mechanisms that can enhance alcoholic fermentation of wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from Brazilian spirit fermentation vats. Accordingly, we performed a time course microarray analysis on a S. cerevisiae strain submitted to mild sublethal pressure treatment of 50 MPa for 30 min at room temperature, followed by incubation for 5, 10 and 15 min without pressure treatment. The obtained transcriptional profiles demonstrate the importance of post-pressurisation period on the activation of several genes related to cell recovery and stress tolerance. Based on these results, we over-expressed genes strongly induced by HHP in the same wild yeast strain and identified genes, particularly SYM1, whose over-expression results in enhanced ethanol production and stress tolerance upon fermentation. The present study validates the use of HHP as a biotechnological tool for the fermentative industries. PMID:22915193

  19. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emission Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Ethanol Blending: Phase II Analysis with Refinery Investment Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; DiVita, Vincent [Jacobs Consultancy Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Higher-octane gasoline can enable increases in an internal combustion engine’s energy efficiency and a vehicle’s fuel economy by allowing an increase in the engine compression ratio and/or by enabling downspeeding and downsizing. Producing high-octane fuel (HOF) with the current level of ethanol blending (E10) could increase the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity of the fuel product from refinery operations. Alternatively, increasing the ethanol blending level in final gasoline products could be a promising solution to HOF production because of the high octane rating and potentially low blended Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of ethanol at 25% and higher of the ethanol blending level by volume. In our previous HOF well-to-wheels (WTW) report (the so-called phase I report of the HOF WTW analysis), we conducted WTW analysis of HOF with different ethanol blending levels (i.e., E10, E25, and E40) and a range of vehicle efficiency gains with detailed petroleum refinery linear programming (LP) modeling by Jacobs Consultancy and showed that the overall WTW GHG emission changes associated with HOFVs were dominated by the positive impact associated with vehicle efficiency gains and ethanol blending levels, while the refining operations to produce gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (BOB) for various HOF blend levels had a much smaller impact on WTW GHG emissions (Han et al. 2015). The scope of the previous phase I study, however, was limited to evaluating PADDs 2 and 3 operation changes with various HOF market share scenarios and ethanol blending levels. Also, the study used three typical configuration models of refineries (cracking, light coking, and heavy coking) in each PADD, which may not be representative of the aggregate response of all refineries in each PADD to various ethanol blending levels and HOF market scenarios. Lastly, the phase I study assumed no new refinery expansion in the existing refineries, which limited E10 HOF production to the

  20. Production of ethanol from wheat straw by pretreatment and fermentation at high dry matter concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Slomp, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of substrate and product are important for the economy of second-generation bioethanol production. By a dilute acid thermal pretreatment of large pieces of relatively dry wheat straw using a novel rapid heating method, followed by fed-batch preliquefaction with hydrolytic

  1. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet : blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelm, Detlev H; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C; Ristow, Michael

    2011-01-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood

  2. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake L Joyce

    Full Text Available Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1 to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2 to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass. Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749-3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass-1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass-1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  3. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Blake L; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G J; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Astatkie, Tess; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-01-01

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749-3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  4. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by means of a blood test called a "fasting lipoprotein profile." Be sure to ask for the ... syndrome," which is usually caused by overweight or obesity and by not getting enough physical activity. This ...

  5. Short Communication: Is Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizer Involved in Acute Pancreatitis after Excessive Disinfection?-An Evaluation with the Use of PBPK Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh-Delerme, Céline; Artigou, Catherine; Bodin, Laurent; Tardif, Robert; Charest-Tardif, Ginette; Verdier, Cécile; Sater, Nessryne; Ould-Elhkim, Mostafa; Desmares, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    An occupational physician reported to the French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps) a case of adverse effect of acute pancreatitis (AP) in a teaching nurse, after multiple demonstrations with ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs) used in a classroom with defective mechanical ventilation. It was suggested by the occupational physician that the exposure to ethanol may have produced a significant blood ethanol concentration and subsequently the AP. In order to verify if the confinement situation due to defective mechanical ventilation could increase the systemic exposure to ethanol via inhalation route, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to predict ethanol blood levels. Under the worst case scenario, the simulation by PBPK modeling showed that the maximum blood ethanol concentration which can be predicted of 5.9 mg/l is of the same order of magnitude to endogenous ethanol concentration (mean = 1.1 mg/L; median = 0.4 mg/L; range = 0-35 mg/L) in nondrinker humans (Al-Awadhi et al., 2004). The present study does not support the likelihood that EBHS leads to an increase in systemic ethanol concentration high enough to provoke an acute pancreatitis.

  6. Short Communication: Is Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizer Involved in Acute Pancreatitis after Excessive Disinfection?—An Evaluation with the Use of PBPK Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Huynh-Delerme

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An occupational physician reported to the French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps a case of adverse effect of acute pancreatitis (AP in a teaching nurse, after multiple demonstrations with ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs used in a classroom with defective mechanical ventilation. It was suggested by the occupational physician that the exposure to ethanol may have produced a significant blood ethanol concentration and subsequently the AP. In order to verify if the confinement situation due to defective mechanical ventilation could increase the systemic exposure to ethanol via inhalation route, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK modeling was used to predict ethanol blood levels. Under the worst case scenario, the simulation by PBPK modeling showed that the maximum blood ethanol concentration which can be predicted of 5.9 mg/l is of the same order of magnitude to endogenous ethanol concentration (mean = 1.1 mg/L; median = 0.4 mg/L; range = 0–35 mg/L in nondrinker humans (Al-Awadhi et al., 2004. The present study does not support the likelihood that EBHS leads to an increase in systemic ethanol concentration high enough to provoke an acute pancreatitis.

  7. Enzymatic transesterification of soybean oil with ethanol using lipases immobilized on highly crystalline PVA microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamasco, Juliana; Araujo, Marcelo V. de; Vasconcellos, Adriano de; Luizon Filho, Roberto A.; Hatanaka, Rafael R.; Giotto, Marcus V.; Aranda, Donato A.G.; Nery, José G.

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microspheres with different degree of crystallinity were used as solid supports for Rhizomucor miehei lipase immobilization, and the enzyme-PVA complexes were used as biocatalysts for the transesterification of soybean oil to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE). The amounts of immobilized enzyme on the polymeric supports were similar for both the amorphous microspheres (PVA4) and the high crystalline microspheres (PVA25). However, the enzymatic activity of the immobilized enzymes was depended on the crystallinity degree of the PVA microspheres: enzymes immobilized on the PVA4 microspheres have shown low enzymatic activity (6.13 U mg −1 ), in comparison with enzymes immobilized on the high crystalline PVA25 microspheres (149.15 U mg −1 ). A synergistic effect was observed for the enzyme-PVA25 complex during the transesterification reaction of soybean oil to FAEE: transesterification reactions with free enzyme with the equivalent amount of enzyme that were immobilized onto the PVA25 microspheres (5.4 U) have yielded only 20% of FAEE, reactions with the pure highly crystalline microsphere PVA25 have not yielded FAEE, however reactions with the enzyme-PVA25 complexes have yielded 66.3% of FAEE. This synergistic effect of an immobilized enzyme on a polymeric support has not been observed before for transesterification reaction of triacylglycerides into FAEE. Based on ATR-FTIR, 23 Na- and 13 C-NMR-MAS spectroscopic data and the interaction of the polymeric network intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the lipases residual amino acids a possible explanation for this synergistic effect is provided. Highlights: • Rhizomucor miehei lipase was immobilized on PVA microspheres (PVA4, PVA12, PVA25). • Polymer-enzyme complex was characterized by XDR, SEM, ATR-FTIR, 13 C-CPMAS-NMR, 23 Na-MAS-NMR. • Polymer-enzymes (PVA12 and PVA25) enzymes yielded considerable amount of ethyl esters. • Synergistic effect was observed for the polymer-enzyme complexes

  8. Longitudinal Hierarchy Co3O4 Mesocrystals with High-dense Exposure Facets and Anisotropic Interfaces for Direct-Ethanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassen, Diab; El-Safty, Sherif A.; Tsuchiya, Koichi; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Elmarakbi, Ahmed; Shenashen, Mohamed. A.; Sakai, Masaru

    2016-04-01

    Novel electrodes are needed for direct ethanol fuel cells with improved quality. Hierarchical engineering can produce catalysts composed of mesocrystals with many exposed active planes and multi-diffused voids. Here we report a simple, one-pot, hydrothermal method for fabricating Co3O4/carbon/substrate electrodes that provides control over the catalyst mesocrystal morphology (i.e., corn tubercle pellets or banana clusters oriented along nanotube domains, or layered lamina or multiple cantilevered sheets). These morphologies afforded catalysts with a high density of exposed active facets, a diverse range of mesopores in the cage interior, a window architecture, and vertical alignment to the substrate, which improved efficiency in an ethanol electrooxidation reaction compared with a conventional platinum/carbon electrode. On the atomic scale, the longitudinally aligned architecture of the Co3O4 mesocrystals resulted in exposed low- and high-index single and interface surfaces that had improved electron transport and diffusion compared with currently used electrodes.

  9. High acetone-butanol-ethanol production in pH-stat co-feeding of acetate and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Wang, Qunhui; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported the metabolic analysis of butanol and acetone production from exogenous acetate by (13)C tracer experiments (Gao et al., RSC Adv., 5, 8486-8495, 2015). To clarify the influence of acetate on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production, we first performed an enzyme assay in Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Acetate addition was found to drastically increase the activities of key enzymes involved in the acetate uptake (phosphate acetyltransferase and CoA transferase), acetone formation (acetoacetate decarboxylase), and butanol formation (butanol dehydrogenase) pathways. Subsequently, supplementation of acetate during acidogenesis and early solventogenesis resulted in a significant increase in ABE production. To establish an efficient ABE production system using acetate as a co-substrate, several shot strategies were investigated in batch culture. Batch cultures with two substrate shots without pH control produced 14.20 g/L butanol and 23.27 g/L ABE with a maximum specific butanol production rate of 0.26 g/(g h). Furthermore, pH-controlled (at pH 5.5) batch cultures with two substrate shots resulted in not only improved acetate consumption but also a further increase in ABE production. Finally, we obtained 15.13 g/L butanol and 24.37 g/L ABE at the high specific butanol production rate of 0.34 g/(g h) using pH-stat co-feeding method. Thus, in this study, we established a high ABE production system using glucose and acetate as co-substrates in a pH-stat co-feeding system with C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing oxidative and dilute acid wet explosion pretreatment of Cocksfoot grass at high dry matter concentration for cellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    into cellulose monomeric C6 sugars was achieved for WEx condition AC-E (180°C, 15 min, and 0.2% sulfuric acid). For that condition, the highest ethanol yield of 197 g/kg DM (97% of theoretical maximum value) was achieved for SSF process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the highest concentration...... of hemicellulose C5 sugars was found for WEx pretreatment condition O2-A (160°C, 15 min, and 6 bar O2) which means that the highest potential ethanol yield was found at this moderate pretreatment condition with oxygen added. Increasing the pretreatment temperature to 180–190°C with addition of oxygen or dilute...... was investigated for cellulosic ethanol production. The biomass raw materials were pretreated using wet explosion (WEx) at 25% dry matter concentration with addition of oxygen or dilute sulfuric acid. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was significantly improved after pretreatment. The highest conversion...

  11. Improved ethanol production at high temperature by consolidated bioprocessing using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain engineered with artificial zinc finger protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, M Mahfuza; Yu, Xinshui; Kondo, Akihiko; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae MNII/cocδBEC3 was transformed by an artificial zinc finger protein (AZFP) library to improve its thermal tolerance, and the strain MNII-AZFP with superior growth at 42°C was selected. Improved degradation of acid swollen cellulose by 45.9% led to an increase in ethanol production, when compared to the control strain. Moreover, the fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke stalk (JAS) by MNII-AZFP was shortened by 12h at 42°C with a concomitant improvement in ethanol production. Comparative transcriptomics analysis suggested that the AZFP in the mutant exerted beneficial effect by modulating the expression of multiple functional genes. These results provide a feasible strategy for efficient ethanol production from JAS and other cellulosic biomass through CBP based-fermentation at elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of Dichrostachys Cinerea W and Arn leaves by a thin layer chromatography, high performance thin layer chromatography and column chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    M Vijayalakshmi; K Periyanayagam; K Kavitha; K Akilandeshwari

    2013-01-01

    Background: The leaves of Dichrostachys cinerea are used as laxative, diuretic, painkiller. It is also used in the treatment of gonorrhoea, boils, oedema, gout, veneral diseases and nasopharyngeal affections, etc. Materials and Methods: The Phytochemical investigation of ethanolic extract of D. cinerea leaves were performed by standard chemical tests, thin layer chromatography (TLC) by using various solvent systems, and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPTLC). Two compounds were...

  13. Small-sized PdCu nanocapsules on 3D graphene for high-performance ethanol oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuangang; Zhai, Xiangquan; Zhao, Yang; Bian, Ke; Zhang, Jing; Qu, Liangti; Zhang, Huimin; Luo, Hongxia

    2014-03-07

    A one-pot solvothermal process has been developed for direct preparation of PdCu nanocapsules (with a size of ca. 10 nm) on three-dimensional (3D) graphene. Due to the 3D pore-rich network of graphene and the unique hollow structure of PdCu nanocapsules with a wall thickness of ca. 3 nm, the newly-prepared PdCu/3D graphene hybrids activated electrochemically have great electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline media, much better than single-phase Pd and commercial E-TEK 20% Pt/C catalysts promising for application in direct ethanol fuel cells.

  14. The role of ethanol in heroin deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, B; Green, D; Smialek, J E

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of ethanol in deaths due to heroin intoxication. Over a 12 month period, all cases investigated by the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, State of Maryland where a blood screen by Roche Abuscreen radioimmunoassay (RIA) was positive at a cutoff of 100 ng/mL were included in the study. Free morphine was quantitated using the Coat-A-Count RIA and ethanol was quantitated by head space gas chromatography. All presumptive morphine positive cases were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Seventy of the 119 cases where death was attributed to narcotic or alcohol and narcotic intoxication had blood ethanol concentrations (BAC) greater than or equal to 0.02 g/dL; 48 had BAC > or = 0.10 g/dL. Only 3 of 45 cases where morphine was identified but was unrelated to death had BAC > or = 0.02 g/dL. At all ranges of free morphine concentrations, there was a greater percentage of narcotic deaths when ethanol was present. From the data, we conclude that 1) the use of even small amounts of ethanol with heroin is clearly a risk factor in deaths due to heroin, 2) there are some heroin deaths where no free morphine is identified in the blood. In these deaths, ethanol is unlikely to be present, 3) at blood ethanol concentrations between 0.20 and 0.29 g/dL, the morphine concentrations in heroin deaths increased significantly, 4) at blood ethanol concentrations greater than 0.30 g/dL, morphine became less of a factor than the ethanol in causing death.

  15. Combined effects of γ-ray radiation and high atmospheric pressure on peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bingchai; Lu Jiaben; Wang Zongwu; Chen Tiehe

    1989-01-01

    The combined effects of γ-ray radiation and high atmospheric pressure on chromosome aberration, micronucleus and transformation frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been studied. The results indicated that there were no significant influence for effects of high atmospheric pressure on chromosome aberrations, transformation frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes induced γ-ray radiation, and that high atmospheric pressure increased effect of micronucleus in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro induced γ-ray radiation

  16. Longitudinal assessment of high blood pressure in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwimmer, Jeffrey B; Zepeda, Anne; Newton, Kimberly P; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Behling, Cynthia; Hallinan, Erin K; Donithan, Michele; Tonascia, James

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 9.6% of children and may put these children at elevated risk of high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for high blood pressure in children with NAFLD. Cohort study performed by the NIDDK NASH Clinical Research Network. There were 484 children with NAFLD ages 2 to 17 at enrollment; 382 children were assessed both at enrollment and 48 weeks afterwards. The main outcomes were high blood pressure at baseline and persistent high blood pressure at both baseline and 48 weeks. Prevalence of high blood pressure at baseline was 35.8% and prevalence of persistent high blood pressure was 21.4%. Children with high blood pressure were significantly more likely to have worse steatosis than children without high blood pressure (mild 19.8% vs. 34.2%, moderate 35.0% vs. 30.7%, severe 45.2% vs. 35.1%; P = 0.003). Higher body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, and uric acid were independent risk factors for high blood pressure (Odds Ratios: 1.10 per kg/m2, 1.09 per 10 mg/dL, 1.25 per mg/dL, respectively). Compared to boys, girls with NAFLD were significantly more likely to have persistent high blood pressure (28.4% vs.18.9%; P = 0.05). In conclusion, NAFLD is a common clinical problem that places children at substantial risk for high blood pressure, which may often go undiagnosed. Thus blood pressure evaluation, control, and monitoring should be an integral component of the clinical management of children with NAFLD.

  17. Longitudinal assessment of high blood pressure in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B Schwimmer

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD affects 9.6% of children and may put these children at elevated risk of high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for high blood pressure in children with NAFLD.Cohort study performed by the NIDDK NASH Clinical Research Network. There were 484 children with NAFLD ages 2 to 17 at enrollment; 382 children were assessed both at enrollment and 48 weeks afterwards. The main outcomes were high blood pressure at baseline and persistent high blood pressure at both baseline and 48 weeks.Prevalence of high blood pressure at baseline was 35.8% and prevalence of persistent high blood pressure was 21.4%. Children with high blood pressure were significantly more likely to have worse steatosis than children without high blood pressure (mild 19.8% vs. 34.2%, moderate 35.0% vs. 30.7%, severe 45.2% vs. 35.1%; P = 0.003. Higher body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, and uric acid were independent risk factors for high blood pressure (Odds Ratios: 1.10 per kg/m2, 1.09 per 10 mg/dL, 1.25 per mg/dL, respectively. Compared to boys, girls with NAFLD were significantly more likely to have persistent high blood pressure (28.4% vs.18.9%; P = 0.05.In conclusion, NAFLD is a common clinical problem that places children at substantial risk for high blood pressure, which may often go undiagnosed. Thus blood pressure evaluation, control, and monitoring should be an integral component of the clinical management of children with NAFLD.

  18. Novel Swelling-Resistant Sodium Alginate Membrane Branching Modified by Glycogen for Highly Aqueous Ethanol Solution Pervaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chen-Hao; Xue, Shuang-Mei; Xu, Zhen-Liang

    2016-10-12

    A novel carbohydrate chain cross-linking method of sodium alginate (SA) is proposed in which glycogen with the branched-chain structure is utilized to cross-link with SA matrix by the bridging of glutaraldehyde (GA). The active layer of SA composite ceramic membrane modified by glycogen and GA for pervaporation (PV) demonstrates great advantages. The branched structure increases the chain density of the active layer, which compresses the free volume between the carbohydrate chains of SA. Large amounts of hydroxyl groups are consumed during the reaction with GA, which reduces the hydrogen bond formation between water molecules and the polysaccharide matrix. The two factors benefit the active layer with great improvement in swelling resistance, promoting the potential of the active layer for the dehydration of an ethanol-water solution containing high water content. Meanwhile, the modified active layer is loaded on the rigid α-Al 2 O 3 ceramic membrane by dip-coating method with the enhancement of anti-deformation and controllable thickness of the active layer. Characterization techniques such as SEM, AFM, XRD, FTIR, XPS, and water contact angle are utilized to observe the composite structure and surface morphology of the composite membrane, to probe the free volume variation, and to determine the chemical composition and hydrophilicity difference of the active layer caused by the different glycogen additive amounts. The membrane containing 3% glycogen in the selective layer demonstrates the flux at 1250 g m -2 h -1 coupled with the separation factor of 187 in the 25 wt % water content feed solution at the operating temperature of 75 °C, reflecting superior pervaporation processing capacity compared with the general organic PV membranes in the same condition.

  19. A two step method to synthesize palladium-copper nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide and their extremely high electrocatalytic activity for the electrooxidation of methanol and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, HeYa; Zhang, Lei; Qiu, HaiXia; Wu, Tao; Chen, MingXi; Yang, Nian; Li, LingZhi; Xing, FuBao; Gao, JianPing

    2015-08-01

    Palladium-copper nanoparticles (Pd-Cu NPs) supported on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with different Pd/Cu ratios (Pd-Cu/RGO) were prepared by a two step method. The Pd-Cu/RGO hybrids were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to investigate the electrochemical activities and stabilities of the Pd-Cu/RGO catalysts for the electro-oxidation of methanol and ethanol in alkaline media. The Pd-Cu/RGO catalysts exhibited high catalytic activities and good stabilities. This is because the catalysts have a bimetallic structure consisting of a small Pd-Cu core surrounded by a thin Pd-rich shell which improves the catalytic activities of the Pd-Cu/RGO hybrids. Thus they should be useful in direct methanol and ethanol fuel cells.

  20. Online stable carbon isotope ratio measurement in formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol in water by high performance liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    A suitable analysis condition was determined for high performance liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC-IRMS) while making sequential measurements of stable carbon isotope ratios of δ 13 C in formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol dissolved in water. For this online column separation method, organic reagents are not applicable due to carbon contamination; thus, water and KH 2 PO 4 at low concentrations were tested as mobile phase in combination with a HyPURITY AQUASTAR TM column. Formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol were separated when 2 mM KH 2 PO 4 aqueous solution was used. Under the determined analysis condition for HPLC-IRMS, carbon concentrations could be measured quantitatively as well as carbon isotope ratio when carbon concentration was higher than 0.4 mM L for each chemical

  1. Small-sized PdCu nanocapsules on 3D graphene for high-performance ethanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    HuThese Authors Contributed Equally To This Work., Chuangang; Zhai, Xiangquan; Zhao, Yang; Bian, Ke; Zhang, Jing; Qu, Liangti; Zhang, Huimin; Luo, Hongxia

    2014-02-01

    A one-pot solvothermal process has been developed for direct preparation of PdCu nanocapsules (with a size of ca. 10 nm) on three-dimensional (3D) graphene. Due to the 3D pore-rich network of graphene and the unique hollow structure of PdCu nanocapsules with a wall thickness of ca. 3 nm, the newly-prepared PdCu/3D graphene hybrids activated electrochemically have great electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline media, much better than single-phase Pd and commercial E-TEK 20% Pt/C catalysts promising for application in direct ethanol fuel cells.A one-pot solvothermal process has been developed for direct preparation of PdCu nanocapsules (with a size of ca. 10 nm) on three-dimensional (3D) graphene. Due to the 3D pore-rich network of graphene and the unique hollow structure of PdCu nanocapsules with a wall thickness of ca. 3 nm, the newly-prepared PdCu/3D graphene hybrids activated electrochemically have great electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline media, much better than single-phase Pd and commercial E-TEK 20% Pt/C catalysts promising for application in direct ethanol fuel cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05722d

  2. Esterification with ethanol to produce biodiesel from high acidity raw materials. Kinetic studies and analysis of secondary reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarello, M.L.; Dalla Costa, B.; Mendow, G.; Querini, C.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica (INCAPE)-(FIQ-UNL, CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2654-Santa Fe, S3000AOJ (Argentina)

    2010-09-15

    In this work, the esterification reaction of free fatty acids (FFA) in sunflower oil, coconut oil and concentrated FFA, with ethanol, methanol and ethanol 96%, using homogeneous acid catalysts to produce biodiesel is studied. Kinetic parameters are estimated with a simplified model, and then used to predict the reaction behavior. Reactions other than the reversible esterification are considered to explain the behavior that this system displays. Such reactions are the triglycerides conversion by acid catalyzed transesterification and hydrolysis. In addition, we include kinetic studies of the reaction that occur between the sulphuric acid and methanol (or ethanol), forming mono and dialkylsulphates. This reaction produces water and consumes methanol (or ethanol), and consequently has a direct impact in the esterification reaction rate and equilibrium conversion. The concentration of sulphuric acid decreases to less than 50% of the initial value due to the reaction with the alcohol. A minimum in the acidity due to the free fatty acids as a function of time was clearly observed during the reaction, which has not been reported earlier. This behavior is related to the consecutive reactions that take place during the esterification of FFA in the presence of triglycerides. The phase separation due to the presence of water, which is generated during the reaction, is also studied. (author)

  3. Improved ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mixed cultures with Kluyveromyces lactis on high-sugar fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Chizuru; Kurita, Osamu; Kubo, Tomoko

    2014-12-01

    The influence of non-Saccharomyces yeast, Kluyveromyces lactis, on metabolite formation and the ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mixed cultures was examined on synthetic minimal medium containing 20% glucose. In the late stage of fermentation after the complete death of K. lactis, S. cerevisiae in mixed cultures was more ethanol-tolerant than that in pure culture. The chronological life span of S. cerevisiae was shorter in pure culture than mixed cultures. The yeast cells of the late stationary phase both in pure and mixed cultures had a low buoyant density with no significant difference in the non-quiescence state between both cultures. In mixed cultures, the glycerol contents increased and the alanine contents decreased when compared with the pure culture of S. cerevisiae. The distinctive intracellular amino acid pool concerning its amino acid concentrations and its amino acid composition was observed in yeast cells with different ethanol tolerance in the death phase. Co-cultivation of K. lactis seems to prompt S. cerevisiae to be ethanol tolerant by forming opportune metabolites such as glycerol and alanine and/or changing the intracellular amino acid pool. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethanol production in the Southern High Plains of Texas: Impacts on the economy and scarce water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The establishment of new biorefineries in an effort to increase energy security in the United States has generated positive impacts by creating jobs and generating economic output. However, communities and local and state leaders are concerned about whether ethanol production is an effective use o...

  5. Enhanced ethanol production by fermentation of Gelidium amansii hydrolysate using a detoxification process and yeasts acclimated to high-salt concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Chae Hun; Jung, Jang Hyun; Sunwoo, In Yung; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2015-06-01

    A total monosaccharide concentration of 59.0 g/L, representing 80.1 % conversion of 73.6 g/L total fermentable sugars from 160 g dw/L G. amansii slurry was obtained by thermal acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. Subsequent adsorption treatment using 5 % activated carbon with an adsorption time of 2 min was used to prevent the inhibitory effect of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) >5 g/L in the medium. Ethanol production decreased with increasing salt concentration using C. tropicalis KCTC 7212 non-acclimated or acclimated to a high concentration of salt. Salt concentration of 90 psu was the maximum concentration for cell growth and ethanol production. The levels of ethanol production by C. tropicalis non-acclimated or acclimated to 90 psu high-salt concentration were 13.8 g/L with a yield (YEtOH) of 0.23, and 26.7 g/L with YEtOH of 0.45, respectively.

  6. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States). Kearney Research and Extension Center; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Process and Analytical Engineering Group

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  7. High-speed video capillaroscopy method for imaging and evaluation of moving red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, Igor; Volkov, Mikhail; Margaryants, Nikita; Pimenov, Aleksei; Potemkin, Andrey

    2018-05-01

    The video capillaroscopy system with high image recording rate to resolve moving red blood cells with velocity up to 5 mm/s into a capillary is considered. Proposed procedures of the recorded video sequence processing allow evaluating spatial capillary area, capillary diameter and central line with high accuracy and reliability independently on properties of individual capillary. Two-dimensional inter frame procedure is applied to find lateral shift of neighbor images in the blood flow area with moving red blood cells and to measure directly the blood flow velocity along a capillary central line. The developed method opens new opportunities for biomedical diagnostics, particularly, due to long-time continuous monitoring of red blood cells velocity into capillary. Spatio-temporal representation of capillary blood flow is considered. Experimental results of direct measurement of blood flow velocity into separate capillary as well as capillary net are presented and discussed.

  8. Exploring the limits of a down-sized ethanol direct injection spark ignited engine in different configurations in order to replace high-displacement gasoline engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baêta, José Guilherme Coelho; Pontoppidan, Michael; Silva, Thiago R.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The limits of a highly boosted down-sized ethanol engine was investigated. • 28% of fuel consumption reduction was achieved by means of an extreme down-sizing. • 53% of down-sizing was reached by means of cutting-edge technologies implementation. • Engine efficiency at partial load was also investigated. • A significant decrease in engine-out emissions was achieved. - Abstract: The paper presents a layout of a highly boosted Ethanol Direct Injected engine in order to explore the limits of down-sizing for replacing high-displacement gasoline engines, which represents a powerful means of reducing fuel consumption and engine-out emissions at reduced production costs. The substitution of high-displacement engines (2.4- or 3.0-l) by a down-sized turbocharged Ethanol Direct Injected engine is studied. This document describes the detailed layout of all engine hardware and in particular, the cylinder head structure including the optimized intake and exhaust manifolds as well as implemented direct injection injectors. The work continues with a presentation of the experimental data obtained at the engine test rig. A series of experimental data is also presented for the down-sized engine mounted in a car as a replacement for its original high-displacement engine. Substantial fuel consumption gains are obtained as well as values of engine torque for the down-sized, down-speeded prototype engine, which makes it possible to replace engines with much higher displacements. As a result the maximum obtained efficiency of the 1.4 l prototype engine with twin-stage compressor reaches a value of 3250 kPa brake pressure at 44% efficiency. The present work is a very new and different approach compared to previous published studies on ethanol and down-sized engines due to the fact that the Brazilian hydrated ethanol fuel (7% water content) has a major charge effect compared to North American and European Gasoline and alcohol fuels (consult Table 1). This means that

  9. Highly Sensitive Ethanol Chemical Sensor Based on Novel Ag-Doped Mesoporous α-Fe2O3 Prepared by Modified Sol-Gel Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Moteb M.; Ali, Atif M.; Harraz, Farid A.; Faisal, M.; Ismail, Adel A.; Sayed, Mahmoud A.; Al-Assiri, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    Mesoporous α-Fe2O3 has been synthesized via a simple sol-gel procedure in the presence of Pluronic (F-127) triblock copolymer as structure directing agent. Silver (Ag) nanoparticles were deposited onto α-Fe2O3 matrix by the photochemical reduction approach. Morphological analysis revealed the formation of Ag nanoparticles with small sizes < 20 nm onto the mesoporous structure of α-Fe2O3 possessing < 50 nm semi-spherical shape. The XRD, FTIR, Raman, UV-vis, PL, and N2 sorption isotherm studies confirmed the high crystallinity, mesoporosity, and optical characteristics of the synthesized product. The electrochemical sensing toward liquid ethanol has been performed using the current devolved Ag/α-Fe2O3-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry ( CV) and current potential ( I-V) techniques, and the obtained results were compared with bare GCE or pure α-Fe2O3. Mesoporous Ag/α-Fe2O3 was found to largely enhance the sensor sensitivity and it exhibited excellent sensing characteristics during the precision detection of low concentrations of ethanol. High and reproducible sensitivity of 41.27 μAmM- 1 cm- 2 at lower ethanol concentration region (0.05 to 0.8 mM) and 2.93 μAmM- 1 cm- 2 at higher concentration zone (0.8 to 15 mM), with a limit of detection (LOD) of 15.4 μM have been achieved. Investigation on reaction kinetics revealed a characteristic behavior of mixed surface and diffusion-controlled processes. Detailed sensing studies revealed also that the sensitivity toward ethanol was higher than that of methanol or isopropanol. With further effort in developing the synthesis and fabrication approaches, a proper utility for the current proposed protocol for fabricating a better sensor device performance is possible.

  10. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozza, Rodrigo; Campos, Wagner de; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Stabelini Neto, Antonio; Silva, Michael Pereira da; Maziero, Renato Silva Barbosa

    2016-05-01

    Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR) was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI) indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6). Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28) had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.

  11. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bozza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. Objective: To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. Methods: A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. Results: The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6. Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR, 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28 had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Conclusion: Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.

  12. Baseline Blood Pressure, the 2017 ACC/AHA High Blood Pressure Guidelines, and Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk in SPRINT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Pareek, Manan; Qamar, Arman; Pandey, Ambarish; Olsen, Michael H; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2018-02-05

    The 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines include lower thresholds to define hypertension than previous guidelines. Little is known about the impact of these guideline changes in patients with or at high risk for cardiovascular disease. In this exploratory analysis using baseline blood pressure assessments in Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), we evaluated the prevalence and associated cardiovascular prognosis of patients newly reclassified with hypertension based on the 2017 ACC/AHA (systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mm Hg) compared with the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) guidelines (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg). The primary endpoint was the composite of myocardial infarction, other acute coronary syndromes, stroke, heart failure, or cardiovascular death. In 4683 patients assigned to the standard treatment arm of SPRINT, 2328 (49.7%) met hypertension thresholds by JNC 7 guidelines, and another 1424 (30.4%) were newly reclassified as having hypertension based on the 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines. Over 3.3-year median follow-up, 319 patients experienced the primary endpoint (87 of whom were newly reclassified with hypertension based on the revised guidelines). Patients with hypertension based on prior guidelines compared with those newly identified with hypertension based on the new guidelines had similar risk of the primary endpoint (2.3 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.0-2.7] vs 2.0 [95% CI, 1.6-2.4] events per 100 patient-years; adjusted HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.84-1.44]; P = .48). The 2017 ACC/AHA high blood pressure guidelines are expected to significantly increase the prevalence of patients with hypertension (perhaps to a greater extent in higher-risk patient cohorts compared with the general population) and

  13. The turmeric protective properties at ethanol-induced behavioral disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldina I.A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mechanically modified turmeric extract on the parameters of orienting-exploratory behavior in mice with chronic ethanol consumption. Material and methods. Mice behavior was assessed in the "open field" test. In the both control groups the animals received water or 10% ethanol solution; in the test group — turmeric extract in 10% ethanol solution. Amount of blood mononuclear cells, thymocytes, and splenocytes were estimated. Results. Analysis of the behavioral parameters in animals after chronic exposure to ethanol showed suppression of motor and exploratory components of the behavior. In mice that received both ethanol and turmeric extract recorded behavior parameters were significantly higher than in the group of animals who received ethanol only. It was shown that the turmeric extract enhances the amount of blood immune cells. Conclusion. Mechanically modified turmeric extract possesses protective properties against ethanol-induced behavioral disorders.

  14. Highly active carbon supported ternary PdSnPtx (x=0.1-0.7) catalysts for ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline and acid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Zhu, Fuchun; He, Yongwei; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Zhonghua; Ma, Zizai; Li, Ruixue

    2016-04-15

    A series of trimetallic PdSnPtx (x=0.1-0.7)/C catalysts with varied Pt content have been synthesized by co-reduction method using NaBH4 as a reducing agent. These catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The electrochemical results show that, after adding a minor amount of Pt dopant, the resultant PdSnPtx/C demonstrated more superior catalytic performance toward ethanol oxidation as compared with that of mono-/bi-metallic Pd/C or PdSn/C in alkaline solution and the PdSnPt0.2/C with optimal molar ratio reached the best. In acid solution, the PdSnPt0.2/C also depicted a superior catalytic activity relative to the commercial Pt/C catalyst. The possible enhanced synergistic effect between Pd, Sn/Sn(O) and Pt in an alloyed state should be responsible for the as-revealed superior ethanol electro-oxidation performance based upon the beneficial electronic effect and bi-functional mechanism. It implies the trimetallic PdSnPt0.2/C with a low Pt content has a promising prospect as anodic electrocatalyst in fields of alkali- and acid-type direct ethanol fuel cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High blood pressure at old age : The Leiden 85 plus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, Thomas van

    2010-01-01

    The last decades have shown an increasing interest in treatment of high blood pressure. Copious amounts of data have been published on the mortality and morbidity risks of high blood pressure. Overall these data have resulted in an increasing awareness of the deleterious effects of only modest

  16. [Unhealthy behavior associated with the development of high blood pressure in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Zamorano, Luisa María; Burguete-García, Ana Isabel; Flores-Sánchez, Guillermo; Salmerón-Castro, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C; Diaz-Benitez, Cinthya E

    2017-04-03

    This article aims to evaluate the association between unhealthy behavior pattern and prevalence and incidence of high blood pressure in adolescents. Based on data from a cohort study with a baseline population of 2,813 adolescents enrolled in a public school system, the study measured the baseline prevalence and incidence of high blood pressure as a function of smoking, alcohol and illegal drug use, and physical activity. These variables were used to build a model called "unhealthy behavior pattern", and its relationship was evaluated in relation to high blood pressure in adolescents, using multiple logistic regression models. Prevalence of high blood pressure was 8.67%. Accumulated incidence of high blood pressure was 7.58%. In the multivariate analysis of high blood pressure adjusted by degree of adiposity, there was an association with the unhealthy behavior pattern in males (OR = 3.13; 95%CI: 1.67-5.84). The association between incidence of high blood pressure and unhealthy behavior pattern was observed in females (OR = 2.34; 95%CI: 1.11-4.95). In conclusion, high blood pressure is present in the adolescent population, associated with unhealthy behaviors like smoking, alcohol and illegal drug use, and physical inactivity, independently of the degree of adiposity.

  17. Differences in hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme induction by pyrazole, chronic ethanol, 3-methylcholanthrene, and phenobarbital in high alcohol sensitivity (HAS) and low alcohol sensitivity (LAS) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, D; Ménez, J F; Berthou, F; Cauvin, J M; Deitrich, R A

    1992-10-01

    High and low alcohol sensitivity (HAS and LAS) rats have been selected for their differences in ethanol-induced sleep time. Liver monooxygenase activities were studied in HAS and LAS rats before and after treatments with known inducers such as chronic ethanol, pyrazole, 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and phenobarbital (PB) to determine whether the selection procedure also selected for differences in the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) inducibility. This previously has been shown with long sleep (LS) and short sleep (SS) mice, which were selected using a similar criterion. 3-MC and PB, in conjunction with chronic ethanol treatment, were used in order to evaluate the interactions of ethanol with these inducers. Prior to treatment, total P-450 content was slightly lower in LAS than in HAS rats. However, both lines displayed the same microsomal monooxygenase activities related to different P-450 isozymes. This was demonstrated by ethoxyresorufin deethylation (EROD) for cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1), acetanilide hydroxylation (ACET) for CYP1A2, pentoxyresorufin dealkylation (PROD) for CYP2B, 1-butanol oxidation (BUTAN) and N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylation (NDMA) for CYP2E1. After the different treatments, HAS rats did not differ from LAS rats in their CYP2E1 inducibility. However, pyrazole, PB and 3-MC treatment led to differences in CYP1A and CYP2B monooxygenase activities between the two lines. The enhancement of PROD by pyrazole treatment was less prominent in LAS (1.7-fold of the control value) than in HAS rats (3.8-fold).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Chronic ethanol tolerance as a result of free-choice drinking in alcohol-preferring rats of the WHP line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyr, Wanda; Taracha, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The development of tolerance to alcohol with chronic consumption is an important criterion for an animal model of alcoholism and may be an important component of the genetic predisposition to alcoholism. The aim of this study was to determine whether the selectively bred Warsaw High Preferring (WHP) line of alcohol-preferring rats would develop behavioral and metabolic tolerance during the free-choice drinking of ethanol. Chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced sedation was tested. The loss of righting reflex (LRR) paradigm was used to record sleep duration in WHP rats. Ethanol (EtOH)-naive WHP rats received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 5.0 g ethanol/kg body weight (b.w.), and sleep duration was measured. Subsequently, rats had access to a 10% ethanol solution under a free-choice condition with water and food for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of the free-choice intake of ethanol, the rats received another single i.p. injection of 5.0 g ethanol/kg b.w., and sleep duration was reassessed. The blood alcohol content (BAC) for each rat was determined after an i.p. injection of 5 g/kg of ethanol in naive rats and again after chronic alcohol drinking at the time of recovery of the righting reflex (RR). The results showed that the mean ethanol intake was 9.14 g/kg/24 h, and both sleep duration and BAC were decreased after chronic ethanol intake. In conclusion, WHP rats exposed to alcohol by free-choice drinking across 12 weeks exhibited increased alcohol elimination rates. Studies have demonstrated that WHP rats after chronic free-choice drinking (12 weeks) of alcohol develop metabolic tolerance. Behavioral tolerance to ethanol was demonstrated by reduced sleep duration, but this decrease in sleep duration was not significant.

  19. Hollow raspberry-like PdAg alloy nanospheres: High electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Hu, Yongli; Liu, Mingrui; Zheng, Yixiong

    2015-03-01

    Palladium-silver (PdAg) alloy nanospheres with unique structure were prepared using a one-pot procedure based on the galvanic replacement reaction. Their electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media was evaluated. The morphology and crystal structure of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical characterization techniques, including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) measurements were used to analyze the electrochemical performance of the PdAg alloy nanospheres. The SEM and TEM images showed that the PdAg alloy nanospheres exhibit a hierarchical nanostructure with hollow interiors and porous walls. Compared to the commercial Pd/C catalyst, the as-prepared PdAg alloy nanospheres exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity and stability towards ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline media, showing its potential as a new non-Pt electro-catalyst for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs).

  20. Development of High Temperature Short Time Vertebrate-Blood Pasteurization Equipment for Tsetse Fly Diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moravek, I; Lach, J [Department of Manufacturing Systems, Slovak Technical University Namestie Slobody 17 812 31 Bratislava (Slovakia); Takac, P [Institute of Zoology, SAV, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-07-15

    Tsetse flies feed only on vertebrate blood, but the collection and processing of blood is expensive, it must be stored at -20{sup o}C requiring costly storage rooms and reliable electricity, and it must be irradiated to reduce bacterial contamination. This is tolerable for small colonies, but as colony size increases to service large- scale programmes, the supply and processing of blood becomes critical. Blood is normally collected from cattle at slaughter. This process is necessarily not aseptic, and large-scale collection is only possible where the animals are suspended for bleeding. One alternative to blood decontamination is using the High Temperature Short time Pasteurization (HTST) method. The food processing industry uses pasteurization to reduce bacterial load in a wide range of products. Our previous results indicated that for the control of the blood pasteurization process, to reach satisfactory bacteriological purity and at the same time to prevent the blood from coagulating, it is important to study temperature and time and also some other parameters that could predict blood coagulation. Crucial for blood coagulation is to study blood viscosity. Classical heat exchangers are not suitable for blood pasteurization. In such equipment the blood coagulation depends on temperature and time. Besides the relatively low temperatures, blood is coagulating with cumulative time until total shutdown of blood flow. After a series of experiments we found a solution using microwave systems. To verify the microwave heating concept, we built an experimental workstation. First we verified the accuracy of the applicator design from the aspect of output adaptation to the power source. Also we installed measuring equipment. This system complies with the requirements of quick heating with sufficiently high heat accumulation. By utilizing standard components for the base of the microwave generator, it is possible to markedly reduce the final price of the equipment. (author)

  1. Phase behaviour and thermodynamic modelling for the system (grape seed oil + carbon dioxide + ethanol) at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmolin, Irede; Rigo, Aline A.; Corazza, Marcos L.; Ndiaye, Papa M.; Meireles, M. Angela A.; Batista, Eduardo A.C.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This short communication reports phase equilibrium data (cloud points), employing the synthetic static method, for the system {grape seed oil (GSO) + carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) + ethanol} up to T = 343.15 K and 22.53 MPa. Experimental results were modelled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals quadratic mixing rule (PR-vdW2). It is shown that the thermodynamic model is able to represent satisfactorily the phase behaviour of the system investigated

  2. Enhancing Pt-Ni/CeO2 performances for ethanol reforming by catalyst supporting on high surface silica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, V.; Ruocco, C; Meloni, E.; Gallucci, F.; Ricca, A.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, bimetallic Pt-Ni/CeO2 catalysts supported over mesoporous silica were employed for ethanol reforming in the low-temperature range. In particular, catalyst behaviour was investigated under a H2O/C2H5OH/N2 as well as H2O/C2H5OH/AIR mixture between 300 and 600 °C at different space

  3. Waist circumference as an indicator of high blood pressure in preschool obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Li, Hai-fei

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between waist circumference and blood pressure (BP) to determine if waist circumference was an indicator of BP in preschool children. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and blood pressure of 939 3-6-year-old preschool children were collected. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in obese children were significantly higher than that in normal weight children in both sexes (phigh blood pressure in children of both sexes. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis using SBP as the dependent variable showed that BMI and WC were significant independent factors that influence high blood pressure adjusted for age, WtHr and waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHr) in boys. When using DBP as the dependent variable, BMI was the only significant independent factor that influenced high blood pressure adjusted for age, WtHr and WHr, in both sex-es. Waist circumference was independently associated with high blood pressure in boys aged 3-6 years. In addition to BMI, increased waist circumference was found to be an indicator of high blood pressure in the preschool children, especially in boys.

  4. Based on a new support for synthesis of highly efficient palladium/hydroxyapatite catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Qian; Chao, Shujun; Bai, Zhengyu; Yan, Huiying; Wang, Kui; Yang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Based on a new support, hydroxyapatite (HAP), a facile and low–cost preparation of palladium/hydroxyapatite catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation is introduced in this paper through a solvothermal reaction without additives. HAP was employed as the catalyst support for its hydroxyl–rich surface in order to increase the stability and utilization ratio of catalyst. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X–ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, the as–prepared Pd nanoparticles with face–centered cubic crystal structure were evenly deposited on the surface of HAP. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests demonstrated that the Pd/HAP catalyst possessed a much higher current density (246 mA cm −2 ) than the Pd/C catalyst (109 mA cm −2 ) towards ethanol electrooxidation, and better stability as well. In the direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) test, Pd/HAP catalyst gives better performance than that with Pd/C in terms of both open-circuit voltage (OCV) and power density. These results indicate that the HAP is a better support and the catalyst developed in this study may be a better candidate for DEFCs. A possible mechanism consistent with the experimental is also proposed

  5. High performance nano-Ni/Graphite electrode for electro-oxidation in direct alkaline ethanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ahmed B.; Abdel-Samad, Hesham S.; Abdel Rehim, Sayed S.; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.

    2016-09-01

    Ni/Graphite electrocatalysts (Ni/G) are successfully prepared through electrodeposition of Ni from acidic (pH = 0.8) and feebly acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous Ni (II) baths. The efficiencies of such electrodes are investigated as anodes for direct alkaline ethanol fuel cells through their ethanol electrooxidation cyclic voltammetric (CV) response in alkaline medium. A direct proportionality between the amount of the electrodeposited Ni and its CV response is found. The amounts of the deposited Ni from the two baths are recorded using the Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance (eQCM). The Ni/G electrodes prepared from the feebly acidic bath show a higher electrocatalytic response than those prepared from the acidic bath. Surface morphology of the Ni particles electrodeposited from feebly acidic bath appears in a nano-scale dimension. Various electrochemical experiments are conducted to confirm that the Ni/G ethanol electrooxidation CV response greatly depends on the pH rather than nickel ion concentration of the deposition bath. The eQCM technique is used to detect the crystalline phases of nickel as α-Ni(OH)2/γ-NiOOH and β-Ni(OH)2/β-NiOOH and their in-situ inter-transformations during the potentiodynamic polarization.

  6. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  7. Association between general and abdominal obesity with high blood pressure: difference between genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alison O; Silva, Micaelly V; Pereira, Lisley K N; Feitosa, Wallacy M N; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M; Diniz, Paula R B; Oliveira, Luciano M F T

    2016-01-01

    To assess the association between general and abdominal obesity with high blood pressure in adolescents of both genders from the public school system. This was an epidemiological, descriptive, exploratory study, with a quantitative approach and local scope whose sample consisted of 481 high school students (aged 14-19), selected by using a random cluster sampling strategy. Blood pressure was measured through the use of automated monitor and was considered high when the pressure values were at or above the 95th percentile. The analyses were performed using the chi-squared test and binary logistic regression. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 6.4%, and it was higher among boys (9.0% vs. 4.7%, phigh blood pressure was associated with general (OR=6.4; phigh blood pressure only in boys, regardless of age. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

  9. Blood group genotyping: from patient to high-throughput donor screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuisen, B; van der Schoot, C E; de Haas, M

    2009-10-01

    Blood group antigens, present on the cell membrane of red blood cells and platelets, can be defined either serologically or predicted based on the genotypes of genes encoding for blood group antigens. At present, the molecular basis of many antigens of the 30 blood group systems and 17 human platelet antigens is known. In many laboratories, blood group genotyping assays are routinely used for diagnostics in cases where patient red cells cannot be used for serological typing due to the presence of auto-antibodies or after recent transfusions. In addition, DNA genotyping is used to support (un)-expected serological findings. Fetal genotyping is routinely performed when there is a risk of alloimmune-mediated red cell or platelet destruction. In case of patient blood group antigen typing, it is important that a genotyping result is quickly available to support the selection of donor blood, and high-throughput of the genotyping method is not a prerequisite. In addition, genotyping of blood donors will be extremely useful to obtain donor blood with rare phenotypes, for example lacking a high-frequency antigen, and to obtain a fully typed donor database to be used for a better matching between recipient and donor to prevent adverse transfusion reactions. Serological typing of large cohorts of donors is a labour-intensive and expensive exercise and hampered by the lack of sufficient amounts of approved typing reagents for all blood group systems of interest. Currently, high-throughput genotyping based on DNA micro-arrays is a very feasible method to obtain a large pool of well-typed blood donors. Several systems for high-throughput blood group genotyping are developed and will be discussed in this review.

  10. A high plasma: red blood cell transfusion ratio during liver transplantation is associated with decreased blood utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, M B; Metcalf, R A; Hess, J R; Reyes, J; Perkins, J D; Montenovo, M I

    2018-04-01

    During massive transfusion, the volume ratio of administered plasma (PL Vol) to red blood cell (RBC Vol) appears to be associated with reduced blood utilization and improved survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal component ratio in the setting of liver transplantation. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent liver transplantation and received at least 500 ml of red blood cells from January 2013 through December 2015. Kernel smoothing analysis determined the proper component ratios to evaluate were a ≥0·85:1 ratio (high) to a ≤0·85:1 ratio (low). Two groups, plasma volume to RBC volume (PL Vol/RBC Vol) and plasma contained in the platelet units added to the plasma calculation [PL + PLT (platelet)] Vol/RBC Vol, were used to evaluate the component ratios. A total of 188 patients were included in the analysis. In the PL Vol/RBC Vol evaluation, a low ratio revealed that 1238 ml (977-1653 ml) (P ratio, in the univariable and multivariable analysis, respectively. In the PL +PLT Vol/RBC Vol evaluation, a low ratio used 734 ml (193-1275) (P = 0·008) and 886 ml (431-1340) (P ratio in the univariable and multivariable analysis, respectively. In patients undergoing liver transplantation, the transfusion of plasma to RBC ratio ≥0·85 was associated with decreased need of RBC transfusions. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  11. The ethanol pathway from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum improves ethanol production in Clostridium thermocellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Shuen; Olson, Daniel G; Holwerda, Evert K; Lanahan, Anthony A; Murphy, Sean J L; Maloney, Marybeth I; Zheng, Tianyong; Papanek, Beth; Guss, Adam M; Lynd, Lee R

    2017-07-01

    Clostridium thermocellum ferments cellulose, is a promising candidate for ethanol production from cellulosic biomass, and has been the focus of studies aimed at improving ethanol yield. Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum ferments hemicellulose, but not cellulose, and has been engineered to produce ethanol at high yield and titer. Recent research has led to the identification of four genes in T. saccharolyticum involved in ethanol production: adhE, nfnA, nfnB and adhA. We introduced these genes into C. thermocellum and observed significant improvements to ethanol yield, titer, and productivity. The four genes alone, however, were insufficient to achieve in C. thermocellum the ethanol yields and titers observed in engineered T. saccharolyticum strains, even when combined with gene deletions targeting hydrogen production. This suggests that other parts of T. saccharolyticum metabolism may also be necessary to reproduce the high ethanol yield and titer phenotype in C. thermocellum. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Menopausal hormone therapy is associated with having high blood pressure in postmenopausal women: observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Christine L; Lujic, Sanja; Thornton, Charlene; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and cardiovascular risk remains controversial, with a number of studies advocating the use of MHT in reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases, while others have shown it to increase risk. The aim of this study was to determine the association between menopausal hormone therapy and high blood pressure. A total of 43,405 postmenopausal women were included in the study. Baseline data for these women were sourced from the 45 and Up Study, Australia, a large scale study of healthy ageing. These women reported being postmenopausal, having an intact uterus, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure prior to menopause. Odds ratios for the association between MHT use and having high blood pressure were estimated using logistic regression, stratified by age (high blood pressure: past menopausal hormone therapy use: high blood pressure, with the effect of hormone therapy use diminishing with increasing age. Menopausal hormone therapy use is associated with significantly higher odds of having high blood pressure, and the odds increase with increased duration of use. High blood pressure should be conveyed as a health risk for people considering MHT use.

  13. Past oral contraceptive use and self-reported high blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Christine L; Lind, Joanne M

    2015-01-31

    Studies have reported current hormonal contraceptive use is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including high blood pressure. The aim of this study was to determine the association between past hormonal contraception use and high blood pressure in Australian postmenopausal women. Women were recruited from the 45 and Up Study, an observational cross-sectional study, conducted from February 2006 to December 2009, NSW Australia. All of the variables used in this study were derived from self-reported data. These women reported being postmenopausal, having an intact uterus, and had given birth to one or more children. Odds ratios and 99% confidence intervals for the association between past hormonal contraceptive use and current treatment for high blood pressure, stratified by current age (high blood pressure, menopausal hormone therapy use, number of children, whether they breastfed, and age of menopause. A total of 34,289 women were included in the study. No association between past hormonal contraception use and odds of having high blood pressure were seen in any of the age groups (high blood pressure was observed. Past hormonal contraception use and duration of use is not associated with high blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

  14. Anthropometric indicators of obesity as screening tools for high blood pressure in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Neto, João de Souza; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Freitas, Roberta Souza; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Oliveira, Daniela Sousa; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues

    2013-08-01

    The study objectives were to investigate the indicators of obesity most associated with high blood pressure in community-dwelling elderly and identify among these which one best discriminates high blood pressure. This is an epidemiological, population, cross-sectional and home-based study of elderly people (≥ 60 years, n = 316) residing in northeastern Brazil. The results showed that the body mass index and the body adiposity index were the indicators more closely associated with high blood pressure in both sexes. Both in female and male genders, body mass index showed high values of specificity and low sensitivity values for discriminating high blood pressure, whereas the body adiposity index showed high sensitivity and moderate specificity values. In clinical practice and health surveillance, it is suggested that both indicators be used as screening tools for hypertension in the elderly. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Emotional reactivity to incentive downshift as a correlated response to selection of high and low alcohol preferring mice and an influencing factor on ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes, Hatzenbuehler, & Hasin, 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely to drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that either alcohol intake does not provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, the emotional intensity following incentive

  16. Multicomponent exercise decreases blood pressure, heart rate and double product in normotensive and hypertensive older patients with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Júnior, Hélio José; Asano, Ricardo Yukio; Gonçalvez, Ivan de Oliveira; Brietzke, Cayque; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; Aguiar, Samuel da Silva; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Caperuto, Erico Chagas; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-02-26

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 6-month multicomponent exercise program on blood pressure, heart rate, and double product of uncontrolled and controlled normotensive and hypertensive older patients. The study included 183 subjects, 97 normotensives, of which 53 were controlled normotensives (CNS), and 44 uncontrolled normotensives (UNS), as well as 86 hypertensives, of which 43 were controlled hypertensives (CHS), and 43 uncontrolled hypertensives (UHS). Volunteers were recruited and blood pressure and heart rate measurements were made before and after a 6-month multicomponent exercise program. The program of physical exercise was performed twice a week for 26 weeks. The physical exercises program was based on functional and walking exercises. Exercise sessions were performed at moderate intensity. The results indicated that UHS showed a marked decrease in systolic (-8.0mmHg), diastolic (-11.1mmHg), mean (-10.1mmHg), and pulse pressures, heart rate (-6.8bpm), and double product (-1640bpmmmHg), when compared to baseline. Similarly, diastolic (-5.5mmHg) and mean arterial (-4.8mmHg) pressures were significantly decreased in UNS. Concomitantly, significant changes could be observed in the body mass index (-0.9kg/m 2 ; -1.5kg/m 2 ) and waist circumference (-3.3cm; only UHS) of UNS and UHS, which may be associated with the changes observed in blood pressure. In conclusion, the data of the present study indicate that a 6-month multicomponent exercise program may lead to significant reductions in blood pressure, heart rate, and double product of normotensive and hypertensive patients with high blood pressure values. Copyright © 2018 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Knowledge and awareness of high blood pressure in Ward F, Ifako ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: In Nigeria, most people living with an elevated blood pressure are unaware of it until they suffer complications. The aim of this study was to determine levels of awareness of high blood pressure in Ward F, Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagos, Nigeria. Design: A multistage sampling technique was used to ...

  18. High blood levels of persistent organic pollutants are statistically correlated with smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Hansen, Jens C.

    1999-01-01

    , smoking and intake of traditional Inuit food. Multiple linear regression analyses showed highly significant positive associations between the mothers' smoking status (never, previous, present) and plasma concentrations of all the studied organic pollutants both in maternal blood and umbilical cord blood...

  19. Individual and environmental risk factors for high blood lead concentrations in Danish indoor shooters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Suadicani, Poul; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    International studies have shown blood lead at levels causing health concern in recreational indoor shooters. We hypothesized that Danish recreational indoor shooters would also have a high level of blood lead, and that this could be explained by shooting characteristics and the physical...

  20. Obesity promotes oxidative stress and exacerbates blood-brain barrier disruption after high-intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Tae Roh

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Our study suggests that episodic vigorous exercise can increase oxidative stress and blood neurotrophic factor levels and induce disruption of the BBB. Moreover, high levels of neurotrophic factor in the blood after exercise in the obese group may be due to BBB disruption, and it is assumed that oxidative stress was the main cause of this BBB disruption.

  1. Application of PtSn/C catalysts and Nafion SiO2 membranes in direct ethanol fuel cell at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresch, Mauro Andre

    2014-01-01

    This work has as objective to evaluate anodes and electrolytes in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC) operating at high temperature (130 deg C). As anode materials, electrocatalysts based on Pt Sn/C were prepared by Modified Polyol Method with various Pt:Sn atomic ratios. Such methodology promotes self organized electrocatalysts production with narrow particle size distribution and high alloying degree. The electrocatalysts were characterized by XRD, and CO stripping. The results showed that these materials presented high alloying degree and Eonset CO oxidation at lower potential as commercial materials. As electrolyte, Nafion-SiO 2 hybrids were synthesized by sol-gel reaction, by the incorporation of oxide directly into the ionic aggregates of various kinds of Nafion membranes. The synthesis parameter, such sol-gel solvent, membrane thickness and silicon precursor concentration were studied in terms of silica incorporation degree and hybrid mechanical stability. Finally, the optimized anodes and electrolytes were evaluated in DEFC operating at 80 - 130 deg C temperature range. The results showed a significant improvement of the DEFC performance (122 mW cm -2 ), resulted from the acceleration of ethanol oxidation reaction rate due to anode material optimization and high temperature operation once the use of hybrids possibilities the increase of temperature without a significant conductivity loses. In this sense, the combination of optimized electrodes and electrolytes are a promising alternative for the development of these devices. (author)

  2. High Expression of High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Menstrual Blood: Implications for Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Keiko; Kamada, Yasuhiko; Sakamoto, Ai; Matsuda, Miwa; Nakatsuka, Mikiya; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2017-11-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic disease characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrium and associated with inflammation and immune abnormalities. However, the molecular basis for endometriosis is not well understood. To address this issue, the present study examined the expression of high-mobility group box (HMGB) 1 in menstrual blood to investigate its role in the ectopic growth of human endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs). A total of 139 patients were enrolled in this study; 84 had endometriosis and 55 were nonendometriotic gynecological patients (control). The HMGB1 levels in various fluids were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in eutopic and ectopic endometrium was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and RAGE and vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF) messenger RNA expression in HMGB1- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated ESCs was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The HMGB1 concentration was higher in menstrual blood than in serum or peritoneal fluid ( P endometriosis following retrograde menstruation when complexed with other factors such as LPS by inducing inflammation and angiogenesis.

  3. High beat-to-beat blood pressure variability in atrial fibrillation compared to sinus rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbers, Joakim; Gille, Adam; Ljungman, Petter; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Östergren, Jan; Witt, Nils

    2018-02-07

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, not entirely explained by thromboembolism. The underlying mechanisms for this association are largely unknown. Similarly, high blood pressure (BP) increases the risk for cardiovascular events. Despite this the interplay between AF and BP is insufficiently studied. The purpose of this study was to examine and quantify the beat-to-beat blood pressure variability in patients with AF in comparison to a control group of patients with sinus rhythm. We studied 33 patients - 21 in atrial fibrillation and 12 in sinus rhythm - undergoing routine coronary angiography. Invasive blood pressure was recorded at three locations: radial artery, brachial artery and ascending aorta. Blood pressure variability, defined as average beat-to-beat blood pressure difference, was calculated for systolic and diastolic blood pressure at each site. We observed a significant difference (p blood pressure variability between the atrial fibrillation and sinus rhythm groups at all locations. Systolic blood pressure variability roughly doubled in the atrial fibrillation group compared to the sinus rhythm group (4.9 and 2.4 mmHg respectively). Diastolic beat-to-beat blood pressure variability was approximately 6 times as high in the atrial fibrillation group compared to the sinus rhythm group (7.5 and 1.2 mmHg respectively). No significant difference in blood pressure variability was seen between measurement locations. Beat-to-beat blood pressure variability in patients with atrial fibrillation was substantially higher than in patients with sinus rhythm. Hemodynamic effects of this beat-to-beat variation in blood pressure may negatively affect vascular structure and function, which may contribute to the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality seen in patients with atrial fibrillation.

  4. Baseline Blood Pressure, the 2017 ACC/AHA High Blood Pressure Guidelines, and Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk in SPRINT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Pareek, Manan; Qamar, Arman

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines include lower thresholds to define hypertension than previous guidelines. Little is known about the impact of these guideline changes in patients with or at high risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS: In this exploratory analysis using baseline blood...... pressure assessments in SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial), we evaluated the prevalence and associated cardiovascular prognosis of patients newly reclassified with hypertension based on the 2017 ACC/AHA (SBP≥130mmHg or DBP≥80mmHg) compared with the JNC 7 guidelines (SBP≥140mmHg or DBP≥90mm.......4%) were newly reclassified as having hypertension based on the 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines. Over 3.3-year median follow-up, 319 patients experienced the primary endpoint (87 of whom were newly reclassified with hypertension based on the revised guidelines). Patients with hypertension based on prior guidelines...

  5. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in normoglycemic subjects with newly diagnosed high blood pressure in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojji, Dike B; Ajayi, Samuel O; Mamven, Manmak H; Atherton, John

    2009-02-01

    High blood pressure and dyslipidemia additively increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. There is a high prevalence of high blood pressure in Nigeria, but there are little data regarding the prevalence of dyslipidemia in subjects with high blood pressure. In this observational prospective study, we examined the prevalence of dyslipidemia in newly diagnosed normoglycemic subjects with high blood pressure. A total of 171 subjects presenting with high blood pressure for the first time in the cardiology and nephrology clinics at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital were studied. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined in fasting plasma. The total cholesterol/HDL-C and non-HDL-C values were calculated. These measures were then classified according to the 2001 report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Of the 171 subjects studied, 84 (49%) were male and 87 (51%) were female. Low HDL-C was present in 71 (45.8%), elevated LDL-C in 29 (17%), elevated total cholesterol in 19 (11.1%), and elevated triglyceride in 13 (7.6%), whereas eight (4.7%) of the study population had combined elevated total cholesterol and triglyceride. Female subjects had higher total cholesterol and lower HDL-C than male subjects, but these differences were not statistically significant. Obese subjects, compared to the nonobese, had significantly higher LDL-C and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratios in males and significantly higher triglyceride levels in females. Given the prevalence of dyslipidemia seen in this study, we suggest that fasting lipid measurements should be performed in all Nigerians with high blood pressure. These data suggest the need for health education and lifestyle modifications in hypertensive Nigerians to reduce both types of risk

  6. High-resolution techno-ecological modelling of a bioenergy landscape to identify climate mitigation opportunities in cellulosic ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John L.; Evans, Samuel G.; Marx, Ernie; Easter, Mark; Adler, Paul R.; Dinh, Thai; Willson, Bryan; Paustian, Keith

    2018-03-01

    Although dedicated energy crops will probably be an important feedstock for future cellulosic bioenergy production, it is unknown how they can best be integrated into existing agricultural systems. Here we use the DayCent ecosystem model to simulate various scenarios for growing switchgrass in the heterogeneous landscape that surrounds a commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol biorefinery in southwestern Kansas, and quantify the associated fuel production costs and lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We show that the GHG footprint of ethanol production can be reduced by up to 22 g of CO2 equivalent per megajoule (CO2e MJ-1) through careful optimization of the soils cultivated and corresponding fertilizer application rates (the US Renewable Fuel Standard requires a 56 gCO2e MJ-1 lifecycle emissions reduction for `cellulosic' biofuels compared with conventional gasoline). This improved climate performance is realizable at modest additional costs, less than the current value of low-carbon fuel incentives. We also demonstrate that existing subsidized switchgrass plantings within this landscape probably achieve suboptimal GHG mitigation, as would landscape designs that strictly minimize the biomass collection radius or target certain marginal lands.

  7. BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY MISCANTHUS AS A LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS: FOCUS ON HIGH EFFICIENCY CONVERSION TO GLUCOSE AND ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhee Han Mail

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Current ethanol production processes using crops such as corn and sugar cane have been well established. However, the utilization of cheaper lignocellulosic biomass could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuels while avoiding the ethical concerns associated with using potential food resources. In this study, Miscanthus, a lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using NaOH to produce bioethanol. The pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal conditions were found to be 145.29 °C, 28.97 min, and 1.49 M for temperature, reaction time, and NaOH concentration, respectively. Enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Miscanthus was examined at various enzyme loadings (10 to 70 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase. Regarding enzymatic digestibility, 50 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase were selected as the test concentrations, resulting in a total glucose conversion rate of 83.92%. Fermentation of hydrolyzed Miscanthus using Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in an ethanol concentration of 59.20 g/L at 20% pretreated biomass loading. The results presented here constitute a significant contribution to the production of bioethanol from Miscanthus.

  8. Course of Untreated High Blood Pressure in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Feaster

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: No clear understanding exists about the course of a patient’s blood pressure (BP during an emergency department (ED visit. Prior investigations have demonstrated that BP can be reduced by removing patients from treatment areas or by placing patients supine and observing them for several hours. However, modern EDs are chaotic and noisy places where patients and their families wait for long periods in an unfamiliar environment. We sought to determine the stability of repeated BP measurements in the ED environment. Methods: A prospective study was performed at an urban ED. Research assistants trained and certified in BP measurement obtained sequential manual BPs and heart rates on a convenience sample of 76 patients, beginning with the patient arrival in the ED. Patients were observed through their stay for up to 2 hours, and BP was measured at 10-minute intervals. Data analysis with SAS PROC MIXED (SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina for regression models with correlated data determined the shape of the curve as BP changed over time. Patients were grouped on the basis of their presenting BP as normal (less than 140/90, elevated (140–160/90–100, or severely elevated (greater than 160/100 for the regression analysis. Results: A statistically significant downward trend in systolic and diastolic BP was observed only for those patients presenting with severely elevated BPs (ie, greater than 160/100. Conclusion: We demonstrate a statistically significant decline in systolic and diastolic BP over time spent in the ED only for patients with severely elevated presenting BPs. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:421–425.

  9. Weight Status and High Blood Pressure Among Low-Income African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Marino A.; Beech, Bettina M.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Sims, Mario; Scarinci, Isabel; Whitfield, Keith E.; Gilbert, Keon; Crook, Errol D.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a biological risk factor or comorbidity that has not received much attention from scientists studying hypertension among African American men. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between weight status and high blood pressure among African American men with few economic resources. The authors used surveillance data collected from low-income adults attending community- and faith-based primary care clinics in West Tennessee to estimate pooled and group-specific regression models of high blood pressure. The results from group-specific logistic regression models indicate that the factors associated with hypertension varied considerably by weight status. This study provides a glimpse into the complex relationship between weight status and high blood pressure status among African American men. Additional research is needed to identify mechanisms through which excess weight affects the development and progression of high blood pressure. PMID:20937738

  10. Non-equilibrium Inertial Separation Array for High-throughput, Large-volume Blood Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Baris R; Smith, Kyle C; Edd, Jon F; Nadar, Priyanka; Dlamini, Mcolisi; Kapur, Ravi; Toner, Mehmet

    2017-08-30

    Microfluidic blood processing is used in a range of applications from cancer therapeutics to infectious disease diagnostics. As these applications are being translated to clinical use, processing larger volumes of blood in shorter timescales with high-reliability and robustness is becoming a pressing need. In this work, we report a scaled, label-free cell separation mechanism called non-equilibrium inertial separation array (NISA). The NISA mechanism consists of an array of islands that exert a passive inertial lift force on proximate cells, thus enabling gentler manipulation of the cells without the need of physical contact. As the cells follow their size-based, deterministic path to their equilibrium positions, a preset fraction of the flow is siphoned to separate the smaller cells from the main flow. The NISA device was used to fractionate 400 mL of whole blood in less than 3 hours, and produce an ultrapure buffy coat (96.6% white blood cell yield, 0.0059% red blood cell carryover) by processing whole blood at 3 mL/min, or ∼300 million cells/second. This device presents a feasible alternative for fractionating blood for transfusion, cellular therapy and blood-based diagnostics, and could significantly improve the sensitivity of rare cell isolation devices by increasing the processed whole blood volume.

  11. High glucose impairs superoxide production from isolated blood neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Nielsen, S E; Rask-Madsen, J

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide (O(2)(-)), a key antimicrobial agent in phagocytes, is produced by the activity of NADPH oxidase. High glucose concentrations may, however, impair the production of O(2)(-) through inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which catalyzes the formation of NADPH. This study...... measured the acute effects of high glucose or the G6PD inhibitor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the production of O(2)(-) from isolated human neutrophils....

  12. Pervaporation : membranes and models for the dehydration of ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitzen, Johannes Wilhelmus Franciscus

    1988-01-01

    In this thesis the dehydration of ethanol/water mixtures by pervaporation using homogeneous membranes is studied. Both the general transport mechanism as well as the development of highly selective membranes for ethanol/water separation are investigated.

  13. Fuel ethanol discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines

  14. Ethanol electrooxidation on a carbon-supported Pt catalyst at elevated temperature and pressure: A high-temperature/high-pressure DEMS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S.; Halseid, M. Chojak; Heinen, M.; Jusys, Z.; Behm, R. J.

    The electrooxidation of ethanol on a Pt/Vulcan catalyst was investigated in model studies by on-line differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) over a wide range of reaction temperatures (23-100 °C). Potentiodynamic and potentiostatic measurements of the Faradaic current and the CO 2 formation rate, performed at 3 bar overpressure under well-defined transport and diffusion conditions reveal significant effects of temperature, potential and ethanol concentration on the total reaction activity and on the selectivity for the pathway toward complete oxidation to CO 2. The latter pathway increasingly prevails at higher temperature, lower concentration and lower potentials (∼90% current efficiency for CO 2 formation at 100 °C, 0.01 M, 0.48 V), while at higher ethanol concentrations (0.1 M), higher potentials or lower temperatures the current efficiency for CO 2 formation drops, reaching values of a few percent at room temperature. These trends result in a significantly higher apparent activation barrier for complete oxidation to CO 2 (68 ± 2 kJ mol -1 at 0.48 V, 0.1 M) compared to that of the overall ethanol oxidation reaction determined from the Faradaic current (42 ± 2 kJ mol -1 at 0.48 V, 0.1 M). The mechanistic implications of these results and the importance of relevant reaction and mass transport conditions in model studies for reaction predictions in fuel cell applications are discussed.

  15. Factors associated with lack of awareness and uncontrolled high blood pressure among Canadian adults with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Marianne E; Bienek, Asako; McAlister, Finlay A; Robitaille, Cynthia; Joffres, Michel; Tremblay, Mark S; Johansen, Helen; Campbell, Norm R C

    2012-05-01

    Approximately 17% of Canadians with high blood pressure were unaware of their condition, and of Canadians aware of having the condition, approximately 1 in 5 have uncontrolled high blood pressure despite high rates of pharmacotherapy. The objectives of the current study are to estimate the prevalence of resistant hypertension and examine factors associated with (1) lack of awareness and (2) uncontrolled hypertension despite pharmacotherapy. Using the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey (N = 3473, aged 20-79 years) and logistic regression, we quantified relationships between characteristics and (1) presence of hypertension, (2) lack of awareness (among those with hypertension), and (3) uncontrolled high blood pressure (among those treated for hypertension). Older age, lowest income, and less than high school education were associated with presence of hypertension. Men (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.2) and adults high blood pressure (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.2) despite treatment. Elevated systolic blood pressure was the issue in over 90% of women and 80% of men with uncontrolled hypertension. Depending on the definition employed, 4.4% (95% CI, 2.4-6.4) to 7.8% (95% CI, 6.0-9.6) of the population with hypertension had resistant hypertension. Messaging or interventions encouraging screening may be helpful for all younger Canadian adults and men; programs encouraging blood pressure control may help older women. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High-frequency attenuation and backscatter measurements of rat blood between 30 and 60 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chih-Chung

    2010-01-01

    There has recently been a great deal of interest in noninvasive high-frequency ultrasound imaging of small animals such as rats due to their being the preferred animal model for gene therapy and cancer research. Improving the interpretation of the obtained images and furthering the development of the imaging devices require a detailed knowledge of the ultrasound attenuation and backscattering of biological tissue (e.g. blood) at high frequencies. In the present study, the attenuation and backscattering coefficients of the rat red blood cell (RBC) suspensions and whole blood with hematocrits ranging from 6% to 40% were measured between 30 and 60 MHz using a modified substitution approach. The acoustic parameters of porcine blood under the same conditions were also measured in order to compare differences in the blood properties between these two animals. For porcine blood, both whole blood and RBC suspension were stirred at a rotation speed of 200 rpm. Three different rotation speeds of 100, 200 and 300 rpm were carried out for rat blood experiments. The attenuation coefficients of both rat and porcine blood were found to increase linearly with frequency and hematocrit (the values of coefficients of determination (r 2 ) are around 0.82-0.97 for all cases). The average attenuation coefficient of rat whole blood with a hematocrit of 40% increased from 0.26 Nepers mm -1 at 30 MHz to 0.47 Nepers mm -1 at 60 MHz. The maximum backscattering coefficients of both rat and porcine RBC suspensions were between 10% and 15% hematocrits at all frequencies. The fourth-power dependence of backscatter on frequency was approximately valid for rat RBC suspensions with hematocrits between 6% and 40%. However, the frequency dependence of the backscatter estimate deviates from a fourth-power law for porcine RBC suspension with hematocrit higher than 20%. The backscattering coefficient plateaued for hematocrits higher than 15% in porcine blood, but for rat blood it was maximal around a

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity and high blood pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of diet-related chronic diseases like hypertension and obesity among others has become a public health concern. Risk factors for these diseases have been well studied in high income countries but less studied in developing countries. Objective: The study was to document the prevalence and ...

  18. Examination of Ethanol Marketing and Input Procurement Practices of the U.S. Ethanol Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Spaulding, Aslihan D.; Schmidgall, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Growing concerns about the dependence on foreign oil and high prices of gasoline have led to rapid growth in ethanol production in the past decade. Unlike earlier development of the ethanol industry which was highly concentrated in a few large corporations, recent ownership of the ethanol plants has been by farmer-owned cooperatives. Not much is known about the marketing and purchasing practices and plants’ flexibility with respect to adapting new technologies. The purpose of this research is...

  19. Adropin levels and target organ damage secondary to high blood pressure in the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulen, Bedia; Eken, Cenker; Kucukdagli, Okkes Taha; Serinken, Mustafa; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Kılıc, Elif; Uyarel, Hüseyin

    2016-11-01

    High blood pressure is still a challenge for emergency physicians to discern the patients that require further analysis to establish the existence of acute hypertensive target organ damage (TOD). The present study aimed to reveal that adropin levels are useful for detecting TOD in patients presenting with high blood pressure. Patients presenting with a blood pressure of more than 180/110 mm Hg were enrolled into the study. After a resting period of 15 minutes, patients' blood pressures were measured thrice at 5-minute intervals while the patients were sitting on a chair, and the average of these measurements was accepted as the baseline value. Blood samples were obtained for either adropin levels or possible TOD during the emergency department admission. A total of 119 patients were included in the study. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures of study patients were 204.8±23.2 and 108.3 ± 10.3, respectively, and 42% (n = 50) of the patients had TOD. Although the adropin levels were similar between the patients with or without TOD (TOD group = 195 pg/mL, interquartile range [IQR]: 178-201; no-TOD group = 196 pg/mL, IQR: 176-204 [P = .982]), it is significantly higher in normotensive patients (normotensive group = 289 pg/mL, IQR: 193-403) compared with the hypertensive ones (P high blood pressure to the emergency department. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of high blood pressure subtypes and its associations with BMI in Chinese children: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yide; Dong, Bin; Wang, Shuo; Dong, Yanhui; Zou, Zhiyong; Fu, Lianguo; Ma, Jun

    2017-06-26

    Data on prevalence and characteristics of different high blood pressure subtypes are lacking among Chinese children. Regarding the mechanistic differences between isolated systolic high blood pressure and isolated diastolic high blood pressure and their different impact on end organ diseases, it is necessary to examine the prevalence of different high blood pressure subtypes in Chinese children and explore their associations with adiposity. Data were derived from the baseline data of a multi-centered cluster randomized controlled trial involving participants from China. High blood pressure was defined according to age-, gender- and height-specific 95th percentile developed by the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group. Body mass index was used to classify underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. The prevalence of HBP was 10.2% and 8.9% for boys and girls, respectively. Isolated systolic high blood pressure is the dominant high blood pressure subtype among Chinese boys aged 6-17 years and girls aged 12-17 years, while isolated diastolic high blood pressure was the most common high blood pressure subtype in girls aged 6-11 years. In boys, the status of overweight doubled the risk of isolated systolic high blood pressure (95% CI, 1.73, 2.31; P high blood pressure and adiposity. The distribution of high blood pressure subtypes in boys differed from those in girls, and boys with adiposity showed a higher risk of high blood pressure than their female counterpart. Difference in strength of association between isolated diastolic high blood pressure and isolated systolic high blood pressure with body mass index was also found. These results may aid current strategies for preventing and controlling pediatric hypertension.

  1. In vivo roles of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), catalase and the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS) in deermice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, T.; Alderman, J.; Lieber, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    The relative importance of ADH and MEOS for ethanol oxidation in the liver has yet to be elucidated. The discovery of a strain of deermice genetically lacking ADH (ADH-) which can consume ethanol at greater than 50% of the rates seen in deermice having ADH (ADH+) suggested a significant role for non-ADH pathways in vivo. To quantitate contributions of the various pathways, the authors examined first the ethanol oxidation rates with or without 4-methylpyrazole in isolated deermice hepatocytes. 4-Methylpyrazole significantly reduced the ethanol oxidation in both ADH+ and ADH- hepatocytes. The reduction seen in ADH- cells can be applied to correct for the effect of 4-methylpyrazole on non-ADH pathways of ADH+ deermouse hepatocytes. After correction, non-ADH pathways were found to contribute 28% of ethanol metabolism at 10 mM and 52% at 50 mM. When using a different approach namely measurement of the isotope effect, MEOS was calculated to account for 35% at low and about 70% at high blood ethanol concentrations. Thus, they found that two different complementary approaches yielded similar results, namely that non-ADH pathways play a significant role in ethanol oxidation even in the presence of ADH

  2. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de; Kaneko, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: → Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. → It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. → Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. → Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  3. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de, E-mail: lucianofreitas@hiroshima-u.ac.j [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan); Kaneko, Shinji [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: {yields} Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. {yields} It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. {yields} Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. {yields} Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  4. Effect of the presence of initial ethanol on ethanol production in sugar cane juice fermented by Zymomonas mobilis

    OpenAIRE

    Tano,Marcia Sadae; Buzato,João Batista

    2003-01-01

    Ethanol production in sugar cane juice in high initial sugar concentration, fermented by Z. mobilis in the presence and absence of ethanol, was evaluated. Ethanol production was low in both media. The presence of initial ethanol in the sugar cane juice reduced ethanol production by 48.8%, biomass production by 25.0% and the total sugar consumption by 28.3%. The presence of initial ethanol in the medium did not affect significantly levan production and biomass yield coefficient (g biomass/g su...

  5. High sensitivity ethanol gas sensor based on Sn - doped ZnO under visible light irradiation at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Peishuo; Pan, Guofeng; Zhang, Bingqiang; Zhen, Jiali; Sun, Yicai, E-mail: pgf@hebut.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronic, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin (China)

    2014-07-15

    Pure ZnO and 5at%, 7at%, 9at% Sn - doped ZnO materials are prepared by the chemical co - precipitation method. They were annealed by furnace at temperature range of 300 - 700ºC in air for 1h. The ZnO materials are characterized by X - ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the Sn - doped ZnO materials appear rough porous structures. The maximum sensitivity can be achieved by doping the amount of 7 at%. It has much better sensing performance towards ethanol vapor under visible light irradiation. The response and recovery time are ~1s and ~5s, respectively. The mechanism for the improvement in the sensing properties can be explained with the surface adsorption theory and the photoactivation theory. (author)

  6. A portable system for processing donated whole blood into high quality components without centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Sean C; Strachan, Briony C; Xia, Hui; Vörös, Eszter; Torabian, Kian; Tomasino, Taylor A; Griffin, Gary D; Lichtiger, Benjamin; Aung, Fleur M; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2018-01-01

    The use of centrifugation-based approaches for processing donated blood into components is routine in the industrialized world, as disparate storage conditions require the rapid separation of 'whole blood' into distinct red blood cell (RBC), platelet, and plasma products. However, the logistical complications and potential cellular damage associated with centrifugation/apheresis manufacturing of blood products are well documented. The objective of this study was to evaluate a proof-of-concept system for whole blood processing, which does not employ electromechanical parts, is easily portable, and can be operated immediately after donation with minimal human labor. In a split-unit study (n = 6), full (~500mL) units of freshly-donated whole blood were divided, with one half processed by conventional centrifugation techniques and the other with the new blood separation system. Each of these processes took 2-3 hours to complete and were performed in parallel. Blood products generated by the two approaches were compared using an extensive panel of cellular and plasma quality metrics. Comparison of nearly all RBC parameters showed no significant differences between the two approaches, although the portable system generated RBC units with a slight but statistically significant improvement in 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid concentration (p applications in remote or resource-limited settings, or for patients requiring highly functional platelet product.

  7. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  8. High level extracellular production of a recombinant alkaline catalase in E. coli BL21 under ethanol stress and its application in hydrogen peroxide removal after cotton fabrics bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenxiao; Zheng, Hongchen; Zhao, Xingya; Li, Shufang; Xu, Jianyong; Song, Hui

    2016-08-01

    The effects of induction parameters, osmolytes and ethanol stress on the productivity of the recombinant alkaline catalase (KatA) in Escherichia coli BL21 (pET26b-KatA) were investigated. The yield of soluble KatA was significantly enhanced by 2% ethanol stress. And a certain amount of Triton X-100 supplementation could markedly improved extracellular ratio of KatA. A total soluble catalase activity of 78,762U/mL with the extracellular ratio of 92.5% was achieved by fed-batch fermentation in a 10L fermentor, which was the highest yield so far. The purified KatA showed high stability at 50°C and pH 6-10. Application of KatA for elimination of H2O2 after cotton fabrics bleaching led to less consumption of water, steam and electric power by 25%, 12% and 16.7% respectively without productivity and quality losing of cotton fabrics. Thus, the recombinant KatA is a promising candidate for industrial production and applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of phytase application during high gravity (HG) maize mashes preparation on the availability of starch and yield of the ethanol fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulski, D; Kłosowski, G; Rolbiecka, A

    2014-10-01

    Phytic acid present in raw materials used in distilling industry can form complexes with starch and divalent cations and thus limit their biological availability. The influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate complexes on starch availability during the alcoholic fermentation process using high gravity (HG) maize mashes was analyzed. Indicators of the alcoholic fermentation as well as the fermentation activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D-2 strain were statistically evaluated. Phytate hydrolysis improved the course of the alcoholic fermentation of HG maize mashes. The final ethanol concentration in the media supplemented with phytase applied either before or after the starch hydrolysis increased by 1.0 and 0.6 % v/v, respectively, as compared to the control experiments. This increase was correlated with an elevated fermentation yield that was higher by 5.5 and 2.0 L EtOH/100 kg of starch, respectively. Phytate hydrolysis resulted also in a statistically significant increase in the initial concentration of fermenting sugars by 14.9 mg/mL of mash, on average, which was a consequence of a better availability of starch for enzymatic hydrolysis. The application of phytase increased the attenuation of HG media fermentation thus improving the economical aspect of the ethanol fermentation process.

  10. Facile solvothermal synthesis of highly active and robust Pd1.87Cu0.11Sn electrocatalyst towards direct ethanol fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Rajkumar; Dhiman, Shikha; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2016-08-01

    Ordered intermetallic Pd1.87Cu0.11Sn ternary electrocatalyst has been synthesized by sodium borohydride reduction of precursor salts Pd(acac)2, CuCl2.2H2O and SnCl2 using one-pot solvothermal synthesis method at 220 °C with a reaction time of 24 h. To the best of our knowledge, here for the first time we report surfactant free synthesis of a novel ordered intermetallic ternary Pd1.87Cu0.11Sn nanoparticles. The ordered structure of the catalyst has been confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Composition and morphology of the nanoparticles have been confirmed through field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry and TEM. The electrocatalytic activity and stability of the ternary electrocatalyst towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. The catalyst is proved to be highly efficient and stable upto 500th cycle and even better than commercially available Pd/C (20 wt%) electrocatalysts. The specific and mass activity of the as synthesized ternary catalyst are found to be ∼4.76 and ∼2.9 times better than that of commercial Pd/C. The enhanced activity and stability of the ordered ternary Pd1.87Cu0.11Sn catalyst can make it as a promising candidate for the alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell application.

  11. High Relative Abundance of Biofuel Sourced Ethanol in Precipitation in the US and Brazil Determined Using Compound Specific Stable Carbon Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M. S.; Felix, J. D. D.; Casas, M.; Avery, G. B., Jr.; Kieber, R. J.; Mead, R. N.; Willey, J. D.; Lane, C.

    2017-12-01

    Ethanol biofuel production and consumption have increased exponentially over the last two decades to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, 85% of global ethanol production and consumption occurs in the US and Brazil. Increasing biofuel ethanol usage in these two countries enhances emissions of uncombusted ethanol to the atmosphere contributing to poor air quality. Although measurements of ethanol in the air and the precipitation reveal elevated ethanol concentrations in densely populated cities, other sources such as natural vegetation can contribute to emission to the atmosphere. Previous modeling studies indicated up to 12% of atmospheric ethanol is from anthropogenic emissions. Only one gas phase study in southern Florida attempted to constrain the two sources through direct isotopic measurements. The current study used a stable carbon isotope method to constrain sources of ethanol in rainwater from the US and Brazil. A method was developed using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Stable carbon isotope signatures (δ13C) of vehicle ethanol emission sources for both the US (-9.8‰) and Brazil (-12.7‰) represented C4 plants as feedstock (corn and sugarcane) for biofuel production. An isotope mixing model using biofuel from vehicles (C4 plants) and biogenic (C3 plants) end-members was implemented to estimate ethanol source apportionment in the rain. We found that stable carbon isotope ratio of ethanol in the rain ranged between -22.6‰ and -12.7‰. Our results suggest that the contribution of biofuel to atmospheric ethanol can be higher than previously estimated. As biofuel usage increasing globally, it is essential to determine the relative abundance of anthropogenic ethanol in other areas of the world.

  12. Association between anthropometry and high blood pressure in a representative sample of preschoolers in madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Beneit, Gloria; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Pocock, Stuart; Redondo, Juliana; Fuster, Valentín; Peñalvo, José L

    2015-06-01

    Program SI! is a multi-level, school-based intervention for the promotion of cardiovascular health from early childhood. The aim of this paper is to characterize the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure in the preschoolers enrolled in the study, and to compare various criteria for classifying obesity. The study was a cluster-randomized controlled intervention trial including 24 state schools in Madrid (Spain). Weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured in 2011 children (1009 boys and 1002 girls) aged 3 to 5 years (3.7 [0.9]). Body mass index and blood pressure were classified by corresponding task force criteria. Obesity was studied by 6 different criteria. Associations of body mass index, body weight, body fat, and waist circumference on blood pressure were examined, and the risk of high blood pressure in relation to tertiles of body mass index was calculated. The prevalence of obesity according to the International Obesity Task Force varied from 2% at age 3 to 8% at age 5, and the overall prevalence of high blood pressure (≥ 90th percentile) was 20%. Sex- and age-specific criteria for obesity showed better agreement with the reference than a single generalized cutoff. The risk of high blood pressure was higher for the highest tertile of body mass index distribution. The highest prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure was found among older children. The classification of obesity in children was more accurate using sex- and age-specific cutoffs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Guidelines of the French Society of Otorhinolaryngology (SFORL). Epistaxis and high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, J; Prulière Escabasse, V; Bequignon, E; Vérillaud, B; Robard, L; Crampette, L; Malard, O

    2017-02-01

    The authors present the guidelines of the French Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society (Société Française d'Oto-Rhino-Laryngologie et de Chirurgie de la Face et du Cou: SFORL) on epistaxis in high blood pressure. A multidisciplinary work group was entrusted with a review of the scientific literature on the above topic. Guidelines were drawn up, based on the articles retrieved and the group members' individual experience. They were then read over by an editorial group independent of the work group. The final version was established in a coordination meeting. The guidelines were graded as A, B, C or expert opinion, by decreasing level of evidence. It is recommended to measure the blood pressure of patients in acute-phase epistaxis (Grade A); to control high blood pressure medically in the acute phase of bleeding, to reduce its duration; to monitor blood pressure at the waning of nosebleed; and to control high blood pressure medically in the waning phase to reduce the risk of recurrence. In case of persistent high blood pressure on waning of severe epistaxis, it is recommended to prescribe cardiovascular evaluation to screen for underlying hypertensive disease (Grade B). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. High blood pressure: prevalence and adherence to guidelines in a population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Diana; Curjuric, Ivan; Dratva, Julia; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Quinto, Carlos; Rochat, Thierry; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Burdet, Luc; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Pons, Marco; Gerbase, Margaret W; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure, the single leading health risk factor worldwide, contributes greatly to morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to add to the understanding of diagnosed and undiagnosed high blood pressure in Switzerland and to evaluate adherence to hypertension guidelines. Included were 3962 participants from the first (2001-2003) and second (2010-2011) follow-ups of the population-based Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Disease in Adults. High blood pressure was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg and the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed hypertension was based on questionnaire information. High blood pressure was found in 34.9% of subjects, 49.1% of whom were unaware of this condition; 30.0% had doctor-diagnosed hypertension and, although 82.1% of these received drug treatments, in only 40.8% was blood pressure controlled (<140/90 mm Hg). Substantial first-line beta-blocker use and nonadherence to comorbidity-specific prescription guidelines were observed and remained mostly unexplained. Age-adjusted rates of unawareness and uncontrolled hypertension were more than 20% higher than in the USA. There is room for improvement in managing hypertension in Switzerland. Population-based observational studies are essential for identifying and evaluating unmet needs in healthcare; however, to pinpoint the underlying causes it is imperative to facilitate linkage of cohort data to medical records.

  15. PP033. High blood pressure in pregnancy: an indicator of future health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooher, J; Chiu, C L; Thornton, C; Lupton, S; O'Loughlin, A; Makris, A; Hennessy, A; Lind, J M; Korda, A; Ogle, R; Horvath, J

    2012-07-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) remain a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Australia approximately 10% of all pregnancies are affected by HDP. There is growing evidence that endothelial damage caused by HDP remains after pregnancy and has long term consequences on maternal health. The aim of our research was to determine the association between HDP and risk of having high blood pressure in later life. Self-reported data regarding a physician's diagnosis of HDP and of high blood pressure later in life were obtained from women recruited from the 45 and Up Study, Australia. Relative risks (converted from odds ratios) and 99% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression, adjusting for demographic and lifestyle characteristics. A total of 82,164 women were included in the study, of which 9,845 reported having HDP. Women who had HDP had a significantly increased risk of having high blood pressure later in life compared to women who did not have HDP (adjusted relative risk of 2.05, 99% CI 1.99-2.11, phigh blood pressure 6.3 years (99% CI 5.85-6.66, phigh blood pressure compared to women who have a healthy pregnancy. Women with HDP should be monitored closely in the years following pregnancy for early identification and intervention of high blood pressure. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The Activity Test of Ethanol Extract Tea Parasite Herb (Scurrulla Artopurpurea) as an Immunostimulator on Wistar Strain Rat Sensititized with Sheep Red Blood Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Retno; Dimas A, M.; Hafiz, Aldi; Amalia, Muttia

    2018-03-01

    Tea parasite (Scurrulla artropurpurea) is one of the hemiparasite plants suspected as an imustimulator agent. The aims of this study was to prove the activity of tea parasite herb extract as immunostimulator in Wistar strain rats that are sensitized by sheep red blood cell suspension (SRBC). Twenty eight Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. The control group was given CMC 1%, the treatment group was given the tea parasite herb extract at doses of 750 mg, 1.5g and 3 g/kgBW/day, each group was sensitized by SRBC 10% as much 0.5 ml intraperitoneally on the 0th and 9th days and 0.1 ml intraplantar on 12th days. The total number of leukocyte and lymphocyte cells was performed using blood smear and analyzed by GLMRM. test. The macrophage cell activity and the capacity of the peritoneal fluid preparation on day 14 and analyzed by ANOVA test. The histopathological features are demonstrated after 48 hours of intraplantar injection, quantitatively perceived perivascular and periadnexal infiltrates. The results showed that there were average differences on leukocyte cell counts (F = 46.249) and total lymphocyte cells (F = 58.144) on each calculation (day), but there were no average differences between each treatment group. The highest activity of phagocytosis is 78% and continues to increase along with the additional dose of extract, without the increased capacity of macrophage phagocytosis. Histopathological features of slow-type IV reaction shows mild severity. It can be concluded that the active compound of the extract tea parasite herbare able to improve immune system.

  17. A high fat meal activates blood coagulation factor vii in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A. K.; Bladbjerg, E. M.; Kornerup Hansen, A.

    2002-01-01

    In humans, high fat meals cause postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), but human studies have not provided definite evidence for a prothrombotic effect of dietary FVII activation. An animal model would be an attractive way to pursue this question and therefore we tested...... the LEW/Mol rat. We gavaged 3 mL of a fat emulsion (n = 42) or 3 mL isotonic glucose (n = 42). Blood was sampled by heart puncture 2, 4 and 6 h (n = 14/group at each time) after the fat/glucose load. Furthermore, blood was sampled from 16 untreated rats to determine the baseline levels. Triglyceride...

  18. Effects of High-Intensity Blood Flow Restriction Exercise on Muscle Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Gabriel R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6 and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6 that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups.

  19. Elimination Kinetics of Ethanol in a 5-Week-Old Infant and a Literature Review of Infant Ethanol Pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Ford

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary ethanol metabolism occurs through alcohol dehydrogenase, but minor metabolic pathways such as the P450 enzymes CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 and the enzyme catalase exist. These enzymes have distinct developmental stages. Elimination kinetics of ethanol in the infant is limited. We report the elimination kinetics of ethanol in a 5-week-old African-American male who had a serum ethanol level of 270 mg/dL on admission. A previously healthy 5-week-old African-American male was brought to the ED with a decreased level of consciousness. His initial blood ethanol level was 270 mg/dL. Serial blood ethanol levels were obtained. The elimination rate of ethanol was calculated to be in a range from 17.1 to 21.2 mg/dL/hr and appeared to follow zero-order elimination kinetics with a R2=0.9787. Elimination kinetics for ethanol in the young infant has been reported in only four previously published reports. After reviewing these reports, there appears to be variability in the elimination rates of ethanol in infants. Very young infants may not eliminate ethanol as quickly as previously described. Given that there are different stages of enzyme development in children, caution should be used when generalizing the elimination kinetics in young infants and children.

  20. High-fat diet-induced neuropathy of prediabetes and obesity: effect of PMI-5011, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcho, Pierre; Stavniichuk, Roman; Ribnicky, David M; Raskin, Ilya; Obrosova, Irina G

    2010-01-01

    Artemisia species are a rich source of herbal remedies with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We evaluated PMI-5011, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., on neuropathy in high-fat diet-fed mice, a model of prediabetes and obesity developing oxidative stress and proinflammatory changes in peripheral nervous system. C57Bl6/J mice fed high-fat diet for 16 weeks developed obesity, moderate nonfasting hyperglycemia, nerve conduction deficit, thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia, and tactile allodynia. They displayed 12/15-lipoxygenase overexpression, 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid accumulation, and nitrosative stress in peripheral nerve and spinal cord. PMI-5011 (500 mg kg(-1) d(-1), 7 weeks) normalized glycemia, alleviated nerve conduction slowing and sensory neuropathy, and reduced 12/15-lipoxygenase upregulation and nitrated protein expression in peripheral nervous system. PMI-5011, a safe and nontoxic botanical extract, may find use in treatment of neuropathic changes at the earliest stage of disease.

  1. Prevalence and control of high blood pressure in primary care: results from the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Study (GEMCAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balijepalli, Chakrapani; Bramlage, Peter; Lösch, Christian; Zemmrich, Claudia; Humphries, Karin H; Moebus, Susanne

    2014-06-01

    Contemporary epidemiological data on blood pressure readings, hypertension prevalence and control in unselected patient populations covering a broad age range are scarce. The aim here is to report the prevalence of high blood pressure and to identify factors associated with blood pressure control in a large German primary care sample. We used data from the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Study including 35 869 patients aged 18-99 years. High blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg or using antihypertensive therapy. Factors associated with blood pressure control among patients receiving antihypertensive therapy were examined using multiple logistic regressions to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence of high blood pressure, uncontrolled high blood pressure and untreated high blood pressure was 54.8%, 21.3% and 17.6%, respectively. Age >50 years (1.52; 1.40-1.65), male sex (1.30; 1.20-1.41), elevated waist circumference (1.55; 1.45-1.65), high cholesterol (1.24; 1.16-1.33), high triglycerides (1.11; 1.04-1.19) and concomitant diabetes (1.29; 1.20-1.40) were independently associated with uncontrolled high blood pressure. In a majority of patients we observed hypertension despite treatment for high blood pressures. Studies examining the reasons for treatment failure are highly warranted.

  2. Fermentation of hexoses to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Lena [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology]|[Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Chemical Reaction Engineering

    2000-06-01

    The Goals of the project has been: to increase the ethanol yield by reducing the by-product formation, primarily biomass and glycerol, and to prevent stuck fermentations, i.e. to maintain a high ethanol production rate simultaneously with a high ethanol yield. The studies have been performed both in defined laboratory media and in a mixture of wood- and wheat hydrolysates. The yeast strains used have been both industrial strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and haploid laboratory strains. The Relevance of these studies with respect to production of ethanol to be used as fuel is explained by: With the traditional process design used today, it is very difficult to reach a yield of more than 90 % of the theoretical maximal value of ethanol based on fermented hexose. During 'normal' growth and fermentation conditions in either anaerobic batch or chemostat cultures, substrate is lost as biomass and glycerol in the range of 8 to 11 % and 6 to 11 % of the substrate consumed (kg/kg). It is essential to reduce these by-products. Traditional processes are mostly batch processes, in which there is a risk that the biocatalyst, i.e. the yeast, may become inactivated. If for example yeast biomass production is avoided by use of non-growing systems, the ethanol production rate is instantaneously reduced by at least 50%. Unfortunately, even if yeast biomass production is not avoided on purpose, it is well known that stuck fermentations caused by cell death is a problem in large scale yeast processes. The main reason for stuck fermentations is nutrient imbalances. For a good process economy, it is necessary to ensure process accessibility, i.e. to maintain a high and reproducible production rate. This will both considerably reduce the necessary total volume of the fermentors (and thereby the investment costs), and moreover minimize undesirable product fall-out.

  3. Measuring high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T blood concentration in population surveys.

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzarino, AI; Mindell, JS

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The blood test for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (HS-CTnT) has been proposed as a marker of cardiovascular risk in the general population, as it is associated with subsequent incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. We aimed at evaluating the feasibility of HS-CTnT testing within large nationally-representative population surveys in which blood samples are collected during household visits, shipped using the standard civil postal service, and then frozen for subseq...

  4. Measuring high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T blood concentration in population surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzarino, A. I.; Mindell, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The blood test for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (HS-CTnT) has been proposed as a marker of cardiovascular risk in the general population, as it is associated with subsequent incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. We aimed at evaluating the feasibility of HS-CTnT testing within large nationally-representative population surveys in which blood samples are collected during household visits, shipped using the standard civil postal service, and then frozen for subse...

  5. Individual and environmental risk factors for high blood lead concentrations in Danish indoor shooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Suadicani, Poul; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-08-01

    International studies have shown blood lead at levels causing health concern in recreational indoor shooters. We hypothesized that Danish recreational indoor shooters would also have a high level of blood lead, and that this could be explained by shooting characteristics and the physical environment at the shooting range. This was an environmental case study of 58 male and female shooters from two indoor shooting ranges with assumed different ventilation and cleaning conditions. Information was obtained on general conditions including age, gender, tobacco and alcohol use, and shooting conditions: weapon type, number of shots fired, frequency of stays at the shooting range and hygiene habits. A venous blood sample was drawn to determine blood lead concentrations; 14 non-shooters were included as controls. Almost 60% of the shooters, hereof five out of 14 women, had a blood lead concentration above 0.48 micromol/l, a level causing long-term health concern. All controls had blood lead values below 0.17 micromol/l. Independent significant associations with blood lead concentrations above 0.48 micromol/l were found for shooting at a poorly ventilated range, use of heavy calibre weapons, number of shots and frequency of stays at the shooting range. A large proportion of Danish recreational indoor shooters had potentially harmful blood lead concentrations. Ventilation, amounts of shooting, use of heavy calibre weapons and stays at the shooting ranges were independently associated with increased blood lead. The technical check at the two ranges was performed by the Danish Technological Institute and costs were defrayed by the Danish Rifle Association. To pay for the analyses of blood lead, the study was supported by the The Else & Mogens Wedell-Wedellsborg Foundation. The Danish Regional Capital Scientific Ethics Committee approved the study, protocol number H-4-2010-130.

  6. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Morais-Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol, but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex interaction. We investigated the effects of concomitant, chronic administration of ethanol and stress exposure on the withdrawal and consumption of, as well as the preference for, ethanol in mice. Male Swiss mice (30–35 g, 8-10 per group were exposed to an ethanol liquid diet as the only source of food for 15 days. In the final 5 days, they were exposed to forced swimming stress. Twelve hours after removal of the ethanol liquid diet, animals were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal by measuring anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours after evaluation of ethanol withdrawal, they were evaluated for voluntary consumption of ethanol in a “three-bottle choice” paradigm. Mice exposed to chronic consumption of ethanol had decreased locomotor activity during withdrawal. Contrary to our expectations, a concomitant forced swimming stress did not aggravate ethanol withdrawal. Nevertheless, simultaneous ethanol administration and stress exposure increased voluntary consumption of ethanol, mainly solutions containing high concentrations of ethanol. These results showed that stressful situations during ethanol intake may aggravate specific addiction-related behaviors.

  7. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Silva, G; Fernandes-Santos, J; Moreira-Silva, D; Marin, M T

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol), but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex interaction. We investigated the effects of concomitant, chronic administration of ethanol and stress exposure on the withdrawal and consumption of, as well as the preference for, ethanol in mice. Male Swiss mice (30-35 g, 8-10 per group) were exposed to an ethanol liquid diet as the only source of food for 15 days. In the final 5 days, they were exposed to forced swimming stress. Twelve hours after removal of the ethanol liquid diet, animals were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal by measuring anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours after evaluation of ethanol withdrawal, they were evaluated for voluntary consumption of ethanol in a "three-bottle choice" paradigm. Mice exposed to chronic consumption of ethanol had decreased locomotor activity during withdrawal. Contrary to our expectations, a concomitant forced swimming stress did not aggravate ethanol withdrawal. Nevertheless, simultaneous ethanol administration and stress exposure increased voluntary consumption of ethanol, mainly solutions containing high concentrations of ethanol. These results showed that stressful situations during ethanol intake may aggravate specific addiction-related behaviors.

  8. Ethanol electrooxidation on a carbon-supported Pt catalyst at elevated temperature and pressure: A high-temperature/high-pressure DEMS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, S.; Halseid, M. Chojak; Heinen, M.; Jusys, Z.; Behm, R.J. [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2009-05-01

    The electrooxidation of ethanol on a Pt/Vulcan catalyst was investigated in model studies by on-line differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) over a wide range of reaction temperatures (23-100 C). Potentiodynamic and potentiostatic measurements of the Faradaic current and the CO{sub 2} formation rate, performed at 3 bar overpressure under well-defined transport and diffusion conditions reveal significant effects of temperature, potential and ethanol concentration on the total reaction activity and on the selectivity for the pathway toward complete oxidation to CO{sub 2}. The latter pathway increasingly prevails at higher temperature, lower concentration and lower potentials ({proportional_to}90% current efficiency for CO{sub 2} formation at 100 C, 0.01 M, 0.48 V), while at higher ethanol concentrations (0.1 M), higher potentials or lower temperatures the current efficiency for CO{sub 2} formation drops, reaching values of a few percent at room temperature. These trends result in a significantly higher apparent activation barrier for complete oxidation to CO{sub 2} (68 {+-} 2 kJ mol{sup -1} at 0.48 V, 0.1 M) compared to that of the overall ethanol oxidation reaction determined from the Faradaic current (42 {+-} 2 kJ mol{sup -1} at 0.48 V, 0.1 M). The mechanistic implications of these results and the importance of relevant reaction and mass transport conditions in model studies for reaction predictions in fuel cell applications are discussed. (author)

  9. Association of high blood pressure with renal insufficiency: role of albuminuria, from NHANES, 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ping; Zhu, Xiangzhu; Li, Haiming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Shi, Haiming; Zhang, Ming-zhi; Harris, Raymond C; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Dai, Qi

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between hypertension and kidney disease is complicated. Clinical trials found intense blood pressure control was not associated with alterations in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in all patients but did slow the rate of GFR decline among those with a higher baseline proteinuria. However, the underlying mechanism has been unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the association between high blood pressure and renal function is modified by albuminuria status by conducting analyses in a cross-sectional study with 12,440 adult participants without known kidney diseases, diabetes or cardiovascular diseases, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006. 1226 out of 12440 were found to have unknown high blood pressure and 4494 were found to have reduced renal function. Overall, a moderate association was found between high blood pressure and renal function insufficiency in all participants analyzed. However, among participants with albuminuria, the prevalence of moderate-severe renal insufficiency substantially and progressively increased from normal subjects to prehypertensive and undiagnosed hypertensive subjects (1.43%, 3.44%, 10.96%, respectively, P for trendhigh blood pressure and reduced renal function could be dependent upon the albuminuria status. This finding may provide a possible explanation for results observed in clinical trials of intensive blood pressure control. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  10. Income inequality and high blood pressure in Colombia: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucumi, Diego I; Schulz, Amy J; Roux, Ana V Diez; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2017-11-21

    The objective of this research was to examine the association between income inequality and high blood pressure in Colombia. Using a nationally representative Colombian sample of adults, and data from departments and municipalities, we fit sex-stratified linear and logistic multilevel models with blood pressure as a continuous and binary variable, respectively. In adjusted models, women living in departments with the highest quintile of income inequality in 1997 had higher systolic blood pressure than their counterparts living in the lowest quintile of income inequality (mean difference 4.42mmHg; 95%CI: 1.46, 7.39). Women living in departments that were at the fourth and fifth quintile of income inequality in 1994 were more likely to have hypertension than those living in departments at the first quintile in the same year (OR: 1.56 and 1.48, respectively). For men, no associations of income inequality with either systolic blood pressure or hypertension were observed. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that income inequality is associated with increased risk of high blood pressure for women. Future studies to analyze pathways linking income inequality to high blood pressure in Colombia are needed.

  11. Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2014-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  12. Ternary Pt9RhFex Nanoscale Alloys as Highly Efficient Catalysts with Enhanced Activity and Excellent CO-Poisoning Tolerance for Ethanol Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Yin, Shibin; Wen, Ying; Tian, Zhiqun; Wang, Ningzhang; Key, Julian; Wang, Shuangbao; Shen, Pei Kang

    2017-03-22

    To address the problems of high cost and poor stability of anode catalysts in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs), ternary nanoparticles Pt 9 RhFe x (x = 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9) supported on carbon powders (XC-72R) have been synthesized via a facile method involving reduction by sodium borohydride followed by thermal annealing in N 2 at ambient pressure. The catalysts are physically characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and their catalytic performance for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) is evaluated by cyclic and linear scan voltammetry, CO-stripping voltammograms, and chronopotentiometry. All the Pt 9 RhFe x /C catalysts of different atomic ratios produce high EOR catalytic activity. The catalyst of atomic ratio composition 9:1:3 (Pt/Rh/Fe) has the highest activity and excellent CO-poisoning tolerance. Moreover, the enhanced EOR catalytic activity on Pt 9 RhFe 3 /C when compared to Pt 9 Rh/C, Pt 3 Fe/C, and Pt/C clearly demonstrates the presence of Fe improves catalytic performance. Notably, the onset potential for CO oxidation on Pt 9 RhFe 3 /C (0.271 V) is ∼55, 75, and 191 mV more negative than on Pt 9 Rh/C (0.326 V), Pt 3 Fe/C (0.346 V), and Pt/C (0.462 V), respectively, which implies the presence of Fe atoms dramatically improves CO-poisoning tolerance. Meanwhile, compared to the commercial PtRu/C catalyst, the peak potential on Pt 9 RhFe 3 /C for CO oxidation was just slightly changed after several thousand cycles, which shows high stability against the potential cycling. The possible mechanism by which Fe and Rh atoms facilitate the observed enhanced performance is also considered herein, and we conclude Pt 9 RhFe 3 /C offers a promising anode catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  13. Batch and multi-step fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of Formiline-pretreated sugarcane bagasse at high solid loadings for high sugar and ethanol titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Dong, Lei; Chen, Liang; Liu, Dehua

    2013-05-01

    Formiline pretreatment pertains to a biomass fractionation process. In the present work, Formiline-pretreated sugarcane bagasse was hydrolyzed with cellulases by batch and multi-step fed-batch processes at 20% solid loading. For wet pulp, after 144 h incubation with cellulase loading of 10 FPU/g dry solid, fed-batch process obtained ~150 g/L glucose and ~80% glucan conversion, while batch process obtained ~130 g/L glucose with corresponding ~70% glucan conversion. Solid loading could be further increased to 30% for the acetone-dried pulp. By fed-batch hydrolysis of the dried pulp in pH 4.8 buffer solution, glucose concentration could be 247.3±1.6 g/L with corresponding 86.1±0.6% glucan conversion. The enzymatic hydrolyzates could be well converted to ethanol by a subsequent fermentation using Saccharomices cerevisiae with ethanol titer of 60-70 g/L. Batch and fed-batch SSF indicated that Formiline-pretreated substrate showed excellent fermentability. The final ethanol concentration was 80 g/L with corresponding 82.7% of theoretical yield. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Unchanged cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after acclimatization to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Paulson, Olaf B; Hornbein, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of acclimatization to high altitude on cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism at rest and during exercise. Nine healthy, native sea-level residents were studied 3 weeks after arrival at Chacaltaya, Bolivia (5,260 m) and after reacclimatization to sea level....... At high altitude at rest, arterial carbon dioxide tension, oxygen saturation, and oxygen tension were significantly reduced, and arterial oxygen content was increased because of an increase in hemoglobin concentration. Global cerebral blood flow was similar in the four conditions. Cerebral oxygen delivery...... and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose also remained unchanged, whereas cerebral metabolic rates of lactate increased slightly but nonsignificantly at high altitude during exercise compared with high altitude at rest. Reaction time was unchanged. The data indicate that cerebral blood flow...

  15. High Ethanol Fuel Endurance: A Study of the Effects of Running Gasoline with 15% Ethanol Concentration in Current Production Outboard Four-Stroke Engines and Conventional Two-Stroke Outboard Marine Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, D.

    2011-10-01

    Three Mercury Marine outboard marine engines were evaluated for durability using E15 fuel -- gasoline blended with 15% ethanol. Direct comparison was made to operation on E0 (ethanol-free gasoline) to determine the effects of increased ethanol on engine durability. Testing was conducted using a 300-hour wide-open throttle (WOT) test protocol, a typical durability cycle used by the outboard marine industry. Use of E15 resulted in reduced CO emissions, as expected for open-loop, non-feedback control engines. HC emissions effects were variable. Exhaust gas and engine operating temperatures increased as a consequence of leaner operation. Each E15 test engine exhibited some deterioration that may have been related to the test fuel. The 9.9 HP, four-stroke E15 engine exhibited variable hydrocarbon emissions at 300 hours -- an indication of lean misfire. The 300HP, four-stroke, supercharged Verado engine and the 200HP, two-stroke legacy engine tested with E15 fuel failed to complete the durability test. The Verado engine failed three exhaust valves at 285 endurance hours while the 200HP legacy engine failed a main crank bearing at 256 endurance hours. All E0-dedicated engines completed the durability cycle without incident. Additional testing is necessary to link the observed engine failures to ethanol in the test fuel.

  16. Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Fikru; Byass, Peter; Wall, Stig

    2009-08-23

    The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national capital of Ethiopia, hosting about 25% of the urban population in the country. A probabilistic sample of adult males and females, 25-64 years of age residing in Addis Ababa city participated in structured interviews and physical measurements. We employed a population based, cross sectional survey, using the World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS) of chronic disease risk factors. Data on selected socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, as well as physical measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were collected through standardized procedures. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the coefficient of variability of blood pressure due to selected socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and physical measurements. A total of 3713 adults participated in the study. About 20% of males and 38% of females were overweight (body-mass-index > or = 25 kg/m2), with 10.8 (9.49, 12.11)% of the females being obese (body-mass-index > or = 30 kg/m2). Similarly, 17% of the males and 31% of the females were classified as having low level of total physical activity. The age-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval) of high blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or = 140 mmHg (millimetres of mercury) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or = 90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication, was 31.5% (29.0, 33.9) among males and 28.9% (26.8, 30.9) among females. High blood pressure is widely prevalent in Addis Ababa and may represent a silent

  17. Severe obesity and high blood pressure among children, Philadelphia health centers, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, John V; Robbins, Jessica M; Houck, Kevin L; Nobis, Elizabeth A; Inman, Katelyn A; Khan, Khudsiya S; Robbins, Susan W

    2014-04-01

    Child obesity is a major health problem particularly affecting disadvantaged population groups. Severe obesity carries additional health risks for children. In the context of the childhood obesity epidemic, high blood pressure among children is of increasing concern. Chart reviews were carried out to examine the prevalence of severe obesity and its association with high blood pressure measurements among randomly selected patients aged 3 to 17 years who had well-child care visits at 8 public community health centers during 2010. A majority of the 691 patients reviewed were African American (58%); an additional 16% were Hispanic. The prevalence of severe obesity was 7.7% (95% confidence interval = 5.8% to 9.9%) and the prevalence of high blood pressure measurements was 17.5% (95% confidence interval = 14.8% to 20.6%). Patients who were severely obese were more than twice as likely as other children to have high blood pressure values. Severe obesity is associated with substantially increased frequency of high blood pressure measurements in children, and should be investigated further as a potential marker for hypertension in children. Primary care providers should be prepared to diagnose and treat hypertension in severely obese children.

  18. Characterising the extent of misreporting of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes using the Australian Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Karen Louise; Jacobs, Jane Philippa; Allender, Steven; Alston, Laura Veronica; Nichols, Melanie

    2016-08-02

    Measuring and monitoring the true prevalence of risk factors for chronic conditions is essential for evidence-based policy and health service planning. Understanding the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Australia relies heavily on self-report measures from surveys, such as the triennial National Health Survey. However, international evidence suggests that self-reported data may substantially underestimate actual risk factor prevalence. This study sought to characterise the extent of misreporting in a large, nationally-representative health survey that included objective measures of clinical risk factors for CVD. This study employed a cross-sectional analysis of 7269 adults aged 18 years and over who provided fasting blood samples as part of the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey. Self-reported prevalence of high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes was compared to measured prevalence, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses identified socio-demographic characteristics associated with underreporting for each risk factor. Approximately 16 % of the total sample underreported high blood pressure (measured to be at high risk but didn't report a diagnosis), 33 % underreported high cholesterol, and 1.3 % underreported diabetes. Among those measured to be at high risk, 68 % did not report a diagnosis for high blood pressure, nor did 89 % of people with high cholesterol and 29 % of people with high fasting plasma glucose. Younger age was associated with underreporting high blood pressure and high cholesterol, while lower area-level disadvantage and higher income were associated with underreporting diabetes. Underreporting has important implications for CVD risk factor surveillance, policy planning and decisions, and clinical best-practice guidelines. This analysis highlights concerns about the reach of primary prevention efforts in certain groups and implications for patients who may be unaware of their

  19. Characterising the extent of misreporting of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes using the Australian Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Louise Peterson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring and monitoring the true prevalence of risk factors for chronic conditions is essential for evidence-based policy and health service planning. Understanding the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD in Australia relies heavily on self-report measures from surveys, such as the triennial National Health Survey. However, international evidence suggests that self-reported data may substantially underestimate actual risk factor prevalence. This study sought to characterise the extent of misreporting in a large, nationally-representative health survey that included objective measures of clinical risk factors for CVD. Methods This study employed a cross-sectional analysis of 7269 adults aged 18 years and over who provided fasting blood samples as part of the 2011–12 Australian Health Survey. Self-reported prevalence of high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes was compared to measured prevalence, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses identified socio-demographic characteristics associated with underreporting for each risk factor. Results Approximately 16 % of the total sample underreported high blood pressure (measured to be at high risk but didn’t report a diagnosis, 33 % underreported high cholesterol, and 1.3 % underreported diabetes. Among those measured to be at high risk, 68 % did not report a diagnosis for high blood pressure, nor did 89 % of people with high cholesterol and 29 % of people with high fasting plasma glucose. Younger age was associated with underreporting high blood pressure and high cholesterol, while lower area-level disadvantage and higher income were associated with underreporting diabetes. Conclusions Underreporting has important implications for CVD risk factor surveillance, policy planning and decisions, and clinical best-practice guidelines. This analysis highlights concerns about the reach of primary prevention efforts in certain

  20. A motivational interview promotes retention of blood donors with high internal motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Himawan, Lina K; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H; Madden, Katrala; Carey, Patricia M; Slepian, P Maxwell; Ankawi, Brett; Livitz, Irina E; Fox, Kristen R

    2017-10-01

    Based on the hypothesis that self-determined motivation is associated with an increased likelihood of future behavior, the present study examined the ability of a motivational interview to promote internal motivation for giving blood and future donation attempts. A sample of 484 recent whole-blood and double red blood cell donors (62.4% female; age = 30.2 ± 11.8 years) were randomly assigned to either a telephone-delivered motivational interview or a control call approximately 6 weeks after donating. Several weeks before the call and again 1 week after the call, participants completed the Blood Donor Identity Survey, a multidimensional measure of donor motivation, to derive indices of amotivation, external motivation, and internal motivation to give blood. Repeat donation attempts were tracked using blood center records. Relative to controls, participants in the motivational interview group showed a shift toward more self-determined motivation, as indicated by significant decreases in amotivation (p = 0.01) and significant increases in external (p = 0.009) and internal (p = 0.002) motivation. Furthermore, those with initially high levels of autonomous motivation were more likely to make a donation attempt in the subsequent year if they completed the motivational interview (71.1%) versus the control call (55.1%). Motivational interviewing is a potentially useful strategy to enhance retention of existing blood donors, particularly among those who express a greater sense of internal motivation for giving. © 2017 AABB.

  1. PulseCam: high-resolution blood perfusion imaging using a camera and a pulse oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mayank; Suliburk, James; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Sabharwal, Ashutosh

    2016-08-01

    Measuring blood perfusion is important in medical care as an indicator of injury and disease. However, currently available devices to measure blood perfusion like laser Doppler flowmetry are bulky, expensive, and cumbersome to use. An alternative low-cost and portable camera-based blood perfusion measurement system has recently been proposed, but such camera-only system produces noisy low-resolution blood perfusion maps. In this paper, we propose a new multi-sensor modality, named PulseCam, for measuring blood perfusion by combining a traditional pulse oximeter with a video camera in a unique way to provide low noise and high-resolution blood perfusion maps. Our proposed multi-sensor modality improves per pixel signal to noise ratio of measured perfusion map by up to 3 dB and improves the spatial resolution by 2 - 3 times compared to best known camera-only methods. Blood perfusion measured in the palm using our PulseCam setup during a post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) test replicates standard PORH response curve measured using laser Doppler flowmetry device but with much lower cost and a portable setup making it suitable for further development as a clinical device.

  2. Phytotherapy of High Blood Pressure in Three Phytogeographic Regions of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabang, Nole; Yedjou, Clement G; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2017-01-01

    High blood pressure is a public health challenge worldwide. According to World Health Organization, 30% of men and 50% of women 65 to 75 years old are suffering from high blood pressure. The number of hypertensive patients in the world will attain 1.56 billion of people, with 60% increase in prevalence. The incidence of high blood pressure increases with age, but nowadays, is being noticed an increasing incidence in young people. The socio-cultural medicine may provide new solutions in the management of this pathology. Therefore this study was carried out to record and document plants used against high blood pressure in socio-cultural medicine for future drugs discovery worldwide. An ethno botanical survey was realized between 2002 and 2016 to identify manifold plants used to fight against high blood pressure. This survey was carried out in three phytogeographic regions of Cameroon. Amongst people living in those regions, 1131 randomly screened interviewees distributed in 58 socio-cultural groups were involved in this study. This survey reveals that about 70% of interviewees don't know high blood pressure which is a symptomless disease. A total of 28 species of plants were recorded. These plants belong to 25 genera and 24 families. They were used to prepare 28 herbal remedies for the treatment of high blood pressure. In the morphological point of view about 10/28 (36%) plants are herbs; 9/28 (32%) plants are trees and 9/28 (32%) plants are shrubs. Only 3/28 plants (11%) used including Allium sativum, Aloe barteri and Aloe buttneri) are cultivated. This means that the plants used in this study don't usually have some form of protection through cultivation which is encouraging in terms of their conservation. The uncontrolled use of a hypotensive plants can provoke a fatal hypotension in hypertensive patients. Therefore the use of hypotensive plants needs to be controlled by physician or by a patient verification using a blood pressure monitor. Recorded species which

  3. Epidemiology of high-level parvovirus B19 viraemia among Dutch blood donors, 2003-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, K.; Mesman, H. J.; de Waal, M.; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Zaaijer, H. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Plasma derivatives and blood components with low levels of parvovirus B19 (B19) seem not infectious, but recently infected, highly viraemic donors may transmit B19. We studied the incidence of high-level B19 viraemia (B19 DNA > 106 IU/ml) in 6 center dot 5 million Dutch

  4. High titer ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine by simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and combined fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, T Q; Gleisner, Roland; Zhu, J Y; Dien, Bruce S; Hector, Ronald E

    2013-01-01

    Lodgepole wood chips were pretreated by sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) at 25% solids loading and 180 °C for 20 min with sulfuric acid and sodium bisulfite charges of 2.2 and 8 wt/wt% on an oven-dry wood basis, respectively. The pretreated wood chips were disk-milled with pretreatment spent liquor and water, and the solid fraction was separated from the liquor stream. The liquor was neutralized and concentrated through vacuum evaporation. Quasi-simultaneous enzymatic saccharification of the cellulosic solids and combined fermentation with the concentrated liquor was conducted at up to 20% total solids loading. Fed-batching of the solids facilitated liquefaction and saccharification, as well as managing instantaneous inhibitor concentrations. At a commercial cellulase (CTec2) loading of only 9 FPU or 0.06 mL/g untreated wood, a maximum ethanol titer of 47.4 g/L was achieved, resulting in a calculated yield of 285 L/tonne of wood using Saccharomyces cerevisiae YRH400 at 35 °C and pH 5.5. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. High-throughput miRNA profiling of human melanoma blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rass Knuth

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miRNA signatures are not only found in cancer tissue but also in blood of cancer patients. Specifically, miRNA detection in blood offers the prospect of a non-invasive analysis tool. Methods Using a microarray based approach we screened almost 900 human miRNAs to detect miRNAs that are deregulated in their expression in blood cells of melanoma patients. We analyzed 55 blood samples, including 20 samples of healthy individuals, 24 samples of melanoma patients as test set, and 11 samples of melanoma patients as independent validation set. Results A hypothesis test based approch detected 51 differentially regulated miRNAs, including 21 miRNAs that were downregulated in blood cells of melanoma patients and 30 miRNAs that were upregulated in blood cells of melanoma patients as compared to blood cells of healthy controls. The tets set and the independent validation set of the melanoma samples showed a high correlation of fold changes (0.81. Applying hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis we found that blood samples of melanoma patients and healthy individuals can be well differentiated from each other based on miRNA expression analysis. Using a subset of 16 significant deregulated miRNAs, we were able to reach a classification accuracy of 97.4%, a specificity of 95% and a sensitivity of 98.9% by supervised analysis. MiRNA microarray data were validated by qRT-PCR. Conclusions Our study provides strong evidence for miRNA expression signatures of blood cells as useful biomarkers for melanoma.

  6. Role of nitric oxide and prostanoids in the regulation of leg blood flow and blood pressure in humans with essential hypertension: effect of high-intensity aerobic training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Jensen, Lasse Gliemann; Thaning, Pia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids in the regulation of leg blood flow and systemic blood pressure before and after 8 weeks of aerobic high-intensity training in individuals with essential hypertension (n=10) and matched healthy control subjects (n=11). Hypertensive subjects...

  7. High blood pressure during pregnancy is associated with future cardiovascular disease: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooher, Jane; Chiu, Christine L; Yeung, Kristen; Lupton, Samantha J; Thornton, Charlene; Makris, Angela; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to determine if having a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of age and body mass index (BMI). Data were sourced from the baseline questionnaire of the 45 and Up Study, Australia, an observational cohort study. Participants were randomly selected from the Australian Medicare Database within New South Wales. A total of 84 619 women were eligible for this study, of which 71 819 were included. These women had given birth between the ages of 18 and 45 years, had an intact uterus and ovaries, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure prior to their first pregnancy. HDP was associated with higher odds of having high blood pressure (high blood pressure (45.6 vs 54.8 years, phigh blood pressure, compared with women who were normotensive during pregnancy (high blood pressure (<58 years: 12.48, 10.63 to 14.66; p<0.001 and ≥58 years, 5.16, 4.54 to 5.86; p<0.001), compared with healthy weight women with a normotensive pregnancy. HDP is an independent risk factor for future CVD, and this risk is further exacerbated by the presence of overweight or obesity in later life.

  8. Isolation and characterization of Ethanologenbacterium HitB49 gen. nov. sp. nov., an anaerobic, high hydrogen-producing bacterium with a special ethanol-type-fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, M. [Harbin Inst. of Technology, Harbin, HL (China). School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering]|[Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). Inst. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Ren, N.Q.; Wang, A.J. [Harbin Inst. of Technology, Harbin, HL (China). School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering; Liang, D.T.; Tay, J.H. [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). Inst. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Hydrogen, an important future energy source, can be produced by several fermentative microorganisms. The factor that prevents widespread biohydrogen production is the difficulty in isolating the ideal high hydrogen-producing bacterium (HPB). In this study, the Hungate technology was used to isolate and cultivate 210 strains of dominant fermentative bacteria. They were isolated from 6 sludges with ethanol-type fermentation (ETF) bioreactors. The study examined the production of hydrogen in pH 4, very low pH in ETF. The maximum rate in the biohydrogen-producing reactor was promising under continuous flow condition. The novel genus of HPB was Ethanologenbacterium Hit, of which strain B49 belonged to the ETF bacteria.

  9. High-affinity hemoglobin and blood oxygen saturation in diving emperor penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Jessica U; Ponganis, Paul J

    2009-10-01

    The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) thrives in the Antarctic underwater environment, diving to depths greater than 500 m and for durations longer than 23 min. To examine mechanisms underlying the exceptional diving ability of this species and further describe blood oxygen (O2) transport and depletion while diving, we characterized the O2-hemoglobin (Hb) dissociation curve of the emperor penguin in whole blood. This allowed us to (1) investigate the biochemical adaptation of Hb in this species, and (2) address blood O2 depletion during diving, by applying the dissociation curve to previously collected partial pressure of O2 (PO2) profiles to estimate in vivo Hb saturation (SO2) changes during dives. This investigation revealed enhanced Hb-O2 affinity (P50=28 mmHg, pH 7.5) in the emperor penguin, similar to high-altitude birds and other penguin species. This allows for increased O2 at low blood PO2 levels during diving and more complete depletion of the respiratory O2 store. SO2 profiles during diving demonstrated that arterial SO2 levels are maintained near 100% throughout much of the dive, not decreasing significantly until the final ascent phase. End-of-dive venous SO2 values were widely distributed and optimization of the venous blood O2 store resulted from arterialization and near complete depletion of venous blood O2 during longer dives. The estimated contribution of the blood O2 store to diving metabolic rate was low and highly variable. This pattern is due, in part, to the influx of O2 from the lungs into the blood during diving, and variable rates of tissue O2 uptake.

  10. High blood oxygen affinity in the air-breathing swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Findorf, Inge; Helbo, Signe; Kocagoz, Yigit; Buchanan, Rasmus; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus, Zuiew 1793) is a facultative air-breathing fish with reduced gills. Previous studies have shown that gas exchange seems to occur across the epithelium of the buccopharyngeal cavity, the esophagus and the integument, resulting in substantial diffusion limitations that must be compensated by adaptations in others steps of the O₂ transport system to secure adequate O₂ delivery to the respiring tissues. We therefore investigated O₂ binding properties of whole blood, stripped hemoglobin (Hb), two major isoHb components and the myoglobin (Mb) from M. albus. Whole blood was sampled using indwelling catheters for blood gas analysis and determination of O₂ equilibrium curves. Hb was purified to assess the effects of endogenous allosteric effectors, and Mb was isolated from heart and skeletal muscle to determine its O₂ binding properties. The blood of M. albus has a high O₂ carrying capacity [hematocrit (Hct) of 42.4±4.5%] and binds O₂ with an unusually high affinity (P₅₀=2.8±0.4mmHg at 27°C and pH7.7), correlating with insensitivity of the Hb to the anionic allosteric effectors that normally decrease Hb-O₂ affinity. In addition, Mb is present at high concentrations in both heart and muscle (5.16±0.99 and 1.08±0.19mg ∙ g wet tissue⁻¹, respectively). We suggest that the high Hct and high blood O₂ affinity serve to overcome the low diffusion capacity in the relatively inefficient respiratory surfaces, while high Hct and Mb concentration aid in increasing the O₂ flux from the blood to the muscles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Report of the PRI biofuel-ethanol; Rapport du PRI biocarburant-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This evaluation report presents three research programs in the framework of the physiological behavior of the yeast ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'', with high ethanol content. These studies should allowed to select an efficient yeast for the ethanol production. The first study concerns the development of an enzymatic process for the hydrolysis and the fermentation. The second study deals with the molecular and dynamical bases for the yeast metabolic engineering for the ethanol fuel production. The third research concerns the optimization of performance of microbial production processes of ethanol. (A.L.B.)

  12. Report of the PRI biofuel-ethanol; Rapport du PRI biocarburant-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This evaluation report presents three research programs in the framework of the physiological behavior of the yeast ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'', with high ethanol content. These studies should allowed to select an efficient yeast for the ethanol production. The first study concerns the development of an enzymatic process for the hydrolysis and the fermentation. The second study deals with the molecular and dynamical bases for the yeast metabolic engineering for the ethanol fuel production. The third research concerns the optimization of performance of microbial production processes of ethanol. (A.L.B.)

  13. Rewiring Lactococcus lactis for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Dehli, Tore Ibsen; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2013-01-01

    to redirect the metabolism of LAB model organism Lactococcus lactis toward ethanol production. Codon-optimized Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) was introduced and expressed from synthetic promoters in different strain backgrounds. In the wild-type L. lactis strain MG1363 growing on glucose, only...... small amounts of ethanol were obtained after introducing PDC, probably due to a low native alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When the same strains were grown on maltose, ethanol was the major product and lesser amounts of lactate, formate, and acetate were formed. Inactivating the lactate dehydrogenase...... genes ldhX, ldhB, and ldh and introducing codon-optimized Z. mobilis alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHB) in addition to PDC resulted in high-yield ethanol formation when strains were grown on glucose, with only minor amounts of by-products formed. Finally, a strain with ethanol as the sole observed...

  14. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... sugar ( hypoglycemia ) Recognize and treat high blood sugar ( hyperglycemia ) Plan healthy meals Monitor your blood sugar (glucose) ...

  15. The effect of chronic erythrocytic polycythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of two kinds of physiological chronic erythrocytic polycythemias in order to differentiate the specific effect of erythrocytic polycythemia from the general effects of high altitude upon the plasma volume. The two kinds were produced hormonally in female chickens, at sea level, or by protracted high-altitude exposures. It appears that the vascular system of the body may account for an increase in red blood cell mass either by reduction in plasma volume, or by no change in plasma volume, resulting in differential changes in total blood volumes.

  16. Anthropometric indicators of obesity such as predictors of high blood pressure in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Keila de Oliveira Diniz; Saulo Vasconcelos Rocha; Antonio Cesar Cabral de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n1p31   High blood pressure is a leading cause of mortality worldwide and a risk factor for several diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive power of anthropometric indicators of obesity and establish their cutoff points as discriminators of hypertension and identify the anthropometric indicator of obesity that best discriminates high blood pressure in the elderly. This is a cross-sectional study with a sample of 3...

  17. Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek-Janusek, L.

    1986-01-01

    Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat

  18. Persistent high job demands and reactivity to mental stress predict future ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, A; Cropley, M

    2000-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that work stress (persistent high job demands over 1 year) in combination with high reactivity to mental stress predict ambulatory blood pressure. Assessment of cardiovascular responses to standardized behavioural tasks, job demands, and ambulatory blood pressure over a working day and evening after 12 months. We studied 81 school teachers (26 men, 55 women), 36 of whom experienced persistent high job demands over 1 year, while 45 reported lower job demands. Participants were divided on the basis of high and low job demands, and high and low systolic pressure reactions to an uncontrollable stress task. Blood pressure and concurrent physical activity were monitored using ambulatory apparatus from 0900 to 2230 h on a working day. Cardiovascular stress reactivity was associated with waist/hip ratio. Systolic and diastolic pressure during the working day were greater in high job demand participants who were stress reactive than in other groups, after adjustment for age, baseline blood pressure, body mass index and negative affectivity. The difference was not accounted for by variations in physical activity. Cardiovascular stress reactivity and sustained psychosocial stress may act in concert to increase cardiovascular risk in susceptible individuals.

  19. A lab-on-CD prototype for high-speed blood separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinlong; Liu Mei; Yang Jun; Guo Qiuquan

    2008-01-01

    Blood separation is the first step for subsequent blood tests in clinical diagnosis. Lab-on-a-chip technology provides an automatic, cost-effective and fast solution for a wide variety of blood analyses. The objective of this work is to design a new lab-on-CD microstructure capable of separating blood cells from the whole blood into different reservoirs directly. A CD platform including a microchannel network consisting of a straight main microchannel, a curved microchannel and a branching microchannel has been proposed. The merits of this design are its simple structure, less operating time and high separation efficiency because it utilizes multiple separation mechanisms, for instance, two centrifugal forces and Coriolis force. One centrifugal force is due to the system rotation; the other centrifugal force is due to the curvature of the specifically designed curved channel. In this work, systematical evaluation on the functionality and performance of such a design has been done. Ninety-nine per cent separation efficiency is achieved for diluted blood of 6% hematocrit

  20. A lab-on-CD prototype for high-speed blood separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinlong; Guo, Qiuquan; Liu, Mei; Yang, Jun

    2008-12-01

    Blood separation is the first step for subsequent blood tests in clinical diagnosis. Lab-on-a-chip technology provides an automatic, cost-effective and fast solution for a wide variety of blood analyses. The objective of this work is to design a new lab-on-CD microstructure capable of separating blood cells from the whole blood into different reservoirs directly. A CD platform including a microchannel network consisting of a straight main microchannel, a curved microchannel and a branching microchannel has been proposed. The merits of this design are its simple structure, less operating time and high separation efficiency because it utilizes multiple separation mechanisms, for instance, two centrifugal forces and Coriolis force. One centrifugal force is due to the system rotation; the other centrifugal force is due to the curvature of the specifically designed curved channel. In this work, systematical evaluation on the functionality and performance of such a design has been done. Ninety-nine per cent separation efficiency is achieved for diluted blood of 6% hematocrit.