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Sample records for high blood ethanol

  1. High blood acetaldehyde levels after ethanol administration. Difference between alcoholic and nonalcoholic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsten, M A; Matsuzaki, S; Feinman, L; Lieber, C S

    1975-02-20

    Blood actaldehyde and ethanol levels were measured in 11 subjects, six with chronic alcholoism and five nonalcholic controls, after alcohol had been given intravenously. Despite a progressive fall in blood ethanol over a range of 54 to 33 mM/acetaldehyde did not decrease in any of the 11 subjects. The mean acetaldehyde plateau level was significantly (p less than 0.001) higher in alcoholic (42.7 plus or minus 1.2 mum) than in nonalcoholic (26.5 plus or minus 1.5 mum) subjects. When the mean blood ethanol concentration reached 24 mM,the acetaldehyde plateau ended abruptly in each subject. The ethanol concentration at which this fall of blood acetaldehyde occurred suggests desaturation of an ethanol oxidizing system other than alcohol dehydrogenase and indicates that at high ethanol blood levels, such a system contributes to ethanol oxidation. The highet acetaldehyde levels in alcholism may result from both greater activity of this system and mitochondrial damage, and could contribut to the neurologic, hepatic and cardiac complications of alcoholism.

  2. A line of mice selected for high blood ethanol concentrations shows drinking in the dark to intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, John C; Metten, Pamela; Rhodes, Justin S; Yu, Chia-Hua; Brown, Lauren Lyon; Phillips, Tamara J; Finn, Deborah A

    2009-04-15

    Many animal models of alcoholism have targeted aspects of excessive alcohol intake (abuse) and dependence. In the rodent, models aimed at increasing alcohol self-administration have used genetic or environmental manipulations, or their combination. Strictly genetic manipulations (e.g., comparison of inbred strains or targeted mutants, selective breeding) have not yielded rat or mouse genotypes that will regularly and voluntarily drink alcohol to the point of intoxication. Although some behavioral manipulations (e.g., scheduling or limiting access to alcohol, adding a sweetener) will induce mice or rats to drink enough alcohol to become intoxicated, these typically require significant food or water restriction or a long time to develop. We report progress toward the development of a new genetic animal model for high levels of alcohol drinking. High Drinking in the Dark (HDID-1) mice have been selectively bred for high blood ethanol concentrations (BEC, ideally exceeding 100 mg%) resulting from the ingestion of a 20% alcohol solution. After 11 generations of selection, more than 56% of the population now exceeds this BEC after a 4-hour drinking session in which a single bottle containing 20% ethanol is available. The dose of ethanol consumed also produced quantifiable signs of intoxication. These mice will be useful for mechanistic studies of the biological and genetic contributions to excessive drinking.

  3. Essential medicines containing ethanol elevate blood acetaldehyde concentrations in neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Pandya, H. C.; Mulla, H.; Hubbard, M.; Cordell, R. L.; Monks, P. S.; Yakkundi, S.; McElnay, J. C.; Nunn, A. J.; Turner, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Neonates administered ethanol-containing medicines are potentially at risk of dose-dependent injury through exposure to ethanol and its metabolite, acetaldehyde. Here, we determine blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in 49 preterm infants (median birth weight?=?1190?g) dosed with iron or furosemide, medicines that contain different amounts of ethanol, and in 11 control group infants (median birth weight?=?1920?g) who were not on any medications. Median ethanol concentrations in neon...

  4. Essential medicines containing ethanol elevate blood acetaldehyde concentrations in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, H C; Mulla, H; Hubbard, M; Cordell, R L; Monks, P S; Yakkundi, S; McElnay, J C; Nunn, A J; Turner, M A

    2016-06-01

    Neonates administered ethanol-containing medicines are potentially at risk of dose-dependent injury through exposure to ethanol and its metabolite, acetaldehyde. Here, we determine blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in 49 preterm infants (median birth weight = 1190 g) dosed with iron or furosemide, medicines that contain different amounts of ethanol, and in 11 control group infants (median birth weight = 1920 g) who were not on any medications. Median ethanol concentrations in neonates administered iron or furosemide were 0.33 (range = 0-4.92) mg/L, 0.39 (range = 0-72.77) mg/L and in control group infants were 0.15 (range = 0.03-5.4) mg/L. Median acetaldehyde concentrations in neonates administered iron or furosemide were 0.16 (range = 0-8.89) mg/L, 0.21 (range = 0-2.43) mg/L and in control group infants were 0.01 (range = 0-0.14) mg/L. There was no discernible relationship between blood ethanol or acetaldehyde concentrations and time after medication dose. Although infants dosed with iron or furosemide had low blood ethanol concentrations, blood acetaldehyde concentrations were consistent with moderate alcohol exposure. The data suggest the need to account for the effects of acetaldehyde in the benefit-risk analysis of administering ethanol-containing medicines to neonates. • Neonates are commonly treated with ethanol-containing medicines, such as iron and furosemide. • However, there is no data on whether this leads to appreciable increases in blood concentrations of ethanol or its metabolite, acetaldehyde. What is New: • In this study, we find low blood ethanol concentrations in neonates administered iron and/or furosemide but markedly elevated blood acetaldehyde concentrations in some infants receiving these medicines. • Our data suggest that ethanol in drugs may cause elevation of blood acetaldehyde, a potentially toxic metabolite.

  5. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / High Blood Cholesterol High Blood Cholesterol Also known as Hypercholesterolemia High blood cholesterol is ... Lipid panel tests to check for healthy blood cholesterol levels Doctors use lipid panels to check whether ...

  6. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has high ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  7. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... 15% ethanol tolerance. High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential application in .... Growth in media of osmotic pressure range 0 - 25% (w/v) sorbitol ..... Saccharomyces cerevisiae through soya flour supplementation. Biotechnol. Lett. 10(3): 217-220. Bechem ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High ... called ketones are produced. Your body cannot tolerate large amounts of ketones and will try to get ...

  9. Elevated blood acetaldehyde in alcoholics with accelerated ethanol elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindros, K O; Stowell, A; Pikkarainen, P; Salaspuro, M

    1980-01-01

    Alcoholics and controls given ethanol (1.2 g/kg body weight) were analyzed for blood and breath acetaldehyde using the more sensitive and reliable semicarbazide method. The acetaldehyde levels in controls were almost undetectable (less than 2 microM), but were found to be elevated (10--10 microM) in 6 of 8 alcoholics. Breath acetaldehyde and blood acetaldehyde co-fluctuated during the experiments. Fructose infusion transiently increased blood acetaldehyde, but only in 4 of the alcoholics. The apparent discrepancy between our finding and the simultaneously reported low acetaldehyde level in alcoholics (Eriksson and Peachy, this volume) may be explained by the different status of the alcoholics tested. Our alcoholics were tested on the day after hospital admission and eliminated ethanol 5% faster than controls. It is suggested that elevated blood acetaldehyde occurs regularly after interrupted drinking in heavy alcohol abusers with fast ethanol elimination, possibly combined with reduced liver aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, but that the phenomenon may rapidly disappear upon abstinence and hospital treatment, which reduces disturbances in hepatic functions and the ethanol elimination rate.

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or ... give 5% back to the Association. » « Connect With Us Register for diabetes news, research and food & fitness ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  13. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Situations Talking to Your Parents - or Other Adults Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Print ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  15. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... blood, which leads to secondary high blood pressure. Risk Factors Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, ... history of high blood pressure can increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure ...

  17. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other risk factors, like diabetes, you may need treatment. How does high blood pressure affect pregnant women? A few women will get high blood pressure when they are pregnant. When pregnant women get high blood pressure, it is called preeclampsia or toxemia. How do I control my high ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help ...

  19. Preventing High Blood Pressure

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    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  20. High blood pressure - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007696.htm High blood pressure - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  1. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  2. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  6. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... two types of high blood pressure. Primary (essential) hypertension For most adults, there's no identifiable cause of ... tends to develop gradually over many years. Secondary hypertension Some people have high blood pressure caused by ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... About Us Who We Are Careers Contact Us Policies Corporate Support Newsroom Press Releases For Professionals En ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health ...

  9. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... the facts about high blood pressure [PDF-255K] . High Blood Pressure in the United States About 75 million American ...

  10. Effects of ethanol intoxication and gender on blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerke, Nicholas; Underwood, Samantha; Differding, Jerome; Van, Phil; Sambasivan, Chitra; Shapiro, David; Schreiber, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication is a common contributor to traumatic injury. It is unknown whether ethanol consumption contributes to the coagulation differences seen between men and women after trauma. Our aim was to examine the combined effect of ethanol intoxication and gender on coagulation. Fifty-eight healthy subjects participated and chose to enter into a control group (CG; n = 20; 10 men and 10 women) or drinking group (DG; n = 38; 20 men and 18 women). Venous blood samples for thrombelastography, plasminogen activator inhibitor, thrombin-antithrombin complex, and tissue plasminogen activator were drawn at the beginning of the study. Subjects then interacted in a social atmosphere for at least 2 hours, eating and consuming alcoholic (DG) or nonalcoholic (CG) beverages. After 2 hours, blood alcohol level was determined and blood was drawn for a second set of coagulation studies. Demographics were similar between groups except for age (36.7 years CG vs. 29.9 years DG; p = 0.009). All baseline thrombelastography measurements were similar between the CG and DG. Blood alcohol levels in the DG were similar between genders at the end of study. At the end of study, a decreased rate of fibrin formation, decreased clot strength, and a decreased rate of fibrin cross-linking was seen in men but not in women. Fibrinolysis was inhibited in drinkers compared with controls. Consumption of commonly ingested quantities of alcohol correlated with the development of a hypocoagulable state in men but had no effect on coagulation status in women. This phenomenon may contribute to differences in post-trauma coagulation status previously noted between genders.

  11. High ethanol tolerance of the thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producer Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie Just; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The low ethanol tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria, generally less than 2% (v/v) ethanol, is one of the main limiting factors for their potential use for second generation fuel ethanol production. In this work, the tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG 1L1...... to exogenously added ethanol was studied in a continuous immobilized reactor system at a growth temperature of 70 degrees C. Ethanol tolerance was evaluated based on inhibition of fermentative performance e.g.. inhibition of substrate conversion. At the highest ethanol concentration tested (8.3% v/v), the strain...... was able to convert 42% of the xylose initially present, indicating that this ethanol concentration is not the upper limit tolerated by the strain. Long-term strain adaptation to high ethanol concentrations (6 - 8.3%) resulted in an improvement of xylose conversion by 25% at an ethanol concentration of 5...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and ... blood and then treating high blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. How ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... your blood and then treating high blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. ... to detect hyperglycemia so you can treat it early — before it gets worse. If you're new ...

  14. Water-insoluble fractions of botanical foods lower blood ethanol levels in rats by physically maintaining the ethanol solution after ethanol administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Oshima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have analyzed the functions of foods and dietary constituents in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. However, few studies have reported the function of dietary fibers in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. Objective: We assessed the effects of botanical foods that contain dietary fibers on alcohol metabolism. Methods: The ability of the water-insoluble fraction (WIF of 18 kinds of botanical foods to maintain 15% (v/v ethanol solution was examined using easily handled filtration. A simple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC in F344 rats 4 h after the ingestion of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol following dosage of 2.5% (w/v WIF of the experimental botanical foods. Furthermore, the supernatant (6.3 Brix; water-soluble fraction and precipitate (WIF of tomato, with a strong ethanol-maintaining ability, were obtained and BEC and the residual gastric ethanol in rats were determined 2 h after the administration of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol and the individuals fractions. Results: The filtered volumes of dropped ethanol solutions containing all the botanical foods tested except green peas were decreased compared with the ethanol solution without WIF (control. There was a significant correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC. There was no significant difference in the residual gastric ethanol between controls and the supernatant group; however, it was increased significantly in the WIF group than in controls or the supernatant group. Consistent with this, BEC reached a similar level in controls and the supernatant group but significantly decreased in the WIF group compared with controls or the supernatant group. Conclusions: These findings suggest that WIFs of botanical foods, which are mostly water-insoluble dietary fibers, possess the ability to absorb ethanol-containing solutions, and this ability correlates

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Back To Health Topics / High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Also known as Hypertension Leer en español ... vessels (arteries) at higher than normal pressures. Measuring Blood Pressure Blood pressure is the force of blood ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Also known as Hypertension See also Information for ... arteries) at higher than normal pressures. Measuring Blood Pressure Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing ...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Back To Health Topics / High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Also known as Hypertension See also Information ... vessels (arteries) at higher than normal pressures. Measuring Blood Pressure Blood pressure is the force of blood ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Back To Health Topics / High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Also known as Hypertension See also Information for ... vessels (arteries) at higher than normal pressures. Measuring Blood Pressure Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing ...

  19. The effect of blood injection for the prevention of Ethanol reflux after intrahepatic Ethanol injection in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Choon Yul; Kim, Bum Soo; Hahn, Seong Tai; Lee, Jae Mun; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Catholic Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-01

    To reduce ethanol reflux from the needle channel by injecting rat blood immediately after the injection of ethanol into rat liver. The first experiment involved 33 rat livers which were divided into four groups (three livers in group 1;ten in groups 2, 3, and 4). Group 1 animals were used as controls, and 0.1ml saline was injected into the liver; in group 2, ethanol-Tc-99m-O{sub 4}- mixed solution (0.1ml, 0.2mCi) was injected into the liver;in groups 3 and 4, the needle channel was blocked with 0.02ml of fresh blood and old blood, respectively, after the injection of ethanol. After removing the needle, a 3cm round filter paper was laid on each injection site to absorb refluxed ethanol-T{sub c}-99m-O{sub 4}- mixed solution from the liver, and each paper was then counted by a gamma camera unit. In the second experiment, 33rats were divided into four groups (three rats in group 1;ten in groups 2, 3, and 4). Group 1 animals were used as controls, and after exposing the left lateral lobe of the liver, 0.05 ml of saline was injected;in group 2, 0.05 ml of ethanol was injected into the livder;in groups 3 and 4 the needle channel was blocked with 0.02 ml of fresh blood and old blood, respectively, after the injection of ethanol. After ten days, peritoneal adhesions were scored macroscopically and microscopically. In the first experiment using ethanol- T{sub c}-99m-O{sub 4}- mixed solution, groups blocked with blood after the injection of mixed solution showed lower gamma counts than the group injected with mixed solution only (p-value=3D0.0002). The group blocked with old blood showed the lowest count. Macroscopical and microscopical examination of peritoneal adhesions indicated that the grade of adhesion was lower in groups blocked with blood than in the group injected with ethanol onluy (p-value=3D0.0261 and 0.0163, respectively). The above results suggest that an injection of blood after an injection of ethanol is a very effective way of preventing reflux from the liver

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes in your diet don't work, your doctor may change the ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  7. [Medichronal lowers blood ethanol and acetaldehyde and restores the concentration of catecholamines in rat tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhko HKZh; Boĭko, T P; Kostiukovs'ka, L S

    1995-01-01

    Variation of ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in blood, catecholamines in hypothalamus, brain stem and hemispheres, heart and adrenal glands, serotonin in the same structures of the brain, thin intestine and blood in rats was studied. Isolated action of medichronal during 10 days against the background of prolonged administration of moderate doses of ethanol significantly lowered ethanol and acetaldehyde concentration in the animal blood. Medichronal increased the level of noradrenaline, lowered under the conditions of ethanol intoxication in the hypothalamus, and increased adrenalina level in the heart; noradrenaline level in adrenal glands is restored. The amount of serotonin in the blood and tissues increased under the conditions of ethanol intoxication did not vary under the action of medichronal. The obtained results indicate to pronounced detoxication influence of medichronal. One of the mechanisms of its action is normalizing the catecholamine changes caused by the ethanol intoxication in tissues.

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  12. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

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    ... blood vessels, induction of a high fever, and strict low-sodium diets. Case studies suggested that each ... with scientific and medical communities to update hypertension management guidelines (JNC-8), including integrating them with updated ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... increased blood volumes and high blood pressure. Sympathetic Nervous System Activity The sympathetic nervous system has important functions in blood pressure regulation, including ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high blood pressure from developing. It is important to check your blood pressure regularly. Children should have their blood pressure checked starting at ...

  2. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

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    ... High Blood Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... time. High blood pressure is also called hypertension. High Blood Pressure in the United States Having high blood pressure ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... to 5:00 a.m.). What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia? The signs and symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels ... Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs immediate treatment. Symptoms include: Shortness of breath Breath that smells fruity ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... weakens and damages your blood vessels, which can lead to complications . Types of High Blood Pressure There ... Angiotensin narrows or constricts blood vessels, which can lead to an increase in blood pressure. Aldosterone controls ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  7. Vacuum stripping of ethanol during high solids fermentation of corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihadeh, Jameel K; Huang, Haibo; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, Mike E; Singh, Vijay

    2014-05-01

    In corn-ethanol industry, yeast stress inducing glucose concentrations produced during liquefaction and subsequent high ethanol concentrations produced during fermentation restrict slurry solids to 32 % w/w. These limits were circumvented by combining two novel technologies: (1) granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) to break down starch simultaneously with fermentation and (2) vacuum stripping to remove ethanol. A vacuum stripping system was constructed and applied to fermentations at 30, 40, and 45 % solids. As solids increased from 30 to 40 %, ethanol yield decreased from 0.35 to 0.29 L/kg. Ethanol yield from 45 % solids was only 0.18 L/kg. An improvement was conducted by increasing enzyme dose from 0.25 to 0.75 g/g corn and reducing yeast inoculum by half. After improvement, ethanol yield from 40 % solids vacuum treatment increased to 0.36 L/kg, comparable to ethanol yield from 30 % solids (control).

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... outlines and defines high blood pressure severity levels. Stages of High Blood Pressure in Adults Stages Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom number) Prehypertension 120– ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term ... body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of things can cause hyperglycemia: If ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of things can cause hyperglycemia: If you have type 1, you may ... treating high blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... can cause high blood pressure. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system makes angiotensin and ... blood volumes and high blood pressure. Sympathetic Nervous System Activity The sympathetic nervous system has important functions ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... system activity , and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study ... balances, cause your blood vessels to constrict, or impact the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leading to high ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... blood pressure. Primary High Blood Pressure Primary, or essential, high blood pressure is the most common type ... has no known cause, it might be called essential hypertension, primary hypertension, or idiopathic (id-ee-o- ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... hormones in your blood, which leads to secondary high blood pressure. Risk Factors Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, race or ethnicity, being overweight, gender, ...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose ... consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure tends to rise with age. About 65 percent of Americans age 60 or older have high blood pressure. However, ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... for 2 to 3 percent of all cases. Emerging research suggests that certain DNA changes during fetal ... blood, which leads to secondary high blood pressure. Risk Factors Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, ...

  20. The Effect of Ethanol Intoxication on the Spectral Characteristics for Blood Components of White Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Korobova O.; Dudok T.; Trach I.; Moroz O.; Vlokh I.; Vlokh R.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to studying, with the aid of different organic dyes, the transmittance spectra of hemoglobin and immunoglobulin G extracted from the blood of laboratory rats, which have been chronically intoxicated with ethanol. The differences in the spectra are detected, when compare with those for the control group. It is shown that the presence of ethanol in blood probably leads to uncoiling partially the hemoglobin molecules. The essential difference is also found in the tra...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Also known as Hypertension Leer en español See ... defines high blood pressure severity levels. Stages of High Blood Pressure in Adults Stages Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Also known as Hypertension See also Information for ... defines high blood pressure severity levels. Stages of High Blood Pressure in Adults Stages Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are two main types of high blood pressure: primary and secondary high blood pressure. Primary High Blood Pressure Primary, ... plan based on whether you were diagnosed with primary or secondary high blood pressure and if there is a ...

  4. Influence of high temperature and ethanol on thermostable lignocellulolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia; Jørgensen, Henning

    2013-01-01

    the influence of temperature and ethanol on enzyme activity and stability in the distillation step, where most enzymes are inactivated due to high temperatures. Two enzyme mixtures, a mesophilic and a thermostable mixture, were exposed to typical process conditions [temperatures from 55 to 65 °C and up to 5...... % ethanol (w/v)] followed by specific enzyme activity analyses and SDS-PAGE. The thermostable and mesophilic mixture remained active at up to 65 and 55 °C, respectively. When the enzyme mixtures reached their maximum temperature limit, ethanol had a remarkable influence on enzyme activity, e.g., the more...... ethanol, the faster the inactivation. The reason could be the hydrophobic interaction of ethanol on the tertiary structure of the enzyme protein. The thermostable mixture was more tolerant to temperature and ethanol and could therefore be a potential candidate for recycling after distillation....

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... High Blood Pressure Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living ... Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done in ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood pressure: primary and secondary high blood pressure. Primary High Blood Pressure Primary, or essential, high blood pressure is the most ... known cause, it might be called essential hypertension, primary hypertension, or idiopathic (id-ee-o-PATH-ick) ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may stiffen small and large arteries, which can affect blood pressure. Genetic Causes of High Blood Pressure Much of the understanding of the body systems involved in high blood pressure has come from genetic studies. High blood pressure often runs in families. Years ...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... can help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother ... With DASH My Blood Pressure Wallet Card Other Resources Cigarette and Tobacco Facts (National Institute ... OIG USA.gov

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming ... minutes before the test. To track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... risk for prehypertension and high blood pressure is increasing for children and teens, possibly due to the ... II is a hormone that narrows blood vessels, increasing blood pressure. ACE converts Angiotensin I to Angiotensin ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Nervous System Activity The sympathetic nervous system has important functions in blood pressure regulation, including heart rate, ... prevent high blood pressure from developing. It is important to check your blood pressure regularly. Children should ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... may stiffen small and large arteries, which can affect blood pressure. Genetic Causes of High Blood Pressure ... which plaque builds up in leg arteries and affects blood flow in the legs. When people have ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... can help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother ... babies have good outcomes. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... blood pressure, he or she can order additional tests to determine if your blood pressure is due to other conditions or medicines or if you have primary high blood pressure. ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... of your blood pressure, he or she can order additional tests to determine if your blood pressure ... health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: Being physically active Listening to music ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... your blood vessels, which can lead to complications . Types of High Blood Pressure There are two main ... ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood. High blood pressure, sometimes called hypertension, happens ... breath. Heart Failure : When the heart can’t pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs. Common ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... system activity , and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study ... blood pressure often runs in families. Years of research have identified many genes and other mutations associated ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... system activity , and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study ... Channel Blockers: Keep calcium from entering the muscle cells of your heart and blood vessels. This allows ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... to cognitive changes. Signs and symptoms include memory loss, difficulty finding words, and losing focus during conversations. ... high blood pressure; lifestyle changes such as weight loss can be highly effective in treating high blood ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... control high blood pressure; lifestyle changes such as weight loss can be highly effective in treating high blood ... If you’re overweight or obese, try to lose weight. A loss of just 3 to 5 percent ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... happens because medicines can change the way your body controls fluid and salt balances, cause your blood vessels to constrict, or impact the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leading to high blood pressure. Other Medical Causes of High Blood ... these other conditions change the way your body controls fluids, sodium, and hormones in your blood, which leads ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... care provider may need to change or add medicines to your treatment plan over time. NHLBI’s My Blood Pressure Wallet Card can help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High blood pressure can ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... high blood pressure. Using the results of your blood pressure test, your health care provider will diagnose prehypertension or ...

  5. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy Healthy Food Shopping Healthy Drinks for Kids High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) ... How Is High Blood Pressure Treated? What Is High Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the pressure of blood against ...

  6. Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Newboulda Laevis on Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate anti-diabetic effect of the ethanol leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Alloxan (150 mg/kg) was administered to wistar albino rats via the intraperitoneal route. The diabetic rats were then placed in 5 groups, following stabilization of hyperglycemia.

  7. Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Newboulda Laevis on Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: To investigate anti-diabetic effect of the ethanol leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv) in alloxan-induced diabetic ... The plant was identified by Mr S Nweke of the. Department of Pharmacogonosy, Faculty of. Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City. Botanical authentication of the plant was confirmed at the ...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of physical activity Drinking too much alcohol Stress Family History A family history of high blood pressure raises the risk ... for high blood pressure and may run in families. Genetic causes of this condition are why family ...

  9. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  10. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathways. However, these known genetic factors only account for 2 to 3 percent of ... which leads to secondary high blood pressure. Risk Factors Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institute on Drug Abuse) High Blood Pressure (MedlinePlus) High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) RELATED NEWS December ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... habits. The combination of the medicines and the healthy lifestyle habits helps control and lower your high blood pressure. Some people develop “resistant” or uncontrolled high blood pressure. This ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... control high blood pressure. Possible future treatments under investigation include new combination medicines, vaccines, and interventions aimed ... researchers on June 10, 2016, to share current scientific k... View all events on High Blood Pressure ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... 139 OR 80–89 High blood pressure Stage 1 140–159 OR 90–99 High blood pressure ... To help make lifelong lifestyle changes, try making one healthy lifestyle change at a time and add ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... potassium Lack of physical activity Drinking too much alcohol Stress Family History A family history of high blood pressure raises the risk of developing prehypertension or high blood pressure. Some ...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... of physical activity Drinking too much alcohol Stress Family History A family history of high blood pressure ... Stroke Other Resources Many resources are available for support and to provide additional information on high blood ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in normal body functions cause high ... to an increase in blood pressure. Aldosterone controls how the kidneys balance fluid and salt levels. Increased ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Also known as Hypertension See also Information for Health Professionals What Is High blood pressure is a common ... Before age 55, men are more likely than women to develop high blood pressure. After age 55, ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment plans for high blood pressure that include lifelong lifestyle changes and medicines to control high blood ... Managing and coping with stress To help make lifelong lifestyle changes, try making one healthy lifestyle change ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... habits, being overweight or obese, and medicines. Unhealthy Lifestyle Habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can cause high blood ... likely than men to develop high blood pressure. Lifestyle Habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can raise your risk ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ethnicity High blood pressure is more common in African American adults than in Caucasian or Hispanic American adults. Compared with these ethnic groups, African Americans: Tend to get high blood pressure earlier in ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... being overweight or obese, and medicines. Unhealthy Lifestyle Habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can cause high blood pressure, ... than men to develop high blood pressure. Lifestyle Habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can raise your risk for ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 120/80 mmHg. The following table outlines and defines high blood pressure severity levels. Stages of High ... American College of Cardiology (ACC), the guidelines now define hypertension as a systolic blood... View all news ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of all cases. Emerging research suggests that certain DNA changes during fetal development also may cause the development of high blood pressure later in life. Environmental Causes of High Blood Pressure Environmental causes of ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & ... cannot release all the ketones and they build up in your blood, which can lead to ketoacidosis. ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women ... Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor about how to handle this condition. Medical IDs Many people with diabetes, particularly those who ... In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: ... and-how-tos, . In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page ... and-how-tos, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advisory Committees Jobs Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Much of the understanding of the body systems involved in high blood pressure has come from ... happens because medicines can change the way your body controls fluid and salt ... system leading to high blood pressure. Other Medical Causes ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Card can help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and ... before and during the pregnancy. Some women develop high blood pressure during pregnancy. When this happens, your health care provider will ...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions or medicines or if you have primary high blood pressure. Health care providers can use this information to develop your ... blood pressure persists or is first diagnosed as primary high blood pressure, your ... your health care provider may change or update your treatment plan ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cause high blood pressure. Blood Vessel Structure and Function Changes in the structure and function of small and large arteries may contribute to ... to stop or slow some of the body’s functions that cause high blood pressure. Medicines to lower ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for 30 minutes prior to the test. Go ... DASH My Blood Pressure Wallet Card Other Resources Cigarette and Tobacco Facts (National Institute on Drug Abuse) High Blood Pressure (MedlinePlus) High Blood Pressure ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure ... and painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the ...

  1. Experiments on alcocytes containing enzyme nanoparticles for reducing toxic blood concentration of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Yu G; Kosenko, E A; Alexandrovich, Yu G; Ataullakhanov, F I

    2012-05-01

    We developed a method of introduction of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase into mouse and human erythrocytes. The possibility of using erythrocytes loaded with the two enzymes (alcocytes) for reducing ethanol concentration in animal blood was studied. Injection of alcocytes to mice led to accelerated decrease in ethanol concentration as soon as after 5 min and this capacity of alcocytes persisted for at least 2 h. Alcocytes prepared from fresh or preserved human blood did not survive in mice. Thus autologous alcocytes is functionally active and can be used as a protective system in acute alcohol intoxication. The developed method can be regarded as a new medical biotechnology.

  2. Simultaneous determination of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, and ethanol in human blood by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, J; Chiadmi, F; Gandon, V; Chariot, P

    2014-01-01

    Methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, and ethanol, which are commonly used as biomarkers of several diseases, in acute intoxications, and forensic settings, can be detected and quantified in biological fluids. Gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry techniques are complex, require highly trained personnel and expensive materials. Gas chromatographic determinations of ethanol, methanol, and acetone have been reported in one study with suboptimal accuracy. Our objective was to improve the assessment of these compounds in human blood using GC with flame ionization detection. An amount of 50 µl of blood was diluted with 300 µl of sterile water, 40 µl of 10% sodium tungstate, and 20 µl of 1% sulphuric acid. After centrifugation, 1 µl of the supernatant was injected into the gas chromatograph. We used a dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column of 30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 µm. We observed linear correlations from 7.5 to 240 mg/l for methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone and from 75 to 2400 mg/l for ethanol. Precision at concentrations 15, 60, and 120 mg/l for methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone and 150, 600, and 1200 mg/ml for ethanol were 0.8-6.9%. Ranges of accuracy were 94.7-98.9% for methanol, 91.2-97.4% for acetaldehyde, 96.1-98.7% for acetone, and 105.5-111.6% for ethanol. Limits of detection were 0.80 mg/l for methanol, 0.61 mg/l for acetaldehyde, 0.58 mg/l for acetone, and 0.53 mg/l for ethanol. This method is suitable for routine clinical and forensic practices.

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... volumes and high blood pressure. Sympathetic Nervous System Activity The sympathetic nervous system has important functions in ... narrow in the kidneys, possibly causing kidney failure. Cognitive Changes: Research shows that over time, higher blood ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... estrogen, and over-the-counter medicines such as cold relief medicines may cause this form of high blood ... blood pressure is more common in African American adults than in Caucasian or ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... too high. Health care workers check blood pressure readings the same way for children, teens, and adults. ... Complications Because diagnosis is based on blood pressure readings, this condition can go undetected for years, as ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... severity levels. Stages of High Blood Pressure in Adults Stages Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom number) Prehypertension ... in the table are blood pressure guides for adults who do not have any short-term serious ...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... check blood pressure readings the same way for children, teens, and adults. They use a gauge, stethoscope ... prehypertension and high blood pressure is increasing for children and teens, possibly due to the rise in ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and to follow your prescribed treatment plan, which will include healthy lifestyle habit recommendations and possibly medicines. ... your blood pressure test, your health care provider will diagnose prehypertension or high blood pressure if: Your ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... American adults. Compared with these ethnic groups, African Americans: Tend to get high blood pressure earlier in life. Often, on average, have higher blood pressure numbers. ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pressure and maintain normal blood pressure readings. Healthy Eating To help treat high blood pressure, health care ... more about the DASH eating plan. Heart-Healthy Eating Your health care provider also may recommend heart- ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure tends to rise with age. About ... mother’s kidneys and other organs and can cause early birth and low birth weight. If you’re ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... condition is leading to uncontrolled blood pressure. Health care providers treat resistant or uncontrolled high blood pressure with an intensive treatment plan that can include a different set ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... system activity , and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study ... and Your Heart U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Maintaining ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... NHLBI About NHLBI Home Mission and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget ... in the blood vessels, causing the heart to work harder and leading to high blood pressure. Medicines ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... work harder and leading to high blood pressure. Medicines Prescription medicines such as asthma or hormone therapies, ... or peaceful Performing yoga or tai chi Meditating Medicines Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to ...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and Working at the NHLBI Contact and ... Blood Pressure Also known as Hypertension See also Information for Health Professionals What Is High blood pressure ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or tai chi Meditating Medicines Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to stop or slow some of the body’s functions that cause high blood pressure. Medicines to lower ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... balances, cause your blood vessels to constrict, or impact the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leading to high ... are heart healthy. Limiting Sodium and Salt A low-sodium diet can help you manage your blood ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... system activity , and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study ... sodium and salt intake, increase potassium, and eat foods that are heart healthy. Limiting Sodium and Salt ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: Being physically active Listening to music ... With DASH My Blood Pressure Wallet Card Other Resources Cigarette and Tobacco Facts (National Institute on ... OIG USA.gov

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in normal ... including heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate. Researchers are investigating whether imbalances in this system cause ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: Being physically active Listening to music ... Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) RELATED NEWS December ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in ...

  5. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lead to cognitive changes. Signs and symptoms include memory loss, difficulty finding words, and losing focus during ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... to keep a written log of all your results. Whenever you have an appointment with the health ... appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the results of your blood pressure test, your health care ...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... With DASH My Blood Pressure Wallet Card Other Resources Cigarette and Tobacco Facts (National Institute on Drug Abuse) High Blood ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and regular medical care can prevent high blood pressure or its complications. ... blood pressure, it is important to obtain regular medical care and to follow your prescribed treatment plan, which ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... is too high. Health care workers check blood pressure readings the same way for children, teens, and adults. They use a gauge, stethoscope or electronic sensor, and a blood pressure ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... 90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and ...

  12. Estimation of rat muscle blood flow by microdialysis probes perfused with ethanol, [14C]ethanol, and 3H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Donsmark, M; Enevoldsen, L H

    1999-01-01

    We used the perfused rat hindquarter to evaluate whether the microdialysis ethanol technique can be used to qualitatively estimate nutritive skeletal muscle blood flow. Four microdialysis probes were inserted in different hindlimb muscles in each of 16 rats. Hindquarters were perfused at blood fl...... flow rates, limit the usefulness of the technique for measuring dynamic changes in blood flow; caution must also be exerted during muscle contractions. 3H2O and [14C]ethanol are good alternatives to ethanol in the determination of blood flow by microdialysis.......We used the perfused rat hindquarter to evaluate whether the microdialysis ethanol technique can be used to qualitatively estimate nutritive skeletal muscle blood flow. Four microdialysis probes were inserted in different hindlimb muscles in each of 16 rats. Hindquarters were perfused at blood flow...... rates ranging from 0 to 21 ml. 100 g-1. min-1. The microdialysis probes were perfused at 2 microliter/min with perfusate containing ethanol, [14C]ethanol, and 3H2O. Within and between experiments outflow-to-inflow ratios (o/i) generally varied inversely with blood flow. When a low flow or no flow...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... when ketones are present may make your blood glucose level go even higher. You'll need to work with your doctor to find the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... June 7, 2013 Last Edited: September 16, 2014 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: bg-and-a1c-hyperglycemia,tips-and-how-tos, . In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C ...

  15. Orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor antagonists reduce ethanol self-administration in high-drinking rodent models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Ivy Anderson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To examine the role of orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor activity on ethanol self-administration, compounds that differentially target orexin (OX receptor subtypes were assessed in various self-administration paradigms using high-drinking rodent models. Effects of the OX1 antagonist SB334867, the OX2 antagonist LSN2424100, and the mixed OX1/2 antagonist almorexant (ACT-078573 on home cage ethanol consumption were tested in ethanol-preferring (P rats using a 2-bottle choice procedure. In separate experiments, effects of SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant on operant ethanol self-administration were assessed in P rats maintained on a progressive ratio operant schedule of reinforcement. In a third series of experiments, SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant were administered to ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J mice to examine effects of OX receptor blockade on ethanol intake in a binge-like drinking (drinking-in-the-dark model. In P rats with chronic home cage free-choice ethanol access, SB334867 and almorexant significantly reduced ethanol intake, but almorexant also reduced water intake, suggesting nonspecific effects on consummatory behavior. In the progressive ratio operant experiments, LSN2424100 and almorexant reduced breakpoints and ethanol consumption in P rats, whereas the almorexant inactive enantiomer and SB334867 did not significantly affect the motivation to consume ethanol. As expected, vehicle-injected mice exhibited binge-like drinking patterns in the drinking-in-the-dark model. All three OX antagonists reduced both ethanol intake and resulting blood ethanol concentrations relative to vehicle-injected controls, but SB334867 and LSN2424100 also reduced sucrose consumption in a different cohort of mice, suggesting nonspecific effects. Collectively, these results contribute to a growing body of evidence indicating that OX1 and OX2 receptor activity influences ethanol self-administration, although the effects may not be selective for ethanol

  16. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Sveding, Per Viktor; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    .e. spruce) this has been difficult to reach. The main reason behind this difference is the higher recalcitrance of woody substrates which require harsher pretreatment conditions, thus generating higher amounts of inhibitory compounds, ultimately lowering fermentation performances. In this work we studied...... ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to similar to 20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings....... In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble...

  17. [Rapid determination of ethanol in blood by capillary-gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lin; Sun, Cheng-jun; Zou, Xiao-li; Zeng, Hong-yan; Jiang, Bo

    2010-11-01

    To develop a method for the rapid determination of ethanol in blood with capillary-GC. 0.50 mL of whole blood sample was taken and added with 1.00 mL of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and 2 g of anhydrous sodium sulfate. The supernatant of the sample solution was directly injected into GC for analysis. Ethanol was separated from other substances in the sample. The liner range of ethanol detected by the capillary-GC was 0.0-300.0 mg/100 mL, and the detection limit was 0.2 mg/100 mL. The RSD for standard solution determination was 1.36%. Satisfactory results were obtained for the determination of ethanol in whole blood samples, with recoveries ranging from 90.9% to 107.3% and a RSD of 1.98%. The combined uncertainty was 2.2%. This is a rapid, sensitive and simple method for determination of ethanol in large quantities of samples. The method has shortened the duration of analysis cycle in comparison with the traditional headspace-GC, with a reduction from 20-30 min to less than 10 min.

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... If you have ketones, do not exercise. Exercising when ketones are present may make your blood glucose level go even higher. You'll need to work with your doctor to find the safest way ...

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  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Accessible Search Form Search the NHLBI, use the drop down list to select: the entire site, the Health Topics section only, or the News and Resources section. NHLBI ... for Health Professionals What Is High blood pressure is a common disease in which blood flows through blood vessels (arteries) ...

  1. Role of ethanol leaf extracts of Ficus glumosa on fasting blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Africa many plants and plant products are used traditionally for the managements of diabetes mellitus or its complication. But, science based evidence on some of this product safety need to be establish. We determine the effect of the Ethanol leaves extract of Ficus glumosa on fasting blood glucose level and liver ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer ... » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » ...

  3. What Is High Blood Pressure?

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  6. High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Steve [Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Leiby, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio Uria [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oladosu, Gbadebo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Maxwell L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The United States government has been promoting increased use of biofuels, including ethanol from non-food feedstocks, through policies contained in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The objective is to enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and provide economic benefits. However, the United States has reached the ethanol blend wall, where more ethanol is produced domestically than can be blended into standard gasoline. Nearly all ethanol is blended at 10 volume percent (vol%) in gasoline. At the same time, the introduction of more stringent standards for fuel economy and GHG tailpipe emissions is driving research to increase the efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engines. Advanced strategies for increasing SI engine efficiency are enabled by higher octane number (more highly knock-resistant) fuels. Ethanol has a research octane number (RON) of 109, compared to typical U.S. regular gasoline at 91-93. Accordingly, high RON ethanol blends containing 20 vol% to 40 vol% ethanol are being extensively studied as fuels that enable design of more efficient engines. These blends are referred to as high-octane fuel (HOF) in this report. HOF could enable dramatic growth in the U.S. ethanol industry, with consequent energy security and GHG emission benefits, while also supporting introduction of more efficient vehicles. HOF could provide the additional ethanol demand necessary for more widespread deployment of cellulosic ethanol. However, the potential of HOF can be realized only if it is adopted by the motor fuel marketplace. This study assesses the feasibility, economics, and logistics of this adoption by the four required participants--drivers, vehicle manufacturers, fuel retailers, and fuel producers. It first assesses the benefits that could motivate these participants to adopt HOF. Then it focuses on the drawbacks and barriers that these participants could face when adopting HOF and proposes strategies--including incentives and

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  8. High Blood Pressure and Women

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    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure and Women Updated:Dec 14,2016 Pregnancy and ... Women . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  9. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

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    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:Dec 8,2017 Knowing the facts ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  20. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention

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    ... lots of foods high in saturated fat and trans fat may contribute to high cholesterol and related conditions, ... Choose foods that are low in saturated fat, trans fat, sodium (salt), and added sugars. These foods include ...

  1. Ethanol suppression of peripheral blood mononuclear cell trafficking across brain endothelial cells in immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola C Hudson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lola C Hudson1, Brenda A Colby1, Rick B Meeker21Department of Molecular Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: Earlier studies suggested that the combination of alcohol use and immunodeficiency virus infection resulted in more severe neurologic disease than either condition individually. These deleterious interactions could be due to increased immune cell and virus trafficking or may result from interactions between ethanol and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated toxicity within the brain. To determine the extent to which increased trafficking played a role, we examined the effect of ethanol on the migration of different peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs subsets across a brain endothelial cell monolayer. We utilized combinations of feline brain endothelial cells with astrocytes, and/or microglia with either acute exposure to 0.08 g/dL ethanol, a combination of ethanol and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, or FIV alone. Adherence of PBMCs to endothelium was increased in all combinations of cells with the addition of ethanol. Despite increased PBMC adhesion with ethanol treatment, transmigration of B cells, monocytes, CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells was not increased and was actually decreased in the presence of astrocytes. Expression of three common adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1, ICAM2, and vascular cell adhesion molecule, was unchanged or slightly decreased by ethanol. This indicated that although adherence is increased by ethanol it is not due to an increased expression of adhesion molecules. RANTES, MIP1α, MIP1β, and MCP-1 mRNA expression was also studied in brain endothelial cells, astrocytes and microglia by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Ethanol treatment of astrocytes resulted in modest changes of

  2. The Effects of Ethanol on the Morphological and Biochemical Properties of Individual Human Red Blood Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yun Lee

    Full Text Available Here, we report the results of a study on the effects of ethanol exposure on human red blood cells (RBCs using quantitative phase imaging techniques at the level of individual cells. Three-dimensional refractive index tomograms and dynamic membrane fluctuations of RBCs were measured using common-path diffraction optical tomography, from which morphological (volume, surface area, and sphericity; biochemical (hemoglobin (Hb concentration and Hb content; and biomechanical (membrane fluctuation parameters were retrieved at various concentrations of ethanol. RBCs exposed to the ethanol concentration of 0.1 and 0.3% v/v exhibited cell sphericities higher than those of normal cells. However, mean surface area and sphericity of RBCs in a lethal alcoholic condition (0.5% v/v are not statistically different with those of healthy RBCs. Meanwhile, significant decreases of Hb content and concentration in RBC cytoplasm at the lethal condition were observed. Furthermore, dynamic fluctuation of RBC membranes increased significantly upon ethanol treatments, indicating ethanol-induced membrane fluidization.

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: Being physically active Listening to music or focusing on something calm or peaceful Performing yoga or tai chi Meditating Medicines Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to stop or slow some of the ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... NHLBI About NHLBI Home Mission and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget ... health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: ... guidelines now define hypertension as a systolic blood... View all news ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ... or at other locations that have blood pressure equipment and to keep a written ... at several medical appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... intake and sodium sensitivity Drinking excess amounts of alcohol Lack of physical activity Overweight and Obesity Research studies show that being overweight or obese can increase the resistance in the blood vessels, causing the heart to work harder and leading to high blood ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... learn how to check your blood pressure at home. Your health care provider can help you learn how to do ... to lower the chance of complications. With such care, most women and babies have good ... Resources Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes: Keep the Beat: Control Your High Blood Pressure/ ...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... NHLBI About NHLBI Home Mission and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget ... health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: Being physically ... SPRINT trial played a key role in the evolution of the new blood pressure ...

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    Full Text Available ... physical health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: Being physically active Listening to music or focusing on something calm or peaceful Performing yoga or tai chi Meditating Medicines Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to stop or slow some ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... or focusing on something calm or peaceful Performing yoga or tai chi Meditating Medicines Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to stop or slow some of the body’s functions that cause high blood pressure. Medicines to ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... this system cause high blood pressure. Blood Vessel Structure and Function Changes in the structure and function of small and large arteries may ... su presión arterial alta Hispanic Community Health Study Data Book In Brief: Your Guide to Lowering Your ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 readings at several medical appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the results of your blood pressure test, your health care provider will diagnose prehypertension or ...

  13. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol - high; Lipid disorders; Hyperlipoproteinemia; Hyperlipidemia; Dyslipidemia; Hypercholesterolemia ... There are many types of cholesterol. The ones talked about most are: ... lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol -- often called "good" cholesterol ...

  14. Purification of ethanol for highly sensitive self-assembly experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Barbe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is the preferred solvent for the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs of thiolates on gold. By applying a thin film sensor system, we could demonstrate that even the best commercial qualities of ethanol contain surface-active contaminants, which can compete with the desired thiolates for surface sites. Here we present that gold nanoparticles deposited onto zeolite X can be used to remove these contaminants by chemisorption. This nanoparticle-impregnated zeolite does not only show high capacities for surface-active contaminants, such as thiols, but can be fully regenerated via a simple pyrolysis protocol.

  15. Development of a statistical model for predicting the ethanol content of blood from measurements on saliva or breath samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, J; Linares, P; Luque de Castro, M D; Caridad, J M; Valcarcel, M

    1989-01-01

    Blood, saliva and breath samples from a population of males and females subjected to the intake of preselected amounts of ethanol, whilst in different physical conditions (at rest, after physical exertion, on an empty stomach and after eating), were analysed by automatic methods employing immobilized (blood) or dissolved (saliva) enzymes and a breathanalyser. Treatment of the results obtained enabled the development of a statistical model for prediction of the ethanol concentration in blood at a given time from the ethanol concentration in saliva or breath obtained at a later time.

  16. Comparative Polygenic Analysis of Maximal Ethanol Accumulation Capacity and Tolerance to High Ethanol Levels of Cell Proliferation in Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Thiago M.; Foulquié-Moreno, María R.; Hubmann, Georg; Duitama, Jorge; Swinnen, Steve; Goovaerts, Annelies; Yang, Yudi; Dumortier, Françoise; Thevelein, Johan M.

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to accumulate ≥17% ethanol (v/v) by fermentation in the absence of cell proliferation. The genetic basis of this unique capacity is unknown. Up to now, all research has focused on tolerance of yeast cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. Comparison of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation in 68 yeast strains showed a poor correlation, but higher ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation clearly increased the likelihood of superior maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify the polygenic basis of these two complex traits using segregants from a cross of a haploid derivative of the sake strain CBS1585 and the lab strain BY. From a total of 301 segregants, 22 superior segregants accumulating ≥17% ethanol in small-scale fermentations and 32 superior segregants growing in the presence of 18% ethanol, were separately pooled and sequenced. Plotting SNP variant frequency against chromosomal position revealed eleven and eight Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for the two traits, respectively, and showed that the genetic basis of the two traits is partially different. Fine-mapping and Reciprocal Hemizygosity Analysis identified ADE1, URA3, and KIN3, encoding a protein kinase involved in DNA damage repair, as specific causative genes for maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. These genes, as well as the previously identified MKT1 gene, were not linked in this genetic background to tolerance of cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. The superior KIN3 allele contained two SNPs, which are absent in all yeast strains sequenced up to now. This work provides the first insight in the genetic basis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity in yeast and reveals for the first time the importance of DNA damage repair in yeast ethanol tolerance. PMID:23754966

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... of physical activity Drinking too much alcohol Stress Family History A family history of high blood pressure ... sodium and salt intake, increase potassium, and eat foods that are heart healthy. Limiting Sodium and Salt ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... because these other conditions change the way your body controls fluids, sodium, and hormones in ... lifestyle habits, and a family history of high blood pressure can increase your risk ...

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  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  2. High Blood Pressure and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week High blood pressure and pregnancy isn't necessarily a dangerous combination. Here's what you ... 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/pregnancy/art-20046098 . ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  1. Lack of effects of a "sobering" product, "Eezup!", on the blood ethanol and congener alcohol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunder, Cora; Hain, Sarah; Koelzer, Sarah C; Paulke, Alexander; Verhoff, Marcel A; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-09-01

    The lifestyle product 'Eezup!' appeared on the German market and promised to normalize energy metabolism. Among vitamins (B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , C, E and zinc), rice protein and fructose the addition of alcohol dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes is a novel approach. The product was advertised as capable of boosting the rate of alcohol elimination. Seventeen subjects (11 men, 6 women, 19-58 years old), participated in a two-way crossover drinking study. Unfiltered wheat beer (4.4g% alcohol content) was drank within one hour to reach blood alcohol concentrations of 1‰ (1g/kg whole blood). On one day "Eezup!" was taken according to the manufacturer's instructions before and after drinking which was substituted for a placebo on the second test day. Blood samples were taken during 9h and ethanol and congener alcohols were determined. A comparison of C max , t max , area under the curve (AUC) for ethanol and congener alcohols, and the hourly elimination rate of ethanol (β 60 ) was performed to investigate an effect of Eezup!. Ethanol concentrations (Cmax) were in the range of 0,63-1,00‰ (median 0,85‰) and 0.62-1.22‰ (median 0.84‰) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition, respectively, and not statistically different. Also t max (1-2.5h) and AUCs did not differ. The ethanol elimination rates were 0.16‰/h (0.14-0.19‰/h) and 0.17‰/h (0.14-0.22 ‰/h) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition without significant difference. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the congener alcohols (1-propanol, isobutanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol) as well as of methanol did also not differ. The results of the present study failed to show any effect of the sobering product "Eezup!" on the amount of ethanol and congener alcohols absorbed (C max , t max, AUC) and on the ethanol elimination rate (β 60 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... which blood flows through blood vessels (arteries) at higher than normal pressures. Measuring Blood Pressure Blood pressure ... blood pressure are defined as having blood pressures higher than 120/80 mmHg. The following table outlines ...

  3. Performance of dairy cows fed high levels of acetic acid or ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, J L P; Amaral, R C; Sá Neto, A; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Bispo, A W; Zopollatto, M; Cardoso, T L; Spoto, M H F; Santos, F A P; Nussio, L G

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol and acetic acid are common end products from silages. The main objective of this study was to determine whether high concentrations of ethanol or acetic acid in total mixed ration would affect performance in dairy cows. Thirty mid-lactation Holstein cows were grouped in 10 blocks and fed one of the following diets for 7 wk: (1) control (33% Bermuda hay + 67% concentrates), (2) ethanol [control diet + 5% ethanol, dry matter (DM) basis], or (3) acetic acid (control diet + 5% acetic acid, DM basis). Ethanol and acetic acid were diluted in water (1:2) and sprayed onto total mixed rations twice daily before feeding. An equal amount of water was mixed with the control ration. To adapt animals to these treatments, cows were fed only half of the treatment dose during the first week of study. Cows fed ethanol yielded more milk (37.9 kg/d) than those fed the control (35.8 kg/d) or acetic acid (35.3 kg/d) diets, mainly due to the higher DM intake (DMI; 23.7, 22.2, and 21.6 kg/d, respectively). The significant diet × week interaction for DMI, mainly during wk 2 and 3 (when acetic acid reached the full dose), was related to the decrease in DMI observed for the acetic acid treatment. There was a diet × week interaction in excretion of milk energy per DMI during wk 2 and 3, due to cows fed acetic acid sustained milk yield despite lower DMI. Energy efficiency was similar across diets. Blood metabolites (glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, ethanol, and γ-glutamyl transferase activity) and sensory characteristics of milk were not affected by these treatments. Animal performance suggested similar energy value for the diet containing ethanol compared with other diets. Rumen conversion of ethanol to acetate and a concomitant increase in methane production might be a plausible explanation for the deviation of the predicted energy value based on the heat of combustion. Therefore, the loss of volatile compounds during the drying process in the laboratory should be

  4. Polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and the blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations of Japanese alcoholic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Tsutsumi, Eri; Imazeki, Hiromi; Suwa, Yoshihide; Nakamura, Chizu; Yokoyama, Tetsuji

    2010-07-01

    The effects of genetic polymorphism of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) on alcohol metabolism are striking in nonalcoholics, and the effects of genetic polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) are modest at most, whereas genetic polymorphisms of both strongly affect the susceptibility to alcoholism and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer of drinkers. We evaluated associations between ADH1B/ADH1C/ALDH2 genotypes and the blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde levels of 168 Japanese alcoholic men who came to our hospital for the first time in the morning and had been drinking until the day before. The ethanol levels in their blood and saliva were similar, but the acetaldehyde levels in their saliva were much higher than in their blood, probably because of acetaldehyde production by oral bacteria. Blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde levels were both significantly higher in the subjects with the less active ADH1B*1/*1 genotype than in the ADH1B*2 carriers, but none of the levels differed according to ALDH2 genotype. Significant linkage disequilibrium was detected between the ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes, but ADH1C genotype did not affect the blood or salivary ethanol or acetaldehyde levels. High blood acetaldehyde levels were found even in the active ALDH2*1/*1 alcoholics, which were comparable with the levels of the inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 alcoholics with less active ADH1B*1/*1. The slope of the increase in blood acetaldehyde level as the blood ethanol level increased was significantly steeper in alcoholics with inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 plus ADH1B*2 allele than with any other genotype combinations, but the slopes of the increase in salivary acetaldehyde level as the salivary ethanol level increased did not differ between the groups of subjects with any combinations of ALDH2 and ADH1B genotypes. The ADH1B/ALDH2 genotype affected the blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde levels of nonabstinent alcoholics in a different manner

  5. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Click here for the Color Version (PDF 533KB) High blood pressure is a serious illness. High blood pressure is ...

  6. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of high blood pressure? Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  7. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... birth and low birth weight. If you’re thinking about having a baby and have high blood ... su presión arterial alta Hispanic Community Health Study Data Book In Brief: Your Guide to Lowering Your ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... carrots Legumes, such as kidney beans, lentils, chick peas, black-eyed peas, and lima beans Fat-free or low-fat ... Stroke Other Resources Many resources are available for support and to provide additional information on high blood ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... at a higher risk for heart disease and type 2 diabetes. This risk may be high with a waist ... raise your blood pressure and triglyceride levels, a type of fat found in the ... have no more than one drink containing alcohol a day. One drink is: ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... compared with readings taken in any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in the office and readings taken anywhere else. Researchers believe stress, which can occur during the medical appointment, causes ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... pressure readings, lower LDL cholesterol , and increase HDL cholesterol . However, research shows that no matter your weight, it is important to control high blood pressure to maintain good health. A useful measure of overweight and obesity is body mass index (BMI). BMI measures your ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information Center Health Professionals Systematic Evidence Reviews & Clinical Practice ... Advisory Committees Jobs Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... condition is called isolated systolic hypertension (ISH). Many older adults have this condition. ISH can cause as much ... About 65 percent of Americans age 60 or older have high blood pressure. However, ... American adults than in Caucasian or Hispanic American adults. Compared ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... cope with problems can improve your emotional and physical health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management ... their experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health ... Artery Disease Physical Activity and Your Heart Smoking and Your Heart ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... and Your Heart U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Maintaining a Healthy Weight Maintaining a healthy weight can help you control high blood pressure and reduce your risk for ...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... obese . The terms “overweight” and “obese” refer to body weight that’s greater than what is considered healthy for a certain height. Gender Before age 55, men are more likely than women to develop high blood pressure. After age 55, ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... you what you need to know about choosing foods that are lower in sodium. Try to eat no more than 2,300 mg sodium a day. If you have high blood pressure, you may need to restrict your sodium intake even more. Your health care provider ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... NHLBI About NHLBI Home Mission and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget ... health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: Being physically ... pressure medicines work in different ways to stop or slow some of the ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... 1½ ounces of liquor Managing and Coping With Stress Learning how to manage stress, relax, and cope with problems can improve your ... physical health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: Being physically active Listening to ...

  1. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  2. Alanine with the Precipitate of Tomato Juice Administered to Rats Enhances the Reduction in Blood Ethanol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Oshima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay in gastric emptying (GE lowers the blood ethanol concentration (BEC after alcohol administration. We previously demonstrated that water-insoluble fractions, mainly comprising dietary fiber derived from many types of botanical foods, possessed the ability to absorb ethanol-containing aqueous solutions. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the absorption of ethanol and lowering of BEC because of delay in GE. Here we identified dietary nutrients that synergize with the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes to lower BEC in rats. Consequently, unlike tomato juice without alanine, tomato juice with 5.0% alanine decreased BEC depending on the delay in GE and mediated the ethanol-induced decrease in the spontaneous motor activity (an indicator of drunkenness. Our findings indicate that the synergism between tomato juice and alanine to reduce the absorption of ethanol was attributable to the effect of alanine on precipitates such as the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes.

  3. Retrobulbar blood flow and visual field alterations after acute ethanol ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anke Weber, Andreas Remky, Marion Bienert, Klaudia Huber-van der Velden, Thomas Kirschkamp, Corinna Rennings, Gernot Roessler, Niklas Plange Department of Ophthalmology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany Background: The purpose of this study was to test the effect of ethyl alcohol on the koniocellular and magnocellular pathway of visual function and to investigate the relationship between such visual field changes and retrobulbar blood flow in healthy subjects. Methods: In 12 healthy subjects (mean age 32 ± 4 years, color Doppler imaging, short-wavelength automated perimetry, and frequency doubling perimetry was performed before and 60 minutes after oral intake of 80 mL of 40 vol% ethanol. Mean and pattern standard deviations for short-wavelength automated and frequency doubling perimetry were assessed. End diastolic velocity (EDV and peak systolic velocity (PSV were measured in the central retinal and ophthalmic arteries using color Doppler imaging. Systemic blood pressure, heart rate, intraocular pressure, and blood alcohol concentration were determined. Results: Mean PSV and EDV in the central retinal artery showed a significant increase after alcohol intake (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively. Similarly, we found a significant acceleration of blood flow velocity in the ophthalmic artery (P = 0.02 for PSV; P = 0.04 for EDV. Mean intraocular pressure decreased by 1.0 mmHg after alcohol ingestion (P = 0.01. Retinal sensitivity in short-wavelength automated perimetry did not alter, whereas in frequency doubling perimetry, the mean deviation decreased significantly. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not change significantly. Mean blood alcohol concentration was 0.38 ± 0.16 g/L. Conclusion: Although ethanol is known to cause peripheral vasodilation, our subjects had no significant drop in systemic blood pressure. However, a significant increase of blood flow velocity was seen in the retrobulbar vessels. Regarding visual function

  4. High-throughput detection of ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in a microdroplet platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalde-Cela, Sara; Gould, Anna; Liu, Xin; Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G; Abell, Chris

    2015-05-06

    Ethanol production by microorganisms is an important renewable energy source. Most processes involve fermentation of sugars from plant feedstock, but there is increasing interest in direct ethanol production by photosynthetic organisms. To facilitate this, a high-throughput screening technique for the detection of ethanol is required. Here, a method for the quantitative detection of ethanol in a microdroplet-based platform is described that can be used for screening cyanobacterial strains to identify those with the highest ethanol productivity levels. The detection of ethanol by enzymatic assay was optimized both in bulk and in microdroplets. In parallel, the encapsulation of engineered ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in microdroplets and their growth dynamics in microdroplet reservoirs were demonstrated. The combination of modular microdroplet operations including droplet generation for cyanobacteria encapsulation, droplet re-injection and pico-injection, and laser-induced fluorescence, were used to create this new platform to screen genetically engineered strains of cyanobacteria with different levels of ethanol production.

  5. Implications of Industrial Processing Strategy on Cellulosic Ethanol Production at High Solids Concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David

    The production of cellulosic ethanol is a biochemical process of not edible biomasses which contain the cellulose. The process involves the use of enzymes to hydrolyze the cellulose in fermentable sugars to finally produce ethanol via fermentative microorganisms (i.e. yeasts). These biomasses...... are the leftover of agricultural productions (straws), not edible crops (giant reed) or wood, thus the ethanol so produced is also called second generation (or 2G ethanol), which differs from the first generation produced from starch (sugar beets mostly). In the industrial production of cellulosic ethanol high...... solids strategy resulted critical for its cost effectiveness: high concentration of initial biomass it will lead to high concentration of the final product (ethanol), thus more convenient to isolate. This thesis investigate the implementation of a high solids loading concept into cellulosic ethanol...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office ... severity of your blood pressure, he or she can order additional tests to determine if your blood ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... nervous system has important functions in blood pressure regulation, including heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate. ... EVENT The Role of Microbiota in Blood Pressure Regulation Executive Summary June 10, 2016 Bethesda, MD The ...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision ... normal for blood pressures to change when you sleep, wake up, or are excited or nervous. When ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... pressure is a common disease in which blood flows through blood vessels (arteries) at higher than normal ... press on nearby body parts, or block blood flow. The signs and symptoms that develop depend on ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... sensor, and a blood pressure cuff. With this equipment, they measure: Systolic Pressure: blood pressure when the ... or at other locations that have blood pressure equipment and to keep a written log of all ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... your blood pressure returns to your normal baseline range. Blood pressure normally rises with age and body ... 160 or higher OR 100 or higher The ranges in the table are blood pressure guides for ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... blood pressure. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors : Angiotensin-II is a hormone that narrows blood vessels, increasing blood pressure. ACE converts Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II. ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... System Activity The sympathetic nervous system has important functions in blood pressure regulation, including heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate. Researchers are ...

  15. How do yeast cells become tolerant to high ethanol concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek, Tim; Verstrepen, Kevin J.; Voordeckers, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The brewer’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae displays a much higher ethanol tolerance compared to most other organisms, and it is therefore commonly used for the industrial production of bioethanol and alcoholic beverages. However, the genetic determinants underlying this yeast’s exceptional ethanol...... tolerance have proven difficult to elucidate. In this perspective, we discuss how different types of experiments have contributed to our understanding of the toxic effects of ethanol and the mechanisms and complex genetics underlying ethanol tolerance. In a second part, we summarize the different routes...... and challenges involved in obtaining superior industrial yeasts with improved ethanol tolerance....

  16. Ethanol Values During College Football Season: University Policy Change and Emergency Department Blood Ethanol Values From 2006 Through 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Fine, Amelia C; Harland, Karisa; House, Hans R; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2016-11-01

    Tailgating is popular at many college football games. However, it is known to contribute to binge drinking and alcohol intoxication, which are common public health challenges. To use laboratory data to measure changes in plasma ethanol levels observed in a large state university emergency department after a series of reforms were enacted to reduce binge drinking. We performed a retrospective chart review on all serum ethanol levels measured at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics on weekends from 2006 through 2014. Data were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression after controlling for significant covariates. A total of 5437 patients had ethanol levels recorded on weekends. After the implementation of policy changes, there was a significant reduction in the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of ethanol values reported in the severe intoxication range (≥240 mg/dL; AOR = 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-0.92). The policy changes implemented in 2009 in an attempt to reduce binge drinking are associated with a decreased likelihood of an ethanol result being in the severe intoxication range. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Consistent, high-level ethanol consumption in pig-tailed macaques via a multiple-session, limited-intake, oral self-dosing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Michael R; Wilcox, Kristin M; Ator, Nancy A; Hienz, Robert D

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major public health burden that can lead to many adverse health effects such as impaired hepatic, gastrointestinal, central nervous system and immune system function. Preclinical animal models of alcohol abuse allow for experimental control over variables often difficult to control in human clinical studies (e.g., ethanol exposure before or during the study, history of other drug use, access to medical care, nutritional status, etc). Nonhuman primate models in particular provide increased genetic, anatomic and physiologic similarity to humans, relative to rodent models. A small percentage of macaques will spontaneously consume large quantities of ethanol; however, most nonhuman primate models of "voluntary" ethanol intake produce relatively low daily ethanol intake in the majority of monkeys. To facilitate study of chronic exposure to high levels of ethanol intake, a macaque model has been developed that induces consistent, daily high-level ethanol consumption. This multiple-session procedure employed 4 drinking sessions per day, with sessions occurring once every 6 hours. The group average alcohol consumption was 4.6 g/kg/d (SEM 0.4), roughly twice the group average consumption of previous reports. Ethanol drinking sessions produced group mean blood ethanol levels of 95 mg/dl after 60 minutes, and fine motor control was impaired up to 90 minutes after a drinking session. This model of multiple-session, limited access, oral ethanol self-dosing produced consistent, high-level ethanol consumption with each session qualifying as a "binge" drinking session using the definition of "binge" provided by the NIAAA (>80 mg/dl/session). This model of ethanol drinking in macaques will be of great utility in the study of immunological, physiological and behavioral effects of ethanol in nonhuman primates.

  18. Mate Tea Prevents Oxidative Stress in the Blood and Hippocampus of Rats with Acute or Chronic Ethanol Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Scolaro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of acute and chronic intake of mate tea on the effects elicited by acute and chronic administration of ethanol. Methods. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, as well as the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and superoxide dismutase (SOD in the hippocampus and blood of rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups, for both acute and chronic treatment: (1 control group, (2 treated group, (3 intoxicated group, (4 and intoxicated group treated with mate tea. Results. Both ethanol administrations significantly increased TBARS in plasma and hippocampus of rats and altered antioxidant enzyme activities, changes which were reverted by mate tea administration. Conclusions. Data indicate that acute and chronic ethanol administration induced oxidative stress in hippocampus and blood and that mate tea treatment was able to prevent this situation.

  19. High blood sugar - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - self care; High blood glucose - self care; Diabetes - high blood sugar ... with a lot of carbohydrates, starches, or simple sugars? Are you taking your diabetes medicines correctly? Has your doctor changed your medicines? ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities ... Sugary foods and beverages In the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-sponsored Hispanic Community Health ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  2. TREATMENT OF HIGH ETHANOL CONCENTRATION WASTEWATER BY CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS: ENHANCED COD REMOVAL AND BACTERIAL COMMUNITY DYNAMICS

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Caballero, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Winery wastewater is characterized by its high chemical oxygen demand (COD), seasonal occurrence and variable composition, including periodic high ethanol concentrations. In addition, winery wastewater may contain insufficient inorganic nutrients for optimal biodegradation of organic constituents. Two pilot-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) were used to treat artificial wastewater: the first was amended with ethanol and the second with ethanol, inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). A numb...

  3. Rational synthetic combination genetic devices boosting high temperature ethanol fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth and production of yeast in the industrial fermentation are seriously restrained by heat stress and exacerbated by heat induced oxidative stress. In this study, a novel synthetic biology approach was developed to globally boost the viability and production ability of S. cerevisiae at high temperature through rationally designing and combing heat shock protein (HSP and superoxide dismutase (SOD genetic devices to ultimately synergistically alleviate both heat stress and oxidative stress. HSP and SOD from extremophiles were constructed to be different genetic devices and they were preliminary screened by heat resistant experiments and anti-oxidative experiments, respectively. Then in order to customize and further improve thermotolerance of S. cerevisiae, the HSP genetic device and SOD genetic device were rationally combined. The results show the simply assemble of the same function genetic devices to solve heat stress or oxidative stress could not enhance the thermotolerance considerably. Only S. cerevisiae with the combination genetic device (FBA1p-sod-MB4-FBA1p-shsp-HB8 solving both stress showed 250% better thermotolerance than the control and displayed further 55% enhanced cell density compared with the strains with single FBA1p-sod-MB4 or FBA1p-shsp-HB8 at 42 °C. Then the most excellent combination genetic device was introduced into lab S. cerevisiae and industrial S. cerevisiae for ethanol fermentation. The ethanol yields of the two strains were increased by 20.6% and 26.3% compared with the control under high temperature, respectively. These results indicate synergistically defensing both heat stress and oxidative stress is absolutely necessary to enhance the thermotolerance and production of S. cerevisiae.

  4. Characterization of an alcoholic hepatic steatosis model induced by ethanol and high-fat diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Alves de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic liver disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of liver damage, which increases when ethanol is associated with high-fat diets (HFD. This work aimed to establish a model of alcoholic hepatic steatosis (AHS by using a combination of 10% ethanol and sunflower seeds as the source of HFD. Male rats received water or 10% ethanol and regular chow diet and/or HFD, which consisted of sunflower seeds. The food consumption, liquid intake and body weight of the rats were monitored for 30 days. After this period, blood was collected for biochemical evaluation, and liver samples were collected for histological, mitochondrial enzyme activity and oxidative stress analyses. Our results indicated that the combination of 10% ethanol and HFD induced micro- and macrosteatosis and hepatocyte tumefaction, decreased the levels of reduced glutathione and glutathione S-transferase activity and increased the level of lipoperoxidation and superoxide dismutase activity. The mitochondrial oxidation of NADH and succinate were partially inhibited. Complexes I and II were the main inhibition sites. Hepatic steatosis was successfully induced after 4 weeks of the diet, and the liver function was modified. The combination of 10% ethanol and sunflower seeds as an HFD produced an inexpensive model to study AHS in rats.

  5. Increased expression of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr18 leads to increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production in high gravity alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Miguel C; Godinho, Cláudia P; Cabrito, Tânia R; Mira, Nuno P; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2012-07-27

    The understanding of the molecular basis of yeast tolerance to ethanol may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic fermentations. A set of 21 genes encoding multidrug transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Superfamily and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) in S. cerevisiae were scrutinized for a role in ethanol stress resistance. A yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter encoded by the PDR18 gene, proposed to play a role in the incorporation of ergosterol in the yeast plasma membrane, was found to confer resistance to growth inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 expression was seen to contribute to decreased ³H-ethanol intracellular concentrations and decreased plasma membrane permeabilization of yeast cells challenged with inhibitory ethanol concentrations. Given the increased tolerance to ethanol of cells expressing PDR18, the final concentration of ethanol produced during high gravity alcoholic fermentation by yeast cells devoid of PDR18 was lower than the final ethanol concentration produced by the corresponding parental strain. Moreover, an engineered yeast strain in which the PDR18 promoter was replaced in the genome by the stronger PDR5 promoter, leading to increased PDR18 mRNA levels during alcoholic fermentation, was able to attain a 6 % higher ethanol concentration and a 17 % higher ethanol production yield than the parental strain. The improved fermentative performance of yeast cells over-expressing PDR18 was found to correlate with their increased ethanol tolerance and ability to restrain plasma membrane permeabilization induced throughout high gravity fermentation. PDR18 gene over-expression increases yeast ethanol tolerance and fermentation performance leading to the production of highly inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 overexpression in industrial yeast strains appears to be a promising approach to improve alcoholic fermentation performance for sustainable bio-ethanol

  6. Increased expression of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr18 leads to increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production in high gravity alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Miguel C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The understanding of the molecular basis of yeast tolerance to ethanol may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic fermentations. A set of 21 genes encoding multidrug transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC Superfamily and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS in S. cerevisiae were scrutinized for a role in ethanol stress resistance. Results A yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter encoded by the PDR18 gene, proposed to play a role in the incorporation of ergosterol in the yeast plasma membrane, was found to confer resistance to growth inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 expression was seen to contribute to decreased 3 H-ethanol intracellular concentrations and decreased plasma membrane permeabilization of yeast cells challenged with inhibitory ethanol concentrations. Given the increased tolerance to ethanol of cells expressing PDR18, the final concentration of ethanol produced during high gravity alcoholic fermentation by yeast cells devoid of PDR18 was lower than the final ethanol concentration produced by the corresponding parental strain. Moreover, an engineered yeast strain in which the PDR18 promoter was replaced in the genome by the stronger PDR5 promoter, leading to increased PDR18 mRNA levels during alcoholic fermentation, was able to attain a 6 % higher ethanol concentration and a 17 % higher ethanol production yield than the parental strain. The improved fermentative performance of yeast cells over-expressing PDR18 was found to correlate with their increased ethanol tolerance and ability to restrain plasma membrane permeabilization induced throughout high gravity fermentation. Conclusions PDR18 gene over-expression increases yeast ethanol tolerance and fermentation performance leading to the production of highly inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 overexpression in industrial yeast strains appears to be a promising approach to

  7. Chronic ethanol consumption increases dopamine uptake in the nucleus accumbens of high alcohol drinking rats

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Michelle R.; Rodd, Zachary A.; Murphy, James M.; Simon, Jay R.

    2006-01-01

    Past research has indicated that chronic ethanol exposure enhances dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in several brain regions. The present study examined the effects of chronic ethanol drinking on dopamine transporter (DAT) function in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) of High-Alcohol-Drinking replicate line 1 (HAD-1) rats. HAD rats were given concurrent 24-hr access to 15% ethanol and water or water alone for 8 weeks. Subsequently, DA uptake and the Vmax of the DAT were compared between the two grou...

  8. When Blood Sugar is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the blood can be unhealthy. What Is Hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia (say: hi-per-gly-SEE-me-uh) is the medical word for high blood sugar levels. The hormone insulin is supposed to control the level of glucose ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... short-term serious illnesses. People with diabetes or chronic kidney disease should keep their blood pressure below 130/80 ... blood pressure include other medical conditions such as chronic kidney disease , sleep apnea , thyroid problems, or certain tumors. This ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Topics A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular ... All Science A-Z Grants & Training Grants and ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... provider may ask you to come into the office on different days and at different times to take your blood pressure. The health care provider also may ask you to check readings at home or at other locations that have blood pressure ...

  12. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  13. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  14. Influence of different SSF conditions on ethanol production from corn stover at high solids loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne; Bondesson, Pia-Maria; Galbe, Mats

    2015-01-01

    In this study, three different kinds of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of washed pretreated corn stover with water-insoluble solids (WIS) content of 20% were investigated to find which one resulted in highest ethanol yield at high-solids loadings. The different methods were...... batch SSF, prehydrolysis followed by batch SSF and fed-batch SSF. Batch-SSF resulted in an ethanol yield of 75-76% and an ethanol concentration of 53 g/L. Prehydrolysis prior to batch SSF did not improve the ethanol yield compared with batch SSF. Fedbatch SSF, on the other hand, increased the yield...... was seen in batch mode with and without prehydrolysis (73%). This resulted in similar ethanol yields in all methods. However, the residence time to achieve the final ethanol yield was shorter using fed-batch. This shows that fed-batch can be a better alternative also at a lower enzyme loading....

  15. A Shortcut to the Production of High Ethanol Concentration from Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Guo Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger SL-09, a newly isolated exoinulinase-hyperproducing strain, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Z-06, with high ethanol tolerance, were used in a fed-batch process for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber mash and flour. S. cerevisiae Z-06 utilized 98 % of the total sugar and produced 19.6 % of ethanol in 48 h. In this process the conversion efficiency of the fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke and the production of ethanol were 90 % of the theoretical ethanol yield and the cost of the production of flour was cut nearly into half.

  16. HIGH ETHANOL DOSE DURING EARLY ADOLESCENCE INDUCES LOCOMOTOR ACTIVATION AND INCREASES SUBSEQUENT ETHANOL INTAKE DURING LATE ADOLESCENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, María Belén; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent initiation of ethanol consumption is associated with subsequent heightened probability of ethanol-use disorders. The present study examined the relationship between motivational sensitivity to ethanol initiation in adolescent rats and later ethanol intake. Experiment 1 determined that ethanol induces locomotor activation shortly after administration but not if tested at a later post-administration interval. In Experiment 2, adolescents were assessed for ethanol-induced locomotor ac...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  19. Controlling your high blood pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Health care workers check blood pressure readings the same way for children, teens, and adults. They use ... are outside average numbers for children of the same age, gender, and height . Once your health care ...

  14. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marx JA, et al., eds. Anemia, polycythemia, and white blood cells disorders. In: Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Dec. ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... NHLBI About NHLBI Home Mission and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget ... normal for babies, while older teens have numbers similar to adults. Abnormal Blood Pressure Abnormal increases in ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Salt A low-sodium diet can help you manage your blood pressure. You should try to limit ... Managing and Coping With Stress Learning how to manage stress, relax, and cope with problems can improve ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for 30 minutes prior to the test. Go ... DASH My Blood Pressure Wallet Card Other Resources Cigarette and Tobacco Facts (National Institute on Drug Abuse) ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... or blindness. Heart Attack : When the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a section of heart muscle suddenly becomes blocked and the heart doesn’t get oxygen. The most common warning symptoms of a heart ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  7. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ...

  8. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ...

  10. Living with High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... A lot of red meat Palm and coconut oils Sugary foods and beverages In the National Heart, ... work with your health care team. Healthy Lifestyle Changes You can help control your blood pressure by ...

  13. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

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    ... blood sugar levels are. Causes of High Blood Sugar Levels Managing diabetes is like a three-way balancing act because ... Is Too Low Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar Handling Diabetes When You're Sick Diabetes Control: Why It's ...

  14. Evaluation of the Analytical Performance of the Olympus AU5421 Applied with Parameters Developed by the Toshiba 200FR for Measurement of Blood Ethanol Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo Hyun; Park, Ae Ja; Youn, Jae Saeng; Bae, Jae Hoon

    2015-05-01

    An accurate determination of blood ethanol concentrations is important. To minimize ethanol degradation in blood samples, sodium fluoride (NaF) collection tubes have been recommended for use. In this study, we attempted to utilize the Olympus AU5421 chemistry analyzer for ethanol analysis based on the parameters established for the Toshiba 200FR. We also evaluated the effect of NaF collection tubes on ethanol concentrations. The precision, linearity, accuracy, and carry-over rate of the AU5421 analyzer were evaluated. The results of analysis using the AU5421 and Abbott AxSYM analyzers were also compared. The effects of NaF collection tubes on ethanol concentrations in stored samples were measured. The AU5421 showed a good precision, linearity, accuracy, and carry-over rate. The ethanol concentrations were well correlated with the results obtained using the AxSYM. There was no statistically significant difference in blood ethanol concentrations between the samples collected in tubes with NaF and those collected in tubes without NaF. Since the AU5421 showed excellent analytical performance, the AU5421 could be used as an alternative to AxSYM for the determination of blood ethanol concentrations. Our analysis also indicated that there is no need to use NaF collection tubes if blood ethanol concentrations are analyzed within 3 h after blood collection. We believe that the results obtained in this study will have important implications for the use of the AU5421 system to measure blood ethanol concentrations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Ethanol production from food waste at high solid contents with vacuum recovery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve the environmental issues but also provide renewable biofuel to partially substitute fossil fuels. This study investigated the feasibility of utilization of food wastes for producing ethanol at high solid contents (35%, w/w). Vacuum recovery sys...

  16. Mechanistic Study of Silver Nanoparticle's Synthesis by Dragon's Blood Resin Ethanol Extract and Antiradiation Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Murtaza; Iqbal, Javed; Awan, Umer; Saeed, Yasmeen; Ranran, Yuan; Liang, Yanli; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2015-02-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is best way to avoid exposure of hazardous materials as compared to chemical manufacturing process which is a severe threat not only to biodiversity but also to environment. In present study, we reported a novel method of finding antiradiation compounds by bioreducing mechanism of silver nanoparticles formation using 50% ethanol extract of Dragons blood, a famous Chinese herbal plant. Color change during silver nanoparticles synthesis was observed and it was confirmed by ultra violet (UV) visible spectroscopy at wave length at 430 nm after 30 min of reaction at 60 °C. Well dispersed round shaped silver nanoparticles with approximate size (4 nm to 50 nm) were measured by TEM and particle size analyser. Capping of biomolecules on Ag nanoparticles was characterized by FTIR spectra. HPLC analysis was carried out to find active compounds in the extract. Furthermore, antiradiation activity of this extract was tested by MTT assay in vitro after incubating the SH-SY5Y cells for 24 h at 37 °C. The results indicate that presence of active compounds in plant extract not only involves in bioreduction process but also shows response against radiation. The dual role of plant extract as green synthesis of nanoparticles and exhibit activity against radiation which gives a new way of fishing out active compounds from complex herbal plants.

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-sponsored Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos , which studied Hispanics ... su vida: Controle su presión arterial alta Hispanic Community Health Study Data Book In Brief: Your Guide ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... muscle suddenly becomes blocked and the heart doesn’t get oxygen. The most common warning symptoms of ... of breath. Heart Failure : When the heart can’t pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs. ...

  14. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis).

  15. High-temperature ethanol production using thermotolerant yeast newly isolated from Greater Mekong Subregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiya Techaparin

    Full Text Available Abstract The application of high-potential thermotolerant yeasts is a key factor for successful ethanol production at high temperatures. Two hundred and thirty-four yeast isolates from Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS countries, i.e., Thailand, The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR and Vietnam were obtained. Five thermotolerant yeasts, designated Saccharomyces cerevisiae KKU-VN8, KKU-VN20, and KKU-VN27, Pichia kudriavzevii KKU-TH33 and P. kudriavzevii KKU-TH43, demonstrated high temperature and ethanol tolerance levels up to 45 °C and 13% (v/v, respectively. All five strains produced higher ethanol concentrations and exhibited greater productivities and yields than the industrial strain S. cerevisiae TISTR5606 during high-temperature fermentation at 40 °C and 43 °C. S. cerevisiae KKU-VN8 demonstrated the best performance for ethanol production from glucose at 37 °C with an ethanol concentration of 72.69 g/L, a productivity of 1.59 g/L/h and a theoretical ethanol yield of 86.27%. The optimal conditions for ethanol production of S. cerevisiae KKU-VN8 from sweet sorghum juice (SSJ at 40 °C were achieved using the Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD. The maximal ethanol concentration obtained during fermentation was 89.32 g/L, with a productivity of 2.48 g/L/h and a theoretical ethanol yield of 96.32%. Thus, the newly isolated thermotolerant S. cerevisiae KKU-VN8 exhibits a great potential for commercial-scale ethanol production in the future.

  16. “Jello® Shots” and Cocktails as Ethanol Vehicles: Parametric Studies with High- and Low-Saccharin-Consuming Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy K. Dess

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Naïve humans and rats voluntarily consume little ethanol at concentrations above ~6% due to its aversive flavor. Developing procedures that boost intake of ethanol or ethanol-paired flavors facilitates research on neural mechanisms of ethanol-associated behaviors and helps identify variables that modulate ethanol intake outside of the lab. The present study explored the impact on consumption of ethanol and ethanol-paired flavors of nutritionally significant parametric variations: ethanol vehicle (gelatin or solution, with or without polycose; ethanol concentration (4% or 10%; and feeding status (chow deprived or ad lib. during flavor conditioning and flavor preference testing. Individual differences were modeled by testing rats of lines selectively bred for high (HiS or low (LoS saccharin intake. A previously reported preference for ethanol-paired flavors was replicated when ethanol had been drunk during conditioning. However, indifference or aversion to ethanol-paired flavors generally obtained when ethanol had been eaten in gelatin during conditioning, regardless of ethanol concentration, feeding status, or caloric value of the vehicle. Modest sex and line variations occurred. Engaging different behavioral systems when eating gelatin, rather than drinking solution, may account for these findings. Implications for parameter selection in future neurobiological research and for understanding conditions that influence ethanol intake outside of the lab are discussed.

  17. The combined effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, tobacco products, and ethanol on normal resting blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederblad, Lena; Thunberg, Ulf; Engström, Mats; Castro, Juan; Rutqvist, Lars Erik; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit

    2013-05-01

    Tobacco and ethanol consumption are crucial factors in the development of various diseases including cancer. In this investigation, we evaluated the combined effects of a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with ethanol and tobacco products on healthy individuals. Pure nicotine, cigarette smoke extract, and Swedish snuff (snus) extract were used. The effects were examined by means of in vitro cell cycle progression and cell death of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from healthy donors. After 3 days, in vitro, resting PBMCs entered the S and G2 stage in the presence of 100 µM nicotine. The PBMCs only proceeded to S stage, in the presence of 0.2% ethanol. The nicotine- and ethanol-induced normal cell cycle progression correlated to a number of SNPs in the IL12RB2, Rad 52, XRCC2, P53, CCND3, and ABCA1 genes. Certain SNPs in Caspases 8, IL12RB2, Rad 52, MMP2, and MDM2 genes appeared to significantly influence the effects of EtOH-, snus-, and snus + EtOH-induced cell death. Importantly, the highest degree of cell death was observed in the presence of smoke + EtOH. The amount of cell death under this treatment condition also correlated to specific SNPs, located in the MDM2, ABCA1, or GASC1 genes. Cigarette smoke in combination with ethanol strongly induced massive cell death. Long-term exposure to smoke and ethanol could provoke chronic inflammation, and this could be the initiation of disease including the development of cancer at various sites.

  18. Ethanol inducible isopentenyl transferase as a high efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isopentenyl transforase gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens is one positive selectable marker genes for plant transformation. In this research, the ipt gene was placed under the control of ethanol-inducible system and was introduced into Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  19. Ethyl glucuronide in vitreous humor and blood postmortem specimens: analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and interpreting results of neo-formation of ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Vezzoli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG, a stable and sensitive marker that is specific to alcohol intake, finds many applications both in the forensic toxicology and clinical fields. Aim. The aim of the study is to examine the possibility of using a cadaveric biological matrix, vitreous humor (VH, to determine EtG as a marker of recent ethanol use. Methods. The blood, taken from the femoral vein, and the VH were obtained from 63 autopsy cases. Analysis of the EtG was performed using an LC/MS/MS system. Analyses of the ethanol and putrefaction biomarkers, such as acetaldehyde and n-propanol, were performed using the HS-GC/FID technique in both the matrices. Results. In 17 cases, both ethanol and EtG were absent in both matrices.Nineteen cases presented ethanol in blood from 0.05 to 0.30 g/L, EtG-Blood concentration from 0.02 to 3.27 mg/L, and EtG-VH concentration from 0.01 mg/L to 2.88 mg/L. Thirteen cases presented ethanol in blood > 0.05 g/L but EtG concentration in blood and VH lower than 0.01 mg/L, are part of these 8 samples presented acetic aldehyde and n- propanol in blood or VH, means identification of putrefaction indicators. Fourteen cases presented ethanol in blood > 0.46 and EtG concentration in blood and VH higher than 0.01 mg/L. Conclusions. The determination of EtG in biological material is important in those cases where the intake of ethanol appears doubtful, as it allows us to exclude the possibility of any post-mortem formation of ethanol.

  20. Auxotrophic Mutations Reduce Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Very High Levels of Ethanol Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Steve; Goovaerts, Annelies; Schaerlaekens, Kristien; Dumortier, Françoise; Verdyck, Pieter; Souvereyns, Kris; Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Foulquié-Moreno, María R.

    2015-01-01

    Very high ethanol tolerance is a distinctive trait of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with notable ecological and industrial importance. Although many genes have been shown to be required for moderate ethanol tolerance (i.e., 6 to 12%) in laboratory strains, little is known of the much higher ethanol tolerance (i.e., 16 to 20%) in natural and industrial strains. We have analyzed the genetic basis of very high ethanol tolerance in a Brazilian bioethanol production strain by genetic mapping with laboratory strains containing artificially inserted oligonucleotide markers. The first locus contained the ura3Δ0 mutation of the laboratory strain as the causative mutation. Analysis of other auxotrophies also revealed significant linkage for LYS2, LEU2, HIS3, and MET15. Tolerance to only very high ethanol concentrations was reduced by auxotrophies, while the effect was reversed at lower concentrations. Evaluation of other stress conditions showed that the link with auxotrophy is dependent on the type of stress and the type of auxotrophy. When the concentration of the auxotrophic nutrient is close to that limiting growth, more stress factors can inhibit growth of an auxotrophic strain. We show that very high ethanol concentrations inhibit the uptake of leucine more than that of uracil, but the 500-fold-lower uracil uptake activity may explain the strong linkage between uracil auxotrophy and ethanol sensitivity compared to leucine auxotrophy. Since very high concentrations of ethanol inhibit the uptake of auxotrophic nutrients, the active uptake of scarce nutrients may be a major limiting factor for growth under conditions of ethanol stress. PMID:26116212

  1. Highly Efficient Prion Transmission by Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréoletti, Olivier; Litaise, Claire; Simmons, Hugh; Corbière, Fabien; Lugan, Séverine; Costes, Pierrette; Schelcher, François; Vilette, Didier; Grassi, Jacques; Lacroux, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    It is now clearly established that the transfusion of blood from variant CJD (v-CJD) infected individuals can transmit the disease. Since the number of asymptomatic infected donors remains unresolved, inter-individual v-CJD transmission through blood and blood derived products is a major public health concern. Current risk assessments for transmission of v-CJD by blood and blood derived products by transfusion rely on infectious titers measured in rodent models of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE) using intra-cerebral (IC) inoculation of blood components. To address the biological relevance of this approach, we compared the efficiency of TSE transmission by blood and blood components when administrated either through transfusion in sheep or by intra-cerebral inoculation (IC) in transgenic mice (tg338) over-expressing ovine PrP. Transfusion of 200 µL of blood from asymptomatic infected donor sheep transmitted prion disease with 100% efficiency thereby displaying greater virulence than the transfusion of 200 mL of normal blood spiked with brain homogenate material containing 103ID50 as measured by intracerebral inoculation of tg338 mice (ID50 IC in tg338). This was consistent with a whole blood titer greater than 103.6 ID50 IC in tg338 per mL. However, when the same blood samples were assayed by IC inoculation into tg338 the infectious titers were less than 32 ID per mL. Whereas the transfusion of crude plasma to sheep transmitted the disease with limited efficacy, White Blood Cells (WBC) displayed a similar ability to whole blood to infect recipients. Strikingly, fixation of WBC with paraformaldehyde did not affect the infectivity titer as measured in tg338 but dramatically impaired disease transmission by transfusion in sheep. These results demonstrate that TSE transmission by blood transfusion can be highly efficient and that this efficiency is more dependent on the viability of transfused cells than the level of infectivity measured by IC

  2. Effects of short deprivation and re-exposure intervals on the ethanol drinking behavior of selectively bred high alcohol-consuming rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Schultz, Jonathon A; Peper, Caron L; Lumeng, Lawrence; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J

    2008-08-01

    Alcoholics generally display cycles of excessive ethanol intake, abstinence and relapse behavior. Using an animal model of relapse-like drinking, the alcohol deprivation effect (ADE), our laboratory has shown that repeated 2-week cycles of ethanol deprivation and re-exposure, following an initial 6-week access period, result in a robust ADE by alcohol-preferring (P) and high alcohol-drinking (HAD-1 and HAD-2) rats. These rat lines have been selectively bred to prefer a 10% ethanol solution over water. The present study examined whether P and HAD rats would display an ADE using much shorter ethanol deprivation and re-exposure intervals. Rats were given either continuous or periodic concurrent access to multiple concentrations (10%, 20%, and 30% [vol/vol]) of ethanol. The periodic protocol involved access to ethanol for 12 days followed by four cycles of 4 days of deprivation and 4 days of re-exposure to ethanol access. High-alcohol-drinking rats displayed a robust 24-h ADE upon first re-exposure (HAD-1: approximately 5 vs. 8g/kg/day; HAD-2: approximately 6 vs. 9g/kg/day, baseline vs. re-exposure), whereas P rats ( approximately 7 vs. 8g/kg/day) displayed a modest, nonsignificant, increase in 24-h intake. In a separate group of rats, ethanol intake and blood alcohol concentrations after the first hour of the fourth re-exposure cycle were HAD-1: 2.0g/kg and 97 mg%, HAD-2: 2.3g/kg and 73 mg%, and P: 1.2g/kg and 71 mg%; with all three lines displaying a robust first hour ADE. These findings suggest that (a) an ADE may be observed with short ethanol deprivation and re-exposure intervals in HAD rats, and (b) the genetic make-up of the P and HAD rats influences the expression of this ADE.

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... high. Causes Changes, either from genes or the environment, in the body’s normal functions may cause high ... ounces of liquor Managing and Coping With Stress Learning how to manage stress, relax, and cope with ...

  4. Photoinduced reactivity of liquid ethanol at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppatelli, Matteo; Fanetti, Samuele; Citroni, Margherita; Bini, Roberto

    2010-12-02

    The room temperature photoinduced reactivity of liquid ethanol has been studied as a function of pressure up to 1.5 GPa by means of a diamond anvil cell. Exploiting the dissociative character of the lowest electronic excited states, reached through two-photon absorption of near-UV photons (350 nm), irreversible reactive processes have been triggered in the pure system. The active species are radicals forming along two main dissociation channels involving the split of C-O and O-H bonds. The characterization of the reaction products has been performed by in situ FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. At pressures of a few megapascals, molecular hydrogen is the main reaction product, an important issue in the framework of environmentally friendly synthesis of this energetic vector. In the gigapascal range, the main products are ethane, 2-butanol, 2,3-butanediol, 1,1-diethoxyethane, and some carbonylic compounds. The relative amount of these species changes with pressure reflecting the nature of the radicals formed in the photodissociation process. As the pressure increases, the processes requiring a greater molecularity are favored, whereas those requiring internal rearrangements are inhibited. Disproportion products like CH(4), H(2)O, and CO(2) increase when the amount of ethanol decreases due to the reaction, becoming the main products only when ethanol is exhausted.

  5. High Frequency Electrical Stimulation of Lateral Habenula Reduces Voluntary Ethanol Consumption in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zuo, Wanhong; Fu, Rao; Xie, Guiqin; Kaur, Amandeep; Bekker, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Background: Development of new strategies that can effectively prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders is of paramount importance, because the currently available treatments are inadequate. Increasing evidence indicates that the lateral habenula (LHb) plays an important role in aversion, drug abuse, and depression. In light of the success of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the LHb in improving helplessness behavior in rodents, we assessed the effects of LHb HFS on ethanol-drinking behavior in rats. Methods: We trained rats to drink ethanol under an intermittent access two-bottle choice procedure. We used c-Fos immunohistochemistry and electrophysiological approaches to examine LHb activity. We applied a HFS protocol that has proven effective for reducing helplessness behavior in rats via a bipolar electrode implanted into the LHb. Results: c-Fos protein expression and the frequency of both spontaneous action potential firings and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents were higher in LHb neurons of ethanol-withdrawn rats compared to their ethanol-naïve counterparts. HFS to the LHb produced long-term reduction of intake and preference for ethanol, without altering locomotor activity. Conversely, low-frequency electrical stimulation to the LHb or HFS applied to the nearby nucleus did not affect drinking behavior. Conclusions: Our results suggest that withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure increases glutamate release and the activity of LHb neurons, and that functional inhibition of the LHb via HFS reduces ethanol consumption. Thus, LHb HFS could be a potential new therapeutic option for alcoholics. PMID:27234303

  6. Characteristics of an immobilized yeast cell system using very high gravity for the fermentation of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hairui; Yu, Jianliang; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2012-09-01

    The characteristics of ethanol production by immobilized yeast cells were investigated for both repeated batch fermentation and continuous fermentation. With an initial sugar concentration of 280 g/L during the repeated batch fermentation, more than 98% of total sugar was consumed in 65 h with an average ethanol concentration and ethanol yield of 130.12 g/L and 0.477 g ethanol/g consumed sugar, respectively. The immobilized yeast cell system was reliable for at least 10 batches and for a period of 28 days without accompanying the regeneration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inside the carriers. The multistage continuous fermentation was carried out in a five-stage column bioreactor with a total working volume of 3.75 L. The bioreactor was operated for 26 days at a dilution rate of 0.015 h(-1). The ethanol concentration of the effluent reached 130.77 g/L ethanol while an average 8.18 g/L residual sugar remained. Due to the high osmotic pressure and toxic ethanol, considerable yeast cells died without regeneration, especially in the last two stages, which led to the breakdown of the whole system of multistage continuous fermentation.

  7. What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your blood. How can I control my cholesterol? • Cut down on foods high in saturated and trans fats. These include fatty meats, organ meats such as liver, shellfish, cheese, whole-milk dairy products, and solid fats such ...

  8. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CKD) High Blood Pressure Related Topics English English French Español Section Navigation Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) What ... products they can use to quit smoking. Stress Learning how to manage stress, relax, and cope with ...

  9. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecologists f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ034 PREGNANCY Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy • What is ... is chronic hypertension during pregnancy managed? • What is preeclampsia? • When does preeclampsia occur? • What causes preeclampsia? • What ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z Grants & Training Grants and Training Home ... with problems can improve your emotional and physical health and can lower high ... techniques include: Being physically active Listening to music ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 readings at several medical appointments to diagnose high ... should try to participate in moderate-intensity aerobic exercise at least 2 hours and 30 minutes per week, or vigorous- ...

  12. Role of an Ethanolic Extract of Crotalaria juncea L. on High-Fat Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinakaran Sathis; David, Banji; Harani, Avasarala; Vijay, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic effects of 50 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW per day of an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea Linn (whole plant) by performing in vivo studies. The effects of oral administration of 50 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW per day of an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea Linn (whole plant) in rats fed with a high-fat diet were investigated by evaluating parameters like food consumption, weight gain, fecal fat excretion, serum and liver lipids, and biochemical profiles as well as by histopathological studies. The results were compared to animals fed with the standard diet and animals fed with a high-fat diet and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg BW). The animal group administered with the ethanolic extract for 35 days showed decreased levels of TC, LDL, VLDL, TG, HDL+VLDL, VLDL+LDL, LDL/TC, AI, SGOT, SGPT, and elevated levels of HDL, HDL/TC, significantly (pCrotalaria juncea L. influences several blood lipid and metabolic parameters in rats, suggesting a potential benefit as an antihypercholesterolemic agent.

  13. Selection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for efficient very high gravity bio-ethanol fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Francisco B; Guimarães, Pedro M R; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2010-11-01

    An optimized very high gravity (VHG) glucose medium supplemented with low cost nutrient sources was used to evaluate bio-ethanol production by 11 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The industrial strains PE-2 and CA1185 exhibited the best overall fermentation performance, producing an ethanol titre of 19.2% (v/v) corresponding to a batch productivity of 2.5 g l(-1) h(-1), while the best laboratory strain (CEN.PK 113-7D) produced 17.5% (v/v) ethanol with a productivity of 1.7 g l(-1) h(-1). The results presented here emphasize the biodiversity found within S. cerevisiae species and that naturally adapted strains, such as PE-2 and CA1185, are likely to play a key role in facilitating the transition from laboratory technological breakthroughs to industrial-scale bio-ethanol fermentations.

  14. Performance enhancement of direct ethanol fuel cell using Nafion composites with high volume fraction of titania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, B. R.; Isidoro, R. A.; Santiago, E. I.; Fonseca, F. C.

    2014-12-01

    The present study reports on the performance enhancement of direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) at 130 °C with Nafion-titania composite electrolytes prepared by sol-gel technique and containing high volume fractions of the ceramic phase. It is found that for high volume fractions of titania (>10 vol%) the ethanol uptake of composites is largely reduced while the proton conductivity at high-temperatures is weakly dependent on the titania content. Such tradeoff between alcohol uptake and conductivity resulted in a boost of DEFC performance at high temperatures using Nafion-titania composites with high fraction of the inorganic phase.

  15. [Comparison of acetonitrile, ethanol and chromatographic column to eliminate high-abundance proteins in human serum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Liao, Ming; He, Xiao; Zhou, Yi; Luo, Rong; Li, Hongtao; Wang, Yun; He, Min

    2012-11-01

    To compare the effects of acetonitrile precipitation, ethanol precipitation and multiple affinity chromatography column Human 14 removal to eliminate high-abundance proteins in human serum. Elimination of serum high-abundance proteins performed with acetonitrile precipitation, ethanol precipitation and multiple affinity chromatography column Human 14 removal. Bis-Tris Mini Gels electrophoresis and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to detect the effect. Grey value analysis from 1-DE figure showed that after serum processed by acetonitrile method, multiple affinity chromatography column Human 14 removal method and ethanol method, the grey value of albumin changed into 157.2, 40.8 and 8.2 respectively from the original value of 19. 2-DE analysis results indicated that using multiple affinity chromatography column Human 14 method, the protein points noticeable increased by 137 compared to the original serum. After processed by acetonitrile method and ethanol method, the protein point reduced, but the low abundance protein point emerged. The acetonitrile precipitation could eliminate the vast majority of high abundance proteins in serum and gain more proteins of low molecular weight, ethanol precipitation could eliminate part of high abundance proteins in serum, but low abundance proteins less harvested, and multiple affinity chromatography column Human 14 method could effectively removed the high abundance proteins, and keep a large number of low abundance proteins.

  16. Consolidated bioprocessing strategy for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by Kluyveromyces marxianus under high gravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W J; Chang, B L; Ren, J G; Liu, J P; Bai, F W; Li, Y Y

    2012-01-01

    Developing an innovative process for ethanol fermentation from Jerusalem artichoke tubers under very high gravity (VHG) conditions. A consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) strategy that integrated inulinase production, saccharification of inulin contained in Jerusalem artichoke tubers and ethanol production from sugars released from inulin by the enzyme was developed with the inulinase-producing yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus Y179 and fed-batch operation. The impact of inoculum age, aeration, the supplementation of pectinase and nutrients on the ethanol fermentation performance of the CBP system was studied. Although inulinase activities increased with the extension of the seed incubation time, its contribution to ethanol production was negligible because vigorously growing yeast cells harvested earlier carried out ethanol fermentation more efficiently. Thus, the overnight incubation that has been practised in ethanol production from starch-based feedstocks is recommended. Aeration facilitated the fermentation process, but compromised ethanol yield because of the negative Crabtree effect of the species, and increases the risk of contamination under industrial conditions. Therefore, nonaeration conditions are preferred for the CBP system. Pectinase supplementation reduced viscosity of the fermentation broth and improved ethanol production performance, particularly under high gravity conditions, but the enzyme cost should be carefully balanced. Medium optimization was performed, and ethanol concentration as high as 94·2 g l(-1) was achieved when 0·15 g l(-1) K(2) HPO(4) was supplemented, which presents a significant progress in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers. A CBP system using K. marxianus is suitable for efficient ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers under VHG conditions. Jerusalem artichoke tubers are an alternative to grain-based feedstocks for ethanol production. The high ethanol concentration achieved using K. marxianus with the

  17. Enhanced ethanol fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with high spermidine contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ki; Jo, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2017-05-01

    Construction of robust and efficient yeast strains is a prerequisite for commercializing a biofuel production process. We have demonstrated that high intracellular spermidine (SPD) contents in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can lead to improved tolerance against various fermentation inhibitors, including furan derivatives and acetic acid. In this study, we examined the potential applicability of the S. cerevisiae strains with high SPD contents under two cases of ethanol fermentation: glucose fermentation in repeated-batch fermentations and xylose fermentation in the presence of fermentation inhibitors. During the sixteen times of repeated-batch fermentations using glucose as a sole carbon source, the S. cerevisiae strains with high SPD contents maintained higher cell viability and ethanol productivities than a control strain with lower SPD contents. Specifically, at the sixteenth fermentation, the ethanol productivity of a S. cerevisiae strain with twofold higher SPD content was 31% higher than that of the control strain. When the SPD content was elevated in an engineered S. cerevisiae capable of fermenting xylose, the resulting S. cerevisiae strain exhibited much 40-50% higher ethanol productivities than the control strain during the fermentations of synthetic hydrolysate containing high concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. These results suggest that the strain engineering strategy to increase SPD content is broadly applicable for engineering yeast strains for robust and efficient production of ethanol.

  18. Effects of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Ficus Glumosa on Fasting blood Glucose and Serum Lipid Profile in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Z U; Moh'd, A; Tanko, Y

    2013-06-30

    Ficus glumosa, commonly known as the fig tree or "African rock fig" is a plant with immense medicinal value used for the management of diabetes for over 2000 years. The aim of the present study is to determine the hypoglycemic and anti-lipidemic properties of the ethanolic leaves extract of Ficus glumosa in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty (30) adult male Wister rats weighing (120 - 220) grams of about 18 to 22 weeks of age were used in the study. The animals were assigned into six groups (1-6) of five rats (n=5) each. Group VI served as the positive control group receiving 0.9% normal saline (5ml/kg) alone via intra-peritoneal route (i.p.), Groups I (negative control), II, III, IV and V were treated with alloxan and after the induction of hyperglycaemia, received in addition via i.p. for 7 days: 0.9% normal saline (5ml/kg) alone, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of ethanolic leaves extract of Ficus glumosa respectively while Group V received 6lU/kg of short-acting insulin. The determinations of blood glucose levels were carried out at intervals of one day for 7 days. Serum lipid profile, were done on the 7th day.Premininary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids,saponin,tannins,cardiac glycosides,triterpenes,ceramides and reducing sugars.The LD50 of the extract of Ficus glumosa was found to be 2,154mg/kg.The results of the study showed that,100mg/kg and 400mg/kg of ethanolic leaves extract of Ficus glumosa significantly lowered blood glucose levels and 200mg/kg significantly lowered serum lipid profile compared with negative control group.In conclusion, the results of the study showed that Ficus glumosa possesses anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-lipidemic effect.

  19. Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David

    2014-01-01

    Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from...... of the ethanol production, but this can be compensated by reducing the impact of enzyme production and use, and by polyethylene glycol addition at high dry matter content. The results also show that the renewable and non-renewable energy use resulting from the different process configurations ultimately...

  20. The effect of cynanchi wilfordii radix ethanol extracts upon irradiated rat's blood and organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Oh; Choi, Jun Hyeok; Shin, Ji Hye; Min, Byung In [Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Do Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The development of radioprotector is being actively conducted in order to reduce the damage from over radiation exposure at radiation accident or radiation therapy. So this study was confirmed for radiation protective effects using the Cynanchi wilfordii Radix that has been known to be effective for antioxidant activity, anti-cancer, immune enhancing effects. The method of this study was administered orally Cynanchi wilfordii Radix ethanol extracts to Sprague Dawley Rat(SD Rat) for 14 days once a day, while measuring changed blood cell, spleen index, liver and uterus tissue along the change in time of 1, 4, 7 and 21 days after X-ray beam of 7 Gy irradiation. As the result of the experiment, the experimental group's rats which are administered with Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix ethanol extracts showed a rapid recovery in white blood cell count(p < 0.05) and spleen index(p < 0.05). In addition, condensation of nuclei, cytoplasmic swelling, and inflammatory cell infiltration in experimental group's liver cell was decreased more than in irradiation group's component. Further, experimental group's Uterine gland decreased the apoptosis more than irradiation group's components did. It is expected that Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix extracts will be useful as a new radioprotector. With above in mind, this paper may provide appropriate implications with the field of emergency management such as radiation accident.

  1. High Blood Pressure Dangers: Hypertension's Effects on Your Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure dangers: Hypertension's effects on your body High blood pressure is a risk factor for ... High blood pressure (hypertension) can quietly damage your body for years before symptoms develop. Left uncontrolled, you ...

  2. Role of ethanol leaf extracts of Ficus Glumosa on fasting blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group 6 served as the control group receiving normal saline (5ml/kg) alone via intra-peritoneal route (ip), Group 1 (positive control), 2, 3, 4 and 5 were treated with the following for 7 days. Normal saline 5ml/kg, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of Ficus glumosa ethanol leaves extract respectively via ip while Group V ...

  3. Tunable catalytic properties of bi-functional mixed oxides in ethanol conversion to high value compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gray, Michel J.; Job, Heather M.; Smith, Colin D.; Wang, Yong

    2016-04-10

    tA highly versatile ethanol conversion process to selectively generate high value compounds is pre-sented here. By changing the reaction temperature, ethanol can be selectively converted to >C2alcohols/oxygenates or phenolic compounds over hydrotalcite derived bi-functional MgO–Al2O3cata-lyst via complex cascade mechanism. Reaction temperature plays a role in whether aldol condensationor the acetone formation is the path taken in changing the product composition. This article containsthe catalytic activity comparison between the mono-functional and physical mixture counterpart to thehydrotalcite derived mixed oxides and the detailed discussion on the reaction mechanisms.

  4. Sequential high gravity ethanol fermentation and anaerobic digestion of steam explosion and organosolv pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsimpouras, Constantinos; Zacharopoulou, Maria; Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul; Topakas, Evangelos

    2017-11-01

    The present work investigates the suitability of pretreated corn stover (CS) to serve as feedstock for high gravity (HG) ethanol production at solids-content of 24wt%. Steam explosion, with and without the addition of H 2 SO 4 , and organosolv pretreated CS samples underwent a liquefaction/saccharification step followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Maximum ethanol concentration of ca. 76g/L (78.3% ethanol yield) was obtained from steam exploded CS (SECS) with 0.2% H 2 SO 4 . Organosolv pretreated CS (OCS) also resulted in high ethanol concentration of ca. 65g/L (62.3% ethanol yield). Moreover, methane production through anaerobic digestion (AD) was conducted from fermentation residues and resulted in maximum methane yields of ca. 120 and 69mL/g volatile solids (VS) for SECS and OCS samples, respectively. The results indicated that the implementation of a liquefaction/saccharification step before SSF employing a liquefaction reactor seemed to handle HG conditions adequately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Ylitervo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·L−1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h−1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g·L−1 and very high (100–200 g·L−1 yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g·L−1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5–6 g·L−1·h−1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g·L−1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g·L−1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials.

  6. [Correction of the alkylnitrite method for the detection of ethanol in blood taking into account toxico-kinetic and anthropometric data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barinskaia, T O; Salomatin, E M; Smirnov, A V

    2011-01-01

    The correction coefficient for the systemic inaccuracy arising during determination of blood ethanol by alkylnitrite gas chromatography and concomitant calibration of aqueous solutions was estimated to equal 0.82; this finding was confirmed by the results of the toxico-kinetic assay for the measurement of total body water (TBW) from the kinetic curve characterizing the time dependence of ethanol concentration in the exhaled air, saliva, capillary and venous blood in combination with 4 anthropometric methods and (in several cases) direct physical detection of TBW. When detecting the blood ethanol level with a correction coefficient of 0.82, the mutual position of the kinetic curves for ethanol concentrations in the blood and the exhaled air (recalculated for the blood level with a coefficient of 2100) as well as in the blood and saliva agreed with that reported in the available literature; it significantly differed from the position of the curves obtained with a correction coefficient of 0.95. The causes accounting for the systematic inaccuracy and erroneous values of the correction coefficients in earlier studies are discussed.

  7. [Very high gravity ethanol fermentation with cassava flour and sugarcane juice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Naikun; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Qingyan; Qin, Yan; Liao, Siming; Wang, Chenghua; Huang, Ribo

    2010-09-01

    We optimized the conditions of mixed fermentation of very high gravity ethanol with cassava flour and sugarcane juice. Based on the single factor experiment, we screened the important parameters for very high gravity ethanol fermentation with cassava flour and sugarcane juice by the Plackeet-burman design. Then, we obtained the optimum values of the important parameters by the orthogonal experiments: the mixing ratio of cassava flour to sugarcane juice, 1:5; initial pH of fermentation, 4.0-4.5; the concentrations of urea and MgSO4, 0.25% and 0.04% (W/W), respectively. Finally, we used a gradient temperature control strategy with the optimized conditions, and ethanol concentration of 17.84% (V/V) and fermentation efficiency of 91.82% were achieved, correspondingly.

  8. Chronic ethanol consumption increases dopamine uptake in the nucleus accumbens of high alcohol drinking rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Michelle R; Rodd, Zachary A; Murphy, James M; Simon, Jay R

    2006-10-01

    Past research has indicated that chronic ethanol exposure enhances dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in several brain regions. The present study examined the effects of chronic ethanol drinking on dopamine transporter (DAT) function in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) of High-Alcohol-Drinking replicate line 1 (HAD-1) rats. HAD rats were given concurrent 24-h access to 15% ethanol and water or water alone for 8 weeks. Subsequently, DA uptake and the V(max) of the DAT were compared between the two groups using homogenates of the nucleus accumbens. DA uptake was measured following a 2 min incubation at 37 degrees C in the presence of 8 nM [(3)H]DA. For kinetic analyses, DA uptake was assessed in the presence of 5 concentrations of [(3)H]DA ranging from 8 nM to 500 nM. Analyses of the data revealed a significant increase in DA uptake in the ethanol group compared to water controls. Kinetic analyses revealed the change in DA uptake to be a consequence of an increase in the V(max) of transport. These findings demonstrate that chronic free-choice oral ethanol consumption in HAD-1 female rats increases DA uptake in the Acb by increasing the V(max) of the transporter. However, it is not known whether the ethanol-induced change in V(max) is caused by differences in the actual number of available transporter sites or from a difference in the velocity of operation of a similar number of transporters. Overall, the data indicate that chronic ethanol consumption by HAD-1 rats produces prolonged neuroadaptations within the mesolimbic DA system, which may be important for the understanding of the neurobiological basis of alcoholism.

  9. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  10. Effects of high-dose ethanol intoxication and hangover on cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Nicole; Gussek, Philipp; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2016-10-27

    The effects of high-dose ethanol intoxication on cognitive flexibility processes are not well understood, and processes related to hangover after intoxication have remained even more elusive. Similarly, it is unknown in how far the complexity of cognitive flexibility processes is affected by intoxication and hangover effects. We performed a neurophysiological study applying high density electroencephalography (EEG) recording to analyze event-related potentials (ERPs) and perform source localization in a task switching paradigm which varied the complexity of task switching by means of memory demands. The results show that high-dose ethanol intoxication only affects task switching (i.e. cognitive flexibility processes) when memory processes are required to control task switching mechanisms, suggesting that even high doses of ethanol compromise cognitive processes when they are highly demanding. The EEG and source localization data show that these effects unfold by modulating response selection processes in the anterior cingulate cortex. Perceptual and attentional selection processes as well as working memory processes were only unspecifically modulated. In all subprocesses examined, there were no differences between the sober and hangover states, thus suggesting a fast recovery of cognitive flexibility after high-dose ethanol intoxication. We assume that the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) system accounts for the observed effects, while they can hardly be explained by the dopaminergic system. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Extraction of high-quality DNA from ethanol-preserved tropical plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Eduardo A; Rossi, Mônica L; Gerald, Lee T S; Figueira, Antonio

    2014-04-24

    Proper conservation of plant samples, especially during remote field collection, is essential to assure quality of extracted DNA. Tropical plant species contain considerable amounts of secondary compounds, such as polysaccharides, phenols, and latex, which affect DNA quality during extraction. The suitability of ethanol (96% v/v) as a preservative solution prior to DNA extraction was evaluated using leaves of Jatropha curcas and other tropical species. Total DNA extracted from leaf samples stored in liquid nitrogen or ethanol from J. curcas and other tropical species (Theobroma cacao, Coffea arabica, Ricinus communis, Saccharum spp., and Solanum lycopersicon) was similar in quality, with high-molecular-weight DNA visualized by gel electrophoresis. DNA quality was confirmed by digestion with EcoRI or HindIII and by amplification of the ribosomal gene internal transcribed spacer region. Leaf tissue of J. curcas was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy before and after exposure to ethanol. Our results indicate that leaf samples can be successfully preserved in ethanol for long periods (30 days) as a viable method for fixation and conservation of DNA from leaves. The success of this technique is likely due to reduction or inactivation of secondary metabolites that could contaminate or degrade genomic DNA. Tissue conservation in 96% ethanol represents an attractive low-cost alternative to commonly used methods for preservation of samples for DNA extraction. This technique yields DNA of equivalent quality to that obtained from fresh or frozen tissue.

  12. Development of t(50) and its application to evaluate very-high-gravity ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Han; Chang, Jen-Wei; Duan, Kow-Jen; Chang, Peter R

    2011-10-01

    A three-parameter logistic growth model was modified to monitor the glucose uptake profile of yeast during very-high-gravity (VHG) ethanol fermentation. The modified model was used to define t(50) as a quantifier to differentiate among various fermentation conditions. There are two types of t(50); t(50)(g) is the time required to convert 50% of the initial glucose, and t(50)(e) is the time required to produce half of the final ethanol. A 2(4) factorial experimental design was implemented to illustrate the applicability of using t(50) to isolate active ingredients in VHG growth media. The analytical results obtained from the experimental design and from a modified model were compared, which demonstrated that t(50) could serve the proposed objectives. A shorter t(50) implies a faster fermentation. A tailing of the ethanol profile after t(50)(e) indicates that there is an inhibitory effect imposed on yeast, i.e., the stronger the tailing in the ethanol profile, the stronger the inhibitory effect. When t(50) is equal to or near to the halftime of the total course of the fermentation, a bell-shaped curve was seen for the glucose uptake rate or for the ethanol production rate, indicating that the inhibitory effect exerted on yeast was evenly distributed. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced ethanol production at commercial scale from molasses using high gravity technology by mutant S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Muhammad; Hussain, Tariq; Iqbal, Munawar; Abbas, Mazhar

    Very high gravity (VHG) technology was employed on industrial scale to produce ethanol from molasses (fermented) as well as by-products formation estimation. The effect of different Brix° (32, 36 and 40) air-flow rates (0.00, 0.20, 0.40, and 0.60vvm) was studied on ethanol production. The maximum ethanol production was recorded to be 12.2% (v/v) at 40 Brix° with 0.2vvm air-flow rate. At optimum level aeration and 40 Brix° VHG, the residual sugar level was recorded in the range of 12.5-18.5g/L, whereas the viable cell count remained constant up to 50h of fermentation and dry matter production increased with fermentation time. Both water and steam consumption reduced significantly under optimum conditions of Brix° and aeration rate with compromising the ethanol production. Results revealed VHG with continuous air flow is viable technique to reduce the ethanol production cost form molasses at commercial scale. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  14. Enhanced ethanol production at commercial scale from molasses using high gravity technology by mutant S. cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arshad

    Full Text Available Abstract Very high gravity (VHG technology was employed on industrial scale to produce ethanol from molasses (fermented as well as by-products formation estimation. The effect of different Brix° (32, 36 and 40 air-flow rates (0.00, 0.20, 0.40, and 0.60 vvm was studied on ethanol production. The maximum ethanol production was recorded to be 12.2% (v/v at 40 Brix° with 0.2 vvm air-flow rate. At optimum level aeration and 40 Brix° VHG, the residual sugar level was recorded in the range of 12.5-18.5 g/L, whereas the viable cell count remained constant up to 50 h of fermentation and dry matter production increased with fermentation time. Both water and steam consumption reduced significantly under optimum conditions of Brix° and aeration rate with compromising the ethanol production. Results revealed VHG with continuous air flow is viable technique to reduce the ethanol production cost form molasses at commercial scale.

  15. Stress and High Blood Pressure: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress and high blood pressure: What's the connection? Stress and long-term high blood pressure may not be linked, but taking steps to reduce your stress can improve your general health, including your blood ...

  16. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...

  17. Brain aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in rat strains with high and low ethanol preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Rusi, M; Lindros, K O

    1981-01-01

    The activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase in subcellular fractions of whole brain homogenates from the AA and ANA rat strains developed respectively for high and low ethanol preferences has been studied. No significant strain or sex differences between naive AA and ANA rats were found. In ethanol-experienced rats some strain and sex differences were found, the most consistent being higher enzyme activity in AA females than in males both with aliphatic and aromatic aldehyde substrates. However, contrary to previous findings no relation between brain aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and drinking behavior was found in the AA and ANA rat strains.

  18. Do new cellulolytic enzyme preparations affect the industrial strategies for high solids lignocellulosic ethanol production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic materials has a promising market potential, but the process is still only at pilot/demonstration scale due to the technical and economical difficulties of the process. Operating the process at very high solids concentrations (above 20% dry matter—DM) has....... The experiments revealed that an SSF strategy was indeed better than SHF when applying an older generation enzyme cocktail (Celluclast-Novozym 188). In case of the newer product Cellic CTec 2, SHF resulted in 20% higher final ethanol yield compared to SSF. It was possible to close the mass balance around...... proven essential for economic feasibility at industrial scale. Historically, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was found to give better ethanol yields compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), but data in literature are typically based on operating the process at low dry...

  19. High postnatal susceptibility of hippocampal cytoskeleton in response to ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Karina Pires; Heimfarth, Luana; Pierozan, Paula; Ferreira, Fernanda; Loureiro, Samanta Oliveira; Fernandes, Carolina Gonçalves; Carvalho, Rônan Vivian; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2015-11-01

    Ethanol exposure to offspring during pregnancy and lactation leads to developmental disorders, including central nervous system dysfunction. In the present work, we have studied the effect of chronic ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on the phosphorylating system associated with the astrocytic and neuronal intermediate filament (IF) proteins: glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neurofilament (NF) subunits of low, medium, and high molecular weight (NFL, NFM, and NFH, respectively) in 9- and 21-day-old pups. Female rats were fed with 20% ethanol in their drinking water during pregnancy and lactation. The homeostasis of the IF phosphorylation was not altered in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, or hippocampus of 9-day-old pups. However, GFAP, NFL, and NFM were hyperphosphorylated in the hippocampus of 21-day-old pups. PKA had been activated in the hippocampus, and Ser55 in the N-terminal region of NFL was hyperphosphorylated. In addition, JNK/MAPK was activated and KSP repeats in the C-terminal region of NFM were hyperphosphorylated in the hippocampus of 21-day-old pups. Decreased NFH immunocontent but an unaltered total NFH/phosphoNFH ratio suggested altered stoichiometry of NFs in the hippocampus of ethanol-exposed 21-day-old pups. In contrast to the high susceptibility of hippocampal cytoskeleton in developing rats, the homeostasis of the cytoskeleton of ethanol-fed adult females was not altered. Disruption of the cytoskeletal homeostasis in neural cells supports the view that regions of the brain are differentially vulnerable to alcohol insult during pregnancy and lactation, suggesting that modulation of JNK/MAPK and PKA signaling cascades target the hippocampal cytoskeleton in a window of vulnerability in 21-day-old pups. Our findings are relevant, since disruption of the cytoskeleton in immature hippocampus could contribute to later hippocampal damage associated with ethanol toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid and highly efficient growth of graphene on copper by chemical vapor deposition of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisi, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.lisi@enea.it [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Surface Technology Laboratory, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Buonocore, Francesco; Dikonimos, Theodoros; Leoni, Enrico [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Surface Technology Laboratory, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Faggio, Giuliana; Messina, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell' Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Morandi, Vittorio; Ortolani, Luca [CNR-IMM Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Capasso, Andrea [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Surface Technology Laboratory, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)

    2014-11-28

    The growth of graphene by chemical vapor deposition on metal foils is a promising technique to deliver large-area films with high electron mobility. Nowadays, the chemical vapor deposition of hydrocarbons on copper is the most investigated synthesis method, although many other carbon precursors and metal substrates are used too. Among these, ethanol is a safe and inexpensive precursor that seems to offer favorable synthesis kinetics. We explored the growth of graphene on copper from ethanol, focusing on processes of short duration (up to one min). We investigated the produced films by electron microscopy, Raman and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. A graphene film with high crystalline quality was found to cover the entire copper catalyst substrate in just 20 s, making ethanol appear as a more efficient carbon feedstock than methane and other commonly used precursors. - Highlights: • Graphene films were grown by fast chemical vapor deposition of ethanol on copper. • High-temperature/short-time growth produced highly crystalline graphene. • The copper substrate was entirely covered by a graphene film in just 20 s. • Addition of H{sub 2} had a negligible effect on the crystalline quality.

  1. Repeated Binge-Like Ethanol Drinking Alters Ethanol Drinking Patterns and Depresses Striatal GABAergic Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Mark V; Carlson, Verginia C Cuzon; Sherazee, Nyssa; Sprow, Gretchen M; Bock, Roland; Thiele, Todd E; Lovinger, David M; Alvarez, Veronica A

    2014-01-01

    Repeated cycles of binge alcohol drinking and abstinence are key components in the development of dependence. However, the precise behavioral mechanisms underlying binge-like drinking and its consequences on striatal synaptic physiology remain unclear. In the present study, ethanol and water drinking patterns were recorded with high temporal resolution over 6 weeks of binge-like ethanol drinking using the ‘drinking in the dark' (DID) protocol. The bottle exchange occurring at the beginning of each session prompted a transient increase in the drinking rate that might facilitate the acquisition of ethanol binge-like drinking. Ethanol drinking mice also displayed a ‘front-loading' behavior, in which the highest rate of drinking was recorded during the first 15 min. This rate increased over weeks and paralleled the mild escalation of blood ethanol concentrations. GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission in the dorsal striatum were examined following DID. Spontaneous glutamatergic transmission and the density of dendritic spines were unchanged after ethanol drinking. However, the frequency of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents was depressed in medium spiny neurons of ethanol drinking mice. A history of ethanol drinking also increased ethanol preference and altered the acute ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission differentially in dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum. Together, the study shows that the bottle exchange during DID promotes fast, voluntary ethanol drinking and that this intermittent pattern of ethanol drinking causes a depression of GABAergic transmission in the dorsal striatum. PMID:23995582

  2. High Level Ethanol Production by Nitrogen and Osmoprotectant Supplementation under Very High Gravity Fermentation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachaya Chan-u-tit

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of nutrient supplements i.e., yeast extract (1, 3 and 5 g·L−1, dried spent yeast (DSY: 4, 12 and 20 g·L−1 and osmoprotectant (glycine: 1, 3 and 5 g·L−1 to improve the efficiency of ethanol production from a synthetic medium under very high gravity (VHG fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP 01 was performed using a statistical method, an L9 (34 orthogonal array design. The synthetic medium contained 280 g·L−1 of sucrose as a sole carbon source. When the fermentation was carried out at 30 °C, the ethanol concentration (P, yield (Yp/s and productivity (Qp without supplementation were 95.3 g·L−1, 0.49 g·g−1 and 1.70 g·L−1·h−1, respectively. According to the orthogonal results, the order of influence on the P and Qp values were yeast extract > glycine > DSY, and the optimum nutrient concentrations were yeast extract, 3; DSY, 4 and glycine, 5 g·L−1, respectively. The verification experiment using these parameters found that the P, Yp/s and Qp values were 119.9 g·L−1, 0.49 g g−1 and 2.14 g·L−1·h−1, respectively. These values were not different from those of the synthetic medium supplemented with 9 g·L−1 of yeast extract, indicating that DSY could be used to replace some amount of yeast extract. When sweet sorghum juice cv. KKU40 containing 280 g·L−1 of total sugar supplemented with the three nutrients at the optimum concentrations was used as the ethanol production medium, the P value (120.0 g·L−1 was not changed, but the Qp value was increased to 2.50 g·L−1·h−1.

  3. ETHANOL, ACETIC ACID, AND WATER ADSORPTION FROM BINARY AND TERNARY LIQUID MIXTURES ON HIGH-SILICA ZEOLITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsorption isotherms were measured for ethanol, acetic acid, and water adsorbed on high-silica ZSM-5 zeolite powder from binary and ternary liquid mixtures at room temperature. Ethanol and water adsorption on two high-silica ZSM-5 zeolites with different aluminum contents and a h...

  4. Melatonin Restores White Blood Cell Count, Diminishes Glycated Haemoglobin Level and Prevents Liver, Kidney and Muscle Oxidative Stress in Mice Exposed to Acute Ethanol Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhaluk, Natalia; Sliuta, Alina; Kyriienko, Svitlana; Winklewski, Pawel J

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of melatonin impact on changes in haematological profile, biomarkers of oxidative stress (dienes conjugates, malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidatively modified protein levels, total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity) in liver, muscle, kidney and erythrocytes, and glycated haemoglobin (HBA1c) in mice during acute ethanol stress. Assays were carried out in quadruplicate: control, melatonin (10 mg/kg, 10 days), acute ethanol stress (0.75 g/kg/day, 10 days) and acute ethanol stress plus melatonin groups. Acute ethanol stress caused a significant increase in the total number of white blood cells (WBC), especially neutrophils in the blood, and HBA1c levels vs. control mice. The correlation between lipid peroxidation and the glycated haemoglobin level was shown (r = 0.93, P = 0.007). Ethanol reduced the antioxidant capacity by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the level of oxidatively modified protein content, diene conjugates and MDA. Melatonin administration in animals during acute ethanol stress reduced antioxidant stress biomarkers, WBC, HBA1c levels and ROS production. Melatonin had protective effects on liver, kidney and muscle tissues by preventing the intensive lipid peroxidation processes in initial (diene conjugation production) and late stages (MDA level), and significantly reduced the level of aldehyde and ketone protein derivatives. Furthermore, melatonin restored elevated WBC count and HBA1c level and diminished ROS production. Ethanol reduces antioxidant capacity and leads to exaggerated reactive oxygen species production and consequent increases in oxidatively modified proteins. Melatonin exerts protective effects by preventing the intensive lipid peroxidation processes. Melatonin significantly reduces the level of aldehyde and ketone protein derivatives, restores glycated haemoglobin level and white blood cell count.

  5. Integration options for high energy efficiency and improved economics in a wood-to-ethanol process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacchi Guido

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently a steady increase in the use of wood-based fuels for heat and power production in Sweden. A major proportion of these fuels could serve as feedstock for ethanol production. In this study various options for the utilization of the solid residue formed during ethanol production from spruce, such as the production of pellets, electricity and heat for district heating, were compared in terms of overall energy efficiency and production cost. The effects of changes in the process performance, such as variations in the ethanol yield and/or the energy demand, were also studied. The process was based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment, which was followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. A model including all the major process steps was implemented in the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus, the model input was based on data recently obtained on lab scale or in a process development unit. Results For the five base case scenarios presented in the paper the overall energy efficiency ranged from 53 to 92%, based on the lower heating values, and a minimum ethanol selling price from 3.87 to 4.73 Swedish kronor per litre (0.41–0.50 EUR/L; however, ethanol production was performed in essentially the same way in each base case scenario. (Highly realistic improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significantly lower production costs for all scenarios. Conclusion Although ethanol was shown to be the main product, i.e. yielding the major part of the income, the co-product revenue had a considerable effect on the process economics and the importance of good utilization of the entire feedstock was clearly shown. With the assumed prices of the co-products, utilization of the excess solid residue for heat and power production was highly economically favourable. The study also showed that improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand

  6. Ethanol Production from Extruded Thermoplastic Maize Meal by High Gravity Fermentation with Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayeli Peralta-Contreras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of extruded and ground maize meals as raw materials for the production of regular (12°P and high gravity (20°P worts was devised. Extruded water solubility index (WSI was higher (9.8 percentage units and crude fat was lower (2.64 percentage units compared to ground maize. Free-amino nitrogen compounds (FAN, pH, and glucose were evaluated in regular and high gravity worts produced from ground or extruded maize. Extrusion improved glucose content and ethanol yield. In 20°P mashes, extrusion is enhanced by 2.14% initial glucose compared with regular ground mashes. The 12°P and 20°P extruded treatments averaged 12.2% and 8.4% higher ethanol, respectively, compared to the uncooked counterpart. The 20°P worts fermented with Zymomonas mobilis produced 9.56% more ethanol than the 12°P counterpart. The results show that the combination of extrusion and fermentation of 20°P worts improved ethanol yield per kg flour until 20.93%. This pretreatment stimulates Z. mobilis fermentation efficiency.

  7. Dietary spermidine for lowering high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Abdellatif, Mahmoud; Zimmermann, Andreas; Schroeder, Sabrina; Pendl, Tobias; Harger, Alexandra; Stekovic, Slaven; Schipke, Julia; Magnes, Christoph; Schmidt, Albrecht; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Dammbrueck, Christopher; Gross, Angelina S.; Herbst, Viktoria; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Pietrocola, Federico; Pieber, Thomas R.; Sigrist, Stephan J.; Linke, Wolfgang A.; Mühlfeld, Christian; Sadoshima, Junichi; Dengjel, Joern; Kiechl, Stefan; Kroemer, Guido; Sedej, Simon; Madeo, Frank

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Loss of cardiac macroautophagy/autophagy impairs heart function, and evidence accumulates that an increased autophagic flux may protect against cardiovascular disease. We therefore tested the protective capacity of the natural autophagy inducer spermidine in animal models of aging and hypertension, which both represent major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Dietary spermidine elicits cardioprotective effects in aged mice through enhancing cardiac autophagy and mitophagy. In salt-sensitive rats, spermidine supplementation also delays the development of hypertensive heart disease, coinciding with reduced arterial blood pressure. The high blood pressure-lowering effect likely results from improved global arginine bioavailability and protection from hypertension-associated renal damage. The polyamine spermidine is naturally present in human diets, though to a varying amount depending on food type and preparation. In humans, high dietary spermidine intake correlates with reduced blood pressure and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and related death. Altogether, spermidine represents a cardio- and vascular-protective autophagy inducer that can be readily integrated in common diets. PMID:28118075

  8. HIGH ALTITUDES EFFECTS ON HEMATOLOGIC BLOOD PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasim Rushiti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The approach and the objective of this experiment are consistent with the determination of changes of blood parameters after the stay of the students at an altitude of 1800-2300 meters, for a ten-day long ski course. In this paper are included a total of 64 students of the Faculty of Sport Sciences in Prishtina, of the age group of 19-25 (the average age is 21. All students previously have undergone a medical check for TA, arterial pulse and respiratory rate. In particular, the health situation is of subjects was examined, then, all students, at the same time, gave blood for analysis. In this experiment, three main hematologic parameters were taken in consideration: such as hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells. The same analyses were carried out after the 10-day stay at a high altitude. The results of the experiment have shown significant changes after the ten-day stay at high altitude, despite the previous results that show changes only after the twenty-day stay in such elevations.

  9. High Blood Pressure: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Education Program) What Is High Blood Pressure? (American Heart Association) Symptoms What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ... Lung, and Blood Institute) Shaking the Salt Habit (American Heart Association) Understanding Blood Pressure Readings (American Heart Association) Related ...

  10. High titer ethanol and lignosulfonate production from SPORL pretreated poplar at pilot-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyong (J.Y. eZhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poplar NE222 (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh × P. nigra L. wood chips were pretreated in a 390 L pilot-scale rotating wood-pulping digester using a dilute sulfite solution of approximately pH  1.8 at 160°C for 40 min for bioconversion to ethanol and lignosulfonate (LS. An estimated combined hydrolysis factor (CHF of 3.3 was used to scale the pretreatment temperature and time from laboratory bench scale experiments, which balanced sugar yield and inhibitor formation to facilitate high titer ethanol production through fermentation using S. cerevisiae YRH400 without detoxification. A terminal ethanol titer of 43.6 g L-1 with a yield of 247 L tonne wood-1 was achieved at total solids loading of 20%. The relatively low ethanol yield compared with yield from SPORL-pretreated softwoods was due to inefficient utilization of xylose. The LS from SPORL has a substantially higher phenolic group (Ph-OH content although it is less sulfonated and has a lower molecular weight than a purified commercial softwood LS, and therefore has potential for certain commercial markets and future novel applications through further processing.

  11. Increased delay discounting tracks with a high ethanol-seeking phenotype and subsequent ethanol seeking but not consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, S Wesley; Czachowski, Cristine L

    2014-10-01

    Increased levels of delay discounting have been associated with alcoholism and problematic levels of drinking. Attempts to assess the directionality of this relationship by studying individuals with a family history of alcoholism as well as rodent lines selectively bred for high home cage alcohol preference have yielded discordant results. One possible reason for this discordance is that increased levels of delay discounting may only track with specific processes that lead to addiction vulnerability. This study investigated this possibility by assessing 3 strains of rats previously identified to exhibit heritable differences in ethanol (EtOH) seeking and consumption. In an adjusting amount delay discounting task, alcohol-preferring (P) rats who display high levels of both EtOH seeking and consumption were compared to high alcohol-drinking (HAD2) rats who only exhibit moderate EtOH seeking despite high levels of consumption, and Long Evans (LE) rats who display moderate seeking and consumption. EtOH-seeking and consumption phenotypes were subsequently confirmed in an operant self-administration task with a procedural separation between EtOH seeking and drinking. P rats discounted delayed rewards to a greater extent than both HAD2s and LE who did not show differences in discounting. Moreover, the EtOH-seeking and drinking phenotypes were replicated with P rats displaying greater EtOH seeking compared to both the HAD2s and LE, and both the HAD2s and P rats consuming more EtOH than LEs. Only the high-seeking strain, the P rats, exhibited increased levels of delay discounting. This suggests that this measure of behavioral under-control is specifically associated with alcohol-related appetitive, but not consummatory, processes as the moderate seeking/high drinking line did not show increased levels of impulsivity. This finding supports the hypothesis that delay discounting is specifically associated with only certain processes which are sufficient but not necessary to

  12. Operant self-administration of sweetened ethanol and time course of blood ethanol levels in adolescent and adult male Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, James M; Gonzales, Rueben A

    2015-03-01

    Little is known regarding mechanisms regulating ethanol (EtOH) self-administration during adolescence or if the mechanisms differ from adults. One of the best models of abuse liability is operant self-administration. Therefore, we characterized operant sweetened EtOH self-administration behavior in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent (36 days old at first EtOH exposure) and adult male Long-Evans rats were first trained to self-administer 10% sucrose (10S) in an appetitive/consummatory operant model for 1 week, and then the drinking solution was switched to 10% sucrose plus 10% EtOH (10S10E) for 2 weeks. Next, rats were switched to a fixed ratio 2 schedule, and this was followed by 1 session using a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Last, rats were tested for cue-induced reinstatement of lever-pressing behavior under extinction conditions after 13 days of abstinence. Blood EtOH concentration (BEC) of sweetened EtOH (self-administered or intragastric [IG] administration of 1 g/kg) was determined via gas chromatography. Control rats drank only 10S. Consumption of sweetened EtOH was not different between adolescents and adults under any schedule tested, reaching 1 g/kg in 20 minutes in the appetitive/consummatory model. Appetitive behavior directed at sweetened EtOH was less focused in adolescents versus adults. No age differences were found in motivation for sweetened EtOH. Cue-induced reinstatement of EtOH-seeking behavior after abstinence also did not differ by age. In control groups, no age difference was found in appetitive behavior or the amount of sucrose consumed, although adults exhibited greater cue-induced reinstatement. BEC after self-administration or IG administration of sweetened EtOH was higher in adults than adolescents. Consumption and motivation for sweetened EtOH are similar in adolescents and adults, although adolescents are more vulnerable to the effects of EtOH consumption on appetitive behavior. The IG results suggest larger volume

  13. Consolidated bioprocessing of highly concentrated Jerusalem artichoke tubers for simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lihao; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Fengxian; Dy Ryu, Dewey; Bao, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of Jerusalem artichoke tuber (Jat) for ethanol production is one of the most promising options for an alternate biofuel technology development. The technical barriers include the weak saccharolytic enzyme (inulinase) activity of the fermentation strain, and the well mixing of the high viscous fermentation slurry at the highly concentrated Jat loading. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae DQ1 was found to produce relatively large amount of inulinase for hydrolysis of inulin in Jat, and the helical ribbon stirring bioreactor used provided well mixing performance under the high Jat loading. Even a highly concentrated Jat loading up to 35% (w/w) in the helical ribbon bioreactor for CBP was allowed. The results obtained from this study have demonstrated a feasibility of developing a CBP process technology in the helical ribbon bioreactor for ethanol production at a high yield 128.7 g/L and the theoretical yield 73.5%, respectively. This level of ethanol yield from Jat is relatively higher than others reported so far. The results of this study could provide a practical CBP process technology in the helical ribbon bioreactor for economically sustainable alternate biofuel production using highly concentrated inulin containing biomass feedstock such as Jat, at least 35%. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-12-01

    Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from a second generation feedstock, namely, wheat straw. The LCA used lab results of a set of 36 process configurations in which dry matter content, enzyme preparation and loading, and process strategy were varied. The LCA results show that higher dry matter content leads to a higher environmental impact of the ethanol production, but this can be compensated by reducing the impact of enzyme production and use, and by polyethylene glycol addition at high dry matter content. The results also show that the renewable and non-renewable energy use resulting from the different process configurations ultimately determine their environmental impact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High temperature stimulates acetic acid accumulation and enhances the growth inhibition and ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under fermenting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Ji-Min; Yang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Sae-Um; Blank, Lars M; Park, Jin-Byung

    2014-07-01

    Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high temperatures of up to 42 °C during ethanol fermentation at a high glucose concentration (i.e., 100 g/L) were investigated. Increased temperature correlated with stimulated glucose uptake to produce not only the thermal protectant glycerol but also ethanol and acetic acid. Carbon flux into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle correlated positively with cultivation temperature. These results indicate that the increased demand for energy (in the form of ATP), most likely caused by multiple stressors, including heat, acetic acid, and ethanol, was matched by both the fermentation and respiration pathways. Notably, acetic acid production was substantially stimulated compared to that of other metabolites during growth at increased temperature. The acetic acid produced in addition to ethanol seemed to subsequently result in adverse effects, leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, appeared to cause the specific growth rate, and glucose uptake rate reduced leading to a decrease of the specific ethanol production rate far before glucose depletion. These results suggest that adverse effects from heat, acetic acid, ethanol, and oxidative stressors are synergistic, resulting in a decrease of the specific growth rate and ethanol production rate and, hence, are major determinants of cell stability and ethanol fermentation performance of S. cerevisiae at high temperatures. The results are discussed in the context of possible applications.

  16. Development of High-Productivity Continuous Ethanol Production using PVA-Immobilized Zymomonas mobilis in an Immobilized-Cells Fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol as one of renewable energy was being considered an excellent alternative clean-burning fuel to replace gasoline. Continuous ethanol fermentation systems had offered important economic advantages compared to traditional systems. Fermentation rates were significantly improved, especially when continuous fermentation was integrated with cell immobilization techniques to enrich the cells concentration in fermentor. Growing cells of Zymomonas mobilis immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA gel beads were employed in an immobilized-cells fermentor for continuous ethanol fermentation from glucose. The glucose loading, dilution rate, and cells loading were varied in order to determine which best condition employed in obtaining both high ethanol production and low residual glucose with high dilution rate. In this study, 20 g/L, 100 g/L, 125 g/L and 150 g/L of glucose concentration and 20% (w/v, 40% (w/v and 50% (w/v of cells loading were employed with range of dilution rate at 0.25 to 1 h-1. The most stable production was obtained for 25 days by employing 100 g/L of glucose loading. Meanwhile, the results also exhibited that 125 g/L of glucose loading as well as 40% (w/v of cells loading yielded high ethanol concentration, high ethanol productivity, and acceptable residual glucose at 62.97 g/L, 15.74 g/L/h and 0.16 g/L, respectively. Furthermore, the dilution rate of 4 hour with 100 g/L and 40% (w/v of glucose and cells loading was considered as the optimum condition with ethanol production, ethanol productivity and residual glucose obtained were 49.89 g/L, 12.47 g/L/h, and 2.04 g/L, respectively. This recent study investigated ethanol inhibition as well. The present research had proved that high sugar concentration was successfully converted to ethanol. These achieved results were promising for further study.

  17. Summary of High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, Timothy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Alleman, Teresa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fioroni, Gina [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Huff, Shean P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kass, Michael D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leiby, Paul Newsome [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio Uria [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McCormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oladosu, Gbadebo A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Szybist, James P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thomas, John F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); West, Brian H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of light-duty vehicles are pursuing a broad portfolio of technologies to reduce CO2 emissions and improve fuel economy. Central to this effort is higher efficiency spark ignition (SI) engines, including technologies reliant on higher compression ratios and fuels with improved anti-knock properties, such as gasoline with significantly increased octane numbers. Ethanol has an inherently high octane number and would be an ideal octane booster for lower-octane petroleum blendstocks. In fact, recently published data from Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories (Splitter and Szybist, 2014a, 2014b; Szybist, 2010; Szybist and West, 2013) and OEMs (Anderson, 2013) and discussions with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggest the potential of a new high octane fuel (HOF) with 25–40 vol % of ethanol to assist in reaching Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions goals. This mid-level ethanol content fuel, with a research octane number (RON) of about 100, appears to enable efficiency improvements in a suitably calibrated and designed engine/vehicle system that are sufficient to offset its lower energy density (Jung, 2013; Thomas, et al, 2015). This efficiency improvement would offset the tank mileage (range) loss typically seen for ethanol blends in conventional gasoline and flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). The prospects for such a fuel are additionally attractive because it can be used legally in over 18 million FFVs currently on the road. Thus the legacy FFV fleet can serve as a bridge by providing a market for the new fuel immediately, so that future vehicles will have improved efficiency as the new fuel becomes widespread. In this way, HOF can simultaneously help improve fuel economy while expanding the ethanol market in the United States via a growing market for an ethanol blend higher than E10. The DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office initiated a collaborative research program

  18. Daily patterns of ethanol drinking in adolescent and adult, male and female, high alcohol drinking (HAD) replicate lines of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaher, Ronnie; McConnell, Kathleen K; Rodd, Zachary A; McBride, William J; Bell, Richard L

    2012-10-01

    The rationale for our study was to determine the pattern of ethanol drinking by the high alcohol-drinking (HAD) replicate lines of rats during adolescence and adulthood in both male and female rats. Rats were given 30 days of 24 h free-choice access to ethanol (15%, v/v) and water, with ad lib access to food, starting at the beginning of adolescence (PND 30) or adulthood (PND 90). Water and alcohol drinking patterns were monitored 22 h/day with a "lickometer" set-up. The results indicated that adolescent HAD-1 and HAD-2 males consumed the greatest levels of ethanol and had the most well defined ethanol licking binges among the age and sex groups with increasing levels of ethanol consumption throughout adolescence. In addition, following the first week of adolescence, male and female HAD-1 and HAD-2 rats differed in both ethanol consumption levels and ethanol licking behavior. Adult HAD-1 male and female rats did not differ from one another and their ethanol intake or licking behaviors did not change significantly over weeks. Adult HAD-2 male rats maintained a relatively constant level of ethanol consumption across weeks, whereas adult HAD-2 female rats increased ethanol consumption levels over weeks, peaking during the third week when they consumed more than their adult male counterparts. The results indicate that the HAD rat lines could be used as an effective animal model to examine the development of ethanol consumption and binge drinking in adolescent male and female rats providing information on the long-range consequences of adolescent alcohol drinking. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. [Evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow using 99mTc-ECD SPECT in ethanol dependent patients: pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pach, Dorota; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Szurkowska, Magdalena; Kamenczak, Aleksandra; Targosz, Dorota; Gawlikowski, Tomasz; Huszno, Bohdan; Głowa, Bogusław

    2007-01-01

    The depressant actions of ethanol in the brain is known. SPECT is non invasive method to measure the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and to evaluate indirectly the brain metabolism. The aim of the study is to evaluate morphologic and functional status of CNS using 99mTc-ECD SPECT in chronic alcoholics. Examined group consisted of 18 male alcoholic patients aged from 28 to 52 years (x = 42.1 +/- 5.4) treated at the Ward of Toxicology and Environmental Diseaes (Detoxification Unit). Only patients without prior head injury, CNS inflammatory changes, epilepsy, migraine, diabetes mellitus or other systemic injury were included. Alcohol dependence was diagnosed according to ICD-10 criteria. The intensity of withdrawal syndrome was measured using CIWA-A scale. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured using 99mTc-ECD SPECT with the double head E.CAM Siemens gamma camera. The reference group, necessary to obtain a normal values for the gamma camera applied, consisted of 31 healthy subjects (33.32 +/- 10.99 y). The mean values of rCBF in all examined region of frontal and temporal lobes, and in basal ganglia bothsided were significantly lower in the group of alcoholic patients than in the control group. No significant difference between rCBF in occipital lobes except the occipital inferior region, and in parietal lobes except the parietal superior region. Symetrical hypoperfusion (rCBF-2SD) in the frontal lobes was stated in 11 (61.1%), in temporal lobes in 4 (22.2%), in parietal and occipital lobes in 3 (16.7%) of the patients examined. In 7 the patients examined rCBF disturbances in basal ganglia were found (bothsided in 4, leftsided in 2, and rightsided in 2 the patients). Focal rCBF changes in the parietal, frontal and temporal lobes localised mostly on the left hemisphere were stated in 27.8% of the alcoholics examined. In concusion, the metabolic disturbances and the brain morphological changes mostly in frontal and temporal lobes due to chronic

  20. Age and Sex Interact to Mediate the Effects of Intermittent, High-Dose Ethanol Exposure on Behavioral Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Barker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Human alcoholics have been shown to have impaired cognitive control over actions and increased reliance on habitual response strategies. While it is unclear in humans whether these differences predate ethanol exposure or result from chronic drinking, data from animal studies suggest that ethanol acts to promote the development of inflexible behaviors. Here, we investigated how intermittent exposure to high doses of ethanol impacts the ability to flexibly regulate behavior in a habit model. As adolescence, may represent a period of increased drug taking and developmental vulnerability that may impact adult behavior, we compared the effects of high-dose ethanol exposure during adolescence to exposure during adulthood in male and female rats. Our findings indicated that the effects of intermittent, high-dose ethanol exposure on habitual behavior is mediated by age and sex such that ethanol exposure during adolescence promoted the use of habitual response strategies in adult females, but not males, and that the opposite pattern emerged following intermittent, high-dose ethanol exposure in adult rats.