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Sample records for high blood ammonia

  1. Respiratory ammonia output and blood ammonia concentration during incremental exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Huizenga, [No Value; Kort, E; van der Mark, TW; Grevink, RG; Verkerke, GJ

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the increase of ammonia concentration and lactate concentration in blood was accompanied by an increased expiration of ammonia during graded exercise. Eleven healthy subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test. Blood ammonia, blood lactate

  2. DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA IN EAR-LOBE CAPILLARY BLOOD IS AN ALTERNATIVE TO ARTERIAL BLOOD AMMONIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUIZENGA, [No Value; GIPS, CH; CONN, HO; JANSEN, PLM

    1995-01-01

    Blood ammonia determination is a laboratory test to diagnose hepatic encephalopathy. Arterial blood is superior to peripheral venous blood ammonia because of ammonia metabolism in muscle. We have compared capillary with arterial whole blood ammonia as capillary sampling is an attractive alternative.

  3. A sportomics strategy to analyze the ability of arginine to modulate both ammonia and lymphocyte levels in blood after high-intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Luis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise is an excellent tool to study the interactions between metabolic stress and the immune system. Specifically, high-intensity exercises both produce transient hyperammonemia and influence the distribution of white blood cells. Carbohydrates and glutamine and arginine supplementation were previously shown to effectively modulate ammonia levels during exercise. In this study, we used a short-duration, high-intensity exercise together with a low carbohydrate diet to induce a hyperammonemia state and better understand how arginine influences both ammonemia and the distribution of leukocytes in the blood. Methods Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu practitioners (men, n = 39 volunteered for this study. The subjects followed a low-carbohydrate diet for four days before the trials and received either arginine supplementation (100 mg·kg-1 of body mass·day-1 or a placebo. The intergroup statistical significance was calculated by a one-way analysis of variance, followed by Student’s t-test. The data correlations were calculated using Pearson’s test. Results In the control group, ammonemia increased during matches at almost twice the rate of the arginine group (25 mmol·L-1·min-1 and 13 μmol·L-1·min-1, respectively. Exercise induced an increase in leukocytes of approximately 75%. An even greater difference was observed in the lymphocyte count, which increased 2.2-fold in the control group; this increase was partially prevented by arginine supplementation. The shape of the ammonemia curve suggests that arginine helps prevent increases in ammonia levels. Conclusions These data indicate that increases in lymphocytes and ammonia are simultaneously reduced by arginine supplementation. We propose that increased serum lymphocytes could be related to changes in ammonemia and ammonia metabolism.

  4. Enrichment of high ammonia tolerant methanogenic culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Proietti, Nicolas

    plants. The methods used today to counteract ammonia inhibition are slow and costexpensive. A new biological approach to avoid or counteract ammonia inhibition by using ammonia tolerant methanogens, could provide a sustainable solution for cost-effective digestion of abundant ammonia-rich wastes. The aim...... of the current study was to isolate and identify methanogenic cultures tolerant to high ammonia concentrations. A mixed methanogenic population was stepwise exposed to ammonia concentrations (1 to 9.26 g NH4+-N L-1) during an enrichment process with successive batch cultivations. The methanogenic population...... was derived from a full scale biogas reactor (Hashøj, Denmark), fed with 75% animal manure and 25% food industries organic waste. Basal anaerobic medium was used for the enrichment along with sodium acetate (1 g HAc L-1) as a carbon source. Fluorescence insitu hybridization (FISH) was used to determine...

  5. Ammonia concentration and bacterial evaluation of feline whole blood and packed red blood cell units stored for transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Spada

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia concentrations increase in human, canine and equine WB and PRBC units during storage. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of storage on ammonia concentration in feline WB and PRBC units stored in a veterinary blood bank and to evaluate possible correlations with bacterial contamination. Ammonia concentration was evaluated in 15 WB units and 2 PRBC units on day 1 and at the end of storage after 35 and 42 days, respectively. In an additional 5 WB units and 4 PRBC units ammonia concentrations were determined daily until the day the normal reference range was exceeded and then weekly to the end of storage. All units were evaluated for bacterial contamination. Ammonia increased markedly during storage as a linear function over time. On the 35th and 42th day of storage at 4±2°C mean±SD ammonia concentration reached 909±158 µg/dl and 1058±212 µg/dl in WB and PRBC units, respectively. Bacterial culture was negative in all units. High ammonia concentrations in stored WB and PRBC units could result in toxicity, particularly in feline recipients with liver failure, portosystemic shunts or those receiving large transfusion volumes. Clinical in vivo studies evaluating the effects on recipients should be performed.

  6. Blood ammonia levels in liver cirrhosis: a clue for the presence of portosystemic collateral veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripodi Francesca

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Portal hypertension leads to the formation of portosystemic collateral veins in liver cirrhosis. The resulting shunting is responsible for the development of portosystemic encephalopathy. Although ammonia plays a certain role in determining portosystemic encephalopathy, the venous ammonia level has not been found to correlate with the presence or severity of this entity. So, it has become partially obsolete. Realizing the need for non-invasive markers mirroring the presence of esophageal varices in order to reduce the number of endoscopy screening, we came back to determine whether there was a correlation between blood ammonia concentrations and the detection of portosystemic collateral veins, also evaluating splenomegaly, hypersplenism (thrombocytopenia and the severity of liver cirrhosis. Methods One hundred and fifty three consecutive patients with hepatic cirrhosis of various etiologies were recruited to participate in endoscopic and ultrasonography screening for the presence of portosystemic collaterals mostly esophageal varices, but also portal hypertensive gastropathy and large spontaneous shunts. Results Based on Child-Pugh classification, the median level of blood ammonia was 45 mcM/L in 64 patients belonging to class A, 66 mcM/L in 66 patients of class B and 108 mcM/L in 23 patients of class C respectively (p The grade of esophageal varices was concordant with venous ammonia levels (rho 0.43, p Conclusion Identifying cirrhotic patients with high blood ammonia concentrations could be clinically useful, as high levels would lead to suspicion of being in presence of collaterals, in clinical practice of esophageal varices, and pinpoint those patients requiring closer follow-up and endoscopic screening.

  7. Diverse microbial species survive high ammonia concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Laura C.; Cockell, Charles S.; Summers, Stephen

    2012-04-01

    Planetary protection regulations are in place to control the contamination of planets and moons with terrestrial micro-organisms in order to avoid jeopardizing future scientific investigations relating to the search for life. One environmental chemical factor of relevance in extraterrestrial environments, specifically in the moons of the outer solar system, is ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is known to be highly toxic to micro-organisms and may disrupt proton motive force, interfere with cellular redox reactions or cause an increase of cell pH. To test the survival potential of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed to such cold, ammonia-rich environments, and to judge whether current planetary protection regulations are sufficient, soil samples were exposed to concentrations of NH3 from 5 to 35% (v/v) at -80°C and room temperature for periods up to 11 months. Following exposure to 35% NH3, diverse spore-forming taxa survived, including representatives of the Firmicutes (Bacillus, Sporosarcina, Viridibacillus, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Brevibacillus) and Actinobacteria (Streptomyces). Non-spore forming organisms also survived, including Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) and Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) that are known to have environmentally resistant resting states. Clostridium spp. were isolated from the exposed soil under anaerobic culture. High NH3 was shown to cause a reduction in viability of spores over time, but spore morphology was not visibly altered. In addition to its implications for planetary protection, these data show that a large number of bacteria, potentially including spore-forming pathogens, but also environmentally resistant non-spore-formers, can survive high ammonia concentrations.

  8. Branched-chain amino acids increase arterial blood ammonia in spite of enhanced intrinsic muscle ammonia metabolism in patients with cirrhosis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Gitte; Keiding, Susanne; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2011-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are used in attempts to reduce blood ammonia in patients with cirrhosis and intermittent hepatic encephalopathy based on the hypothesis that BCAA stimulate muscle ammonia detoxification. We studied the effects of an oral dose of BCAA on the skeletal muscle...... the metabolism of blood-supplied ammonia and the A-V measurements were used to measure the total ammonia metabolism across the thigh muscle. After intake of BCAA, blood ammonia increased more than 30% in both groups of subjects (both P ....05). BCAA intake led to a massive glutamine release from the muscle (cirrhotic patients, P BCAA enhanced the intrinsic muscle metabolism of ammonia but not the metabolism of blood-supplied ammonia in both the patients with cirrhosis and in the healthy...

  9. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

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    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Print ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  10. High Blood Cholesterol

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    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Cholesterol What is High Blood Cholesterol? What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a ... heart disease. If Your Blood Cholesterol Is Too High Too much cholesterol in your blood is called ...

  11. [Toxic effects of high concentrations of ammonia on Euglena gracilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Shi, Xiao-Rong; Cui, Yi-Bin; Li, Mei

    2013-11-01

    Ammonia is among the common contaminants in aquatic environments. The present study aimed at evaluation of the toxicity of ammonia at high concentration by detecting its effects on the growth, pigment contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and DNA damage (comet assay) of a unicellular microalga, Euglena gracilis. Ammonia restrained the growth of E. gracilis, while at higher concentrations, ammonia showed notable inhibition effect, the growth at 2 000 mg x L(-1) was restrained to 55.7% compared with that of the control; The contents of photosynthetic pigments and protein went up with increasing ammonia dosage and decreased when the ammonia concentration was above 1000 mg x L(-1); In addition, there was an obvious increase in SOD and POD activities, at higher concentration (2 000 mg x L(-1)), activities of SOD and POD increased by 30.7% and 49.4% compared with those of the control, indicating that ammonia could promote activities of antioxidant enzymes in E. gracilis; The degree of DNA damage observed in the comet assay increased with increasing ammonia concentration, which suggested that high dose of ammonia may have potential mutagenicity on E. gracilis.

  12. N-13 ammonia for the noninvasive evaluation of myocardial blood flow by positron emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The kinetics and characteristics of nitrogen-13 labelled ammonia as an indicator of blood flow in the myocardium were evaluated in open-chest dogs. Its utility as an imaging agent was tested in animals and man. (PSB)

  13. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  14. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

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    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  15. High Blood Cholesterol

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    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cholesterol? To understand high blood cholesterol (ko-LES-ter- ... cholesterol from your body. What Is High Blood Cholesterol? High blood cholesterol is a condition in which ...

  16. Ammonia concentration and bacterial evaluation of feline whole blood and packed red blood cell units stored for transfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Spada; Daniela Proverbio; Piera Anna Martino; Luciana Baggiani; Roberta Perego; Nora Roggero

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia concentrations increase in human, canine and equine WB and PRBC units during storage. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of storage on ammonia concentration in feline WB and PRBC units stored in a veterinary blood bank and to evaluate possible correlations with bacterial contamination. Ammonia concentration was evaluated in 15 WB units and 2 PRBC units on day 1 and at the end of storage after 35 and 42 days, respectively. In an additional 5 WB units and 4 PRBC units amm...

  17. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) A ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  18. Hepatic encephalopathy is associated with decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism and blood flow, not increased ammonia uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Gitte; Keiding, Susanne; Munk, Ole L

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO(2)) and blood flow (CBF) in patients with cirrhosis with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). It remains unclear, however, whether these disturbances are associated with HE or with cirrhosis itself and how they may relate to arterial blood...... ammonia concentration and cerebral metabolic rate of blood ammonia (CMRA). We addressed these questions in a paired study design by investigating patients with cirrhosis during and after recovery from an acute episode of HE type C. CMRO(2), CBF, and CMRA were measured by dynamic positron emission...

  19. Optimization of biomethanation focusing on high ammonia loaded processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Han

    , could theoretically mitigate the ammonia inhibition problem (Angelidaki et al., 1999). Therefore, the effect of co-digestion of cattle manure with lipids (i.e. glycerol trioleate (GTO)) under high ammonia levels (5 g NH4+-N·L-1) in anaerobic continuous stirred tank (CSTR) reactors (RGTO) was assessed....... Additionally, for comparison purposes, a soluble carbohydrate (i.e. glucose) was also used as a co-substrate in an identical CSTR reactor (RGLU). At 5 g NH4+-N·L-1, relative methane production of RGTO and RGLU, was 10.5% and 41% compared to the expected uninhibited production, respectively. At the same time...... control reactor (RCTL), only fed with manure, reached 32.7% compared to the uninhibited basis production. Therefore, the hypothesis that the co-digestion of manure with lipids could alleviate the ammonia inhibition was not supported by the results. However, an “ammonia-LCFA synergetic inhibitory effect...

  20. Treating High Blood Pressure

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    About High Blood Pressure Many people in the United States die from high blood pressure. This condition usually does not cause symptoms. Most ... until it is too late. A person has high blood pressure when the blood pushes against Visit your doctor ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of things can cause hyperglycemia: ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  8. High blood pressure medications

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  12. High blood cholesterol levels

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... an Employer Options for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life ... blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body ...

  14. High blood pressure - infants

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    ... Certain tumors Inherited conditions (problems that run in families) Thyroid problems Blood pressure rises as the baby grows. The average blood ... vomiting constantly Prevention Some causes of high blood pressure run in families. Talk to your provider before you get pregnant ...

  15. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More black women than men have high blood pressure. 2 Race of Ethnic Group Men (%) Women (%) African Americans 43.0 45.7 Mexican Americans 27.8 28.9 Whites 33.9 31.3 All 34.1 32.7 Top of Page Why Blood Pressure Matters View this graphic snapshot of blood pressure ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  18. Submersible microbial desalination cell for simultaneous ammonia recovery and electricity production from anaerobic reactors containing high levels of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-02-01

    High ammonia concentration in anaerobic reactors can seriously inhibit the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) was developed as an innovative method to lower the ammonia level in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) by in situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. In batch experiment, the ammonia concentration in the CSTR decreased from 6 to 0.7 g-N/L during 30 days, resulting in an average recovery rate of 80 g-N/m(2)/d. Meanwhile, a maximum power density of 0.71±0.5 W/m(2) was generated at 2.85 A/m(2). Both current driven NH4(+) migration and free NH3 diffusion were identified as the mechanisms responsible for the ammonia transportation. With an increase in initial ammonia concentration and a decrease in external resistance, the SMDC performance was enhanced. In addition, the coexistence of other cations in CSTR or cathode had no negative effect on the ammonia transportation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preventing High Blood Pressure

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    ... Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir By living a healthy lifestyle, you can help keep your blood pressure in ...

  20. High blood pressure - children

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    ... number is the diastolic pressure. This measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest. Blood pressure ... Medical Professional Call your child's provider if home monitoring shows that your child's blood pressure is still high. Prevention Your child's provider will ...

  1. Ammonia oxidation at high pressure and intermediate temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yu; Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation experiments were conducted at high pressure (30 bar and 100 bar) under oxidizing and stoichiometric conditions, respectively, and temperatures ranging from 450 to 925 K. The oxidation of ammonia was slow under stoichiometric conditions in the temperature range investigated. Under...... oxidizing conditions the onset temperature for reaction was 850–875 K at 30 bar, while at 100 bar it was about 800 K, with complete consumption of NH3 at 875 K. The products of reaction were N2 and N2O, while NO and NO2 concentrations were below the detection limit even under oxidizing conditions. The data...... was satisfactory. The main oxidation path for NH3 at high pressure under oxidizing conditions is NH3⟶+OH NH2⟶+HO2,NO2 H2NO⟶+O2 HNO⟶+O2 NO ⟶+NH2 N2. The modeling predictions are most sensitive to the reactions NH2 + NO = NNH + OH and NH2 + HO2 = H2NO + OH, which promote the ammonia consumption by forming OH...

  2. Submersible microbial desalination cell for simultaneous ammonia recovery and electricity production from anaerobic reactors containing high levels of ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    High ammonia concentration in anaerobic reactors can seriously inhibit the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) was developed as an innovative method to lower the ammonia level in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) by in situ ammonia...... recovery and electricity production. In batch experiment, the ammonia concentration in the CSTR decreased from 6 to 0.7g-N/L during 30days, resulting in an average recovery rate of 80g-N/m2/d. Meanwhile, a maximum power density of 0.71±0.5W/m2 was generated at 2.85A/m2. Both current driven NH4+ migration...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity ...

  4. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

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    ... already been diagnosed with high blood pressure. Try yoga and meditation. Yoga and meditation not only can strengthen your body ... Accessed Sept. 21, 2015. Hu B, et al. Effects of psychological stress on hypertension in middle-aged ...

  5. Arterial ammonia with Blood Ammonia Checker II and with indophenol reaction to assess presence of hepatic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizenga, [No Value; vanDam, GM; Gips, CH

    1996-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is associated with elevated arterial ammonia levels. The relationship is variable, in part due to ammonia methodology. One method, based on the indophenol reaction (IPh), is interfered with a number of amino acids including all aromatic amino acids. We have determined

  6. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

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    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  7. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

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    ... High Blood Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... time. High blood pressure is also called hypertension. High Blood Pressure in the United States Having high blood pressure ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes ... Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  10. Association between the blood concentrations of ammonia and carnitine/amino acid of schizophrenic patients treated with valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masazumi; Amayasu, Hideaki; Itai, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hisahiro

    2017-01-01

    Administration of valproic acid (VPA) is complicated with approximately 0.9% of patients developing hyperammonemia, but the pathogenesis of this adverse effect remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to search for mechanisms associated with VPA-induced hyperammonemia in the light of changes in serum amino acids concentrations associated with the urea cycle of schizophrenic patients. Blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from 37 schizophrenic patients receiving VPA for the prevention of violent behaviors in the morning after overnight fast. Blood concentrations of ammonia, VPA, free carnitine, acyl-carnitine, and 40 amino acids including glutamate and citrulline were measured for each patient. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify amino acids or concomitantly administered drugs that were associated with variability in the blood concentrations of ammonia. The blood ammonia level was positively correlated with the serum glutamate concentration (r = 0.44, p blonanserin (p < 0.01) was positively associated with the elevation of the blood ammonia level. We hypothisized that VPA would elevate the blood ammonia level of schizophrenic patients. The observed changes in serum amino acids are compatible with urea cycle dysfunction, possibly due to reduced carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 (CPS1) activity. We conclude that VPA should be prudently prescribed to schizophrenic patients, particularly those receiving mood stabilizers or certain antipsychotics.

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  12. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

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    ... over the years led to verification of the important role of high blood pressure—especially in concert with ... is specific for that person will be an important key to improving prevention, ... an international team of investigators, funded in part by the NIH, ...

  13. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

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    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  14. High Red Blood Cell Count

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    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure » Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical ...

  16. Living with High Blood Pressure

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    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High ...

  17. Staging properties of potassium-ammonia ternary graphite intercalation compounds at high ammonia pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, X. W.; Solin, S. A.

    1989-04-01

    The pressure dependence of the (00l) x-ray diffraction patterns of the ternary graphite intercalation compound K(NH3)xC24 has been studied in the range 0.5-11 kbar (for which x~4.5) using a diamond anvil cell. A special apparatus for loading the cell with liquid ammonia at room temperature has been constructed and is briefly described. In these experiments, the pressure-transmitting fluid was also an intercalant, namely ammonia. Therefore, the chemical potential of this species was linearly coupled to the applied pressure in contrast to the usual case where the pressure-transmitting fluid is chemically passive. The pressure dependences of the basal spacings and of the relative intensities of key reflections have been measured, as have the compressibilities of the stage-1 and stage-2 components of the two-phase system. Basal-spacing anomalies and anomalies in the relative intensities occur at pressures of ~3.5 and 8.0 kbar and are tentatively attributed to in-plane coordination changes in the potassium-ammonia ratio. Using thermodynamic arguments and Le Chatelier's principle we show quantitatively that a staging phase transition from pure stage-1 phase to an admixture of stage-1 and stage-2 is expected with increased pressure above 10 bar in agreement with experiment. The saturation ammonia compositions (x values) of the admixed stages are found to be 4.5 and 5.4 for the stage-1 and -2 components, respectively. This result is interpreted as evidence that the composition is not sterically limited but is determined by the binding energy of ammonia for potassium and by the perturbation to this energy from the guest-host interaction.

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... High Blood Pressure Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living ... Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done in ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming ... minutes before the test. To track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care ...

  20. A quantitative index of regional blood flow in canine myocardium derived noninvasively with N-13 ammonia and dynamic positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nienaber, C.A.; Ratib, O.; Gambhir, S.S.; Krivokapich, J.; Huang, S.C.; Phelps, M.E.; Schelbert, H.R. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine (USA))

    1991-01-01

    To derive a quantitative index of regional myocardial blood flow, the arterial input function of the flow tracer N-13 ammonia and the regional myocardial N-13 activity concentrations were noninvasively determined in 29 experiments in eight dogs. N-13 ammonia was administered intravenously and cross-sectional images were acquired dynamically using an ECAT III positron emission tomograph with an effective in-plane resolution of 13.46 mm full-width half-maximum. Time-activity curves were derived from the serial images by assigning regions of interest to the left ventricular myocardium and left ventricular blood pool. Tracer net extractions were estimated from the myocardial time-activity concentrations at various times after tracer injection and the integral of the arterial input function. Myocardial blood flow was altered by intravenous dipyridamole, morphine, propranolol and partial or complete occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery, and ranged from 9 to 860 ml/min per 100 g. Estimates of tracer net extractions were most accurate when determined from the myocardial N-13 activity concentrations at 60 s divided by the integral of the arterial input function to that time. These estimates correlated with regional myocardial blood flows determined independently by the microsphere technique by y = x (1 - 0.64(e-114/x); SEE = 22.9; r = 0.94). First pass extraction fractions of N-13 ammonia determined noninvasively with this approach declined with higher flows in a nonlinear fashion and were similar to those determined invasively by direct intracoronary N-13 ammonia injections. The findings indicate that an accurate index of regional myocardial blood flow can be obtained noninvasively by high temporal sampling of arterial and myocardial tracer activity concentrations with positron emission tomography.

  1. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Dec 2,2016 Stroke and high blood ... Changes That Matter • Find Tools & Resources Show Your Stroke Support! Show your stroke support with our new ...

  2. High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162977.html High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide And health risks may appear even ... of people around the world with elevated or high blood pressure increases, so do the number of deaths linked ...

  3. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  4. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mmHg People read "118 over 76" millimeters of mercury. Normal Blood Pressure Normal blood pressure for adults ... health. Share your story with other women on Facebook . The Heart Truth campaign offers a variety of ...

  5. Ammonia synthesis over multi-promoted iron catalysts obtained by high-energy ball-milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, C.J.H.; Jiang, Jianzhong; Mørup, Steen

    1999-01-01

    The feasibility of producing ammonia synthesis catalysts from high-energy ball-milling of a simple mixture of the constituent oxides has been investigated. The effect of ball-milling the fused oxidic precursor of the industrial KM1 ammonia synthesis catalyst has also been studied. The results show...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  8. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000101.htm Controlling your high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to: Stroke Heart ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  10. High Ph, Ammonia Toxicity, and the Search for Life on the Jovian Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, P. H.; Souza, K. A.; Mack, H. M.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of pH and ammonia concentration were studied separately, where possible, on a variety of organisms, including some isolated from natural environments of high pH and/or ammonia concentration. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis are both extremely sensitive to ammonia. An aerobic organism (growth up to pH 11.4) from an alkaline spring is more resistant, but exhibits a toxic response to ammonia at a pH much lower than its maximum for growth. The greatest ammonia resistance has been found in an unidentified organism growing at near neutral pH. Even in this case, however, urvival at ammonia concentrations reasonably expected on the Jovian planets is measured in hours. This is two to three orders of magnitude longer than for E. coli. Results support the tentative conclusion that contamination of the Jovian planets with terrestrial organisms that can grow is unlikely. However, the range of toxic response noted, coupled with the observation that terrestrial life has not been exposed to high ammonia concentrations for millions of years, suggests that adaptation to greater ammonia tolerance may be possible.

  11. Colonic luminal ammonia and portal blood L-glutamine and L-arginine concentrations: a possible link between colon mucosa and liver ureagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklou-Lawson, Mamy; Bernard, Françoise; Neveux, Nathalie; Chaumontet, Catherine; Bos, Cécile; Davila-Gay, Anne-Marie; Tomé, Daniel; Cynober, Luc; Blachier, François

    2009-10-01

    The highest ammonia concentration in the body is found in the colon lumen and although there is evidence that this metabolite can be absorbed through the colonic epithelium, there is little information on the capacity of the colonic mucosa to transfer and metabolize this compound. In the present study, we used a model of conscious pig with a canula implanted into the proximal colon to inject endoluminally increasing amounts of ammonium chloride and to measure during 5 h the kinetics of ammonia and amino acid concentration changes in the portal and arterial blood. By injecting as a single dose from 1 to 5 g ammonia into the colonic lumen, a dose-related increase in ammonia concentration in the portal blood was recorded. Ammonia concentration remained unchanged in the arterial blood except for the highest dose tested, i.e. 5 g which thus apparently exceeds the hepatic ureagenesis capacity. By calculating the apparent net ammonia absorption, it was determined that the pig colonic epithelium has the capacity to absorb 4 g ammonia. Ammonia absorption through the colonic epithelium was concomitant with increase of L-glutamine and L-arginine concentrations in the portal blood. This coincided with the expression of both glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase in isolated colonic epithelial cells. Since L-glutamine and L-arginine are known to represent activators for liver ureagenesis, we propose that increased portal concentrations of these amino acids following increased ammonia colonic luminal concentration represent a metabolic link between colon mucosa and liver urea biosynthesis.

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... 90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  15. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

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    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  16. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol?

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    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? Many factors can affect the cholesterol levels in your blood. You can control some ... but not others. Factors You Can Control Diet Cholesterol is found in foods that come from animal ...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 readings at several medical appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... 90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  3. [Spectroscopic study on the high voltage fast pulsed discharge of nitrogen, ammonia or their mixture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z P; Wang, P N; Yang, W D; Zheng, J B; Li, F M

    2001-10-01

    The emission spectra from the pulsed discharge plasma of nitrogen, ammonia or their mixture were measured. In the discharge of pure nitrogen gas, as the pressure increased, the discharge volume decreased and more dissociation of nitrogen molecules occurred due to the higher energy density. In the discharge of ammonia, N,N+ and NH+ were observed, but no NH2 and NH3 were detected, indicating that ammonia, which has the lower dissociation and ionization energies as compared to nitrogen, was highly dissociated. The discharge of the mixture of N2 and NH3 was also studied. The dependence of the dissociation of nitrogen on the ratio of nitrogen to ammonia was investigated by emission spectra. The optimal ratio for nitrogen dissociation was obtained. The advantage of using the mixture of nitrogen and ammonia in the synthesis of nitrides was discussed.

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  5. High Blood Pressure

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    ... giving Gift and estate planning Circle of Champions Corporate sponsorship Join us at an event The Hope ... blood pressure is the #2 cause of kidney failure. It accounts for about one-fourth of all ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... how to handle this condition. Medical IDs Many people with diabetes, particularly those who use insulin, should ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  14. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

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    ... possible. Practice healthy coping techniques, such as muscle relaxation, deep breathing or meditation. Getting regular physical activity ... you monitor your blood pressure at home. Practice relaxation or slow, deep breathing. Practice taking deep, slow ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  18. High Blood Pressure and Women

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    ... blood pressure during a previous pregnancy, have a family history of high blood pressure or mild kidney disease. The combination of birth ... Print (PDF) | Online How to Measure Your Blood Pressure (PDF) Questions To Ask ... FREE digital-only, quarterly magazine for patients, families, and caregivers, which focuses on the prevention and ...

  19. What Is High Blood Pressure?

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    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Oct 31,2016 First, let’s define high ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  20. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)

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    ... as well as kidney function and levels of calcium in your urine. Your provider may do other tests to further assess your condition, such as checking your blood levels of phosphorus (a mineral). Imaging studies also may be helpful, such as bone ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... work with your doctor to find the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health Insurance ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia ( ... Advocacy Take Action Advocacy Priorities News & Events The Cost of Diabetes Advocate ... Resources Shop Diabetes » Close nonprofit software

  4. Physiological and molecular analysis of the interactive effects of feeding and high environmental ammonia on branchial ammonia excretion and Na+ uptake in freshwater rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alex M; Nawata, C Michele; Wood, Chris M

    2010-11-01

    Recently, a "Na(+)/NH(4)(+) exchange complex" model has been proposed for ammonia excretion in freshwater fish. The model suggests that ammonia transport occurs via Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins and is facilitated by gill boundary layer acidification attributable to the hydration of CO(2) and H(+) efflux by Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE-2) and H(+)-ATPase. The latter two mechanisms of boundary layer acidification would occur in conjunction with Na(+) influx (through a Na(+) channel energized by H(+)-ATPase and directly via NHE-2). Here, we show that natural ammonia loading via feeding increases branchial mRNA expression of Rh genes, NHE-2, and H(+)-ATPase, as well as H(+)-ATPase activity in juvenile trout, similar to previous findings with ammonium salt infusions and high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure. The associated increase in ammonia excretion occurs in conjunction with a fourfold increase in Na(+) influx after a meal. When exposed to HEA (1.5 mmol/l NH(4)HCO(3) at pH 8.0), both unfed and fed trout showed differential increases in mRNA expression of Rhcg2, NHE-2, and H(+)-ATPase, but H(+)-ATPase activity remained at control levels. Unfed fish exposed to HEA displayed a characteristic reversal of ammonia excretion, initially uptaking ammonia, whereas fed fish (4 h after the meal) did not show this reversal, being able to immediately excrete ammonia against the gradient imposed by HEA. Exposure to HEA also led to a depression of Na(+) influx, demonstrating that ammonia excretion can be uncoupled from Na(+) influx. We suggest that the efflux of H(+), rather than Na(+) influx itself, is critical to the facilitation of ammonia excretion.

  5. Influence of Body Condition Score, blood ammonia and serum urea levels on conception rate in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zicarelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In buffaloes, an optimal BCS at calving time improves reproductive efficiency (Baruselli et al., 2001 therefore shortening the calving/conception period and lowering the number of services/conception. In buffalo cows in negative energy balance a delayed ovulation and a reduced percentage of large follicles were found (Campanile et al., 2001. In buffaloes naturally mated protein degradability in the rumen did not influence reproductive activity (Campanile et al., 2003. It is possible that, independently of the Blood Area (BU, a lower diffusion of ammonia occurs in the uterus, reducing the detrimental effect on reproductive efficiency. The aim in the present study was to determine the influence of BCS, urea e ammonia blood levels on conception rate in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes synchronised and mated by AI in mid-winter which coincided with transition to the seasonal nadir in reproductive activity.

  6. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:Dec 9,2016 Knowing the facts ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  7. Cerebral extraction of N-13 ammonia: its dependence on cerebral blood flow and capillary permeability, surface area product. [Dogs; monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, M.E.; Huang, S.C.; Kuhl, D.E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Slin, C.

    1979-01-01

    /sup 13/N-labeled ammonia was used to investigate: (1) the cerebral extraction and clearance of ammonia; (2) the mechanicsm by which capillaries accommodate changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF); and (3) its use for the measure of CBF. This was investigated by measuring the single pass extraction of /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ in rhesus monkeys during P/sub a/CO/sub 2/ induced changes in CBF, and with dog studies using in vitro tissue counting techniques to examine /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ extraction in gray and white matter, mixed tissue, and cerebellum during variations in CBF produced by combinations of embolization, local brain compression, and changes in P/sub a/CO/sub 2/. The single pass extraction fraction of /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ varied from about 70 to 20% over a CBF range of 12 to 140cc/min/100gms. Capillary permeability-surface area product (PS) estimates from this data and the dog experiments show PS increasing with CBF. The magnitude and rate of increase in PS with CBF was highest in gray matter > mixed tissue > white matter. Tissue extraction of /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ vs CBF relationship was best described by a unidirectional transport model in which CBF increases by both recruitment of capillaries and by increases of blood velocity in open capillaries. Glutamine synthetase, which incorporates /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ into glutamine, appears to be anatomically located in astrocytes in general and specifically in the astrocytic pericapillary end-feet that are in direct contact with gray and white matter capillaries. The net /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ extraction subsequent to an i.v. injection increases nonlinearly with CBF. Doubling or halving basal CBF produced from 40 to 50% changes in the /sup 13/N tissue concentrations with further increases in CBF associated with progressively smaller changes in /sup 13/N concentrations. /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ appears to be a good tracer for the detection of cerebral ischemia with positron tomography but exhibits a poor response at high values of CBF.

  8. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Prevention and Management of High LDL Cholesterol: What You Can Do Recommend on ... like eating a healthy diet, can help prevent high cholesterol. High low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increases ...

  9. Hot Ammonia around Young O-type Stars. II. JVLA imaging of highly-excited metastable ammonia masers in W51-North

    CERN Document Server

    Goddi, Ciriaco; Zhang, Qizhou; Zapata, Luis; Wilson, Thomas L

    2014-01-01

    We have used the JVLA at the 1 cm band to map five highly-excited metastable inversion transitions of ammonia, (J,K)=(6,6), (7,7), (9,9), (10,10), and (13,13), in W51 IRS2 with ~0.2 angular resolution. We present detections of both thermal (extended) ammonia emission in the five inversion lines, with rotational states ranging in energy from about 400 to 1700 K, and point-like ammonia maser emission in the (6,6), (7,7), and (9,9) lines. The thermal ammonia emits around a velocity of 60 km/s, near the cloud's systemic velocity, is elongated in the east-west direction across 4" and is confined by the HII regions W51d, W51d1, and W51d2. The ammonia masers are observed in the eastern tip of the dense clump traced by thermal ammonia, offset by 0.65" to the East from its emission peak, and have a peak velocity at ~47.5 km/s. No maser components are detected near the systemic velocity. The ammonia masers are separated by 0.65" (3500 AU) from the (rare) vibrationally-excited SiO masers, excited by the deeply-embedded ...

  10. Catalytic decomposition of ammonia in a fuel gas at high temperature and pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojtahedi, W.; Abbasian, J. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1995-11-01

    In connection with the purification of fuel gas for gas turbines in the IGCC process to meet NO{sub x} standards and maintain the thermal efficiency of the process, tests were carried out with a 7.5 cm pressurized reactor to decompose ammonia at high temperature (700-900{degree}C) and pressure (2 MPa) using Ni-based catalysts. The effects of temperature, pressure, ammonia concentration and gas residence time were determined. The simulated coal gas composition was varied to allow assessment of the effect of contaminants (sulfur compounds and tars) on the ammonia decomposition efficiency of five catalysts under otherwise identical operating conditions. The results show that two of the catalysts tested are capable of efficiently reducing the concentration of ammonia in the gas. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Acclimation to extremely high ammonia levels in continuous biomethanation process and the associated microbial community dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Hailin; Fotidis, Ioannis; Mancini, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Acclimatized anaerobic communities to high ammonia levels can offer a solution to the ammonia toxicity problem in biogas reactors. In the current study, a stepwise acclimation strategy up to 10 g NH4+-N L−1, was performed in mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) continuously stirred tank reactors. The reactors...... were co-digesting (20/80 based on volatile solid) cattle slurry and microalgae, a protein-rich, 3rd generation biomass. Throughout the acclimation period, methane production was stable with more than 95% of the uninhibited yield. Next generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a dramatic microbiome...... change throughout the ammonia acclimation process. Clostridium ultunense, a syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria, increased significantly alongside with hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanoculleus spp., indicating strong hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity at extreme ammonia levels (>7 g NH4+-N L−1...

  12. Effects of ruminal ammonia and butyrate concentrations on reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption kinetics under washed reticulorumen conditions in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Hanigan, M.D.; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2011-01-01

    and mesenteric, right ruminal, and hepatic portal veins. The experiment was designed with 2 groups of cows: 4 cows adapted to high crude protein (CP) and 4 to low CP. All cows were subjected to 3 buffers: butyric, ammonia, and control in a randomized replicated 3 × 3 incomplete Latin square design. The buffers...... liquid marker (Cr-EDTA), and initial and final buffer volumes were fitted to a dynamic simulation model. The model was used to estimate ruminal liquid passages, residual liquid, and water influx (saliva and epithelia water) for each combination of cow and buffer (n = 24). Epithelial blood flow increased...

  13. Effects of intraruminal infusion of propionate on the concentrations of ammonia and insulin in peripheral blood of cows receiving an intraruminal infusion of urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, J J; Chamberlain, D G

    1995-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that propionate can reduce hepatic capacity to detoxify ammonia, effects of the inclusion of propionate in intraruminal infusions of urea on the concentrations of ammonia, other metabolites and insulin in peripheral blood were investigated in two experiments with non-lactating dairy cows. Both experiments were of a 4 x 4 Latin square design with four animals, four treatments and four experimental periods of 7 d; feed was given in two equal meals each day, all intraruminal infusions were given for 1 h at the time of the morning feed, and propionic acid was partly neutralized with NaOH. In Expt 1, the treatments were a basal diet of pelleted lucerne and chopped hay alone or with the following infusions (g/d): urea 80, propionic acid 350, urea 80 plus propionic acid 350. The inclusion of propionate in the urea infusion markedly increased (P infusion of urea alone. Moreover, the inclusion of urea with the propionate infusion abolished (P infusion of propionate alone. In Expt 2, less severe treatments were imposed, the aim being to reproduce metabolic loads of propionate and ammonia that might be expected from a diet of high-protein grass silage rich in lactic acid. The treatments were a basal diet of grass silage alone or with the following infusions (g/d): NaCl 145, NaCl 145 plus urea 50, propionic acid 200, urea 50 plus propionic acid 200. Effects were less pronounced than in Expt 1 but, in the period immediately after infusion, similar effects were seen. It is concluded that propionate-ammonia interactions may have potentially important effects on milk production especially for diets with high proportions of grass silage containing high levels of protein and lactic acid.

  14. Blood ammonia levels in liver cirrhosis: a clue for the presence of portosystemic collateral veins

    OpenAIRE

    Tripodi Francesca; Milan Graziella; de Leone Annalisa; Giaquinto Sabrina; Esposito Pasquale; Citro Vincenzo; Tarantino Giovanni; Cirillo Michele; Lobello Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Portal hypertension leads to the formation of portosystemic collateral veins in liver cirrhosis. The resulting shunting is responsible for the development of portosystemic encephalopathy. Although ammonia plays a certain role in determining portosystemic encephalopathy, the venous ammonia level has not been found to correlate with the presence or severity of this entity. So, it has become partially obsolete. Realizing the need for non-invasive markers mirroring the presenc...

  15. Ammonia production, excretion, toxicity, and defense in fish: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Y K Ip

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many fishes are ammonotelic but some species can detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. Certain fish species can accumulate high levels of ammonia in the brain or defense against ammonia toxicity by enhancing the effectiveness of ammonia excretion through active NH4+ transport, manipulation of ambient pH, or reduction in ammonia permeability through the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Recent reports on ammonia toxicity in mammalian brain reveal the importance of permeation of ammonia through the blood-brain barrier and passages of ammonia and water through transporters in the plasmalemma of brain cells. Additionally, brain ammonia toxicity could be related to the passage of glutamine through the mitochondrial membranes into the mitochondrial matrix. On the other hand, recent reports on ammonia excretion in fish confirm the involvement of Rhesus glycoproteins in the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Therefore, this review focuses on both the earlier literature and the up-to-date information on the problems and mechanisms concerning the permeation of ammonia, as NH3, NH4+ or proton-neutral nitrogenous compounds, across mitochondrial membranes, the blood-brain barrier, the plasmalemma of neurons, and the branchial and cutaneous epithelia of fish. It also addresses how certain fishes with high ammonia tolerance defend against ammonia toxicity through the regulation of the permeation of ammonia and related nitrogenous compounds through various types of membranes. It is hoped that this review would revive the interests in investigations on the passage of ammonia through the mitochondrial membranes and the blood-brain barrier of ammonotelic fishes and fishes with high brain ammonia-tolerance, respectively.

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in the office and readings taken anywhere else. ... The Heart Truth ® —a national heart disease awareness campaign for ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to check readings at home or at other locations that have blood pressure equipment and to keep ... office compared with readings taken in any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provider usually takes 2–3 readings at several medical appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the ... Researchers believe stress, which can occur during the medical appointment, causes white coat hypertension. Rate This Content: ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Spokespeople Email Alerts E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » ...

  4. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder View All Content High Blood Pressure & Kidney Disease What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... million filtering units called nephrons. How does high blood pressure affect the kidneys? High blood pressure can ...

  5. High Blood Pressure Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or "no added salt." Look for the sodium content in milligrams and the Percent Daily Value. Aim for foods that are less than 5 percent of the Daily Value of sodium. Foods with 20 percent or more Daily Value of sodium are considered high. To learn more about reading nutrition labels, see ...

  6. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth > For Teens > When Blood ... often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ...

  7. Nitrification of archaeal ammonia oxidizers in a high- temperature hot spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun; Peng, Xiaotong; Xu, Hengchao; Ta, Kaiwen

    2016-04-01

    The oxidation of ammonia by microbes has been shown to occur in diverse natural environments. However, the link of in situ nitrification activity to taxonomic identities of ammonia oxidizers in high-temperature environments remains poorly understood. Here, we studied in situ ammonia oxidation rates and the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) in surface and bottom sediments at 77 °C in the Gongxiaoshe hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan, China. The in situ ammonia oxidation rates measured by the 15N-NO3- pool dilution technique in the surface and bottom sediments were 4.80 and 5.30 nmol N g-1 h-1, respectively. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) indicated that the archaeal 16S rRNA genes and amoA genes were present in the range of 0.128 to 1.96 × 108 and 2.75 to 9.80 × 105 gene copies g-1 sediment, respectively, while bacterial amoA was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed high sequence similarity to thermophilic Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii, which represented the most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTU) in both surface and bottom sediments. The archaeal predominance was further supported by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) visualization. The cell-specific rate of ammonia oxidation was estimated to range from 0.410 to 0.790 fmol N archaeal cell-1 h-1, higher than those in the two US Great Basin hot springs. These results suggest the importance of archaeal rather than bacterial ammonia oxidation in driving the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial geothermal environments.

  8. Effect of digestion time on anaerobic digestion with high ammonia concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktavitri, Nur Indradewi; Purnobasuki, Hery; Kuncoro, Eko Prasetyo; Purnamasari, Indah; Semma Hadinnata, P.

    2016-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion was developed to treat high concentration organic compound efficiently in certain Digestion Time (DT). High ammonia concentration could influenced removal organic compound in digestion. This bench scale study investigated the effect of digestion time on anaerobic batch reactor with high ammonia concentration. Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN) concentration was adjusted 4000 and 5000 mg/1, Digestion time was ranged from 0-26 d, operation temperature was ranged from 28-29°C, inoculum was collected from slaughter house sludge. The degradation of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) correlated with digestion time. The concentration of TAN from synthetic wastewater contain 5000 mg/1 of TAN more fluctuated than those use 4000 mg/1 of TAN. However, the biogas production from wastewater contained 4000 mg/1 of TAN gradually increased until 24 d of DT. The reactor contain 5000 mg/1 of TAN only growth until 12 d and steady state at over 12 d of digestion time.

  9. Application of a moving bed biofilm reactor for tertiary ammonia treatment in high temperature industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Jennifer L; M'Coy, William S; Gunsch, Claudia K; Deshusses, Marc A

    2012-05-01

    This study examines the use of a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) as a tertiary treatment step for ammonia removal in high temperature (35-45°C) effluents, and quantifies different phenotypes of ammonia and nitrite oxidizing bacteria responsible for nitrification at elevated temperatures. Bench scale reactors operating at 35 and 40°C were able to successfully remove greater than 90% of the influent ammonia (up to 19 mg L(-1) NH(3)-N) in both the synthetic and industrial wastewater. No biotreatment was observed at 45°C, although effective nitrification was rapidly recovered when the temperature was lowered to 30°C. Using qPCR, Nitrosomonas oligotropha was found to be the dominant ammonia oxidizing bacterium in the biofilm for the first phases of reactor operation. In the later phases, Nitrosomonas nitrosa was observed and its increased presence may have been responsible for improved ammonia treatment efficiency. Accumulation of nitrite in some instances appeared to correlate with temporary low presence of Nitrospira spp.

  10. High blood sugar - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High blood glucose - self care; Diabetes - high blood sugar ... Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being very thirsty or having a dry mouth Having blurry vision Having dry skin Feeling weak or tired ...

  11. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  12. High Blood Pressure Often Undiagnosed, Untreated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162996.html High Blood Pressure Often Undiagnosed, Untreated Half of mobile clinic patients ... that's often referred to as a "silent killer" -- high blood pressure, a new Canadian study reveals. High blood pressure, ...

  13. Analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria dominating in lab-scale bioreactors with high ammonium bicarbonate loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vejmelkova, D.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Abbas, B.; Kovaleva, O.L.; Kleerebezem, R.; Kampschreur, M.J.; Muyzer, G.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community (AOB) was investigated in two types of laboratory-scale bioreactors performing partial oxidation of ammonia to nitrite or nitrate at high (80 mM) to extremely high (428 mM) concentrations of ammonium bicarbonate. At all conditions, the dominant AOB was affil

  14. Analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria dominating in lab-scale bioreactors with high ammonium bicarbonate loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Vejmelkova; D.Y. Sorokin; B. Abbas; O.L. Kovaleva; R. Kleerebezem; M.J. Kampschreur; G. Muyzer; M.C.M. van Loosdrecht

    2012-01-01

    The ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community (AOB) was investigated in two types of laboratory-scale bioreactors performing partial oxidation of ammonia to nitrite or nitrate at high (80 mM) to extremely high (428 mM) concentrations of ammonium bicarbonate. At all conditions, the dominant AOB was affil

  15. On the development of high temperature ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps (HACHP) are a promising technology for development of ecient high temperature industrial heat pumps. Using 28 bar components HACHPs up to 100 °C are commercially available. Components developed for 50 bar and 140 bar show that these pressure...

  16. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in the office and readings taken anywhere else. Researchers believe stress, which can occur during the medical appointment, causes white coat hypertension. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ...

  19. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  20. A highly selective and wide range ammonia sensor—Nanostructured ZnO:Co thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Ganesh Kumar, E-mail: ganesh@eee.sastra.edu; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru, E-mail: rjbosco@ece.sastra.edu

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cobalt doped nanostructured ZnO thin films were spray deposited on glass substrates. • Co-doped ZnO film was highly selective towards ammonia than ethanol, methanol, etc. • The range of ammonia detection was improved significantly by doping cobalt in ZnO. - Abstract: Ammonia sensing characteristics of undoped and cobalt (Co)-doped nanostructured ZnO thin films were investigated. Polycrystalline nature with hexagonal wurtzite structure and high crystalline quality with dominant (0 0 2) plane orientation of Co-doped ZnO film were confirmed by the X-ray diffractogram. Scanning electron micrographs of the undoped film demonstrated the uniform deposition of sphere-shaped grains. But, smaller particles with no clear grain boundaries were observed for Co-doped ZnO thin film. Band gap values were found to be 3.26 eV and 3.22 eV for undoped and Co-doped ZnO thin films. Ammonia sensing characteristics of Co-doped ZnO film at room temperature were investigated in the concentration range of 15–1000 ppm. Variation in the sensing performances of Co-doped and pure ZnO thin films has been analyzed and compared.

  1. APPLICATION OF TRICKLING FILTER FOR SEWAGE TREATMENT WITH HIGH AMMONIA NITRO GEN CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Dąbrowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research about the possibility of using trickling filter for high ammonia concentration sewage treatment. The study was conducted with the use of reject water generated during anaerobic sewage sludge stabilization in dairy wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. They are usually returned to the beginning of WWTP. The value of BOD in reject water was approximately the same as in domestic and municipal sewage. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was varied from 145,0 to 390,0 mgN-NH4+/l and phosphorus from 16.0 to 38.0 mgP/l. The study used the Gunt test system CE701e, which allows controlling basic parameters of the treatment with trickling filter. Significant reduction of organic matter, total nitrogen and ammonium was observed during treatment. Average removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen ranged from 73.6 to 80.3%. In the case of the Kjeldahl nitrogen removal efficiencies ranged from 74.4 to 79.8%. Because of the aerobic conditions during the treatment of phosphorus removal efficiency was low and varied from 32.0 to 33.7%. The research confirmed the efficiency of trickling filter for treatment sewage with high concentration of ammonia nitrogen.

  2. SPECT myocardial blood flow quantitation toward clinical use: a comparative study with {sup 13}N-Ammonia PET myocardial blood flow quantitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Bailing [University of Missouri-Columbia, Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, Columbia, Missouri (United States); Hu, Lien-Hsin; Yang, Bang-Hung; Ting, Chien-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Sheng [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Chen, Lung-Ching [Shin Kong Wu-Ho Su Memorial Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Taipei (China); Chen, Yen-Kung [Shin Kong Wu-Ho Su Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Hung, Guang-Uei [Chang Bing Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); Wu, Tao-Cheng [National Yang-Ming University, Cardiovascular Research Center, Taipei (China)

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantitation of {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi (MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) compared with {sup 13}N-Ammonia (NH3) position emission tomography (PET) on the same cohorts. Recent advances of SPECT technologies have been applied to develop MBF quantitation as a promising tool to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD) for areas where PET MBF quantitation is not available. However, whether the SPECT approach can achieve the same level of accuracy as the PET approach for clinical use still needs further investigations. Twelve healthy volunteers (HVT) and 16 clinical patients with CAD received both MIBI SPECT and NH3 PET flow scans. Dynamic SPECT images acquired with high temporary resolution were fully corrected for physical factors and processed to quantify K1 using the standard compartmental modeling. Human MIBI tracer extraction fraction (EF) was determined by comparing MIBI K1 and NH3 flow on the HVT group and then used to convert flow values from K1 for all subjects. MIBI and NH3 flow values were systematically compared to validate the SPECT approach. The human MIBI EF was determined as [1.0-0.816*exp(-0.267/MBF)]. Global and regional MBF and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) of MIBI SPECT and NH3 PET were highly correlated for all subjects (global R{sup 2}: MBF = 0.92, MFR = 0.78; regional R{sup 2}: MBF ≥ 0.88, MFR ≥ 0.71). No significant differences for rest flow, stress flow, and MFR between these two approaches were observed (All p ≥ 0.088). Bland-Altman plots overall revealed small bias between MIBI SPECT and NH3 PET (global: ΔMBF = -0.03Lml/min/g, ΔMFR = 0.07; regional: ΔMBF = -0.07 - 0.06, ΔMFR = -0.02 - 0.22). Quantitation with SPECT technologies can be accurate to measure myocardial blood flow as PET quantitation while comprehensive imaging factors of SPECT to derive the variability between these two approaches were fully addressed and corrected

  3. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... checked out by a doctor. Am I at risk for high blood pressure? Anyone can develop high blood pressure. But there are several factors that increase your risk: Being overweight or obese Not ... if I have high blood pressure? High blood pressure is often called "the silent ...

  4. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) A ... posture, and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  5. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) ... posture, and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  6. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter emissions from California high-rise layer houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X.-J.; Cortus, E. L.; Zhang, R.; Jiang, S.; Heber, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are hazardous substances that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through community right-to-know legislation (EPCRA, EPA, 2011). The emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from large commercial layer facilities are of concern to legislators and nearby neighbors. Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) released from layer houses are two of seven criteria pollutants for which EPA has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards as required by the Clean Air Act. Therefore, it is important to quantify the baseline emissions of these pollutants. The emissions of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and PM from two California high-rise layer houses were monitored for two years from October 2007 to October 2009. Each house had 32,500 caged laying hens. The monitoring site was setup in compliance with a U.S. EPA-approved quality assurance project plan. The results showed the average daily mean emission rates of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide were 0.95 ± 0.67 (standard deviation) g d -1 bird -1, 1.27 ± 0.78 mg d -1 bird -1 and 91.4 ± 16.5 g d -1 bird -1, respectively. The average daily mean emission rates of PM 2.5, PM 10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) were 5.9 ± 12.6, 33.4 ± 27.4, and 78.0 ± 42.7 mg d -1 bird -1, respectively. It was observed that ammonia emission rates in summer were lower than in winter because the high airflow stabilized the manure by drying it. The reductions due to lower moisture content were greater than the increases due to higher temperature. However, PM 10 emission rates in summer were higher than in winter because the drier conditions coupled with higher internal air velocities increased PM 10 release from feathers, feed and manure.

  7. Impaired myocardial blood flow reserve in subjects with metabolic syndrome analyzed using positron emission tomography and N-13 labeled ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Kihara, Yasuki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shishido, Hiroki; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Hirokawa, Yutaka [Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan); Chayama, Kazuaki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Molecular Science and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Coronary vasomotor response might be impaired in metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the precise abnormality has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess coronary-vasomotor response in MS subjects using N-13 labeled ammonia and positron emission tomography. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured at rest and during adenosine infusion in MS subjects (n = 13, MS group) with no definite evidence of heart disease and in subjects without MS (n = 14, non-MS group). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR) was calculated by dividing the mean aortic blood pressure by MBF. Myocardial blood flow reserve (MFR) was calculated as the ratio of the MBF during adenosine infusion to that during rest. Blood chemical parameters were measured to evaluate their relationship with MFR. During adenosine infusion, MBF was lower (p = 0.0085) and CVR higher (p = 0.0128) in the MS group than in the non-MS group and MFR was significantly lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group (2.13 {+-} 0.99 vs. 3.38 {+-} 0.95, p = 0.0027). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and the presence of hypertension (p < 0.05) were independent determinants of MFR. The results indicate that MFR was impaired in MS subjects, suggesting that an abnormal coronary microvascular response occurred in these subjects. This abnormality may have been partially due to insulin resistance and hypertension. (orig.)

  8. Acute exposure to high environmental ammonia (HEA) triggers the emersion response in the green shore crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wood, Chris M

    2017-02-01

    The physiological effects of high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure have been well documented in many aquatic species. In particular, it has recently been demonstrated that exposure to ammonia in fish leads to a similar hyperventilatory response as observed during exposure to hypoxia. In littoral crabs, such as the green crab (Carcinus maenas), exposure to severe hypoxia triggers an emersion response whereby crabs escape hypoxia to breathe air. We hypothesized that exposure to HEA in green crabs would lead to a similar behavioural response which is specific to ammonia. Using an experimental arena containing a rock bed onto which crabs could emerse, we established that exposure to HEA (4mmol/l NH4HCO3) for 15min triggers emersion in crabs. In experiments utilizing NaHCO3 controls and NH4HCO3 injections, we further determined that emersion was triggered specifically by external ammonia and was independent of secondary acid-base or respiratory disturbances caused by HEA. We then hypothesized that emersion from HEA provides a physiological benefit, similar to emersion from hypoxia. Exposure to 15min of HEA without emersion (no rock bed present) caused significant increases in arterial haemolymph total ammonia (Tamm), pH, and [HCO3(-)]. When emersion was allowed, arterial haemolymph Tamm and [HCO3(-)] increased, but no alkalosis developed. Moreover, emersion decreased haemolymph partial pressure of NH3 relative to crabs which could not emerse. Overall, we demonstrate a novel behavioural response to HEA exposure in crabs which we propose may share similar mechanistic pathways with the emersion response triggered by hypoxia.

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office ... severity of your blood pressure, he or she can order additional tests to determine if your blood ...

  10. Ammonia toxicity in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, D J; Tsui, T K N

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia is present in the aquatic environment due to agricultural run-off and decomposition of biological waste. Ammonia is toxic to all vertebrates causing convulsions, coma and death, probably because elevated NH4+ displaces K+ and depolarizes neurons, causing activation of NMDA type glutamate receptor, which leads to an influx of excessive Ca2+ and subsequent cell death in the central nervous system. Present ammonia criteria for aquatic systems are based on toxicity tests carried out on, starved, resting, non-stressed fish. This is doubly inappropriate. During exhaustive exercise and stress, fish increase ammonia production and are more sensitive to external ammonia. Present criteria do not protect swimming fish. Fish have strategies to protect them from the ammonia pulse following feeding, and this also protects them from increases in external ammonia, as a result starved fish are more sensitive to external ammonia than fed fish. There are a number of fish species that can tolerate high environmental ammonia. Glutamine formation is an important ammonia detoxification strategy in the brain of fish, especially after feeding. Detoxification of ammonia to urea has also been observed in elasmobranches and some teleosts. Reduction in the rate of proteolysis and the rate of amino acid catabolism, which results in a decrease in ammonia production, may be another strategy to reduce ammonia toxicity. The weather loach volatilizes NH3, and the mudskipper, P. schlosseri, utilizes yet another unique strategy, it actively pumps NH4+ out of the body.

  11. Influence of osmotic distillation on membrane absorption for the treatment of high strength ammonia wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guan-ping; SHI Han-chang; SHEN Zhi-song

    2004-01-01

    Osmotic distillation(OD) was found to be a coupled process in membrane absorption(MA) for the treatment of high strength ammonia wastewater. As a result, ammonia could not be concentrated in absorption solution(AS) as expected. The inhibition of the coupled OD in MA process was investigated as well as various factors affecting the inhibition. The results indicated that the coupled OD can be effectively inhibited by heating concentrated solution and cooling dilute solution. It was also found that experimental minimum inhibition temperature difference(MITD) between concentrated and dilute solutions was different when using polyvinylidene fluoride(PVDF)and polypropylene(PP) membranes respectively, which could be ascribed to material properties, such as OD and membrane distillation (MD) coefficients of the membranes. Experimental MITDs were found to be higher than theoretical MITDs which were calculated using a simplified method.

  12. High-sensitivity in situ QCLAS-based ammonia concentration sensor for high-temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, W. Y.; Sur, R.; Strand, C. L.; Spearrin, R. M.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2016-07-01

    A novel quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption sensor is presented for high-sensitivity in situ measurements of ammonia (hbox {NH}_3) in high-temperature environments, using scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) with first-harmonic-normalized second-harmonic detection (scanned WMS-2 f/1 f) to neutralize the effect of non-absorption losses in the harsh environment. The sensor utilized the sQ(9,9) transition of the fundamental symmetric stretch band of hbox {NH}_3 at 10.39 {\\upmu }hbox {m} and was sinusoidally modulated at 10 kHz and scanned across the peak of the absorption feature at 50 Hz, leading to a detection bandwidth of 100 Hz. A novel technique was used to select an optimal WMS modulation depth parameter that reduced the sensor's sensitivity to spectral interference from hbox {H}_2hbox {O} and hbox {CO}_2 without significantly sacrificing signal-to-noise ratio. The sensor performance was validated by measuring known concentrations of hbox {NH}_3 in a flowing gas cell. The sensor was then demonstrated in a laboratory-scale methane-air burner seeded with hbox {NH}_3, achieving a demonstrated detection limit of 2.8 ± 0.26 ppm hbox {NH}_3 by mole at a path length of 179 cm, equivalence ratio of 0.6, pressure of 1 atm, and temperatures of up to 600 K.

  13. Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 10,2017 The importance of stress ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  14. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Oct 31,2016 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  15. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  16. High Blood Pressure: Keep the Beat Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Keep the Beat Recipes Past Issues / Fall 2011 ... 65 million American adults—one in three—with high blood pressure, you have probably heard the advice, "watch your ...

  17. Quantitation of the regional blood flow in the interventricular septum using positron emission tomography and nitrogen-13 ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hove, Jens D. [The Department of Cardiology, The Heart Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Cardiovascular PET Research Unit, Section 9201, Medical Department B, The Heart Center, Rigshospitalet, Juliane Mariesvej 24, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Gambhir, Sanjiv S. [Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Kofoed, Klaus F.; Freiberg, Jacob; Kelbaek, Henning [The Department of Cardiology, The Heart Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of spillover of activity from the right ventricle (RV) on quantitation of the regional myocardial blood flow in the septum. Thirty-one healthy volunteers, 31 patients with ischemic heart disease, 7 patients with severe congestive heart failure, and 6 heart transplant patients underwent positron emission tomography (PET) with nitrogen-13 ammonia. Quantitation of the regional myocardial blood flow in the septum was performed using both a conventional two-compartment model and a previously validated two-compartment model taking RV spillover into account. Unaccounted RV spillover resulted in significant underestimation of the regional myocardial blood flow in the septum. The amount of underestimation was primarily dependent on the magnitude of spillover and the dispersion between the right and the left ventricular input functions. In healthy volunteers, the flow error was small but significant: on average 6% (range 5%-29%, P<0.00001), compared with 27% (range 0%-88%, P<0.002) in the group of patients with severe congestive heart failure, who had the most considerable amount of RV spillover. In the group of patients with ischemic heart disease and the group of heart transplant patients the flow errors were 10% (range 0%-55%, P<0.00001) and 6% (range 1%-19%, P<0.01), respectively. It is concluded that flow quantitation in the septum is significantly affected by RV spillover, resulting in a considerable underestimation of the septal blood flow unless correction is performed. (orig.)

  18. Effect of Post-Reconstruction Gaussian Filtering on Image Quality and Myocardial Blood Flow Measurement with N-13 Ammonia PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Sik Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In order to evaluate the effect of post-reconstruction Gaussian filtering on image quality and myocardial blood flow (MBF measurement by dynamic N-13 ammonia positron emission tomography (PET, we compared various reconstruction and filtering methods with image characteristics. Methods: Dynamic PET images of three patients with coronary artery disease (male-female ratio of 2:1; age: 57, 53, and 76 years were reconstructed, using filtered back projection (FBP and ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM methods. OSEM reconstruction consisted of OSEM_2I, OSEM_4I, and OSEM_6I with 2, 4, and 6 iterations, respectively. The images, reconstructed and filtered by Gaussian filters of 5, 10, and 15 mm, were obtained, as well as non-filtered images. Visual analysis of image quality (IQ was performed using a 3-grade scoring system by 2 independent readers, blinded to the reconstruction and filtering methods of stress images. Then, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR was calculated by noise and contrast recovery (CR. Stress and rest MBF and coronary flow reserve (CFR were obtained for each method. IQ scores, stress and rest MBF, and CFR were compared between the methods, using Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: In the visual analysis, IQ was significantly higher by 10 mm Gaussian filtering, compared to other sizes of filter (PP=0.923 and 0.855 for readers 1 and 2, respectively. SNR was significantly higher in 10 mm Gaussian filter. There was a significant difference in stress and rest MBF between several vascular territories. However CFR was not significantly different according to various filtering methods. Conclusion: Post-reconstruction Gaussian filtering with a filter size of 10 mm significantly enhances the IQ of N-13 ammonia PET-CT, without changing the results of CFR calculation. .

  19. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... Lifestyle Habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can raise your risk for high blood pressure, and they include: Eating too much sodium or ...

  20. Simultaneous efficient removal of high-strength ammonia nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand from landfill leachate by using an extremely high ammonia nitrogen-resistant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dahai; Yang, Jiyu; Fang, Xuexun; Ren, Hejun

    2015-01-01

    Bioaugmentation is a promising technology for pollutant elimination from stressed environments, and it would provide an efficient way to solve challenges in traditional biotreatment of wastewater with high strength of ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N). A high NH4(+)-N-resistant bacteria strain, identified as Bacillus cereus (Jlu BC), was domesticated and isolated from the bacteria consortium in landfill leachate. Jlu BC could survive in 100 g/L NH4(+)-N environment, which indicated its extremely high NH4(+)-N tolerance than the stains found before. Jlu BC was employed in the bioaugmented system to remove high strength of NH4(+)-N from landfill leachate, and to increase the removal efficiency, response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimizing bioaugmentation degradation conditions. At the optimum condition (initial pH 7.33, 4.14 days, initial chemical oxygen demand [COD] concentration [18,000 mg/L], 3.5 mL inoculated domesticated bacteria strain, 0.3 mg/mL phosphorus supplement, 30 °C, and 170 rpm), 94.74 ± 3.8% removal rate of NH4(+)-N was obtained, and the experiment data corresponded well with the predicted removal rate of the RSM models (95.50%). Furthermore, COD removal rate of 81.94 ± 1.4% was obtained simultaneously. The results presented are promising, and the screened strain would be of great practical importance in mature landfill leachate and other NH4(+)-N enrichment wastewater pollution control.

  1. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or focusing on something calm or peaceful Performing yoga or tai chi Meditating Medicines Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to stop or slow some of the body’s functions that cause high blood pressure. Medicines to lower ...

  2. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  3. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  4. On the development of high temperature ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps (HACHP) are a promising technology for development of ecient high temperature industrial heat pumps. Using 28 bar components HACHPs up to 100 °C are commercially available. Components developed for 50 bar and 140 bar show that these pressure ......, and 140 bar up to 147 °C. If the compressor discharge temperature limit is increased to 250 °C and the vapour water content constraint is removed, this becomes: 182 °C, 193 °C and 223 °C....

  5. Ammonia metabolism capacity of HepG2 cells with high expression of human glutamine synthetase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan-Hong Tang; Xiao-Qian Wang; Xiu-Jin Li; Yan-Ling Chen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Currently, one of the tough problems for the application of bioartiifcial liver (BAL) is the shortage of suitable hepatocytes. There are reports on different types of BAL assistance developed with porcine hepatocytes and HepG2 C3A cells, but their defects are obvious. In recent years, some studies focus more on liver cells with features of human origin and improved detoxiifcation. In this study, a hepatocyte line with high expression of human glutamine synthetase (hGS) was raised and its capacity for ammonia metabolism was investigated. METHODS:hGS cDNA and alpha-fetoprotein transcription regulatory element (AFP-TRE) were cloned with the designed primers. The eukaryotic expression vectors, pLNChGS and pLNAFhGS, were constructed and transfected into PA317 cells. Recombinant retroviruses (Retro-hGS and Retro-AFhGS) were produced and then infected into HepG2 cells. G418-resistant cell clones, HepG2/pLNChGS and HepG2/pLNAFhGS, were selected and ampliifed. Then hGS mRNA was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR;hGS enzymatic activity and ammonia metabolism analysis in different concentration of NH4+were detected with a quantitative biochemistry kit. The cell proliferation was also detected by MTT chromatometry. RESULTS:The expression of hGS mRNA in HepG2/pLNChGS cells (8.306±0.336) and HepG2/pLNAFhGS cells (21.358±1.716) was much stronger than in control cells (P CONCLUSION:The constructed hepatocytes (HepG2 cells) with speciifc high-expression of hGS have a powerful ability to degrade ammonia in vitro, and provide necessary experimental data for the selection of biomaterials in BAL.

  6. Cloning, bioinformatics and the enzyme activity analyses of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene involved in dragon's blood biosynthesis in Dracaena cambodiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Hong; Gong, Min; Tang, Liang; Zheng, Shui; Lou, Ji-Dong; Ou, Lingcheng; Gomes-Laranjo, José; Zhang, Changhe

    2013-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, playing an important role in plant development and defence. We cloned a partial cDNA of PAL gene, DcPAL1, from Dracaena cambodiana seedlings using RT-PCR with degenerate primers that were designed based on a multiple sequence alignment of known PAL genes from other plant species. DcPAL1 shows highly homologous to other known PAL genes registered in GenBank, being closest to that of Musa acuminata. DcPAL1 has a relatively high GC content and most of the GC is in the third codon position. It has 768 bp in size with a maximum open reading frame (ORF) of 765 bp, encoding a 255 amino acid-polypeptide. The deduced PAL protein is a stable protein, having classical PAL domains and consisting of three major hydrophobic domains. Analysis of effective number of codons (ENC) shows that DcPAL1 codons are used at equal frequency. Relatively higher usage frequency appears randomly in codons ended with any of the four bases; six codons have no usage bias. There are 45 codons showing distinct usage preference between DcPAL1 and E. coli, 20 between DcPAL1 and yeast. Therefore, the yeast system may be more suitable for the expression of DcPAL1. Upon the elicitation of Fusarium proliferatum, a potent elicitor of dragon's blood, the PAL enzyme activity in the leaves and stems of D. cambodiana and other two Dracaena spp. significantly increased, accompanying with the formation of dragon's blood, indicating the involvement of PAL in the biosynthesis of dragon's blood, a precious traditional medicine.

  7. The measurement of ammonia blood levels in patients taking valproic acid: looking for problems where they do not exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, Ada V; de Marinis, Alejandro J; Kanner, Andres M

    2007-11-01

    Hyperammonemia (HA) commonly occurs with the use of valproic acid (VPA); while it has no clinical significance in most cases, the Physician Desk Reference recommends its discontinuation in the presence of HA. The purpose of this study is to review the literature in order to estimate the prevalence and magnitude of HA in VPA treated patients, to establish any association with hepatotoxicity and encephalopathy and to identify any factors associated with its occurrence. A search of MEDLINE and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, between 1980 and 2005 was performed. Out of 183 studies, 24 met our inclusion criteria. The prevalence of HA in the prospective studies ranged between 70% and 100%, while in cross-sectional studies it varied between 16% and 100%. Ammonia (NH(3)) blood levels increased by a two-fold average relative to the baseline levels. There was no association between HA and clinical symptoms. Concomitant administration of other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) was the factor most frequently associated with HA.

  8. High blood pressure in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, D A; Oparil, S

    1997-01-01

    There is a sexual dimorphism in blood pressure of humans and experimental animals: males tend to have higher blood pressure than females with functional ovaries, while ovariectomy or menopause tends to abolish the sexual dimorphism and cause females to develop a "male" pattern of blood pressure. Hypertensive male laboratory animals tend to have NaCl-sensitive blood pressure, while females are NaCl resistant unless their ovaries are removed, in which case NaCl sensitivity appears. The hormonal basis of NaCl sensitivity of blood pressure and of the sexual dimorphism of hypertension remains to be defined. Synthetic estrogens and progestins, as found in oral contraceptives, tend to elevate blood pressure, while naturally occurring estrogens lower it, or have no effect. Hypertension increases cardiovascular risk in women, as well as men, although the benefits of antihypertensive treatment have been more difficult to demonstrate in women. In the population of the United States, women are more aware of their hypertension, more likely to be treated medically, and more likely to have their blood pressure controlled.

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Spokespeople Email Alerts E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs ... track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care provider may ask you to ...

  10. Thiourea-treated graphene aerogel as a highly selective gas sensor for sensing of trace level of ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Taher, E-mail: talizadeh@ut.ac.ir [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University College of Science, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-6455, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadian, Farzaneh [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Daneshgah Street, P.B179, 56199-11367 Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As a result of this study, a new and simple method was proposed for the fabrication of an ultra sensitive, robust and reversible ammonia gas sensor. The sensing mechanism was based upon the change in electrical resistance of a graphene aerogel as a result of sensor exposing to ammonia. Three-dimensional graphene hydrogel was first synthesized via hydrothermal method in the absence or presence of various amounts of thiourea. The obtained material was heated to obtain aerogel and then it was used as ammonia gas sensor. The materials obtained were characterized using different techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thiourea-treated graphene aerogel was more porous (389 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and thermally unstable and exhibited higher sensitivity, shorter response time and better selectivity toward ammonia gas, compared to the aerogel produced in the absence of thiourea. Thiourea amount, involved in the hydrogel synthesis step, was found to be highly effective factor in the sensing properties of finally obtained aerogel. The sensor response time to ammonia was short (100 s) and completely reversible (recovery time of about 500 s) in ambient temperature. The sensor response to ammonia was linear between 0.02 and 85 ppm and its detection limit was found to be 10 ppb (3S/N). - Highlights: • An ammonia gas sensor with ppb level determination capability was proposed. • A new procedure has been introduced for gas sensor fabrication by graphene hydrogel. • Thiourea-treated graphene aerogel was used as excellent ammonia gas sensor.

  11. Promoted Ru on high-surface area graphite for efficient miniaturized production of hydrogen from ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Zink; Klerke, Asbjørn; Quaade, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    Promoted Ru/C catalysts for decomposition of ammonia are incorporated into micro-fabricated reactors for the first time. With the reported preparation technique, the performance is increased more than two orders of magnitude compared to previously known micro-fabricated reactors for ammonia decom...... studies of both ammonia synthesis and decomposition, and it is shown how proper promotion can facilitate ammonia decomposition at temperatures below 500 K.......Promoted Ru/C catalysts for decomposition of ammonia are incorporated into micro-fabricated reactors for the first time. With the reported preparation technique, the performance is increased more than two orders of magnitude compared to previously known micro-fabricated reactors for ammonia...... decomposition. The catalytic activities for production of hydrogen from ammonia are determined for different promoters and promoter levels on graphite supported ruthenium catalysts. The reactivity trends of the Ru/C catalysts promoted with Cs and Ba are in excellent agreement with those known from earlier...

  12. Thiourea-treated graphene aerogel as a highly selective gas sensor for sensing of trace level of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Taher; Ahmadian, Farzaneh

    2015-10-15

    As a result of this study, a new and simple method was proposed for the fabrication of an ultra sensitive, robust and reversible ammonia gas sensor. The sensing mechanism was based upon the change in electrical resistance of a graphene aerogel as a result of sensor exposing to ammonia. Three-dimensional graphene hydrogel was first synthesized via hydrothermal method in the absence or presence of various amounts of thiourea. The obtained material was heated to obtain aerogel and then it was used as ammonia gas sensor. The materials obtained were characterized using different techniques such as Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thiourea-treated graphene aerogel was more porous (389 m(2) g(-1)) and thermally unstable and exhibited higher sensitivity, shorter response time and better selectivity toward ammonia gas, compared to the aerogel produced in the absence of thiourea. Thiourea amount, involved in the hydrogel synthesis step, was found to be highly effective factor in the sensing properties of finally obtained aerogel. The sensor response time to ammonia was short (100 s) and completely reversible (recovery time of about 500 s) in ambient temperature. The sensor response to ammonia was linear between 0.02 and 85 ppm and its detection limit was found to be 10 ppb (3S/N).

  13. Ammonia losses and nitrogen partitioning at a southern High Plains open lot dairy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Richard W.; Cole, N. Andy; Hagevoort, G. Robert; Casey, Kenneth D.; Auvermann, Brent W.

    2015-06-01

    Animal agriculture is a significant source of ammonia (NH3). Cattle excrete most ingested nitrogen (N); most urinary N is converted to NH3, volatilized and lost to the atmosphere. Open lot dairies on the southern High Plains are a growing industry and face environmental challenges as well as reporting requirements for NH3 emissions. We quantified NH3 emissions from the open lot and wastewater lagoons of a commercial New Mexico dairy during a nine-day summer campaign. The 3500-cow dairy consisted of open lot, manure-surfaced corrals (22.5 ha area). Lactating cows comprised 80% of the herd. A flush system using recycled wastewater intermittently removed manure from feeding alleys to three lagoons (1.8 ha area). Open path lasers measured atmospheric NH3 concentration, sonic anemometers characterized turbulence, and inverse dispersion analysis was used to quantify emissions. Ammonia fluxes (15-min) averaged 56 and 37 μg m-2 s-1 at the open lot and lagoons, respectively. Ammonia emission rate averaged 1061 kg d-1 at the open lot and 59 kg d-1 at the lagoons; 95% of NH3 was emitted from the open lot. The per capita emission rate of NH3 was 304 g cow-1 d-1 from the open lot (41% of N intake) and 17 g cow-1 d-1 from lagoons (2% of N intake). Daily N input at the dairy was 2139 kg d-1, with 43, 36, 19 and 2% of the N partitioned to NH3 emission, manure/lagoons, milk, and cows, respectively.

  14. High Speed Blood and Transfusion Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-14

    used to calculate percent hemolysis of red blood cells. Plasma Free Hemoglobin Assay - pRBCs samples were assayed for plasma free hemoglobin (PFH...resulting in high temperatures gradients that preludes blood hemolysis if fluid flow stops. • The solenoid valve has been replaced with a valve of a more...pRBCs to test efficacy. Both pre and post cartridge blood samples were evaluated to determine if any damage may have occurred to blood cells. The

  15. Open-path, quantum cascade laser-based sensor for high resolution atmospheric ammonia measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Miller

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a compact, open-path, quantum cascade laser-based atmospheric ammonia sensor operating at 9.06 μm for high sensitivity, high temporal resolution, ground-based measurements. Atmospheric ammonia (NH3 is a gas-phase precursor to fine particulate matter, with implications for air quality and climate change. Currently, NH3 sensing challenges have led to a lack of widespread in-situ measurements. Our open-path sensor configuration avoids sampling artifacts associated with NH3 surface adsorption onto inlet tubing and reduced pressure sampling cells, as well as condensed-phase partitioning ambiguities. Multi-harmonic wavelength modulation spectroscopy allows for selective and sensitive detection of atmospheric-pressure broadened absorption features. An in-line ethylene reference cell provides real-time calibration (±20% accuracy and normalization for instrument drift under rapidly changing field conditions. The sensor has a sensitivity and minimum detection limit of 0.15 ppbv NH3 at 10 Hz, a mass of ~ 5 kg and consumes ~ 50 W of electrical power. In-situ field performance of this open-path NH3 sensor is demonstrated, with 10 Hz time resolution and a large dynamic response for in-situ NH3 measurements. This sensor provides the capabilities for improved in-situ gas phase NH3 sensing relevant for emission source characterization and flux measurements.

  16. Highly sensitive ammonia sensor using reflection of light at a glass - photonic crystal interface

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchyanov, A S; Spisser, H; Plekhanov, A I

    2013-01-01

    We have discovered and studied the effect of the asymmetric deformation of a photonic crystal in the form of a change in the slope of the crystal planes as it is filled with a gaseous analyte. We have demonstrated that the use of a new effect leading to the displacement of the stop band against the unchanged spectrum of diffracted white light at the (glass-thin opal film) interface can be used as fast, compact, high sensitive and reproducible optical chemical sensor for ammonia. Low cost and simplicity of sensor fabrication, the response of which can be easily observed without resorting to spectral instruments are therefore likely to be attractive. The basis for high sensitivity (1 ppm), fast response (120 ms) is capillary vapor condensation. On the basis of this effect a cheap high-speed and highly sensitive gas sensors has been built.

  17. Ammonia distribution and excretion in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, D J; Wright, P A

    1987-05-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning ammonia production, storage and excretion in fish. Ammonia is the end product of protein catabolism and is stored in the body of fish in high concentrations relative to basal excretion rates. Ammonia, if allowed to accumulate, is toxic and is converted to less toxic compounds or excreted. Like other weak acids and bases, ammonia is distributed between tissue compartments in relation to transmembrane pH gradients. NH3 is generally equilibrated between compartments but NH4 (+) is distributed according to pH. Ammonia is eliminated from the blood upon passage through the gills. The mechanisms of branchial ammonia excretion vary between different species of fish and different environments, and primarily involves NH3 passive diffusion and NH4 (+)/Na(+) exchange. Water chemistry near the gill surface may also be important to ammonia excretion, but a more accurate measurement of the NH3 gradient across the gill epithelium is required before a more detailed analysis of NH3 and NH4 (+) excretion can be made.

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites News & ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  20. CHRONOBIOLOGY OF HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.; Bakken, E. E.; Wang, Z.; Tarquini, R.; Perfetto, F.; Laffi, G.; Maggioni, C.; Kumagai, Y.; Homolka, P.; Havelková, A.; Dušek, J.; Svačinová, H.; Siegelová, J.; Fišer, B.

    2008-01-01

    BIOCOS, the project aimed at studying BIOlogical systems in their COSmos, has obtained a great deal of expertise in the fields of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitoring and of marker rhythmometry for the purposes of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Prolonging the monitoring reduces the uncertainty in the estimation of circadian parameters; the current recommendation of BIOCOS requires monitoring for at least 7 days. The BIOCOS approach consists of a parametric and a non-parametric analysis of the data, in which the results from the individual subject are being compared with gender- and age-specified reference values in health. Chronobiological designs can offer important new information regarding the optimization of treatment by timing its administration as a function of circadian and other rhythms. New technological developments are needed to close the loop between the monitoring of blood pressure and the administration of antihypertensive drugs. PMID:19122770

  1. Elimination of wet return lines in ammonia systems. High-efficiency systems for energy reduction in industrial refrigeration plants with ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moensted, A.

    2011-01-15

    The industrial refrigeration system design for ammonia plants has changed very little in the past years and the regulation system for each individual evaporator station is kept at a minimum with a solenoid for the liquid line and a regulator for the hot gas defrost. However, in the machine room there has been extensive development with the introduction of high-performance screw compressors with speed regulators and more efficient regulation systems. With this project, Danish Technological Institute has evaluated that possibilities exist for building more advanced systems at each evaporator system as the savings potential lies in the low-temperature control. There are some technical challenges involved in the development of cost-effective pumps and ejectors for this purpose and the work has commenced. It is possible that the components will be available in the market within few years. The measurement gave some basic data for Koerting to develop an ejector for the refrigeration market. Similarly, the project has provided Grundfos with basic knowledge about the performance requirements for small refrigerant circulation pumps used for establishing local circulation. It is a clear conclusion of the project that using small pumps for local ammonia circulation is beneficial to the performance as well as the energy efficiency of the system. The overall savings potential of the three evaporators amounts to between 13 and 19%. (LN)

  2. Solid-state thermolysis of ammonia borane and related materials for high-capacity hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    2012-04-21

    Ammonia borane (NH(3)BH(3), AB) is a unique molecular crystal containing an intriguingly high density of hydrogen. In the past several years, AB has received extensive attention as a promising hydrogen storage medium. Several strategies have been successfully developed for promoting H(2) release and for suppressing the evolution of volatile by-products from the solid-state thermolysis of AB. Several potentially cost-effective and energy-efficient routes for regenerating AB from the spent fuels have been experimentally demonstrated. These remarkable technological advances offer a promising prospect of using AB-based materials as viable H(2) carriers for on-board application. In this perspective, the recent progresses in promoting H(2) release from the solid-state thermolysis of AB and in developing regeneration technologies are briefly reviewed.

  3. Terahertz ammonia absorption as a probe of infall in high-mass star forming clumps

    CERN Document Server

    Wyrowski, F; Menten, K M; Wiesemeyer, H; Klein, B

    2012-01-01

    Cloud contraction and infall are the fundamental processes of star formation. While "blue-skewed" line profiles observed in high- mass star forming regions are commonly taken as evidence of infall by an ever increasing number of studies, their interpretation offers many pitfalls. Detecting infall via redshifted absorption in front of continuum sources is a much more direct and reliable method but so far mostly restricted toward absorption in the centimeter toward strong HII regions. Here we present a novel approach by probing absorption of rotational ammonia transitions in front of the strong dust emission of massive star-forming regions. A carefully selected sample of three regions with different stages of evolution is selected to study infall through the evolution of massive star-forming clumps. Redshifted absorption is detected toward all three sources and infall rates between 3-10x10-3 Msol yr-1 are derived.

  4. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Madsen, C.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) is to provide a high-efficient ammonia heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process while the discharged...... to investigate the performance of the ISEC system. The ISEC concept approaches the efficiency of a number of heat pumps in series and the COP of the system may reach 6.8, which is up to 25 % higher than a conventional heat pump heating water in one step....... tank, is charging. Charging is done by circulating the water in the tank through the condenser several times and thereby gradually heats the water. This result in a lower condensing temperature than if the water was heated in one step. A dynamic model of the system, implemented in Dymola, is used...

  5. Use of coagulant and zeolite to enhance the biological treatment efficiency of high ammonia leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Dae-Hee; Chung, Yun-Chul; Chang, Won-Seok

    2002-01-01

    Most landfill leachates in Korea, herein defined as the contaminated liquid resulting from the percolation of water through a landfill, are high in ammonium nitrogen, which inhibits biological treatment processes and deteriorates rivers. A laboratory experiment investigated the effect of pre-removal of ammonium nitrogen using zeolite on the efficiency of organic treatment of the following activated-sludge process. Ferric chloride was initially used as a coagulant for solids removal. A clinoptilolite and mordenite rich rock from the Guryongpo area, the Yeongil Basalt, in Korea, reduced the ammonia nitrogen concentrations of leachate from 1300-1500 to 110-130 mg/l in a 24h batch operation. Three activated sludge reactors were operated to compare treatment efficiency under different influent conditions. In reactor 1, leachate having high concentration of chemical oxygen demands (COD) and suspended solids (SS) was directly fed to the reactor without pretreatment. The supernatant, after the coagulation process that remove some suspended solids and COD, was fed to reactor 2. As the use of coagulation process alone is not effective to remove ammonium nitrogen, supernatant treated by both coagulation focusing on the removal of COD and the zeolite concentrating on the removal of ammonium nitrogen was fed to reactor 3. As the result of experiment, greater efficiency in lowering the chemical oxygen demand (83%, influent COD; 1800-3000 mg/l, effluent COD; 300-500 mg/l) was achieved in reactor 3. Meanwhile, 63% (influent COD; 4000-5000 mg/l, effluent COD; 1470-1840 mg/l) and 66% (influent COD; 2400-3300 mg/l, effluent COD; 820-1100 mg/l) removal efficiency of COD were achieved in reactors 1 and 2, respectively. Thus, ammonia pre-removal by zeolite remarkably improved the lowering of chemical oxygen demand and the solids separation in the activated sludge process.

  6. Ammonia blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is most commonly used to diagnose and monitor hepatic encephalopathy , a severe liver disease. ... Nevah MI, Fallon MB. Hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal ... disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger ...

  7. High-rate, high-yield production of methanol by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Edris; Chandran, Kartik

    2013-04-02

    The overall goal of this study was to develop an appropriate biological process for achieving autotrophic conversion of methane (CH(4)) to methanol (CH3OH). In this study, we employed ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to selectively and partially oxidize CH(4) to CH(3)OH. In fed-batch reactors using mixed nitrifying enrichment cultures from a continuous bioreactor, up to 59.89 ± 1.12 mg COD/L of CH(3)OH was produced within an incubation time of 7 h, which is approximately ten times the yield obtained previously using pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europaea. The maximum specific rate of CH(4) to CH(3)OH conversion obtained during this study was 0.82 mg CH(3)OH COD/mg AOB biomass COD-d, which is 1.5 times the highest value reported with pure cultures. Notwithstanding these positive results, CH(4) oxidation to CH(3)OH by AOB was inhibited by NH(3) (the primary substrate for the oxidative enzyme, ammonia monooxygenase, AMO) as well as the product, CH(3)OH, itself. Further, oxidation of CH(4) to CH(3)OH by AOB was also limited by reducing equivalents supply, which could be overcome by externally supplying hydroxylamine (NH(2)OH) as an electron donor. Therefore, a potential optimum design for promoting CH(4) to CH(3)OH oxidation by AOB could involve supplying NH(3) (needed to maintain AMO activity) uncoupled from the supply of NH(2)OH and CH(4). Partial oxidation of CH(4)-containing gases to CH3OH by AOB represents an attractive platform for the conversion of a gaseous mixture to an aqueous compound, which could be used as a commodity chemical. Alternately, the nitrate and CH(3) OH thus produced could be channeled to a downstream anoxic zone in a biological nitrogen removal process to effect nitrate reduction to N(2), using an internally produced organic electron donor.

  8. Application of ammonia still in treating high concentration residual ammonia wastewater%蒸氨塔处理高浓度剩余氨水的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈连峰; 苗蕾; 宋海军; 于玺

    2012-01-01

    焦化废水含有酚类、氰化物、氨氮等有毒有害污染物,属于高浓度难降解有机工业废水之一.以某焦化厂的蒸氨处理工程为例,根据现场调试过程中总结的调试方案及运行结果,阐述了蒸氨塔处理高浓度剩余氨水的功效、蒸氨塔系统的设备选型以及蒸氨系统的操作方法和操作条件;总结了蒸氨塔在使用过程中可能出现的问题及解决措施.%The coking wastewater contains the toxic and harmful pollutants, e. g. the phenol, the cyanide, the ammonia, and so on. Therefore it is the persistent high concentration organic industrial wastewater. Based on the debugging program and operation results summarized from the site debugging phase in a ammonia still treatment project of some coking plant, this paper described the effects of ammonia still in treating the persistent high concentration residual ammonia, the selection of the ammonia still equipment, and the operating manner and condition of the ammonia still system. The likely problems and the solution measures were also summarized.

  9. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... names are given for the drugs in each group.Find your drug. Then read some basic information about your kind of drug. Types of High Blood Pressure Medicines ACE Inhibitors Beta Blockers Calcium Channel Blockers ...

  10. High Blood Pressure May Hike Dementia Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161398.html High Blood Pressure May Hike Dementia Risk New statement from American Heart Association warns ... in middle age, might open the door to dementia, the American Heart Association warns in a new ...

  11. Catalytic Ammonia Decomposition over High-Performance Ru/Graphene Nanocomposites for Efficient COx-Free Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly-dispersed Ru nanoparticles were grown on graphene nanosheets by simultaneously reducing graphene oxide and Ru ions using ethylene glycol (EG, and the resultant Ru/graphene nanocomposites were applied as a catalyst to ammonia decomposition for COx-free hydrogen production. Tuning the microstructures of Ru/graphene nanocomposites was easily accomplished in terms of Ru particle size, morphology, and loading by adjusting the preparation conditions. This was the key to excellent catalytic activity, because ammonia decomposition over Ru catalysts is structure-sensitive. Our results demonstrated that Ru/graphene prepared using water as a co-solvent greatly enhanced the catalytic performance for ammonia decomposition, due to the significantly improved nano architectures of the composites. The long-term stability of Ru/graphene catalysts was evaluated for COx-free hydrogen production from ammonia at high temperatures, and the structural evolution of the catalysts was investigated during the catalytic reactions. Although there were no obvious changes in the catalytic activities at 450 °C over a duration of 80 h, an aggregation of the Ru nanoparticles was still observed in the nanocomposites, which was ascribed mainly to a sintering effect. However, the performance of the Ru/graphene catalyst was decreased gradually at 500 °C within 20 h, which was ascribed mainly to both the effect of the methanation of the graphene nanosheet under a H2 atmosphere and to enhanced sintering under high temperatures.

  12. Development and validation of a sensitive gas chromatography-ammonia chemical ionization mass spectrometry method for the determination of tabun enantiomers in hemolysed blood and plasma of different species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenberken, Oliver; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Reiter, Georg

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a fast, sensitive and easily applicable GC-MS assay for the chiral quantification of the highly toxic organophosphorus compound tabun (O-ethyl-N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate, GA) in hemolysed swine blood for further use in toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies. These requirements were fulfilled best by a GC-MS assay with positive chemical ionization with ammonia (GC-PCI-MS). Separation was carried out on a beta-cyclodextrin capillary column (Supelco BetaDex 225) after reversed phase (C18) solid-phase extraction. The limit of detection was 1 pg/ml for each enantiomer (approximately 500 fg on column) and the limit of quantification 5 pg/ml. The GC-PCI-MS method was applied for the quantification of tabun enantiomers in spiked swine blood after hemolysis and in spiked plasma of different species including humans.

  13. Effects of chronic and periodic exposure to ammonia on growth and blood physiology in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foss, A.; Imsland, A.K.; Roth, B.; Schram, E.; Stefansson, S.O.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) were exposed periodically and chronically to different levels of un-ionised ammonia (UIA-N) and the subsequent effect on growth and food conversion efficiency was studied. Fish with a mean (SD) initial weight 19.3 (3.9) g, were exposed to five treatments consis

  14. Effect of glutamine synthetase inhibition on brain and interorgan ammonia metabolism in bile duct ligated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fries, Andreas W; Dadsetan, Sherry; Keiding, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia has a key role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In the brain, glutamine synthetase (GS) rapidly converts blood-borne ammonia into glutamine which in high concentrations may cause mitochondrial dysfunction and osmolytic brain edema. In astrocyte-neuron cocultures and brains...

  15. Purification of high ammonia wastewater in a biofilm airlift loop bioreactor with microbial communities analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Dandan; Sun, Liping; Wen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    A 70 m(3) gas-liquid-solid three-phase flow airlift loop bioreactor, in which biofilm attached on granular active carbon carriers, was used for purification of the high ammonia wastewater from bioethanol production. Under the optimum operating conditions, COD and NH4 (+)-N average removal rate of 89.0 and 98.6 % were obtained at hydraulic retention time of 10 h. Scanning electron microscopy was applied for observation of the biofilm formation. High contaminants removal efficiency was achieved by holding high biomass concentration in the reactor due to the attached biofilm over the carriers. The 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis indicated that 68.6 % of the clones were affiliated with the two phyla Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, and residual clones clustered with various sequences from uncultured bacteria. The presence of various anoxic/anaerobic bacteria indicated that the oxygen gradient inside the biofilm could provide appropriate micro-environment for nitrogen removal through simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

  16. High and rapid hydrogen release from thermolysis of ammonia borane near PEM fuel cell operating temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Arvind; Hwang, Hyun Tae; Al-Kukhun, Ahmad

    2016-11-15

    A system for generating and purifying hydrogen. To generate hydrogen, the system includes inlets configured to receive a hydrogen carrier and an inert insulator, a mixing chamber configured to combine the hydrogen carrier and the inert insulator, a heat exchanger configured to apply heat to the mixture of hydrogen carrier and the inert insulator, wherein the applied heat results in the generation of hydrogen from the hydrogen carrier, and an outlet configured to release the generated hydrogen. To purify hydrogen, the system includes a primary inlet to receive a starting material and an ammonia filtration subassembly, which may include an absorption column configured to absorb the ammonia into water for providing purified hydrogen at a first purity level. The ammonia filtration subassembly may also include an adsorbent member configured to adsorb ammonia from the starting material into an adsorbent for providing purified hydrogen at a second purity level.

  17. High and rapid hydrogen release from thermolysis of ammonia borane near PEM fuel cell operating temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Arvind; Hwang, Hyun Tae; Al-Kukhun, Ahmad

    2016-11-15

    A system for generating and purifying hydrogen. To generate hydrogen, the system includes inlets configured to receive a hydrogen carrier and an inert insulator, a mixing chamber configured to combine the hydrogen carrier and the inert insulator, a heat exchanger configured to apply heat to the mixture of hydrogen carrier and the inert insulator, wherein the applied heat results in the generation of hydrogen from the hydrogen carrier, and an outlet configured to release the generated hydrogen. To purify hydrogen, the system includes a primary inlet to receive a starting material and an ammonia filtration subassembly, which may include an absorption column configured to absorb the ammonia into water for providing purified hydrogen at a first purity level. The ammonia filtration subassembly may also include an adsorbent member configured to adsorb ammonia from the starting material into an adsorbent for providing purified hydrogen at a second purity level.

  18. Removal of high concentrated ammonia nitrogen from landfill leachate by landfilled waste layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hui-dong; HE Pin-jing; SHAO Li-ming; LI Guo-jian

    2004-01-01

    The landfill of municipal solid waste(MSW) could be regarded as denitrification reactor and used in ammonia nitrogen biological removal process. In this research, the process was applied to municipal solid waste(MSW) collected in Shanghai, China, which was characterized with high food waste content. The NH4+ removal efficiency in the system of SBR nitrifying reactor followed by fresh and matured landfilled waste layer in series was studied. In the nitrifying reactor, above 90% of NH4+ in leachate was oxidized to NO2- and NO3-. Then high concentrated NO2- and NO3- was removed in the way of denitrification process in fresh landfilled waste layer. At the same time, degradation of fresh landfilled waste was accelerated. Up to the day 120, 136.5 gC/(kg dry waste) and 17.9 gN/(kg dry waste) were produced from waste layer. It accounted for 50.15% and 86.89% of the total carbon and nitrogen content of preliminary fresh waste, which was 4.42 times and 5.17 times higher than that of reference column respectively. After filtering through matured landfilled waste, BOD5 concentration in leachate dropped to below 100 mg/L, which would not affect following nitrification adversely. Because the matured landfilled waste acted as a well methanogenic reactor, 23% of carbon produced accumulatively from fresh landfilled waste degradation was converted into CH4.

  19. Highly active metastable ruthenium nanoparticles for hydrogen production through the catalytic hydrolysis of ammonia borane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Hamed, Enass K; Pennycook, Timothy; Vaynzof, Yana; Toprakcioglu, Chris; Koutsioubas, Alexandros; Scherman, Oren A

    2014-08-13

    Late transition metal nanoparticles (NPs) with a favorably high surface area to volume ratio have garnered much interest for catalytic applications. Yet, these NPs are prone to aggregation in solution, which has been mitigated through attachment of surface ligands, additives or supports; unfortunately, protective ligands can severely reduce the effective surface area on the NPs available for catalyzing chemical transformations. The preparation of 'metastable' NPs can readily address these challenges. We report herein the first synthesis of monodisperse metastable ruthenium nanoparticles (RuNPs), having sub 5 nm size and an fcc structure, in aqueous media at room temperature, which can be stored for a period of at least 8 months. The RuNPs can subsequently be used for the catalytic, quantitative hydrolysis of ammonia-borane (AB) yielding hydrogen gas with 21.8 turnovers per min at 25 °C. The high surface area available for hydrolysis of AB on the metastable RuNPs translated to an Ea of 27.5 kJ mol(-1) , which is notably lower than previously reported values for RuNP based catalysts.

  20. Massive quiescent cores in Orion. IV. Their supercritical state revealed by high resolution ammonia maps

    CERN Document Server

    Li, D; Zhang, Q; Chen, W

    2012-01-01

    We present combined VLA and GBT images of \\ammonia\\ inversion transitions (1,1) and (2,2) toward OMC2 and OMC3. We focus on the relatively quiescent Orion cores, which are away from the Trapezium cluster and have no sign of massive protostars nor evolved star formation, such as IRAS source, water maser, and methanol maser. The 5\\arcsec\\ angular resolution and $0.6 \\rm{}km s^{-1}$ velocity resolution of these data enable us to study the thermal and dynamic state of these cores at $\\sim{}0.02 \\rm{}pc$ scales, comparable to or smaller than those of the current dust continuum surveys. We measure temperatures for a total of 30 cores, with average masses and radii of $11 \\Ms$ and $0.039 \\rm{}pc$, respectively. Compared to other Gould Belt dense cores, the Orion cores have an unusually high gravitational-to-inetic energy ratio (virial mass ratio $R_{vir} > >1$), resembling results for other clouds forming high--mass stars. This results from Orion cores having velocity dispersions similar to those in, e.g., Perseus a...

  1. Role of ammonia in the pathogenesis of brain edema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara,Masachika

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of hyperammonemia in the pathogenesis of cerebral edema was investigated using mongrel dogs to develop a treatment for cerebral edema in acute hepatic failure. Intravenous infusion of ammonium acetate alone into dogs did not induce brain edema, although blood ammonia reached unphysiologically high levels. However, ammonium acetate infusion during mannitol-induced reversible (osmotic opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB effectively induced cytotoxic brain edema. Pretreatment with a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine and isoleucine solution prevented an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP and brain water content, and caused a decrease in brain ammonia content and an increase in brain BCAA and glutamic acid. The results suggest that ammonia plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cerebral edema during acute hepatic failure and that BCAAs accelerate ammonia detoxification in the brain.

  2. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris on wastewater containing high levels of ammonia for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, P J; Mao, B; Shen, C M; Shao, L M; Lee, D J; Chang, J S

    2013-02-01

    The feasibility of cultivating Chlorella vulgaris with wastewater containing high ammonia nitrogen concentrations was examined. The average specific growth rate of C. vulgaris was 0.92 d(-1) at 17 mg L(-1) NH4+-N, but declined to 0.33 d(-1) at NH4+-N concentrations of 39-143 mg L(-1). At 39 mg L(-1) NH4+-N, lipid productivity reached a maximum value (23.3 mg L(-1)d(-1)) and dropped sharply at higher NH4+-N levels, which demonstrated NH4+-N should be controlled for biodiesel production. C16 and C18 fatty acids accounted for 80% of total fatty acids. Increasing NH4+-N from 17 to 207 mg L(-1) yielded additional short-chain and saturated fatty acids. Protein content was in positive correlation with NH4+-N content from 17 mg L(-1) (12%) to 207 mg L(-1) (42%). Carbohydrate in the dried algae cell was in the range of 14-45%, with a peak value occurring at 143 mg L(-1) NH4+-N. The results demonstrate that product quality can be manipulated by NH4+-N concentrations of the initial feeds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance and microbial ecology of a nitritation sequencing batch reactor treating high-strength ammonia wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjing; Dai, Xiaohu; Cao, Dawen; Wang, Sha; Hu, Xiaona; Liu, Wenru; Yang, Dianhai

    2016-01-01

    The partial nitrification (PN) performance and the microbial community variations were evaluated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for 172 days, with the stepwise elevation of ammonium concentration. Free ammonia (FA) and low dissolved oxygen inhibition of nitrite-oxidized bacteria (NOB) were used to achieve nitritation in the SBR. During the 172 days operation, the nitrogen loading rate of the SBR was finally raised to 3.6 kg N/m3/d corresponding the influent ammonium of 1500 mg/L, with the ammonium removal efficiency and nitrite accumulation rate were 94.12% and 83.54%, respectively, indicating that the syntrophic inhibition of FA and low dissolved oxygen contributed substantially to the stable nitrite accumulation. The results of the 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing revealed that Nitrospira, the only nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the system, were successively inhibited and eliminated, and the SBR reactor was dominated finally by Nitrosomonas, the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, which had a relative abundance of 83%, indicating that the Nitrosomonas played the primary roles on the establishment and maintaining of nitritation. Followed by Nitrosomonas, Anaerolineae (7.02%) and Saprospira (1.86%) were the other mainly genera in the biomass. PMID:27762325

  4. Feasibility of using ammonia-water mixture in high temperature concentrated solar power plants with direct vapour generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Knudsen, Thomas; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Concentrated solar power plants have attracted an increasing interest in the past few years – both with respect to the design of various plant components, and extending the operation hours by employing different types of storage systems. One approach to improve the overall plant performance...... temperatures without corroding the equipment by using suitable additives with the mixture. This paper assesses the thermodynamic feasibility of using ammonia-water mixture in high temperature (450 °C) and high pressure (over 100 bar) concentrated solar power plants with direct vapour generation. The following...... is to use direct vapour generation with water/steam as both the heat transfer fluid in the solar receivers and the cycle working fluid. This enables to operate the plant with higher turbine inlet temperatures. Available literature suggests that it is feasible to use ammonia-water mixture at high...

  5. Too Many Americans Have High Blood Pressure, Doctors Warn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163468.html Too Many Americans Have High Blood Pressure, Doctors Warn With February designated National Heart Month, ... physicians warns that too many Americans struggle with high blood pressure. High blood pressure is a major risk factor ...

  6. High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung, and Blood Institute Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know Page Content Children can have high blood pressure. Did you know that children could have high ...

  7. High-throughput analysis of ammonia oxidiser community composition via a novel, amoA-based functional gene array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy C J Abell

    Full Text Available Advances in microbial ecology research are more often than not limited by the capabilities of available methodologies. Aerobic autotrophic nitrification is one of the most important and well studied microbiological processes in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We have developed and validated a microbial diagnostic microarray based on the ammonia-monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene, enabling the in-depth analysis of the community structure of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidisers. The amoA microarray has been successfully applied to analyse nitrifier diversity in marine, estuarine, soil and wastewater treatment plant environments. The microarray has moderate costs for labour and consumables and enables the analysis of hundreds of environmental DNA or RNA samples per week per person. The array has been thoroughly validated with a range of individual and complex targets (amoA clones and environmental samples, respectively, combined with parallel analysis using traditional sequencing methods. The moderate cost and high throughput of the microarray makes it possible to adequately address broader questions of the ecology of microbial ammonia oxidation requiring high sample numbers and high resolution of the community composition.

  8. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  9. Ammonia intercalated flower-like MoS2 nanosheet film as electrocatalyst for high efficient and stable hydrogen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F. Z.; Zheng, M. J.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, C. Q.; Li, Q.; Ma, L.; Shen, W. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Ammonia intercalated flower-like MoS2 electrocatalyst film assembled by vertical orientated ultrathin nanosheet on graphite sheethas been successfully synthesized using one-step hydrothermal method. In this strategy, ammonia can effectively insert into the parallel plane of the MoS2 nanosheets, leading to the expansion of lattice and phase transfer from 2H to 1T, generating more active unsaturated sulfur atoms. The flower-like ammoniated MoS2 electrocatalysts with more active sites and large surface area exhibited excellent HER activity with a small Tafel slope and low onset overpotential, resulting a great enhancement in hydrogen evolution. The high efficient activity and recyclable utilization, as well as large-scale, indicate that it is a very promising electrocatalyst to replace Pt in industry application.

  10. Efficient Total Nitrogen Removal in an Ammonia Gas Biofilter through High-Rate OLAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Clippeleir, Haydée; Courtens, Emilie; Mosquera, Mariela

    2012-01-01

    .86 ± 0.04 kg N m–3 biofilter d–1 and an empty bed residence time of 14 s. After 45 days of operation a stable nitrogen removal rate of 0.67 ± 0.06 kg N m–3 biofilter d–1, an ammonia removal efficiency of 99%, a removal of 75–80% of the total nitrogen, and negligible NO/N2O productions were obtained......Ammonia gas is conventionally treated in nitrifying biofilters; however, addition of organic carbon to perform post-denitrification is required to obtain total nitrogen removal. Oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND), applied in full-scale for wastewater treatment, can...... offer a cost-effective alternative for gas treatment. In this study, the OLAND application thus was broadened toward ammonia loaded gaseous streams. A down flow, oxygen-saturated biofilter (height of 1.5 m; diameter of 0.11 m) was fed with an ammonia gas stream (248 ± 10 ppmv) at a loading rate of 0...

  11. Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162446.html Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure People who added this practice to a healthy ... elevated blood pressure] are likely to develop hypertension [high blood pressure] unless they improve their lifestyle," said study author ...

  12. Eddy covariance flux measurements of ammonia by high temperature chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sintermann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A system for fast ammonia (NH3 measurements with chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (CIMS based on a commercial Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS is presented. It uses electron transfer reaction as ionisation pathway and features a drift tube of polyetheretherketone (PEEK and silica-coated steel. Heating the instrumental inlet and the drift tube to 180 °C enabled an effective time resolution of ~1 s and made it possible to apply the instrument for eddy covariance (EC measurements. EC fluxes of NH3 were measured over two agricultural fields in Oensingen, Switzerland, following fertilisations with cattle slurry. Air was aspirated close to a sonic anemometer at a flow of 100 STP L min−1 and was directed through a 23 m long 1/2" PFA tube heated to 150 °C to an air-conditioned trailer where the gas was sub-sampled from the large bypass stream. This setup minimised damping of fast NH3 concentration changes between the sampling point and the actual measurement. High-frequency attenuation loss of the NH3 fluxes of 20 to 40% was quantified and corrected for using an empirical ogive method. The instrumental NH3 background signal showed a minor interference with H2O which was characterised in the laboratory. The resulting correction of the NH3 flux after slurry spreading was less than 1‰. The flux detection limit of the EC system was about 5 ng m−2 s−1 while the accuracy of individual flux measurements was estimated 16% for the high-flux regime during these experiments. The NH3 emissions after broad spreading of the slurry showed an initial maximum of 150 μg m−2 s−1 with a fast decline in the following hours.

  13. High volumetric uptake of ammonia using Cu-MOF-74/Cu-CPO-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Michael J; Howarth, Ashlee J; Moghadam, Peyman Z; DeCoste, Jared B; Snurr, Randall Q; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2016-03-14

    Cu-MOF-74 (also known as Cu-CPO-27) was identified as a sorbent having one of the highest densities of Cu(ii) sites per unit volume. Given that Cu(ii) in the framework can be thermally activated to yield a five-coordinate Cu(ii) species, we identified this MOF as a potential candidate for maximal volumetric uptake of ammonia. To that end, the kinetic breakthrough of ammonia in Cu-MOF-74/Cu-CPO-27 was examined under both dry and humid conditions. Under dry conditions the MOF exhibited a respectable performance (2.6 vs. 2.9 NH3 per nm(3) for the current record holder HKUST-1), and under 80% relative humidity, the MOF outperformed HKUST-1 (5.9 vs. 3.9 NH3 per nm(3), respectively).

  14. Ammonia Oxide as a Building Block for High-Performance and Insensitive Energetic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongxing; Mitchell, Lauren A; Imler, Gregory H; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2017-05-15

    3,5-Dinitrimino-1,2,4-triazole (2) with three protons has the potential of deprotonation to form energetic salts. Neutralization of 2 with 50 % hydroxylamine in varying molar ratios leads to the formation of the corresponding mono/dihydroxylammonium energetic salts. Additionally compound 5, an ammonia oxide adduct of dihydroxylammonium 3,5-dinitramino-1,2,4-triazolate, was prepared when excess hydroxylamine was used. The structures of 3-5 are supported by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The energetic properties of the new materials are competitive. Utilization of ammonia oxide adducts in hydroxylammonium energetic salts could lead to future practical applications as energetic materials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Archaea and Bacteria Acclimate to High Total Ammonia in a Methanogenic Reactor Treating Swine Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Esquivel-Elizondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition by ammonium at concentrations above 1000 mgN/L is known to harm the methanogenesis phase of anaerobic digestion. We anaerobically digested swine waste and achieved steady state COD-removal efficiency of around 52% with no fatty-acid or H2 accumulation. As the anaerobic microbial community adapted to the gradual increase of total ammonia-N (NH3-N from 890±295 to 2040±30 mg/L, the Bacterial and Archaeal communities became less diverse. Phylotypes most closely related to hydrogenotrophic Methanoculleus (36.4% and Methanobrevibacter (11.6%, along with acetoclastic Methanosaeta (29.3%, became the most abundant Archaeal sequences during acclimation. This was accompanied by a sharp increase in the relative abundances of phylotypes most closely related to acetogens and fatty-acid producers (Clostridium, Coprococcus, and Sphaerochaeta and syntrophic fatty-acid Bacteria (Syntrophomonas, Clostridium, Clostridiaceae species, and Cloacamonaceae species that have metabolic capabilities for butyrate and propionate fermentation, as well as for reverse acetogenesis. Our results provide evidence countering a prevailing theory that acetoclastic methanogens are selectively inhibited when the total ammonia-N concentration is greater than ~1000 mgN/L. Instead, acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens coexisted in the presence of total ammonia-N of ~2000 mgN/L by establishing syntrophic relationships with fatty-acid fermenters, as well as homoacetogens able to carry out forward and reverse acetogenesis.

  16. High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in China from 1980–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia (NH3 can interact in the atmosphere with other trace chemical species, which can lead to detrimental environmental consequences, such as the formation of fine particulates and ultimately global climate change. China is a major agricultural country, and livestock numbers and nitrogen fertilizer use have increased drastically since 1978, following the rapid economic and industrial development experienced by the country. In this study, comprehensive NH3 emissions inventories were compiled for China for 1980–2012. In a previous study, we parameterized emissions factors (EFs considering ambient temperature, soil acidity, and the method and rate of fertilizer application. In this study, we refined these EFs by adding the effects of wind speed and new data from field experiments of NH3 flux in cropland in northern China. We found that total NH3 emissions in China increased from 5.9 to 11.2 Tg from 1980 to 1996, and then decreased to 9.5 Tg in 2012. The two major contributors were livestock manure and synthetic fertilizer application, which contributed 80–90 % of the total emissions. Emissions from livestock manure rose from 2.87 Tg (1980 to 6.17 Tg (2005, and then decreased to 5.0 Tg (2012; beef cattle were the largest source followed by laying hens and pigs. The remarkable downward trend in livestock emissions that occurred in 2007 was attributed to a decrease in the numbers of various livestock animals, including beef cattle, goats, and sheep. Meanwhile, emissions from synthetic fertilizer ranged from 2.1 Tg (1980 to 4.7 Tg (1996, and then declined to 2.8 Tg (2012. Urea and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC dominated this category of emissions, and a decline in ABC application led to the decrease in emissions that took place from the mid-1990s onwards. High emissions were concentrated in eastern and southwestern China. Seasonally, peak NH3 emissions occurred in spring and summer. The inventories had a monthly temporal resolution and a spatial

  17. High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in Fujian, China, 2009-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shui-Ping; Zhang, Yin-Ju; Schwab, James J.; Li, Yang-Fan; Liu, Yuan-Long; Yuan, Chung-Shin

    2017-08-01

    A high-resolution NH3 emission inventory was developed based on the corrected emission factors and county-level activity data. To provide model-ready emission input, the NH3 emission inventory was gridded for the modeling domain at 1 × 1 km resolution using source-based spatial surrogates and a GIS system. The best estimate of total NH3 emission for the province was 228.02 kt in 2015 with a percentage uncertainty of ±16.3%. Four major contributors were farmland ecosystem, livestock wastes, humans and waste treatment, which contributed 39.4%, 43.1%, 4.9%, and 4.2% of the total emissions, respectively. The averaged NH3 emission density for the whole region was 1.88 t km-2 yr-1 and the higher values were found in coastal areas with higher dense populations. The seasonal patterns, with higher emissions in summer, were consistent with the patterns of temperature and planting practices. From 2009 to 2015, annual NH3 emissions increased from 218.49 kt to 228.02 kt. All of these changes are insignificant compared to the estimated overall uncertainties in the analysis, but indicative of changes in the source categories over this period. Between 2009 and 2015, the largest changes occurred in human emissions and waste treatment plants, which were consistent with the process of rapid urbanization. Meanwhile, the decrease of emissions from pigs was slightly higher than the increased emissions from broilers and the increased emissions from meat goats and beef cattle due to the combine effects of increasingly stringent environmental requirements for pig farms and shift away from pork consumption to beef, chicken and mutton. The validity of the estimates was further evaluated using uncertainty analysis, comparison with previous studies, and correlation analysis between emission density and observed ground ammonia. The inventories reflect the changes in economic progress and environmental protection and can provide scientific basis for the establishment of effective PM2.5 control

  18. Menopause and High Blood Pressure: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure (hypertension) Is there a connection between menopause and high blood pressure? Answers from Shannon K. ... Tommaso, M.D. Blood pressure generally increases after menopause. Some doctors think this increase suggests that hormonal ...

  19. Investigating the stomatal, cuticular and soil ammonia fluxes over a growing tritical crop under high acidic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Loubet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia concentration and fluxes were measured above a growing triticale field for two months during May and June 2010 at the NitroEurope crop site in Grignon (Fr-Gri near Paris, France. The measurement campaign started 15 days following a 40 kg N ha−1 application of an ammonium nitrate solution. A new mini-WEDD (Wet Effluent Denuder flow injection analyser with three channels (ROSAA, RObust and Sensitive Ammonia Analyser was used to measure NH3 fluxes using the aerodynamic gradient method. The measured ammonia concentrations varied from 0.01 to 39 μg NH3 m−3 and were largely influenced by advection from the nearby farm. The ammonia fluxes ranged from −560 to 220 ng NH3 m−2 s−1 and averaged −29 ng NH3 m−2 s−1. During some periods the large deposition fluxes could only be explained by a very small surface resistance, which may be due to the high concentrations in certain acid gases (HNO3 and SO2 observed in this suburban area. Ammonia emissions were also measured occasionally. The canopy compensation point Cc was around 1.5 μg NH3 m−3 on average. The canopy emission potential Γc (Cc normalised for the temperature response of the Henry equilibrium decreased over the course of the measurement campaign from Γc = 2200 to Γc = 450, the latter value being close to the median stomatal emission potential (Γs for managed ecosystems reported in the literature. The temporal dynamics of the measured NH3 flux compared well with the Surfatm- NH3 model using fitted parameters. The subjectivity of the model fitting is discussed based on a sensitivity analysis.

  20. Investigating the stomatal, cuticular and soil ammonia fluxes over a growing tritical crop under high acidic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Loubet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia concentration and fluxes were measured above a growing triticale field for two months during May and June 2010 at the NitroEurope crop site in Grignon (Fr-Gri near Paris, France. The measurement campaign started 15 days following a 40 kg N ha−1 application of an ammonium nitrate solution. A new mini-wedd (Wet Effluent Denuder flow injection analyser with three channels (ROSAA, RObust and Sensitive Ammonia Analyser was used to measure NH3 fluxes using the aerodynamic gradient method. The measured ammonia concentrations varied from 0.01 to 39 μg NH3 m−3 and were largely influenced by advection from the nearby farm. The ammonia fluxes ranged from –560 to 220 ng NH3 m−2 s−1 and averaged –29 ng NH3 m−2 s−1. During some periods the large deposition fluxes could only be explained by a very small surface resistance, which may be partly due to the high concentrations of certain acid gases (HNO3 and SO2 observed in this suburban area. Ammonia emissions were also observed. The canopy compensation point Cc was around 1.5 μg NH3 m−3 on average. The canopy emission potential Γc (Cc normalised for the temperature response of the Henry equilibrium decreased over the course of the measurement campaign from Γc = 2200 to Γc = 450, the latter value being close to the median stomatal emission potential (Γs and lower than the median ground emission potential (Γg for managed ecosystems reported in the literature. The temporal dynamics of the measured NH3 flux compared well with the Surfatm-NH3 model using fitted parameters. The subjectivity of the model fitting is discussed based on a sensitivity analysis.

  1. Dietary spermidine for lowering high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Andreas; Schroeder, Sabrina; Pendl, Tobias; Harger, Alexandra; Stekovic, Slaven; Schipke, Julia; Magnes, Christoph; Schmidt, Albrecht; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Dammbrueck, Christopher; Gross, Angelina S; Herbst, Viktoria; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Pietrocola, Federico; Pieber, Thomas R; Sigrist, Stephan J; Linke, Wolfgang A; Mühlfeld, Christian; Sadoshima, Junichi; Dengjel, Joern; Kiechl, Stefan; Kroemer, Guido; Sedej, Simon; Madeo, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Loss of cardiac macroautophagy/autophagy impairs heart function, and evidence accumulates that an increased autophagic flux may protect against cardiovascular disease. We therefore tested the protective capacity of the natural autophagy inducer spermidine in animal models of aging and hypertension, which both represent major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Dietary spermidine elicits cardioprotective effects in aged mice through enhancing cardiac autophagy and mitophagy. In salt-sensitive rats, spermidine supplementation also delays the development of hypertensive heart disease, coinciding with reduced arterial blood pressure. The high blood pressure-lowering effect likely results from improved global arginine bioavailability and protection from hypertension-associated renal damage. The polyamine spermidine is naturally present in human diets, though to a varying amount depending on food type and preparation. In humans, high dietary spermidine intake correlates with reduced blood pressure and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and related death. Altogether, spermidine represents a cardio- and vascular-protective autophagy inducer that can be readily integrated in common diets. PMID:28118075

  2. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  3. CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the MMWR Science Clips High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Out of Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... cdc.gov/GISCVH2/ High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol Among US Adults SOURCES: National Health and Nutrition ...

  4. High-Performance Wireless Ammonia Gas Sensors Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide and Nano-Silver Ink Hybrid Material Loaded on a Patch Antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bian; Zhang, Xingfei; Huang, Beiju; Zhao, Yutong; Cheng, Chuantong; Chen, Hongda

    2017-09-09

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has been studied as a resistive ammonia gas sensor at room temperature. The sensitive hybrid material composed of rGO and nano-silver ink (Ag-ink) was loaded on a microstrip patch antenna to realize high-performance wireless ammonia sensors. The material was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Firstly, interdigital electrodes (IDEs) printed on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by direct printing were employed to measure the variation of resistance of the sensitive material with the ammonia concentration. The results indicated the response of sensor varied from 4.25% to 14.7% under 15-200 ppm ammonia concentrations. Furthermore, the hybrid material was loaded on a microstrip patch antenna fabricated by a conventional printed circuit board (PCB) process, and a 10 MHz frequency shift of the sensor antenna could be observed for 200 ppm ammonia gas. Finally, the wireless sensing property of the sensor antenna was successfully tested using the same emitted antenna outside the gas chamber with a high gain of 5.48 dBi, and an increased reflection magnitude of the emitted antenna due to the frequency mismatch of the sensor antenna was observed. Therefore, wireless ammonia gas sensors loaded on a patch antenna have significant application prospects in the field of Internet of Things (IoTs).

  5. High blood pressure in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Bluhm, Brian

    2012-04-01

    High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked by physicians. Normal blood pressure values for children and adolescents are based on age, sex, and height, and are available in standardized tables. Prehypertension is defined as a blood pressure in at least the 90th percentile, but less than the 95th percentile, for age, sex, and height, or a measurement of 120/80 mm Hg or greater. Hypertension is defined as blood pressure in the 95th percentile or greater. A secondary etiology of hypertension is much more likely in children than in adults, with renal parenchymal disease and renovascular disease being the most common. Overweight and obesity are strongly correlated with primary hypertension in children. A history and physical examination are needed for all children with newly diagnosed hypertension to help rule out underlying medical disorders. Children with hypertension should also be screened for other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia, and should be evaluated for target organ damage with a retinal examination and echocardiography. Hypertension in children is treated with lifestyle changes, including weight loss for those who are overweight or obese; a healthy, low-sodium diet; regular physical activity; and avoidance of tobacco and alcohol. Children with symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, target organ damage, diabetes, or persistent hypertension despite nonpharmacologic measures should be treated with antihypertensive medications. Thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers are safe, effective, and well tolerated in children.

  6. PVP-stabilized Ru–Rh nanoparticles as highly efficient catalysts for hydrogen generation from hydrolysis of ammonia borane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakap, Murat, E-mail: mrtrakap@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    Herein, the utilization of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-protected ruthenium–rhodium nanoparticles (3.4 ± 1.4 nm) as highly efficient catalysts in the hydrolysis of ammonia borane for hydrogen generation is reported. They are prepared by co-reduction of ruthenium and rhodium metal ions in ethanol/water mixture by an alcohol reduction method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. They are durable and highly efficient catalysts for hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of ammonia borane even at very low concentrations and temperature, providing average turnover frequency of 386 mol H{sub 2} (mol cat){sup −1} min{sup −1} and maximum hydrogen generation rate of 10,680 L H{sub 2} min{sup −1} (mol cat){sup −1}. Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-protected ruthenium–rhodium nanoparticles also provide activation energy of 47.4 ± 2.1 kJ/mol for the hydrolysis of ammonia borane. - Highlights: • Ru-Rh@PVP NPs provide a TOF of 386 mol H{sub 2} (mol cat){sup −1} min{sup −1} for hydrolysis of AB. • Maximum HG rate is 9680 L H{sub 2} min{sup −1} (mol cat){sup −1} for the hydrolysis of AB. • Activation energy is 47.4 ± 2.1 kJ mol{sup −1} for the hydrolysis of AB.

  7. High-pressure processing for preservation of blood products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, A.M.; Ven, van der C.; Gouwerok, C.W.N.; Korte, de D.

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities of high pressure as a preservation method for human blood products were evaluated by examining the functional properties of blood fractions, after high-pressure processing at conditions which potentially inactivate micro-organisms and viruses. Blood platelets, red blood cells and

  8. Modified ADM1 for modeling free ammonia inhibition in anaerobic acidogenic fermentation with high-solid sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jie; Liu, He; Yin, Bo; Ma, Huijun; Chen, Xinchun

    2017-02-01

    Anaerobic acidogenic fermentation with high-solid sludge is a promising method for volatile fatty acid (VFA) production to realize resource recovery. In this study, to model inhibition by free ammonia in high-solid sludge fermentation, the anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1) was modified to simulate the VFA generation in batch, semi-continuous and full scale sludge. The ADM1 was operated on the platform AQUASIM 2.0. Three kinds of inhibition forms, e.g., simple inhibition, Monod and non-inhibition forms, were integrated into the ADM1 and tested with the real experimental data for batch and semi-continuous fermentation, respectively. The improved particle swarm optimization technique was used for kinetic parameter estimation using the software MATLAB 7.0. In the modified ADM1, the Ks of acetate is 0.025, the km,ac is 12.51, and the KI_NH3 is 0.02, respectively. The results showed that the simple inhibition model could simulate the VFA generation accurately while the Monod model was the better inhibition kinetics form in semi-continuous fermentation at pH10.0. Finally, the modified ADM1 could successfully describe the VFA generation and ammonia accumulation in a 30m(3) full-scale sludge fermentation reactor, indicating that the developed model can be applicable in high-solid sludge anaerobic fermentation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Ionic and superionic phases in ammonia dihydrate N H3.2 H2O under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Wu, Xue; Zheng, Zhaoyang; Huang, Yingying; Zhao, Jijun

    2017-04-01

    Water and ammonia have long been seen as the main species of extraterrestrial space, especially on solar giants, moons, comets, and numerous extrasolar planets. The phases formed by their admixtures under temperature and pressure conditions of the giant planets are important for understanding many observable properties (gravitational moments, atmospheric composition, and magnetic field). Here we employ a Monte Carlo packing algorithm combined with first-principles calculations to search the low-energy crystal structures of ammonia dihydrate (ADH). At high pressure above 11.81 GPa, we predict an unusual ionic phase (tetragonal, I 41c d ) consisting of three alternating layers of H2O ,NH4+ , and O H- . The occurrence of ionic phase is attributed to the NH4+ and O H- electrostatic interaction induced volume reduction, which lowers the energy barrier of molecular to ionic phase transition. Analysis of proton transfer under pressure further supports the transformation mechanism between molecular and ionic phase. According to the mobility of hydrogen atoms from ab initio molecular dynamics, this ionic crystal will transform into a superionic phase under high temperature and high pressure. The existence of ionic or superionic ADH may have important implications for understanding the interiors of Neptune, Uranus, and many extrasolar planets.

  10. Growth and slaughter performance, nitrogen balance and ammonia emission from slurry in pigs fed high fibre diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Matteo Crovetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine digestibility, nitrogen balance and ammonia emission from excreta, in the typical Italian heavy pig during the last phase of growth, when fed diets with a high fibre content. In comparison with a traditional control diet (C, two diets with 12 and 24% wheat bran (WB12 and WB24 and two other diets with 12 and 24% dried beet pulp (BP12 and BP24 were tested. Totally 76 Landrace x Large White fattening barrows, from 45 to 170 kg live weight distributed in 16 pens, were utilized in the trial. Thirty pigs were allocated to 6 metabolic cages in 5 consecutive periods in order to have 6 observations per treatment. For diets C, WB12 and WB24 daily weight gain (DWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and slaughtering performances were also registered, on 20 pigs per dietary treatment. Growing and slaughter performances were similar for pigs fed C and WB12 diets, whilst diet WB24 determined a significant (P<0.05 decrease in performances (growth and feed conversion in the first period of fattening and a lower dressing percentage at slaughter (85.5, 84.4 and 82.5% for C, WB12 and WB24, respectively. Comparing the diets with the same level of inclusion of the fibrous feeds, WB diets had a lower OM and energy digestibility, while BP diets registered a lower protein but a higher fibre digestibility. Consistently with other experiments, BP diets determined an increase of faecal and a reduction of urinary N, as a percentage of the intake N, as well as a decrease of ammonia emission from the slurries (- 16.6 and -25.3% for BP12 and BP24, in comparison with C diet. For the WB diets the reduction of urinary N and the increase in faecal N were less marked and a reduction of ammonia emissions was not registered.

  11. Transcriptional Response of the Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizer Nitrosopumilus maritimus to Low and Environmentally Relevant Ammonia Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Stahl, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing archaea to compete for ammonia among marine microorganisms at low ambient concentrations has been in part attributed to their extremely high affinity for ammonia, but as yet there is no mechanistic understanding of supporting metabolism. We examined transcription of selected genes for anabolic functions (CO2 fixation, ammonia transport, and cell wall synthesis) and a central catabolic function (ammonia oxidation) in the thaumarchaeon Nitrosopu...

  12. Radiolysis of ammonia-containing ices by energetic, heavy and highly charged ions inside dense astrophysical environments

    CERN Document Server

    Pilling, S; da Silveira, E F; Balanzat, E; Rothard, H; Domaracka, A; Boduch, P

    2009-01-01

    Deeply inside dense molecular clouds and protostellar disks, the interstellar ices are protected from stellar energetic UV photons. However, X-rays and energetic cosmic rays can penetrate inside these regions triggering chemical reactions, molecular dissociation and evaporation processes. We present experimental studies on the interaction of heavy, highly charged and energetic ions (46 MeV Ni^13+) with ammonia-containing ices in an attempt to simulate the physical chemistry induced by heavy ion cosmic rays inside dense astrophysical environments. The measurements were performed inside a high vacuum chamber coupled to the heavy ion accelerator GANIL (Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds) in Caen, France.\\textit{In-situ} analysis is performed by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) at different fluences. The averaged values for the dissociation cross section of water, ammonia and carbon monoxide due to heavy cosmic ray ion analogs are ~2x10^{-13}, 1.4x10^{-13} and 1.9x10^{-13} cm$^2$, respectiv...

  13. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High blood pressure (hypertension) Is it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon ... Cirelli C, et al. Definition and consequences of sleep deprivation. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 24, ...

  14. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke Updated:Sep ... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ...

  15. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  16. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  17. High Blood Pressure Rates Have Doubled Worldwide Since 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162069.html High Blood Pressure Rates Have Doubled Worldwide Since 1975 Most of ... News) -- The number of people worldwide with high blood pressure has nearly doubled over the past 40 years, ...

  18. High abundances of potentially active ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in oligotrophic, high-altitude lakes of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis J Hayden

    Full Text Available Nitrification plays a central role in the nitrogen cycle by determining the oxidation state of nitrogen and its subsequent bioavailability and cycling. However, relatively little is known about the underlying ecology of the microbial communities that carry out nitrification in freshwater ecosystems--and particularly within high-altitude oligotrophic lakes, where nitrogen is frequently a limiting nutrient. We quantified ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and bacteria (AOB in 9 high-altitude lakes (2289-3160 m in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, in relation to spatial and biogeochemical data. Based on their ammonia monooxygenase (amoA genes, AOB and AOA were frequently detected. AOB were present in 88% of samples and were more abundant than AOA in all samples. Both groups showed >100 fold variation in abundance between different lakes, and were also variable through time within individual lakes. Nutrient concentrations (ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate were generally low but also varied across and within lakes, suggestive of active internal nutrient cycling; AOB abundance was significantly correlated with phosphate (r(2 = 0.32, p<0.1, whereas AOA abundance was inversely correlated with lake elevation (r(2 = 0.43, p<0.05. We also measured low rates of ammonia oxidation--indicating that AOB, AOA, or both, may be biogeochemically active in these oligotrophic ecosystems. Our data indicate that dynamic populations of AOB and AOA are found in oligotrophic, high-altitude, freshwater lakes.

  19. [High blood pressure and physical exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosner, P; Gremeaux, V; Bosquet, L; Herpin, D

    2014-06-01

    High blood pressure is a frequent pathology with many cardiovascular complications. As highlighted in guidelines, the therapeutic management of hypertension relies on non-pharmacological measures, which are diet and regular physical activity, but both patients and physicians are reluctant to physical activity prescription. To acquire the conviction that physical activity is beneficial, necessary and possible, we can take into account some fundamental and clinical studies, as well as the feedback of our clinical practice. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension contributes to increase this risk. Conversely, regular practice of physical activity decreases very significantly the risk by up to 60%. The acute blood pressure changes during exercise and post-exercise hypotension differs according to the dynamic component (endurance or aerobic and/or strength exercises), but the repetition of the sessions leads to the chronic hypotensive benefit of physical activity. Moreover, physical activity prescription must take into account the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, the control of the hypertension, and the opportunities and desires of the patient in order to promote good adherence and beneficial lifestyle change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Single-catalyst high-weight% hydrogen storage in an N-heterocycle synthesized from lignin hydrogenolysis products and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forberg, Daniel; Schwob, Tobias; Zaheer, Muhammad; Friedrich, Martin; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Kempe, Rhett

    2016-10-20

    Large-scale energy storage and the utilization of biomass as a sustainable carbon source are global challenges of this century. The reversible storage of hydrogen covalently bound in chemical compounds is a particularly promising energy storage technology. For this, compounds that can be sustainably synthesized and that permit high-weight% hydrogen storage would be highly desirable. Herein, we report that catalytically modified lignin, an indigestible, abundantly available and hitherto barely used biomass, can be harnessed to reversibly store hydrogen. A novel reusable bimetallic catalyst has been developed, which is able to hydrogenate and dehydrogenate N-heterocycles most efficiently. Furthermore, a particular N-heterocycle has been identified that can be synthesized catalytically in one step from the main lignin hydrogenolysis product and ammonia, and in which the new bimetallic catalyst allows multiple cycles of high-weight% hydrogen storage.

  1. Single-catalyst high-weight% hydrogen storage in an N-heterocycle synthesized from lignin hydrogenolysis products and ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forberg, Daniel; Schwob, Tobias; Zaheer, Muhammad; Friedrich, Martin; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Kempe, Rhett

    2016-10-01

    Large-scale energy storage and the utilization of biomass as a sustainable carbon source are global challenges of this century. The reversible storage of hydrogen covalently bound in chemical compounds is a particularly promising energy storage technology. For this, compounds that can be sustainably synthesized and that permit high-weight% hydrogen storage would be highly desirable. Herein, we report that catalytically modified lignin, an indigestible, abundantly available and hitherto barely used biomass, can be harnessed to reversibly store hydrogen. A novel reusable bimetallic catalyst has been developed, which is able to hydrogenate and dehydrogenate N-heterocycles most efficiently. Furthermore, a particular N-heterocycle has been identified that can be synthesized catalytically in one step from the main lignin hydrogenolysis product and ammonia, and in which the new bimetallic catalyst allows multiple cycles of high-weight% hydrogen storage.

  2. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whites. • Heredity —A tendency to have high blood pressure runs in families. • Age — In general, the older you get, the greater your chance of developing high blood pressure. • Sex — Men tend to develop high blood pressure ...

  3. Let's Talk about High Blood Pressure and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stroke. How does high blood pressure increase stroke risk? High blood pressure is the single most important risk factor for ... vessel ruptures over time. Who is at higher risk for HBP? People with a family history of high blood pressure African-Americans People age 35 or older People ...

  4. A novel PSB-EDI system for high ammonia wastewater treatment, biomass production and nitrogen resource recovery: PSB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hangyao; Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Guangming; Yan, Guokai; Lu, Haifeng; Sun, Liyan

    A novel process coupling photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) with electrodeionization (EDI) treatment was proposed to treat high ammonia wastewater and recover bio-resources and nitrogen. The first stage (PSB treatment) was used to degrade organic pollutants and accumulate biomass, while the second stage (EDI) was for nitrogen removal and recovery. The first stage was the focus in this study. The results showed that using PSB to transform organic pollutants in wastewater into biomass was practical. PSB could acclimatize to wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2,300 mg/L and an ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) concentration of 288-4,600 mg/L. The suitable pH was 6.0-9.0, the average COD removal reached 80%, and the biomass increased by an average of 9.16 times. The wastewater COD removal was independent of the NH4(+)-N concentration. Moreover, the PSB functioned effectively when the inoculum size was only 10 mg/L. The PSB-treated wastewater was then further handled in an EDI system. More than 90% of the NH4(+)-N was removed from the wastewater and condensed in the concentrate, which could be used to produce nitrogen fertilizer. In the whole system, the average NH4(+)-N removal was 94%, and the average NH4(+)-N condensing ratio was 10.0.

  5. Transcriptional response of the archaeal ammonia oxidizer Nitrosopumilus maritimus to low and environmentally relevant ammonia concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Stahl, David A

    2013-11-01

    The ability of chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing archaea to compete for ammonia among marine microorganisms at low ambient concentrations has been in part attributed to their extremely high affinity for ammonia, but as yet there is no mechanistic understanding of supporting metabolism. We examined transcription of selected genes for anabolic functions (CO2 fixation, ammonia transport, and cell wall synthesis) and a central catabolic function (ammonia oxidation) in the thaumarchaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1 growing at two ammonia concentrations, as measured by combined ammonia and ammonium, one well above the Km for ammonia oxidation (∼500 μM) and the other well below the Km (ammonia-replete to ammonia-limiting conditions. Transcript levels for ammonia oxidation, CO2 fixation, and one of the ammonia transport genes were approximately the same at high and low ammonia availability. Transcripts for all analyzed genes decreased with time in the complete absence of ammonia, but with various rates of decay. The new steady-state mRNA levels established are presumably more reflective of the natural physiological state of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and offer a reference for interpreting message abundance patterns in the natural environment.

  6. Screening and acclimation of efficient simultaneous nitrification and denitrification bacteria and their application in biotreatment of high ammonia pharmaceutical wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinling Ma,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND bacteria can complete nitrification and denitrification processes under aerobic conditions simultaneously, which has some obvious advantages in comparison with traditional method for nitrogen removal, such as reducing energy consumption and construction cost. Three SND bacteria strains, YX3, YX4 and YX6 were isolated from a polluted river and identified as Pseudomonas spp. by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequencing. After cultivated in liquid heterotrophic ammoniation medium at 30°C by shaking at 150 rpm for 3 d, the NH4 + -N removal rates of strains YX3,YX4 and YX6 were 93.50%, 91.50% and 91.00%, respectively; and the total nitrogen removal rates of YX3, YX4 and YX6 were reached 85.75%, 87.33% and 90.46%, respectively. The NO3 - -N removal rates of strains YX3, YX4 and YX6 were 87.24%, 89.88% and 88.73%, respectively, after cultivated in liquid denitrification medium at 30°C by shaking at 150 rpm for 3 d. These results show that all these strains were capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. When strains YX3, YX4 and YX6 were faced to high ammonia pharmaceutical wastewater, NH4 + -N concentrations decreased from 500±78.47 to 238.14±63.77mg/L, 155.82±79.95 mg/L and 214.62±92.69 mg/L, respectively, after cultured at 150 rpm and 30°C for 3 d. After four months of acclimation, the NH4 + -N remove rates were improved significantly under the same culture conditions and the NH4 + -N concentrations decreased linearly from 500±81.79 to 151.9±88.70mg/L, 94.73±58.66 mg/L and 114.49±56.84 mg/L of strains YX3, YX4 and YX6, respectively. All the strains showed rather steady features in biodenitrification of high ammonia pharmaceutical wastewater after acclimation under laboratory conditions. This suggests that all the three strains have great application potential in high ammonia nitrogen pharmaceutical wastewater treatment.

  7. Comparative study of amino acid, ammonia and pancreatic hormone levels in the blood of cirrhotic patients following intragastric and intravenous administration of a branched-chain amino acid-enriched solution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Akiharu

    1983-10-01

    Full Text Available The blood levels of amino acids, ammonia and pancreatic hormones following the intragastric and intravenous administration of a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA-enriched solution were comparatively investigated in control subjects and patients with liver cirrhosis. There was no essential difference in the time course of serum amino acid and blood ammonia levels between the intragastric and intravenous infusions. Elevation of serum insulin concentrations in cirrhotic patients was significant only immediately after the administration through the enteral route. However, plasma glucagon levels increased similarly when the BCAA-enriched solution was administered through either route. The results indicate that both enteral and intravenous infusions will have similar therapeutic effects on the impaired protein metabolism in cirrhotic patients with protein-calorie malnutrition.

  8. Analysis of L-asparaginase induced elevation of blood ammonia and hepatic encephalopathy%应用左旋门冬酰胺酶致血氨升高和肝性脑病发生的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李渊; 任汉云; 岑溪南; 尹玥; 梁赜隐

    2013-01-01

    .It returned to normal level after a median time of 5 days (ranged 3-7 days) with drug withdrawal.Of the 23 patients studied,3 developed hepatic encephalopathy.②All patients appeared lower blood fibrinogen,10 cases (43.5%) with lower fibrinogen only,while 13 cases (56.5%) with both prolonged APTT and lower fibrinogen.The lowest level of fibrinogen was detected at 1 week after drug application.Of the 23 patients,14 (60.9%) had mild lower blood fibrinogen (1-2 g/L),and 9 (39.1%) had significantly lower fibrinogen (0-1 g/L).③Six cases (26.1%) had slightly elevated level of transaminase (<2 times the upper limits of normal),8 (34.8%) appeared hypoalbuminemia.Conclusions As the incidence of elevated blood ammonia levels was high in the application of L-Asp,the level of blood ammonia should be closely monitored to avoid the occurrence of hepatic encephalopathy,especially in elderly patients and patients with previous liver disease or long-term heavy drinking.L-Asp can also lead to low fibrinogen level,hypoalbuminemia and abnormal transaminase.Monitoring the blood coagulation function and liver function is required and,if necessary,plasma infusion and liver protection therapy are required.

  9. High-resolution inventory of ammonia emissions from agricultural fertilizer in China from 1978 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P.; Liao, Y. J.; Lin, Y. H.; Zhao, C. X.; Yan, C. H.; Cao, M. N.; Wang, G. S.; Luan, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    The quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is essential to the more accurate quantification of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, improved air quality and the assessment of ammonia-related agricultural policy and climate mitigation strategies. The quantity, geographic distribution and historical trends of these emissions remain largely uncertain. In this paper, a new Chinese agricultural fertilizer NH3 (CAF_NH3) emissions inventory has been compiled that exhibits the following improvements: (1) a 1 × 1 km gridded map on the county level was developed for 2008; (2) a combined bottom-up and top-down method was used for the local correction of emission factors (EFs) and parameters; (3) the temporal patterns of historical time trends for 1978-2008 were estimated and the uncertainties were quantified for the inventories; and (4) a sensitivity test was performed in which a province-level disaggregated map was compared with CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008. The total CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008 were 8.4 TgNH3 yr-1 (a 6.6-9.8 Tg interquartile range). From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with three peaks (1987, 1996 and 2005), and total emissions increased from 3.2 to 8.4 Tg at an annual rate of 3.0 %. During the study period, the contribution of livestock manure spreading increased from 37.0 to 45.5 % because of changing fertilization practices and the rapid increase in egg, milk, and meat consumption. The average contribution of synthetic fertilizer, which has a positive effect on crop yields, was approximately 38.3 % (minimum: 33.4 %; maximum: 42.7 %). With rapid urbanization causing a decline in the rural population, the contribution of the rural excrement sector varied widely between 20.3 % and 8.5 %. The average contributions of cake fertilizer and straw returning were approximately 3.8 and 4.5 %, respectively, thus small and stable. Collectively, the CAF_NH3 emissions reflect the nation's agricultural policy to a certain extent. An effective approach to

  10. High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audiences Contact The Health Information Center High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need To Know Table of Contents ... Lifestyle Changes (TLC) Drug Treatment Resources Why Is Cholesterol Important? Your blood cholesterol level has a lot ...

  11. What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure? Because diagnosis is based on blood pressure readings, ... damaged from chronic high blood pressure. Complications of High Blood Pressure When blood pressure stays high over time, it ...

  12. Highly Sensitive Thin Film Sensor Based on Worm-like Carbon Nanofibers for Detection of Ammonia in Workplace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jia-zhi; CHEN Xing; LI Min-Qiang; LIU Jin-Huai

    2008-01-01

    A thin film sensor was fabricated using the mixture of worm-like carbon nanofibers (WCNF), which were synthesized using aluminium supported iron catalysts via chemical vapour deposition, and glass dust in proportion of 3 : 2, combined by drops of terpineol. The morphology of the catalyst, the worm-like carbon nanofibers and the film surface were investigated with the help of TEM and SEM. Low single-potential signal was employed to investigate gas sensitivity of the sensor to the deleterious ammonia, in atmospheric pressure at room temperature. The results suggest that the sensor has high sensitivity at low concentration (0.175-0.35 mg/m3), perfect reproducibility,and a fast response time (0.05 s) and restoration time (1 min).

  13. RESULTS OF INITIAL AMMONIA OXIDATION TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-12-30

    This memo presents an experimental survey of aqueous phase chemical processes to remove aqueous ammonia from waste process streams. Ammonia is generated in both the current Hanford waste flowsheet and in future waste processing. Much ammonia will be generated in the Low Activity Waste (LAW) melters.i Testing with simulants in glass melters at Catholic University has demonstrated the significant ammonia production.ii The primary reaction there is the reducing action of sugar on nitrate in the melter cold cap. Ammonia has been found to be a problem in secondary waste stabilization. Ammonia vapors are noxious and destruction of ammonia could reduce hazards to waste treatment process personnel. It is easily evolved especially when ammonia-bearing solutions are adjusted to high pH.

  14. Highly efficient and selective leaching of silver from electronic scrap in the base-activated persulfate - ammonia system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyk, Wojciech; Kitka, Konrad

    2017-02-01

    A system composed of persulfate salt and ammonia in highly alkaline aqueous solution is developed and examined for leaching metallic silver from elements of the electronic waste materials (e-scrap). Strong base activates persulfate ions providing in situ generation of highly reactive oxygen molecules. The oxidized metal forms then well soluble complex ions with ammonia ligands. The kinetic studies of the leaching process were performed for pure metallic silver. They revealed that the efficiency of the process is affected by the type of the persulfate salt. By employing potassium persulfate one obtains significantly (more than 50% for silver plates and more than 100% for silver powder) increased efficiency of silver dissolution compared to the solution composed of either sodium or ammonium persulfates. In the range of persulfate concentrations between 0.02 and 0.23mol/L the apparent reaction order with respect to the persulfate concentration was similar for all persulfate salts and was estimated to be around 0.5. The room temperature (22±2°C) seems to be an optimal temperature for the leaching process. An increase in the temperature resulted in the significant drop in the silver dissolution rate due to the decreased solubility of oxygen. Based on these results a possible mechanism of dissolving silver is discussed and the optimal composition of the leaching solution is formulated. The obtained formulation of the leaching solution was applied for the extraction of silver coatings of Cu-based e-waste scrap and the obtained results revealed an important effect of copper in the mechanism of the leaching process. The regression analysis of the leaching curve indicated that each gram of base-activated potassium persulfate under the specified conditions may leach almost 100mg of silver coatings in a form of well soluble diamminesilver (I) complex. The silver complex can be relatively easy reduced to metallic silver. The method developed is relatively cheap, low toxic and

  15. From the Solution Processing of Hydrophilic Molecules to Polymer-Phthalocyanine Hybrid Materials for Ammonia Sensing in High Humidity Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudillat, Pierre; Jurin, Florian; Lakard, Boris; Buron, Cédric; Suisse, Jean-Moïse; Bouvet, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    We have prepared different hybrid polymer-phthalocyanine materials by solution processing, starting from two sulfonated phthalocyanines, s-CoPc and CuTsPc, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) (PAA-AM), poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and polyaniline (PANI) as polymers. We also studied the response to ammonia (NH3) of resistors prepared from these sensing materials. The solvent casted films, prepared from s-CoPc and PVP, PEG and PAA-AM, were highly insulating and very sensitive to the relative humidity (RH) variation. The incorporation of s-CoPc in PDDA by means of layer-by-layer (LBL) technique allowed to stabilize the film, but was too insulating to be interesting. We also prepared PANI-CuTsPc hybrid films by LBL technique. It allowed a regular deposition as evidenced by the linear increase of the absorbance at 688 nm as a function of the number of bilayers. The sensitivity to ammonia (NH3) of PANi-CuTsPc resistors was very high compared to that of individual materials, giving up to 80% of current decrease when exposed to 30 ppm NH3. Contrarily to what happens with neutral polymers, in PANI, CuTsPc was stabilized by strong electrostatic interactions, leading to a stable response to NH3, whatever the relative humidity in the range 10%–70%. Thus, the synergy of PANI with ionic macrocycles used as counteranions combined with their simple aqueous solution processing opens the way to the development of new gas sensors capable of operating in real world conditions. PMID:25061841

  16. From the solution processing of hydrophilic molecules to polymer-phthalocyanine hybrid materials for ammonia sensing in high humidity atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudillat, Pierre; Jurin, Florian; Lakard, Boris; Buron, Cédric; Suisse, Jean-Moïse; Bouvet, Marcel

    2014-07-24

    We have prepared different hybrid polymer-phthalocyanine materials by solution processing, starting from two sulfonated phthalocyanines, s-CoPc and CuTsPc, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) (PAA-AM), poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and polyaniline (PANI) as polymers. We also studied the response to ammonia (NH3) of resistors prepared from these sensing materials. The solvent casted films, prepared from s-CoPc and PVP, PEG and PAA-AM, were highly insulating and very sensitive to the relative humidity (RH) variation. The incorporation of s-CoPc in PDDA by means of layer-by-layer (LBL) technique allowed to stabilize the film, but was too insulating to be interesting. We also prepared PANI-CuTsPc hybrid films by LBL technique. It allowed a regular deposition as evidenced by the linear increase of the absorbance at 688 nm as a function of the number of bilayers. The sensitivity to ammonia (NH3) of PANi-CuTsPc resistors was very high compared to that of individual materials, giving up to 80% of current decrease when exposed to 30 ppm NH3. Contrarily to what happens with neutral polymers, in PANI, CuTsPc was stabilized by strong electrostatic interactions, leading to a stable response to NH3, whatever the relative humidity in the range 10%-70%. Thus, the synergy of PANI with ionic macrocycles used as counteranions combined with their simple aqueous solution processing opens the way to the development of new gas sensors capable of operating in real world conditions.

  17. From the Solution Processing of Hydrophilic Molecules to Polymer-Phthalocyanine Hybrid Materials for Ammonia Sensing in High Humidity Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gaudillat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have prepared different hybrid polymer-phthalocyanine materials by solution processing, starting from two sulfonated phthalocyanines, s-CoPc and CuTsPc, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, polyethylene glycol (PEG, poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide (PAA-AM, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA and polyaniline (PANI as polymers. We also studied the response to ammonia (NH3 of resistors prepared from these sensing materials. The solvent casted films, prepared from s-CoPc and PVP, PEG and PAA-AM, were highly insulating and very sensitive to the relative humidity (RH variation. The incorporation of s-CoPc in PDDA by means of layer-by-layer (LBL technique allowed to stabilize the film, but was too insulating to be interesting. We also prepared PANI-CuTsPc hybrid films by LBL technique. It allowed a regular deposition as evidenced by the linear increase of the absorbance at 688 nm as a function of the number of bilayers. The sensitivity to ammonia (NH3 of PANi-CuTsPc resistors was very high compared to that of individual materials, giving up to 80% of current decrease when exposed to 30 ppm NH3. Contrarily to what happens with neutral polymers, in PANI, CuTsPc was stabilized by strong electrostatic interactions, leading to a stable response to NH3, whatever the relative humidity in the range 10%–70%. Thus, the synergy of PANI with ionic macrocycles used as counteranions combined with their simple aqueous solution processing opens the way to the development of new gas sensors capable of operating in real world conditions.

  18. [Identification of a high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterial strain TN-14 and its nitrogen removal capabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xin; Yao, Li; Lu, Lei; Leng, Lu; Zhou, Ying-Qin; Guo, Jun-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    A new strain of high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium TN-14 was isolated from the environment. Its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification, performences of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic, the abilities of resistance to ammonia nitrogen as well as the decontamination abilities were studied, respectively. It was preliminary identified as Acinetobacter sp. according to its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification results. In heterotrophic nitrification system, the ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen removal rate of the bacterial strain TN-14 could reach 97.13% and 93.53% within 24 h. In nitrates denitrification system, the nitrate concentration could decline from 94.24 mg · L(-1) to 39.32 mg · L(-1) within 24 h, where the removal rate was 58.28% and the denitrification rate was 2.28 mg · (L · h)(-1); In nitrite denitrification systems, the initial concentration of nitrite could be declined from 97.78 mg · L(-1) to 21.30 mg x L(-1), with a nitrite nitrogen removal rate of 78.22%, and a denitrification rate of 2.55 mg · (L· h)(-1). Meanwhile, strain TN-14 had the capability of flocculant production, and the flocculating rate could reach 94.74% when its fermentation liquid was used to treat 0.4% kaolin suspension. Strain TN-14 could grow at an ammonia nitrogen concentration as high as 1200 mg · L(-1). In the aspect of actual piggery wastewater treatment by strain TN-14, the removal rate of COD, ammonia nitrogen, TN and TP cloud reached 85.30%, 65.72%, 64.86% and 79.41%, respectively. Strain TN-14 has a good application prospect in biological treatment of real high- ammonia wastewater.

  19. Substituição total do farelo de soja por uréia ou amiréia, em dietas com alto teor de concentrado, sobre a amônia ruminal, os parâmetros sangüíneos e o metabolismo do nitrogênio em bovinos de corte Total replacement of soybean meal by urea or starea in high grain diets on nitrogen metabolism, ruminal ammonia-N concentration and blood parameters in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Cunha de Oliveira Junior

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Seis novilhos da raça Nelore, não castrados, com peso médio inicial de 420 kg, distribuídos em delineamento em quadrado latino 3x3 duplicado, foram utilizados para avaliar a substituição total de uma fonte de proteína verdadeira (farelo de soja, em uma dieta deficiente em proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR, por uréia ou amiréia (fontes de nitrogênio não protéico, ambas em uma dieta adequada em PDR. As dietas foram isoprotéicas (13,0% utilizando-se o bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura (BIN como única fonte de volumoso (20% da MS. Foram avaliados: a concentração de amônia ruminal, nitrogênio uréico plasmático, glicose plasmática e o metabolismo do nitrogênio. Os tratamentos foram: 1 farelo de soja (FS; 2 uréia e 3 amiréia (A-150S. A concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal no fluido ruminal foi superior no tratamento com uréia, comparado ao tratamento com farelo de soja, sendo que o tratamento com amiréia não diferiu dos demais. O tratamento com amiréia apresentou maior perda de N urinário. A retenção de N (g/d e % do consumido e o valor biológico da proteína (N retido, % do N digerido foram superiores para o tratamento com uréia, comparado aos demais. A concentração de nitrogênio uréico no plasma e a concentração de glicose plasmática foram similares entre os tratamentos. A substituição total do farelo de soja por uréia, ajustando a PDR na dieta de bovinos de corte, demonstrou ser viável. A uréia na forma convencional apresentou vantagens em relação à amiréia.Six Nellore bulls, with initial body weight of 420 kg, were assigned to a duplicated 3x3 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of replacing a true protein source (soybean meal, of high biological value, in a rumen degradable protein (RDP deficient diet, by urea or starea (a supposedly slow release nonprotein nitrogen source, both in a RDP adjusted diet. In natura sugarcane bagasse as the only source of forage (20% of DM. Evaluated

  20. Cerebral metabolism of ammonia and amino acids in patients with fulminant hepatic failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strauss, Gitte Irene; Knudsen, Karen Birgitte Moos; Kondrup, Jens;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: High circulating levels of ammonia have been suggested to be involved in the development of cerebral edema and herniation in fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). The aim of this study was to measure cerebral metabolism of ammonia and amino acids, with special emphasis on glutamine...... metabolism. METHODS: The study consisted of patients with FHF (n = 16) or cirrhosis (n = 5), and healthy subjects (n = 8). Cerebral blood flow was measured by the 133Xe washout technique. Blood samples for determination of ammonia and amino acids were drawn simultaneously from the radial artery...... and the internal jugular bulb. RESULTS: A net cerebral ammonia uptake was only found in patients with FHF (1.62 +/- 0.79 micromol x 100 g(-1) x min(-1)). The cerebral glutamine efflux was higher in patients with FHF than in the healthy subjects and cirrhotics, -6.11 +/- 5.19 vs. -1.93 +/- 1.17 and -1.50 +/- 0...

  1. Interactive effect of high environmental ammonia and nutritional status on ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) acclimated to reduced seawater salinities

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, A.K.; Rasoloniriana, R.; Dasan, A.F.; Pipralia, N.; R. Blust; De Boeck, G.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the interactive effect of ammonia toxicity, salinity challenge and nutritional status on the ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were progressively acclimated to normal seawater (32 ppt), to brackish water (20 ppt and 10 ppt) and to hyposaline water (2.5 ppt). Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20 mg/L ~1.18 mM representing 50% of 96 h LC50 value for ammon...

  2. Air Stripping of Ammonia from High-concentration Ammonia Wastewater with Surfactant as Third Component%气流与第三方物质交互解吸高浓度氨氮废水的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚凡杰; 王光华; 孙明东; 鲁云洲; 荣先萍; 刘铁军

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on a bench-scale packed tower used as an air stripper, with a kind of surfactant added as the third component, to remove ammonia from a stream of high-concentration ammonia waste water. Parameters, including pH, temperature, n( volume ratio of air to liquid )and ρ( dose of the surfactant added), were studied about their influences on stripping efficiency, and the result showed addition of the surfactant could increase ammonia removal efficiency by 2%. Eventually, the experiment led to the optimum condition for ammonia stripping in terms of temperature and pH, with the ammonia concentration after treatment as low as that needed for the consequent secondary biological treatment of wastewater.%利用填料塔作为吹脱解吸设备,结合表面活性剂增强传质的特点,选取表面活性剂作为第三方物质,以空气作为气流吹脱解吸废水中的高浓度氨氮.实验研究了废水温度T、pH值、气液比n、表面活性剂种类和投加量ρ等条件变化对氨氮解吸效率η的影响.结果表明:加入表面活性剂X后,氨氮脱除效率提高2%;影响解吸效率因素的主次顺序为pH>T>n>ρ;最佳操作条件为T=80℃、pH=11.0、ρ=15 mg/L、n=650∶1.在最佳的操作条件下,处理氨氮含量为2159.0 mg/L和3680.5 mg/L的废水时,解吸效率分别达到95.28%和94.69%,即废水最终的氨氮浓度为102.0 mg/L和195.5 mg/L,低于废水后续生化处理进水指标中对氨氮含量的要求.

  3. Effects of ammonia stress, dietary linseed oil and Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge on juvenile darkbarbel catfish Pelteobagrus vachelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Yu, Na; Qin, Jian G; Li, Erchao; Du, Zhenyu; Chen, Liqiao

    2014-05-01

    A two-stage study was carried out to test the response of juvenile darkbarbel catfish Pelteobagrus vachelli to ammonia stress, dietary lipid and bacterial challenge. At stage 1, the catfish (0.99 ± 0.01 g) fed a commercial diet were exposed to 0.01 and 5.70 mg L(-1) total ammonia nitrogen in nine replicates for 14 days. At stage 2, all fish previously exposed to either low or high ammonia were separately transferred into low ammonia (linseed oil (0, 2 and 4%) in triplicate for 46 days. Fish growth performance and immune response were low in high ammonia at stage 1. At stage 2, fish growth and immune response were not significantly different between fish previously exposed to low and high ammonia in all diets. Fish fed 4% linseed oil showed the greatest weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit, and achieved higher lysozyme activity, phagocytic index, respiratory burst and total immunoglobulin than fish fed 0% linseed oil, but did not differ from fish fed 2% linseed oil regardless of previous ammonia exposure. After 14-day infection of Edwardsiella ictaluri, cumulative mortality of fish previously exposed to low ammonia was lower than that of fish exposed to high ammonia in all diets. Cumulative mortality of fish fed 0% linseed oil was highest, but the antibody titer of fish fed 4% linseed oil was highest regardless of previous ammonia treatments. This study indicates that ammonia stress has a lasting effect even after ammonia is lowed, but the adverse effect on fish can be mitigated through manipulation of dietary oil inclusion, especially under the challenge of pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Physiological and molecular responses of the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) to high environmental ammonia: scavenging for nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, C Michele; Walsh, Patrick J; Wood, Chris M

    2015-01-15

    In teleosts, a branchial metabolon links ammonia excretion to Na(+) uptake via Rh glycoproteins and other transporters. Ureotelic elasmobranchs are thought to have low branchial ammonia permeability, and little is known about Rh function in this ancient group. We cloned Rh cDNAs (Rhag, Rhbg and Rhp2) and evaluated gill ammonia handling in Squalus acanthias. Control ammonia excretion was ammonia (HEA; 1 mmol(-1) NH4HCO3) for 48 h exhibited active ammonia uptake against partial pressure and electrochemical gradients for 36 h before net excretion was re-established. Plasma total ammonia rose to seawater levels by 2 h, but dropped significantly below them by 24-48 h. Control ΔP(NH3) (the partial pressure gradient of NH3) across the gills became even more negative (outwardly directed) during HEA. Transepithelial potential increased by 30 mV, negating a parallel rise in the Nernst potential, such that the outwardly directed NH4(+) electrochemical gradient remained unchanged. Urea-N excretion was enhanced by 90% from 12 to 48 h, more than compensating for ammonia-N uptake. Expression of Rhp2 (gills, kidney) and Rhbg (kidney) did not change, but branchial Rhbg and erythrocytic Rhag declined during HEA. mRNA expression of branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) increased at 24 h and that of H(+)-ATPase decreased at 48 h, while expression of the potential metabolon components Na(+)/H(+) exchanger2 (NHE2) and carbonic anhydrase IV (CA-IV) remained unchanged. We propose that the gill of this nitrogen-limited predator is poised not only to minimize nitrogen loss by low efflux permeability to urea and ammonia but also to scavenge ammonia-N from the environment during HEA to enhance urea-N synthesis.

  5. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have certain medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus , thrombophilia , or lupus • are obese •had in vitro fertilization ... an abnormal amount of protein in the urine. Thrombophilia: A condition in which the blood does not ...

  6. Interactive effect of high environmental ammonia and nutritional status on ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) acclimated to reduced seawater salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Pipralia, Nitin; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the interactive effect of ammonia toxicity, salinity challenge and nutritional status on the ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were progressively acclimated to normal seawater (32ppt), to brackish water (20ppt and 10ppt) and to hyposaline water (2.5ppt). Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20mg/L ∼1.18mM representing 50% of 96h LC50 value for ammonia) for 12h, 48h, 84h and 180h, and were either fed (2% body weight) or fasted (unfed for 7 days prior to HEA exposure). Biochemical responses such as ammonia (Jamm) and urea excretion rate, plasma ammonia, urea and lactate, plasma ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) and osmolality, muscle water content (MWC) and liver and muscle energy budget (glycogen, lipid and protein), as well as branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and H(+)-ATPase activity, and branchial mRNA expression of NKA and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC1) were investigated in order to understand metabolic and ion- osmoregulatory consequences of the experimental conditions. During HEA, Jamm was inhibited in fasted fish at 10ppt, while fed fish were still able to excrete efficiently. At 2.5ppt, both feeding groups subjected to HEA experienced severe reductions and eventually a reversion in Jamm. Overall, the build-up of plasma ammonia in HEA exposed fed fish was much lower than fasted ones. Unlike fasted fish, fed fish acclimated to lower salinities (10ppt-2.5ppt) could maintain plasma osmolality, [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and MWC during HEA exposure. Thus fed fish were able to sustain ion-osmotic homeostasis which was associated with a more pronounced up-regulation in NKA expression and activity. At 2.5ppt both feeding groups activated H(+)-ATPase. The expression of NKCC1 was down-regulated at lower salinities in both fed and fasted fish, but was upregulated within each salinity after a few days of HEA exposure. Though an

  7. Announcement: National High Blood Pressure Education Month - May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major contributor to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the United States.* High blood pressure affects one third of U.S. adults, or approximately 75 million persons, yet approximately 11 million of these persons are not aware they have hypertension, and approximately 18 million are not being treated (unpublished data) (1,2).

  8. Cerebral ammonia uptake and accumulation during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Dalsgaard, Mads K.; Steensberg, Adam

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated whether peripheral ammonia production during prolonged exercise enhances the uptake and subsequent accumulation of ammonia within the brain. Two studies determined the cerebral uptake of ammonia (arterial and jugular venous blood sampling combined with Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebra...

  9. Properties and expression of Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit isoforms in the brain of the swamp eel, Monopterus albus, which has unusually high brain ammonia tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu L Chen

    Full Text Available The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, can survive in high concentrations of ammonia (>75 mmol l(-1 and accumulate ammonia to high concentrations in its brain (4.5 µmol g(-1. Na(+/K(+-ATPase (Nka is an essential transporter in brain cells, and since NH4(+ can substitute for K(+ to activate Nka, we hypothesized that the brain of M. albus expressed multiple forms of Nka α-subunits, some of which might have high K(+ specificity. Thus, this study aimed to clone and sequence the nka α-subunits from the brain of M. albus, and to determine the effects of ammonia exposure on their mRNA expression and overall protein abundance. The effectiveness of NH4(+ to activate brain Nka from M. albus and Mus musculus was also examined by comparing their Na(+/K(+-ATPase and Na(+/NH4(+-ATPase activities over a range of K(+/NH4(+ concentrations. The full length cDNA coding sequences of three nkaα (nkaα1, nkaα3a and nkaα3b were identified in the brain of M. albus, but nkaα2 expression was undetectable. Exposure to 50 mmol l(-1 NH4Cl for 1 day or 6 days resulted in significant decreases in the mRNA expression of nkaα1, nkaα3a and nkaα3b. The overall Nka protein abundance also decreased significantly after 6 days of ammonia exposure. For M. albus, brain Na(+/NH4(+-ATPase activities were significantly lower than the Na(+/K(+-ATPase activities assayed at various NH4(+/K(+ concentrations. Furthermore, the effectiveness of NH4(+ to activate Nka from the brain of M. albus was significantly lower than that from the brain of M. musculus, which is ammonia-sensitive. Hence, the (1 lack of nkaα2 expression, (2 high K(+ specificity of K(+ binding sites of Nkaα1, Nkaα3a and Nkaα3b, and (3 down-regulation of mRNA expression of all three nkaα isoforms and the overall Nka protein abundance in response to ammonia exposure might be some of the contributing factors to the high brain ammonia tolerance in M. albus.

  10. Ammonia as efficient fuel for SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerte, A.; Valenzuela, R.X.; Escudero, M.J. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energia, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Daza, L. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energia, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/Marie Curie 2, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Ammonia is a possible candidate as the fuel for SOFCs. In this work, the influence on the performance of a tubular SOFC running on ammonia is studied. Analysis of open circuit voltages (OCVs) on the cell indicated the oxidation of ammonia within a SOFC is a two-stage process: decomposition of the inlet ammonia into nitrogen and hydrogen, followed by oxidation of hydrogen to water. For comparison, cell was also tested with hydrogen as the fuel and air as oxidant at different temperatures showing a similar behaviour. The performance of the cell tested under various conditions shows the high potential of ammonia as fuel for SOFCs. (author)

  11. Blood pressure in childhood : epidemiological probes into the aetiology of high blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hofman (Albert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractHigh arterial blood pressure takes a heavy toll in western populations (1 ). Its causes are still largely unknown, but its sequelae, a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, have been referred to as "a modern scourge" (2). High blood pressure of unknown cause, or essential hyperte

  12. Blood pressure in childhood : epidemiological probes into the aetiology of high blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hofman (Albert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractHigh arterial blood pressure takes a heavy toll in western populations (1 ). Its causes are still largely unknown, but its sequelae, a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, have been referred to as "a modern scourge" (2). High blood pressure of unknown cause, or

  13. Ammonia for hydrogen storage: challenges and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klerke, Asbjørn; Christensen, Claus H.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of using ammonia as a hydrogen carrier is discussed. Compared to other hydrogen storage materials, ammonia has the advantages of a high hydrogen density, a well-developed technology for synthesis and distribution, and easy catalytic decomposition. Compared to hydrocarbons...... and alcohols, it has the advantage that there is no CO2 emission at the end user. The drawbacks are mainly the toxicity of liquid ammonia and the problems related to trace amounts of ammonia in the hydrogen after decomposition. Storage of ammonia in metal ammine salts is discussed, and it is shown...... that this maintains the high volumetric hydrogen density while alleviating the problems of handling the ammonia. Some of the remaining challenges for research in ammonia as a hydrogen carrier are outlined....

  14. A high-sensitivity chemical sensor based on titania coated optical-fiber long period grating for ammonia sensing in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, D.; James, S. W.; Tatam, R. P.; Korposh, S.; Lee, S. W.

    2015-07-01

    Two highly sensitive ammonia sensors, formed by depositing coatings composed of titanium dioxide (TiO2) onto the cladding of an optical fibre sensing platform, are evaluated. A long period grating (LPG) of period 111 μm was fabricated in the core of an optical fibre so that the LPG operates at or near the phase matching turning point (PMTP). The first coating that was investigated was composed of TiO2 nanoparticles deposited by liquid phase deposition. The sensor showed high sensitivity and allowed low concentrations of ammonia in water (0.01 ppm) to be detected with a response time of less than 60 sec. The second coating was composed of TiO2 with subsequent layers of poly (allyamine hydrochloride) (PAH), and SiO2 nanospheres infused with a sensitive element composed of porphine. The ammonia adsorption to the porphine compound led to the changes in the LPG's transmission spectrum and allowed 0.1 ppm of ammonia in water to be detected with a response time of less than 60 sec.

  15. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help prevent seizures. If your condition or the baby’s condition worsens, prompt delivery will be needed. What steps can I take ... of the heart and blood vessels. Cesarean Delivery: Delivery of a baby through surgical incisions made in the mother’s abdomen ...

  16. Dirty Air, High Blood Pressure Linked

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应树道

    2001-01-01

    贵刊去年第6期曾刊登一短文,题目是:盐,迫升血压之元凶。读了该文,我开始严格控制每日的食盐摄入量,再附以药物治疗,血压果然趋于平稳。近日上网,遇一奇文,意思是人的血压与空气污染状况有涉!根据对2600个成年人的调查,得出了这样的结论:Pollution may cause changes in the part of the nervous system that controls blood pressure.文章又同时说明:Exactly how pollution might cause blood pressure to climb remains unclear.人体之奥妙由此可见一斑。

  17. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... atrial fibrillation has more than five times the risk of stroke.” “Because high blood pressure is so frequent, affecting tens of millions of ... is a more potent risk factor.” The two risk factors are also related to each other: High blood pressure is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. Middle- ...

  18. What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications Updated:Jan 18,2017 Is medication ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  19. Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to a Heart Attack Updated:Dec ... sheet This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  20. Americans with High Blood Pressure Still Eating Too Much Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163977.html Americans With High Blood Pressure Still Eating Too Much Salt Average sodium intake ... March 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For Americans with high blood pressure, cutting back on salt is an important way ...

  1. Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure Updated:Mar 10,2017 Fighting back against the “ ... Follow us on Twitter Follow us on Facebook High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  2. Aerobic granules formation and simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal treating high strength ammonia wastewater in sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dong; Shi, Li; Yan, Tao; Zhang, Ge; Wang, Yifan; Du, Bin

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate aerobic granules formation and simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal treating high strength ammonia wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR). After successful aerobic granulation, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations of the SBR increased from 3.11 to 14.52 g/L, while sludge volume index (SVI) values decreased from 144.61 to 30.32 mL/g. Protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS) concentrations increased from 60.2 and 12.5 mg/L to 101.1 and 15.8 mg/L, respectively. Simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal was enhanced by altering the influent chemical oxygen demand/nitrogen (COD/N) ratio. At COD/N ratio of 9, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies were up to 89.8% and 77.5%, respectively. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) spectroscopy showed that the chemical compositions of sludge EPS were changed during granulation process. The results could provide useful information to promote nitrogen and phosphorus removal using aerobic granular sludge technology.

  3. Ammonia from cold high-mass clumps discovered in the inner Galactic disk by the ATLASGAL survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wienen, M; Schuller, F; Menten, K M; Walmsley, C M; Bronfman, L; Motte, F

    2012-01-01

    The APEX Telescope Large Area Survey: The Galaxy (ATLASGAL) is an unbiased continuum survey of the inner Galactic disk at 870 \\mu m. It covers +/- 60 deg in Galactic longitude and aims to find all massive clumps at various stages of high-mass star formation in the inner Galaxy, particularly the earliest evolutionary phases. We aim to determine properties such as the gas kinetic temperature and dynamics of new massive cold clumps found by ATLASGAL. Most importantly, we derived their kinematical distances from the measured line velocities. We observed the ammonia (J,K) = (1,1) to (3,3) inversion transitions toward 862 clumps of a flux-limited sample of submm clumps detected by ATLASGAL and extracted 13CO (1-0) spectra from the Galactic Ring Survey (GRS). We determined distances for a subsample located at the tangential points (71 sources) and for 277 clumps whose near/far distance ambiguity is resolved. Most ATLASGAL clumps are cold with rotational temperatures from 10-30 K. They have a wide range of NH3 linewi...

  4. Ruthenium nanoparticles confined in SBA-15 as highly efficient catalyst for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane and hydrazine borane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qilu; Lu, Zhang-Hui; Yang, Kangkang; Chen, Xiangshu; Zhu, Meihua

    2015-10-01

    Ultrafine ruthenium nanoparticles (NPs) within the mesopores of the SBA-15 have been successfully prepared by using a “double solvents” method, in which n-hexane is used as a hydrophobic solvent and RuCl3 aqueous solution is used as a hydrophilic solvent. After the impregnation and reduction processes, the samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, EDX, XPS, N2 adsorption-desorption, and ICP techniques. The TEM images show that small sized Ru NPs with an average size of 3.0 ± 0.8 nm are uniformly dispersed in the mesopores of SBA-15. The as-synthesized Ru@SBA-15 nanocomposites (NCs) display exceptional catalytic activity for hydrogen generation by the hydrolysis of ammonia borane (NH3BH3, AB) and hydrazine borane (N2H4BH3, HB) at room temperature with the turnover frequency (TOF) value of 316 and 706 mol H2 (mol Ru min)-1, respectively, relatively high values reported so far for the same reaction. The activation energies (Ea) for the hydrolysis of AB and HB catalyzed by Ru@SBA-15 NCs are measured to be 34.8 ± 2 and 41.3 ± 2 kJ mol-1, respectively. Moreover, Ru@SBA-15 NCs also show satisfied durable stability for the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of AB and HB, respectively.

  5. High performance vanadia-anatase nanoparticle catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Riisager, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    Highly active nanoparticle SCR deNO(x) catalysts composed of amorphous vanadia on crystalline anatase have been prepared by a sol-gel, co-precipitation method using decomposable crystallization seeds. The catalysts were characterized by means of XRPD, TEM/SEM, FT-IR, nitrogen physisorption and NH(3......)-TPD. Due to the high-surface area anatase particles, loading of 20 wt% vanadia could be obtained without exceeding monolayer coverage of V(2)O(5). This resulted in unprecedented high deNO(x) SCR activity corresponding to a factor of two compared to an industrial reference and to other V(2)O(5)/TiO(2...

  6. Physisorption of ammonia on AISI 304L stainless steel at different surface temperature under high vacuum conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Castro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The physisorption of ammonia molecules (sticking on the walls of a stainless steel pipe (AISI 304L has been studied at different wall temperatures (323-473K. The total amount of ammonia that is retained on the walls, once equilibrium is reached, has been measured by differentially-pumped mass spectrometry in gas exposure laboratory experiments. The results show ammonia retentions in the range of μg/cm2 resulting in a multilayer adsorption with lower amounts of stuck ammonia at higher temperatures of the stainless steel surface. The sticking coefficient follows an exponential decay evolution with time. The activation energy of the process has been estimated by an Arrhenius fit, assuming that the characteristic time for this decay is inversely proportional to the kinetic adsorption constant. A value of 0.15eV per ammonia molecule has been obtained, being in agreement with nominal values for the physisorption of small molecules or atoms (CO, N2, Ar… that can be found in the specialized literature. The implication of these results in the possible extrapolation to the ITER vacuum system under nitrogen seeded plasma operation is also addressed.

  7. Highly dispersed iron species created on alkali-treated zeolite for ammonia SCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ma; Duan Weng; Xiaodong Wu; Zhichun Si; Zhenwei Wu

    2013-01-01

    Alkaline treatment using sodium hydroxide was introduced to obtain a hierarchical pore structure in H-ZSM-5 zeolite. Fe-exchanged zeolite catalysts were prepared by impregnation on the original and alkali-treated zeolites, and were evaluated for NOx reduction by NH3, NO oxidation, and NH3 oxidation reactions. The highly dispersed iron species as active sites can be obtained by controlling the pore structure and particle size of zeolite. Therefore, the Fe/ZSM-5 catalyst treated mildly by sodium hydroxide before iron exchange, which contains amounts of highly dispersed Fe species, obtains over 80% NOx conversion at a wide temperature range of 250-500 1C.

  8. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Krabbe, Hans G.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e. g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior st

  9. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Finck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives.

  10. Implication of potassium trimolybdate nanowires as highly sensitive and selective ammonia sensor at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Aditee C.; Gangal, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    Potassium trimolybdate nanowires are demonstrated as unique and highly selective NH3 sensing materials at room temperature. The nanowires were synthesized by using chemical route under normal ambient conditions and subsequently characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Gas sensors based on nanowires were fabricated by isolating and aligning nanowires between microspaced electrodes using dielectrophoresis. Room temperature gas sensing studies for different vapors indicated excellent selectivity for NH3 and capability to detect NH3 at concentrations down to ppb level. The sensors exhibited higher sensitivity for concentration range much below toxic limit of NH3 from 500 ppb up to 25 ppm. Since nanowires are isolated and aligned, the gas sensing reaction is rapid, and the availability of abundant oxide and hydroxyl surface groups on nanowires surface makes the reaction significantly prominent and selective with highly reducing nature of NH3.

  11. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  12. Bioaugmentation of an acetate-oxidising anaerobic consortium in up-flow sludge blanket reactor subjected to high ammonia loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    growth of the culture. The incubation period (duration of lag+exponential phase) of SAO culture was reduced more than 30% when it was cocultivated with Methanoculleus bourgensis, in fed-batch reactors. Therefore, the bioaugmentation of the SAO culture along with Methanoculleus bourgensis in a UASB......Ammonia is the major inhibitor of anaerobic digestion (AD) process leading to suboptimal utilisation of the biogas potential of the feedstocks and causing economical losses to the biogas plants. However, ammonia is mainly inhibiting the aceticlastic methanogens, while the hydrogenotrophic...

  13. Biohydrogen production from combined dark-photo fermentation under a high ammonia content in the dark fermentation effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chun-Yen [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Sustainable Environment Research Center; Lo, Yung-Chung; Yeh, Kuei-Ling [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chang, Jo-Shu [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Sustainable Environment Research Center; National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Microalgae Biotechnology and Bioengineering Lab.

    2010-07-01

    Integrated dark and photo (two-stage) fermentation was employed to enhance the performance of H{sub 2} production. First, the continuous dark fermentation using indigenous Clostridium butyricum CGS5 was carried out at 12 h HRT and fed with sucrose at a concentration of 18750 mg/l. The overall H{sub 2} production rate and H{sub 2} yield were fairly stable with a mean value of 87.5 ml/l/h and 1.015 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose, respectively. In addition, a relatively high ammonia nitrogen content (574 mg/l) in the dark fermentation effluent was observed. The soluble metabolites from dark fermentation, consisting mainly of butyric, lactic and acetic acids, were directly used as the influent of continuous photo-H{sub 2} production process inoculated with Rhodopseudomonas palutris WP 3-5 under the condition of 35oC, 10000 lux irradiation, pH 7.0 and 48 h HRT. The maximum overall hydrogen production rate from photo fermentation was 16.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h, and the utilization of the soluble metabolites could reach 90%. The maximum H{sub 2} yield dramatically increased from 1.015 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose (in dark fermentation only) to 6.04 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose in the combined dark and photo fermentation. Surprisingly, the operation strategy applied in this work was able to attain an average NH{sub 3}-N removal efficiency of 92%, implying that our photo-H{sub 2} production system has a higher NH{sub 3}-N tolerance, demonstrating its high applicability in an integrated dark-photo fermentation system. (orig.)

  14. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin F.; Madsen, Claus; Olsen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) concept allows for a high efficiency of a heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept consists of two water storage tanks, one charged and one discharged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process, while the discharged tank...... modelling of the heat pump and tank system is performed (in continuation of Part I). The modelling is extended to include the system performance with different natural refrigerants and the influence of different types of compressors....... is charging. The charging of the tank is done by recirculating water through the condenser and thereby gradually heating the water. The modelling of the system is described in Part I [1]. In this part, Part II, an experimental test setup of the tank system is reported, the results are presented and further...

  15. Ammonia Synthesis at Low Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussler, Edward; McCormick, Alon; Reese, Michael; Malmali, Mahdi

    2017-08-23

    Ammonia can be synthesized at low pressure by the use of an ammonia selective absorbent. The process can be driven with wind energy, available locally in areas requiring ammonia for synthetic fertilizer. Such wind energy is often called "stranded," because it is only available far from population centers where it can be directly used. In the proposed low pressure process, nitrogen is made from air using pressure swing absorption, and hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water. While these gases can react at approximately 400 °C in the presence of a promoted conventional catalyst, the conversion is often limited by the reverse reaction, which makes this reaction only feasible at high pressures. This limitation can be removed by absorption on an ammine-like calcium or magnesium chloride. Such alkaline metal halides can effectively remove ammonia, thus suppressing the equilibrium constraints of the reaction. In the proposed absorption-enhanced ammonia synthesis process, the rate of reaction may then be controlled not by the chemical kinetics nor the absorption rates, but by the rate of the recycle of unreacted gases. The results compare favorably with ammonia made from a conventional small scale Haber-Bosch process.

  16. Comparison of UV and high-energy ion irradiation of methanol:ammonia ice

    CERN Document Server

    Caro, G M Munoz; Boduch, P; Rothard, H; Domaracka, A; Jimenez-Escobar, A

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to compare the effects induced in ices of astrophysical relevance by high-energy ions, simulating cosmic rays, and by vacuum ultraviolet (UV) photons. This comparison relies on in situ infrared spectroscopy of irradiated CH3OH:NH3 ice. Swift heavy ions were provided by the GANIL accelerator. The source of UV was a microwave-stimulated hydrogen flow discharge lamp. The deposited energy doses were similar for ion beams and UV photons to allow a direct comparison. A variety of organic species was detected during irradiation and later during ice warm-up. These products are common to ion and UV irradiation for doses up to a few tens of eV per molecule. Only the relative abundance of the CO product, after ice irradiation, was clearly higher in the ion irradiation experiments. For some ice mixture compositions, the irradiation products formed depend only weakly on the type of irradiation, swift heavy ions, or UV photons. This simplifies the chemical modeling of energetic ice processing ...

  17. VLA observations of ammonia in high-mass star formation regions

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xing; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Wang, Junzhi; Gu, Qiusheng

    2014-01-01

    We report systematic mapping observations of the NH$_{3}$ (1,1) and (2,2) inversion lines towards 62 high-mass star-forming regions using VLA in its D and DnC array configurations. The VLA images cover a spatial dynamic range from 40$"$ to 3$"$, allowing us to trace gas kinematics from $\\sim$1 pc scales to $\\lesssim$0.1 pc scales. Based on the NH$_3$ morphology and the infrared nebulosity on 1\\,pc scales, we categorize three sub-classes in the sample: filaments, hot cores, and NH$_3$ dispersed sources. The ubiquitous gas filaments found on 1 pc scales have a typical width of $\\sim$0.1\\,pc and often contain regularly spaced fragments along the major axis. The spacing of the fragments and the column densities are consistent with the turbulent supported fragmentation of cylinders. Several sources show multiple filaments that converge toward a center, where the velocity field in the filaments is consistent with gas flows. We derive rotational temperature maps for the entire sample. For the three hot core sources,...

  18. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that are naturally low in salt, cholesterol, and saturated fats. You will also include foods that are high ... AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of ...

  19. How Is High Blood Cholesterol Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for total and HDL cholesterol does not require fasting. If your total cholesterol is 200 mg/dL ... triglyceride level include: Overweight and obesity Lack of physical activity Cigarette smoking Excessive alcohol use A very high ...

  20. How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... natural sources of potassium. For example, a medium banana has about 420 mg of potassium and half ... high blood pressure. Learn more Get a fact sheet on following a heart-healthy diet: English | Spanish ...

  1. Very large array observations of ammonia in high-mass star formation regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xing; Gu, Qiusheng [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093 (China); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Liu, Hauyu Baobab [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Wang, Junzhi [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2014-08-01

    We report systematic mapping observations of the NH{sub 3} (1, 1) and (2, 2) inversion lines toward 62 high-mass star-forming regions using the Very Large Array (VLA) in its D and DnC array configurations. The VLA images cover a spatial dynamic range from 40'' to 3'', allowing us to trace gas kinematics from ∼1 pc scales to ≲0.1 pc scales. Based on the NH{sub 3} morphology and the infrared nebulosity on 1 pc scales, we categorize three subclasses in the sample: filaments, hot cores, and NH{sub 3}-dispersed sources. The ubiquitous gas filaments found on 1 pc scales have a typical width of ∼0.1 pc and often contain regularly spaced fragments along the major axis. The spacing of the fragments and the column densities is consistent with the turbulent supported fragmentation of cylinders. Several sources show multiple filaments that converge toward a center where the velocity field in the filaments is consistent with gas flows. We derive rotational temperature maps for the entire sample. For the three hot core sources, we find a projected radial temperature distribution that is best fit by power-law indices from –0.18 to –0.35. We identify 174 velocity-coherent ∼0.1 pc scale dense cores from the entire sample. The mean physical properties for these cores are 1.1 km s{sup –1} in intrinsic linewidth, 18 K in NH{sub 3} rotational temperature, 2.3 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup –2} in NH{sub 3} gas column density, and 67 M{sub ☉} in molecular mass. The dense cores identified from the filamentary sources are closer to being virialized. Dense cores in the other two categories of sources appear to be dynamically unstable.

  2. Water soluble laurate-stabilized ruthenium(0) nanoclusters catalyst for hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of ammonia-borane: High activity and long lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durap, Feyyaz; Zahmakiran, Mehmet; Oezkar, Saim [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    The simplest amine-borane, considered as solid hydrogen storage material, ammonia-borane (H{sub 3}NBH{sub 3}) can release hydrogen gas upon catalytic hydrolysis under mild conditions. Herein, we report the preparation of a novel catalyst, water dispersible laurate-stabilized ruthenium(0) nanoclusters from the dimethylamine-borane reduction of ruthenium(III) chloride in sodium laurate solution at room temperature. The ruthenium nanoclusters in average size of 2.6 {+-} 1.2 nm were isolated from the solution and well characterized by using TEM, XPS, FTIR, and UV-visible electronic absorption spectroscopy. The water dispersible laurate-stabilized ruthenium(0) nanoclusters were found to be highly active and long-live catalyst with a TOF of 75 mol H{sub 2}/mol Ru.min and TTO value of 5900 mol H{sub 2}/mol Ru in the hydrolysis of ammonia-borane at 25.0 {+-} 0.1 C. (author)

  3. Urease inhibitor for reducing ammonia emissions from an open-lot beef cattle feedyard in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations is important from the perspective of environmental policy and its impact on agriculture. In laboratory studies, urease inhibitors have been effective in reducing NH3 emissions from beef cattle manure, however there has been little t...

  4. Single-catalyst high-weight% hydrogen storage in an N-heterocycle synthesized from lignin hydrogenolysis products and ammonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forberg, Daniel; Schwob, Tobias; Zaheer, Muhammad; Friedrich, Martin; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Kempe, Rhett

    2016-01-01

    ... bimetallic catalyst has been developed, which is able to hydrogenate and dehydrogenate N-heterocycles most efciently. Furthermore, a particular N-heterocycle has been identied that can be synthesized catalytically in one step from the main lignin hydrogenolysis product and ammonia, and in which the new bimetallic catalyst allows multiple cycles of...

  5. Nitrifying Community Analysis in a Single Submerged Attached-Growth Bioreactor for Treatment of High-Ammonia Waste Stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, April Z.; Pedros, Philip B; Kristiansen, Anja

    2007-01-01

    from the system because of the free ammonia inhibition and the possibility that the aeration period (from intermittent aeration) was not sufficiently long for the NOB to be released from the competition for oxygen with heterotrophs and AOB. The nitrogen removal via nitrite in a SAGB reactor described...

  6. Highly sensitive room-temperature surface acoustic wave (SAW) ammonia sensors based on Co₃O₄/SiO₂ composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong-Liang; Li, Zhi-Jie; Ma, Jin-Yi; Su, Hai-Qiao; Guo, Yuan-Jun; Wang, Lu; Du, Bo; Chen, Jia-Jun; Zhou, Weilie; Yu, Qing-Kai; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2014-09-15

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors based on Co3O4/SiO2 composite sensing films for ammonia detection were investigated at room temperature. The Co3O4/SiO2 composite films were deposited onto ST-cut quartz SAW resonators by a sol-gel method. SEM and AFM characterizations showed that the films had porous structures. The existence of SiO2 was found to enhance the ammonia sensing property of the sensor significantly. The sensor based on a Co3O4/SiO2 composite film, with 50% Co3O4 loading, which had the highest RMS value (3.72), showed the best sensing property. It exhibited a positive frequency shift of 3500 Hz to 1 ppm ammonia as well as excellent selectivity, stability and reproducibility at room temperature. Moreover, a 37% decrease in the conductance of the composite film as well as a positive frequency shift of 12,500 Hz were observed when the sensor was exposed to 20 ppm ammonia, indicating the positive frequency shift was derived from the decrease in film conductance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Size reduction of ammonia scrubbers for pig and poultry houses: Use of conditional bypass vent at high air loading rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Mosquera, J.

    2006-01-01

    In The Netherlands, both acid and biological air scrubbers are used for removal of ammonia from exhaust air at pig and poultry houses. Current regulations require that scrubbers are dimensioned for treating the maximum airflow rate that may occur, so on average these systems are overdimensioned and

  8. High blood pressure in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossello, Enrico; Simoni, David

    2016-06-22

    High blood pressure and cognitive impairment often coexist in old age, but their pathophysiological association is complex. Several longitudinal studies have shown that high blood pressure at midlife is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia, although this association is much less clear in old age. The effect of blood pressure lowering in reducing the risk of dementia is only borderline significant in clinical trials of older subjects, partly due to the insufficient follow-up time. Conversely, dementia onset is associated with a decrease of blood pressure values, probably secondary to neurodegeneration. Prognostic effect of blood pressure values in cognitively impaired older subjects is still unclear, with aggressive blood pressure lowering being potentially harmful in this patients category. Brief cognitive screening, coupled with simple motor assessment, are warranted to identify frail older subjects who need a more cautious approach to antihypertensive treatment. Values obtained with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring seem more useful than clinical ones to predict the outcome of cognitively impaired older subjects. Future studies should identify the most appropriate blood pressure targets in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

  9. Classification of High Blood Pressure Persons Vs Normal Blood Pressure Persons Using Voice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The human voice is remarkable, complex and delicate. All parts of the body play some role in voice production and may be responsible for voice dysfunction. The larynx contains muscles that are surrounded by blood vessels connected to circulatory system. The pressure of blood in these vessels should be related with dynamic variation of vocal cord parameters. These parameters are directly related with acoustic properties of speech. Acoustic voice analysis can be used to characterize the pathological voices. This paper presents the classification of high blood pressure and normal with the aid of voice signal recorded from the patients. Various features have been extracted from the voice signal of healthy persons and persons suffering from high blood pressure. Simulation results show differences in the parameter values of healthy and pathological persons. Then an optimum feature vector is prepared and kmean classification algorithm was implemented for data classification. The 79% classification efficiency was obtained.

  10. PRETREATMENT AND FRACTIONATION OF CORN STOVER BY AMMONIA RECYCLE PERCOLATION PROCESS. (R831645)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn stover was pretreated with aqueous ammonia in a flow-through column reactor,a process termed as Ammonia Recycle Percolation (ARP). The aqueous ammonia causesswelling and efficient delignification of biomass at high temperatures. The ARPprocess solubilizes abou...

  11. Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, George J; Nuñez, Alberto; Garcia, Rafael A

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic polymeric flocculants are used extensively for wastewater remediation, soil stabilization, and reduction in water leakage from unlined canals. Sources of highly active, inexpensive, renewable flocculants are needed to replace synthetic flocculants. High kaolin flocculant activity was documented for bovine blood (BB) and blood plasma with several anticoagulant treatments. BB serum also had high flocculant activity. To address the hypothesis that some blood proteins have strong flocculating activity, the BB proteins were separated by SEC. Then, the major proteins of the flocculant-active fractions were separated by SDS-PAGE. Identity of the major protein components was determined by tryptic digestion and peptide analysis by MALDI TOF MS. The sequence of selected peptides was confirmed using TOF/TOF-MS/MS fragmentation. Hemoglobin dimer (subunits α and β) was identified as the major protein component of the active fraction in BB; its high flocculation activity was confirmed by testing a commercial sample of hemoglobin. In the same manner, three proteins from blood plasma (fibrinogen, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin) were found to be highly active flocculants, but bovine serum albumin, α-globulin, and β-globulin were not flocculants. On a mass basis, hemoglobin, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin were as effective as anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), a widely used synthetic flocculant. The blood proteins acted faster than PAM, and unlike PAM, the blood proteins flocculants did not require calcium salts for their activity.

  12. Implementation of flowsheet change to minimize hydrogen and ammonia generation during chemical processing of high level waste in the defense waste processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Dan P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Woodham, Wesley H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, Matthew S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. David [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Luther, Michelle C. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Brandenburg, Clayton H. [Univ.of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Testing was completed to develop a chemical processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), designed to vitrify and stabilize high level radioactive waste. DWPF processing uses a reducing acid (formic acid) and an oxidizing acid (nitric acid) to rheologically thin the slurry and complete the necessary acid base and reduction reactions (primarily mercury and manganese). Formic acid reduces mercuric oxide to elemental mercury, allowing the mercury to be removed during the boiling phase of processing through steam stripping. In runs with active catalysts, formic acid can decompose to hydrogen and nitrate can be reduced to ammonia, both flammable gases, due to rhodium and ruthenium catalysis. Replacement of formic acid with glycolic acid eliminates the generation of rhodium- and ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogen and ammonia. In addition, mercury reduction is still effective with glycolic acid. Hydrogen, ammonia and mercury are discussed in the body of the report. Ten abbreviated tests were completed to develop the operating window for implementation of the flowsheet and determine the impact of changes in acid stoichiometry and the blend of nitric and glycolic acid as it impacts various processing variables over a wide processing region. Three full-length 4-L lab-scale simulations demonstrated the viability of the flowsheet under planned operating conditions. The flowsheet is planned for implementation in early 2017.

  13. The CRIRES Search for Planets Around the Lowest-Mass Stars. I. High-Precision Near-Infrared Radial Velocities with an Ammonia Gas Cell

    CERN Document Server

    Bean, Jacob L; Hartman, Henrik; Nilsson, Hampus; Wiedemann, Guenter; Reiners, Ansgar; Dreizler, Stefan; Henry, Todd J

    2009-01-01

    Radial velocities measured from near-infrared spectra are a potentially powerful tool to search for planets around cool stars and sub-stellar objects. However, no technique currently exists that yields near-infrared radial velocity precision comparable to that which is routinely obtained in the visible. We describe a method for measuring high-precision relative radial velocities of cool stars from K-band spectra. The method makes use of a glass cell filled with ammonia gas to calibrate the spectrograph response similar to the iodine cell technique that has been used so successfully in the visible. Stellar spectra are obtained through the ammonia cell and modeled as the product of a Doppler-shifted template spectrum of the object and a spectrum of the cell, convolved with a variable instrumental profile model. A complicating factor is that a significant number of telluric absorption lines are present in the spectral regions containing useful stellar and ammonia lines. The telluric lines are modeled simultaneou...

  14. Implementation of flowsheet change to minimize hydrogen and ammonia generation during chemical processing of high level waste in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Dan P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Woodham, Wesley H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, Matthew S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. David [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Luther, Michelle C. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Brandenburg, Clayton H. [Univ.of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Testing was completed to develop a chemical processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), designed to vitrify and stabilize high level radioactive waste. DWPF processing uses a reducing acid (formic acid) and an oxidizing acid (nitric acid) to rheologically thin the slurry and complete the necessary acid base and reduction reactions (primarily mercury and manganese). Formic acid reduces mercuric oxide to elemental mercury, allowing the mercury to be removed during the boiling phase of processing through steam stripping. In runs with active catalysts, formic acid can decompose to hydrogen and nitrate can be reduced to ammonia, both flammable gases, due to rhodium and ruthenium catalysis. Replacement of formic acid with glycolic acid eliminates the generation of rhodium- and ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogen and ammonia. In addition, mercury reduction is still effective with glycolic acid. Hydrogen, ammonia and mercury are discussed in the body of the report. Ten abbreviated tests were completed to develop the operating window for implementation of the flowsheet and determine the impact of changes in acid stoichiometry and the blend of nitric and glycolic acid as it impacts various processing variables over a wide processing region. Three full-length 4-L lab-scale simulations demonstrated the viability of the flowsheet under planned operating conditions. The flowsheet is planned for implementation in early 2017.

  15. A novel control method for nitritation: The domination of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria by high concentrations of inorganic carbon in an airlift-fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokutomi, Takaaki; Shibayama, Chizu; Soda, Satoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2010-07-01

    A novel nitritation method based on the addition of inorganic carbon (IC) was verified using an airlift-fluidized bed reactor packed with sponge cubes. A continuous-treatment experiment demonstrated that the type of nitrification-nitrite or nitrate accumulation-could be controlled by the addition of different alkalinity sources (NaHCO(3) or NaOH, respectively). The maximum rate of ammonia oxidation at 30 degrees C was 2.47kg-N/(m(3) d), with nitrate formation of less than 0.5% of the converted ammonia. Nitrite accumulation of over 90% was maintained stably over 250 days at 30 degrees C and was achieved even at 19 degrees C. Qualitative and quantitative shifts of nitrifying bacteria in the biofilm were monitored by real-time PCR and T-RFLP analysis. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were dominant but nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were eliminated in the reactor when NaHCO(3) was used as the alkalinity source. From the kinetic data, we inferred that high IC concentrations drive stable nitritation by promoting a higher growth rate for AOB than for NOB.

  16. Association of running manner with bacterial community dynamics in a partial short-term nitrifying bioreactor for treatment of piggery wastewater with high ammonia content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei-Li; Huang, Qiang; Miao, Li-Li; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2016-12-01

    Optimization of running parameters in a bioreactor requires detailed understanding of microbial community dynamics during the startup and running periods. Using a novel piggery wastewater treatment system termed "UASB + SHARON + ANAMMOX" constructed in our laboratory, we investigated microbial community dynamics using the Illumina MiSeq method, taking activated sludge samples at ~2-week intervals during a ~300-day period. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were further investigated by quantification of AOB amoA genes and construction of gene clone libraries. Major changes in bacterial community composition and dynamics occurred when running manner was changed from continuous flow manner (CFM) to sequencing batch manner (SBM), and when effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for practical treatment of real piggery wastewater was used as influent; differences among these three experimental groups were significant (R (2)  = 0.94, p level thereafter. Relative abundance of the genus Nitrosomonas increased from ~0.67 % during the CFM period to 8.0 % by day 220, and thereafter decreased to a near-constant ~1.6 %. Environmental factors such as load ammonia, effluent ammonia, effluent nitrite, UASB effluent, pH, and DO levels collectively drove bacterial community dynamics and contributed to maintenance of effluent NH4 (+)-N/NO2 (-)-N ratio ~1. Theses results might provide useful clues for the control of the startup processes and maintaining high efficiency of such bioreactors.

  17. Screening of plants from diversified natural grasslands for their potential to combine high digestibility, and low methane and ammonia production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheboeuf, D; Coudert, L; Bergeault, R; Lalière, G; Niderkorn, V

    2014-11-01

    A total of 156 plant species from 35 botanical families collected from diversified grasslands in the French Massif Central were screened in vitro for their potential to combine high nutritive value for ruminants and a reduced impact on the environment. The vegetative part of plants were analyzed for their chemical composition and incubated in a batch system containing buffered rumen fluid at 39°C for 24 h. The gas production and composition were recorded, and the fermentation end-product concentrations in the incubation medium and the in vitro true organic matter digestibility (IVTOMD) were determined. The results were expressed relative to perennial ryegrass (PRG) values used as a reference. We observed that no relationship between methane (CH4) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) was evidenced for 12 plants, the fermentation of these plants producing significantly less CH4 for a similar level of VFA production. In all, 13 plants showed 50% less CH4 production per unit of organic matter truly digested (OMTD) than PRG. Among these plants, two reduced CH4 by more than 80% and four species had an IVTOMD higher than 80%. The underlying modes of action seem to be different among plants: some result in an accumulation of H2 in the fermentation gas, but others do not. In terms of nitrogen (N) use efficiency, the fermentation of 37 plants halved the ratio between ammonia (N-NH3) and plant N content compared with PRG, of which six showed a complete absence of N-NH3 in the medium. Among these plants, four maintained the IVTDMO at values not significantly different from PRG (P>0.05). Considering the multi-criteria selection, 16 plants showed simultaneously a reduction of more than 80% in N-NH3 production and 30% in CH4 emission per unit of OMTD compared with PRG, including three with an IVTOMD higher than 80%. Overall, the botanical families that reduced simultaneously CH4 and N-NH3 most efficiently were the Rosaceae, Onagraceae, Polygonaceae and Dipsacaceae. The Onagraceae also

  18. Highly sensitive detection of Staphylococcus aureus directly from patient blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmapriya P Banada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid detection of bloodstream infections (BSIs can be lifesaving. We investigated the sample processing and assay parameters necessary for highly-sensitive detection of bloodstream bacteria, using Staphylococcus aureus as a model pathogen and an automated fluidic sample processing-polymerase chain reaction (PCR platform as a model diagnostic system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared a short 128 bp amplicon hemi-nested PCR and a relatively shorter 79 bp amplicon nested PCR targeting the S. aureus nuc and sodA genes, respectively. The sodA nested assay showed an enhanced limit of detection (LOD of 5 genomic copies per reaction or 10 colony forming units (CFU per ml blood over 50 copies per reaction or 50 CFU/ml for the nuc assay. To establish optimal extraction protocols, we investigated the relative abundance of the bacteria in different components of the blood (white blood cells (WBCs, plasma or whole blood, using the above assays. The blood samples were obtained from the patients who were culture positive for S. aureus. Whole blood resulted in maximum PCR positives with sodA assay (90% positive as opposed to cell-associated bacteria (in WBCs (71% samples positive or free bacterial DNA in plasma (62.5% samples positive. Both the assays were further tested for direct detection of S. aureus in patient whole blood samples that were contemporaneous culture positive. S. aureus was detected in 40/45 of culture-positive patients (sensitivity 89%, 95% CI 0.75-0.96 and 0/59 negative controls with the sodA assay (specificity 100%, 95% CI 0.92-1. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a highly sensitive two-hour assay for detection of sepsis causing bacteria like S. aureus directly in 1 ml of whole blood, without the need for blood culture.

  19. The effect of outside conditions on anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Min; WANG Shu-bo

    2016-01-01

    Organic carbon, inorganic carbon, temperature, pH and ORP are all to have a certain influence on the anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction. We can draw some conclusions on the optimum conditions of anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction. The optimum temperature of the anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction is 30-35℃. And the optimum pH of the anaerobic ammonia reaction is 7.5-8.3. The presence of organic matters can affect the anaerobic ammonia reaction, and different organic matters have different influence on it. The concentration of the inorganic carbon also exist great influence on the reaction. High inorganic carbon concentration also can inhibit anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction.

  20. A Clinical study on the Safety Evaluation of Blood Ammonia Detection in Parenteral Nutrition for Premature Infants%血氨检测对早产儿胃肠外营养安全评估的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯彬彬; 肖娟; 曹蓓; 王鷁超; 谭浩; 李素萍; 曾云清; 彭湘莲; 龚瑾; 侯皓

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨血氨检测在早产儿胃肠外营养安全评估的价值,为早产儿早期营养支持与诊治提供临床检测依据。方法:随机选取2012年7月1日~2014年6月30日在我院妇产科出生后24小时内需胃肠外营养的早产儿56例作为实验组,选取同期出生的24例无需胃肠外营养的早产儿作为对照组。对照组患儿给予早产儿配方奶粉或母乳喂养,实验组给予等量的胃肠外营养支持。分别测定两组早产儿治疗前、治疗后2d、7d 及出院时的血氨、尿素氮、胆红素和前白蛋白等生化指标数据,比较实验组与对照组早产儿治疗期间的血氨水平变化差异。结果:两组早产儿治疗前临床资料无明显差异,治疗后第2天实验组与对照组早产儿生化指标中血氨水平和胆红素出现显著统计学差异;治疗第7天实验组与对照组早产儿生化指标中血氨水平和尿素氮指标有显著性差异。在患儿出院时实验组与对照组早产儿的血氨、尿素氮、前白蛋白、胆红素等生化指标均无明显差异。结论:早产儿胃肠外营养支持与母乳喂养早产儿的血氨指标具有明显的差异,可将血氨检测作为早产儿胃肠外营养支持安全评估的评价指标。%Objective To evaluate the safety of blood ammonia detection in parenteral nutrition for premature infants so as to provide the clinical detection basis for early nutritional support and treatment of premature infants. Methods 56 premature infants who needed parenteral nutrition within 24 hours after their birth were randomly selected in our hospital from July 1st, 2012 to June 30th, 2014 and set as the experimental group, whereas 24 cases of premature infants born in the same period with-out the need of parenteral nutrition were set as the control group. The preterm infants in the control group were given powdered formulas or breastfed,while the infants in experimental group were given the

  1. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide removal using biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from livestock facilities is an important issue for many communities and livestock producers. Ammonia has been regarded as odorous, precursor for particulate matter (PM), and contributed to livestock mortality. Hydrogen sulfide is highly toxic at elev...

  2. Chilled ammonia process for CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; van Well, Willy J. M

    2009-01-01

    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2-10 degrees C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows...

  3. Racial differences in hypertension: implications for high blood pressure management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackland, Daniel T

    2014-08-01

    The racial disparity in hypertension and hypertension-related outcomes has been recognized for decades with African Americans with greater risks than Caucasians. Blood pressure levels have consistently been higher for African Americans with an earlier onset of hypertension. Although awareness and treatment levels of high blood pressure have been similar, racial differences in control rates are evident. The higher blood pressure levels for African Americans are associated with higher rates of stroke, end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. The reasons for the racial disparities in elevated blood pressure and hypertension-related outcomes risk remain unclear. However, the implications of the disparities of hypertension for prevention and clinical management are substantial, identifying African American men and women with excel hypertension risk and warranting interventions focused on these differences. In addition, focused research to identify the factors attributed to these disparities in risk burden is an essential need to address the evidence gaps.

  4. Highly sensitive optical sensor system for blood leakage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Jie, Chen; Sanae, Mizuno; Touma, Yasunori

    A highly sensitive method for the detection of blood leakage has been developed, and a practical sensor system for blood concentration measurement has been constructed. The present method is based on the attenuation of laser light by blood cells. The effects of the fluctuations of the incident laser light power are eliminated by normalizing the attenuated light intensity by the incident light intensity. A part of the incident laser light is reflected by a beam splitter mounted at the entrance of the test cell, of which the power is measured to provide base data for normalization. The optical path is extended to enhance sensitivity by using a pair of side mirrors. This multi-reflection method is very effective to increase sensitivity; the maximum sensitivity obtained for blood concentration is about 4 X 10 -6 by volume, which is significantly higher than that of the conventional sensors.

  5. Viral metagenomics applied to blood donors and recipients at high risk for blood-borne infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Virginie; Laperche, Syria; Cheval, Justine; Muth, Erika; Dubois, Myriam; Boizeau, Laure; Hébert, Charles; Lionnet, François; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Eloit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background Characterisation of human-associated viral communities is essential for epidemiological surveillance and to be able to anticipate new potential threats for blood transfusion safety. In high-resource countries, the risk of blood-borne agent transmission of well-known viruses (HBV, HCV, HIV and HTLV) is currently considered to be under control. However, other unknown or unsuspected viruses may be transmitted to recipients by blood-derived products. To investigate this, the virome of plasma from individuals at high risk for parenterally and sexually transmitted infections was analysed by high throughput sequencing (HTS). Materials and methods Purified nucleic acids from two pools of 50 samples from recipients of multiple transfusions, and three pools containing seven plasma samples from either HBV−, HCV− or HIV-infected blood donors, were submitted to HTS. Results Sequences from resident anelloviruses and HPgV were evidenced in all pools. HBV and HCV sequences were detected in pools containing 3.8×103 IU/mL of HBV-DNA and 1.7×105 IU/mL of HCV-RNA, respectively, whereas no HIV sequence was found in a pool of 150 copies/mL of HIV-RNA. This suggests a lack of sensitivity in HTS performance in detecting low levels of virus. In addition, this study identified other issues, including laboratory contaminants and the uncertainty of taxonomic assignment of short sequence. No sequence suggestive of a new viral species was identified. Discussion This study did not identify any new blood-borne virus in high-risk individuals. However, rare and/or viruses present at very low titre could have escaped our protocol. Our results demonstrate the positive contribution of HTS in the detection of viral sequences in blood donations. PMID:27136432

  6. Leisure-Time Exercise Could Lower Your Risk of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Leisure-time exercise could lower your risk of high blood pressure American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report September ... copyright American Heart Association Download (1.4 MB) High Blood Pressure A high blood pressure reading. copyright American Heart ...

  7. High blood pressure in a semi-urban community in south-south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    High blood pressure (BP) is a leading cause of global burden of disease ... (9%), high blood glucose and physical inactivity (6% each) ... When the burden of high blood pressure disease was ... C was information on activity and sleep pattern,.

  8. Diffusion equilibrium for ammonia in the kidney of the acidotic dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W J; Balagura, S; Pitts, R F

    1967-10-01

    Inflow of preformed ammonia in arterial blood, renal production of ammonia, outflow of ammonia in renal venous blood, and urinary excretion of ammonia were measured during the infusion of (15)NH(4)Cl into one renal artery of dogs with chronic metabolic acidosis. Our results show that the specific activity of ammonia measured in the urine and that calculated in the renal pool agree within 95%. Pool specific activity is obtained by dividing the rate of infusion of isotope by the pool turnover rate, i.e., the sum of the rate of ammonia output in the urine and that in renal venous blood. An average of 35% of urinary ammonia is derived from arterial ammonia in these experiments. We conclude that ammonia is distributed evenly throughout all phases of the kidney within a period less than the transit time of blood through the kidney. Furthermore, from the proportion of urinary ammonia we found to be derived from preformed arterial ammonia (35%), and from our previous demonstration that 73% of urinary ammonia derives from deamidation and/or deamination of plasma glutamine, alanine, glycine, and glutamate, we can account for all of the ammonia that leaves the kidney in renal venous blood and in urine.

  9. Effect of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: High blood pressure is the most important risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure. Method: This study was quasi-experimentalwith apretest-posttest and control group design. The sample consisted of 30 patients with high blood pressure refering to Kangavar Healthcare center that were selected through convenience sampling and...

  10. Chagas disease, a risk factor for high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicco, Miguel Hernán; Rodeles, Luz; Yódice, Agustina; Marcipar, Iván

    2014-12-01

    Chagas disease is a parasite infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Its most common complications is chronic Chagas heart disease but impairments of the systemic vasculature also has been observed. Although the different mechanisms that regulate blood pressure are disrupted, to our knowledge data on the association of hypertension and chronic Chagas disease are scarce. In this regard we evaluate whether Chagas disease constitutes a high blood pressure risk factor. We recruited 200 individuals, half of them with positive serology for T. cruzi. They were subjected to a complete clinical examination. The mean age of sampled individuals was 46.7 ± 12.3, and the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 124 ± 12 mmHg and 82 ± 10 mmHg, respectively. There were no between-group differences regarding age, sex distribution or body mass index. Chagas disease contributed significantly to high blood pressure (OR = 4, 95% CI 1.8323-7.0864, p = 0.0002). Our results reveal an important association between Chagas disease and high blood pressure, which should be contemplated by physicians in order to promote preventive cardiovascular actions in patients with Chagas disease.

  11. High-resolution ultrasound imaging and noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of blood variables in peripheral blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is being widely used in clinics to obtain diagnostic information non-invasively and in real time. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging platform, Vevo (VisualSonics, Inc.) provides in vivo, real-time images with exceptional resolution (up to 30 microns) using high-frequency transducers (up to 80 MHz). Recently, we built optoacoustic systems for probing radial artery and peripheral veins that can be used for noninvasive monitoring of total hemoglobin concentration, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and concentration of important endogenous and exogenous chromophores (such as ICG). In this work we used the high-resolution ultrasound imaging system Vevo 770 for visualization of the radial artery and peripheral veins and acquired corresponding optoacoustic signals from them using the optoacoustic systems. Analysis of the optoacoustic data with a specially developed algorithm allowed for measurement of blood oxygenation in the blood vessels as well as for continuous, real-time monitoring of arterial and venous blood oxygenation. Our results indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic technique (unlike pure optical approaches and other noninvasive techniques) is capable of accurate peripheral venous oxygenation measurement; and 2) peripheral venous oxygenation is dependent on skin temperature and local hemodynamics. Moreover, we performed for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) a comparative study of optoacoustic arterial oximetry and a standard pulse oximeter in humans and demonstrated superior performance of the optoacoustic arterial oximeter, in particular at low blood flow.

  12. Application of a miniaturized photoacoustic cell for high-sensitivity laser detection of ammonia in gas media

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelik, A V

    2008-01-01

    We present a photoacoustic resonant cell, the internal volume of which is ~ 0.5 cm^3. The cavity shape of the cell is so adapted in order to minimize the background signal arising due to absorption of laser beam in the cell windows. An experimental setup, measurement procedure and design of the cell are described. Results of detection of ammonia in nitrogen flow with the help of a CO2-laser are represented. The minimal detectable absorption for the cell is estimated in the experiment to be ~ 5.1 cm^(-1) W Hz^(-1/2)

  13. Risk of cardiovascular events among women with high normal blood pressure or blood pressure progression: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Conen, David; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie E.; Glynn, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiovascular risk among women with high normal blood pressure (130-9/85-9 mm Hg) against those with normal blood pressure (120-9/75-84 mm Hg) and those with baseline hypertension.

  14. Risk of cardiovascular events among women with high normal blood pressure or blood pressure progression: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Conen, David; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie E.; Glynn, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiovascular risk among women with high normal blood pressure (130-9/85-9 mm Hg) against those with normal blood pressure (120-9/75-84 mm Hg) and those with baseline hypertension.

  15. Aging, High Altitude, and Blood Pressure: A Complex Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parati, Gianfranco; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Torlasco, Camilla; Salvi, Paolo; Lombardi, Carolina; Bilo, Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Parati, Gianfranco, Juan Eugenio Ochoa, Camilla Torlasco, Paolo Salvi, Carolina Lombardi, and Grzegorz Bilo. Aging, high altitude, and blood pressure: A complex relationship. High Alt Biol Med 16:97-109, 2015.--Both aging and high altitude exposure may induce important changes in BP regulation, leading to significant increases in BP levels. By inducing atherosclerotic changes, stiffening of large arteries, renal dysfunction, and arterial baroreflex impairment, advancing age may induce progressive increases in systolic BP levels, promoting development and progression of arterial hypertension. It is also known, although mainly from studies in young or middle-aged subjects, that exposure to high altitude may influence different mechanisms involved in BP regulation (i.e., neural central and reflex control of sympathetic activity), leading to important increases in BP levels. The evidence is less clear, however, on whether and to what extent advancing age may influence the BP response to acute or chronic high altitude exposure. This is a question not only of scientific interest but also of practical relevance given the consistent number of elderly individuals who are exposed for short time periods (either for leisure or work) or live permanently at high altitude, in whom arterial hypertension is frequently observed. This article will review the evidence available on the relationship between aging and blood pressure levels at high altitude, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this complex association, as well as some questions of practical interest regarding antihypertensive treatment in elderly subjects, and the effects of antihypertensive drugs on blood pressure response during high altitude exposure.

  16. Effect of glutamine synthetase inhibition on brain and interorgan ammonia metabolism in bile duct ligated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Andreas W; Dadsetan, Sherry; Keiding, Susanne; Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Simonsen, Mette; Ott, Peter; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Sørensen, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Ammonia has a key role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In the brain, glutamine synthetase (GS) rapidly converts blood-borne ammonia into glutamine which in high concentrations may cause mitochondrial dysfunction and osmolytic brain edema. In astrocyte-neuron cocultures and brains of healthy rats, inhibition of GS by methionine sulfoximine (MSO) reduced glutamine synthesis and increased alanine synthesis. Here, we investigate effects of MSO on brain and interorgan ammonia metabolism in sham and bile duct ligated (BDL) rats. Concentrations of glutamine, glutamate, alanine, and aspartate and incorporation of (15)NH(4)(+) into these amino acids in brain, liver, muscle, kidney, and plasma were similar in sham and BDL rats treated with saline. Methionine sulfoximine reduced glutamine concentrations in liver, kidney, and plasma but not in brain and muscle; MSO reduced incorporation of (15)NH(4)(+) into glutamine in all tissues. It did not affect alanine concentrations in any of the tissues but plasma alanine concentration increased; incorporation of (15)NH(4)(+) into alanine was increased in brain in sham and BDL rats and in kidney in sham rats. It inhibited GS in all tissues examined but only in brain was an increased incorporation of (15)N-ammonia into alanine observed. Liver and kidney were important for metabolizing blood-borne ammonia.

  17. National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

  18. Abnormal blood flow in the sublingual microcirculation at high altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, D.S.; Ince, C.; Goedhart, P.; Levett, D.Z.H.; Grocott, M.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first direct observations of deranged microcirculatory blood flow at high altitude, using sidestream dark-field imaging. Images of the sublingual microcirculation were obtained from a group of 12 volunteers during a climbing expedition to Cho Oyu (8,201 m) in the Himalayas.

  19. High speed optical holography of retinal blood flow

    CERN Document Server

    Pellizzari, Mathilde; Degardin, Julie; Sahel, Jose-Alain; Fink, Mathias; Paques, Michel; Atlan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We performed non-invasive video imaging of retinal blood flow in a pigmented rat by holographic interferometry of near-infrared laser light backscattered by retinal tissue, beating against an off-axis reference beam sampled at a frame rate of 39 kHz with a high throughput camera. Local Doppler contrasts emerged from the envelopes of short-time Fourier transforms and the phase of autocorrelation functions of holograms rendered by Fresnel transformation. This approach permitted imaging of blood flow in large retinal vessels (30 microns diameter) over 400 by 400 pixels with a spatial resolution of 8 microns and a temporal resolution of 6.5 ms.

  20. An in-line Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Using Thin-core Fiber for Ammonia Gas Sensing With High Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyue; Li, Xueming; Yang, Jianchun; Tao, Chuanyi; Guo, Xiaogang; Bao, Hebin; Yin, Yanjun; Chen, Huifei; Zhu, Yuhua

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia is an important indicator among environmental monitoring parameters. In this work, thin-core fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer deposited with poly (acrylic acid) (PAA), poly (allyamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH) sensing film for the detection of ammonia gas has been presented. The thin-core fiber modal interferometer was made by fusion splicing a small section of thin-core fiber (TCF) between two standard single mode fibers (SMF). A beam propagation method (BPM) is employed for the design of proposed interferometer and numerical simulation. Based on the simulation results, interferometer with a length of 2 cm of thin-core fiber is fabricated and experimentally studied. (PAH/PAA)2 + [PAH/(PAA + SWCNTs-COOH)]8 film is deposited on the outer surface of thin-core fiber via layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. The gas sensor coated with (PAH/PAA)2 + [PAH/(PAA + SWCNTs-COOH)]8 film towards NH3 gas exposure at concentrations range from 1 to 960 ppm are analyzed and the sensing capability is demonstrated by optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). Experimental results show that the characteristic wavelength shift has an approximately linear relationship in the range 1–20 ppm, which is in accordance with the numerical simulation. Thus, this paper reveals the potential application of this sensor in monitoring low concentration NH3 gas. PMID:28378783

  1. An in-line Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Using Thin-core Fiber for Ammonia Gas Sensing With High Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyue; Li, Xueming; Yang, Jianchun; Tao, Chuanyi; Guo, Xiaogang; Bao, Hebin; Yin, Yanjun; Chen, Huifei; Zhu, Yuhua

    2017-04-01

    Ammonia is an important indicator among environmental monitoring parameters. In this work, thin-core fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer deposited with poly (acrylic acid) (PAA), poly (allyamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH) sensing film for the detection of ammonia gas has been presented. The thin-core fiber modal interferometer was made by fusion splicing a small section of thin-core fiber (TCF) between two standard single mode fibers (SMF). A beam propagation method (BPM) is employed for the design of proposed interferometer and numerical simulation. Based on the simulation results, interferometer with a length of 2 cm of thin-core fiber is fabricated and experimentally studied. (PAH/PAA)2 + [PAH/(PAA + SWCNTs-COOH)]8 film is deposited on the outer surface of thin-core fiber via layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. The gas sensor coated with (PAH/PAA)2 + [PAH/(PAA + SWCNTs-COOH)]8 film towards NH3 gas exposure at concentrations range from 1 to 960 ppm are analyzed and the sensing capability is demonstrated by optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). Experimental results show that the characteristic wavelength shift has an approximately linear relationship in the range 1-20 ppm, which is in accordance with the numerical simulation. Thus, this paper reveals the potential application of this sensor in monitoring low concentration NH3 gas.

  2. High Resolution Observations of Molecular Lines in Arp 220: Kinematics, Morphology, and Limits on the Applicability of the Ammonia Thermometer

    CERN Document Server

    Zschaechner, Laura K; Walter, Fabian; Meyer, David S; Momjian, Emmanuel; Scoville, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We observe Arp 220, the nearest Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxy (ULIRG), over 4 GHz in the K and Ka bands. We provide constraints for the kinematics,morphology, and identify molecular species on scales resolving both nuclei (0.6" or 230 pc). We detect multiple molecular species, including hydroxyl in both cores. We tentatively detect H2O at 21.84 GHz in both nuclei, indicating the likely presence of maser emission. The observed frequency range also contains metastable ammonia transitions from (J,K) = (1,1) to (5,5), as well as the (9,9) inversion line, which, together are a well-known thermometer of dense molecular gas. Furthermore, the non-metastable (4,2) and (10,9) and possibly the (3,1) lines are also detected. We apply a standard temperature analysis to Arp 220. However, the analysis is complicated in that standard LTE assumptions do not hold. There are indications that a substantial fraction of ammonia could be in the non-metastable transitions as opposed to only the metastable ones. Thus, the non-metast...

  3. Biogas production from undiluted chicken manure and maize silage: A study of ammonia inhibition in high solids anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Banks, Charles J; Heaven, Sonia; Liu, Ronghou

    2016-10-01

    The feasibility of co-digestion of chicken manure (CM) and maize silage (MS) without water dilution was investigated in 5-L digesters. Specific methane production (SMP) of 0.309LCH4g(-1) volatile solids (VS) was achieved but only at lower %CM. Above a critical threshold for total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), estimated at 7gNL(-1), VFA accumulated with a characteristic increase in acetic acid followed by its reduction and an increase in propionic acid. During this transition the predominant methanogenic pathway was hydrogenotrophic. Methanogenesis was completely inhibited at TAN of 9gNL(-1). The low digestibility of the mixed feedstock led to a rise in digestate TS and a reduction in SMP over the 297-day experimental period. Methanogenesis appeared to be failing in one digester but was recovered by reducing the %CM. Co-digestion was feasible with CM ⩽20% of feedstock VS, and the main limiting factor was ammonia inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of Ammonia Emissions in a Ventilated Pig Pen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li

    Pig productions cause a wide emission of odors, such as ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and methane (CH4). Ammonia is one of the most important emissions for evaluating the air quality either in animal buildings or atmospheric environment. In studies of ammonia emission from animal buildings...... solution temperatures. The results show that the diffusive ceiling ventilation system can provide a relative low velocity in the pig pen and decrease ammonia emissions from the pig pen, but this ventilation system causes high ammonia concentration distribution in the animal occupied zone. Further, our...... reported in literature, little effort has been made to investigate the accuracy of current Henry’s law constant for modeling ammonia mass transfer process and study ammonia emissions in a full scale pig pen from fluid dynamics by CFD simulations. This will be the main objectives of this study. The ammonia...

  5. Nickel(0) nanoparticles supported on bare or coated cobalt ferrite as highly active, magnetically isolable and reusable catalyst for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Joydev; Akbayrak, Serdar; Özkar, Saim

    2017-08-16

    Nickel(0) nanoparticles supported on cobalt ferrite (Ni(0)/CoFe2O4), polydopamine coated cobalt ferrite (Ni(0)/PDA-CoFe2O4) or silica coated cobalt ferrite (Ni(0)/SiO2-CoFe2O4) are prepared and used as catalysts in hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of ammonia borane at room temperature. Ni(0)/CoFe2O4 (4.0% wt. Ni) shows the highest catalytic activity with a TOF value of 38.3min(-1) in hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of ammonia borane at 25.0±0.1°C. However, the initial catalytic activity of Ni(0)/CoFe2O4 catalyst is not preserved in subsequent runs of hydrolysis. Coating the surface of cobalt ferrite support with polydopamine or silica leads to a significant improvement in the stability of catalysts. The TOF values of Ni(0)/PDA-CoFe2O4 and Ni(0)/SiO2-CoFe2O4 are found to be 7.6 and 5.3min(-1), respectively, at 25.0±0.1°C. Ni(0)/PDA-CoFe2O4 catalyst shows high reusability as compared to the Ni(0)/CoFe2O4 and Ni(0)/SiO2-CoFe2O4 catalysts in hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane at room temperature. All the catalysts are characterized by using a combination of various advanced analytical techniques. The results reveal that nickel nanoparticles with an average size of 12.3±0.7nm are well dispersed on the surface of PDA-CoFe2O4. . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Levine, G.F. (California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services)

    1993-01-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  7. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Levine, G.F. [California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services

    1993-05-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  8. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Levine, G.F. [California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services

    1993-05-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  9. Ammonia transformation in a biotrickling air filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter; Nielsen, Marie Louise; Andersen, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    A simple, tubular biotrickling filter was designed for optimal removal of ammonia and odour in ventilation air from a pig house. The removal and transformation of ammonia was studied in detail by analysis and modelling of chemical gradients through the filter. Good correspondence between...... measurements and model was obtained by using conventional substrate and inhibition kinetics of ammonium and nitrite oxidizing bacteria. Highest rates of ammonia removal were observed in the central section of the filter. Near the air outlet and water inlet the process was ammonia limited, while high nitrous...... acid concentrations almost excluded any biological activity near the air inlet and water outlet. Nitrous acid inhibition also stabilized pH at 6.5-7 all through the filter. Being sensitive to both ammonia and nitrous acid the nitrite oxidation process occurred mainly in the filter sections near the air...

  10. Efficacy of flavonoids in the management of high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jaime L; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G

    2015-12-01

    Plant compounds such as flavonoids have been reported to exert beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Information on the effects of isolated individual flavonoids for management of high blood pressure, however, is more limited. This review is focused on the flavonoids, as isolated outside of the food matrix, from the 5 main subgroups consumed in the Western diet (flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins), along with their effects on hypertension, including the potential mechanisms for regulating blood pressure. Flavonoids from all 5 subgroups have been shown to attenuate a rise in or to reduce blood pressure during several pathological conditions (hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus). Flavones, flavonols, flavanones, and flavanols were able to modulate blood pressure by restoring endothelial function, either directly, by affecting nitric oxide levels, or indirectly, through other pathways. Quercetin had the most consistent blood pressure-lowering effect in animal and human studies, irrespective of dose, duration, or disease status. However, further research on the safety and efficacy of the flavonoids is required before any of them can be used by humans, presumably in supplement form, at the doses required for therapeutic benefit.

  11. Effect of the Ammonia Flow on the Formation of Microstructure Defects in GaN Layers Grown by High-Temperature Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchuk, M.; Lukin, G.; Zimmermann, F.; Röder, C.; Motylenko, M.; Pätzold, O.; Heitmann, J.; Kortus, J.; Rafaja, D.

    2016-12-01

    High-temperature vapor phase epitaxy (HTVPE) is a physical vapor transport technology for a deposition of gallium nitride (GaN) layers. However, little is known about the influence of the deposition parameters on the microstructure of the layers. In order to fill this gap, the influence of the ammonia (NH3) flow applied during the HTVPE growth on the microstructure of the deposited GaN layers is investigated in this work. Although the HTVPE technology is intended to grow GaN layers on foreign substrates, the GaN layers under study were grown on GaN templates produced by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy in order to be able to separate the growth defects from the defects induced by the lattice misfit between the foreign substrate and the GaN layer. The microstructure of the layers is characterized by means of high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence. In samples deposited at low ammonia flow, planar defects were detected, along which the nitrogen atoms are found to be substituted by impurity atoms. The interplay between these planar defects and the threading dislocations is discussed. A combination of XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy reveals the presence of compressive residual stress in the samples.

  12. The elusiveness of population-wide high blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Paul K

    2015-03-18

    High blood pressure (hypertension) is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is highly prevalent in the US general population, especially in those who are old, African American, or socially disadvantaged. Prevalence is also high and increasing worldwide. Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension have improved over time, but there is still considerable room for improvement. The optimal solution to this health challenge varies by country. Several nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions are well proven as effective means to prevent hypertension and improve control rates in those with established hypertension. Better prevention and control of hypertension will yield substantial general population health benefits and remain high priorities in public health.

  13. [Uncontrolled factors of blood pressure in essential hypertension: from "patient's high blood pressure" to "hypertensive patient"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

    2014-04-01

    Hypertension is a significant medical and public health issue which puts an enormous burden on health care resources and the community. It is a chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure (BP) is elevated. Serious complications including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases would be preventable if the rise in BP with age could be prevented or diminished. The majority of hypertensive patients require long-term treatment. Oral antihypertensive drugs, lifestyle modification including exercise and dietary modification are milestones for hypertension therapy. However, the control rate of hypertension hasn't reached the expected requirements currently. "Three lows" status quo, just low awareness, low treatment, and low control, are still the major problems confronting modern medicine. Recently, uncontrolled factors of blood pressure are widely concerned, which include insomnia, constipation, mood disorders, exogenous, etc. What's more, the control strategies of hypertension should not only pay close attention to "patient's high blood pressure", but also to "hypertensive patient". Therefore, the treatment of uncontrolled factors of blood pressure plays an important role in hypertensive therapy, which could be further research priorities.

  14. Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Nirla Gomes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Moreira, Rafaella Pessoa; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2010-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 310 individuals with high blood pressure. The prevalence of the diagnosis of sedentary lifestyle was 60%. The more common defining characteristics were "lack of physical conditioning" and "lack of practice for physical exercises." The nursing diagnosis was associated with age and presence of diabetes. Individuals who presented with a sedentary lifestyle related to lack of motivation were significantly younger. This study showed a high prevalence of "sedentary lifestyle" and its associations with age and the presence of diabetes. IMPLICATIONS TO NURSING PRACTICE: The acknowledgement of "sedentary lifestyle" contributes to the choice for nursing interventions that promote physical activity centered on the subject and the surroundings.

  15. A new paradigm for ammonia excretion in aquatic animals: role of Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M

    2009-08-01

    Ammonia excretion at the gills of fish has been studied for 80 years, but the mechanism(s) involved remain controversial. The relatively recent discovery of the ammonia-transporting function of the Rhesus (Rh) proteins, a family related to the Mep/Amt family of methyl ammonia and ammonia transporters in bacteria, yeast and plants, and the occurrence of these genes and glycosylated proteins in fish gills has opened a new paradigm. We provide background on the evolution and function of the Rh proteins, and review recent studies employing molecular physiology which demonstrate their important contribution to branchial ammonia efflux. Rhag occurs in red blood cells, whereas several isoforms of both Rhbg and Rhcg occur in many tissues. In the branchial epithelium, Rhcg appears to be localized in apical membranes and Rhbg in basolateral membranes. Their gene expression is upregulated during exposure to high environmental ammonia or internal ammonia infusion, and may be sensitive to synergistic stimulation by ammonia and cortisol. Rhcg in particular appears to be coupled to H(+) excretion and Na(+) uptake mechanisms. We propose a new model for ammonia excretion in freshwater fish and its variable linkage to Na(+) uptake and acid excretion. In this model, Rhag facilitates NH(3) flux out of the erythrocyte, Rhbg moves it across the basolateral membrane of the branchial ionocyte, and an apical "Na(+)/NH (+)(4) exchange complex" consisting of several membrane transporters (Rhcg, V-type H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE-2 and/or NHE-3, Na(+) channel) working together as a metabolon provides an acid trapping mechanism for apical excretion. Intracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA-2) and basolateral Na(+)/HCO (-)(3) cotransporter (NBC-1) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase play indirect roles. These mechanisms are normally superimposed on a substantial outward movement of NH(3) by simple diffusion, which is probably dependent on acid trapping in boundary layer water by H(+) ions created by

  16. Effects of berberine on the growth and immune performance in response to ammonia stress and high-fat dietary in blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Qing; Liu, Wen-Bin; Zhou, Man; Dai, Yong-Jun; Xu, Chao; Tian, Hong-Yan; Xu, Wei-Na

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to figure out the effects of berberine on growth performance, immunity, oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fed with high-fat diet. 320 fish (80.00 ± 0.90 g) were divided randomly into four trial groups (each with four replicates) and fed with 4 diets (normal diet, normal diet with 50 mg/kg berberine, high-fat diet, high-fat diet with 50 mg/kg berberine), respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, ammonia stress test was carried out for 5 days. The result showed the growth performance, immune parameters including plasm acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, lysozyme (LYZ) activities and alternative complement C3 and C4 contents were suppressed in fish fed with high-fat diets but improved in berberine diets compared with control (normal diet). Hepatopancreas oxidative status, the malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and lipid peroxide (LPO) were increased significantly (P Berberine could slow the progression of the oxidative stress induced by high-fat through increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and total sulfydryl (T-SH) levels of fish. And the hepatocyte apoptosis in the high-fat group could also be alleviated by berberine. After the ammonia stress test, the accumulative mortality was extremely (P berberine compared to other groups. It was concluded berberine as a functional feed additive significantly inhibited the progression of oxidative stress, reduced the apoptosis and enhanced the immunity of fish fed with high-fat diet.

  17. Facile Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Pt-TiO2 Nano-networks: A Highly Active Catalyst for the Hydrolytic Dehydrogenation of Ammonia-Borane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalily, Mohammad Aref; Eren, Hamit; Akbayrak, Serdar; Susapto, Hepi Hari; Biyikli, Necmi; Özkar, Saim; Guler, Mustafa O

    2016-09-26

    Three-dimensional (3D) porous metal and metal oxide nanostructures have received considerable interest because organization of inorganic materials into 3D nanomaterials holds extraordinary properties such as low density, high porosity, and high surface area. Supramolecular self-assembled peptide nanostructures were exploited as an organic template for catalytic 3D Pt-TiO2 nano-network fabrication. A 3D peptide nanofiber aerogel was conformally coated with TiO2 by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with angstrom-level thickness precision. The 3D peptide-TiO2 nano-network was further decorated with highly monodisperse Pt nanoparticles by using ozone-assisted ALD. The 3D TiO2 nano-network decorated with Pt nanoparticles shows superior catalytic activity in hydrolysis of ammonia-borane, generating three equivalents of H2 . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A study on subarcsecond scales of the ammonia and continuum emission toward the G16.59-0.05 high-mass star-forming region

    CERN Document Server

    Moscadelli, L; Sánchez-Monge, Á; Goddi, C; Furuya, R S; Sanna, A; Pestalozzi, M

    2013-01-01

    We wish to investigate the structure, velocity field, and stellar content of the G16.59-0.05 high-mass star-forming region, where previous studies have established the presence of two almost perpendicular (NE-SW and SE-NW), massive outflows, and a rotating disk traced by methanol maser emission. We performed Very Large Array observations of the radio continuum and ammonia line emission, complemented by COMICS/Subaru and Hi-GAL/Herschel images in the mid- and far-infrared (IR). Our centimeter continuum maps reveal a collimated radio jet that is oriented E-W and centered on the methanol maser disk, placed at the SE border of a compact molecular core. The spectral index of the jet is negative, indicating non-thermal emission over most of the jet, except the peak close to the maser disk, where thermal free-free emission is observed. We find that the ammonia emission presents a bipolar structure consistent (on a smaller scale) in direction and velocity with that of the NE-SW bipolar outflow detected in previous CO...

  19. Ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    measures might be cheaper in the Netherlands and Denmark than in the UK and the USA due to technology advances and stricter regulations in the past. The new Danish application procedure, when increasing the animal production, has tried to make the acceptance procedure quicker and dynamic ensuring that new......The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries...... technology is adopted quicker and that the farm has the right location. It is concluded that the new application process so far has not lived up to the high expectations at the outset. Despite this, the paper concludes that Denmark is likely to reduce emission by 50% from 1990 to 2020 and reach the likely...

  20. Blood coagulation using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc V.; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2014-03-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) technology provides a feasible method of achieving thermal coagulation during surgical procedures. One of the potential clinical benefits of HIFU can induce immediate hemostasis without suturing. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a HIFU system for blood coagulation on severe vascular injury. ngHIFU treatment was implemented immediately after bleeding in artery. The ultrasound probe was made of piezoelectric material, generating a central frequency of 2.0 MHz as well as an ellipsoidal focal spot of 2 mm in lateral dimension and 10 mm in axial dimension. Acoustic coagulation was employed on a perfused chicken artery model in vitro. A surgical incision (1 to 2 mm long) was made with a scapel on the arterial wall, and heparinized autologous blood was made to leak out from the incision with a syringe pump. A total of 5 femoral artery incisions was treated with the HIFU beam. The intensity of 4500 W/cm2 at the focus was applied for all treatments. Complete hemostasis was achieved in all treatments, along with the treatment times of 25 to 50 seconds. The estimated intraoperative blood loss was from 2 to 5 mL. The proposed HIFU system may provide an effective method for immediate blood coagulation for arteries and veins in clinical applications.

  1. Ceramic Membranes for Ammonia Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camus, O.; Perera, S.; Crittenden, B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Van Delft, Y.C.; Meyer, D.F.; Pex, P.P.A.C. [ECN Solar Energy, Westerduinweg 3, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Kumakiri, I.; Miachon, S.; Dalmon, J.A. [CNRS-Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse 2, av. A. Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne (France); Tennison, S. [MAST Carbon, Ltd., Henley Park, Guildford, Surrey, GU3 2AF (United Kingdom); Chanaud, P. [Pall-Exekia, BP1, Usine a Bazet (France); Groensmit, E. [Kemira GrowHow SA/NV, Avenue Einstein 11, B-1300 Wavre (Belgium); Nobel, W. [Continental Engineers BV, Rustenburg 114, 1506 AZ Zaandam (Netherlands)

    2008-12-15

    An extensive screening program has been performed to find a suitable membrane configuration and operating conditions for the effective recovery of ammonia from the syngas loop. All the experiments have been performed at steady state. MFI zeolite membranes in tubular and multi-channel fiber configurations have been tested along with tubular silica membranes. At 80C, a high ammonia permeance (2.1 x 10{sup -7} mol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1}.Pa{sup -1}), and a selectivity of about 10 were found with the tubular zeolite membrane, whereas for the silica membrane an even higher ammonia permeance was measured (7.6 x 10{sup -7} mol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1}.Pa{sup -1}) with a selectivity of about 7. For both silica and zeolite membranes, the selectivity was found to increase with increasing temperature up to 80C. This is a combined effect of weaker adsorption of ammonia and increased diffusion at higher temperature. The results have been modeled using both the well-mixed reactor and the log mean pressure difference approaches. To overcome their limitations in addressing changes in feed concentration along the membrane surface, a segmental model has been used to obtain suitable operating conditions and membrane areas required for an industrial application.

  2. Ammonia in power plant emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerich, Mads; Henningsen, J. O.; Olafsson, Ari

    1990-08-01

    Ammonia monitoring is needed in most schemes for denitrification of power plant emission. In the PALAMON system we use a 500 MHz tunable, single mode, single line, CO2 laser as light source for a low pressure, high temperature, photoacoustic cell. With this cell we can resolve the sR(5,O) line of the ammonia spectrum, and suppress the interfering C02(9R30) absorption line down to a lppm NH3 detection limit. The validity of the measured ammonia concentrations is strongly dependent on details of the sampling system and on the reliability of the calibration routines. In particular calibration with certified mixtures of NH3:N2 has proved insufficient due to the multiple and long time constants caused by adsorption of ammonia to different materials in the system. Presence of water vapor in the gas greatly reduces these time constants. Therefore a number of methods for simple production of moist calibration gases from macroscopic amounts of NH3 are applied. The calibrations are translated to response from an easily managable absorber in order to allow automated recalibration of the photoacoustic response. Data from a field test of the system, and calibration data will be presented.

  3. Catalyst for Ammonia Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation, a method for producing a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation and a method for tuning the catalytic activity of a transition metal. By depositing an overlayer of less catalytic active metal onto a more catalytic...

  4. NITROGEN REMOVAL FROM HIGH AMMONIA PHARMACEUTICAL WASTEWATER via NITRITE%高氨氮制药废水短程生物脱氮

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇智; 彭永臻; 王淑滢

    2003-01-01

    In this study, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted by using Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) activated sludge process to treat wastewater stream from a pharmaceutical factory. Biological nitrogen removal can be achieved via partial nitrification and denitrification and its efficiency was above 99% at 23℃±1℃. The experimental results indicated that the nitrite oxidizers were more sensitive than ammonia oxidizers to the free ammonia in wastewater. The ammonia was oxidized at pH 7 and 7.5 respectively, which suggested a critical free ammonia concentration of 0.2mg*L-1 at which the nitrite oxidizers were inhibited.

  5. Pretreatment of Biomass by Aqueous Ammonia for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Gupta, Rajesh; Lee, Y. Y.

    The methods of pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using aqueous ammonia are described. The main effect of ammonia treatment of biomass is delignification without significantly affecting the carbohydrate contents. It is a very effective pretreatment method especially for substrates that have low lignin contents such as agricultural residues and herbaceous feedstock. The ammonia-based pretreatment is well suited for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) because the treated biomass retains cellulose as well as hemicellulose. It has been demonstrated that overall ethanol yield above 75% of the theoretical maximum on the basis of total carbohydrate is achievable from corn stover pretreated with aqueous ammonia by way of SSCF. There are two different types of pretreatment methods based on aqueous ammonia: (1) high severity, low contact time process (ammonia recycle percolation; ARP), (2) low severity, high treatment time process (soaking in aqueous ammonia; SAA). Both of these methods are described and discussed for their features and effectiveness.

  6. Highly Sensitive Thin-Film Field-Effect Transistor Sensor for Ammonia with the DPP-Bithiophene Conjugated Polymer Entailing Thermally Cleavable tert-Butoxy Groups in the Side Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Guanxin; Luo, Hewei; Yao, Jingjing; Liu, Zitong; Zhang, Deqing

    2016-02-17

    The sensing and detection of ammonia have received increasing attention in recent years because of the growing emphasis on environmental and health issues. In this paper, we report a thin-film field-effect transistor (FET)-based sensor for ammonia and other amines with remarkable high sensitivity and satisfactory selectivity by employing the DPP-bithiophene conjugated polymer pDPPBu-BT in which tert-butoxycarboxyl groups are incorporated in the side chains. This polymer thin film shows p-type semiconducting property. On the basis of TGA and FT-IR analysis, tert-butoxycarboxyl groups can be transformed into the -COOH ones by eliminating gaseous isobutylene after thermal annealing of pDPPBu-BT thin film at 240 °C. The FET with the thermally treated thin film of pDPPBu-BT displays remarkably sensitive and selective response toward ammonia and volatile amines. This can be attributed to the fact that the elimination of gaseous isobutylene accompanies the formation of nanopores with the thin film, which will facilitate the diffusion and interaction of ammonia and other amines with the semiconducting layer, leading to high sensitivity and fast response for this FET sensor. This FET sensor can detect ammonia down to 10 ppb and the interferences from other volatile analytes except amines can be negligible.

  7. Vitamin D and high blood pressure: causal association or epiphenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Burgess, Stephen; Munroe, Patricia B; Khan, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    High plasma levels of vitamin D are associated with a reduced risk of high blood pressure, but whether this association is causal remains to be ascertained. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials, to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and supplemented these results with a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the causal relationship between vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]) and BP. Pooled random effects meta-analysis of weighted mean differences across 16 trials of vitamin D supplementation showed a non-significant reduction in SBP (-0.94, 95% CI -2.98, 1.10 mmHg) and DBP (-0.52, 95% CI -1.18, 0.14 mmHg), with evidence of heterogeneity (I(2) = 67.9%, P causal effects of a doubling of genetically-elevated risk of vitamin D deficiency were 0.14 mmHg (95% CI -0.19, 0.47, P = 0.42), and 0.12 mmHg (95% CI -0.09, 0.33, P = 0.25) on SBP and DBP respectively. Additional evidence from genetic data are directionally consistent with clinical trial data, though underpowered to reliably demonstrate a strong causal effect of vitamin D status on BP. Further investigation may be warranted.

  8. High resolution inventory of re-estimating ammonia emissions from agricultural fertilizer in China from 1978 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P.; Lin, Y. H.; Liao, Y. J.; Zhao, C. X.; Wang, G. S.; Luan, S. J.

    2015-09-01

    The quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is essential to the more accurate quantification of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, improved air quality and the assessment of ammonia-related agricultural policy and climate mitigation strategies. The quantity, geographic distribution and historical trends of these emissions remain largely uncertain. In this paper, a new Chinese agricultural fertilizer NH3 (CAF_NH3) emissions inventory has been compiled that exhibits the following improvements: (1) a 1 km × 1 km gridded map on the county level was developed for 2008, (2) a combined bottom-up and top-down method was used for the local correction of emission factors (EFs) and parameters, (3) the spatial and temporal patterns of historical time trends for 1978-2008 were estimated and the uncertainties were quantified for the inventories, and (4) a sensitivity test was performed in which a province-level disaggregated map was compared with CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008. The total CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008 were 8.4 Tg NH3 yr-1 (a 6.6-9.8 Tg interquartile range). From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with three peaks (1987, 1996 and 2005), and total emissions increased from 3.2 to 8.4 Tg at an annual rate of 3.0 %. During the study period, the contribution of livestock manure spreading increased from 37.0 to 45.5 % because of changing fertilization practices and the rapid increase in egg, milk and meat consumption. The average contribution of synthetic fertilizer, which has a positive effect on crop yields, was approximately 38.3 % (minimum: 33.4 %; maximum: 42.7 %). With rapid urbanization causing a decline in the rural population, the contribution of the rural excrement sector varied widely between 20.3 and 8.5 %. The average contributions of cake fertilizer and straw returning were approximately 3.8 and 4.5 %, respectively, thus small and stable. Collectively, the CAF_NH3 emissions reflect the nation's agricultural policy to a certain extent. An effective

  9. High resolution inventory of re-estimating ammonia emissions from agricultural fertilizer in China from 1978 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of ammonia (NH3 emissions is essential to the more accurate quantification of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, improved air quality and the assessment of ammonia-related agricultural policy and climate mitigation strategies. The quantity, geographic distribution and historical trends of these emissions remain largely uncertain. In this paper, a new Chinese agricultural fertilizer NH3 (CAF_NH3 emissions inventory has been compiled that exhibits the following improvements: (1 a 1 km × 1 km gridded map on the county level was developed for 2008, (2 a combined bottom-up and top-down method was used for the local correction of emission factors (EFs and parameters, (3 the spatial and temporal patterns of historical time trends for 1978–2008 were estimated and the uncertainties were quantified for the inventories, and (4 a sensitivity test was performed in which a province-level disaggregated map was compared with CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008. The total CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008 were 8.4 Tg NH3 yr−1 (a 6.6–9.8 Tg interquartile range. From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with three peaks (1987, 1996 and 2005, and total emissions increased from 3.2 to 8.4 Tg at an annual rate of 3.0 %. During the study period, the contribution of livestock manure spreading increased from 37.0 to 45.5 % because of changing fertilization practices and the rapid increase in egg, milk and meat consumption. The average contribution of synthetic fertilizer, which has a positive effect on crop yields, was approximately 38.3 % (minimum: 33.4 %; maximum: 42.7 %. With rapid urbanization causing a decline in the rural population, the contribution of the rural excrement sector varied widely between 20.3 and 8.5 %. The average contributions of cake fertilizer and straw returning were approximately 3.8 and 4.5 %, respectively, thus small and stable. Collectively, the CAF_NH3 emissions reflect the nation's agricultural policy to a certain extent

  10. High speed optical holography of retinal blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzari, M; Simonutti, M; Degardin, J; Sahel, J-A; Fink, M; Paques, M; Atlan, M

    2016-08-01

    We performed noninvasive video imaging of retinal blood flow in a pigmented rat by holographic interferometry of near-infrared laser light backscattered by retinal tissue, beating against an off-axis reference beam sampled at a frame rate of 39 kHz with a high throughput camera. Local Doppler contrasts emerged from the envelopes of short-time Fourier transforms and the phase of autocorrelation functions of holograms rendered by Fresnel transformation. This approach permitted imaging of blood flow in large retinal vessels (∼30 microns diameter) over 400×400  pixels with a spatial resolution of ∼8 microns and a temporal resolution of ∼6.5  ms.

  11. Drugs for treatment of very high blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duley, Lelia; Meher, Shireen; Jones, Leanne

    2013-07-31

    Very high blood pressure during pregnancy poses a serious threat to women and their babies. The aim of antihypertensive therapy is to lower blood pressure quickly but safety, to avoid complications. Antihypertensive drugs lower blood pressure but their comparative effectiveness and safety, and impact on other substantive outcomes is uncertain. To compare different antihypertensive drugs for very high blood pressure during pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (9 January 2013). Studies were randomised trials. Participants were women with severe hypertension during pregnancy. Interventions were comparisons of one antihypertensive drug with another. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed trial quality. Two review authors extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Thirty-five trials (3573 women) with 15 comparisons were included. Women allocated calcium channel blockers were less likely to have persistent high blood pressure compared to those allocated hydralazine (six trials, 313 women; 8% versus 22%; risk ratio (RR) 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21 to 0.66). Ketanserin was associated with more persistent high blood pressure than hydralazine (three trials, 180 women; 27% versus 6%; RR 4.79, 95% CI 1.95 to 11.73), but fewer side-effects (three trials, 120 women; RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.53) and a lower risk of HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and lowered platelets) syndrome (one trial, 44 women; RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.81).Labetalol was associated with a lower risk of hypotension compared to diazoxide (one trial 90 women; RR 0.06, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.99) and a lower risk of caesarean section (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.02), although both were borderline for statistical significance.Both nimodipine and magnesium sulphate were associated with a high incidence of persistent high blood pressure, but this risk was lower for nimodipine compared to magnesium sulphate (one trial

  12. Ammonia transformation in a biotrickling air filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter; Nielsen, Marie Louise; Andersen, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    A simple, tubular biotrickling filter was designed for optimal removal of ammonia and odour in ventilation air from a pig house. The removal and transformation of ammonia was studied in detail by analysis and modelling of chemical gradients through the filter. Good correspondence between measurem......A simple, tubular biotrickling filter was designed for optimal removal of ammonia and odour in ventilation air from a pig house. The removal and transformation of ammonia was studied in detail by analysis and modelling of chemical gradients through the filter. Good correspondence between...... measurements and model was obtained by using conventional substrate and inhibition kinetics of ammonium and nitrite oxidizing bacteria. Highest rates of ammonia removal were observed in the central section of the filter. Near the air outlet and water inlet the process was ammonia limited, while high nitrous...... acid concentrations almost excluded any biological activity near the air inlet and water outlet. Nitrous acid inhibition also stabilized pH at 6.5-7 all through the filter. Being sensitive to both ammonia and nitrous acid the nitrite oxidation process occurred mainly in the filter sections near the air...

  13. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  14. High altitude hypoxia and blood pressure dysregulation in adult chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, E A; Salinas, C E; Blanco, C E; Villena, M; Giussani, D A

    2013-02-01

    Although it is accepted that impaired placental perfusion in complicated pregnancy can slow fetal growth and programme an increased risk of cardiovascular dysfunction at adulthood, the relative contribution of reductions in fetal nutrition and in fetal oxygenation as the triggering stimulus remains unclear. By combining high altitude (HA) with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of HA hypoxia on embryonic growth and cardiovascular development before hatching. This study isolated the effects of developmental hypoxia on cardiovascular function measured in vivo in conscious adult male and female chickens. Chick embryos were incubated, hatched and raised at sea level (SL, nine males and nine females) or incubated, hatched and raised at HA (seven males and seven females). At 6 months of age, vascular catheters were inserted under general anaesthesia. Five days later, basal blood gas status, basal cardiovascular function and cardiac baroreflex responses were investigated. HA chickens had significantly lower basal arterial PO2 and haemoglobin saturation, and significantly higher haematocrit than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. HA chickens had significantly lower arterial blood pressure than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. Although the gain of the arterial baroreflex was decreased in HA relative to SL male chickens, it was increased in HA relative to SL female chickens. We show that development at HA lowers basal arterial blood pressure and alters baroreflex sensitivity in a sex-dependent manner at adulthood.

  15. Study of Hydrogen Supply System with Ammonia Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saika, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Nohara, Tetsuo; Ishimatsu, Shinji

    Carbon-free fuel is effective in preventing global warming. Hydrogen has no carbon and can be made also from nuclear energy or reproducible energies other than fossil fuels. However, hydrogen lacks portability because of its difficulty in liquefying, but ammonia can easily be liquefied at a room temperature and dissociated into high-content hydrogen and nitrogen using a suitable catalyst. An ammonia dissociation system for fuel cells is proposed in this paper. The residual ammonia by 13ppm or more in the dissociated gas (H2+ N2) causes a decrease in the output of fuel cells. To separate residual ammonia, it should be sent to an ammonia separator and then to an ammonia distiller. In the experiment, the authors examine the concentrations of ammonia after dissociation at various temperatures, pressures and space velocities. The ammonia separator uses the fact that ammonia dissolves well in water. Then the ammonia water is distilled in the distiller. Thereby, the authors have proposed an ammonia circulation system that is a clean energy system.

  16. Blood pressure percentile charts to identify high or low blood pressure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Ashish; Bell, Cynthia; Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Samuels, Joshua

    2016-07-19

    The goal was to develop familiar blood pressure (BP) charts representing BP percentile curves similar to CDC growth charts to improve screening of both high and low BP in children. Since height accounts for substantially more BP variability than age and is a more direct measure of body size and maturation in children, height-specific BP percentile curves were drawn separately for males and females. We used the 2004 Fourth Report data source and equations to calculate the BP threshold value for each gender and 5 cm height group. By slightly underestimating a child's BP percentile for high BP and slightly overestimating a child's BP percentile for low BP, these charts guarantee 100 % sensitivity in detecting abnormal BP. Sensitivity and specificity of the chart cut-offs were confirmed in a sample of 1254 healthy children from a school-based blood pressure screening program. The 1st, 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 95th, and 99th BP percentile curves are depicted in the chart for each corresponding gender and height from 85 to 190 cm, mimicking the ubiquitous CDC "growth charts". Shaded areas of the chart differentiate abnormal BP status categories: hypotension, normal BP, prehypertension, Stage 1 hypertension, and Stage 2 hypertension. Sensitivity was confirmed to be 100 % with specificity above 94 %. These simplified BP charts improve upon currently available BP screening reference with the following features: (a) tracking BP longitudinally in an individual child, (b) full physiological range of BP percentiles represented in percentile curve format for rapid identification both high and low BP, (c) easy to use with absolute height alone avoiding the additional step of determining height percentile, (d) incorporation of adult threshold for pre-hypertension to assist in accurate transition from adolescence into adulthood, (e) high sensitivity and specificity to ensure all children at risk are identified with very few false positives.

  17. Chronic Diarrhea Associated with High Teriflunomide Blood Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Duquette, André; Frenette, Anne Julie; Doré, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report the case of a patient treated with leflunomide that presented with chronic diarrhea associated with high teriflunomide blood concentration. Case Summary An 84-year-old woman taking leflunomide 20 mg once daily for the past 2 years to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was investigated for severe chronic diarrhea that had been worsening for the past 5 months. The patient’s general condition progressively deteriorated and included electrolyte imbalances and a transient loss of ...

  18. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H;

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009......, erythropoietin, ferritin, platelet count and leucocyte count, JAK2 V617 and JAK2 exon12 analysis, as well as other routine measurements. Results  Among 46 such donors, 39 had a history of smoking, which contributes to erythrocytosis. Two had PV, five had severe hypertension, one of them because of renal artery...

  19. Contribution of parental blood pressures to association between low birth weight and adult high blood pressure: cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brian R; McConnachie, Alex; Noon, Joseph P; Webb, David J; Watt, Graham C M

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine the possibility that low birth weight is a feature of the inherited predisposition to high blood pressure. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Primary care medical centre in Edinburgh. Subjects: One offspring of 452 families (231 men and 221 women aged 16-26 years) in whom blood pressure, weight, and height were measured in 1986 and whose parents had blood pressure measured in 1979. Birth weights were obtained from case records (270 offspring) or by questionnaires sent to the mothers (182 offspring). Main outcome measures: Birth weight and adult systolic blood pressure in offspring in relation to parental blood pressure. Results: If parental blood pressures were not considered, a 1 kg decrease in birth weight was associated with a 2.24 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure of offspring (P=0.06) after correction for current weight and sex. However, parental blood pressures correlated positively with blood pressure of offspring, and higher maternal blood pressure was associated with lower birth weight (−3.03 g/mm Hg, Ppressures, a 1 kg decrease in birth weight was associated with only a 1.71 mm Hg increase in the systolic blood pressure of the offspring (P=0.15). Conclusions: Low birth weight is a feature of the inherited predisposition to hypertension, perhaps because it is associated with higher maternal blood pressure during pregnancy. Parental blood pressure may be an important confounding factor in the relation between low birth weight and subsequent hypertension. Key messages Hypertension has both inherited and environmental causes The relation between low birth weight and hypertension in later life may result from the mother’s nutritional environment during pregnancy This study found that mothers who have higher blood pressure in later life deliver babies with lower birth weight, who also develop higher blood pressure Hereditary factors therefore explain part of the relation between low birth weight and adult

  20. Stretching Behavior of Red Blood Cells at High Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Jordan; Ristenpart, William

    2016-11-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this work, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that a simple viscoelastic model captures the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 1000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  1. Design of flexible PANI-coated CuO-TiO2-SiO2 heterostructure nanofibers with high ammonia sensing response values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zengyuan; Nie, Qingxin; Lv, Pengfei; Yu, Jian; Huang, Fenglin; Wei, Qufu

    2017-06-01

    We report a room-temperature ammonia sensor with extra high response values and ideal flexibility, including polyaniline (PANI)-coated titanium dioxide-silicon dioxide (TiO2-SiO2) or copper oxide-titanium dioxide-silicon dioxide (CuO-TiO2-SiO2) composite nanofibers. Such flexible inorganic TiO2-SiO2 and CuO-TiO2-SiO2 composite nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning, followed by calcination. Then, in situ polymerization of aniline monomers was carried out with inorganic TiO2-SiO2 and CuO-TiO2-SiO2 composite nanofibers as templates. Gas sensing tests at room temperature indicated that the obtained CuO-TiO2-SiO2/PANI composite nanofibers had much higher response values to ammonia gas (ca. 45.67-100 ppm) than most of those reported before as well as the prepared TiO2-SiO2/PANI composite nanofibers here. These excellent sensing properties may be due to the P-N, P-P heterojunctions and a structure similar to field-effect transistors formed on the interfaces between PANI, TiO2, and CuO, which is p-type, n-type, and p-type semiconductor, respectively. In addition, the prepared free-standing CuO-TiO2-SiO2/PANI composite nanofiber membrane was easy to handle and possessed ideal flexibility, which is promising for potential applications in wearable sensors in the future.

  2. Analysis and Handling of High-Pressure Ammonia Pump Failure%高压氨泵故障分析及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锡海

    2013-01-01

    A brief account is given of the structural features of the high-pressure ammonia pump of the 800 kt/a urea unit and PID process flow.The process phenomenon is shown of insufficient delivery of the pump,and also the phenomenon of the on-site mechanical equipment is shown.The cause of failure is analyzed.In view of the analytical results,a series of measures are taken,and it is finally decided that the welding slag in the side-line at the outlet of the pump and the presence of the lock-screw in the main line are the primary reasons for insufficient delivery of the pump and fluctuation of ammonia in the main line.%简要介绍了800 kt/a尿素装置高压氨泵的结构特点、PID工艺流程,阐述了高压氨泵出现打量不足时的工艺现象及现场机械设备现象,并对故障原因进行分析.针对分析结果,采取了一系列措施,最终确定泵出口副线管路中存在的焊渣及主线管路中存在的锁紧螺钉是造成高压氨泵打量不足和氨走主线波动的主要原因.

  3. More Folic Acid in Pregnancy May Protect Kids from High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Folic Acid in Pregnancy May Protect Kids From High Blood Pressure If mothers have heart disease risk factors, nutrient ... levels during pregnancy may reduce the risk of high blood pressure in children if their mothers have heart disease ...

  4. Many People Don't Take Their High Blood Pressure Meds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163928.html Many People Don't Take Their High Blood Pressure Meds: Study Failure to follow doctors' orders leads ... 20 percent of patients seeking care for stubborn high blood pressure take all the medicine they're supposed to, ...

  5. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on...... the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels...... may affect the normal physiology of the animals....

  6. High blood pressure in school children: prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivers Patrick A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. Methods Elementary school children (n = 1,066 were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI, gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was used to determine HBP. Comparisons between children with and without HBP were utilized. The crude and multiple logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. Results Females, Hispanics, overweight children, and children with AN had an increased likelihood of HBP. Overweight children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile and those with AN were at least twice as likely to present with HBP after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusion Twenty one percent of school children had HBP, especially the prevalence was higher among the overweight and Hispanic group. The association identified here can be used as independent markers for increased likelihood of HBP in children.

  7. Novel, high-yield red blood cell production methods from CD34-positive cells derived from human embryonic stem, yolk sac, fetal liver, cord blood, and peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Emmanuel; Qiu, Caihong; Bouhassira, Eric E

    2012-08-01

    The current supply of red blood cells expressing rare blood groups is not sufficient to cover all the existing transfusion needs for chronically transfused patients, such as sickle cell disease homozygous carriers, because of alloimmunization. In vitro production of cultured red blood cells is slowly emerging as a possible complement to the existing collection-based red blood cell procurement system. The yield of cultured red blood cells can theoretically be maximized by amplifying the stem, progenitor, or precursor compartment. Here, we combined methods designed to expand these three compartments to optimize the yield of cultured red blood cells and found that exposing CD34(+) cells to a short pulse of cytokines favorable for erythroid differentiation prior to stem cell expansion followed by progenitor expansion produced the highest yield of erythroid cells. This novel serum-free red blood cell production protocol was efficient on CD34(+) cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, 6-8-week yolk sacs, 16-18-week fetal livers, cord blood, and peripheral blood. The yields of cells obtained with these new protocols were larger by an order of magnitude than the yields observed previously. Globin expression analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that these expansion protocols generally yielded red blood cells that expressed a globin profile similar to that expected for the developmental age of the CD34(+) cells.

  8. Interorgan ammonia and amino acid metabolism in metabolically stable patients with cirrhosis and a TIPSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Damink, Steven W M; Jalan, Rajiv; Redhead, Doris N; Hayes, Peter C; Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Soeters, Peter B

    2002-11-01

    Ammonia is central to the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. This study was designed to determine the quantitative dynamics of ammonia metabolism in patients with cirrhosis and previous treatment with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt (TIPSS). We studied 24 patients with cirrhosis who underwent TIPSS portography. Blood was sampled and blood flows were measured across portal drained viscera, leg, kidney, and liver, and arteriovenous differences across the spleen and the inferior and superior mesenteric veins. The highest amount of ammonia was produced by the portal drained viscera. The kidneys also produced ammonia in amounts that equaled total hepatosplanchnic area production. Skeletal muscle removed more ammonia than the cirrhotic liver. The amount of nitrogen that was taken up by muscle in the form of ammonia was less than the glutamine that was released. The portal drained viscera consumed glutamine and produced ammonia, alanine, and citrulline. Urea was released in the splenic and superior mesenteric vein, contributing to whole-body ureagenesis in these cirrhotic patients. In conclusion, hyperammonemia in metabolically stable, overnight-fasted patients with cirrhosis of the liver and a TIPSS results from portosystemic shunting and renal ammonia production. Skeletal muscle removes more ammonia from the circulation than the cirrhotic liver. Muscle releases excessive amounts of the nontoxic nitrogen carrier glutamine, which can lead to ammonia production in the portal drained viscera (PDV) and kidneys. Urinary ammonia excretion and urea synthesis appear to be the only way to remove ammonia from the body.

  9. How to Prevent High Blood Pressure: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines that are causing it. Who is at risk for high blood pressure? Anyone can develop high blood pressure, but there ... it. Lifestyle - Certain lifestyle habits can raise your risk for high blood pressure, such as eating too much sodium or not ...

  10. Oxydesulfurization of a Turkish hard lignite with ammonia solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    1996-09-01

    In this study the desulfurization of a high pyritic and high organic sulfur lignite taken from the Gediz area (western Turkey) was investigated by the oxydesulfurization method using ammonia solutions. The influence of such parameters as the concentration of ammonia solution, partial pressure of oxygen, temperature, and reaction time were studied. The ranges of these parameters were selected as 0--10 M concentration of ammonia solution, 0--1.5 MPa partial pressure of oxygen, 403--473 K temperature, and 10--60 min reaction time. It was concluded that the use of ammonia solution as an extraction solution increased the efficiency of the oxydesulfurization process.

  11. Combined effects of high environmental ammonia, starvation and exercise on hormonal and ion-regulatory response in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Liew, Hon Jung; Diricx, Marjan; Kumar, Vikas; Darras, Veerle M; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2012-06-15

    Due to eutrophication, high environmental ammonia (HEA) has become a frequent problem in aquatic environments, especially in agricultural or densely populated areas. During certain periods, e.g. winter, feed deprivation may occur simultaneously in natural waters. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may be enforced to swim at a high speed in order to catch prey, avoid predators and so on. Consequently, fish need to cope with all these stressors by altering physiological processes which in turn are controlled by genes expression. Therefore, in the present study, ammonia toxicity was tested in function of nutrient status (fed versus starved) and swimming performance activity (routine versus exhaustive). Goldfish, a relatively tolerant cyprinid, were exposed to HEA (1 mg/L; Flemish water quality guideline for surface water) for a period of 3 h, 12 h, 1 day, 4 days, 10 days, 21 days and 28 days and were either fed (2% body weight) or starved (kept unfed for 7 days prior to sampling). Results showed that the activity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase in the gills was stimulated by HEA and disturbance in ion balance was obvious with increases in plasma [Na⁺], [Cl⁻] and [Ca²⁺] after prolonged exposure. Additionally, osmoregulation and metabolism controlling hormones like cortisol and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were investigated to understand adaptive responses. The expression kinetics of growth, stress and osmo-regulatory representative genes such as Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), growth hormone receptor (GHR), thyroid hormone receptor β (THRβ), prolactin receptor (PRLR), cortisol receptor (CR) and Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase α(3) were examined. Overall effect of HEA was evident since Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity, plasma cortisol, Na⁺ and Ca²⁺ concentration, expression level of CR and Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase α₃ mRNA in fed and starved fish were increased. On the contrary, transcript level of PRLR was reduced after 4 days of HEA; additionally T3 level and

  12. Instability and "Sausage-String" Appearance in Blood Vessels during High Blood Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Alstrøm, P; Colding-Jorgensen, M; Gustafsson, F; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Alstrom, Preben; Eguiluz, Victor M.; Colding-Jorgensen, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    1999-01-01

    A new Rayleigh-type instability is proposed to explain the `sausage-string' pattern of alternating constrictions and dilatations formed in blood vessels under influence of a vasoconstricting agent. Our theory involves the nonlinear elasticity characteristics of the vessel wall, and provides predictions for the conditions under which the cylindrical form of a blood vessel becomes unstable.

  13. Ammonia-free infiltration of NaBH{sub 4} into highly-ordered mesoporous silica and carbon matrices for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peru, F.; Garroni, S. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Sassari and INSTM, Via Vienna 2, I-07100 Sassari (Italy); Campesi, R. [JRC-IE, Westernduinweg 3, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Milanese, C.; Marini, A. [Pavia H2 Lab, C.S.G.I. and Dipartimento di Chimica, Sezione di Chimica Fisica, Università di Pavia, Viale Taramelli 16, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Pellicer, E.; Baró, M.D. [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Mulas, G., E-mail: mulas@uniss.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Sassari and INSTM, Via Vienna 2, I-07100 Sassari (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: ► Highly ordered mesoporous SBA-15 and CMK3 matrices were prepared. ► Confinement of NaBH{sub 4} into SBA-15 and CMK3 was performed by NH{sub 3}-free wet infiltration. ► Success in the confinement of NaBH{sub 4} was proved by XRD and TEM. ► Confined NaBH{sub 4} shows lower H{sub 2} desorption temperature with respect to literature data. -- Abstract: In this work we focused on nanoconfinement of NaBH{sub 4} into highly-ordered Si-based mesoporous scaffold and its carbon replica by ammonia-free wet chemical impregnation. Structural and morphological characterization, performed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy enabled us to confirm the effectiveness infiltration procedure. Desorption properties tested by temperature programmed desorption analyses highlighted a noticeable shift towards lower temperature compared to both bulk material and samples of similar systems referred to in the bibliographical data.

  14. Nursing Education in High Blood Pressure Control. Report of the Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. High Blood Pressure Information Center.

    This curriculum guide on high blood pressure (hypertension) for nursing educators has five sections: (1) Introduction and Objectives provides information regarding the establishment and objectives of the National Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control and briefly discusses nursing's role in hypertension control; (2) Goals…

  15. Blood-Brain Barrier Changes in High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, José V; Bermudez, Garazi; Camargo-Arce, Lorena; Bulnes, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral syndromes related to high-altitude exposure are becoming more frequent as the number of trips to high altitudes has increased in the last decade. The commonest symptom is headache, followed by acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), which can be fatal. The pathophysiology of these syndromes is not fully understood. The classical "tight-fit hypothesis" posits that there are some anatomical variations that would obstruct the sinovenous outflow and worsen vasogenic edema and intracranial hypertension reactive to hypoxia. This could explain microhemorrhages seen in autopsies. However, recent magnetic resonance imaging studies have demonstrated some components of cytotoxic edema in HACE absent in AMS, suggesting a dysfunction in water balance at the cellular level. Currently, the "red-ox theory" supports trigemino-vascular system activation by free radicals formed after hypoxia and the consequent oxidative stress cascades. Apart from trigemino-vascular system activation, free radicals can also provoke membrane destabilisation mediated by lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and local hypoxia inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor activation, resulting in gross blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. Besides alterations in endothelial cells such as increased pinocytotic vesicles and disassembly of interendothelial tight junction proteins, capillary permeability may also increase with subsequent swelling of astrocyte end-feet. In conclusion, although the pathophysiology of AMS and HACE is not completely understood, recent evidence proposes a multifactorial entity, with brain swelling and compromise of the BBB considered to play an important role. A fuller comprehension of these processes is crucial to reduce and prevent BBB alterations during high-altitude exposure.

  16. Ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the la......The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries...

  17. High-Tech Blood Sugar Monitors May Help People with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163211.html High-Tech Blood Sugar Monitors May Help People With Type 1 Diabetes ... need insulin shots every day manage their blood sugar levels safely, two new studies suggest. Also known ...

  18. Family Adaptability and Cohesion and High Blood Pressure among Urban African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-11-01

    African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family functioning, specifically family adaptability, in African American women who are at risk for high blood pressure or diagnosed with high blood pressure to minimize complications associated with hypertension.

  19. Determination of red blood cell fatty acid profiles: Rapid and high-confident analysis by chemical ionization-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Yvonne; Wahl, Hans Günther; Renz, Harald; Nockher, Wolfgang Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Cellular fatty acid (FA) profiles have been acknowledged as biomarkers in various human diseases. Nevertheless, common FA analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) requires long analysis time. Hence, there is a need for feasible methods for high throughput analysis in clinical studies. FA was extracted from red blood cells (RBC) and derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A method using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with ammonia-induced chemical ionization (CI) was developed for the analysis of FA profiles in human RBC. We compared this method with classical single GC-MS using electron impact ionization (EI). The FA profiles of 703 RBC samples were determined by GC-MS/MS. In contrast to EI ammonia-induced CI resulted in adequate amounts of molecular ions for further fragmentation of FAME. Specific fragments for confident quantification and fragmentation were determined for 45 FA. The GC-MS/MS method has a total run time of 9min compared to typical analysis times of up to 60min in conventional GC-MS. Intra and inter assay variations were <10% for all FA analyzed. Analysis of RBC FA composition revealed an age-dependent increase of the omega-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid, and a decline of the omega-6 linoleic acid with a corresponding rise of the omega-3 index. The combination of ammonia-induced CI and tandem mass spectrometry after GC separation allows for high-throughput, robust and confident analysis of FA profiles in the clinical laboratory. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Start-up and bacterial communities of single-stage nitrogen removal using anammox and partial nitritation (SNAP) for treatment of high strength ammonia wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbing; Zhou, Jian; Han, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a lab-scale sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) was used to start up the single-stage nitrogen removal system using anammox and partial nitritation (SNAP) process seeding from surplus activated sludge. The volumetric nitrogen loading rate (vNLR) was firstly 0.075 kg N m(-3) d(-1) and then gradually increased to 0.60 kg N m(-3) d(-1). A maximal total nitrogen (TN) removal rate of 0.54 kg N m(-3) d(-1) was achieved by the SNAP process after 132 days operation with NH4(+)-N and TN removal efficiency of 99.4% and 90.5%, respectively. This reactor may have applications for the SNAP process treating high strength ammonia wastewater. And dewatered surplus activated sludge was recommended as the seed sludge for engineering applications. The dominant bacterial strains were Xanthomonas campestris, Nitrosomonas europaea and Ignavibacterium album, corresponding to the percentage of 24%, 22% and 20%, respectively, based on the 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing of the SNAP sludge.

  1. Ammonia removal from high salt waste water using natural zeolite; Remocao de amonia de efluentes de alta salinidade utilizando zeolita natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Lucia M.L. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Arroyo, Pedro A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Barros, Maria Angelica S.D.; Pazin, Elenice [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Zola, Andreia S.; Zschornack, Marlon A. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The present work aimed to study ammonium ion exchange using a fixed bed of natural zeolite clinoptilolite. First of all, it was carried out a bi component ion exchange of ammonium (150 mg/L) in the presence of K{sup +}, Ba{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+} e Mg{sup 2+}. Thus, clinoptilolite showed a preference for strontium, barium and potassium cations, while there is a higher preference for Nh{sub 4}{sup +} cations instead calcium and magnesium. Secondly, it was studied the multicomponent ion exchange of ammonium (solution containing all cations). It was observed that the presence of competing cations decreases the content of ammonium retained in the bed until breakthrough point. Furthermore, it was also verified that multicomponent exchange in the presence of high salinity solution (60.000 mg/L of Na{sup +}), sodium influences the ion exchange mechanism, decreasing the up take capacity of ammonium for zeolitic bed. On the other hand, ammonium capture increases in the presence of natural effluent that possesses lower salinity (30.000 mg/L). Therefore, the results obtained evidence the application potentiality of clinoptilolite for ammonia up takes from industrial effluents, in what competition conditions by others cations are too severe and for that the zeolite natural presented good performance. (author)

  2. Intensive trapping of blood-fed Anopheles darlingi in Amazonian Peru reveals unexpectedly high proportions of avian blood-meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Marlon P.; Bickersmith, Sara A.; Prussing, Catharine; Michalski, Adrian; Tong Rios, Carlos; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Conn, Jan E.

    2017-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Neotropics, has been considered to be highly anthropophilic. However, many behavioral aspects of this species remain unknown, such as the range of blood-meal sources. Barrier screens were used to collect resting Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes from 2013 to 2015 in three riverine localities (Lupuna, Cahuide and Santa Emilia) in Amazonian Peru. Overall, the Human Blood Index (HBI) ranged from 0.58–0.87, with no significant variation among years or sites. Blood-meal analysis revealed that humans are the most common blood source, followed by avian hosts (Galliformes-chickens and turkeys), and human/Galliforme mixed-meals. The Forage Ratio and Selection Index both show a strong preference for Galliformes over humans in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our data show that 30% of An. darlingi fed on more than one host, including combinations of dogs, pigs, goats and rats. There appears to be a pattern of host choice in An. darlingi, with varying proportions of mosquitoes feeding only on humans, only on Galliformes and some taking mixed-meals of blood (human plus Galliforme), which was detected in the three sites in different years, indicating that there could be a structure to these populations based on blood-feeding preferences. Mosquito age, estimated in two localities, Lupuna and Cahuide, ranged widely between sites and years. This variation may reflect the range of local environmental factors that influence longevity or possibly potential changes in the ability of the mosquito to transmit the parasite. Of 6,204 resting An. darlingi tested for Plasmodium infection, 0.42% were infected with P. vivax. This study provides evidence for the first time of the usefulness of barrier screens for the collection of blood-fed resting mosquitoes to calculate the Human Blood Index (HBI) and other blood-meal sources in a neotropical malaria endemic setting. PMID:28231248

  3. Ammonia excretion in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): evidence for Rh glycoprotein and H+-ATPase involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, C Michele; Hung, Carrie C Y; Tsui, Tommy K N; Wilson, Jonathan M; Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M

    2007-11-14

    Branchial ammonia transport in freshwater teleosts is not well understood. Most studies conclude that NH(3) diffuses out of the gill and becomes protonated to NH(4)(+) in an acidified gill boundary layer. Rhesus (Rh) proteins are new members of the ammonia transporter superfamily and rainbow trout possess genes encoding for Rh30-like1 and Rhcg2. We identified seven additional full-length trout Rh cDNA sequences: one Rhag and two each of Rhbg, Rhcg1, and Rh30-like. The mRNA expression of Rhbg, Rhcg1, and Rhcg2 was examined in trout tissues (blood, brain, eye, gill, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle, skin, spleen) exposed to high external ammonia (HEA; 1.5 mmol/l NH(4)HCO(3), pH 7.95, 15 degrees C). Rhbg was expressed in all tissues, Rhcg1 was expressed in brain, gill, liver, and skin, and Rhcg2 was expressed in gill and skin. Brain Rhbg and Rhcg1 were downregulated, blood Rh30-like and Rhag were downregulated, and skin Rhbg and Rhcg2 were upregulated with HEA. After an initial uptake of ammonia into the fish during HEA, excretion was reestablished, coinciding with upregulations of gill Rh mRNA in the pavement cell fraction: Rhcg2 at 12 and 48 h, and Rhbg at 48 h. NHE2 expression remained unchanged, but upregulated H(+)-ATPase (V-type, B-subunit) and downregulated carbonic anhydrase (CA2) expression and activity were noted in the gill and again expression changes occurred in pavement cells, and not in mitochondria-rich cells. Together, these results indicate Rh glycoprotein involvement in ammonia transport and excretion in the rainbow trout while underscoring the significance of gill boundary layer acidification by H(+)-ATPase.

  4. Hydroaminomethylation in supercritical ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Kant, M. [Leibniz-Institute for Catalysis, Berlin (Germany); Klein, H.; Jackstell, R.; Beller, M. [Leibniz-Institute for Catalysis, Rostock (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Thermodynamic measurements were carried in the reaction system of hydroaminomethylation of olefins. Mixtures of ammonia, olefins, co-solvents, syngas and products such as nonylamine used as model and water were studied. In dependence on the reaction conditions and the mixtures selected opalescence points in a region from 92-290 bar and 120-172 C were found. (orig.)

  5. Ammonia synthesis at low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Thomas Holm; Logadottir, Ashildur; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2000-01-01

    have been carried out to evaluate its feasibility. The calculations suggest that it might be possible to catalytically produce ammonia from molecular nitrogen at low temperatures and pressures, in particular if energy is fed into the process electrochemically. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics........ In contrast to the biological process, the industrial process requires high temperatures and pressures to proceed, and an explanation of this important difference is discussed. The possibility of a metal surface catalyzed process running at low temperatures and pressures is addressed, and DFT calculations...

  6. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...... to the high expectations at the outset. Despite this, the paper concludes that Denmark is likely to reduce emission by 50% from 1990 to 2020 and reach the likely 2020 NEC ceiling....

  7. Effect of zeolite on toxicity of ammonia in freshwater sediments: Implications for toxicity identification evaluation procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besser, J.M.; Ingersoll, C.G. [Geological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States); Leonard, E.N.; Mount, D.R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.

    1998-11-01

    Techniques for reducing ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments were investigated as part of a project to develop toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) procedures for whole sediments. Although ammonia is a natural constituent of freshwater sediments, pollution can lead to ammonia concentrations that are toxic to benthic invertebrates, and ammonia can also contribute to the toxicity of sediments that contain more persistent contaminants. The authors investigated the use of amendments of a natural zeolite mineral, clinoptilolite, to reduce concentrations of ammonia in sediment pore water. Zeolites have been widely used for removal of ammonia in water treatment and in aqueous TIE procedures. The addition of granulated zeolite to ammonia-spiked sediments reduced pore-water ammonia concentrations and reduced ammonia toxicity to invertebrates. Amendments of 20% zeolite (v/v) reduced ammonia concentrations in pore water by {ge}70% in spiked sediments with ammonia concentrations typical of contaminated freshwater sediments. Zeolite amendments reduced toxicity of ammonia-spiked sediments to three taxa of benthic invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Chironomus tentans), despite their widely differing sensitivity to ammonia toxicity. In contrast, zeolite amendments did not reduce acute toxicity of sediments containing high concentrations of cadmium or copper or reduce concentrations of these metals in pore waters. These studies suggest that zeolite amendments, used in conjunction with toxicity tests with sensitive taxa such as H. azteca, may be an effective technique for selective reduction of ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments.

  8. Effect of zeolite on toxicity of ammonia in freshwater sediments: Implications for toxicity identification evaluation procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Leonard, E.N.; Mount, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    Techniques for reducing ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments were investigated as part of a project to develop toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) procedures for whole sediments. Although ammonia is a natural constituent of freshwater sediments, pollution can lead to ammonia concentrations that are toxic to benthic invertebrates, and ammonia can also contribute to the toxicity of sediments that contain more persistent contaminants. We investigated the use of amendments of a natural zeolite mineral, clinoptilolite, to reduce concentrations of ammonia in sediment pore water. Zeolites have been widely used for removal of ammonia in water treatment and in aqueous TIE procedures. The addition of granulated zeolite to ammonia-spiked sediments reduced pore-water ammonia concentrations and reduced ammonia toxicity to invertebrates. Amendments of 20% zeolite (v/v) reduced ammonia concentrations in pore water by ???70% in spiked sediments with ammonia concentrations typical of contaminated freshwater sediments. Zeolite amendments reduced toxicity of ammonia-spiked sediments to three taxa of benthic invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Chironomus tentans), despite their widely differing sensitivity to ammonia toxicity. In contrast, zeolite amendments did not reduce acute toxicity of sediments containing high concentrations of cadmium or copper or reduce concentrations of these metals in pore waters. These studies suggest that zeolite amendments, used in conjunction with toxicity tests with sensitive taxa such as H. azteca, may be an effective technique for selective reduction of ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments.

  9. Ammonia tolerant enriched methanogenic cultures as bioaugmentation inocula to alleviate ammonia inhibition in continuous anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Wang, Han; Angelidaki, Irini

    tolerant methanogenic culture as potential bioaugmentation inoculum in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operating under “inhibited steady-state”, triggered by high ammonia levels (5 g NH4+-N L-1). The results of the current study established for the first time that bioaugmentation of an enriched...... ammonia tolerant methanogen in a CSTR reactor could completely alleviate the ammonia inhibitory effect. Furthermore, it was found that bioaugmentation with the enriched culture resulted in 25% higher methane production compared to when the bioaugmentation was achieved with pure methanogenic strains....... The bioaugmentation was performed without pausing the continuous operation of the CSTR reactor and without excluding the ammonia-rich substrate from the feedstock. Thus, bioaugmentation with mixed methanogenic cultures could potentially support the development of an efficient and cost-effective biomethanation process...

  10. Computational Search for Improved Ammonia Storage Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Lysgaard, Steen; Vegge, Tejs

    Metal halide ammines, e.g. Mg(NH3)6Cl2 and Sr(NH3)8Cl2, can reversibly store ammonia, with high volumetric hydrogen storage capacities. The storage in the halide ammines is very safe, and the salts are therefore highly relevant as a carbon-free energy carrier in future transportation infrastructure....... In this project we are searching for improved mixed materials with optimal desorption temperatures and kinetics, optimally releasing all ammonia in one step. We apply Density Functional Theory, DFT, calculations on mixed compounds selected by a Genetic Algorithm (GA), relying on biological principles of natural...

  11. Forced convection of ammonia. 2. part.: gaseous ammonia - very high wall temperatures (1000 to 3000 K); Convection forcee de l'ammoniac. 2. partie: ammoniac gazeux - cas de tres hautes temperatures de paroi (1000 a 3000{sup 0} K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perroud, P.; Rebiere, J.; Strittmatter, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop of gaseous ammonia in forced convection are experimentally determined. The fluid flows (mass flow rate 0.6 to 2.4 g/s) in a long tungsten tube (d{sub i} = 2.8 mm, d{sub e} = 5.1 mm, L = 700 mm) electrically heated. The temperature of the wall reaches 3000 deg. K and the fluid 2500 deg. K; maximum heat flux 530 w/cm{sup 2}. Ammonia is completely dissociated and the power necessary for dissociation reaches 30 per cent of the total power exchanged. Inlet pressure varies between 6 and 16 bars and the maximum pressure drop in the tube reaches 15 bars. Two regimes of dissociation have been shown: catalytic and homogeneous and the variation of dissociation along the length of the tube is studied. The measured heat transfer coefficients may be about 10 times these calculated by the means of classical formulae. A correlation of experimental results using enthalpy as a driving force for heat transmission is presented. Pressure drops may be calculated by the means of a classical friction factor. (authors) [French] On determine experimentalement les coefficients d'echange thermique et les pertes de charge de l'ammoniac gazeux en convection forcee. Le fluide circule avec un debit en masse compris entre 0.6 et 2.4 g/s (G = 10 a 40 g/cm{sup 2}.s) dans un tube long en tungstene (d{sub i} = 2.8 mm, d{sub e} = 5.1 mm, L = 700 mm), chauffe electriquement. La temperature de paroi atteint 3000 deg. K, celle du fluide 2500 deg. K et le flux de chaleur maximal est de 530 W/cm{sup 2}. L'ammoniac se dissocie completement, la puissance correspondant a la dissociation atteint 30 pour cent de la puissance totale echangee. La pression d'entree varie entre 6 et 16 bars et la chute de pression maximale dans le canal est de 15 bars. On distingue deux regimes de dissociation, catalytique et homogene, et on etudie la variation du taux de dissociation en fonction de la longueur du tube. Les coefficients d'echange thermique mesures

  12. A Method for Gray-Scale Imaging of Blood Flow Using High-Frequency Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Pang, Chao; Song, Xue-Dong; Gao, Xuan

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a new method that complements current techniques available in the high-frequency blood imaging field. A comprehensive scattering model was established to determine the feasibility and frequency range of the blood flow imaging of superficial organs and tissues using high-frequency ultrasound. The transmitting and receiving modes and an algorithm were designed to obtain blood flow information based on differentiation between tissues and blood flow. The system was created and tested first with a model that simulates blood flow and was then used on human tissue. A fine-scale image of a blood vessel could be obtained with this system. Moreover, this method can obtain weak blood flow signal using single pulse rather than the traditional pulse-code method and maintains a high resolution that can be matched to high-frequency structural imaging. This study provides a reliable method for further applications related to diagnoses of superficial organs.

  13. High-level theoretical study of the reaction between hydroxyl and ammonia: Accurate rate constants from 200 to 2500 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Stanton, John F.

    2017-10-01

    Hydrogen abstraction from NH3 by OH to produce H2O and NH2—an important reaction in combustion of NH3 fuel—was studied with a theoretical approach that combines high level quantum chemistry and advanced chemical kinetics methods. Thermal rate constants calculated from first principles agree well (within 5%-20%) with available experimental data over a temperature range that extends from 200 to 2500 K. Quantum mechanical tunneling effects were found to be important; they lead to a decided curvature and non-Arrhenius behavior for the rate constant.

  14. Hydrolyzabilities of different corn stover fractions after aqueous ammonia pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zongping; Ge, Xiaoyan; Xin, Donglin; Zhang, Junhua

    2014-02-01

    The effect of aqueous ammonia pretreatment on the hydrolysis of different corn stover fractions (rind, husk, leaf, and pith) by xylanase (XYL) with cellulases (CELs) was evaluated. The aqueous ammonia pretreatment had excellent delignification ability (above 66%) for different corn stover fractions. The corn rind exhibited the lowest susceptibility to aqueous ammonia pretreatment. The pretreated rind showed the lowest hydrolyzability by CEL and XYL, which was supported by a high content of crystalline cellulose in the hydrolyzed residues of rind, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). With the addition of 1 mg XYL/g dry matter, a high glucose yield (above 90%) could be obtained from the pretreated rind by CEL. The results revealed that a high hydrolyzate yield of corn rind after aqueous ammonia pretreatment could be obtained with 1 mg xylanase/g dry matter, showing that aqueous ammonia pretreatment and xylanase addition to cellulases have great potential for the efficient hydrolysis of corn stover without previous fractionation.

  15. A fluorometric high-performance liquid chromatography procedure for simultaneous determination of methylamine and aminoacetone in blood and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shengyuan; Yu, Peter H

    2009-01-01

    Methylamine and aminoacetone are endogenous aliphatic amines found in human blood and urine. They can be oxidized by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), leading to the production of toxic aldehydes such as formaldehyde and methylglyoxal as well as hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. SSAO is localized on the surface of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells and of adipocytes. Increases in SSAO activity are linked to vascular disorders associated with pathological conditions such as diabetic complications, heart failure, and vascular dementia. Quantitative assessment of methylamine and acetonitrile in tissues has been hampered due to the volatility and hydrolipophilicity of these amines as well as interference by complex biological constituents. We have overcome this problem and developed an FMOC/HPLC (9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate-Cl/high-performance liquid chromatography) method for simultaneous assessment of methylamine and aminoacetone. This method has been validated using rodent tissues with a detection limit at the picogram level. Methylamine and aminoacetone distributed unevenly among different tissues ranged from 0.1 to 27 nmol/g. To our knowledge, this is the first report on simultaneous determination of methylamine and aminoacetone in mammal tissues.

  16. High-temperature stability of chemically vapor-deposited tungsten-silicon couples rapid thermal annealed in ammonia and argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, E.K.; Morgan, A.E.; Flanner, J.M.; Coulman, B.; Sadana, D.K.; Burrow, B.J.; Ellwanger, R.C.

    1988-12-15

    A rapid thermal anneal (RTA) in an NH/sub 3/ ambient has been found to increase the thermal stability of W films chemically vapor deposited (CVD) on Si. W films deposited onto single-crystal Si by low-pressure CVD were rapid thermal annealed at temperatures between 500 and 1100 /sup 0/C in NH/sub 3/ and Ar ambients. The reactions were studied using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and four-point resistivity probe. High-temperature (greater than or equal to1000 /sup 0/C) RTA in Ar completely converted W into the low resistivity (31 ..mu cap omega.. cm) tetragonal WSi/sub 2/ phase. In contrast, after a prior 900 /sup 0/C RTA in NH/sub 3/, N inclusion within the W film and at the W/Si interface almost completely suppressed the W-Si reaction. Detailed examination, however, revealed some patches of WSi/sub 2/ formed at the interface accompanied by long tunnels extending into the substrate, and some crystalline precipitates in the substrate close to the interface. The associated interfacial contact resistance was only slightly altered by the 900 /sup 0/C NH/sub 3/ anneal. The NH/sub 3/-treated W film acted as a diffusion barrier in an Al/W/Si contact metallurgy up to at least 550 /sup 0/C, at which point some increase in contact resistance was measured.

  17. Effects of a high-fibre diet on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from gestating sows and fattening pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, François-Xavier; Laitat, Martine; Wavreille, José; Nicks, Baudouin; Cabaraux, Jean-François

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to measure under barn conditions the emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 associated with gestating sows (trial 1) and fattening pigs (trial 2) fed either a control diet (CTD) based on cereals or a high-fibre diet (HFD) based on sugar beet pulp (SBP). Three successive batches of 10 Belgian Landrace gestating sows were used for trial 1. Two successive batches of 24 Piétrain × Belgian Landrace fattening pigs were used for trial 2. Animals were kept on slatted floor. The gas emissions were measured by infrared photoacoustic detection and expressed per day and per livestock unit, equals to 500 kg body weight. Similar trends were observed for both animal types. With HFD, the NH3 emissions were reduced (27.2 vs. 36.5 g for the gestating sows, P sows, P sows and 2.1 g for fattening pigs, P > 0.05), and on CO2 emissions (around 6.0 kg for gestating sows and 9.1 kg for fattening pigs, P > 0.05). Most of manure parameters did not statistically differ regarding the treatment. Reproductive performance and body condition of the sows were not affected by the diet. However, growth performance and carcass traits of the HFD-fed fattening pigs were deteriorated compared to CTD.

  18. An infrared spectroscopy method to detect ammonia in gastric juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M; Pennecchi, Francesca; Muller, Paul; Balma Tivola, Paolo; Roncari, Silvia; Rossi, Andrea M

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia in gastric juice is considered a potential biomarker for Helicobacter pylori infection and as a factor contributing to gastric mucosal injury. High ammonia concentrations are also found in patients with chronic renal failure, peptic ulcer disease, and chronic gastritis. Rapid and specific methods for ammonia detection are urgently required by the medical community. Here we present a method to detect ammonia directly in gastric juice based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ammonia dissolved in biological liquid samples as ammonium ion was released in air as a gas by the shifting of the pH equilibrium of the ammonium/ammonia reaction and was detected in line by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy system equipped with a gas cell for the quantification. The method developed provided high sensitivity and selectivity in ammonia detection both in pure standard solutions and in a simulated gastric juice matrix over the range of diagnostic concentrations tested. Preliminary analyses were also performed on real gastric juice samples from patients with gastric mucosal injury and with symptoms of H. pylori infection, and the results were in agreement with the clinicopathology information. The whole analysis, performed in less than 10 min, can be directly applied on the sample without extraction procedures and it ensures high specificity of detection because of the ammonia fingerprint absorption bands in the infrared spectrum. This method could be easily used with endoscopy instrumentation to provide information in real time and would enable the endoscopist to improve and integrate gastroscopic examinations.

  19. 超重力氨法制备超细氧化锌%Preparation of Ultra-Fine Zinc Oxide by Ammonia Decomposition Method in High Gravity Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦纬洲; 刘有智; 祁贵生; 杨森; 李孟委

    2012-01-01

    在旋转填料床反应器中,以锌氨络合物与蒸汽为原料制得氧化锌前驱体,经煅烧后得到超细氧化锌产品.考察了超重力因子、气液比、蒸汽流量和温度等操作参数对产品收率的影响.结果表明,在超重力因子167.2,气液比1.14 kg/L,蒸汽流量 30 L/h和蒸汽温度135℃的条件下,沉锌率较高,可达96.7%.氧化锌产品的透射电镜(TEM)表征结果表明,其形貌为近球状,平均粒径为45 nm.%In the high gravity rotating packed bed reactor, the zinc-ammonia complex solution reacted with steam to precipitate the precursor of zinc oxide, which was then calcinated into ultra-fine zinc oxide. The effects of gravity factor, gas-liquid ratio, steam flow rate and temperature on the efficiency of zinc precipitation were investigated. The results showed that the zinc precipitation could reach up to 96.7% under the conditions of gravity factor of 167.2, gas-liquid ratio of 1.14 kg/L, steam flow rate of 30 L/h and steam temperature of 135℃. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed that the product had a near spherical morphology with an average particle size of 45 nm.

  20. Longitudinal assessment of high blood pressure in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwimmer, Jeffrey B; Zepeda, Anne; Newton, Kimberly P; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Behling, Cynthia; Hallinan, Erin K; Donithan, Michele; Tonascia, James

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 9.6% of children and may put these children at elevated risk of high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for high blood pressure in children with NAFLD. Cohort study performed by the NIDDK NASH Clinical Research Network. There were 484 children with NAFLD ages 2 to 17 at enrollment; 382 children were assessed both at enrollment and 48 weeks afterwards. The main outcomes were high blood pressure at baseline and persistent high blood pressure at both baseline and 48 weeks. Prevalence of high blood pressure at baseline was 35.8% and prevalence of persistent high blood pressure was 21.4%. Children with high blood pressure were significantly more likely to have worse steatosis than children without high blood pressure (mild 19.8% vs. 34.2%, moderate 35.0% vs. 30.7%, severe 45.2% vs. 35.1%; P = 0.003). Higher body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, and uric acid were independent risk factors for high blood pressure (Odds Ratios: 1.10 per kg/m2, 1.09 per 10 mg/dL, 1.25 per mg/dL, respectively). Compared to boys, girls with NAFLD were significantly more likely to have persistent high blood pressure (28.4% vs.18.9%; P = 0.05). In conclusion, NAFLD is a common clinical problem that places children at substantial risk for high blood pressure, which may often go undiagnosed. Thus blood pressure evaluation, control, and monitoring should be an integral component of the clinical management of children with NAFLD.

  1. Longitudinal assessment of high blood pressure in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B Schwimmer

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD affects 9.6% of children and may put these children at elevated risk of high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for high blood pressure in children with NAFLD.Cohort study performed by the NIDDK NASH Clinical Research Network. There were 484 children with NAFLD ages 2 to 17 at enrollment; 382 children were assessed both at enrollment and 48 weeks afterwards. The main outcomes were high blood pressure at baseline and persistent high blood pressure at both baseline and 48 weeks.Prevalence of high blood pressure at baseline was 35.8% and prevalence of persistent high blood pressure was 21.4%. Children with high blood pressure were significantly more likely to have worse steatosis than children without high blood pressure (mild 19.8% vs. 34.2%, moderate 35.0% vs. 30.7%, severe 45.2% vs. 35.1%; P = 0.003. Higher body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, and uric acid were independent risk factors for high blood pressure (Odds Ratios: 1.10 per kg/m2, 1.09 per 10 mg/dL, 1.25 per mg/dL, respectively. Compared to boys, girls with NAFLD were significantly more likely to have persistent high blood pressure (28.4% vs.18.9%; P = 0.05.In conclusion, NAFLD is a common clinical problem that places children at substantial risk for high blood pressure, which may often go undiagnosed. Thus blood pressure evaluation, control, and monitoring should be an integral component of the clinical management of children with NAFLD.

  2. Albumin/asparaginase capsules prepared by ultrasound to retain ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Ana; Ribeiro, Artur; Oliveira, César; Parpot, Pier; Gomes, Andreia; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-11-01

    Asparaginase reduces the levels of asparagine in blood, which is an essential amino acid for the proliferation of lymphoblastic malign cells. Asparaginase converts asparagine into aspartic acid and ammonia. The accumulation of ammonia in the bloodstream leads to hyperammonemia, described as one of the most significant side effects of asparaginase therapy. Therefore, there is a need for asparaginase formulations with the potential to reduce hyperammonemia. We incorporated 2 % of therapeutic enzyme in albumin-based capsules. The presence of asparaginase in the interface of bovine serum albumin (BSA) capsules showed the ability to hydrolyze the asparagine and retain the forming ammonia at the surface of the capsules. The incorporation of Poloxamer 407 in the capsule formulation further increased the ratio aspartic acid/ammonia from 1.92 to 2.46 (and 1.10 from the free enzyme), decreasing the levels of free ammonia. This capacity to retain ammonia can be due to electrostatic interactions and retention of ammonia at the surface of the capsules. The developed BSA/asparaginase capsules did not cause significant cytotoxic effect on mouse leukemic macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. The new BSA/asparaginase capsules could potentially be used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia preventing hyperammonemia associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment with asparaginase.

  3. Unveiling Sources of Heating in the Vicinity of the Orion BN/KL Hot Core as Traced by Highly Excited Inversion Transitions of Ammonia

    CERN Document Server

    Goddi, C; Humphreys, E M L; Chandler, C J; Matthews, L D

    2011-01-01

    Using the Expanded Very Large Array, we have mapped the vicinity of the Orion BN/KL Hot Core with sub-arcsecond angular resolution in seven metastable inversion transitions of ammonia: (J,K)=(6,6) to (12,12). This emission comes from levels up to 1500 K above the ground state, enabling identification of source(s) responsible for heating the region. We used this multi-transition dataset to produce images of the rotational/kinetic temperature and the column density of ammonia for ortho and para species separately and on a position-by-position basis. We find rotational temperature and column density in the range 160-490 K and (1-4)x10^17 cm^-2, respectively. Our spatially-resolved images show that the highest (column) density and hottest gas is found in a northeast-southwest elongated ridge to the southeast of Source I. We have also measured the ortho-para ratio of ammonia, estimated to vary in the range 0.9-1.6. Enhancement of ortho with respect to para and the offset of hot ammonia emission peaks from known (p...

  4. High Blood Glucose: What It Means and How To Treat It

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leave this field empty High Blood Glucose: What It Means and How To Treat It What is high blood glucose? People who do ... glucose, also called 'hyperglycemia', is considered "high" when it is 160 mg/dl or above your individual ...

  5. 17 Million U.S. Adults May Have Tough-to-Spot High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Million U.S. Adults May Have Tough-to-Spot High Blood Pressure 'Masked' hypertension doesn't show up in a ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on: High Blood Pressure Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics High ...

  6. Chilled Ammonia Process for CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; Well, Willy J.M. van

    2010-01-01

    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2–10°C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows good...... perspectives for decreasing the heat requirement. However, a scientific understanding of the processes is required. The thermodynamic properties of the NH3–CO2–H2O system were described using the extended UNIQUAC electrolyte model developed by Thomsen and Rasmussen in a temperature range from 0 to 110°C...

  7. Enantioselective, iridium-catalyzed monoallylation of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouy, Mark J; Stanley, Levi M; Hartwig, John F

    2009-08-19

    Highly enantioselective, iridium-catalyzed monoallylations of ammonia are reported. These reactions occur with electron-neutral, -rich, and -poor cinnamyl carbonates, alkyl and trityloxy-substituted allylic carbonates, and dienyl carbonates in moderate to good yields and excellent enantioselectivities. This process is enabled by the use of an iridium catalyst that does not require a Lewis acid for activation and that is stable toward a large excess of ammonia. This selective formation of primary allylic amines allows for one-pot syntheses of heterodiallylamines and allylic amides that are not otherwise accessible via iridium-catalyzed allylic amination without the use of blocking groups and protective group manipulations.

  8. Polymer brushes interfacing blood as a route toward high performance blood contacting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surman, František; Riedel, Tomáš; Bruns, Michael; Kostina, Nina Yu; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2015-05-01

    In the current study, well-defined polymer brushes are shown as an effective surface modification to resist the adhesion of whole blood and its components. Poly[oligo(ethylene glycol)methylether methacrylate] (poly(MeOEGMA)), poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly(HEMA)), poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide] (poly(HPMA)), and poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide) (poly(CBAA)) brushes were grown by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and subsequently characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. All brushes decreased the fouling from blood plasma over 95% and prevented the adhesion of platelets, erythrocytes, and leukocytes as evidenced by SPR and SEM measurements.

  9. Tritiated ammonia formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-03-01

    A rate equation that closely simulates experimental data has been developed. this rate equation can be used to calculate the formation of tritiated ammonia from different concentrations of tritium and nitrogen. The reaction of T{sub 2} and N{sub 2} to form NT{sub 3} is a slow process, particularly when the tritium concentration is low. The reaction requires weeks or months to reach equilibrium dependent on the concentrations of the reactants.

  10. Effect of ammonia on the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose and tributyrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasconcelos Fernandes, T.; Keesman, K.J.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia nitrogen is one of the most common inhibitors in the anaerobic digestion of complex wastes containing high concentrations of ammonia like animal manures, blackwater and waste oil from gastronomy. The inhibiting effect of ammonia on methanogenesis has been well established. In contrast, the

  11. Effect of ammonia on the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose and tributyrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasconcelos Fernandes, T.; Keesman, K.J.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia nitrogen is one of the most common inhibitors in the anaerobic digestion of complex wastes containing high concentrations of ammonia like animal manures, blackwater and waste oil from gastronomy. The inhibiting effect of ammonia on methanogenesis has been well established. In contrast, the k

  12. Effect of ammonia-generating diet on ovine serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Mondal, S; Pal, D T; Gupta, P S P

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of ammonia-generating diet on serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell growth and secretion parameters in ewes (Ovis aries). Ewes were fed with 14% CP diet (control) or ammonia-generating diet or ammonia-generating diet plus soluble sugar. The serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea level, serum oestrogen and progesterone levels and granulosa cell (obtained from ovaries of slaughtered ewes) growth parameters and secretory activities were estimated. Ammonia-generating diet (high-protein diet) increased the serum ammonia and urea concentration. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the ammonia concentration in serum with comparable levels as in control group; however, the urea level in the same group was higher than that observed in control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the follicular fluid ammonia concentration; however, the level was significantly higher compared to control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar brought down the follicular fluid urea level comparable to that observed in control group. Oestrogen and progesterone levels remained unchanged in ewes fed with different types of diet. Oestrogen and progesterone secretion were significantly lowered from granulosa cells recovered from ewes fed with high ammonia-generating diet. Low metabolic activity and high incidence of apoptosis were observed in granulosa cells obtained from ovaries of ewes fed with ammonia-generating diet.

  13. Excretory nitrogen metabolism and defence against ammonia toxicity in air-breathing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, S F; Ip, Y K

    2014-03-01

    With the development of air-breathing capabilities, some fishes can emerge from water, make excursions onto land or even burrow into mud during droughts. Air-breathing fishes have modified gill morphology and morphometry and accessory breathing organs, which would tend to reduce branchial ammonia excretion. As ammonia is toxic, air-breathing fishes, especially amphibious ones, are equipped with various strategies to ameliorate ammonia toxicity during emersion or ammonia exposure. These strategies can be categorized into (1) enhancement of ammonia excretion and reduction of ammonia entry, (2) conversion of ammonia to a less toxic product for accumulation and subsequent excretion, (3) reduction of ammonia production and avoidance of ammonia accumulation and (4) tolerance of ammonia at cellular and tissue levels. Active ammonia excretion, operating in conjunction with lowering of ambient pH and reduction in branchial and cutaneous NH₃ permeability, is theoretically the most effective strategy to maintain low internal ammonia concentrations. NH₃ volatilization involves the alkalization of certain epithelial surfaces and requires mechanisms to prevent NH₃ back flux. Urea synthesis is an energy-intensive process and hence uncommon among air-breathing teleosts. Aestivating African lungfishes detoxify ammonia to urea and the accumulated urea is excreted following arousal. Reduction in ammonia production is achieved in some air-breathing fishes through suppression of amino acid catabolism and proteolysis, or through partial amino acid catabolism leading to alanine formation. Others can slow down ammonia accumulation through increased glutamine synthesis in the liver and muscle. Yet, some others develop high tolerance of ammonia at cellular and tissue levels, including tissues in the brain. In summary, the responses of air-breathing fishes to ameliorate ammonia toxicity are many and varied, determined by the behaviour of the species and the nature of the environment in

  14. Family Adaptability and Cohesion and High Blood Pressure among Urban African American women

    OpenAIRE

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-01-01

    African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely...

  15. 医药中间体高含氨、高含盐废水的处理技术%Treatment technology of pharmaceutical intermediate wastewater containing high ammonia and high salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕煜龙; 丁瑾佳; 何云芳

    2015-01-01

    某精细化工厂生产医药中间体格列齐特粗品、氨基杂环盐酸盐和酰亚胺,产生高含氨、高含盐废水.采用凝聚沉淀—三效蒸发浓缩预处理后,与地面冲洗水、设备清洗水等废水混合后通过微电解+A2/O工艺处理,处理后废水总排放口COD、BOD5、SS、氨氮、总氮均达到《化学合成类制药工业水污染物排放标准》(GB 21904—2008)中表2要求,AOX达到《污水综合排放标准》(GB 8978—1996)表4中二级标准.%A fine chemical plant produces pharmaceutical intermediate:gliclazide crude,amino heterocyclic hydro-chloride and imide,releasing wastewater containing high ammonia and high salinity.After pretreated by flocculation-three effect evaporation and concentration process,and mixed with ground rinsing water and equipment cleaning water,the wastewater is treated by micro electrolysis+A2/O process.After the treatment,the concentrations of COD,BOD5,SS,ammonia nitrogen,total nitrogen at the wastewater total discharge outlet can meet the requirements specified in table 2 of the Discharge Standard of Water Pollution in Chemical Synthesized Pharmaceutical Industry (GB 21904—2008),and the concentration of AOX meets the requirements specified in table 4 of the second grade of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard(GB 8978—1996).

  16. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bozza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. Objective: To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. Methods: A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. Results: The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6. Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR, 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28 had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Conclusion: Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.

  17. Combustion driven ammonia generation strategies for passive ammonia SCR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Joel G.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Najt, Paul M.

    2016-12-06

    A method for controlling ammonia generation in an exhaust gas feedstream output from an internal combustion engine equipped with an exhaust aftertreatment system including a first aftertreatment device includes executing an ammonia generation cycle to generate ammonia on the first aftertreatment device. A desired air-fuel ratio output from the engine and entering the exhaust aftertreatment system conducive for generating ammonia on the first aftertreatment device is determined. Operation of a selected combination of a plurality of cylinders of the engine is selectively altered to achieve the desired air-fuel ratio entering the exhaust aftertreatment system.

  18. The Effects of Acute Copper and Ammonia Challenges on Ammonia and Urea Excretion by the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alex M; Jorge, Marianna Basso; Wood, Chris M; Martins, Camila M G; Bianchini, Adalto

    2017-04-01

    Copper (Cu) is a persistent environmental contaminant that elicits several physiological disturbances in aquatic organisms, including a disruption in ammonia regulation. We hypothesized that exposure to Cu in a model crustacean (blue crab, Callinectes sapidus) acclimated to brackish water (2 ppt) would lead to hyperammonemia by stimulating an increase in ammonia production and/or by inhibiting ammonia excretion. We further hypothesized that urea production would represent an ammonia detoxification strategy in response to Cu. In a pilot experiment, exposure to 0, 100, and 200 µg/L Cu for 6 h caused significant concentration-dependent increases in ammonia excretion (J amm). Based on these results, an acute 24-h 100 µg/L Cu exposure was conducted and this similarly caused an overall stimulation of J amm during the 24-h period, indicative of an increase in ammonia production. Terminal haemolymph total ammonia content (T amm) was unchanged, suggesting that while ammonia production was increased, there was no inhibition of the excretion mechanism. In support of our second hypothesis, urea excretion (J urea) increased in response to Cu exposure; haemolymph [urea] was unaffected. This suggested that urea production also was increased. To further test the hypothesis that J urea increased to prevent hyperammonemia during Cu exposure, crabs were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA; 2.5 mmol/L NH4HCO3) for 12 h in a separate experiment. This led to a fourfold increase in haemolymph T amm, whereas J urea increased only transiently and haemolymph [urea] was unchanged, indicating that urea production likely does not contribute to the attenuation of hyperammonemia in blue crabs. Overall, Cu exposure in blue crabs led to increased ammonia and urea production, which were both eliminated by excretion. These results may have important implications in aquaculture systems where crabs may be exposed to elevated Cu and/or ammonia.

  19. Moisture insensitive adsorption of ammonia on resorcinol-formaldehyde resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredych, Mykola; Ania, Conchi; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2016-03-15

    Phenolic-formaldehyde resins aged at 85, 90 and 95°C were used as ammonia adsorbents at dynamic conditions in dry and moist air. To avoid pressure drops 10% bentonite was added as a binder. The initial and hybrid materials (before and after ammonia adsorption) were extensively characterized from the point of view of their porosity and surface chemistry. The results showed that the addition of the binder had various effects on materials' properties depending on the chemistry of their surface groups. When the phenolic acidic groups were predominant, the largest increase in surface acidity upon the addition of the binder was found. It was linked to the exfoliation of bentonite by polar moieties of the resins, which made acidic groups from aluminosilicate layers available for ammonia adsorption. On this sample, a relatively high amount of ammonia was strongly adsorbed in dry conditions. Insensitivity to moisture is a significant asset of ammonia adsorbents.

  20. Alkaline Ammonia Electrolysis on Electrodeposited Platinum for Controllable Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Jieun; Choun, Myounghoon; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2016-02-19

    Ammonia is beginning to attract a great deal of attention as an alternative energy source carrier, because clean hydrogen can be produced through electrolytic processes without the emission of COx . In this study, we deposited various shapes of Pt catalysts under potentiostatic mode; the electrocatalytic oxidation behavior of ammonia using these catalysts was studied in alkaline media. The electrodeposited Pt was characterized by both qualitative and quantitative analysis. To discover the optimal structure and the effect of ammonia concentration, the bulk pH value, reaction temperature, and applied current of ammonia oxidation were investigated using potential sweep and galvanostatic methods. Finally, ammonia electrolysis was conducted using a zero-gap cell, producing highly pure hydrogen with an energy efficiency over 80 %. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Ammonia emissions from seabird colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackall, Trevor D.; Wilson, Linda J.; Theobald, Mark R.; Milford, Celia; Nemitz, Eiko; Bull, Jennifer; Bacon, Philip J.; Hamer, Keith C.; Wanless, Sarah; Sutton, Mark A.

    2007-05-01

    Ammonia emissions were measured from two entire seabird colonies with contrasting species assemblages, to ascertain the ammonia volatilisation potentials among seabird species in relation to their nesting behaviour. Emissions were calculated from downwind plume measurements of ammonia concentration using both inverse dispersion and tracer ratio methods. Measured colony emissions ranged 1-90 kg NH3 hour-1, and equated to 16 and 36% volatilization of excreted nitrogen for colonies dominated by ground/burrow nesting and bare rock nesting birds, respectively. The results were applied in a bioenergetics model with a global seabird database. Seabird colonies are found to represent the largest point sources of ammonia globally (up to ~6 Gg NH3 colony-1 year-1). Moreover the largest emissions occur mainly in remote environments with otherwise low NH3 emissions. These ammonia ``hot spots'' explain significant perturbations of the nitrogen cycle in these regions and add ~20% to oceanic ammonia emissions south of latitude 45°S.

  2. High blood pressure at old age : The Leiden 85 plus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, Thomas van

    2010-01-01

    The last decades have shown an increasing interest in treatment of high blood pressure. Copious amounts of data have been published on the mortality and morbidity risks of high blood pressure. Overall these data have resulted in an increasing awareness of the deleterious effects of only modest eleva

  3. High blood pressure at old age : The Leiden 85 plus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, Thomas van

    2010-01-01

    The last decades have shown an increasing interest in treatment of high blood pressure. Copious amounts of data have been published on the mortality and morbidity risks of high blood pressure. Overall these data have resulted in an increasing awareness of the deleterious effects of only modest

  4. For People with Diabetes or High Blood Pressure: Get Checked for Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language URL Español For People with Diabetes or High Blood Pressure: Get Checked for Kidney Disease Page Content Make ... I be checked for kidney disease? Diabetes and high blood pressure can damage the kidneys and lead to kidney ...

  5. Screening of thermotolerant and high ammonia assimilation rate yeast strains and study on fermentation conditions%耐高温酵母菌高氨氮同化率菌株的筛选和发酵条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉飞; 缪礼鸿

    2015-01-01

    通过比较测定酵母菌发酵上清液中残存的氨氮含量的方法,从假丝酵母( Candida )、酿酒酵母(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)、马克斯克鲁维酵母(Kluyveromyces marxianus)和东方伊萨酵母( Issatchenkia orientalis)4个属共56株耐高温酵母菌中筛选得到6株氨氮同化率为70%以上的酵母菌株,其中酿酒酵母1株,假丝酵母属5株;通过进一步复筛,获得1株氨氮同化率高达81.1%的产朊假丝酵母( C.utilis) SG607。不同属的酵母菌以及同种酵母菌不同菌株之间对氨氮的同化率均有明显差异。发酵实验结果表明,在培养基碳/氮比为15:1,发酵时间为24 h时,产朊假丝酵母对氨氮的同化率最高。%In this study, six yeast strains of ammonia assimilation rate more than 70% were screened out from 56 strains of high temperature resistant yeast including Canad ida, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Issatchenkia orientalis by the comparison of residual ammonia nitrogen content in the supernatant of yeast fer-mentation.One of them belong to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the other five strains belong to Candida tropicali. Through further screening, one strain of Candida utilis named SG607 with ammonia nitrogen assimilation rate as high as 81.1%was screened out.There were significantly different on assimilation rate of ammonia among different genera of yeasts and different strains of one yeast species.The fermentation experiment results showed that the Can-dida tropicali strain could reached the highest rate of ammonia assimilation when the ratio of carbon and nitrogen in the medium was 15:1, and the fermentation time was 24h.

  6. Association of running manner with bacterial community dynamics in a partial short-term nitrifying bioreactor for treatment of piggery wastewater with high ammonia content

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Wei-Li; Huang, Qiang; Miao, Li-Li; Liu,Ying; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2016-01-01

    Optimization of running parameters in a bioreactor requires detailed understanding of microbial community dynamics during the startup and running periods. Using a novel piggery wastewater treatment system termed “UASB + SHARON + ANAMMOX” constructed in our laboratory, we investigated microbial community dynamics using the Illumina MiSeq method, taking activated sludge samples at ~2-week intervals during a ~300-day period. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were further investigated by quantific...

  7. High-Resolution Crystal Structures Elucidate the Molecular Basis of Cholera Blood Group Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggelund, Julie Elisabeth; Burschowsky, Daniel; Bjørnestad, Victoria Ariel; Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor; Krengel, Ute

    2016-04-01

    Cholera is the prime example of blood-group-dependent diseases, with individuals of blood group O experiencing the most severe symptoms. The cholera toxin is the main suspect to cause this relationship. We report the high-resolution crystal structures (1.1-1.6 Å) of the native cholera toxin B-pentamer for both classical and El Tor biotypes, in complexes with relevant blood group determinants and a fragment of its primary receptor, the GM1 ganglioside. The blood group A determinant binds in the opposite orientation compared to previously published structures of the cholera toxin, whereas the blood group H determinant, characteristic of blood group O, binds in both orientations. H-determinants bind with higher affinity than A-determinants, as shown by surface plasmon resonance. Together, these findings suggest why blood group O is a risk factor for severe cholera.

  8. EFFECTS OF AMMONIA LOADING ON PORCELLIO SCABER: GLUTAMINE AND GLUTAMATE SYNTHESIS, AMMONIA EXCRETION AND TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright; Donnell; Reichert

    1994-03-01

    The effects of ammonia loading in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber were studied by exposing animals to atmospheres of high PNH3. Isopods show a remarkable tolerance of elevated ambient PNH3, with an LD50 of 89 Pa for a 7-day exposure. However, haemolymph total ammonia concentrations generally remained below 5 mmol l-1 (PNH3=0.37 Pa) over the range of ambient ammonia levels used (6.6­165 Pa). Following a 7-day loading period, whole-animal glutamine (Gln) and glutamate (Glu) levels increased in direct proportion to ambient PNH3, reaching values of 35 µmol g-1 fresh mass for glutamine and 12 µmol g-1 fresh mass for glutamate in 99 Pa PNH3; these correspond to control levels of 7.5 µmol g-1 fresh mass and 5.9 µmol g-1 fresh mass, respectively. Following transfer to ammonia-free chambers, NH3 excretion rates were augmented five- to sixfold relative to non-loaded controls. Ammonia volatilization subsequently declined, approaching control levels after 8­9 days. Levels of Gln and Glu showed a concomitant decline to 13.7 µmol g-1 fresh mass and 9.2 µmol g-1 fresh mass, respectively. The results suggest that these amino acids function in ammonia sequestration and, hence, detoxification. Calculations indicate that mobilization of amino groups by deamination of accumulated Gln and Glu could explain 35 % of the increased ammonia production. Implications of NH3 volatilization for acid­base balance are discussed.

  9. Scavenging of ammonia by raindrops in Saturn's great storm clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delitsky, M. L.; Baines, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Observations of the great Saturn storms of 2010-2011 by Cassini instruments showed a very large depletion in atmospheric ammonia. While dynamics will play a role, the very high solubility of ammonia in water may be another important contributor to ammonia depletion in storms. Ammonia exists in Earth's atmosphere and rainstorms dissolve ammonia to a great degree, leaving almost no NH3 in the atmosphere. Studies by Elperin et al (2011, 2013) show that scavenging of ammonia is greatest as a rainstorm starts and lessens as raindrops fall, tapering off to almost zero by the time the rain reaches the ground (Elperin et al 2009). Ammonia is reaching saturation as it dissolves in the aqueous solution. As concentration increases, NH3 is then converted to aqueous species (NH3)x.(H2O)y (Max and Chapados 2013).Ammonia has the highest solubility in water compared to all other gases in the Saturn atmosphere. The Henry's Law constant for NH3 in water is 60 M/atm at 25 C. For H2S, it is 0.001 M/atm. In Saturn storms, it is "raining UP": As water-laden storm clouds convectively rise, ammonia gas will be scavenged and go into solution to a great degree, whilst all the other gases remain mostly in the gas phase. Aqueous ammonia acts as an antifreeze: if ammonia is dissolved in water cloud droplets to the limit of its solubility, as water droplets rise, they can stay liquid (and continue to scavenge NH3) to well below their normal freezing point of 0 Celsius (273 K). The freezing point for a 30 wt % water-ammonia solution is ~189 K. The pressure level where T = 189 K is at 2.8 bars. The normal freezing point of water occurs at the 9 bar pressure level in Saturn's atmosphere. 2.8 bars occurs at the -51 km altitude (below the 1 bar level). 9 bars is at the -130 km level: a difference of 79 km. A water droplet containing 30 wt% NH3 can move upwards from 9 bars to 2.8 bars (79 km) and still remain liquid, only freezing above that altitude. Calculations by the E-AIM model show that ammonia

  10. Nitrogen removal and microbial characteristics in CANON biofilters fed with different ammonia levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuhai; Li, Dong; Zhang, Xiaojing; Zeng, Huiping; Yang, Zhuo; Cui, Shaoming; Zhang, Jie

    2014-11-01

    The nitrogen removal performance and microbial characteristics of four completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) biofilters were investigated. These four reactors were simultaneously seeded from a stable CANON biofilter with a seeding ratio of 1:1, which were fed with different ammonia levels. Results suggested that with the ammonia of 200-400 mg L(-1), aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB) and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) could perform harmonious work. The bioactivity and population of the two groups of bacteria were both high, which then resulted in excellent nitrogen removal, while too low or too high ammonia would both lead to worse performance. When ammonia was too high, the bioactivity, biodiversity and population of AerAOB all decreased and then resulted in the lowest nitrogen removal. Nitrosomonas and Candidatus Brocadia were detected as predominant functional microbes in all the four reactors. Finally, strategies for treating sewage with different ammonia levels were proposed.

  11. Proximal tubule-specific glutamine synthetase deletion alters basal and acidosis-stimulated ammonia metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E; Lamers, Wouter H; Chaudhry, Farrukh A; Verlander, Jill W; Weiner, I David

    2016-06-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the recycling of NH4 (+) with glutamate to form glutamine. GS is highly expressed in the renal proximal tubule (PT), suggesting ammonia recycling via GS could decrease net ammoniagenesis and thereby limit ammonia available for net acid excretion. The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of PT GS in ammonia metabolism under basal conditions and during metabolic acidosis. We generated mice with PT-specific GS deletion (PT-GS-KO) using Cre-loxP techniques. Under basal conditions, PT-GS-KO increased urinary ammonia excretion significantly. Increased ammonia excretion occurred despite decreased expression of key proteins involved in renal ammonia generation. After the induction of metabolic acidosis, the ability to increase ammonia excretion was impaired significantly by PT-GS-KO. The blunted increase in ammonia excretion occurred despite greater expression of multiple components of ammonia generation, including SN1 (Slc38a3), phosphate-dependent glutaminase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and Na(+)-coupled electrogenic bicarbonate cotransporter. We conclude that 1) GS-mediated ammonia recycling in the PT contributes to both basal and acidosis-stimulated ammonia metabolism and 2) adaptive changes in other proteins involved in ammonia metabolism occur in response to PT-GS-KO and cause an underestimation of the role of PT GS expression.

  12. Multiprofessional Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Very Elderly Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Luciana Muniz Sanches Siqueira Veiga; Jardim, Thiago Veiga; de Souza, Weimar Kunz Sebba Barroso; Pimenta, Camila Dutra; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga

    2017-01-01

    Background As the world population ages, patients older than 80 years, known as very elderly, are more frequently found. There are no studies in this age group aimed at analyzing the multidisciplinary intervention in the treatment of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and some comorbidities. Objectives To assess the effect of a multidisciplinary approach in very elderly hypertensives cared for at a specialized service. Methods Longitudinal retrospective cohort study in a multidisciplinary service specialized in the SAH treatment in the Brazilian West-Central region. Patients aged 80 years and older by June 2015 were included. Data from the first (V1) and last visit (Vf) were assessed. Anthropometric variables, blood pressure (BP), renal function, pharmacological treatment, lifestyle, comorbidities and cardiovascular events were studied, comparing data from V1 and Vf. Controlled BP was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) lower than 140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) lower than 90 mm Hg. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSSR software, version 21.0. Values of p<0,05 were considered significant. Results Data of 71 patients were assessed with a mean follow-up time of 15,22 years. Their mean age at V1 was 69.2 years, and, at Vf, 84.53 years, and 26.8% of them were males. There was a significant reduction in mean SBP (157.3 x 142.1 mm Hg; p<0.001) and DBP (95.1 x 77.8 mm Hg; p<0.001), with an increase in BP control rates from V1 to Vf (36.6 x 83.1%; p<0.001). The number of antihypertensive drugs used increased (1.49 x 2.85; p<0.001), with an increase in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (22.5 x 46.5%; p=0.004), angiotensin II receptor blockers (4.2 x 35.2%; p<0.001) and calcium-channel blockers (18.3 x 67.6%; p<0.001). There was a reduction in total cholesterol (217.9 x 191 mg/dL; p<0.001) and LDL-cholesterol (139.6 x 119.0 mg/dL; p<0.001), but worsening of the glomerular filtration rate (62.5 x 45.4 mL/min; p<0.001). Conclusion

  13. Anthropometric indicators of obesity as screening tools for high blood pressure in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Neto, João de Souza; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Freitas, Roberta Souza; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Oliveira, Daniela Sousa; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues

    2013-08-01

    The study objectives were to investigate the indicators of obesity most associated with high blood pressure in community-dwelling elderly and identify among these which one best discriminates high blood pressure. This is an epidemiological, population, cross-sectional and home-based study of elderly people (≥ 60 years, n = 316) residing in northeastern Brazil. The results showed that the body mass index and the body adiposity index were the indicators more closely associated with high blood pressure in both sexes. Both in female and male genders, body mass index showed high values of specificity and low sensitivity values for discriminating high blood pressure, whereas the body adiposity index showed high sensitivity and moderate specificity values. In clinical practice and health surveillance, it is suggested that both indicators be used as screening tools for hypertension in the elderly.

  14. N-Doping of Graphene through Electrothermal Reactions with Ammonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xinran Wang; Xiaolin Li; Li Zhang; Youngki Yoon; Peter K. Weber; Hailiang Wang; Jing Guo; Hongjie Dai

    2009-01-01

    .... Individual graphene nanoribbons were covalently functionalized by nitrogen species through high-power electrical joule heating in ammonia gas, leading to n-type electronic doping consistent with theory...

  15. Suitability of blood-pressure-to-height ratio as the criterion for high blood pressure in children in an environmental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunović, Katarina; Jakovljević, Branko

    2017-01-01

    Blood-pressure-to-height ratio is considered a simple, accurate, inexpensive and non-age-dependent index for screening high blood pressure in a clinical setting, but its suitability in epidemiological surveys was not taken into consideration. The aim of this study was to test the suitability of blood-pressure-to-height ratio against blood pressure for age percentiles for the identification of high blood pressure in an environmental study. The sample consisted of 2195 children, aged 3 to 15 years, whose blood pressure was measured as part of an environmental study in Belgrade, Serbia. High blood pressure was estimated using percentiles (gold standard) and blood-pressure-to-height ratios for systolic and diastolic pressures separately (proposed criterion). The optimal cut-offs of the blood-pressure-to-height ratio (BPHR) were selected based on Youden's index (sensitivity + specificity - 1) calculated from the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. The proposed criterion identified five times more cases of high blood pressure in the investigated children of all age groups in comparison to the gold standard. The optimal cut-off values were selected based on the sensitivity and specificity values by age groups and gender. Blood-pressure-to-height ratio can be a reliable criterion for the estimation of high blood pressure in epidemiological studies. This is the first study on the applicability of blood-pressure-to-height ratio in Serbian children, but it may not be easily generalized to other populations due to small sample size across the examined age groups and potential diversities in risk factors for high blood pressure. Applied in epidemiological studies, BPHR would help researchers estimate the role of certain environmental factors on blood pressure in children.

  16. Hispanics, Blacks Less Likely to Get High Blood Pressure Treatment: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hispanics, Blacks Less Likely to Get High Blood Pressure Treatment: Study Less than half from any group had BP under good control To use the ... and what differences exist across racial and ethnic groups," Argulian said in ... blood pressure treatment. But, "There are multiple factors that contribute ...

  17. Obesity promotes oxidative stress and exacerbates blood-brain barrier disruption after high-intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Tae Roh

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Our study suggests that episodic vigorous exercise can increase oxidative stress and blood neurotrophic factor levels and induce disruption of the BBB. Moreover, high levels of neurotrophic factor in the blood after exercise in the obese group may be due to BBB disruption, and it is assumed that oxidative stress was the main cause of this BBB disruption.

  18. 柠檬酸钠为掩蔽剂测定高盐水中氨氮的方法%The method of determining ammonia nitrogen in high salinity with sodium citrate as the masking agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李奇焕; 黄永顺; 成文辉

    2015-01-01

    验证以柠檬酸钠做掩蔽剂, 测定高盐份水中氨氮的方法. 该方法操作简便, 空白值, 检出限, 精密度, 准确度均满足氨氮测定要求.%This paper is aiming to verify the method of determi-ning ammonia nitrogen in high salinity with sodium citrate as the mask-ing agent whose operation is easy and blank value, detection limit, pre-cision, accuracy meets the determination demand pretty well.

  19. Accelerated DFT-Based Design of Materials for Ammonia Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Bialy, Agata; Blanchard, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Future energy carriers are needed in order to lower the CO2 emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. One possible energy carrier is ammonia, which can be stored safely and reversibly in metal halide ammines; however, the release often occurs in multiple steps at too high temperatures...... materials is the first known high-capacity ternary metal halide ammine, which we have subsequently synthesized and confirmed the ammonia storage properties using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD)....

  20. Clinical applications of high-speed blood flow measurements with diffuse correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Ashwin B.; Baker, Wesley B.; Gannon, Kimberly; Mullen, Michael T.; Detre, John A.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2017-02-01

    Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) is an increasingly popular non-invasive optical technique to clinically measure deep tissue blood flow, albeit at slow measurement rates of 0.5-1 Hz. We recently reported the development of a new `fast' DCS instrument that continuously measures blood flow at 50-100 Hz (simultaneously from 8 channels), using conventional DCS sources/detectors, and optimized software computations. A particularly interesting result was our ability to optically record pulsatile micro-vascular blood flow waveforms, and therein readily identify high frequency features such as the dicrotic notch. Here, we showcase the utility and potential of high-speed measurements of blood flow (and arterial blood pressure) in a few clinical applications. First, we employ the fast-DCS instrumentation to measure cerebral autoregulation (CVAR) dynamics. Cerebral autoregulation refers to the mechanism by which cerebral blood flow (CBF) is maintained during fluctuations in blood pressure; CVAR is impaired in the injured brain. We derive an index of autoregulation by measuring the rates of decrease (and recovery) of blood flow and blood pressure following a sudden, induced change in systemic blood pressure (e.g., bilateral thigh cuff deflation). Our pilot experiments in healthy volunteers show that DCS measured rates of micro-vascular regulation are comparable to conventional large vessel regulatory metrics (e.g., measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasound). Second, we utilized pulsatile blood flow oscillations in cerebral arteries to estimate the critical closing pressure (CrCP), i.e., the arterial blood pressure at which CBF approaches zero. Pilot experiments in healthy subjects show good agreement between CrCP measured with DCS and transcranial Doppler ultrasound.

  1. Ammonia downstream from HH 80 North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girart, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Anglada, Guillem; Estalella, Robert; Torrelles, Jose, M.; Marti, Josep; Pena, Miriam; Ayala, Sandra; Curiel, Salvador; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto

    1994-01-01

    HH 80-81 are two optically visible Herbig-Haro (HH) objects located about 5 minutes south of their exciting source IRAS 18162-2048. Displaced symmetrically to the north of this luminous IRAS source, a possible HH counterpart was recently detected as a radio continuum source with the very large array (VLA). This radio source, HH 80 North, has been proposed to be a member of the Herbig-Haro class since its centimeter flux density, angular size, spectral index, and morphology are all similar to those of HH 80. However, no object has been detected at optical wavelengths at the position of HH 80 North, possibly because of high extinction, and the confirmation of the radio continuum source as an HH object has not been possible. In the prototypical Herbig-Haro objects HH 1 and 2, ammonia emission has been detected downstream of the flow in both objects. This detection has been intepreted as a result of an enhancement in the ammonia emission produced by the radiation field of the shock associated with the HH object. In this Letter we report the detection of the (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions of ammonia downstream HH 80 North. This detection gives strong suppport to the interpretation of HH 80 North as a heavily obscured HH object. In addition, we suggest that ammonia emission may be a tracer of embedded Herbig-Haro objects in other regions of star formation. A 60 micrometer IRAS source could be associated with HH 80 North and with the ammonia condensation. A tentative explanation for the far-infrared emission as arising in dust heated by their optical and UV radiation of the HH object is presented.

  2. Adipose tissue extracts plasma ammonia after sprint exercise in women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjörnsson, Mona; Bülow, Jens; Norman, Barbara;

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates a possible contribution of adipose tissue to the elimination of plasma ammonia (NH(3)) after high-intensity sprint exercise. In 14 healthy men and women, repeated blood samples for plasma NH(3) analyses were obtained from brachial artery and from a subcutaneous abdominal vein...... before and after three repeated 30-s cycle sprints separated by 20 min of recovery. Biopsies from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue were obtained and analyzed for glutamine and glutamate content. After exercise, both arterial and abdominal venous plasma NH(3) concentrations were lower in women than...... in men (P adipose tissue. However, the fractional extraction (a...

  3. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelm, Detlev H; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C; Ristow, Michael

    2011-12-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. Blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ingested and exceeded 25 mmol l(-1) blood in resting bats, which is among the highest values ever recorded in mammals fed sugar quantities similar to their natural diet. During normal feeding, blood glucose values decreased with increasing flight time, but only fell to expected values when bats spent 75 per cent of their time airborne. Either nectar-feeding bats have evolved mechanisms to avoid negative health effects of hyperglycaemia, or high activity is key to balancing blood glucose levels during foraging. We suggest that the coevolutionary specialization of bats towards a nectar diet was supported by the high activity and elevated metabolic rates of these bats. High activity may have conferred benefits to the bats in terms of behavioural interactions and foraging success, and is simultaneously likely to have increased their efficiency as plant pollinators.

  4. Arterial ammonia levels in the management of fulminant liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curry S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that an arterial ammonia level greater than 150 mmol/L is highly sensitive for predicting subsequent development of cerebral edema in patients with fulminant liver failure. We performed a prospective cohort study to confirm this relationship. We enrolled 22 consecutive patients who presented to our transplant hepatology service with grade 3-4 encephalopathy associated with fulminant liver failure. All patients underwent placement of an intraparenchymal ICP monitor, and every 12 hourly arterial ammonia levels. The prevalence of intracranial hypertension (IHTN in our population was 95% (21/22 patients, with 82 discrete episodes recorded. The sensitivity of arterial ammonia levels to predict the onset of IHTN was 62% (95% CI: 40.8 to 79.3 at a cut point of 150 mmol/L. Arterial ammonia levels preceding the first intracranial hypertension event were less than 150 mmol/L in 8 of 21 patients (39%. Fifty nine of 82 episodes of IHTN (73% occurred when arterial ammonia levels were less than 150 mmol/L. We conclude that the arterial ammonia level is not useful in making decisions regarding management related to cerebral edema in patients with fulminant liver failure. In fact, since almost all our study patients with grade III or IV encephalopathy secondary to fulminant liver failure went on to develop intracranial hypertension, our study supports the contention that all such patients might benefit from ICP monitoring regardless of arterial ammonia levels.

  5. Direct Measurements of the Surface-Atmosphere Exchange of Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevlin, A.; Murphy, J. G.; Wentworth, G.; Gregoire, P.

    2012-12-01

    As the dominant atmospheric base, ammonia plays an important role in the formation and growth of inorganic aerosols. Surface-atmosphere exchange of ammonia has been observed to occur as a bidirectional flux governed by the relative magnitudes of atmospheric gas phase concentration and a temperature-dependent surface compensation point. In order to better characterise the links between gas-particle and surface-atmosphere exchanges, more direct measurements of these exchanges are necessary. Eddy Covariance (EC) can provide the most direct surface-atmosphere flux measurements, but its requirement for high frequency data combined with the reactive nature of ammonia have limited its application for this species. In order to address this lack, an investigation into the instrumental sensitivity and time response requirements for EC ammonia flux measurements was carried out using a Quantum Cascade-Tunable Infrared Laser Differential Absorption Spectrometer (QC-TILDAS) capable of measuring ammonia concentration at 10 Hz. Time response was additionally improved through the use of a heated sample line and custom glass inlet, and the system was deployed over a short grass field in rural Ontario. The ammonia measurements were used along with three dimensional sonic anemometer wind speed data to calculate EC ammonia fluxes. When combined with simultaneous measurements of the inorganic composition of gas and particle phases made by Ambient Ion Monitor - Ion Chromatography (AIM-IC), these flux measurements can provide insight into the links between gas-particle and surface-atmosphere exchange.

  6. Course of Untreated High Blood Pressure in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Feaster

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: No clear understanding exists about the course of a patient’s blood pressure (BP during an emergency department (ED visit. Prior investigations have demonstrated that BP can be reduced by removing patients from treatment areas or by placing patients supine and observing them for several hours. However, modern EDs are chaotic and noisy places where patients and their families wait for long periods in an unfamiliar environment. We sought to determine the stability of repeated BP measurements in the ED environment. Methods: A prospective study was performed at an urban ED. Research assistants trained and certified in BP measurement obtained sequential manual BPs and heart rates on a convenience sample of 76 patients, beginning with the patient arrival in the ED. Patients were observed through their stay for up to 2 hours, and BP was measured at 10-minute intervals. Data analysis with SAS PROC MIXED (SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina for regression models with correlated data determined the shape of the curve as BP changed over time. Patients were grouped on the basis of their presenting BP as normal (less than 140/90, elevated (140–160/90–100, or severely elevated (greater than 160/100 for the regression analysis. Results: A statistically significant downward trend in systolic and diastolic BP was observed only for those patients presenting with severely elevated BPs (ie, greater than 160/100. Conclusion: We demonstrate a statistically significant decline in systolic and diastolic BP over time spent in the ED only for patients with severely elevated presenting BPs. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:421–425.

  7. High glucose impairs superoxide production from isolated blood neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Nielsen, S E; Rask-Madsen, J

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide (O(2)(-)), a key antimicrobial agent in phagocytes, is produced by the activity of NADPH oxidase. High glucose concentrations may, however, impair the production of O(2)(-) through inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which catalyzes the formation of NADPH. This stud...... measured the acute effects of high glucose or the G6PD inhibitor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the production of O(2)(-) from isolated human neutrophils....

  8. High-normal blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kamide, Kei

    2009-08-01

    The guidelines of the Joint National Committee 7 from the USA on hypertension have unified the normal and high-normal blood pressure categories into a single entity termed ;prehypertension'. In contrast, The European Guidelines for the management of hypertension in 2007 considered ;prehypertensive' to be divided into normal and high-normal blood pressure. These patients with high-normal blood pressure or prehypertension might progress to hypertension over time. Previous studies have shown that high-normal blood pressure is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Western countries and Japan. The combination of high-normal blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors increases the risks of CVD. Recently, metabolic syndrome has also been shown to be a risk factor for CVD. In Japan, the association between metabolic syndrome and CVD was also found to be significant. The risks for CVD incidence were similar among participants who had the same number of components, regardless of the presence of abdominal obesity. In the Japanese guidelines for the management of hypertension published in 2009, patients are considered to be in a high-risk group if they have diabetes, chronic kidney disease, 3 or more risk factors, target organ damage or CVD, even if they have only high-normal blood pressure, and appropriate antihypertensive therapy should be initiated.

  9. More Young Adults at Risk for High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop high blood pressure without preventative measures. Today, clinical guidelines recommend that physicians work with patients to keep ... is the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) clinical study, which ... the importance of lowering sodium (salt) intake. Most Americans consume ...

  10. [Unfavorable outcome of aggressive lowering of high blood pressure. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperczkó, Diána; Csécsei, Péter; Komáromy, Hedvig; Szapáry, László; Fehér, Gergely

    2014-10-19

    Cerebral autoregulation is essential in the maintenance of cerebral blood flow. Due to this autoregulation, cerebral perfusion is constant in healthy subjects if blood pressure values are between 50-150 mmHg. In hypertensive patients the curve is right-shifted towards higher blood pressure values (pathological autoregulation). Aggressive blood pressure reduction can lead to severe ischaemia. The authors report the history of a 73-year-old man with the background history of widespread atherosclerotic disease. The patient complained about headache and dizziness and was found to have high blood pressure (160/100 mmHg) and increased blood glucose (14.8 mmol/l). Prior to his admission an aggressive blood pressure and blood sugar reduction was carried out and, within a short period of time he became unconscious and was transferred to the department of the authors with the possible diagnosis of brainstem stroke. On admission the patient was unresponsive, comatose with brainstem symptoms. Urgent brain computed tomography failed to show any acute alterations. However, repeat CT scan revealed extensive bilateral space occupying ischemic changes involving in territories of both internal carotid arteries with consequent brainstem compression. Computed tomography angiography confirmed bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion. The authors conclude that intensive blood pressure reduction result in ischemic lesions via hypoperfusion especially in patients with widespread atherosclerotic disease and significant carotid vessel pathology.

  11. High resolution crystal structure of Clostridium propionicum β-alanyl-CoA:ammonia lyase, a new member of the "hot dog fold" protein superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Andreas; Herrmann, Gloria; Selmer, Thorsten; Terwesten, Felix; Buckel, Wolfgang; Reuter, Klaus

    2014-09-01

    Clostridium propionicum is the only organism known to ferment β-alanine, a constituent of coenzyme A (CoA) and the phosphopantetheinyl prosthetic group of holo-acyl carrier protein. The first step in the fermentation is a CoA-transfer to β-alanine. Subsequently, the resulting β-alanyl-CoA is deaminated by the enzyme β-alanyl-CoA:ammonia lyase (Acl) to reversibly form ammonia and acrylyl-CoA. We have determined the crystal structure of Acl in its apo-form at a resolution of 0.97 Å as well as in complex with CoA at a resolution of 1.59 Å. The structures reveal that the enyzme belongs to a superfamily of proteins exhibiting a so called "hot dog fold" which is characterized by a five-stranded antiparallel β-sheet with a long α-helix packed against it. The functional unit of all "hot dog fold" proteins is a homodimer containing two equivalent substrate binding sites which are established by the dimer interface. In the case of Acl, three functional dimers combine to a homohexamer strongly resembling the homohexamer formed by YciA-like acyl-CoA thioesterases. Here, we propose an enzymatic mechanism based on the crystal structure of the Acl·CoA complex and molecular docking.

  12. New guidelines for high blood pressure and dyslipidemia: beyond the controversy, are they reliable guides?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Updates to the Guidelines for the Management of High Blood Pressure and the Guidelines for the Management of Dyslipidemia have been recently published in the eighth report of the Joint National Committee. Both are evidence-based and rely on clinical trial results, leaving aside, when possible, recommendations made by experts. Both have introduced important methodological changes in the form of cataloging and summarizing the evidence used. The High Blood Pressure Guideline is considered to be ...

  13. The effects of different beverage intake on blood components during exercise under high-temperature environment

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Soon Gi

    2013-01-01

    High temperature environment causes detrimental effects on health. In the present study, the effects of intake of several kinds of beverage on blood components during exercise under the high temperature environment were evaluated. The 10 subjects were student of the H University. Exercise intensity was 50–60% O2maxx and treadmill exercise was continued for 1 h. The kinds of beverage were water, ion beverage, cucumber drink. Blood sampling was performed before the exercise, immediately finishi...

  14. Optimal Blood Pressure Goals in Patients With Hypertension at High Risk for Cardiovascular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronow, Wilbert S

    2016-01-01

    Existing epidemiologic and clinical trial data suggest that the blood pressure in patients with hypertension at high risk for cardiovascular events because of coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, stroke, or heart failure should be reduced to blood pressure be reduced to 140-145 mm Hg if tolerated in patients aged 80 years and older. Studies from patients with coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, stroke, and heart failure will be discussed that support a blood pressure goal of high risk for cardiovascular events.

  15. Decreases in ammonia volatilization in response to greater plant diversity in microcosms of constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Ge, Ying; Han, Wenjuan; Fan, Xing; Ren, Yuan; Du, Yuanyuan; Shi, Mengmeng; Chang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Ammonia volatilization from wastewaters with a high concentration of ammonium is a serious environmental and health problem. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are widely used for treating wastewater, and plant diversity clearly improves some functions of ecosystem such as nitrogen removal. However, whether plant diversity can affect ammonia volatilization from wastewater is still unknown. In this study, we conducted a microcosm experiment with different plant diversity treatments using four plant species. Results showed that, (1) ammonia volatilization decreased with increasing plant species richness; (2) ammonia volatilization from systems containing Rumex japonicus was lower than other systems; and (3) ammonia volatilization was affected more by species composition than species richness. This paper is the first to report that ammonia volatilization is reduced by plant diversity, and that some plant species combinations are important to reduce ammonia volatilization from CWs when treating wastewater.

  16. Internal filtration, filtration fraction, and blood flow resistance in high- and low-flux dialyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneditz, Daniel; Zierler, Edda; Vanholder, Raymond; Eloot, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    It was the aim to examine the fluid flow in blood and dialysate compartments of highly permeable hollow fiber dialyzers where internal filtration contributes to solute removal but where excessive filtration bears a risk of cell activation and damage. Flow characteristics of high- (HF) and low-flux (LF) dialyzers were studied in lab-bench experiments using whole bovine blood. Measurements obtained under different operating conditions and under zero net ultrafiltration were compared to theoretical calculations obtained from a mathematical model. Experimental resistances in the blood compartment were within ±2% of those calculated from the model when dialysate was used as a test fluid. With whole blood, the experimental resistances in the blood compartment were only 81.8 ± 2.8% and 83.7 ± 4.3% of those calculated for the LF and HF dialyzer, respectively. Surprisingly, measured blood flow resistance slightly but significantly decreased with increasing flow rate (p filtration fraction, while overall internal filtration increased. The increase in internal filtration when increasing blood flow is associated with a beneficial reduction in internal filtration fraction. Concerns of increased hemoconcentration when increasing blood flow therefore appear to be unwarranted.

  17. Computational Design of New Materials for Ammonia Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Quaade, Ulrich

    by using the available operators,which are based on a combination of chemical knowledge and random events.The initial experimental tests of the identified candidates showed promisingresults, but did also reveal that the materials can be challenging to synthesize,and might degrade during ammonia desorption......Many renewable energy technologies are currently being developed, but most have the major drawback, that the energy is not generated when needed, and storage of the energy is therefore essential. For transportation applications,an energy carrier offering a high energy density is needed. Ammonia...... is one possible energy carrier offering high gravimetric and volumetric capacities. A major drawback regarding ammonia is however its toxicity requiring careful handling and storage.Instead of handling the ammonia directly, it is possible to store it safely and completely reversibly in many different...

  18. Risk factors for high blood pressure in low income children aged 3-4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Márcia Regina; da Costa Louzada, Maria Laura; Rauber, Fernanda; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bó

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary sodium intake on blood pressure among low income children aged 3-4 years. Data were collected during a randomized trial conducted in São Leopoldo, Brazil, with 500 mother-child pairs recruited from the maternity ward of a local hospital. Breastfeeding data were obtained during the children's first year of life. At 3 to 4 years of age, children's anthropometric, dietary, and blood pressure assessments were obtained. Sodium intake was estimated from two multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls. Systolic blood pressure > 90th percentile for age, sex, and height was classified as high systolic blood pressure, according to the population-based percentiles provided by the Task Force on Hypertension Control in Children and Adolescents. Blood pressure data were obtained from 331 children at 3 to 4 years. The mean value of systolic blood pressure was 91.31 mmHg (SD = 8.30 mmHg) and 5.2% (n = 17) presented high systolic blood pressure. The results of the multivariable analyses showed that children who consumed more than 1,200 mg of sodium/day and with waist-to-height ratio higher than 0.5 presented, respectively, 3.32 (95%CI 0.98-11.22) and 8.81 (95%CI 2.13-36.31) greater risk of having high systolic blood pressure. Exclusive breastfeeding, child overweight and change in body mass index z score during the first year of life were not associated with the outcome. The results of this study suggest that at preschool age sodium intake and high waist-to-height ratio are risk factors for high systolic blood pressure.

  19. High glucose impairs superoxide production from isolated blood neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Nielsen, S E; Rask-Madsen, J

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide (O(2)(-)), a key antimicrobial agent in phagocytes, is produced by the activity of NADPH oxidase. High glucose concentrations may, however, impair the production of O(2)(-) through inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which catalyzes the formation of NADPH. This study...

  20. Spin-state chemistry of deuterated ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipilä, O.; Harju, J.; Caselli, P.; Schlemmer, S.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: We aim to develop a chemical model that contains a consistent description of spin-state chemistry in reactions involving chemical species with multiple deuterons. We apply the model to the specific case of deuterated ammonia, to derive values for the various spin-state ratios. Methods: We applied symmetry rules in the context of the complete scrambling assumption to calculate branching ratio tables for reactions between chemical species that include multiple protons and/or deuterons. New reaction sets for both gas-phase and grain-surface chemistry were generated using an automated routine that forms all possible spin-state variants of any given reaction with up to six H/D atoms, using the predetermined branching ratios. Both a single-point and a modified Bonnor-Ebert model were considered to study the density and temperature dependence of ammonia and its isotopologs, and the associated spin-state ratios. Results: We find that the spin-state ratios of the ammonia isotopologs are, at late times, very different from their statistical values. The ratios are rather insensitive to variations in the density, but present strong temperature dependence. We derive high peak values (~0.1) for the deuterium fraction in ammonia, in agreement with previous (gas-phase) models. The deuterium fractionation is strongest at high density, corresponding to a high degree of depletion, and also presents temperature dependence. We find that in the temperature range 5 K to 20 K, the deuterium fractionation peaks at ~15 K, while most of the ortho/para (and meta/para for ND3) ratios present a minimum at 10 K (ortho/para NH2D has instead a maximum at this temperature). Conclusions: Owing to the density and temperature dependence found in the abundances and spin-state ratios of ammonia and its isotopologs, it is evident that observations of ammonia and its deuterated forms can provide important constraints on the physical structure of molecular clouds. Appendix A is available in

  1. Application of Membrane Bioreactor in High Ammonia-nitrogen Containing Wastewater Treatment%膜生物反应器在高氨氮废水处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔雪燕; 李琛

    2014-01-01

    膜生物反应器作为一种新兴的污水处理技术与工艺,其研究与应用受到了社会各界的广泛关注。文章综述了高氨氮废水的特点、危害,简要介绍了膜生物反应器的特点及各国学者将其应用在废水处理中的研究成果,指出了膜生物反应器的不足和应对策略,展望了未来膜生物反应技术在我国的发展前景。%As a new technology of wastewater treatment, a public attention was paid on MBS study and use. Characteristic, negative influence of high ammonia-nitrogen wastewater were summarized. Characteristic of MBR and the achievements which researchers of many countries took out through applying MBR system to the removal of high ammonia-nitrogen in wastewater. The disadvantages and processes was pointed out. The foreground of MBR in our country was also looked ahead briefly.

  2. Blood pressure values and depression in hypertensive individuals at high cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Lancheros, Cilia; Estruch, Ramón; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Santos, José Manuel; Fitó, Montse; Arós, Fernando; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Basora, Josep; Sorlí, José Vicente; Muñoz, Miguel-Angel

    2014-08-26

    Hypertension and depression are both important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, the association of blood pressure on and depression has not been completely established. This study aims to analyze whether depression may influence the control of blood pressure in hypertensive individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional study, embedded within the PREDIMED clinical trial, of 5954 hypertensive patients with high cardiovascular risk factor profiles. The relationship between blood pressure control and depression was analyzed. A multivariate analysis (logistic and log-linear regression), adjusting for potential confounders (socio-demographic factors, body mass index, lifestyle, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and antihypertensive treatment), was performed. Depressive patients, with and without antidepressant treatment, had better blood pressure control (OR: 1.28, CI 95%: 1.06-1.55, and OR: 1.30, CI 95%: 1.03-1.65, respectively) than non-depressive ones. Regarding blood pressure levels, systolic blood pressure values (mmHg) were found to be lower in both treated and untreated depressive patients (Log coefficient Beta: -1.59, 95% CI: -0.50 to -2.69 and Log coefficient Beta: -3.49, 95% CI: -2.10 to -4.87, respectively). Among hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk, the control of blood pressure was better in those diagnosed with depression. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639.

  3. Overweight, physical activity and high blood pressure in children: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Brian; McGuire, K Ashlee; Lewanczuk, Richard; McGavock, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a growing problem in developed countries and is likely a major cause of the increased prevalence of high blood pressure in children. The aim of this review is to provide clinicians and clinical scientists with an overview of the current state of the literature describing the negative influence of obesity on blood pressure and it's determinants in children. In short, we discuss the array of vascular abnormalities seen in overweight children and adolescents, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and insulin resistance. We also discuss the potential role of an increased activation of the sympathetic nervous system in the development of high blood pressure and vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. As there is little consensus regarding the methods to prevent or treat high blood pressure in children, we also provide a summary of the evidence supporting relationship between physical activity and blood pressure in children and adolescents. After reviewing a number of physical activity intervention studies performed in children, it appears as though 40 minutes of moderate to vigorous aerobic-based physical activity 3-5 days/week is required to improve vascular function and reduce blood pressure in obese children. Future studies should focus on describing the influence of physical activity on blood pressure control in overweight children.

  4. Prevalence of high blood pressure subtypes and its associations with BMI in Chinese children: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yide; Dong, Bin; Wang, Shuo; Dong, Yanhui; Zou, Zhiyong; Fu, Lianguo; Ma, Jun

    2017-06-26

    Data on prevalence and characteristics of different high blood pressure subtypes are lacking among Chinese children. Regarding the mechanistic differences between isolated systolic high blood pressure and isolated diastolic high blood pressure and their different impact on end organ diseases, it is necessary to examine the prevalence of different high blood pressure subtypes in Chinese children and explore their associations with adiposity. Data were derived from the baseline data of a multi-centered cluster randomized controlled trial involving participants from China. High blood pressure was defined according to age-, gender- and height-specific 95th percentile developed by the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group. Body mass index was used to classify underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. The prevalence of HBP was 10.2% and 8.9% for boys and girls, respectively. Isolated systolic high blood pressure is the dominant high blood pressure subtype among Chinese boys aged 6-17 years and girls aged 12-17 years, while isolated diastolic high blood pressure was the most common high blood pressure subtype in girls aged 6-11 years. In boys, the status of overweight doubled the risk of isolated systolic high blood pressure (95% CI, 1.73, 2.31; P risk for obese children was 4.32 (95% CI, 3.81, 4.90; P high blood pressure and adiposity. The distribution of high blood pressure subtypes in boys differed from those in girls, and boys with adiposity showed a higher risk of high blood pressure than their female counterpart. Difference in strength of association between isolated diastolic high blood pressure and isolated systolic high blood pressure with body mass index was also found. These results may aid current strategies for preventing and controlling pediatric hypertension.

  5. Ammonia nitrogen desorption from sanitary landfill leachate in filling towers

    OpenAIRE

    Leite,Valderi D.; Barros,Aldre J. M.; Lopes,Wilton S.; Sousa,José T. de

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary landfill leachates present high concentrations of carbonaceous and nitrogenous materials. The crucial point is that carbonaceous materials are of difficult biodegradation, what compromises the performance of biological treatment processes, while nitrogenous materials, such as ammonia nitrogen, probably preclude the use of biological treatments. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the desorption process of ammonia nitrogen from sanitary landfill leachate in filling towers. De...

  6. Reduction of Ammonia and Tar in Pressurized Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Olofsson, G.

    2002-09-19

    The present paper intended to present the results of parametric study of the formation of ammonia and tar under pressurized gasification conditions. By the use of multivariate data analysis, the effects of operating parameters were determined and their influences could be quantified. In order to deal with cases in which high levels of ammonia and tar were produced, study of catalytic hot gas cleaning was performed, aiming to discuss the removal efficiency and test catalysts.

  7. Fast and Accurate Exhaled Breath Ammonia Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Toge...

  8. [Effects of high intensity focused ultrasound with SonoVue on blood vessels pathological examinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan; Bai, Jin; Li, Faqi; Wang, Zhibiao

    2010-12-01

    The injury of tumor blood vessels will break up the nutrition supply for the tumor. In this paper, we investigated the effects exerted by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with ultrasound microbubble agent on blood vessels. Ultrasound diagnosis was used to find the goat hepatic blood vessels each being approximately 3mm in diameter. HIFU was focused on the blood vessels. The acoustic power was 250W; HIFU irradiating Mode was line scan (the length of the line: 10 mm; speed: 3 mm/s; irradiating time: 30s). In the experimental group, 0.03 ml/kg SonoVue was injected into the goat before HIFU irradiation,while normal saline was given to the control group. The goats were killed at 24h after HIFU irradiation, then goat liver tissues and blood vessels of target area were taken out. HE staining and Victoria's blue and Ponceau's staining of tissue section showed that the endothelial cells of blood vessels dropped off and became necrosed, and the continuity of blood vessels was interrupted. HIFU combined with SonoVue will damage large blood vessels on HIFU focus, but there is no evident discrepancy between the group with SonoVue and the group without SonoVue.

  9. High levels of linkage disequilibrium and associations with forage quality at a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase locus in European maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jeppe R; Zein, Imad; Wenzel, Gerhard; Krützfeldt, Birte; Eder, Joachim; Ouzunova, Milena; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Forage quality of maize is influenced by both the content and structure of lignin in the cell wall. Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase (PAL) catalyzes the first step in lignin biosynthesis in plants; the deamination of L-phenylalanine to cinnamic acid. Successive enzymatic steps lead to the formation of three monolignols, constituting the complex structure of lignin. We have cloned and sequenced a PAL genomic sequence from 32 maize inbred lines currently employed in forage maize breeding programs in Europe. Low nucleotide diversity and excessive linkage disequilibrium (LD) was identified at this PAL locus, possibly reflecting selective constrains resulting from PAL being the first enzyme in the monolignol, and other, pathways. While the association analysis was affected by extended LD and population structure, several individual polymorphisms were associated with neutral detergent fiber (not considering population structure) and a single polymorphism was associated with in vitro digestibility of organic matter (considering population structure).

  10. High Fibrinogen in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Sho; Sakagami, Masafumi; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Murakami, Shingo; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We used hearing tests and peripheral blood sample analyses to characterize the pathology of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) and to identify possible prognostic factors for predicting recovery of hearing loss. Study Design A retrospective, multicenter trial was conducted. Methods Two hundred three patients examined within 7 days after the onset of ISSNHL received prednisone with lipo-prostaglandin E1. Pure-tone auditory tests were performed before and after treatment with these drugs. Blood tests were performed on blood samples collected during the patients’ initial visit to our clinic. Results In all patients, elevated white blood cell (WBC) counts, fasting blood sugar levels, HgbA1c, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) significantly correlated with high hearing threshold measurements obtained on the initial visit. High fibrinogen levels, WBC counts, ESR, and low concentrations of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) were associated with lower hearing recovery rates. Additionally, different audiogram shapes correlated with different blood test factors, indicating that different pathologies were involved. Conclusions High fibrinogen levels measured within seven days after ISSNHL onset correlated with poorer hearing recovery. This may be a consequence of ischemia or infections in the inner ear. The high WBC counts also observed may therefore reflect an immune response to inner ear damage induced by ischemic changes or infections. Our data indicate that therapeutic strategies should be selected based on the timing of initial treatment relative to ISSNHL onset. PMID:25166620

  11. High fibrinogen in peripheral blood correlates with poorer hearing recovery in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Kanzaki

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We used hearing tests and peripheral blood sample analyses to characterize the pathology of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL and to identify possible prognostic factors for predicting recovery of hearing loss. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, multicenter trial was conducted. METHODS: Two hundred three patients examined within 7 days after the onset of ISSNHL received prednisone with lipo-prostaglandin E1. Pure-tone auditory tests were performed before and after treatment with these drugs. Blood tests were performed on blood samples collected during the patients' initial visit to our clinic. RESULTS: In all patients, elevated white blood cell (WBC counts, fasting blood sugar levels, HgbA1c, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR significantly correlated with high hearing threshold measurements obtained on the initial visit. High fibrinogen levels, WBC counts, ESR, and low concentrations of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP were associated with lower hearing recovery rates. Additionally, different audiogram shapes correlated with different blood test factors, indicating that different pathologies were involved. CONCLUSIONS: High fibrinogen levels measured within seven days after ISSNHL onset correlated with poorer hearing recovery. This may be a consequence of ischemia or infections in the inner ear. The high WBC counts also observed may therefore reflect an immune response to inner ear damage induced by ischemic changes or infections. Our data indicate that therapeutic strategies should be selected based on the timing of initial treatment relative to ISSNHL onset.

  12. A comprehensive ammonia emission inventory with high-resolution and its evaluation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Shuiyuan Cheng; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Zhao, Beibei; Liu, Chao; Xu, Ran; Li, Tingting

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive ammonia (NH3) emission inventory for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region was developed based on the updated source-specific emission factors (EFs) and the county-level activity data obtained from a full-coverage investigation launched in the BTH region for the first time. The NH3 emission inventory within 1 km × 1 km grid was generated using source-based spatial surrogates with geographical information system (GIS) technology. The total NH3 emission was 1573.7 Gg for the year 2010. The contributions from livestock, farmland, human, biomass burning, chemical industry, fuel combustion, waste disposal and on-road mobile source were approximately 56.6%, 28.6%, 7.2%, 3.4%, 1.1%, 1.3%, 1.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Among different cities, Shijiazhang, Handan, Xingtai, Tangshan and Cangzhou had higher NH3 emissions. Statistical analysis aiming at county-level emission of 180 counties in BTH indicated that the NH3 emission in most of the counties were less than 16 Gg. The maximum value of the county level emission was approximately 25.5 Gg. Higher NH3 emission was concentrated in the areas with more rural and agricultural activity. Monthly, higher NH3 emission occurred during the period from April to September, which could be attributed to the temperature and timing of planting practice. The validity of the estimated emissions were further evaluated from multiple perspectives covering (1) uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, (2) comparison with other studies, (3) quantitative analysis of improvement in spatial resolution of activity data, and (4) verification based on a comparison of the simulated and observed surface concentrations of ammonium. The detailed and validated ammonia emission inventory could provide valuable information for understanding air pollution formation mechanisms and help guide decision-making with respect to control strategies.

  13. Simultaneous Graphite Exfoliation and N Doping in Supercritical Ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, Suchithra Padmajan; Huang, Kai; Giroire, Baptiste; Prabhakaran, Prem; Henry, Lucile; Penicaud, Alain; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

    2016-11-16

    We report the exfoliation of graphite and simultaneous N doping of graphene by two methods: supercritical ammonia treatment and liquid-phase exfoliation with NH4OH. While the supercritical ammonia allowed N doping at a level of 6.4 atom % in 2 h, the liquid-phase exfoliation with NH4OH allowed N doping at a level of 2.7 atom % in 6 h. The N doped graphene obtained via the supercritical ammonia route had few layers (supercritical ammonia as an exfoliation agent and N doping precursor for graphene. Notably, the N doped graphene showed electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction with high durability and good methanol tolerance compared to those of commercial Pt/C catalyst.

  14. High blood levels of persistent organic pollutants are statistically correlated with smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Hansen, Jens C.

    1999-01-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (11 pesticides and 14 PCB-congeners), and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, and Zn) were determined in 175 pregnant women and 160 newborn infants (umbilical cord blood) from Disko Bay, Greenland, 1994-96. Among these, 135 women filled out questionnaires about drinking......, smoking and intake of traditional Inuit food. Multiple linear regression analyses showed highly significant positive associations between the mothers' smoking status (never, previous, present) and plasma concentrations of all the studied organic pollutants both in maternal blood and umbilical cord blood...

  15. Effects of High-Intensity Blood Flow Restriction Exercise on Muscle Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Gabriel R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6 and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6 that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups.

  16. A pH-based control of ammonia in biogas during anaerobic digestion of artificial pig manure and maize silage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Domnanovich, A.M.; Braun, R.; Holubar, P.

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to prove that ammonia can be present in biogas from anaerobic digestion and to control this ammonia by reducing the reactor pH. Ammonia containing biogas was produced for a period of more than 100 days, with a maximum of 332 ppm. Especially during periods of high free

  17. A pH-based control of ammonia in biogas during anaerobic digestion of artificial pig manure and maize silage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Domnanovich, A.M.; Braun, R.; Holubar, P.

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to prove that ammonia can be present in biogas from anaerobic digestion and to control this ammonia by reducing the reactor pH. Ammonia containing biogas was produced for a period of more than 100 days, with a maximum of 332 ppm. Especially during periods of high free

  18. Early high-sodium solid diet does not affect sodium intake, sodium preference, blood volume and blood pressure in adult Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnal, Marcin; Drapala, Adrian; Sikora, Mariusz; Zera, Tymoteusz

    2011-07-01

    A high-Na diet may lead to the development of hypertension in both humans and rats; however, the causes of Na intake in amounts greater than physiologically needed as well as the mechanisms whereby high-Na food elevates blood pressure are not clear. Therefore, we decided to test the hypothesis that a high-Na diet introduced after suckling affects Na intake, food preference, resting blood pressure and blood volume in adult rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into three groups and placed on either a high-Na (3.28%), a medium-Na (0.82%) or a regular diet (0.22%) with the same energy content for 8 weeks. Subsequently, food preference, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were evaluated. When offered a choice of diets, all the groups preferred the regular chow, and there was no significant difference in total Na intake between the groups. When the rats experienced the change from their initial chow to a new one with different Na content, they continued to eat the same amount of food. Body weight, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, the results show that a high-Na diet introduced immediately after suckling does not affect Na preference and Na intake in adult WKY rats. Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that both blood volume and arterial blood pressure are highly protected in normotensive rats on a high-Na diet.

  19. Prevalence and control of high blood pressure in primary care: results from the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Study (GEMCAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balijepalli, Chakrapani; Bramlage, Peter; Lösch, Christian; Zemmrich, Claudia; Humphries, Karin H; Moebus, Susanne

    2014-06-01

    Contemporary epidemiological data on blood pressure readings, hypertension prevalence and control in unselected patient populations covering a broad age range are scarce. The aim here is to report the prevalence of high blood pressure and to identify factors associated with blood pressure control in a large German primary care sample. We used data from the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Study including 35 869 patients aged 18-99 years. High blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg or using antihypertensive therapy. Factors associated with blood pressure control among patients receiving antihypertensive therapy were examined using multiple logistic regressions to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence of high blood pressure, uncontrolled high blood pressure and untreated high blood pressure was 54.8%, 21.3% and 17.6%, respectively. Age >50 years (1.52; 1.40-1.65), male sex (1.30; 1.20-1.41), elevated waist circumference (1.55; 1.45-1.65), high cholesterol (1.24; 1.16-1.33), high triglycerides (1.11; 1.04-1.19) and concomitant diabetes (1.29; 1.20-1.40) were independently associated with uncontrolled high blood pressure. In a majority of patients we observed hypertension despite treatment for high blood pressures. Studies examining the reasons for treatment failure are highly warranted.

  20. Association between general and abdominal obesity with high blood pressure: difference between genders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison O. Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess the association between general and abdominal obesity with high blood pressure in adolescents of both genders from the public school system. Methods: This was an epidemiological, descriptive, exploratory study, with a quantitative approach and local scope whose sample consisted of 481 high school students (aged 14–19, selected by using a random cluster sampling strategy. Blood pressure was measured through the use of automated monitor and was considered high when the pressure values were at or above the 95th percentile. The analyses were performed using the chi-squared test and binary logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of high blood pressure was 6.4%, and it was higher among boys (9.0% vs. 4.7%, p < 0.05. There was no significant difference between general (p = 0.903 and abdominal obesity (p = 0.157 when genders were compared. After adjusting for age, high blood pressure was associated with general (OR = 6.4; p < 0.001 and abdominal obesity (OR = 7.0; p < 0.001 only among boys, when comparing the fourth quartile with the first quartile of body mass index (≤18.6 kg/m2 vs. ≥23.5 kg/m2 and waist circumference (≤69 cm vs. ≥80.1 cm. Conclusion: It was observed that general and abdominal obesity are associated with high blood pressure only in boys, regardless of age.