WorldWideScience

Sample records for high biological productivity

  1. Continuous downstream processing for high value biological products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility of developing truly continuous processes for the large-scale production of high value biological products. Continuous processing has the potential to provide significant reductions in cost and facility size while improving product quality and facilitating the design of flexible multi-product manufacturing facilities. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in separations technology suitable for continuous downstream bioprocessing, focusing on unit operations that would be most appropriate for the production of secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies. This includes cell separation/recycle from the perfusion bioreactor, initial product recovery (capture), product purification (polishing), and formulation. Of particular importance are the available options, and alternatives, for continuous chromatographic separations. Although there are still significant challenges in developing integrated continuous bioprocesses, recent technological advances have provided process developers with a number of attractive options for development of truly continuous bioprocessing operations.

  2. Biologically Induced Hydrogen Production Drives High Rate/High Efficiency Microbial Electrosynthesis of Acetate from Carbon Dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jourdin, Ludovic; Lu, Yang; Flexer, Victoria; Keller, Jurg; Freguia, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Electron-transfer pathways occurring in biocathodes are still unknown. We demonstrate here that high rates of acetate production by microbial electrosynthesis are mainly driven by an electron flux from the electrode to carbon dioxide, occurring via biologically induced hydrogen, with (99±1)% elec

  3. The Use of Alternative Raw Material in Production of Pastry Products as a Progressive Direction in Creating the Products of High Biological Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janа Bachinska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of the use of alternative vegetable raw materials in the manufacture of pastry products with high biological value; it presents the results of evaluation of commodity of the developed products and compares them with the main samples presented in Kharkiv trade network. The feasibility of using a mixture of fiber and pumpkin seeds in the technology of pastry production to extend the range of confectionery products of high biological value and products with reduced calories has been proved. Adding the mixture of fiber and pumpkin seeds to biscuits and cakes positively affected the chemical composition of the ready-made product, saturating it with useful and necessary to human body mineral elements, vitamins, dietary fiber.

  4. High-latitude controls of thermocline nutrients and low latitude biological productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, J L; Gruber, N; Brzezinski, M A; Dunne, J P

    2004-01-01

    The ocean's biological pump strips nutrients out of the surface waters and exports them into the thermocline and deep waters. If there were no return path of nutrients from deep waters, the biological pump would eventually deplete the surface waters and thermocline of nutrients; surface biological productivity would plummet. Here we make use of the combined distributions of silicic acid and nitrate to trace the main nutrient return path from deep waters by upwelling in the Southern Ocean and subsequent entrainment into subantarctic mode water. We show that the subantarctic mode water, which spreads throughout the entire Southern Hemisphere and North Atlantic Ocean, is the main source of nutrients for the thermocline. We also find that an additional return path exists in the northwest corner of the Pacific Ocean, where enhanced vertical mixing, perhaps driven by tides, brings abyssal nutrients to the surface and supplies them to the thermocline of the North Pacific. Our analysis has important implications for our understanding of large-scale controls on the nature and magnitude of low-latitude biological productivity and its sensitivity to climate change.

  5. Biological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  6. Production of High Viscosity Chitosan from Biologically Purified Chitin Isolated by Microbial Fermentation and Deproteinization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkalak Ploydee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce high viscosity chitosan from shrimp chitin prepared by using a two-step biological treatment process: decalcification and deproteinization. Glucose was fermented with Lactobacillus pentosus L7 to lactic acid. At a pH of 3.9±0.1, the calcium carbonate of the shells was solubilized in 48 hours. The amounts of residual calcium in the form of ash (1.4±0.5% and crude protein (23.2±2.5% were further eliminated by the activity of proteolytic Bacillus thuringiensis SA. After decalcification and deproteinization of the shrimp shells, residual calcium and crude protein of shrimp chitin flakes were 1.7±0.4% and 3.8±1.3%, respectively. Chitin was deacetylated with 50% NaOH at 121°C for 5 hours. After deacetylation, the chitosan had residual calcium, crude protein content, and degree of acetylation of 1.6±0.6%, 0.4±0.3%, and 83.2±1.5%, respectively. The viscosity of chitosan prepared from chitin extracted by this two-step biological process was 1,007±14.7 mPa·s, whereas chitosan prepared from chemically processed chitin had a viscosity of 323±15.6   mPa·s, indicating that biologically purified chitin gave chitosan with a high quality.

  7. High-density spore production of a B. cereus aquaculture biological agent by nutrient supplementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lalloo, R

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available of endospore formation in Bacillus subtilis. Nat Rev Microbiol 1:117–126 Fast AW, Menasveta P (2000) Some recent issues and innovations in marine shrimp pond culture. Rev Fish Sci 8:151–233 Gouda MK, Swellam AE, Omar SH (2001) Production of PHB by a..., Gomes RJ, Carrondo MJ, Cunha AE (2005) A procedure for high-yield spore production by Bacillus subtilis. Biotechnol Progr 21:1026–1031 Moriarity DJW (1999) Disease control in shrimp aquaculture with probiotic bacteria. Microbial interactions...

  8. FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... animal, and microorganism—and may be produced by biotechnology methods. Gene-based and cellular biologics, at the ... other categories of biological products mostly produced by biotechnology methods, including: monoclonal antibodies designed as targeted therapies ...

  9. Biological Denitrification of High Nitrate Processing Wastewaters from Explosives Production Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyplik, Paweł; Marecik, Roman; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Olejnik, Anna; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Chrzanowski, Lukasz

    2012-05-01

    Wastewater samples originating from an explosives production plant (3,000 mg N l(-1) nitrate, 4.8 mg l(-1) nitroglycerin, 1.9 mg l(-1) nitroglycol and 1,200 mg l(-1) chemical oxygen demand) were subjected to biological purification. An attempt to completely remove nitrate and to decrease the chemical oxygen demand was carried out under anaerobic conditions. A soil isolated microbial consortium capable of biodegrading various organic compounds and reduce nitrate to atmospheric nitrogen under anaerobic conditions was used. Complete removal of nitrates with simultaneous elimination of nitroglycerin and ethylene glycol dinitrate (nitroglycol) was achieved as a result of the conducted research. Specific nitrate reduction rate was estimated at 12.3 mg N g(-1) VSS h(-1). Toxicity of wastewater samples during the denitrification process was studied by measuring the activity of dehydrogenases in the activated sludge. Mutagenicity was determined by employing the Ames test. The maximum mutagenic activity did not exceed 0.5. The obtained results suggest that the studied wastewater samples did not exhibit mutagenic properties.

  10. Plankton Production Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-30

    information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 30 SEP 2005 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00... Crustacea ), the group that contributes the major part of the biomass of zooplankton collected with plankton nets in salt- and freshwater. The basis of...windows to the large Russian-language marine- biological literature by publishing this translation. The observations are not subject to becoming outdated

  11. Exceptionally High Rates of Biological Hydrogen Production by Biomimetic In Vitro Synthetic Enzymatic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eui-Jin; Wu, Chang-Hao; Adams, Michael W W; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2016-11-02

    Hydrogen production by water splitting energized by biomass sugars is one of the most promising technologies for distributed green H2 production. Direct H2 generation from NADPH, catalysed by an NADPH-dependent, soluble [NiFe]-hydrogenase (SH1) is thermodynamically unfavourable, resulting in slow volumetric productivity. We designed the biomimetic electron transport chain from NADPH to H2 by the introduction of an oxygen-insensitive electron mediator benzyl viologen (BV) and an enzyme (NADPH rubredoxin oxidoreductase, NROR), catalysing electron transport between NADPH and BV. The H2 generation rates using this biomimetic chain increased by approximately five-fold compared to those catalysed only by SH1. The peak volumetric H2 productivity via the in vitro enzymatic pathway comprised of hyperthermophilic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconolactonase, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, NROR, and SH1 was 310 mmol H2 /L h(-1) , the highest rate yet reported. The concept of biomimetic electron transport chains could be applied to both in vitro and in vivo H2 production biosystems and artificial photosynthesis.

  12. Natural products in chemical biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Civjan, Natanya

    2012-01-01

    "Based on the award winning Wiley Encyclopedia of Chemical Biology, this book provides a general overview of the unique features of the small molecules referred to as "natural products", explores how...

  13. Synthetic biology advances for pharmaceutical production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology enables a new generation of microbial engineering for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and other high-value chemicals. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the field, describing new computational and experimental tools for the discovery, optimization and production of bioactive molecules, and outlining progress towards the application of these tools to pharmaceutical production systems. PMID:25744872

  14. Biological production of methane from coal synthesis gas under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, C.W.; Vega, J.L.; Barik, S.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the major components of coal synthesis gas, may be converted to methane by the action of anaerobic bacteria. Both pure and mixed cultures have been developed to carry out the water-gas shift and methanation reactions. Reaction rates are severely limited by mass-transfer of these gaseous substrates. Research studies show that increased pressure results in a proportionate increase in reaction rate. This paper examines the effects of high pressure on the performance of organisms, such as P. productus and Methanothrix, in converting coal gas into methane. The effects of carbon monoxide inhibition and high pressure are presented and discussed.

  15. Plankton Production Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    uptake by phytoplankton and of chlorophyll in the central Bay of Bengal are clearly lower than in the offshore Arabian Sea (Prasanna Kumar et al., 2010...from the transitory blooms caused by eddies and their subsequent disposition, is the principal reason the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM), which...mechanism is likely at work in all non-transient DCMs including those of large lakes. A field study in the Bay of Bengal would uniquely benefit from the high

  16. Conference Report: ESF-COST High-Level Research Conference Natural Products Chemistry, Biology and Medicine III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catino, Arthur

    2010-12-01

    Natural Products Chemistry, Biology and Medicine III was the third conference in a series of events sponsored by the European Science Foundation (ESF) and the European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST). Scientists came together from within and outside the EU to present cutting-edge developments in chemical synthesis. Research areas included the synthesis of natural products, methods development, isolation/structural elucidation and chemical biology. As our capacity to produce new chemotherapeutic agents relies on chemical synthesis, this year's conference has never been so timely. This report highlights several of the scientific contributions presented during the meeting.

  17. What drives the biological productivity of the northern Indian Ocean?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Narvekar, J.; Nuncio, M.; Gauns, M.; Sardessai, S.

    biological productivity of the Arabian Sea was driven by seasonally changing physical processes in accordance with the semiannual switching of atmospheric forcing. In summer the high biological productivity was triggered by a combination of wind-driven mixing...

  18. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michael R.; Atsumi, Shota

    2010-01-01

    The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges. PMID:20827393

  19. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Connor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges.

  20. Biological potential of microalgae in China for biorefinery-based production of biofuels and high value compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Ying; Cheng, Jay J; Mos, Michal; Daroch, Maurycy

    2015-12-25

    Microalgae abundance and diversity in China shows promise for identifying suitable strains for developing algal biorefinery. Numerous strains of microalgae have already been assessed as feedstocks for bioethanol and biodiesel production, but commercial scale algal biofuel production is yet to be demonstrated, most likely due to huge energy costs associated with algae cultivation, harvesting and processing. Biorefining, integrated processes for the conversion of biomass into a variety of products, can improve the prospects of microalgal biofuels by combining them with the production of high value co-products. Numerous microalgal strains in China have been identified as producers of various high value by-products with wide application in the medicine, food, and cosmetics industries. This paper reviews microalgae resources in China and their potential in producing liquid biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) and high value products in an integrated biorefinery approach. Implementation of a 'high value product first' principle should make the integrated process of fuels and chemicals production economically feasible and will ensure that public and private interest in the development of microalgal biotechnology is maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biological hydrogen production from phytomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartacek, J.; Zabranska, J. [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Renewable sources of energy have received wide attention lately. One candidate is hydrogen which has the added advantage of involving no greenhouse gases. Biological hydrogen production from wastewater or biowastes is a very attractive production technique. So far, most studies have concentrated on the use of photosynthetic bacteria. However, dark fermentation has recently become a popular topic of research as it has the advantage of not requiring light energy input, something that limits the performance of the photosynthetic method. While pure cultures have been used in most of the investigations to date, in industrial situations mixed cultures will probably be the norm because of unavoidable contamination. In this investigation the phytomass of amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L) was used to produce hydrogen. Specific organic loading, organic loading, and pH were varied to study the effect on hydrogen production. 18 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  2. Biological production of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jianping; Paddock, Troy; Carrieri, Damian; Maness, Pin-Ching; Seibert, Michael

    2016-04-12

    Strains of cyanobacteria that produce high levels of alpha ketoglutarate (AKG) and pyruvate are disclosed herein. Methods of culturing these cyanobacteria to produce AKG or pyruvate and recover AKG or pyruvate from the culture are also described herein. Nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides that function as ethylene-forming enzymes and their use in the production of ethylene are further disclosed herein. These nucleic acids may be expressed in hosts such as cyanobacteria, which in turn may be cultured to produce ethylene.

  3. Systems biology solutions for biochemical production challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca M; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics character......There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics...... characterization, genome-scale metabolic modeling, and adaptive laboratory evolution can be readily deployed in metabolic engineering projects. However, high performance strains usually carry tens of genetic modifications and need to operate in challenging environmental conditions. This additional complexity...... compared to basic science research requires pushing systems biology strategies to their limits and often spurs innovative developments that benefit fields outside metabolic engineering. Here we survey recent advanced applications of systems biology methods in engineering microbial production strains...

  4. 9 CFR 114.4 - Identification of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of biological products... REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.4 Identification of biological products. Suitable tags or labels of... biological products, all component parts to be combined to form a biological product, all......

  5. Systems Biology of Microbial Exopolysaccharides Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by diverse group of microbial systems are rapidly emerging as new and industrially important biomaterials. Due to their unique and complex chemical structures and many interesting physicochemical and rheological properties with novel functionality, the microbial EPSs find wide range of commercial applications in various fields of the economy such as food, feed, packaging, chemical, textile, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, agriculture, and medicine. EPSs are mainly associated with high-value applications, and they have received considerable research attention over recent decades with their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and both environmental and human compatibility. However, only a few microbial EPSs have achieved to be used commercially due to their high production costs. The emerging need to overcome economic hurdles and the increasing significance of microbial EPSs in industrial and medical biotechnology call for the elucidation of the interrelations between metabolic pathways and EPS biosynthesis mechanism in order to control and hence enhance its microbial productivity. Moreover, a better understanding of biosynthesis mechanism is a significant issue for improvement of product quality and properties and also for the design of novel strains. Therefore, a systems-based approach constitutes an important step toward understanding the interplay between metabolism and EPS biosynthesis and further enhances its metabolic performance for industrial application. In this review, primarily the microbial EPSs, their biosynthesis mechanism, and important factors for their production will be discussed. After this brief introduction, recent literature on the application of omics technologies and systems biology tools for the improvement of production yields will be critically evaluated. Special focus will be given to EPSs with high market value such as xanthan, levan, pullulan, and dextran.

  6. Systems biology of microbial exopolysaccharides production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem eAtes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides (EPS produced by diverse group of microbial systems are rapidly emerging as new and industrially important biomaterials. Due to their unique and complex chemical structures and many interesting physicochemical and rheological properties with novel functionality, the microbial EPSs find wide range of commercial applications in various fields of the economy such as food, feed, packaging, chemical, textile, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, agriculture and medicine. EPSs are mainly associated with high-value applications and they have received considerable research attention over recent decades with their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and both environmental and human compatibility. However only a few microbial EPSs have achieved to be used commercially due to their high production costs. The emerging need to overcome economic hurdles and the increasing significance of microbial EPSs in industrial and medical biotechnology call for the elucidation of the interrelations between metabolic pathways and EPS biosynthesis mechanism in order to control and hence enhance its microbial productivity. Moreover a better understanding of biosynthesis mechanism is a significant issue for improvement of product quality and properties and also for the design of novel strains. Therefore a systems-based approach constitutes an important step towards understanding the interplay between metabolism and EPS biosynthesis and further enhances its metabolic performance for industrial application. In this review, primarily the microbial EPSs, their biosynthesis mechanism and important factors for their production will be discussed. After this brief introduction, recent literature on the application of omics technologies and systems biology tools for the improvement of production yields will be critically evaluated. Special focus will be given to EPSs with high market value such as xanthan, levan, pullulan and dextran.

  7. Antiviral cationic peptides as a strategy for innovation in global health therapeutics for dengue virus: high yield production of the biologically active recombinant plectasin peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, Hussin A; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Suhaeb, Abdulrazzaq M; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd; Yusof, Rohana

    2013-11-01

    Dengue virus infects millions of people worldwide, and there is no vaccine or anti-dengue therapeutic available. Antimicrobial peptides have been shown to possess effective antiviral activity against various viruses. One of the main limitations of developing these peptides as potent antiviral drugs is the high cost of production. In this study, high yield production of biologically active plectasin peptide was inexpensively achieved by producing tandem plectasin peptides as inclusion bodies in E. coli. Antiviral activity of the recombinant peptide towards dengue serotype-2 NS2B-NS3 protease (DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro) was assessed as a target to inhibit dengue virus replication in Vero cells. Single units of recombinant plectasin were collected after applying consecutive steps of refolding, cleaving by Factor Xa, and nickel column purification to obtain recombinant proteins of high purity. The maximal nontoxic dose (MNTD) of the recombinant peptide against Vero cells was 20 μM (100 μg/mL). The reaction velocity of DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro decreased significantly after increasing concentrations of recombinant plectasin were applied to the reaction mixture. Plectasin peptide noncompetitively inhibited DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro at Ki value of 5.03 ± 0.98 μM. The percentage of viral inhibition was more than 80% at the MNTD value of plectasin. In this study, biologically active recombinant plectasin which was able to inhibit dengue protease and viral replication in Vero cells was successfully produced in E. coli in a time- and cost- effective method. These findings are potentially important in the development of potent therapeutics against dengue infection.

  8. Natural production of biological optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kim, Young L.

    2015-03-01

    Synthesis and production in nature often provide ideas to design and fabricate advanced biomimetic photonic materials and structures, leading to excellent physical properties and enhanced performance. In addition, the recognition and utilization of natural or biological substances have been typical routes to develop biocompatible and biodegradable materials for medical applications. In this respect, biological lasers utilizing such biomaterials and biostructures have been received considerable attention, given a variety of implications and potentials for bioimaging, biosensing, implantation, and therapy. However, without relying on industrial facilities, eco-friendly massive production of such optical components or systems has not yet been investigated. We show examples of bioproduction of biological lasers using agriculture and fisheries. We anticipate that such approaches will open new possibilities for scalable eco-friendly `green' production of biological photonics components and systems.

  9. Product development of probiotics as biological drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Ann

    2008-02-01

    Elements of product and manufacturing-process design are described for product development of live biotherapeutic biological drugs. Product design uses the history and the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the selected strain. The quality and integrity of the selected strain can be ensured by preservation in a qualified cell-bank system. Manufacturing-process design includes step-by-step description, including the necessary process-input parameters and the expected output results. The active ingredients in the biological drug are usually manufactured using aseptic processing. The manufacture of the final dosage form of live biotherapeutics requires bioburden control or aseptic manufacture, as appropriate. Specifications for live biotherapeutics must comply with regulations for licensed biological products. Evidence of stability for the duration of the shelf life, as well as stability under the recommended conditions of use, must be provided for licensure.

  10. 9 CFR 114.6 - Mixing biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixing biological products. 114.6 Section 114.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.6 Mixing biological products. Each biological product, when in liquid form,...

  11. Standardization for natural product synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huimin; Medema, Marnix H

    2016-08-27

    Standardization is one of the foundational features of modern-day engineering, and the use of standardized parts and processes is a key element that distinguishes bona fide synthetic biology from traditional genetic engineering. Here, we discuss the role of standardization in natural product synthetic biology, focusing on standardization of data on biosynthetic pathways and gene clusters, as well as the role of standardization in the process of biosynthetic gene cluster engineering.

  12. Design and construction of a first-generation high-throughput integrated molecular biology platform for production of optimized synthetic genes and improved industrial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular biological techniques for plasmid-based assembly and cloning of synthetic assembled gene open reading frames are essential for elucidating the function of the proteins encoded by the genes. These techniques involve the production of full-length cDNA libraries as a source of plasmid-bas...

  13. Standardization for natural product synthetic biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Huimin; Medema, Marnix H.

    2016-01-01

    Standardization is one of the foundational features of modern-day engineering, and the use of standardized parts and processes is a key element that distinguishes bona fide synthetic biology from traditional genetic engineering. Here, we discuss the role of standardization in natural product

  14. High-resolution measurement of nitrous oxide in the Elbe estuary under hypoxia: Hot-spots of biological N2O production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brase, Lisa; Lendt, Ralf; Sanders, Tina; Dähnke, Kirstin

    2016-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the most important greenhouse gases. Its global warming potential exceeds that of CO2 by a factor of ˜300. Estuaries, being sites of intense biological N-turnover, are one of the major natural sources of N2O emissions. On two ship cruises in April and June 2015, concentrations of N2O were measured in the surface water using equilibrator laser based on-line measurements. Based on these high-resolution N2O profiles along the Elbe estuary, N2O saturation and N2O-fluxes between surface water and air were calculated. Additionally, DIN concentrations and dual stable isotopes of nitrate (δ15N and δ18O) were analyzed. Concentration and water-to-air fluxes of N2O were highest in the Hamburg port region and dropped quickly further downstream. Highest water-to-air fluxes were up to 800μM/m2/d and 1600μM/m2/d in April and in June, respectively. Downstream of the port region, an N2O oversaturation of 150-200% was estimated over the entire estuary, with saturation approaching equilibrium (96-100%) only in the North Sea region. N2O production was much higher in June than in April 2015, likely coupled to lower oxygen saturation in the water column in June. Based on these measurements, the port of Hamburg region was identified as a hot-spot of N2O production. High N2O concentration and depleted values of nitrate isotopes suggest that nitrification is a significant source of N2O in the estuary, especially at low oxygen concentration. In the Elbe estuary, hypoxia obviously drastically increased the emissions of the greenhouse gas N2O.

  15. 9 CFR 115.2 - Inspections of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspections of biological products... § 115.2 Inspections of biological products. (a) Any biological product, the container of which bears a...) When notified to stop distribution and sale of a serial or subserial of a veterinary biological...

  16. Hydrogen production by biological processes: a survey of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Debabrata [Indian Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Biotechnology, Kharagpur (India); Miami Univ., Clean Energy Research Inst., Coral Gables, FL (United States); Veziroglu, T. Nejat [Miami Univ., Clean Energy Research Inst., Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Hydrogen is the fuel of the future mainly due to its high conversion efficiency, recyclability and nonpolluting nature. Biological hydrogen production processes are found to be more environment friendly and less energy intensive as compared to thermochemical and electrochemical processes. They are mostly controlled by either photosynthetic or fermentative organisms. Till today, more emphasis has been given on the former processes. Nitrogenase and hydrogenase play very important roles. Genetic manipulation of cyanobacteria (hydrogenase negative gene) improves the hydrogen generation. The paper presents a survey of biological hydrogen production processes. The micro-organism and biochemical pathways involved in hydrogen generation processes are presented in some detail. Several developmental works are discussed. Immobilised system is found suitable for the continuous hydrogen production. About 28% of energy can be recovered in the form of hydrogen using sucrose as substrate. Fermentative hydrogen production processes have some edge over the other biological processes. (Author)

  17. 9 CFR 114.17 - Rebottling of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rebottling of biological products. 114.17 Section 114.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.17 Rebottling of biological products. The Administrator...

  18. 9 CFR 114.18 - Reprocessing of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reprocessing of biological products. 114.18 Section 114.18 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.18 Reprocessing of biological products. The Administrator...

  19. 9 CFR 103.1 - Preparation of experimental biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of experimental biological... PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.1 Preparation of experimental biological products. Except as otherwise provided in this section, experimental...

  20. 9 CFR 113.50 - Ingredients of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ingredients of biological products... REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.50 Ingredients of biological products. All ingredients used in a licensed biological product shall meet accepted standards of purity and quality; shall be...

  1. Natural product synthesis at the interface of chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiyong

    2014-08-11

    Nature has evolved to produce unique and diverse natural products that possess high target affinity and specificity. Natural products have been the richest sources for novel modulators of biomolecular function. Since the chemical synthesis of urea by Wöhler, organic chemists have been intrigued by natural products, leading to the evolution of the field of natural product synthesis over the past two centuries. Natural product synthesis has enabled natural products to play an essential role in drug discovery and chemical biology. With the introduction of novel, innovative concepts and strategies for synthetic efficiency, natural product synthesis in the 21st century is well poised to address the challenges and complexities faced by natural product chemistry and will remain essential to progress in biomedical sciences.

  2. Queering high school biology textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Vicky L.; Broadway, Francis S.

    2004-08-01

    As teachers committed to educating all students, we need to learn more about how instructional materials shape representations of sexuality and gender. Through its insistent deconstruction of the norms that structure practice and belief, queer theory offers perspectives from which science educators can question assumptions embedded in textbooks. This article applies queer theory to analyze eight biology textbooks used in the United States. Specifically, we ask how biology textbooks address sexuality outside the heterosexual norm and if they propagate heteronormative attitudes. The textbooks examined offer deafening silences, antiseptic factoids, socially sanitized concepts, and politically correct binary-gendered illustrations. In these textbooks, the term homosexuality was used only in the context of AIDS where, along with iv drug users, they were identified as an affected group. The pervasive acceptance of heteronormative behavior privileges students that fit the heterosexual norm, and oppresses through omission and silence those who do not. We offer implications for practice to help science educators broaden their perspectives on the constructs of sexuality and gender to construct new ways of knowing and understanding differences in science classrooms and the natural world.

  3. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the wild strain'' produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  4. PERSPECTIVES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE BIOLOGIC PLUM PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Vitanova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Bulgarian plum cultivars Gabrovska, Nevena, Strinava, Guliaeva and Balvanska slava, breeding in the Plum Experimental Station in the town of Dryanovo and the introduced cultivars Stanley, Chachanska lepotitsa, Opal, Malvazinka, Hramova renkloda, Tuleu timpuriu, Althan’s Gage, Pacific, Mirabell de Nancy, Anna Schpet and Jojo, what are high productive and are tolerant to sharka and other important economic plum diseases are suitable for the biologic plum production. The organic fertilization is a basic element of the technology for the biologic plum production. The fertilization with manure and the green manure with a winter green peas and with a peas-rye mix increased the humus content, influenced positive action on the supplying of the plum plants with the main nutrient macro elements, increased the yield and to be able apply successfully in the plum orchards and at not irrigation conditions.

  5. Monascus secondary metabolites: production and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patakova, Petra

    2013-02-01

    The genus Monascus, comprising nine species, can reproduce either vegetatively with filaments and conidia or sexually by the formation of ascospores. The most well-known species of genus Monascus, namely, M. purpureus, M. ruber and M. pilosus, are often used for rice fermentation to produce red yeast rice, a special product used either for food coloring or as a food supplement with positive effects on human health. The colored appearance (red, orange or yellow) of Monascus-fermented substrates is produced by a mixture of oligoketide pigments that are synthesized by a combination of polyketide and fatty acid synthases. The major pigments consist of pairs of yellow (ankaflavin and monascin), orange (rubropunctatin and monascorubrin) and red (rubropunctamine and monascorubramine) compounds; however, more than 20 other colored products have recently been isolated from fermented rice or culture media. In addition to pigments, a group of monacolin substances and the mycotoxin citrinin can be produced by Monascus. Various non-specific biological activities (antimicrobial, antitumor, immunomodulative and others) of these pigmented compounds are, at least partly, ascribed to their reaction with amino group-containing compounds, i.e. amino acids, proteins or nucleic acids. Monacolins, in the form of β-hydroxy acids, inhibit hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis in animals and humans.

  6. Post-glacial variability of sea ice cover, river run-off and biological production in the western Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean) - A high-resolution biomarker study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, T.; Stein, R.; Fahl, K.; Birgel, D.

    2016-07-01

    Multi-proxy biomarker measurements were applied on two sediment cores (PS51/154, PS51/159) to reconstruct sea ice cover (IP25), biological production (brassicasterol, dinosterol) and river run-off (campesterol, β-sitosterol) in the western Laptev Sea over the last ∼17 ka with unprecedented temporal resolution. The absence of IP25 from 17.2 to 15.5 ka, in combination with minimum concentration of phytoplankton biomarkers, suggests that the western Laptev Sea shelf was mostly covered with permanent sea ice. Very minor river run-off and restricted biological production occurred during this cold interval. From ∼16 ka until 7.5 ka, a long-term decrease of terrigenous (riverine) organic matter and a coeval increase of marine organic matter reflect the gradual establishment of fully marine conditions in the western Laptev Sea, caused by the onset of the post-glacial transgression. Intensified river run-off and reduced sea ice cover characterized the time interval between 15.2 and 12.9 ka, including the Bølling/Allerød warm period (14.7-12.9 ka). Prominent peaks of the DIP25 Index coinciding with maximum abundances of subpolar foraminifers, are interpreted as pulses of Atlantic water inflow on the western Laptev Sea shelf. After the warm period, a sudden return to severe sea ice conditions with strongest ice-coverage between 11.9 and 11 ka coincided with the Younger Dryas (12.9-11.6 ka). At the onset of the Younger Dryas, a distinct alteration of the ecosystem (reflected in a distinct drop in terrigenous and phytoplankton biomarkers) was detected. During the last 7 ka, the sea ice proxies reflect a cooling of the Laptev Sea spring/summer season. This cooling trend was superimposed by a short-term variability in sea ice coverage, probably representing Bond cycles (1500 ± 500 ka) that are related to solar activity changes. Hence, atmospheric circulation changes were apparently able to affect the sea ice conditions on the Laptev Sea shelf under modern sea level

  7. Production of aggregation prone human interferon gamma and its mutant in highly soluble and biologically active form by SUMO fusion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tileva, M; Krachmarova, E; Ivanov, I; Maskos, K; Nacheva, G

    2016-01-01

    The Escherichia coli expression system is a preferable choice for production of recombinant proteins. A disadvantage of this system is the target protein aggregation in "inclusion bodies" (IBs) that further requires solubilisation and refolding, which is crucial for the properties and the yield of the final product. In order to prevent aggregation, SUMO fusion tag technology has been successfully applied for expression of eukaryotic proteins, including human interferon gamma (hIFNγ) that was reported, however, with no satisfactory biological activity. We modified this methodology for expression and purification of both the wild type hIFNγ and an extremely prone to aggregation mutant hIFNγ-K88Q, whose recovery from IBs showed to be ineffective upon numerous conditions. By expression of the N-terminal His-SUMO fusion proteins in the E. coli strain BL21(DE3)pG-KJE8, co-expressing two chaperone systems, at 24 °C a significant increase in solubility of both target proteins (1.5-fold for hIFNγ and 8-fold for K88Q) was achieved. Two-step chromatography (affinity and ion-exchange) with on-dialysis His-SUMO-tag cleavage was applied for protein purification that yielded 6.0-7.0mg/g wet biomass for both proteins with >95% purity and native N-termini. The optimised protocol led to increased yields from 5.5 times for hIFNγ up to 100 times for K88Q in comparison to their isolation from IBs. Purified hIFNγ showed preserved thermal stability and antiproliferative activity corresponding to that of the native reference sample (3 × 10(7)IU/mg). The developed methodology represents an optimised procedure that can be successfully applied for large scale expression and purification of aggregation-prone proteins in soluble native form.

  8. 9 CFR 106.1 - Biological products; exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 106.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXEMPTION FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS USED IN DEPARTMENT PROGRAMS OR UNDER DEPARTMENT CONTROL OR SUPERVISION § 106.1 Biological...

  9. High-yield production of biologically active recombinant protein in shake flask culture by combination of enzyme-based glucose delivery and increased oxygen transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukkonen Kaisa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report describes the combined use of an enzyme-based glucose release system (EnBase® and high-aeration shake flask (Ultra Yield Flask™. The benefit of this combination is demonstrated by over 100-fold improvement in the active yield of recombinant alcohol dehydrogenase expressed in E. coli. Compared to Terrific Broth and ZYM-5052 autoinduction medium, the EnBase system improved yield mainly through increased productivity per cell. Four-fold increase in oxygen transfer by the Ultra Yield Flask contributed to higher cell density with EnBase but not with the other tested media, and consequently the product yield per ml of EnBase culture was further improved.

  10. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  11. Biological hydrogen production using a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sang-Eun; Iyer, Prabha; Bruns, Mary Ann; Logan, Bruce E

    2004-07-01

    A cross-flow membrane was coupled to a chemostat to create an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) for biological hydrogen production. The reactor was fed glucose (10,000 mg/L) and inoculated with a soil inoculum heat-treated to kill non-spore-forming methanogens. Hydrogen gas was consistently produced at a concentration of 57-60% in the headspace under all conditions. When operated in chemostat mode (no flow through the membrane) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.3 h, 90% of the glucose was removed, producing 2200 mg/L of cells and 500 mL/h of biogas. When operated in MBR mode, the solids retention time (SRT) was increased to SRT = 12 h producing a solids concentration in the reactor of 5800 mg/L. This SRT increased the overall glucose utilization (98%), the biogas production rate (640 mL/h), and the conversion efficiency of glucose-to-hydrogen from 22% (no MBR) to 25% (based on a maximum of 4 mol-H(2)/mol-glucose). When the SRT was increased from 5 h to 48 h, glucose utilization (99%) and biomass concentrations (8,800 +/- 600 mg/L) both increased. However, the biogas production decreased (310 +/- 40 mL/h) and the glucose-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency decreased from 37 +/- 4% to 18 +/- 3%. Sustained permeate flows through the membrane were in the range of 57 to 60 L/m(2) h for three different membrane pore sizes (0.3, 0.5, and 0.8 microm). Most (93.7% to 99.3%) of the membrane resistance was due to internal fouling and the reversible cake resistance, and not the membrane itself. Regular backpulsing was essential for maintaining permeate flux through the membrane. Analysis of DNA sequences using ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis indicated bacteria were most closely related to members of Clostridiaceae and Flexibacteraceae, including Clostridium acidisoli CAC237756 (97%), Linmingia china AF481148 (97%), and Cytophaga sp. MDA2507 AF238333 (99%). No PCR amplification of 16s rRNA genes was obtained when archaea-specific primers were used.

  12. Biosynthesis of therapeutic natural products using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Ali R; Shaw, William M; Ellis, Tom

    2016-10-01

    Natural products are a group of bioactive structurally diverse chemicals produced by microorganisms and plants. These molecules and their derivatives have contributed to over a third of the therapeutic drugs produced in the last century. However, over the last few decades traditional drug discovery pipelines from natural products have become far less productive and far more expensive. One recent development with promise to combat this trend is the application of synthetic biology to therapeutic natural product biosynthesis. Synthetic biology is a young discipline with roots in systems biology, genetic engineering, and metabolic engineering. In this review, we discuss the use of synthetic biology to engineer improved yields of existing therapeutic natural products. We further describe the use of synthetic biology to combine and express natural product biosynthetic genes in unprecedented ways, and how this holds promise for opening up completely new avenues for drug discovery and production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biologically active substances in bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Paschenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of technology for muffins functionality based on biologically active composition comprising lyupinovo-melangehydrolyzatetykvoproteina, soy protein isolate, mustard oil and mineral fortifier calcium.

  14. Reproductive biology traits affecting productivity of sour cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Fotiric Aksic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate variability in reproductive biology traits and the correlation between them in genotypes of 'Oblačinska' sour cherry (Prunus cerasus. High genetic diversity was found in the 41 evaluated genotypes, and significant differences were observed among them for all studied traits: flowering time, pollen germination, number of fruiting branches, production of flower and fruit, number of flowers per bud, fruit set, and limb yield efficiency. The number of fruiting branches significantly influenced the number of flower and fruit, fruit set, and yield efficiency. In addition to number of fruiting branches, yield efficiency was positively correlated with fruit set and production of flower and fruit. Results from principal component analysis suggested a reduction of the reproductive biology factors affecting yield to four main characters: number and structure of fruiting branches, flowering time, and pollen germination. Knowledge of the reproductive biology of the 'Oblačinska' genotypes can be used to select the appropriate ones to be grown or used as parents in breeding programs. In this sense, genotypes II/2, III/9, III/13, and III/14 have very good flower production and satisfactory pollen germination.

  15. New tricks for an old natural product: discovery of highly potent evodiamine derivatives as novel antitumor agents by systemic structure-activity relationship analysis and biological evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guoqiang; Wang, Shengzheng; Miao, Zhenyuan; Yao, Jianzhong; Zhang, Yongqiang; Guo, Zizhao; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan

    2012-09-13

    Evodiamine is a quinazolinocarboline alkaloid isolated from the fruits of traditional Chinese herb Evodiae fructus . Previously, we identified N13-substituted evodiamine derivatives as potent topoisomerase I inhibitors by structure-based virtual screening and lead optimization. Herein, a library of novel evodiamine derivatives bearing various substitutions or modified scaffold were synthesized. Among them, a number of evodiamine derivatives showed substantial increase of the antitumor activity, with GI(50) values lower than 3 nM. Moreover, these highly potent compounds can effectively induce the apoptosis of A549 cells. Interestingly, further computational target prediction calculations in combination with biological assays confirmed that the evodiamine derivatives acted by dual inhibition of topoisomerases I and II. Moreover, several hydroxyl derivatives, such as 10-hydroxyl evodiamine (10j) and 3-amino-10-hydroxyl evodiamine (18g), also showed good in vivo antitumor efficacy and low toxicity at the dose of 1 mg/kg or 2 mg/kg. They represent promising candidates for the development of novel antitumor agents.

  16. Biological control and sustainable food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bale, J.S.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Bigler, F.

    2008-01-01

    The use of biological control for the management of pest insects pre-dates the modern pesticide era. The first major successes in biological control occurred with exotic pests controlled by natural enemy species collected from the country or area of origin of the pest (classical control). Augmentati

  17. Computational Biology and High Performance Computing 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Horst D.; Zorn, Manfred D.; Spengler, Sylvia J.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Stewart, Craig; Dubchak, Inna L.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2000-10-19

    The pace of extraordinary advances in molecular biology has accelerated in the past decade due in large part to discoveries coming from genome projects on human and model organisms. The advances in the genome project so far, happening well ahead of schedule and under budget, have exceeded any dreams by its protagonists, let alone formal expectations. Biologists expect the next phase of the genome project to be even more startling in terms of dramatic breakthroughs in our understanding of human biology, the biology of health and of disease. Only today can biologists begin to envision the necessary experimental, computational and theoretical steps necessary to exploit genome sequence information for its medical impact, its contribution to biotechnology and economic competitiveness, and its ultimate contribution to environmental quality. High performance computing has become one of the critical enabling technologies, which will help to translate this vision of future advances in biology into reality. Biologists are increasingly becoming aware of the potential of high performance computing. The goal of this tutorial is to introduce the exciting new developments in computational biology and genomics to the high performance computing community.

  18. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A content of biologically active compounds (BAC with signified pharmacological activity in distillers grains was proved. It is prospective for applications of these grains as a raw material resource of pharmaceuticals. A composition of BAC distillers grains received from wheat, corn, barley, millet at different spirit enterprises which use hydro fermentative grain processing. Considering polydispersity of distillers grains they were separated on solid and liquid phases preliminary. Physical and chemical characteristics of distillers grains' liquid base were identified. Elementary composition of distillers grains is signified by active accumulation of biogenic elements (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron and low content of heavy metals. The solid phase of distillers grains accumulates carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in high concentration. The liquid phase of distillers grains contains: proteins and amino acids (20-46%, reducing sugars (5,6%-17,5%, galacturonides (0,8-1,4%, ascorbic acid (6,2-11,4 mg%. The solid base of distillers grains contains: galacturonides (3,4-5,3%, fatty oil (8,4-11,1% with predomination of essential fatty acids, proteins and amino acids (2,1-2,5%, flavonoids (0,4-0,9%, tocopherols (3,4-7,7 mg%. A method of complex processing of distillers grains based on application of membrane filtering of liquid phase and liquid extraction by inorganic and organic solvents of solid phase, which allows almost full extraction of the sum of biologically active compounds (BAC from liquid phase (Biobardin BM and solid phase (Biobardin UL. Biobardin BM comprises the following elements: proteins and amino acids (41-69%, reducing sugars (3,5-15,6%, fatty oil (0,2-0,3%, flavonoids (0,2-0,7%, ascorbic acid (17-37 mg%. Biobardin UL includes: oligouronids (16,4-19,5%, proteins and amino acids (11-21%, fatty oil (3,2-4,9% which includes essential acids; flavonoids (0,6-1,5%, tocopherols (6,6-10,2 mg%, carotinoids (0,13-0,21 mg

  19. Molecular biology in studies of oceanic primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRoche, J.; Falkowski, P.G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Geider, R. [Delaware Univ., Lewes, DE (United States). Coll. of Marine Studies

    1992-07-01

    Remote sensing and the use of moored in situ instrumentation has greatly improved our ability to measure phytoplankton chlorophyll and photosynthesis on global scales with high temporal resolution. However, the interpretation of these measurements and their significance with respect to the biogeochemical cycling of carbon relies on their relationship with physiological and biochemical processes in phytoplankton. For example, the use of satellite images of surface chlorophyll to estimate primary production is often based on the functional relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. A variety of environmental factors such as light, temperature, nutrient availability affect the photosynthesis/irradiance (P vs I) relationship in phytoplankton. We present three examples showing how molecular biology can be used to provide basic insight into the factors controlling primary productivity at three different levels of complexity: 1. Studies of light intensity regulation in unicellular alga show how molecular biology can help understand the processing of environmental cues leading to the regulation of photosynthetic gene expression. 2. Probing of the photosynthetic apparatus using molecular techniques can be used to test existing mechanistic models derived from the interpretation of physiological and biophysical measurements. 3. Exploratory work on the expression of specific proteins during nutrient-limited growth of phytoplankton may lead to the identification and production of molecular probes for field studies.

  20. Molecular biology in studies of oceanic primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRoche, J.; Falkowski, P.G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Geider, R. (Delaware Univ., Lewes, DE (United States). Coll. of Marine Studies)

    1992-01-01

    Remote sensing and the use of moored in situ instrumentation has greatly improved our ability to measure phytoplankton chlorophyll and photosynthesis on global scales with high temporal resolution. However, the interpretation of these measurements and their significance with respect to the biogeochemical cycling of carbon relies on their relationship with physiological and biochemical processes in phytoplankton. For example, the use of satellite images of surface chlorophyll to estimate primary production is often based on the functional relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. A variety of environmental factors such as light, temperature, nutrient availability affect the photosynthesis/irradiance (P vs I) relationship in phytoplankton. We present three examples showing how molecular biology can be used to provide basic insight into the factors controlling primary productivity at three different levels of complexity: 1. Studies of light intensity regulation in unicellular alga show how molecular biology can help understand the processing of environmental cues leading to the regulation of photosynthetic gene expression. 2. Probing of the photosynthetic apparatus using molecular techniques can be used to test existing mechanistic models derived from the interpretation of physiological and biophysical measurements. 3. Exploratory work on the expression of specific proteins during nutrient-limited growth of phytoplankton may lead to the identification and production of molecular probes for field studies.

  1. 9 CFR 102.5 - U.S. Veterinary Biological Product License.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Veterinary Biological Product... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 102.5 U.S. Veterinary Biological Product License. (a) Authorization to produce each biological product shall be specified on a U.S. Veterinary Biological Product License, issued by...

  2. Production and consumption of biological particles in temperate tidal estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heip, C.H.R.; Goosen, N.K.; Herman, P.M.J.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Soetaert, K.E.R.

    1995-01-01

    The question is reviewed whether a balance exists between production and consumption of biological particles in temperate tidal estuaries and what the relationships are between the magnitude of production and consumption processes and system carbon metabolism. The production terms considered are pri

  3. Biological hydrogen production from industrial wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Guilherme; Pantoja Filho, Jorge Luis Rodrigues; Zaiat, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). School of Engineering. Dept. Hydraulics and Sanitation], Email: peixoto@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This research evaluates the potential for producing hydrogen in anaerobic reactors using industrial wastewaters (glycerol from bio diesel production, wastewater from the parboilization of rice, and vinasse from ethanol production). In a complementary experiment the soluble products formed during hydrogen production were evaluated for methane generation. The assays were performed in batch reactors with 2 liters volume, and sucrose was used as a control substrate. The acidogenic inoculum was taken from a packed-bed reactor used to produce hydrogen from a sucrose-based synthetic substrate. The methanogenic inoculum was taken from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Hydrogen was produced from rice parboilization wastewater (24.27 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) vinasse (22.75 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) and sucrose (25.60 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD), while glycerol only showed potential for methane generation. (author)

  4. Biological production of ethanol fom coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    Research is continuing in an attempt to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio using C. ljungdahlii. The purpose of this report is to present data (acetate to ethanol) utilizing a medium prepared especially for C. ljungdahlii. Medium development studies are presented, as well as reactor studies with the new medium in batch reactors. Continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with cell recycle. The use of this new medium has resulted in significant improvements in cell concentration, ethanol concentration and product ratio.

  5. Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes' biosynthesis and a natural source of high value products with biological, aromatic and pharmacological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Papanikolaou, Antigoni; Falara, Vasiliki; Givanoudi, Stella; Kostas, Stefanos; Kanellis, Angelos

    2014-06-01

    The family Cistaceae (Angiosperm, Malvales) consists of 8 genera and 180 species, with 5 genera native of the Mediterranean area (Cistus, Fumara, Halimium, Helianthemum and Tuberaria). Traditionally, a number of Cistus specie have been used in Mediterranean folk medicine as herbal tea infusions for healing, digestive problems and colds, as extracts for the treatment of diseases, and as fragrances. The resin, ladano, secreted by the glandular trichomes of certain Cistus species contains a number of phytochemicals with antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties. Furthermore, total leaf aqueous extracts possess anti-influenza virus activity. All these properties have been attributed to phytochemicals such as terpenoids, including diterpenes, labdane-type diterpenes and clerodanes, phenylpropanoids, including flavonoids and ellagitannins, several groups of alkaloids and other types of secondary metabolites. In the past 20 years, research on Cistus involved chemical, biological and phylogenetic analysis but recent investigations have involved genomic and molecular approaches. Our lab is exploring the biosynthetic machinery that generates terpenoids and phenylpropanoids, with a goal to harness their numerous properties that have applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical and aromatic industries. This review focuses on the systematics, botanical characteristics, geographic distribution, chemical analyses, biological function and biosynthesis of major compounds, as well as genomic analyses and biotechnological approaches of the main Cistus species found in the Mediterranean basin, namely C. albidus, C. creticus, C. crispus, C. parviflorus, C. monspeliensis, C. populifolius, C. salviifolius, C. ladanifer, C. laurifolius and C. clusii.

  6. Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes' biosynthesis and a natural source of high value products with biological, aromatic and pharmacological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra ePapaefthimiou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The family Cistaceae (Angiosperm, Malvales consists of 8 genera and 180 species, with 5 genera native of the Mediterranean area (Cistus, Fumara, Halimium, Helianthemum and Tuberaria. Traditionally, a number of Cistus specie have been used in Mediterranean folk medicine as herbal tea infusions for healing, digestive problems and colds, as extracts for the treatment of diseases, and as fragrances. The resin, ladano, secreted by the glandular trichomes of certain Cistus species contains a number of phytochemicals with antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties. Furthermore, total leaf aqueous extracts possess anti-influenza virus activity. All these properties have been attributed to phytochemicals such as terpenoids, including diterpenes, labdane-type diterpenes and clerodanes, phenylpropanoids, including flavonoids and ellagitannins, several groups of alkaloids and other types of secondary metabolites. In the past 20 years, research on Cistus involved chemical, biological and phylogenetic analysis but recent investigations have involved genomic and molecular approaches. Our lab is exploring the biosynthetic machinery that generates terpenoids and phenylpropanoids, with a goal to harness their numerous properties that have applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical and aromatic industries. This review focuses on the systematics, botanical characteristics, geographic distribution, chemical analyses, biological function and biosynthesis of major compounds, as well as genomic analyses and biotechnological approaches of the main Cistus species found in the Mediterranean basin, namely C. albidus, C. creticus, C. crispus, C. parviflorus, C. monspeliensis, C. populifolius, C. salviifolius, C. ladanifer, C. laurifolius and C. clusii.

  7. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulig, Waldemar; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The main biological cause of oxysterols is the oxidation of cholesterol. They differ from cholesterol by the presence of additional polar groups that are typically hydroxyl, keto, hydroperoxy, epoxy, or carboxyl moieties. Under typical conditions, oxysterol concentration is maintained at a very low...... and precisely regulated level, with an excess of cholesterol. Like cholesterol, many oxysterols are hydrophobic and hence confined to cell membranes. However, small chemical differences between the sterols can significantly affect how they interact with other membrane components, and this in turn can have...

  8. Biocomes: new biological products for sustainable farming and forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixidó, N.; Cal, de A.L.; Usall, J.; Guijarro, B.; Larena, I.; Torres, R.; Abadias, M.; Köhl, J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract:
    The growing interest in biological control has been reflected during last decades in a big number of scientific publications, books and symposia. However, biocontrol commercial application at a European level is limited and biological control products are not currently available for

  9. Biocomes: new biological products for sustainable farming and forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixidó, N.; Cal, de A.L.; Usall, J.; Guijarro, B.; Larena, I.; Torres, R.; Abadias, M.; Köhl, J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract:
    The growing interest in biological control has been reflected during last decades in a big number of scientific publications, books and symposia. However, biocontrol commercial application at a European level is limited and biological control products are not currently available for

  10. Production of hydrogen using an anaerobic biological process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Robert; Pelter, Libbie S.; Patterson, John A.

    2016-11-29

    Various embodiments of the present invention pertain to methods for biological production of hydrogen. More specifically, embodiments of the present invention pertain to a modular energy system and related methods for producing hydrogen using organic waste as a feed stock.

  11. Total synthesis and biological activity of natural product Urukthapelstatin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chieh; Tantisantisom, Worawan; McAlpine, Shelli R

    2013-07-19

    Herein we report the first total synthesis of the natural product Urkuthaplestatin A (Ustat A) utilizing a convergent synthetic strategy. The characterization and biological activity match those of the previously published natural product. Interestingly, several intermediates, including the linear and serine cyclized precursors, show a 100-fold decrease in cytotoxicity, with IC50's in the low micromolar range. These data indicate that the rigidity and the consecutive aromatic heterocyclic system are responsible for the biological activity.

  12. Recent Developments in Biological Hydrogen Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEBABRATA DAS

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Biohydrogen production technology can utilize renewable energy sources like biomass for the generation of hydrogen, the cleanest form of energy for the use of mankind. However, major constraints to the commercialization of these processes include lower hydrogen yields and rates of hydrogen production. To overcome these bottlenecks intensive research work has already been carried out on the advancement of these processes such as the development of genetically modified microorganisms, the improvement of the bioreactor design, molecular engineering of the key enzyme hydrogenases, the development of two stage processes, etc. The present paper explores the recent advancements that have been made till date and also presents the state of the art in molecular strategies to improve the hydrogen production.

  13. Electricity-mediated biological hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, J.S.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria have the ability to produce electricity from the oxidation of organic substrates. They also may use electricity to support chemical reactions that are energetically unfavorable. In the fermentation of sugars, hydrogen can be formed as one of the main products. However, a yield of

  14. Synthetic biological approaches to natural product biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jaclyn M; Tang, Yi

    2012-10-01

    Small molecules produced in Nature possess exquisite chemical diversity and continue to be an inspiration for the development of new therapeutic agents. In their host organisms, natural products are assembled and modified using dedicated biosynthetic pathways. By rationally reprogramming and manipulating these pathways, unnatural metabolites containing enhanced structural features that were otherwise inaccessible can be obtained. Additionally, new chemical entities can be synthesized by developing the enzymes that carry out these complicated chemical reactions into biocatalysts. In this review, we will discuss a variety of combinatorial biosynthetic strategies, their technical challenges, and highlight some recent (since 2007) examples of rationally designed metabolites, as well as platforms that have been established for the production and modification of clinically important pharmaceutical compounds.

  15. Examination of the biological effects of high anionic peroxidase production in tobacco plants grown under field conditions. I. Insect pest damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Patrick F; Lagrimini, L Mark

    2006-04-01

    At least 25 wild type and high peroxidase tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. plants were examined semiweekly over several weeks for pest insect distribution and damage in a 2 year field study. Incidence and/or severity of naturally occurring caterpillar damage (dingy cutworm (Feltia ducens Walker), black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel), tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta L.), and false tobacco budworm (= corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)) was significantly reduced at several sample dates for high peroxidase vs. wild type plants. These results parallel those of prior laboratory studies with caterpillars. The number of adult whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) per plant was significantly reduced on high peroxidase compared to wild type plants on most sample dates in both years. The number of plants with leaves containing >100 aphids (primarily Myzus persicae Sulzer) per leaf on high peroxidase plants was significantly lower that on wild type plants after an equivalent invasion period in both years. A significantly higher proportion of aphids were found dead on leaf five of high peroxidase compared to wild type plants at most sample dates in both years. These results indicate that high peroxidase plants have resistance to a wide range of insects, implicating this enzyme as a broad range resistance mechanism.

  16. Biological systems in high magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, A.

    1990-12-01

    Diamagnetic orientation of biological systems have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. Fibrinogen, one of blood proteins, were polymerized in static high magnetic fields up to 8 T. Clotted gels composed of oriented fibrin fibers were obtained even in a field as low as 1 T. Red blood cells (RBC) show full orientation with their plane parallel to the applied field of 4 T. It is confirmed experimentally that the magnetic orientation of RBC is caused by diamagnetic anisotropy. Full orientation is also obtained with blood platelet in a field of 3 T.

  17. Biological productivity and carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Primary production, bacterial production, particulate organic carbon fluxes and organic carbon burial rates were quantified during the summer period of 1999 in the Arctic Ocean via 14C uptake, 3H uptake, 234Th/238U disequilibrium and 210Pbex dating, respectively. The integrated primary production in the water column was as high as 197 mmolC/(m2@d) in the Chukchi shelf and was 3.8 mmolC/(m2@d) in the Canada Basin. These rates are higher than those reported previously. The ratios of bacterial production to primary production in the study region were higher than 0.5, indicating that microbial activity is not depressed but important in cold Arctic waters. 234Th/238U disequilibria were evident at the station in the Canada Basin. The presence of significant 234Th deficiency suggested that scavenging and removal processes are also important to biogeochemical cycles of trace elements in the Arctic Ocean. Particulate organic carbon export flux was estimated to be 1.0 mmolC/(m2@d). Measurements of sediment excess 210Pb profile in the Chukchi shelf allowed us to estimate the amount of organic carbon buried in the bottom sediment, which ranged from 25 to 35 mmolC/(m2@d) and represented about 59%-82% of the mean primary production in the euphotic zone. Overall, our results indicated that the Arctic Ocean has active carbon cycling and is not a biological desert as previously believed. Therefore, the Arctic Ocean may play an important role in the global carbon cycle and climate change.

  18. Role of natural product diversity in chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiyong

    2011-06-01

    Through the natural selection process, natural products possess a unique and vast chemical diversity and have been evolved for optimal interactions with biological macromolecules. Owing to their diversity, target affinity, and specificity, natural products have demonstrated enormous potential as modulators of biomolecular function, been an essential source for drug discovery, and provided design principles for combinatorial library development.

  19. Improvement of FK506 production by synthetic biology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li-Feng; Tao, Yang; Jin, Mei-Ying; Jiang, Hui

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic biology has been applied to direct improvement of valuable metabolite productions. Tacrolimus (FK506), a clinically used immunosuppressive agent isolated from many Streptomyces, is produced by fermentation in industry. Here we chose FK506 as an example to review recent progress in improving FK506 production, including enhancing transcription levels of biosynthetic genes, accelerating post-translational modification levels of biosynthetic enzymes, increasing activities of rate limiting enzymes, and rational supplement of limited precursors. FK506 production was increased from 25 % to sevenfold by these synthetic biology approaches.

  20. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed.

  1. Suitability of Gray Water for Hydroponic Crop Production Following Biological and Physical Chemical and Biological Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Harper, Lynn D.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Greene, Catherine

    1994-01-01

    in control hydroponic solution containing pure deionized water, no growth difference could be measured resulting from any of the recovered water treatments. Both biological treatment and VCD offer alternative technology approaches to recovering water from waste streams appropriate for input into a crop production system. A high level of crop performance (food, air, and water production) can be maintained with either processor; selection decisions can be based on other factors regarding system integration.

  2. Suitability of Gray Water for Hydroponic Crop Production Following Biological and Physical Chemical and Biological Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Harper, Lynn D.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Greene, Catherine

    1994-01-01

    in control hydroponic solution containing pure deionized water, no growth difference could be measured resulting from any of the recovered water treatments. Both biological treatment and VCD offer alternative technology approaches to recovering water from waste streams appropriate for input into a crop production system. A high level of crop performance (food, air, and water production) can be maintained with either processor; selection decisions can be based on other factors regarding system integration.

  3. The Interstellar Production of Biologically Important Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Bernstein, Max P.; Dworkin, Jason; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2000-01-01

    One of the primary tasks of the Astrochemistry Laboratory at Ames Research Center is to use laboratory simulations to study the chemical processes that occur in dense interstellar clouds. Since new stars are formed in these clouds, their materials may be responsible for the delivery of organics to new habitable planets and may play important roles in the origin of life. These clouds are extremely cold (less than 50 kelvin), and most of the volatiles in these clouds are condensed onto dust grains as thin ice mantles. These ices are exposed to cosmic rays and ultraviolet (UV) photons that break chemical bonds and result in the production of complex molecules when the ices are warmed (as they would be when incorporated into a star-forming region). Using cryovacuum systems and UV lamps, this study simulates the conditions of these clouds and studies the resulting chemistry. Some of the areas of progress made in 1999 are described below. It shows some of the types of molecules that may be formed in the interstellar medium. Laboratory simulations have already confirmed that many of these compounds are made under these conditions.

  4. Container productivity, daily survival rates and dispersal of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in a high income dengue epidemic neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro: presumed influence of differential urban structure on mosquito biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rocha David

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Different urban structures might affect the life history parameters of Aedes aegypti and, consequently, dengue transmission. Container productivity, probability of daily survival (PDS and dispersal rates were estimated for mosquito populations in a high income neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro. Results were contrasted with those previously found in a suburban district, as well as those recorded in a slum. After inspecting 1,041 premises, domestic drains and discarded plastic pots were identified as the most productive containers, collectively holding up to 80% of the total pupae. In addition, three cohorts of dust-marked Ae. aegypti females were released and recaptured daily using BGS-Traps, sticky ovitraps and backpack aspirators in 50 randomly selected houses; recapture rate ranged from 5-12.2% within cohorts. PDS was determined by two models and ranged from 0.607-0.704 (exponential model and 0.659-0.721 (non-linear model, respectively. Mean distance travelled varied from 57-122 m, with a maximum dispersal of 263 m. Overall, lower infestation indexes and adult female survival were observed in the high income neighbourhood, suggesting a lower dengue transmission risk in comparison to the suburban area and the slum. Since results show that urban structure can influence mosquito biology, specific control strategies might be used in order to achieve cost-effective Ae. aegypti control.

  5. Container productivity, daily survival rates and dispersal of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in a high income dengue epidemic neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro: presumed influence of differential urban structure on mosquito biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Mariana Rocha; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Freitas, Rafael Maciel de

    2009-09-01

    Different urban structures might affect the life history parameters of Aedes aegypti and, consequently, dengue transmission. Container productivity, probability of daily survival (PDS) and dispersal rates were estimated for mosquito populations in a high income neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro. Results were contrasted with those previously found in a suburban district, as well as those recorded in a slum. After inspecting 1,041 premises, domestic drains and discarded plastic pots were identified as the most productive containers, collectively holding up to 80% of the total pupae. In addition, three cohorts of dust-marked Ae. aegypti females were released and recaptured daily using BGS-Traps, sticky ovitraps and backpack aspirators in 50 randomly selected houses; recapture rate ranged from 5-12.2% within cohorts. PDS was determined by two models and ranged from 0.607-0.704 (exponential model) and 0.659-0.721 (non-linear model), respectively. Mean distance travelled varied from 57-122 m, with a maximum dispersal of 263 m. Overall, lower infestation indexes and adult female survival were observed in the high income neighbourhood, suggesting a lower dengue transmission risk in comparison to the suburban area and the slum. Since results show that urban structure can influence mosquito biology, specific control strategies might be used in order to achieve cost-effective Ae. aegypti control.

  6. Biological hydrogen production measured in batch anaerobic respirometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Bruce E; Oh, Sang-Eun; Kim, In S; Van Ginkel, Steven

    2002-06-01

    The biological production of hydrogen from the fermentation of different substrates was examined in batch tests using heat-shocked mixed cultures with two techniques: an intermittent pressure release method (Owen method) and a continuous gas release method using a bubble measurement device (respirometric method). Under otherwise identical conditions, the respirometric method resulted in the production of 43% more hydrogen gas from glucose than the Owen method. The lower conversion of glucose to hydrogen using the Owen protocol may have been produced by repression of hydrogenase activity from high partial pressures in the gastight bottles, but this could not be proven using a thermodynamic/rate inhibition analysis. In the respirometric method, total pressure in the headspace never exceeded ambient pressure, and hydrogen typically composed as much as 62% of the headspace gas. High conversion efficiencies were consistently obtained with heat-shocked soils taken at different times and those stored for up to a month. Hydrogen gas composition was consistently in the range of 60-64% for glucose-grown cultures during logarithmic growth but declined in stationary cultures. Overall, hydrogen conversion efficiencies for glucose cultures were 23% based on the assumption of a maximum of 4 mol of hydrogen/ mol of glucose. Hydrogen conversion efficiencies were similar for sucrose (23%) and somewhat lower for molasses (15%) but were much lower for lactate (0.50%) and cellulose (0.075%).

  7. Analyzing the high school biology education in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Abdulsalam Dael

    This study evaluated the high school biology education in Yemen based on the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) Developing Biological Literacy (1993). The study used inductive analysis, a type of qualitative research, in which triangulation of six data sources was used to answer the four research questions developed for the study. Twenty-four teachers and 48 students from four high schools in Yemen responded to the questionnaires. The findings of this study indicated that 44% of the BSCS goals suggested for a biology program is included in the biology education program in Yemen. Fifty-one percent of the concepts related to the unifying principles of biology were found in the three Yemeni high school biology textbooks. The high school biology teachers used 33% of instructional strategies and 40% of the assessment methods suggested in the BSCS guide. The majority of teachers and students reported that laboratory activities in the high school biology program are insufficient. However, most of the teachers' and students' responses indicated their interest in integrating environmental issues in biological concepts. Almost all of the teachers and students reported that the high school biology education in Yemen does not allow students to investigate independently or help them develop awareness of social problems related to biology. Four strategic plans were designed to improve the goals and curriculum content of high school biology education, the preparation of biology teachers, the enhancement of content and teaching skills of in-service teachers, and administrative support for facilities, equipment, and supplies for biology classes.

  8. Giant Icebergs and Biological Productivity on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uceda, E.; Fairen, A. G.; Woodworth-Lynas, C.

    2016-12-01

    We have previously presented evidence for furrows, dump structures and chains of craters that we interpret as indication for giant iceberg transport and grounding on very cold oceans on early Mars, both in the northern plains and in the Hellas basin. Structures include: 1. Furrows: The furrows are located in elevated areas or on local topographic highs, particularly on the Hellas basin. We interpret these features in terms of iceberg rafting and grounding. 2. Chains of craters: High-resolution images of Utopia and Isidis Basins reveal chains of crater-like structures several hundred meters wide and 1 to 5 km long. 3. Dump structures: Dark boulder clusters are revealed at large scales by their slightly darker tonality with respect to the surrounding terrain. These clusters have sizes ranging from several hundred meters to 1-2 km. On Earth's oceans, giant icebergs release melting water containing nanoparticulate iron and other micronutrients, which support biological metabolism and growth to the near-coastal euphotic ecosystems, many of which are iron limited. This iron limitation of primary producers has been documented in large regions of the Earth's oceans, most notably in polar areas proximal to significant glacial activity, and is counterbalanced by the substantial enrichment of terrigenous material supplied by icebergs. The biological productivity extends hundreds of kilometres from the giant icebergs, and persists for over one month after the iceberg passes. Here we propose that giant iceberg activity on early Mars could have promoted a similar enhancing of biological productivity on the planet's oceans. The identification of specific biosignatures in icebergs trails on Earth could give clues as to what kind of biosignatures could be expected on the ancient Mars ocean floors, and where to look for them. In particular, assuming that life existed on Mars coeval to glacial activity, enhanced concentrations of organic carbon could be anticipated near giant iceberg

  9. Assessment of biological Hydrogen production processes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, G. D.; Shahavi, M. H.; Neshat, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    Energy crisis created a special attention on renewable energy sources. Among these sources; hydrogen through biological processes is well-known as the most suitable and renewable energy sources. In terms of process yield, hydrogen production from various sources was evaluated. A summary of microorganisms as potential hydrogen producers discussed along with advantages and disadvantages of several bioprocesses. The pathway of photo-synthetic and dark fermentative organisms was discussed. In fact, the active enzymes involved in performance of biological processes for hydrogen generation were identified and their special functionalities were discussed. The influential factors affecting on hydrogen production were known as enzymes assisting liberation specific enzymes such as nitrogenase, hydrogenase and uptake hydrogenase. These enzymes were quite effective in reduction of proton and form active molecular hydrogen. Several types of photosynthetic systems were evaluated with intension of maximum hydrogen productivities. In addition dark fermentative and light intensities on hydrogen productions were evaluated. The hydrogen productivities of efficient hydrogen producing strains were evaluated.

  10. MILK KEFIR: COMPOSITION, MICROBIAL CULTURES, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  11. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Maria R; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir's exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir's microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  12. High power neutron production targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The author describes issues of concern in the design of targets and associated systems for high power neutron production facilities. The facilities include uses for neutron scattering, accelerator driven transmutation, accelerator production of tritium, short pulse spallation sources, and long pulse spallation sources. Each of these applications requires a source with different design needs and consequently different implementation in practise.

  13. Biological removal of cationic fission products from nuclear wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwenya, N; Chirwa, E M N

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear energy is becoming a preferred energy source amidst rising concerns over the impacts of fossil fuel based energy on global warming and climate change. However, the radioactive waste generated during nuclear power generation contains harmful long-lived fission products such as strontium (Sr). In this study, cationic strontium uptake from solution by microbial cultures obtained from mine wastewater is evaluated. A high strontium removal capacity (q(max)) with maximum loading of 444 mg/g biomass was achieved by a mixed sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) culture. Sr removal in SRB was facilitated by cell surface based electrostatic interactions with the formation of weak ionic bonds, as 68% of the adsorbed Sr(2+) was easily desorbed from the biomass in an ion exchange reaction with MgCl₂. To a lesser extent, precipitation reactions were also found to account for the removal of Sr from aqueous solution as about 3% of the sorbed Sr was precipitated due to the presence of chemical ligands while the remainder occurred as an immobile fraction. Further analysis of the Sr-loaded SRB biomass by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) confirmed extracellular Sr(2+) precipitation as a result of chemical interaction. In summary, the obtained results demonstrate the prospects of using biological technologies for the remediation of industrial wastewaters contaminated by fission products.

  14. The structural biology of enzymes involved in natural product glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shanteri; Phillips, George N; Thorson, Jon S

    2012-10-01

    The glycosylation of microbial natural products often dramatically influences the biological and/or pharmacological activities of the parental metabolite. Over the past decade, crystal structures of several enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and attachment of novel sugars found appended to natural products have emerged. In many cases, these studies have paved the way to a better understanding of the corresponding enzyme mechanism of action and have served as a starting point for engineering variant enzymes to facilitate to production of differentially-glycosylated natural products. This review specifically summarizes the structural studies of bacterial enzymes involved in biosynthesis of novel sugar nucleotides.

  15. Biological hydrogen production by moderately thermophilic anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HP Goorissen; AJM Stams [Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University and Research centre Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    This study focuses on the biological production of hydrogen at moderate temperatures (65-75 C) by anaerobic bacteria. A survey was made to select the best (moderate) thermophiles for hydrogen production from cellulolytic biomass. From this survey we selected Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (a gram-positive bacterium) and Thermotoga elfii (a gram-negative bacterium) as potential candidates for biological hydrogen production on mixtures of C{sub 5}-C{sub 6} sugars. Xylose and glucose were used as model substrates to describe growth and hydrogen production from hydrolyzed biomass. Mixed substrate utilization in batch cultures revealed differences in the sequence of substrate consumption and in catabolites repression of the two microorganisms. The regulatory mechanisms of catabolites repression in these microorganisms are not known yet. (authors)

  16. Synthetic biology of avermectin for production improvement and structure diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Ying; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Qi; Cruz-Morales, Pablo; Zhang, Buchang; Liu, Mei; Barona-Gómez, Francisco; Zhang, Lixin

    2014-03-01

    Natural products are still key sources of current clinical drugs and innovative therapeutic agents. Since wild-type microorganisms only produce natural products in very small quantities, yields of production strains need to be improved by breaking down the precise genetic and biochemical circuitry. Herein, we use avermectins as an example of production improvement and chemical structure diversification by synthetic biology. Avermectins are macrocyclic lactones produced by Streptomyces avermitilis and are well known and widely used for antiparasitic therapy. Given the importance of this molecule and its derivatives, many efforts and strategies were employed to improve avermectin production and generate new active analogues. This review describes the current status of synthetic strategies successfully applied for developing natural-product-producing strains and discusses future prospects for the application of enhanced avermectin production. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Technical suitability mapping of feedstocks for biological hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Karaoglanoglou, L.S.; Koullas, D.P.; Bakker, R.R.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to map and compare the technical suitability of different raw materials for biological hydrogen production. Our model was based on hydrogen yield potential, sugar mobilization efficiency, fermentability and coproduct yield and value. The suitability of the studied r

  18. DUACS: Toward High Resolution Sea Level Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugere, Y.; Gerald, D.; Ubelmann, C.; Claire, D.; Pujol, M. I.; Antoine, D.; Desjonqueres, J. D.; Picot, N.

    2016-12-01

    The DUACS system produces, as part of the CNES/SALP project, and the Copernicus Marine Environment and Monitoring Service, high quality multimission altimetry Sea Level products for oceanographic applications, climate forecasting centers, geophysic and biology communities... These products consist in directly usable and easy to manipulate Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (multiple sensors merged as maps or time series) and are available in global and regional version (Mediterranean Sea, Arctic, European Shelves …).The quality of the products is today limited by the altimeter technology "Low Resolution Mode" (LRM), and the lack of available observations. The launch of 2 new satellites in 2016, Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A, opens new perspectives. Using the global Synthetic Aperture Radar mode (SARM) coverage of S3A and optimizing the LRM altimeter processing (retracking, editing, ...) will allow us to fully exploit the fine-scale content of the altimetric missions. Thanks to this increase of real time altimetry observations we will also be able to improve Level-4 products by combining these new Level-3 products and new mapping methodology, such as dynamic interpolation. Finally these improvements will benefit to downstream products : geostrophic currents, Lagrangian products, eddy atlas… Overcoming all these challenges will provide major upgrades of Sea Level products to better fulfill user needs.

  19. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.2 Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products...

  20. Reinvigorating natural product combinatorial biosynthesis with synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Moore, Bradley S; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2015-09-01

    Natural products continue to play a pivotal role in drug-discovery efforts and in the understanding if human health. The ability to extend nature's chemistry through combinatorial biosynthesis--altering functional groups, regiochemistry and scaffold backbones through the manipulation of biosynthetic enzymes--offers unique opportunities to create natural product analogs. Incorporating emerging synthetic biology techniques has the potential to further accelerate the refinement of combinatorial biosynthesis as a robust platform for the diversification of natural chemical drug leads. Two decades after the field originated, we discuss the current limitations, the realities and the state of the art of combinatorial biosynthesis, including the engineering of substrate specificity of biosynthetic enzymes and the development of heterologous expression systems for biosynthetic pathways. We also propose a new perspective for the combinatorial biosynthesis of natural products that could reinvigorate drug discovery by using synthetic biology in combination with synthetic chemistry.

  1. Container productivity, daily survival rates and dispersal of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in a high income dengue epidemic neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro: presumed influence of differential urban structure on mosquito biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David, Mariana Rocha; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; de Freitas, Rafael Maciel

    2009-01-01

    ... and, consequently, dengue transmission. Container productivity, probability of daily survival (PDS) and dispersal rates were estimated for mosquito populations in a high income neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro...

  2. Biological effects of high LET radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masami [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1997-03-01

    Biological effect of radiation is different by a kind of it greatly. Heavy ions were generally more effective in cell inactivation, chromosome aberration induction, mutation induction and neoplastic cell transformation induction than {gamma}-rays in SHE cells. (author)

  3. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Erika A; Gademann, Karl

    2016-03-14

    Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody-drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products.

  4. 78 FR 78796 - Supplemental Applications Proposing Labeling Changes for Approved Drugs and Biological Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Applications Proposing Labeling Changes for Approved Drugs and Biological Products; Correction and Extension of... holders of an approved drug or biological product to change the product labeling to reflect certain types... biological product to change the product labeling to reflect certain types of newly acquired information...

  5. A first attempt to bring computational biology into advanced high school biology classrooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Renick Gallagher

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer science has become ubiquitous in many areas of biological research, yet most high school and even college students are unaware of this. As a result, many college biology majors graduate without adequate computational skills for contemporary fields of biology. The absence of a computational element in secondary school biology classrooms is of growing concern to the computational biology community and biology teachers who would like to acquaint their students with updated approaches in the discipline. We present a first attempt to correct this absence by introducing a computational biology element to teach genetic evolution into advanced biology classes in two local high schools. Our primary goal was to show students how computation is used in biology and why a basic understanding of computation is necessary for research in many fields of biology. This curriculum is intended to be taught by a computational biologist who has worked with a high school advanced biology teacher to adapt the unit for his/her classroom, but a motivated high school teacher comfortable with mathematics and computing may be able to teach this alone. In this paper, we present our curriculum, which takes into consideration the constraints of the required curriculum, and discuss our experiences teaching it. We describe the successes and challenges we encountered while bringing this unit to high school students, discuss how we addressed these challenges, and make suggestions for future versions of this curriculum.We believe that our curriculum can be a valuable seed for further development of computational activities aimed at high school biology students. Further, our experiences may be of value to others teaching computational biology at this level. Our curriculum can be obtained at http://ecsite.cs.colorado.edu/?page_id=149#biology or by contacting the authors.

  6. A first attempt to bring computational biology into advanced high school biology classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Suzanne Renick; Coon, William; Donley, Kristin; Scott, Abby; Goldberg, Debra S

    2011-10-01

    Computer science has become ubiquitous in many areas of biological research, yet most high school and even college students are unaware of this. As a result, many college biology majors graduate without adequate computational skills for contemporary fields of biology. The absence of a computational element in secondary school biology classrooms is of growing concern to the computational biology community and biology teachers who would like to acquaint their students with updated approaches in the discipline. We present a first attempt to correct this absence by introducing a computational biology element to teach genetic evolution into advanced biology classes in two local high schools. Our primary goal was to show students how computation is used in biology and why a basic understanding of computation is necessary for research in many fields of biology. This curriculum is intended to be taught by a computational biologist who has worked with a high school advanced biology teacher to adapt the unit for his/her classroom, but a motivated high school teacher comfortable with mathematics and computing may be able to teach this alone. In this paper, we present our curriculum, which takes into consideration the constraints of the required curriculum, and discuss our experiences teaching it. We describe the successes and challenges we encountered while bringing this unit to high school students, discuss how we addressed these challenges, and make suggestions for future versions of this curriculum.We believe that our curriculum can be a valuable seed for further development of computational activities aimed at high school biology students. Further, our experiences may be of value to others teaching computational biology at this level. Our curriculum can be obtained at http://ecsite.cs.colorado.edu/?page_id=149#biology or by contacting the authors.

  7. Systems biology approaches to understand natural products biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuauhtemoc eLicona-Cassani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes populate soils and aquatic sediments which impose biotic and abiotic challenges for their survival. As a result, actinomycetes metabolism and genomes have evolved to produce an overwhelming diversity of specialized molecules. Polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, post-translationally modified peptides, lactams and terpenes are well known bioactive natural products with enormous industrial potential. Accessing such biological diversity has proven difficult due to the complex regulation of cellular metabolism in actinomycetes and to the sparse knowledge of their physiology. The past decade, however, has seen the development of omics technologies that have significantly contributed to our better understanding of their biology. Key observations have contributed towards a shift in the exploitation of actinomycetes biology, such as using their full genomic potential, activating entire pathways through key metabolic elicitors and pathway engineering to improve biosynthesis. Here, we review recent efforts devoted to achieving enhanced discovery, activation and manipulation of natural product biosynthetic pathways in model actinomycetes using genome-scale biological datasets.

  8. High resolution IVEM tomography of biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedat, J.W.; Agard, D.A. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Electron tomography is a powerful tool for elucidating the three-dimensional architecture of large biological complexes and subcellular organelles. The introduction of intermediate voltage electron microscopes further extended the technique by providing the means to examine very large and non-symmetrical subcellular organelles, at resolutions beyond what would be possible using light microscopy. Recent studies using electron tomography on a variety of cellular organelles and assemblies such as centrosomes, kinetochores, and chromatin have clearly demonstrated the power of this technique for obtaining 3D structural information on non-symmetric cell components. When combined with biochemical and molecular observations, these 3D reconstructions have provided significant new insights into biological function.

  9. 21 CFR 600.14 - Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of biological product deviations by... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.14 Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers. (a) Who must report...

  10. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  11. 75 FR 33312 - Indexing Structured Product Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Indexing Structured Product Labeling for Human Prescription... Evaluation and Research (CDER) and Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) are indexing certain... class as a top priority for indexing of product labeling information. FDA is now announcing that...

  12. Biological treatment of chicken feather waste for improved biogas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gergely Forgács; Saeid Alinezhad; Amir Mirabdollah; Elisabeth Feuk-Lagerstedt; Ilona Sárvári Horwáth

    2011-01-01

    A two-stage system was developed which combines the biological degradation of keratin-rich waste with the production of biogas.Chicken feather waste was treated biologically with a recombinant Bacillus megaterium strain showing keratinase activity prior to biogas production.Chopped,autoclaved chicken feathers (4%,W/V) were completely degraded,resulting in a yellowish fermentation broth with a level of 0.51 mg/mL soluble proteins after 8 days of cultivation of the recombinant strain.During the subsequent anaerobic batch digestion experiments,methane production of 0.35 Nm3/kg dry feathers (i.e.,0.4 Nm3/kg volatile solids of feathers),corresponding to 80% of the theoretical value on proteins,was achieved from the feather hydrolyzates,independently of the prehydrolysis time period of 1,2 or 8 days.Cultivation with a native keratinase producing strain,Bacillus licheniformis resulted in only 0.25 mg/mL soluble proteins in the feather hydrolyzate,which then was digested achieving a maximum accumulated methane production of 0.31 Nm3/kg dry feathers.Feather hydrolyzates treated with the wild type B.megaterium produced 0.21 Nm3 CH4/kg dry feathers as maximum yield.

  13. 76 FR 79203 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Veterinary Biological Products for Swine Influenza Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Biological Products for Swine Influenza Vaccines AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service... methods of use as Veterinary Influenza Vaccines. Sustained outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza in animals increase the risk of reassortment and adaption to humans. This technology describes DNA vaccines...

  14. Nutrient availability limits biological production in Arctic sea ice melt ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heidi Louise; Thamdrup, Bo; Jeppesen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Every spring and summer melt ponds form at the surface of polar sea ice and become habitats where biological production may take place. Previous studies report a large variability in the productivity, but the causes are unknown. We investigated if nutrients limit the productivity in these first......-year ice melt ponds by adding nutrients to three enclosures ([1] PO4 3−, [2] NO3 −, and [3] PO4 3− and NO3 −) and one natural melt pond (PO4 3− and NO3−), while one enclosure and one natural melt pond acted as controls. After 7–13 days, Chl a concentrations and cumulative primary production were between...... nutrient limitation in melt ponds. We also document that the addition of nutrients, although at relative high concentrations, can stimulate biological productivity at several trophic levels. Given the projected increase in first-year ice, increased melt pond coverage during the Arctic spring and potential...

  15. Sustainable high productivity electric steelmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfel, J.

    2005-06-01

    Badische Stahlwerke (BSW) operates a high productivity steelshop with two 90 t ac arc furnaces that produced 1.97 Mt billet in 2004, coupled with a wire rod and a bar mill. The company has evolved an integrated environmental protection strategy to fulfil the objective of economic operation while complying with legal emissions requirements and adapting an active approach to environmental issues more broadly. (author)

  16. 9 CFR 113.29 - Determination of moisture content in desiccated biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... desiccated biological products. 113.29 Section 113.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... biological products. Methods provided in this section must be used when a determination of moisture content in desiccated biological products is prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the...

  17. 9 CFR 105.3 - Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., dangerous, or harmful biological products. 105.3 Section 105.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological products. (a) If at any time it...-Serum-Toxin Act, of any biological product by any person holding a license or permit may be dangerous...

  18. Application of synthetic biology for production of chemicals in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Li, Mingji

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering enable generation of novel cell factories that efficiently convert renewable feedstocks into biofuels, bulk, and fine chemicals, thus creating the basis for biosustainable economy independent on fossil resources. While over a hundred proof...... biology has the potential to bring down this cost by improving our ability to predictably engineer biological systems. This review highlights synthetic biology applications for design, assembly, and optimization of non-native biochemical pathways in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We describe......-of-concept chemicals have been made in yeast, only a very small fraction of those has reached commercial-scale production so far. The limiting factor is the high research cost associated with the development of a robust cell factory that can produce the desired chemical at high titer, rate, and yield. Synthetic...

  19. New opportunities by synthetic biology for biopharmaceutical production in Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Thomas; Hartner, Franz S; Glieder, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals are an integral part of modern medicine and pharmacy. Both, the development and the biotechnological production of biopharmaceuticals are highly cost-intensive and require suitable expression systems. In this review we discuss established and emerging tools for reengineering the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris for biopharmaceutical production. Recent advancements of this industrial expression system through synthetic biology include synthetic promoters to avoid methanol induction and to fine-tune protein production. New platform strains and molecular cloning tools as well as in vivo glycoengineering to produce humanized glycoforms have made P. pastoris an important host for biopharmaceutical production. PMID:23522654

  20. Assessment of nitrogen and sulphur cycle bacteria and shrimp production in ponds treated with biological products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham; Shubhadeep Ghosh; Debasis Sasmal

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the influence of biological products on the levels of nitrogen and sulphur cycle bacteria in shrimp culture systems of West Bengal, India. Methods: The pond water and sediment samples were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters as per standard methods. The bacteria involved in ammonification, nitrification, denitrification, sulphate reduction and sulphur oxidation were enumerated by most probable number technique. Results:The semi-intensive and modified extensive shrimp farms used a variety of biological products during various stages of production. No biological products were used in traditional farms. The water and sediment samples of modified extensive system recorded significantly higher mean heterotrophic bacterial counts. The counts of ammonia, nitrite and sulphur oxidizers, and nitrate and sulphate reducers varied among the systems. The cycling of nitrogen and sulphur appeared to be affected with the intensification of culture practices. Conclusions:The application of biological products in certain systems helped to maintain the bacteria involved in nitrogen and sulphur cycles and safe levels of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate. An assessment of these metabolically active bacteria in shrimp culture ponds and the application of right kind microbial products would help ameliorate the organic pollution in shrimp aquaculture.

  1. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil is one of the major Mediterranean products, whose nutritional and economic importance is well-known. However the extraction of olive oil yields a highly contaminating residue that causes serious environmental concerns in the olive oil producing countries. The olive cake (OC) coming out...... of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars...

  2. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, D.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brzezinski, M.A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Marine Biotechnology Center

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide {sup 32}Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of {sup 32}Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of {sup 32}Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms.

  3. Current studies on physiological functions and biological production of lactosucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wanmeng; Chen, Qiuming; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo

    2013-08-01

    Lactosucrose (O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1,4)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-β-D-fructofuranoside) is a trisaccharide formed from lactose and sucrose by enzymatic transglycosylation. This rare trisaccharide is a kind of indigestible carbohydrate, has good prebiotic effect, and promotes intestinal mineral absorption. It has been used as a functional ingredient in a range of food products which are approved as foods for specified health uses in Japan. Using lactose and sucrose as substrates, lactosucrose can be produced through transfructosylation by β-fructofuranosidase from Arthrobacter sp. K-1 or a range of levansucrases, or through transgalactosylation by β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans. This article presented a review of recent studies on the physiological functions of lactosucrose and the biological production from lactose and sucrose by different enzymes.

  4. Development of biological platform for the autotrophic production of biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nymul

    The research described herein is aimed at developing an advanced biofuel platform that has the potential to surpass the natural rate of solar energy capture and CO2 fixation. The underlying concept is to use the electricity from a renewable source, such as wind or solar, to capture CO 2 via a biological agent, such as a microbe, into liquid fuels that can be used for the transportation sector. In addition to being renewable, the higher rate of energy capture by photovoltaic cells than natural photosynthesis is expected to facilitate higher rate of liquid fuel production than traditional biofuel processes. The envisioned platform is part of ARPA-E's (Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy) Electrofuels initiative which aims at supplementing the country's petroleum based fuel production with renewable liquid fuels that can integrate easily with the existing refining and distribution infrastructure (http://arpae. energy.gov/ProgramsProjects/Electrofuels.aspx). The Electrofuels initiative aimed to develop liquid biofuels that avoid the issues encountered in the current generation of biofuels: (1) the reliance of biomass-derived technologies on the inefficient process of photosynthesis, (2) the relatively energy- and resource-intensive nature of agronomic processes, and (3) the occupation of large areas of arable land for feedstock production. The process proceeds by the capture of solar energy into electrical energy via photovoltaic cells, using the generated electricity to split water into molecular hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2), and feeding these gases, along with carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from point sources such as a biomass or coal-fired power plant, to a microbial bioprocessing platform. The proposed microbial bioprocessing platform leverages a chemolithoautotrophic microorganism (Rhodobacter capsulatus or Ralstonia eutropha) naturally able to utilize these gases as growth substrates, and genetically modified to produce a triterpene hydrocarbon fuel

  5. Biological Constraints in Tomato Production in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum production is handicapped by damage due to pests and pathogens. Farmers' fields in the western highlands of Cameroon were surveyed during 1993 to 1996 to identify biological constraints in production. Diseases and insect pests are the most important biological limitations in tomato production. Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans and early blight caused by Alternaria solani are the most severe diseases, while the melon fruitfly (Dacus cucurbitae is the most prevalent insect pest. Yield losses due to pest damage are high and reach 100 % when the crop is not treated in the wet season. Pest-resistant varieties are not available to farmers. Consequently, growers practise intensive pesticidal spray programmes to limit losses caused by pests and diseases. Results indicate the necessity for the adoption of integrated pest management strategies in tomato production in Cameroon.

  6. 37 CFR 1.779 - Calculation of patent term extension for a veterinary biological product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extension for a veterinary biological product. 1.779 Section 1.779 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a veterinary biological product. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a veterinary biological product is eligible for extension, the...

  7. 77 FR 30887 - Amendments to Sterility Test Requirements for Biological Products; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Test Requirements for Biological Products; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... manufacturers of biological products greater flexibility, as appropriate, and encourages use of the most appropriate and state-of-the-art test methods for assuring the safety of biological products. The rule...

  8. 21 CFR 601.26 - Reclassification procedures to determine that licensed biological products are safe, effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... licensed biological products are safe, effective, and not misbranded under prescribed, recommended, or... Reclassification procedures to determine that licensed biological products are safe, effective, and not misbranded... for the reclassification of all biological products that have been classified into Category IIIA....

  9. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Indonesia Junior High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Bor-Chen; Daud, Muslem; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a curriculum-based multidimensional computerized adaptive test that was developed for Indonesia junior high school Biology. In adherence to the Indonesian curriculum of different Biology dimensions, 300 items was constructed, and then tested to 2238 students. A multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model was…

  10. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Indonesia Junior High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Bor-Chen; Daud, Muslem; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a curriculum-based multidimensional computerized adaptive test that was developed for Indonesia junior high school Biology. In adherence to the Indonesian curriculum of different Biology dimensions, 300 items was constructed, and then tested to 2238 students. A multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model was…

  11. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha Sankar, P C; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M J

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product.

  12. Sustainable Production Process of Biological Mineral Feed Additives

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Zielinska; Katarzyna Chojnacka; Marjana Simonic

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study discussed the problem of accumulation of Zn and Cu in the topsoil as a result of application of mineral feed additives that possess low bioavailability in animal diet. The review considered the production process of mineral feed additives in which a product supplies microelements in highly bioavailable form. Enrichment of natural biomass of edible microalgae with microelement metal ions, which supply microelements of feeding significance in livestock diet, is con...

  13. High school and college biology: A multi-level model of the effects of high school biology courses on student academic performance in introductory college biology courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, John Francis

    The issue of student preparation for college study in science has been an ongoing concern for both college-bound students and educators of various levels. This study uses a national sample of college students enrolled in introductory biology courses to address the relationship between high school biology preparation and subsequent introductory college biology performance. Multi-Level Modeling was used to investigate the relationship between students' high school science and mathematics experiences and college biology performance. This analysis controls for student demographic and educational background factors along with factors associated with the college or university attended. The results indicated that high school course-taking and science instructional experiences have the largest impact on student achievement in the first introductory college biology course. In particular, enrollment in courses, such as high school Calculus and Advanced Placement (AP) Biology, along with biology course content that focuses on developing a deep understanding of the topics is found to be positively associated with student achievement in introductory college biology. On the other hand, experiencing high numbers of laboratory activities, demonstrations, and independent projects along with higher levels of laboratory freedom are associated with negative achievement. These findings are relevant to high school biology teachers, college students, their parents, and educators looking beyond the goal of high school graduation.

  14. Biologically inspired highly efficient buoyancy engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akle, Barbar; Habchi, Wassim; Abdelnour, Rita; Blottman, John, III; Leo, Donald

    2012-04-01

    Undersea distributed networked sensor systems require a miniaturization of platforms and a means of both spatial and temporal persistence. One aspect of this system is the necessity to modulate sensor depth for optimal positioning and station-keeping. Current approaches involve pneumatic bladders or electrolysis; both require mechanical subsystems and consume significant power. These are not suitable for the miniaturization of sensor platforms. Presented in this study is a novel biologically inspired method that relies on ionic motion and osmotic pressures to displace a volume of water from the ocean into and out of the proposed buoyancy engine. At a constant device volume, the displaced water will alter buoyancy leading to either sinking or floating. The engine is composed of an enclosure sided on the ocean's end by a Nafion ionomer and by a flexible membrane separating the water from a gas enclosure. Two electrodes are placed one inside the enclosure and the other attached to the engine on the outside. The semi-permeable membrane Nafion allows water motion in and out of the enclosure while blocking anions from being transferred. The two electrodes generate local concentration changes of ions upon the application of an electrical field; these changes lead to osmotic pressures and hence the transfer of water through the semi-permeable membrane. Some aquatic organisms such as pelagic crustacean perform this buoyancy control using an exchange of ions through their tissue to modulate its density relative to the ambient sea water. In this paper, the authors provide an experimental proof of concept of this buoyancy engine. The efficiency of changing the engine's buoyancy is calculated and optimized as a function of electrode surface area. For example electrodes made of a 3mm diameter Ag/AgCl proved to transfer approximately 4mm3 of water consuming 4 Joules of electrical energy. The speed of displacement is optimized as a function of the surface area of the Nafion

  15. Nematodes: Model Organisms in High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, TJ; Anderson, Margery; Dillman, Adler; Yourick, Debra; Jett, Marti; Adams, Byron J.; Russell, RevaBeth

    2007-01-01

    In a collaborative effort between university researchers and high school science teachers, an inquiry-based laboratory module was designed using two species of insecticidal nematodes to help students apply scientific inquiry and elements of thoughtful experimental design. The learning experience and model are described in this article. (Contains 4…

  16. High Resolution Screening of biologically active compounds and metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, J.

    2007-01-01

    High Resolution Screening of biologically active compounds and metabolites Jeroen Kool Biotransformation enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. Usually, the detoxication of these compounds by biotransformation enzymes results in harmless metab

  17. Biological production of ethanol from coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the ``wild strain`` produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  18. Inferential literacy for experimental high-throughput biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Mathieu; Nadon, Robert

    2006-02-01

    Many biologists believe that data analysis expertise lags behind the capacity for producing high-throughput data. One view within the bioinformatics community is that biological scientists need to develop algorithmic skills to meet the demands of the new technologies. In this article, we argue that the broader concept of inferential literacy, which includes understanding of data characteristics, experimental design and statistical analysis, in addition to computation, more adequately encompasses what is needed for efficient progress in high-throughput biology.

  19. Biodiesel and Integrated STEM: Vertical Alignment of High School Biology/Biochemistry and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Andrea C.; Breiner, Jonathan M.; Keiner, Jennifer; Behm, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the vertical alignment of two high school classes, biology and chemistry, around the core concept of biodiesel fuel production. High school teachers and university faculty members investigated biodiesel as it relates to societal impact through a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Teachers. Using an action…

  20. Biological risks associated with consumption of reptile products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnino, S.; Colin, P.; Dei-Cas, E.

    2009-01-01

    recently increased in some areas of the world. Biological risks associated with the consumption of products from both farmed and wild reptile meat and eggs include infections caused by bacteria (Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp.). parasites (Spirometra, Trichinella, Gnathostoma, pentastomids), as well...... from other edible reptilians, though captive reptiles used as pets (lizards or turtles) are frequently carriers of these bacteria in Europe. Parasitic protozoa in reptiles represent a negligible risk for public health compared to parasitic metazoans, of which trichinellosis, pentastomiasis......, gnathostomiasis and sparganosis can be acquired through consumption of contaminated crocodile, monitor lizard, turtle and snake meat. respectively. Other reptiles. although found to harbour the above parasites. have not been implicated with their transmission to humans. Freezing treatment inactivates Spirometra...

  1. Systems-Level Synthetic Biology for Advanced Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Travis J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strickland, Lucas Marshall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meserole, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tallant, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have been shown to be capable of producing a variety of advanced biofuels; however, product yields remain well below those necessary for large scale production. New genetic tools and high throughput metabolic engineering techniques are needed to optimize cyanobacterial metabolisms for enhanced biofuel production. Towards this goal, this project advances the development of a multiple promoter replacement technique for systems-level optimization of gene expression in a model cyanobacterial host: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. To realize this multiple-target approach, key capabilities were developed, including a high throughput detection method for advanced biofuels, enhanced transformation efficiency, and genetic tools for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Moreover, several additional obstacles were identified for realization of this multiple promoter replacement technique. The techniques and tools developed in this project will help to enable future efforts in the advancement of cyanobacterial biofuels.

  2. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil is one of the major Mediterranean products, whose nutritional and economic importance is well-known. However the extraction of olive oil yields a highly contaminating residue that causes serious environmental concerns in the olive oil producing countries. The olive cake (OC) coming out...... of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars...... before ethanol fermentation. Treatment with three white rot fungi, Phaneroachaete chrysosporium, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Ceriolopsis polyzona has been applied on olive cake in order to investigate the potential for performing delignification and thus enhancing the efficiency of the subsequent...

  3. 77 FR 47397 - Request for Nominations of Specific Drug/Biologic Product(s) That Could Be Brought Before the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Request for Nominations of Specific Drug/Biologic Product(s... invites the public to suggest one or more specific drug or biologic products that could be brought before... Drugs Advisory Committee AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; request for...

  4. 78 FR 67985 - Supplemental Applications Proposing Labeling Changes for Approved Drugs and Biological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... RLD throughout the lifecycle of the generic drug product (see Sec. 314.150(b)(10) (21 CFR 314.150(b... Applications Proposing Labeling Changes for Approved Drugs and Biological Products AGENCY: Food and Drug... drug or biological product to change the product labeling to reflect certain types of newly acquired...

  5. 9 CFR 112.9 - Biological products imported for research and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological products imported for research and evaluation. 112.9 Section 112.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.9 Biological products imported for research and evaluation. A...

  6. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha Sankar, P.C.; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M.J., E-mail: rosemarymj@lifecarehll.com

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. - Highlights: • Different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.2 g–0.4 g/napkin) were added to cellulose pulp. • The silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp was proved to be antibacterial by JIS L 1902 method. • The minimum concentration of silver required for antibacterial activity with no cytotoxicity has been found out. • In-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the material.

  7. MANAGING HIGH-END, HIGH-VOLUME INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gembong Baskoro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuses the concept of managing high-end, high-volume innovative products. High-end, high-volume consumer products are products that have considerable influence to the way of life. Characteristic of High-end, high-volume consumer products are (1 short cycle time, (2 quick obsolete time, and (3 rapid price erosion. Beside the disadvantages that they are high risk for manufacturers, if manufacturers are able to understand precisely the consumer needs then they have the potential benefit or success to be the market leader. High innovation implies to high utilization of the user, therefore these products can influence indirectly to the way of people life. The objective of managing them is to achieve sustainability of the products development and innovation. This paper observes the behavior of these products in companies operated in high-end, high-volume consumer product.

  8. Synoptic events force biological productivity in Patagonian fjord ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneri, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The annual cycle of primary productivity of the Patagonian fjords has, to date, been described as a two phase system consisting of a short non productive winter phase (during June and July) and a productive phase extending from late winter (August) to autumn (May). Low levels of primary production, phytoplankton biomass and high concentrations of surface nutrients have been described as characterizing winter conditions while pulsed productivity events typifies the productivity pattern during the extended productive season. Pulsed productivity events characterize coastal waters where inorganic nutrients in surface layers are replenished following periods of intensive utilization by autotrophs. Freshwater input in Patagonian fjords in southern Chile (41-55°S) results in one of the largest estuarine regions worldwide. Here strong haline water column stratification prevents nutrient mixing to the surface layers thus potentially shutting off algal production. Our working hypothesis considered that in order to reconcile the observed pulsed productivity pattern, periodic breaking (associated to surface nutrient replenishment) and re-establishment of estuarine conditions (associated to water column stratification) would be required. Up to now however our understanding of the physical processes that control water column conditions in the Patagonian fjord area has been extremely limited. Here we present evidence linking the passage of synoptic low pressure fronts to pulsed productivity events in the Patagonian fjord area. These front controls and influence local processes of interaction between the fjord and the atmosphere generating a rapid water column response. In the specific case of the Puyuhuapi fjord we have been able to show that such synoptic fronts induce surface flow reversal and water column mixing. Phytoplankton blooming occurs after the passage of the synoptic front once calmer conditions prevail and estuarine conditions are re established. The occurrence of

  9. 77 FR 3780 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological..., Parasitic and Allergenic Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation...

  10. 76 FR 13646 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological... Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA. In the...

  11. 76 FR 52668 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... Administration (FDA) is announcing an amendment to the notice of meeting of the Vaccines and Related Biological... announced that a meeting of the Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee would be held on...

  12. 78 FR 20663 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological... DNA Viruses, Division of Viral Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics...

  13. 9 CFR 118.3 - Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of detained biological... VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION § 118.3 Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention. Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, no biological...

  14. Competency development in antibody production in cancer cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, M.S.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective of this project was to develop a rapid recombinant antibody production technology. To achieve the objective, the authors employed (1) production of recombinant antigens that are important for cell cycle regulation and DNA repair, (2) immunization and specific selection of antibody-producing lymphocytes using the flow cytometry and magnetic bead capturing procedure, (3) construction of single chain antibody library, (4) development of recombinant vectors that target, express, and regulate the expression of intracellular antibodies, and (5) specific inhibition of tumor cell growth in tissue culture. The authors have accomplished (1) optimization of a selection procedure to isolate antigen-specific lymphocytes, (2) optimization of the construction of a single-chain antibody library, and (3) development of a new antibody expression vector for intracellular immunization. The future direction of this research is to continue to test the potential use of the intracellular immunization procedure as a tool to study functions of biological molecules and as an immuno-cancer therapy procedure to inhibit the growth of cancer cells.

  15. Strategies for optimizing algal biology for enhanced biomass production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda N. Barry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the more environmentally sustainable ways to produce high energy density (oils feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS has also been proposed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials for biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass. To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. These strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to two-fold increases in biomass productivity.

  16. Presence and biological activity of antibiotics used in fuel ethanol and corn co-product production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compart, D M Paulus; Carlson, A M; Crawford, G I; Fink, R C; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Dicostanzo, A; Shurson, G C

    2013-05-01

    Antibiotics are used in ethanol production to control bacteria from competing with yeast for nutrients during starch fermentation. However, there is no published scientific information on whether antibiotic residues are present in distillers grains (DG), co-products from ethanol production, or whether they retain their biological activity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to quantify concentrations of various antibiotic residues in DG and determine whether residues were biologically active. Twenty distillers wet grains and 20 distillers dried grains samples were collected quarterly from 9 states and 43 ethanol plants in the United States. Samples were analyzed for DM, CP, NDF, crude fat, S, P, and pH to describe the nutritional characteristics of the samples evaluated. Samples were also analyzed for the presence of erythromycin, penicillin G, tetracycline, tylosin, and virginiamycin M1, using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Additionally, virginiamycin residues were determined, using a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved bioassay method. Samples were extracted and further analyzed for biological activity by exposing the sample extracts to 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/mL concentrations of sentinel bacterial strains Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Extracts that inhibited bacterial growth were considered to have biological activity. Physiochemical characteristics varied among samples but were consistent with previous findings. Thirteen percent of all samples contained low (≤1.12 mg/kg) antibiotic concentrations. Only 1 sample extract inhibited growth of Escherichia coli at 10(4) CFU/mL, but this sample contained no detectable concentrations of antibiotic residues. No extracts inhibited Listeria monocytogenes growth. These data indicate that the likelihood of detectable concentrations of antibiotic residues in DG is low; and if detected, they are found in very low concentrations. The inhibition in only 1 DG

  17. Sustainable Production Process of Biological Mineral Feed Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zielinska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study discussed the problem of accumulation of Zn and Cu in the topsoil as a result of application of mineral feed additives that possess low bioavailability in animal diet. The review considered the production process of mineral feed additives in which a product supplies microelements in highly bioavailable form. Enrichment of natural biomass of edible microalgae with microelement metal ions, which supply microelements of feeding significance in livestock diet, is considered in term of sustainable production. Approach: Production of microalgae-derived products as mineral feed additives requires elaboration of the processes for cultivation of alga, enrichment process and afterwards recovery of the enriched biomass from the solution to obtain liquid free of cells that could be reused in the next process. In this study membrane bioreactor was considered as a method for separation, both in photobioreactor (growth of microorganism as well as in the enrichment process. Results: Effort involved in thermal and chemical separation techniques is higher than that in mechanical techniques. Membrane bioreactors which are usually applied to treat wastewater, both industrial and domestic. This study discussed method to separate a valuable biomass of enriched microalgae and reuse the solution with residual metal ions that can be used once again in the subsequent biosorption process. Conclusion/Recommendation: Taking into consideration care about the environment it is better to apply membrane modules in the production process in terms of sustainable production. The proposed solution assumed the application of membrane modules as a separation step after enrichment process and biomass recovery.

  18. Characterization of persistent colors and decolorization of effluent from biologically treated cellulosic ethanol production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lili; Liu, Junfeng; Yu, Yanling; Ambuchi, John J; Feng, Yujie

    2016-05-01

    The high chroma of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater poses a serious environmental concern; however, color-causing compounds are still not fully clear. The characteristics of the color compounds and decolorization of biologically treated effluent by electro-catalytic oxidation were investigated in this study. Excitation-emission matrix (EEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), UV-Vis spectra, and ultrafiltration (UF) fractionation were used to analyze color compounds. High chroma of wastewater largely comes from humic materials, which exhibited great fluorescence proportion (67.1 %) in the biologically treated effluent. Additionally, the color compounds were mainly distributed in the molecular weight fractions with 3-10 and 10-30 kDa, which contributed 53.5 and 34.6 % of the wastewater color, respectively. Further decolorization of biologically treated effluent by electro-catalytic oxidation was investigated, and 98.3 % of color removal accompanied with 97.3 % reduction of humic acid-like matter was achieved after 180 min. The results presented herein will facilitate the development of a well decolorization for cellulosic ethanol production wastewater and better understanding of the biological fermentation.

  19. Downstream process for production of a viable and stable Bacillus cereus aquaculture biological agent

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lalloo, R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available reticulated 56aquaculture due to dwindling natural reserves, we devel- 57oped a novel downstream process for our Bacillus cereus 58(NRRL 100132) biological agent which resulted in a spore 59product suitable for aquaculture application, by minimising 60the...; Setlow and Setlow 1995). High 450recovery in drying could also be attributed to adhesion of B. Fig. 3 Viability of product intermediates a spore concentrate and b powder blend at different temperatures Appl Microbiol Biotechnol JrnlID 253_Art...

  20. Student Acquisition of Biological Evolution-Related Misconceptions: The Role of Public High School Introductory Biology Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Tony Brett

    2011-01-01

    In order to eliminate student misconceptions concerning biological evolution, it is important to identify their sources. The purposes of this study were to: (a) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma public high school Biology I teachers; (b) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma…

  1. Biological production, export efficiency, and phytoplankton communities across 8000 km of the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, E. M.; Durkin, C. A.; Hennon, G. M. M.; Ribalet, F.; Stanley, R. H. R.

    2017-07-01

    In situ oxygen tracers (triple oxygen isotope and oxygen/argon ratios) were used to evaluate meridional trends in surface biological production and export efficiency across 8000 km of the tropical and subtropical South Atlantic in March-May 2013. We used observations of picophytoplankton, nanophytoplankton, and microphytoplankton to evaluate community structure and diversity and assessed the relationships of these characteristics with production, export efficiency, and particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes. Rates of productivity were relatively uniform along most of the transect with net community production (NCP) between 0 and 10 mmol O2 m-2 d-1, gross primary production (GPP) between 40 and 100 mmol O2 m-2 d-1, and NCP/GPP, a measure of export efficiency, ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 (0.05-0.1 in carbon units). However, notable exceptions to this basin-scale homogeneity included two locations with highly enhanced NCP and export efficiency compared to surrounding regions. Export of POC and particulate nitrogen, derived from sediment traps, correlated with GPP across the transect, over which the surface community was dominated numerically by picophytoplankton. NCP, however, did not correlate with POC flux; the mean difference between NCP and POC flux was similar to published estimates of dissolved organic carbon export from the surface ocean. The interrelated rates of production presented in this work contribute to the understanding, building on the framework of better-studied ocean basins, of how carbon is biologically transported between the atmosphere and the deep ocean.

  2. Milk proteins-derived bioactive peptides in dairy products: molecular, biological and methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Dziuba

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are one of the primary components of the food, both in terms of nutrition and function. They are main source of amino acids, essential for synthesis of proteins, and also source of energy. Additionally, many proteins exhibit specifi c biological activities, which may have effect on functional or pro-health properties of food products. These proteins and their hydrolysis products, peptides, may infl uence the properties of food and human organism. The number of commercially available food products containing bioactive peptides is very low, apart from that milk proteins are their rich source. It could be supposed that number of available products with declared activity will rise in near future because of observed strong uptrend on interest in such products. Molecular and biological properties of milk proteins, as precursors of bioactive peptides was characterised in the work. Therefore, the strategy of research and obtaining of such peptides both in laboratory and industrial scale, as well as the range of their commercial application, was presented. Several examples of research efforts presenting high potential to develop new products containing bioactive peptides from milk proteins and predetermined as nutraceuticals was described.

  3. Milk proteins-derived bioactive peptides in dairy products: molecular, biological and methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuba, Bartłomiej; Dziuba, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are one of the primary components of the food, both in terms of nutrition and function. They are main source of amino acids, essential for synthesis of proteins, and also source of energy. Additionally, many proteins exhibit specific biological activities, which may have effect on functional or pro-health properties of food products. These proteins and their hydrolysis products, peptides, may influence the properties of food and human organism. The number of commercially available food products containing bioactive peptides is very low, apart from that milk proteins are their rich source. It could be supposed that number of available products with declared activity will rise in near future because of observed strong uptrend on interest in such products. Molecular and biological properties of milk proteins, as precursors of bioactive peptides was characterised in the work. Therefore, the strategy of research and obtaining of such peptides both in laboratory and industrial scale, as well as the range of their commercial application, was presented. Several examples of research efforts presenting high potential to develop new products containing bioactive peptides from milk proteins and predetermined as nutraceuticals was described.

  4. Towards high productivities of microalgae in photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.

    2010-01-01

    The biodiversity of microalgae is enormous and they represent an almost untapped source of unique algae products. Presently, there is a niche market for high-value algal products (e.g. carotenoids and fatty acids). To make commercial production of low-value bulk products possible, still many bottlen

  5. Towards high productivities of microalgae in photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.

    2010-01-01

    The biodiversity of microalgae is enormous and they represent an almost untapped source of unique algae products. Presently, there is a niche market for high-value algal products (e.g. carotenoids and fatty acids). To make commercial production of low-value bulk products possible, still many bottlen

  6. Towards high productivities of microalgae in photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.

    2010-01-01

    The biodiversity of microalgae is enormous and they represent an almost untapped source of unique algae products. Presently, there is a niche market for high-value algal products (e.g. carotenoids and fatty acids). To make commercial production of low-value bulk products possible, still many

  7. Animated Cell Biology: A Quick and Easy Method for Making Effective, High-Quality Teaching Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Danton H.

    2006-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that animations aid learning of dynamic concepts in cell biology. However, existing animation packages are expensive and difficult to learn, and the subsequent production of even short animations can take weeks to months. Here I outline the principles and sequence of steps for producing high-quality PowerPoint…

  8. Animated Cell Biology: A Quick and Easy Method for Making Effective, High-Quality Teaching Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Danton H.

    2006-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that animations aid learning of dynamic concepts in cell biology. However, existing animation packages are expensive and difficult to learn, and the subsequent production of even short animations can take weeks to months. Here I outline the principles and sequence of steps for producing high-quality PowerPoint…

  9. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played...... an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine...... chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes....

  10. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of GRAS strains for nutraceutical production using systems and synthetic biology approaches: advances and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Guan, Ningzi; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Nutraceuticals are food substances with medical and health benefits for humans. Limited by complicated procedures, high cost, low yield, insufficient raw materials, resource waste, and environment pollution, chemical synthesis and extraction are being replaced by microbial synthesis of nutraceuticals. Many microbial strains that are generally regarded as safe (GRAS) have been identified and developed for the synthesis of nutraceuticals, and significant nutraceutical production by these strains has been achieved. In this review, we systematically summarize recent advances in nutraceutical research in terms of physiological effects on health, potential applications, drawbacks of traditional production processes, characteristics of production strains, and progress in microbial fermentation. Recent advances in systems and synthetic biology techniques have enabled comprehensive understanding of GRAS strains and its wider applications. Thus, these microbial strains are promising cell factories for the commercial production of nutraceuticals.

  12. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation: challenges and prospects towards scaled-up production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RenNanqi; GuoWanqian; LiuBingfeng; CaoGuangli; DingJie

    2011-06-01

    Among different technologies of hydrogen production, bio-hydrogen production exhibits perhaps the greatest potential to replace fossil fuels. Based on recent research on dark fermentative hydrogen production, this article reviews the following aspects towards scaled-up application of this technology: bioreactor development and parameter optimization, process modeling and simulation, exploitation of cheaper raw materials and combining dark-fermentation with photo-fermentation. Bioreactors are necessary for dark-fermentation hydrogen production, so the design of reactor type and optimization of parameters are essential. Process modeling and simulation can help engineers design and optimize large-scale systems and operations. Use of cheaper raw materials will surely accelerate the pace of scaled-up production of biological hydrogen. And finally, combining dark-fermentation with photo-fermentation holds considerable promise, and has successfully achieved maximum overall hydrogen yield from a single substrate. Future development of bio-hydrogen production will also be discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The potential of plants as a system for the development and production of human biologics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Davis, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    The growing promise of plant-made biologics is highlighted by the success story of ZMapp™ as a potentially life-saving drug during the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016. Current plant expression platforms offer features beyond the traditional advantages of low cost, high scalability, increased safety, and eukaryotic protein modification. Novel transient expression vectors have been developed that allow the production of vaccines and therapeutics at unprecedented speed to control potential pandemics or bioterrorism attacks. Plant-host engineering provides a method for producing proteins with unique and uniform mammalian post-translational modifications, providing opportunities to develop biologics with increased efficacy relative to their mammalian cell-produced counterparts. Recent demonstrations that plant-made proteins can function as biocontrol agents of foodborne pathogens further exemplify the potential utility of plant-based protein production. However, resolving the technical and regulatory challenges of commercial-scale production, garnering acceptance from large pharmaceutical companies, and obtaining U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for several major classes of biologics are essential steps to fulfilling the untapped potential of this technology. PMID:27274814

  14. The potential of plants as a system for the development and production of human biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Davis, Keith R

    2016-01-01

    The growing promise of plant-made biologics is highlighted by the success story of ZMapp™ as a potentially life-saving drug during the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016. Current plant expression platforms offer features beyond the traditional advantages of low cost, high scalability, increased safety, and eukaryotic protein modification. Novel transient expression vectors have been developed that allow the production of vaccines and therapeutics at unprecedented speed to control potential pandemics or bioterrorism attacks. Plant-host engineering provides a method for producing proteins with unique and uniform mammalian post-translational modifications, providing opportunities to develop biologics with increased efficacy relative to their mammalian cell-produced counterparts. Recent demonstrations that plant-made proteins can function as biocontrol agents of foodborne pathogens further exemplify the potential utility of plant-based protein production. However, resolving the technical and regulatory challenges of commercial-scale production, garnering acceptance from large pharmaceutical companies, and obtaining U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for several major classes of biologics are essential steps to fulfilling the untapped potential of this technology.

  15. 75 FR 47605 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological..., Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA. FDA intends to...

  16. Computational Proteomics: High-throughput Analysis for Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, William R.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.

    2007-01-03

    High-throughput (HTP) proteomics is a rapidly developing field that offers the global profiling of proteins from a biological system. The HTP technological advances are fueling a revolution in biology, enabling analyses at the scales of entire systems (e.g., whole cells, tumors, or environmental communities). However, simply identifying the proteins in a cell is insufficient for understanding the underlying complexity and operating mechanisms of the overall system. Systems level investigations are relying more and more on computational analyses, especially in the field of proteomics generating large-scale global data.

  17. High-Content Screening for Quantitative Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiazzi Usaj, Mojca; Styles, Erin B; Verster, Adrian J; Friesen, Helena; Boone, Charles; Andrews, Brenda J

    2016-08-01

    High-content screening (HCS), which combines automated fluorescence microscopy with quantitative image analysis, allows the acquisition of unbiased multiparametric data at the single cell level. This approach has been used to address diverse biological questions and identify a plethora of quantitative phenotypes of varying complexity in numerous different model systems. Here, we describe some recent applications of HCS, ranging from the identification of genes required for specific biological processes to the characterization of genetic interactions. We review the steps involved in the design of useful biological assays and automated image analysis, and describe major challenges associated with each. Additionally, we highlight emerging technologies and future challenges, and discuss how the field of HCS might be enhanced in the future.

  18. Studies of the Production of Fungal Polyketides in Aspergillus nidulans by Using Systems Biology Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Grotkjær, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    are virtually unlimited, and it is thus of great interest to develop a well-described microbial production platform for polyketides. Using genetic engineering tools available for the model organism Aspergillus nidulans, we constructed two recombinant strains, one expressing the Penicillium griseofulvum 6...... that overexpression of xpkA does not directly improve 6-MSA production on glucose, but it is possible, if the metabolic flux through the lower part of glycolysis is reduced, to obtain quite high yields for conversion of sugar to 6-MSA. Systems biology tools were employed for in-depth analysis of the metabolic...... characterized on glucose, xylose, glycerol, and ethanol media in controlled bioreactors. Glucose was found to be the preferred carbon source for 6-MSA production, and 6-MSA concentrations up to 455 mg/liter were obtained for the recombinant strain harboring the 6-MSA gene. Our findings indicate...

  19. 76 FR 55397 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological... the Laboratory of Method Development, Division of Viral Products, Office of Vaccines Research and...

  20. 77 FR 42319 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... lines derived from human tumors for vaccine manufacture. FDA intends to make background material...

  1. 78 FR 5465 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... strains to be included in the influenza virus vaccine for the 2013- 2014 influenza season. FDA intends to...

  2. 75 FR 17929 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... circovirus type 1 (PCV 1) in Rotarix, a U.S. licensed vaccine manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline and indicated...

  3. 76 FR 3639 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... selection of strains to be included in the influenza virus vaccine for the 2011-2012 influenza season. The...

  4. 75 FR 2876 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... selection of strains to be included in the influenza virus vaccine for the 2010 - 2011 influenza season. FDA...

  5. 78 FR 60884 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological... of Retroviruses and Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Viral Products, Office of Vaccines...

  6. 76 FR 44016 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological..., Division of Bacterial, Parasitic and Allergenic Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center...

  7. 77 FR 63839 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... immunogenicity of an Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Monovalent Vaccine manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline. On November 15...

  8. 75 FR 61497 - Approval Pathway for Biosimilar and Interchangeable Biological Products; Public Hearing; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Approval Pathway for Biosimilar and Interchangeable...'' (biosimilar) to, or ``interchangeable'' with, an FDA-licensed biological product. The purpose of this public... for biological products shown to be biosimilar to, or interchangeable with, an FDA-licensed...

  9. 78 FR 19492 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Formal Meetings Between FDA and Biosimilar Biological Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... and Biosimilar Biological Product Sponsors or Applicants; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Formal Meetings Between the FDA and Biosimilar... biosimilar biological products regulated by the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) and the...

  10. Hydrological structure and biological productivity of the tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, U.D.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    Hydrological structure analyses of regions in the tropical Atlantic Ocean have consistently revealed the existence of a typical tropical structure characterized by a nitrate-depleted mixed layer above the thermocline. The important biological...

  11. Biologically active amines in fermented and non-fermented commercial soybean products from the Spanish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Funes, N; Bosch-Fuste, J; Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2015-04-15

    Biologically active amines were determined in commercial soybean products. The antioxidant polyamines were found in both non-fermented and fermented soybean products. Natto and tempeh showed the highest content of polyamines (75-124 and 11-24 mg/kg of spermidine and spermine, respectively). On the other hand, the bacterial-related biogenic amines, tyramine, histamine, tryptamine and β-phenylethylamine, were detected in practically all fermented products with a high variability. The highest contents were found in sufu, tamari and soybean paste. Extremely high tyramine and histamine contents, 1700 and 700 mg/kg, respectively, found in some sufu samples could be unhealthy. However, biogenic amines observed in the other soybean products should not be a risk for healthy consumers. However, individuals who take monoamine and diamine oxidase inhibitors drugs should be strongly recommended to avoid this kind of products in order to suffer no adverse health effects. These biogenic amines were not detected in non-fermented soybean products.

  12. Chemistry and biology of bengamides and bengazoles, bioactive natural products from Jaspis sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, Cristina; Sarabia, Francisco

    2014-03-18

    Sponges corresponding to the Jaspidae family have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among these, the bengamides and the bengazoles stand out by virtue of their unprecedented molecular architectures and impressive biological profiles, including antitumor, antibiotic and anthelmintic properties. As a consequence, intense research activity has been devoted to these compounds from both chemical and biological standpoints. This review describes in detail the research into these classes of natural products and the benefits they offer in chemistry and biology.

  13. Laser-initiated decomposition products of indocyanine green (ICG) and carbon black sensitized biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokosa, John M.; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Motamedi, Massoud; Hayes, Donald J.; Wallace, David B.; Frederickson, Christopher J.

    1997-05-01

    Organic dyes have found increasing use a s sensitizers in laser surgical procedures, due to their high optical absorbances. Little is known, however, about the nature of the degradation products formed when these dyes are irradiated with a laser. Previous work in our laboratories has shown that irradiation of polymeric and biological tissues with CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers produces a host of volatile and semivolatile by-products, some of which are known to be potential carcinogens. This work focuses on the identification of the chemical by-products formed by diode laser and Nd:YAG laser irradiation of indocyanine green (ICG) and carbon black based ink sensitized tissues, including bone, tendon and sheep's teeth. Samples were mounted in a 0.5-L Pyrex sample chamber equipped with quartz optical windows, charcoal filtered air inlet and an outlet attached to an appropriate sample trap and a constant flow pump. By-products were analyzed by GC/MS and HPLC. Volatiles identified included benzene and formaldehyde. Semi-volatiles included traces of polycyclic aromatics, arising from the biological matrix and inks, as well as fragments of ICG and the carbon ink components. The significance of these results will be discussed, including the necessity of using appropriate evacuation devices when utilizing lasers for surgical procedures.

  14. Biological Pretreatment of Rubberwood with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Nazarpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis, a potential raw material for bioethanol production due to its high cellulose content, was used as a novel feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production using biological pretreatment. To improve ethanol production, rubberwood was pretreated with white rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora to increase fermentation efficiency. The effects of particle size of rubberwood (1 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.25 mm and pretreatment time on the biological pretreatment were first determined by chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction and their best condition obtained with 1 mm particle size and 90 days pretreatment. Further morphological study on rubberwood with 1 mm particle size pretreated by fungus was performed by FT-IR spectra analysis and SEM observation and the result indicated the ability of this fungus for pretreatment. A study on enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in an increased sugar yield of 27.67% as compared with untreated rubberwood (2.88%. The maximum ethanol concentration and yield were 17.9 g/L and 53% yield, respectively, after 120 hours. The results obtained demonstrate that rubberwood pretreated by C. subvermispora can be used as an alternative material for the enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production.

  15. Microalgae biorefinery: High value products perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Kit Wayne; Yap, Jing Ying; Show, Pau Loke; Suan, Ng Hui; Juan, Joon Ching; Ling, Tau Chuan; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-04-01

    Microalgae have received much interest as a biofuel feedstock in response to the uprising energy crisis, climate change and depletion of natural sources. Development of microalgal biofuels from microalgae does not satisfy the economic feasibility of overwhelming capital investments and operations. Hence, high-value co-products have been produced through the extraction of a fraction of algae to improve the economics of a microalgae biorefinery. Examples of these high-value products are pigments, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins and anti-oxidants, with applications in cosmetics, nutritional and pharmaceuticals industries. To promote the sustainability of this process, an innovative microalgae biorefinery structure is implemented through the production of multiple products in the form of high value products and biofuel. This review presents the current challenges in the extraction of high value products from microalgae and its integration in the biorefinery. The economic potential assessment of microalgae biorefinery was evaluated to highlight the feasibility of the process.

  16. Removal of disinfection by-product formation potentials by biologically assisted GAC treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The object of this paper is to evaluate the removal of disinfection by-products formation potential by artificially intensified biological activated carbon(BAC) process which is developed on the basis of traditional ozone granular activated carbon (GAC). The results show that 23.1% of trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and 68% of haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP) can be removed by BAC,respectively. Under the same conditions, the removal rates of the same substances were 12.2% and 13-25 % respectively only by GAC process. Compared with GAC, the high removal rates of the two formed potential substances were due to the increasing of bioactivity of the media and the synergistic capabilities of biological degradation cooperating with activated carbon adsorption of organic compounds. BAC process has some advantages such as long backwashing cycle time, low backwashing intensity and prolonged activated carbon lifetime, etc.

  17. A synthetic biology approach to self-regulatory recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragosits Martin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant protein production is a process of great industrial interest, with products that range from pharmaceuticals to biofuels. Since high level production of recombinant protein imposes significant stress in the host organism, several methods have been developed over the years to optimize protein production. So far, these trial-and-error techniques have proved laborious and sensitive to process parameters, while there has been no attempt to address the problem by applying Synthetic Biology principles and methods, such as integration of standardized parts in novel synthetic circuits. Results We present a novel self-regulatory protein production system that couples the control of recombinant protein production with a stress-induced, negative feedback mechanism. The synthetic circuit allows the down-regulation of recombinant protein expression through a stress-induced promoter. We used E. coli as the host organism, since it is widely used in recombinant processes. Our results show that the introduction of the self-regulatory circuit increases the soluble/insoluble ratio of recombinant protein at the expense of total protein yield. To further elucidate the dynamics of the system, we developed a computational model that is in agreement with the observed experimental data, and provides insight on the interplay between protein solubility and yield. Conclusion Our work introduces the idea of a self-regulatory circuit for recombinant protein products, and paves the way for processes with reduced external control or monitoring needs. It demonstrates that the library of standard biological parts serves as a valuable resource for initial synthetic blocks that needs to be further refined to be successfully applied in practical problems of biotechnological significance. Finally, the development of a predictive model in conjunction with experimental validation facilitates a better understanding of the underlying dynamics and can be

  18. 9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics. 113.52 Section 113.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.52 Requirements for cell lines used for production...

  19. Multicultural science education in Lesotho high school biology classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nthathakane, Malefu Christina

    2001-12-01

    This study investigated how Basotho high school biology students responded to a multicultural science education (MCSE) approach. Students' home language---Sesotho---and cultural experiences were integrated into the teaching of a unit on alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD) abuse. The focus was on students whose cultural background is African and who are English second language users. The study was conducted in three high school biology classrooms in Lesotho where the ATOD unit was taught using MCSE. A fourth biology classroom was observed for comparison purposes. In this classroom the regular biology teacher taught ATOD using typical instructional strategies. The study was framed by the general question: How does a multicultural science education approach affect Basotho high school biology students? More specifically: How does the use of Sesotho (or code-switching between Sesotho and English) and integration of Basotho students' cultural knowledge and experiences with respect to ATOD affect students' learning? In particular how does the approach affect students' participation and academic performance? A qualitative research method was used in this study. Data were drawn from a number of different sources and analyzed inductively. The data sources included field-notes, transcripts of ATOD lessons, research assistant lesson observation notes and interviews, regular biology teachers' interviews and notes from observing a few of their lessons, students' interviews and pre and posttest scripts, and other school documents that recorded students' performance throughout the year. Using the students' home language---Sesotho---was beneficial in that it enabled them to share ideas, communicate better and understand each other, the teacher and the material that was taught. Integrating students' cultural and everyday experiences was beneficial because it enabled students to anchor the new ATOD ideas in what was familiar and helped them find the relevance of the unit by

  20. Fermentative production of butanol: Perspectives on synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Sonil; Golemi-Kotra, Dasantila; McDermott, John C; Dalai, Ajay K; Gökalp, Iskender; Kozinski, Janusz A

    2017-07-25

    Apprehensions relating to global warming, climate change, pollution, rising energy demands as well as fluctuating crude oil prices and supply are leading to a shift in global interest to find suitable alternatives to fossil fuels. This review aims to highlight the many different facets of butanol as an advanced next-generation transportation biofuel. Butanol has fuel properties almost on a par with gasoline, such as high energy content, low vapor pressure, non-hygroscopic nature, less volatility, flexible fuel blends and high octane number. The paper reviews some recent advances in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation with special emphasis on the primary challenges encountered in butanol fermentation, including butanol toxicity, solvent intolerance and bacteriophage contamination. The mechanisms for butanol recovery techniques have been covered along with their benefits and limitations. A comprehensive discussion of genetic and metabolic engineering of butanol-producing microorganisms is made for the prospective development of industrially-relevant strains that can overcome the technical challenges involved in efficient butanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies of the Production of Fungal Polyketides in Aspergillus nidulans by Using Systems Biology Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Grotkjær, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    -methylsalicylic acid (6-MSA) synthase gene and one expressing the 6-MSA synthase gene and overexpressing the native xylulose-5-phosphate phosphoketolase gene (xpkA) for increasing the pool of polyketide precursor levels. The physiology of the recombinant strains and that of a reference wild-type strain were...... that overexpression of xpkA does not directly improve 6-MSA production on glucose, but it is possible, if the metabolic flux through the lower part of glycolysis is reduced, to obtain quite high yields for conversion of sugar to 6-MSA. Systems biology tools were employed for in-depth analysis of the metabolic...

  2. Advancement in bioprocess technology: parallels between microbial natural products and cell culture biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Arpan A; Khetan, Anurag; Malmberg, Li-Hong; Zhou, Weichang; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2017-02-09

    The emergence of natural products and industrial microbiology nearly eight decades ago propelled an era of bioprocess innovation. Half a century later, recombinant protein technology spurred the tremendous growth of biologics and added mammalian cells to the forefront of industrial producing cells in terms of the value of products generated. This review highlights the process technology of natural products and protein biologics. Despite the separation in time, there is a remarkable similarity in their progression. As the new generation of therapeutics for gene and cell therapy emerges, its process technology development can take inspiration from that of natural products and biologics.

  3. Engineering Escherichia coli for high-level production of propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akawi, Lamees; Srirangan, Kajan; Liu, Xuejia; Moo-Young, Murray; Perry Chou, C

    2015-07-01

    Mounting environmental concerns associated with the use of petroleum-based chemical manufacturing practices has generated significant interest in the development of biological alternatives for the production of propionate. However, biological platforms for propionate production have been limited to strict anaerobes, such as Propionibacteria and select Clostridia. In this work, we demonstrated high-level heterologous production of propionate under microaerobic conditions in engineered Escherichia coli. Activation of the native Sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon not only transformed E. coli to be propionogenic (i.e., propionate-producing) but also introduced an intracellular "flux competition" between the traditional C2-fermentative pathway and the novel C3-fermentative pathway. Dissimilation of the major carbon source of glycerol was identified to critically affect such "flux competition" and, therefore, propionate synthesis. As a result, the propionogenic E. coli was further engineered by inactivation or overexpression of various genes involved in the glycerol dissimilation pathways and their individual genetic effects on propionate production were investigated. Generally, knocking out genes involved in glycerol dissimilation (except glpA) can minimize levels of solventogenesis and shift more dissimilated carbon flux toward the C3-fermentative pathway. For optimal propionate production with high C3:C2-fermentative product ratios, glycerol dissimilation should be channeled through the respiratory pathway and, upon suppressed solventogenesis with minimal production of highly reduced alcohols, the alternative NADH-consuming route associated with propionate synthesis can be critical for more flexible redox balancing. With the implementation of various biochemical and genetic strategies, high propionate titers of more than 11 g/L with high yields up to 0.4 g-propionate/g-glycerol (accounting for ~50 % of dissimilated glycerol) were achieved, demonstrating the

  4. 9 CFR 103.3 - Shipment of experimental biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Only—Not For Sale,” or equivalent. The U.S. Veterinary License legend shall not appear on such labels... product and for maintaining records of the quantities of experimental product prepared, shipped and...

  5. 9 CFR 101.3 - Biological products and related terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... toxin or toxic growth product, which has resulted from the growth of bacterial organisms in a culture... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS... bacterial product consisting of an antigenic suspension of organisms or particulate parts of organisms...

  6. Synthetic biology for microbial production of lipid-based biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d’Espaux, Leo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint BioEnergy Inst.; Mendez-Perez, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint BioEnergy Inst.; Li, Rachel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint BioEnergy Inst.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology; Keasling, Jay D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint BioEnergy Inst.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Bioengineering, QB3 Inst.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, QB3 Inst.

    2015-10-23

    The risks of maintaining current CO2 emission trends have led to interest in producing biofuels using engineered microbes. Microbial biofuels reduce emissions because CO2 produced by fuel combustion is offset by CO2 captured by growing biomass, which is later used as feedstock for biofuel fermentation. Hydrocarbons found in petroleum fuels share striking similarity with biological lipids. Here in this paper we review synthetic metabolic pathways based on fatty acid and isoprenoid metabolism to produce alkanes and other molecules suitable as biofuels. Lastly, we further discuss engineering strategies to optimize engineered biosynthetic routes, as well as the potential of synthetic biology for sustainable manufacturing.

  7. Synthetic biology for microbial production of lipid-based biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Espaux, Leo; Mendez-Perez, Daniel; Li, Rachel; Keasling, Jay D

    2015-12-01

    The risks of maintaining current CO2 emission trends have led to interest in producing biofuels using engineered microbes. Microbial biofuels reduce emissions because CO2 produced by fuel combustion is offset by CO2 captured by growing biomass, which is later used as feedstock for biofuel fermentation. Hydrocarbons found in petroleum fuels share striking similarity with biological lipids. Here we review synthetic metabolic pathways based on fatty acid and isoprenoid metabolism to produce alkanes and other molecules suitable as biofuels. We further discuss engineering strategies to optimize engineered biosynthetic routes, as well as the potential of synthetic biology for sustainable manufacturing.

  8. Importance of systems biology in engineering microbes for biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Redding, Alyssa M.; Rutherford, Becky J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    Microorganisms have been rich sources for natural products, some of which have found use as fuels, commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, polymers, and drugs, to name a few. The recent interest in production of transportation fuels from renewable resources has catalyzed numerous research endeavors that focus on developing microbial systems for production of such natural products. Eliminating bottlenecks in microbial metabolic pathways and alleviating the stresses due to production of these chemicals are crucial in the generation of robust and efficient production hosts. The use of systems-level studies makes it possible to comprehensively understand the impact of pathway engineering within the context of the entire host metabolism, to diagnose stresses due to product synthesis, and provides the rationale to cost-effectively engineer optimal industrial microorganisms.

  9. Kinetic study of biological hydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangeetha, R. [Annamalai Univ., Chidambaram (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Karunanithi, T. [Annamalai Univ., Tamilnadu (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the kinetics of batch biohydrogen production from glucose. Clostridium pasteurianum was used to produce biohydrogen by dark anaerobic fermentation. The initial substrate concentration, initial pH and temperature were optimized for biohydrogen production. The maximum production of hydrogen under optimum conditions was found to be 5.376 l/l. The kinetic parameters were determined for the optimized medium and conditions in the batch reactor. The by product was expressed as total acidic equivalent. This presentation discussed the logistic equation that was used to model the growth of the organism and described how the kinetic parameters were calculated. The Leudeking piret kinetic model was used to express the hydrogen production and substrate use because it combines both growth associated and non associated contributions. It was concluded the production of biohydrogen can be predicted well using the logistic model for cell growth kinetics and the logistic incorporated Leudeking Piret model for product and substrate utilization kinetics.

  10. Metabolic engineering with systems biology tools to optimize production of prokaryotic secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Charusanti, Pep; Lee, Sang Yup;

    2016-01-01

    for the optimal production of various prokaryotic secondary metabolites: native versus heterologous hosts (e.g., Escherichia coli) and rational versus random approaches. This comparative analysis is followed by discussions on systems biology tools deployed in optimizing the production of secondary metabolites....... The potential contributions of additional systems biology tools are also discussed in the context of current challenges encountered during optimization of secondary metabolite production....

  11. A cell-free expression and purification process for rapid production of protein biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Challise J; Pendleton, Erik D; Sasmor, Henri H; Hicks, William L; Farnum, John B; Muto, Machiko; Amendt, Eric M; Schoborg, Jennifer A; Martin, Rey W; Clark, Lauren G; Anderson, Mark J; Choudhury, Alaksh; Fior, Raffaella; Lo, Yu-Hwa; Griffey, Richard H; Chappell, Stephen A; Jewett, Michael C; Mauro, Vincent P; Dresios, John

    2016-02-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis has emerged as a powerful technology for rapid and efficient protein production. Cell-free methods are also amenable to automation and such systems have been extensively used for high-throughput protein production and screening; however, current fluidic systems are not adequate for manufacturing protein biopharmaceuticals. In this work, we report on the initial development of a fluidic process for rapid end-to-end production of recombinant protein biologics. This process incorporates a bioreactor module that can be used with eukaryotic or prokaryotic lysates that are programmed for combined transcription/translation of an engineered DNA template encoding for specific protein targets. Purification of the cell-free expressed product occurs through a series of protein separation modules that are configurable for process-specific isolation of different proteins. Using this approach, we demonstrate production of two bioactive human protein therapeutics, erythropoietin and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, in yeast and bacterial extracts, respectively, each within 24 hours. This process is flexible, scalable and amenable to automation for rapid production at the point-of-need of proteins with significant pharmaceutical, medical, or biotechnological value.

  12. Long-term biological hydrogen production by agar immobilized Rhodobacter capsulatus in a sequential batch photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkahlout, Kamal; Alipour, Siamak; Eroglu, Inci; Gunduz, Ufuk; Yucel, Meral

    2017-04-01

    In this study, agar immobilization technique was employed for biological hydrogen production using Rhodobacter capsulatus DSM 1710 (wild type) and YO3 (hup-mutant) strains in sequential batch process. Different agar and glutamate concentrations were tested with defined nutrient medium. Agar concentration 4% (w/v) and 4 mM glutamate were selected for bacterial immobilization in terms of rate and longevity of hydrogen production. Acetate concentration was increased from 40 to 60-100 and 60 mM gave best results with both bacterial strains immobilized in 4% (w/v) agar. Cell concentration was increased from 2.5 to 5 mg dcw mL(-1) agar and it was found that increasing cell concentration of wild-type strain caused decrease in yield and productivity while these parameters improved by increasing cell concentration of mutant strain. Also, the hydrogen production time has extended from 17 days up to 60 days according to the process conditions and parameters. Hydrogen production by immobilized photosynthetic bacteria is a convenient technology for hydrogen production as it enables to produce hydrogen with high organic acid concentrations comparing to suspended cultures. Besides, immobilization increases the stability of the system and allowed sequential batch operation for long-term application.

  13. Revealing complex function, process and pathway interactions with high-throughput expression and biological annotation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nitesh Kumar; Ernst, Mathias; Liebscher, Volkmar; Fuellen, Georg; Taher, Leila

    2016-10-20

    The biological relationships both between and within the functions, processes and pathways that operate within complex biological systems are only poorly characterized, making the interpretation of large scale gene expression datasets extremely challenging. Here, we present an approach that integrates gene expression and biological annotation data to identify and describe the interactions between biological functions, processes and pathways that govern a phenotype of interest. The product is a global, interconnected network, not of genes but of functions, processes and pathways, that represents the biological relationships within the system. We validated our approach on two high-throughput expression datasets describing organismal and organ development. Our findings are well supported by the available literature, confirming that developmental processes and apoptosis play key roles in cell differentiation. Furthermore, our results suggest that processes related to pluripotency and lineage commitment, which are known to be critical for development, interact mainly indirectly, through genes implicated in more general biological processes. Moreover, we provide evidence that supports the relevance of cell spatial organization in the developing liver for proper liver function. Our strategy can be viewed as an abstraction that is useful to interpret high-throughput data and devise further experiments.

  14. The chemistry and biology of guanidine natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinck, Roberto G S; Romminger, Stelamar

    2016-03-01

    The present review discusses the isolation, structure determination, synthesis, biosynthesis and biological activities of secondary metabolites bearing a guanidine group. Topics include non-ribosomal peptides, alkaloids, guanidine-bearing terpenes, polyketides and shikimic acid derivatives from natural sources. A critical analysis of some yet underdeveloped aspects of guanidine metabolites is also presented.

  15. Biological production of alcohols from coal through indirect liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S.; Prieto, S.; Harrison, S.B.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing liquid fuels from the components of synthesis gas through biological indirect liquefaction. The results of pure culture and natural source screening studies aimed at finding organisms capable of carrying out the conversions are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Applied systems biology - vanillin production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strucko, Tomas; Eriksen, Jens Christian; Nielsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin is the most important aroma compound based on market value, and natural vanillin is extracted from the cured seed pods of the Vanilla orchid. Most of the world’s vanillin, however, is obtained by chemical synthesis from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. As an alternative, de novo bios...... in a systems biology setting....

  17. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae: biological constraints and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, Kim J M; Lamers, Packo P; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing interest in naturally produced colorants, and microalgae represent a bio-technologically interesting source due to their wide range of colored pigments, including chlorophylls (green), carotenoids (red, orange and yellow), and phycobiliproteins (red and blue). However, the concentration of these pigments, under optimal growth conditions, is often too low to make microalgal-based pigment production economically feasible. In some Chlorophyta (green algae), specific process conditions such as oversaturating light intensities or a high salt concentration induce the overproduction of secondary carotenoids (β-carotene in Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco and astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis (Flotow)). Overproduction of all other pigments (including lutein, fucoxanthin, and phycocyanin) requires modification in gene expression or enzyme activity, most likely combined with the creation of storage space outside of the photosystems. The success of such modification strategies depends on an adequate understanding of the metabolic pathways and the functional roles of all the pigments involved. In this review, the distribution of commercially interesting pigments across the most common microalgal groups, the roles of these pigments in vivo and their biosynthesis routes are reviewed, and constraints and opportunities for overproduction of both primary and secondary pigments are presented.

  18. Marine-terminating glaciers sustain high productivity in Greenland fjords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meire, Lorenz; Mortensen, John; Meire, Patrick; Juul-Pedersen, Thomas; Sejr, Mikael K; Rysgaard, Søren; Nygaard, Rasmus; Huybrechts, Philippe; Meysman, Filip J R

    2017-08-04

    Accelerated mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet leads to glacier retreat and an increasing input of glacial meltwater to the fjords and coastal waters around Greenland. These high latitude ecosystems are highly productive and sustain important fisheries, yet it remains uncertain how they will respond to future changes in the Arctic cryosphere. Here we show that marine-terminating glaciers play a crucial role in sustaining high productivity of the fjord ecosystems. Hydrographic and biogeochemical data from two fjord systems adjacent to the Greenland ice sheet, suggest that marine ecosystem productivity is very differently regulated in fjords influenced by either land-terminating or marine-terminating glaciers. Rising subsurface meltwater plumes originating from marine-terminating glaciers entrain large volumes of ambient deep water to the surface. The resulting upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water sustains a high phytoplankton productivity throughout summer in the fjord with marine-terminating glaciers. In contrast, the fjord with only land-terminating glaciers lack this upwelling mechanism, and is characterized by lower productivity. Data on commercial halibut landings support that coastal regions influenced by large marine-terminating glaciers have substantially higher marine productivity. These results suggest that a switch from marine-terminating to land-terminating glaciers can substantially alter the productivity in the coastal zone around Greenland with potentially large ecological and socio-economic implications. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on quality of biotechnological/biological products: derivation and characterization of cell substrates used for production of biotechnological/biological products; availability. Notice. Food and Drug Administration, HHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing a guidance entitled "Q5D Quality of Biotechnological/Biological Products:Derivation and Characterization of Cell Substrates Used for Production of Biotechnological/Biological Products." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH).The document provides broad guidance on appropriate standards for the derivation and characterization of cell substrates used in the production of biotechnological/biological products and recommends information in these areas that should be presented in marketing applications.

  20. Biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using polypeptides or recombinant cells comprising said polypeptides. More particularly, the present invention pertains to polypeptides having aryl sulfotransferase activity......, recombinant host cells expressing same and processes for the production of aryl sulfates employing these polypeptides or recombinant host cells....

  1. Production of biologically active recombinant avidin in baculovirus-infected insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airenne, K J; Oker-Blom, C; Marjomäki, V S; Bayer, E A; Wilchek, M; Kulomaa, M S

    1997-02-01

    An efficient lepidopteran insect cell system was established for the expression of a recombinant form of chicken egg-white avidin. The gene product was obtained in both secreted and intracellular forms, and biologically active recombinant avidin was isolated using affinity chromatography on an iminobiotin-agarose column. Similar to the known quaternary structure of the native egg-white protein, the purified recombinant protein was glycosylated and assembled mainly into tetramers. Like native avidin, the recombinant tetramer also exhibited a high level of thermostability, and was further stabilized upon binding biotin. The biotin-binding and structural properties of the recombinant avidin are thus similar to those of the natural egg-white protein, and the insect system is appropriate both for future site-directed mutagenesis studies and for the production of avidin fusion proteins.

  2. Potential for widespread application of biological control of stored-product pests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengaard

    2007-01-01

    Biological control of stored product pests has substantial potential in Europe". This is essentially the conclusion of the activities of a European working group funded by the COST system, an intergovernmental networking system. Working group 4 of COST action 842 (2000-2005) focussed on biological......, beetles and moths; (2) Preventative treatment of bulk commodities against weevils (Sitophilus spp.) and storage mites; (3) Preventative application of egg-parasitoids against moths in packaged products. Development of methods for biological control and of mass production of natural enemies...

  3. Recombinant biologic products versus nutraceuticals from plants - a regulatory choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Pascal M W; Szeto, Tim H; Paul, Mathew J; Teh, Audrey Y-H; Ma, Julian K-C

    2017-01-01

    Biotechnology has transformed the potential for plants to be a manufacturing source of pharmaceutical compounds. Now, with transgenic and transient expression techniques, virtually any biologic, including vaccines and therapeutics, could be manufactured in plants. However, uncertainty over the regulatory path for such new pharmaceuticals has been a deterrent. Consideration has been given to using alternative regulatory paths, including those for nutraceuticals or cosmetic agents. This review will consider these possibilities, and discuss the difficulties in establishing regulatory guidelines for new pharmaceutical manufacturing technologies.

  4. High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS) provides access to select health and environmental effect information on chemicals that are manufactured in...

  5. Enhancing microalgal photosynthesis and productivity in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Donna L; Howard-Williams, Clive; Turnbull, Matthew H; Broady, Paul A; Craggs, Rupert J

    2015-05-01

    With microalgal biofuels currently receiving much attention, there has been renewed interest in the combined use of high rate algal ponds (HRAP) for wastewater treatment and biofuel production. This combined use of HRAPs is considered to be an economically feasible option for biofuel production, however, increased microalgal productivity and nutrient removal together with reduced capital costs are needed before it can be commercially viable. Despite HRAPs being an established technology, microalgal photosynthesis and productivity is still limited in these ponds and is well below the theoretical maximum. This paper critically evaluates the parameters that limit microalgal light absorption and photosynthesis in wastewater HRAPs and examines biological, chemical and physical options for improving light absorption and utilisation, with the view of enhancing biomass production and nutrient removal.

  6. Biological production of hydroxylated aromatics: Optimization strategies for Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, A.

    2010-01-01

    To replace environmentally unfriendly petrochemical production processes, the demand for bio-based production of organic chemicals is increasing. This thesis focuses on the biological production of hydroxylated aromatics from renewable substrates by engineered P. putida S12 including several cases o

  7. 9 CFR 113.51 - Requirements for primary cells used for production of biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for primary cells used for production of biologics. 113.51 Section 113.51 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.51 Requirements for primary cells used...

  8. 9 CFR 113.53 - Requirements for ingredients of animal origin used for production of biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 50 percent confluent monolayer culture of primary porcine cells or a porcine cell line of proven... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for ingredients of animal origin used for production of biologics. 113.53 Section 113.53 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  9. High volume production of nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Seals, Roland D.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2009-10-13

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  10. 9 CFR 113.3 - Sampling of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Marek's Disease Vaccine, if such diluent is required to rehydrate or dilute the product before use. The... Diluent prepared for use with Marek's Disease Vaccine shall be submitted upon request from the Animal and...

  11. 9 CFR 112.6 - Packaging biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... containers of the proper amount of diluent as specified in the filed Outline of Production: (1) Marek's Disease Vaccine. (2) Poultry vaccines administered to individual birds using automatic vaccinating...

  12. Proteomic profiling of high risk medulloblastoma reveals functional biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Jerome A; Lau, Ling San; Zhang, Huizhen; Ingram, Wendy J; Hallahan, Andrew R; Northcott, Paul A; Pfister, Stefan M; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J; Rusert, Jessica M; Taylor, Michael D; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Packer, Roger J; Brown, Kristy J; Rood, Brian R

    2015-06-10

    Genomic characterization of medulloblastoma has improved molecular risk classification but struggles to define functional biological processes, particularly for the most aggressive subgroups. We present here a novel proteomic approach to this problem using a reference library of stable isotope labeled medulloblastoma-specific proteins as a spike-in standard for accurate quantification of the tumor proteome. Utilizing high-resolution mass spectrometry, we quantified the tumor proteome of group 3 medulloblastoma cells and demonstrate that high-risk MYC amplified tumors can be segregated based on protein expression patterns. We cross-validated the differentially expressed protein candidates using an independent transcriptomic data set and further confirmed them in a separate cohort of medulloblastoma tissue samples to identify the most robust proteogenomic differences. Interestingly, highly expressed proteins associated with MYC-amplified tumors were significantly related to glycolytic metabolic pathways via alternative splicing of pyruvate kinase (PKM) by heterogeneous ribonucleoproteins (HNRNPs). Furthermore, when maintained under hypoxic conditions, these MYC-amplified tumors demonstrated increased viability compared to non-amplified tumors within the same subgroup. Taken together, these findings highlight the power of proteomics as an integrative platform to help prioritize genetic and molecular drivers of cancer biology and behavior.

  13. 75 FR 59729 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological... for protective antigen-based anthrax vaccines for a post-exposure prophylaxis indication using the...

  14. EAP high-level product architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2013-01-01

    the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach...... of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture....... Initial results from applying the platform on demonstrator design for potential applications are promising. The scope of the article does not include technical details. © 2013 SPIE....

  15. Some aspects of biological production and fishery resources of the EEZ of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhargava, R.M.S.

    Region and season-wise biological production in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of India has been computed from the data of more than twenty years available at the Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre of the National Institute of Oceanography...

  16. Development of interactive hypermedia software for high school biology: A research and development study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturki, Uthman T.

    The goal of this research was to research, design, and develop a hypertext program for students who study biology. The Ecology Hypertext Program was developed using Research and Development (R&D) methodology. The purpose of this study was to place the final "product", a CD-ROM for learning biology concepts, in the hands of teachers and students to help them in learning and teaching process. The product was created through a cycle of literature review, needs assessment, development, and a cycle of field tests and revisions. I applied the ten steps of R&D process suggested by Borg and Gall (1989) which, consisted of: (1) Literature review, (2) Needs assessment, (3) Planning, (4) Develop preliminary product, (5) Preliminary field-testing, (6) Preliminary revision, (7) Main field-testing, (8) Main revision, (9) Final field-testing, and (10) Final product revision. The literature review and needs assessment provided a support and foundation for designing the preliminary product---the Ecology Hypertext Program. Participants in the needs assessment joined a focus group discussion. They were a group of graduate students in education who suggested the importance for designing this product. For the preliminary field test, the participants were a group of high school students studying biology. They were the potential user of the product. They reviewed the preliminary product and then filled out a questionnaire. Their feedback and suggestions were used to develop and improve the product in a step called preliminary revision. The second round of field tasting was the main field test in which the participants joined a focus group discussion. They were the same group who participated in needs assessment task. They reviewed the revised product and then provided ideas and suggestions to improve the product. Their feedback were categorized and implemented to develop the product as in the main revision task. Finally, a group of science teachers participated in this study by reviewing

  17. Synthetic biology tools for bioprospecting of natural products in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkles, Shiela E; Valiante, Vito; Mattern, Derek J; Brakhage, Axel A

    2014-04-24

    Filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a battery of natural products of often unknown function, synthesized by complex metabolic pathways. Unfortunately, most of these pathways appear silent, many in intractable organisms, and their products consequently unidentified. One basic challenge is the difficulty of expressing a biosynthesis pathway for a complex natural product in a heterologous eukaryotic host. Here, we provide a proof-of concept solution to this challenge and describe how the entire penicillin biosynthesis pathway can be expressed in a heterologous host. The method takes advantage of a combination of improved yeast in vivo cloning technology, generation of polycistronic mRNA for the gene cluster under study, and an amenable and easily manipulated fungal host, i.e., Aspergillus nidulans. We achieve expression from a single promoter of the pathway genes to yield a large polycistronic mRNA by using viral 2A peptide sequences to direct successful cotranslational cleavage of pathway enzymes.

  18. Recent advances in biological production of sugar alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Cheol; Oh, Eun Joong; Jo, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-02-01

    Sugar alcohols, such as xylitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and erythritol are emerging food ingredients that provide similar or better sweetness/sensory properties of sucrose, but are less calorigenic. Also, sugar alcohols can be converted into commodity chemicals through chemical catalysis. Biotechnological production offers the safe and sustainable supply of sugar alcohols from renewable biomass. In contrast to early studies that aimed to produce sugar alcohols with microorganisms capable of producing sugar alcohols naturally, recent studies have focused on rational engineering of metabolic pathways to improve yield and productivity as well as to use inexpensive and abundant substrates. Metabolic engineering strategies to utilize inexpensive substrates, alleviate catabolite repression, reduce byproduct formation, and manipulate redox balances led to enhanced production of sugar alcohols.

  19. Measurement of Highly Qualified Employees Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emese TOKARČÍKOVÁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays all economies are more and more based on knowledge and information. Economists therefore are increasingly interested in the measurement of productivity of highly qualified employees. While in the case of other factors of production (labour, land, capital we know the number of economic and statistical approaches how to deal with the measurement of efficiency or productivity, there is no single methodology in relation to highly qualified employees. Also there is a lack of an internationally agreed definition of highly qualified employees. This article offers possible approaches in this field focusing mainly on a staff segment with tertiary education. Although measuring of qualitative impacts is sometimes difficult, it does not mean that it is impossible. On the contrary, properly interpreted and applied indicators increase employment on the labour market and reinforce the positive contributions of highly qualified employees in the business.

  20. High impact technologies for natural products screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Frank E

    2008-01-01

    Natural products have historically been a rich source of lead molecules in drug discovery. However, natural products have been de-emphasized as high throughput screening resources in the recent past, in part because of difficulties in obtaining high quality natural products screening libraries, or in applying modern screening assays to these libraries. In addition, natural products programs based on screening of extract libraries, bioassay-guided isolation, structure elucidation and subsequent production scale-up are challenged to meet the rapid cycle times that are characteristic of the modern HTS approach. Fortunately, new technologies in mass spectrometry, NMR and other spectroscopic techniques can greatly facilitate the first components of the process - namely the efficient creation of high-quality natural products libraries, bimolecular target or cell-based screening, and early hit characterization. The success of any high throughput screening campaign is dependent on the quality of the chemical library. The construction and maintenance of a high quality natural products library, whether based on microbial, plant, marine or other sources is a costly endeavor. The library itself may be composed of samples that are themselves mixtures - such as crude extracts, semi-pure mixtures or single purified natural products. Each of these library designs carries with it distinctive advantages and disadvantages. Crude extract libraries have lower resource requirements for sample preparation, but high requirements for identification of the bioactive constituents. Pre-fractionated libraries can be an effective strategy to alleviate interferences encountered with crude libraries, and may shorten the time needed to identify the active principle. Purified natural product libraries require substantial resources for preparation, but offer the advantage that the hit detection process is reduced to that of synthetic single component libraries. Whether the natural products library

  1. Improvements in Fermentative Biological Hydrogen Production Through Metabolic Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, P. C.; Ghosh, D.; Sabourin-Provost, G.

    2009-07-01

    Dramatically rising oil prices and increasing awareness of the dire environmental consequences of fossil fuel use, including startling effects of climate change, are refocusing attention world-wide on the search for alternative fuels. Hydrogen is poised to become an important future energy carrier. Renewable hydrogen production is pivotal in making it a truly sustainable replacement for fossil fuels. (Author)

  2. Bovine mammary stem cells: Cell biology meets production agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue ...

  3. Biological production of monoethanolamine by engineered Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foti, M.J.; Médici, R.; Ruijssenaars, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida S12 was engineered for the production of monoethanolamine (MEA) from glucose via the decarboxylation of the central metabolite l-serine, which is catalyzed by the enzyme l-serine decarboxylase (SDC).The host was first evaluated for its tolerance towards MEA as well as its

  4. Biosimilars: impact of biologic product life cycle and European experience on the regulatory trajectory in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Islah; Kaspar, Ben; Sharma, Uma

    2012-02-01

    Biosimilars are defined as biologic products that are highly similar to reference products, notwithstanding minor differences in clinically inactive components, with no clinically meaningful differences between the biologic product and the reference product in terms of safety profile, purity, and potency. Due to the high cost of innovator biologics, as well as an increase in the number of these products reaching patent expiry, the development of a process for approving biosimilar products has become a crucial regulatory issue in the United States. This commentary explores the relationship between structural/biophysical variation and the risk/benefit profile of biosimilars and reference biologics that have undergone process changes in the context of the most recent biophysical, nonclinical, and clinical data available. The search strategy used PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE for the retrieval of documents pertaining to biologic manufacturing, comparative analysis of biosimilars and originator biologics, and relevant review articles on biosimilars. For regulatory documents pertaining to the processes of the approval of biosimilars, biologics, and generics, a search for legislative decisions, briefing summaries, concept papers, guidance, and evaluations of approved and rejected applications for biosimilars published by the World Health Organization, US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency (EMA), and other national regulatory authorities was conducted. Selected articles from key opinion leaders and manufacturers were also reviewed. These searches were conducted to provide a review of historical and contemporary issues in the consideration of the current status of worldwide biosimilar use and regulation. A total of 18 marketing applications covering 9 development programs were surveyed. Of these, 14 applications were approved and 4 were rejected by the EMA. None of the biosimilars were reported to have evidence of significant clinical variation relative

  5. 21 CFR 610.68 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 610.68 Section 610.68 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.68 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. (a) The appropriate FDA...

  6. 37 CFR 1.775 - Calculation of patent term extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product. 1.775 Section 1.775 Patents... drug or human biological product is eligible for extension, the term shall be extended by the time as... term of the patent for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product will be extended...

  7. The secondary metabolite bioinformatics portal: Computational tools to facilitate synthetic biology of secondary metabolite production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilmann Weber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are among the most important sources of lead molecules for drug discovery. With the development of affordable whole-genome sequencing technologies and other ‘omics tools, the field of natural products research is currently undergoing a shift in paradigms. While, for decades, mainly analytical and chemical methods gave access to this group of compounds, nowadays genomics-based methods offer complementary approaches to find, identify and characterize such molecules. This paradigm shift also resulted in a high demand for computational tools to assist researchers in their daily work. In this context, this review gives a summary of tools and databases that currently are available to mine, identify and characterize natural product biosynthesis pathways and their producers based on ‘omics data. A web portal called Secondary Metabolite Bioinformatics Portal (SMBP at http://www.secondarymetabolites.org is introduced to provide a one-stop catalog and links to these bioinformatics resources. In addition, an outlook is presented how the existing tools and those to be developed will influence synthetic biology approaches in the natural products field.

  8. Biomarkers in natural fish populations indicate adverse biological effects of offshore oil production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Balk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea. CONCLUSION: It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production.

  9. Chemical biology--identification of small molecule modulators of cellular activity by natural product inspired synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübel, Katja; Lessmann, Torben; Waldmann, Herbert

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this tutorial review is to introduce the reader to the concept, synthesis and application of natural product-inspired compound collections as an important field in chemical biology. This review will discuss how potentially interesting scaffolds can be identified (structural classification of natural products), synthesized in an appropriate manner (including stereoselective transformations for solid phase-bound compounds) and tested in biological assays (cell-based screening as well as biochemical in vitro assays). These approaches will provide the opportunity to identify new and interesting compounds as well as new targets for chemical biology and medicinal chemistry research.

  10. Methods for high yield production of terpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchan, Toni; Higashi, Yasuhiro; Feng, Xiaohong

    2017-01-03

    Provided are enhanced high yield production systems for producing terpenes in plants via the expression of fusion proteins comprising various combinations of geranyl diphosphate synthase large and small subunits and limonene synthases. Also provided are engineered oilseed plants that accumulate monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in their seeds, as well as methods for producing such plants, providing a system for rapidly engineering oilseed crop production platforms for terpene-based biofuels.

  11. Methods for high yield production of terpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni; Higashi, Yasuhiro; Feng, Xiaohong

    2017-01-03

    Provided are enhanced high yield production systems for producing terpenes in plants via the expression of fusion proteins comprising various combinations of geranyl diphosphate synthase large and small subunits and limonene synthases. Also provided are engineered oilseed plants that accumulate monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in their seeds, as well as methods for producing such plants, providing a system for rapidly engineering oilseed crop production platforms for terpene-based biofuels.

  12. Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health, Vol. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This two-volume work provides an overview on various state of the art experimental and statistical methods, modeling approaches and software tools that are available to generate, integrate and analyze multi-omics datasets in order to detect biomarkers, genetic markers and potential causal genes...... for improved animal production and health. The book will contain online resources where additional data and programs can be accessed. Some chapters also come with computer programming codes and example datasets to provide readers hands-on (computer) exercises. This first volume presents the basic principles...... and (bioinformatic) tools available to model and analyse these data sets along with phenotypes in animal production and health. This book is suitable for both students and teachers in animal sciences and veterinary medicine as well as to researchers in this discipline....

  13. Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health, Vol. 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This two-volume work provides an overview on various state of the art experimental and statistical methods, modeling approaches and software tools that are available to generate, integrate and analyze multi-omics datasets in order to detect biomarkers, genetic markers and potential causal genes...... for improved animal production and health. The book will contain online resources where additional data and programs can be accessed. Some chapters also come with computer programming codes and example datasets to provide readers hands-on (computer) exercises. This second volume deals with integrated modeling...... and analyses of multi-omics datasets from theoretical and computational approaches and presents their applications in animal production and health as well as veterinary medicine to improve diagnosis, prevention and treatment of animal diseases. This book is suitable for both students and teachers in animal...

  14. Time-ordered product expansions for computational stochastic system biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjolsness, Eric

    2013-06-01

    The time-ordered product framework of quantum field theory can also be used to understand salient phenomena in stochastic biochemical networks. It is used here to derive Gillespie's stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) for chemical reaction networks; consequently, the SSA can be interpreted in terms of Feynman diagrams. It is also used here to derive other, more general simulation and parameter-learning algorithms including simulation algorithms for networks of stochastic reaction-like processes operating on parameterized objects, and also hybrid stochastic reaction/differential equation models in which systems of ordinary differential equations evolve the parameters of objects that can also undergo stochastic reactions. Thus, the time-ordered product expansion can be used systematically to derive simulation and parameter-fitting algorithms for stochastic systems.

  15. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  16. A turning point for natural product discovery--ESF-EMBO research conference: synthetic biology of antibiotic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Eriko; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Breitling, Rainer

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic Biology is in a critical phase of its development: it has finally reached the point where it can move from proof-of-principle studies to real-world applications. Secondary metabolite biosynthesis, especially the discovery and production of antibiotics, is a particularly relevant target area for such applications of synthetic biology. The first international conference to explore this subject was held in Spain in October 2011. In four sessions on General Synthetic Biology, Filamentous Fungal Systems, Actinomyces Systems, and Tools and Host Structures, scientists presented the most recent technological and scientific advances, and a final-day Forward Look Plenary Discussion identified future trends in the field.

  17. Physical influence on biological production along the western shelf of Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripp, T.; Gammelsrød, T.; Krakstad, J. O.

    2014-02-01

    In September 2009, the R.V. Dr. Fridtjof Nansen surveyed the western coast of Madagascar. Environmental parameters of temperature, salinity, fluorescence and oxygen were profiled with a CTD probe and continuously underway at 5 m utilising a thermosalinograph equipped with a fluorescence sensor. A ship mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) provided current profiles down to 250 m, while estimates of biomass were obtained from acoustics and trawling was used for species identification. In addition, visual whale observations were conducted. The survey revealed three areas that were identified as upwelling regions, namely the Southern Coast (26°S), offshore from Cap St. André (16°S) and near Nosy Be Island (13°S). In these upwelling regions, acoustic estimates, trawling and whale observations indicated high biological productivity. The total acoustic estimate for the whole western coast was as low as 62 000 t, typical for tropical waters. In addition to the upwelling areas, high biological productivity was also found outside river mouths. Ship born wind measurements, as well as re-analysed wind fields, indicated that the southern coast upwelling cell was wind-driven and had a larger extent than reported earlier. The wind conditions were not favourable for upwelling in the two northernmost upwelling cells. Here the ADCP showed high bottom velocities (>1 m s-1) oriented northeast. These currents were probably forced by the migrating eddies in the area as indicated by the remotely sensed Sea Level Anomaly (SLA). Such currents induce bottom friction layer transport oriented towards the coast, thus driving upwelling, although not necessarily penetrating all the way to the surface layer as was the case near Cap St. André.

  18. Removal of anaerobic soluble microbial products in a biological activated carbon reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaojing; Zhou, Weili; He, Shengbing

    2013-09-01

    The soluble microbial products (SMP) in the biological treatment effluent are generally of great amount and are poorly biodegradable. Focusing on the biodegradation of anaerobic SMP, the biological activated carbon (BAC) was introduced into the anaerobic system. The experiments were conducted in two identical lab-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. The high strength organics were degraded in the first UASB reactor (UASB1) and the second UASB (UASB2, i.e., BAC) functioned as a polishing step to remove SMP produced in UASB1. The results showed that 90% of the SMP could be removed before granular activated carbon was saturated. After the saturation, the SMP removal decreased to 60% on the average. Analysis of granular activated carbon adsorption revealed that the main role of SMP removal in BAC reactor was biodegradation. A strain of SMP-degrading bacteria, which was found highly similar to Klebsiella sp., was isolated, enriched and inoculated back to the BAC reactor. When the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 10,000 mg/L and the organic loading rate achieved 10 kg COD/(m3 x day), the effluent from the BAC reactor could meet the discharge standard without further treatment. Anaerobic BAC reactor inoculated with the isolated Klebsiella was proved to be an effective, cheap and easy technical treatment approach for the removal of SMP in the treatment of easily-degradable wastewater with COD lower than 10,000 mg/L.

  19. A model of the ocean iron cycle and its influence on biological production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, S.; Parekh, P.; Follows, M.

    2003-04-01

    Biological productivity in large regions of the ocean, specifically high nutrient, low chlorophyll regions, is limited by the deficit in iron relative to other nutrients. We have developed a parameterization of the iron cycle of the world's oceans which attempts to explicitly represent the processes by which this deficit in iron occurs. We have implemented this parameterization in the context of the MIT three dimensional global ocean model and examined the consequences for nutrient distributions, new production and primary production. The iron model parameterizes the mechanisms of scavenging of iron onto sinking particles and complexation with an organic ligand and is driven by specified aeolian flux patterns. First, using an idealized representation of export production, limited by light, phosphate and iron, the model reproduces the broad features of the observed ocean phosphate and iron distributions. We replace the simplified export parameterization with an explicit, but highly idealized, ecosystem model. The model represents a simplified food web with two phytoplankton size classes and a single grazer. The base currency for this model is phosphorus, but the larger phytoplankton class (i.e. diatoms) is also limited by silica. Both classes are limited by the availability of iron. The results of this model are also generally consistent with the observed patterns of phosphate and iron. In addition, the model captures the broad features of the distributions and cycles of silica, chlorophyll and primary production. We will also explore the sensitivities of this model to the forcing fields (e.g. aeolian iron flux) and parameter choices of the ecosystem model. This model represents a step towards the explicit representation of the ocean iron cycle, and its biogeochemical influences, in global biogeochemical models.

  20. Preface for special issue on biological products%生物制品专刊序言

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文军

    2011-01-01

    生物制品是一类预防,诊断和治疗疫病的特殊制剂.生物制品的研发是融合微生物学、免疫学、分子生物学、细胞学、基因工程及发酵工艺等学科知识的综合技术体现.生物制品产业是整个生物技术产业的核心和热点.近年来,我国在生物制品研发方面取得了较大进步,为促进我国生物制品研究的交流,本期"生物制品"专刊集中展现了我国生物制品研究人员在预防生物制品、诊断制品、治疗生物制品领域所取得的最新进展.%Biological products are a kind of special agents for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases. The research and development of biological products come from the combined knowledge of many subjects, such as microbiology,immunology, molecular biology, cytology, genetic engineering and fermentation technology. Biological products industry is the core and the hot spot of the biotechnology industry. In recent years, China has made some advances in biological products research and development. To promote biological products research in China, invited reviews and selected research articles were published in this special issue of “Biological Products”. The reviews and research articles focus on the field of the biological products for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease.

  1. Production, Secretion and Biological Activity of Bacillus cereus Enterotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Senesi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus behaves as an opportunistic pathogen frequently causing gastrointestinal diseases, and it is increasingly recognized to be responsible for severe local or systemic infections. Pathogenicity of B. cereus mainly relies on the secretion of a wide array of toxins and enzymes and also on the ability to undergo swarming differentiation in response to surface-sensing. In this report, the pathogenicity exerted by B. cereus toxins is described with particular attention to the regulatory mechanisms of production and secretion of HBL, Nhe and CytK enterotoxins.

  2. Regeneration of nutrients and biological productivity in Antarctic waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Somasundar, K.; Qasim, S.Z.

    regression coefficients (Alvarez Borrego et al. 1975). Linear mixing relationship» of the water masses were identified with the help of 8 salinity plots. Based on the end member characteris tics ()f the 2 water masses, the nutrient anomalies were derived... and from 0.4 to 3.33 mg C m- 3 h- 1 respectively (Table 1). In the eupho tic column daily production ranged from 0.3 to 1.03 g C m- 2 d- 1 and chlorophyll a from 21.1 to 85.5 mg m- 2 (Table 2). Microscopic examination of 500 ml of sedimented water samples...

  3. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches driving isoprenoid production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chonglong; Zada, Bakht; Wei, Gongyuan; Kim, Seon-Won

    2017-10-01

    Isoprenoids comprise the largest family of natural organic compounds with many useful applications in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and industrial fields. Rapid developments in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have facilitated the engineering of isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways in Escherichia coli to induce high levels of production of many different isoprenoids. In this review, the stem pathways for synthesizing isoprene units as well as the branch pathways deriving diverse isoprenoids from the isoprene units have been summarized. The review also highlights the metabolic engineering efforts made for the biosynthesis of hemiterpenoids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, carotenoids, retinoids, and coenzyme Q10 in E. coli. Perspectives and future directions for the synthesis of novel isoprenoids, decoration of isoprenoids using cytochrome P450 enzymes, and secretion or storage of isoprenoids in E. coli have also been included. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Network Based High Speed Product Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter

    In the first decade of the 21st century, New Product Development has undergone major changes in the way NPD is managed and organised. This is due to changes in technology, market demands, and in the competencies of companies. As a result NPD organised in different forms of networks is predicted...... to be of ever-increasing importance to many different kinds of companies. This happens at the same times as the share of new products of total turnover and earnings is increasing at unprecedented speed in many firms and industries. The latter results in the need for very fast innovation and product development...... - a need that can almost only be resolved by organising NPD in some form of network configuration. The work of Peter Lindgren is on several aspects of network based high speed product innovation and contributes to a descriptive understanding of this phenomenon as well as with normative theory on how NPD...

  5. SOURCE, PRODUCTION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF PICEATANNOL: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kukreja*, A. Mishra and A. Tiwari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are group of molecules which contain different families of secondary metabolites. Phenolic compounds, secondary metabolites, are abundantly found in plants and are mostly categorized into two major groups: non-soluble compounds and soluble compounds. Stilbenes which come under the category of soluble compounds of phenolics are small molecules, ranges in their weight from ~200 to 300 g/mol and are found in diverse plants. These compounds are produced in plants via phenylpropanoid pathway. Under unfavourable conditions such as microbial or viral attack, ultraviolet light exposure and disease in plants, stilbenes are synthesized and act as natural agents to protect plants. Piceatannol, a natural stilbene, is found in different plant species and is beneficial for human health. It possesses various pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. This review paper focuses on piceatannol, its sources, chemical synthesis mechanism, production and its useful applications in various diseases.

  6. Development of biological functional material and product from Nelumbo nucifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Il Yun; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong

    2008-01-15

    The solvent extracts of Nelumbo nucifera G. were investigated for the activities of antioxidant, whitening, anti-wrinkle and antimicrobial effects to apply as a functional ingredient for cosmetic products. The electron donating ability of irradiated NN-L extract was above 85% at the concentration of 50ppm. The superoxide dismutase(SOD)-like activity of irradiated NN-L extract was about 76% at 1,000ppm concentration. The xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect of irradiated NN-L extract was about 15% at 1,000ppm. The tyrosinase inhibitory effect of irradiated NN-L extract was about 18% at 1,000ppm. Anti-wrinkle effect, the elastase inhibition activity of irradiated NN-L extract was about 45% at 1,000ppm concentration. All these findings suggested that Nelumbo nucifera G. has a great potential as a cosmeceutical ingredient.

  7. A novel biological hydrogen production system. Impact of organic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George; El Naggar, Hesham [Western Ontario Univ. (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The patent-pending system comprises a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler for decoupling of SRT from HRT. Two biohydrogenators were operated for 220 days at 37 C, hydraulic retention time 8 h and solids retention time ranged from 1.4 to 2 days under four different glucose concentrations of 2, 8, 16, 32, 48 and 64 g/L, corresponding to organic loading rates of 6.5-206 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, and started up using anaerobically-digested sludge from the St. Marys wastewater treatment plant (St.Mary, Ontario, Canada) as the seed. The system steadily produced hydrogen with no methane. A maximum hydrogen yield of 3.1 mol H{sub 2} /mol glucose was achieved in the system for all the organic loading rates with an average of 2.8mol H{sub 2} /mol glucose. Acetate and butyrate were the main effluent liquid products at concentrations ranging from 640-7400 mg/L and 400-4600 mg/l, respectively, with no lactate detection. Microbial community analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) confirmed the absence of lactate producing bacteria Lactobacillus fermentum and other non-hydrogen producing species, and the predominance of various Clostridium species. Biomass concentrations in the biohydrogenators were steady, during the runs, varying form 1500 mg/L at the OLR of 6.5 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d to 14000 mg/L at the 104 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, thus emphasizing the potential of this novel system for sustained stable hydrogen production and prevention of biomass washout. (orig.)

  8. Marketing mix for consumer high technology products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovleac, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes an analysis upon the variables of marketing mix for high technology products used for individual consumption. There are exposed the essential aspects related to marketing policies and strategies used by high technology companies for providing consumers the best solutions tailored to their needs. A special attention is given to the necessity for inclusion in the marketing mix of the fifth element – the assistance and informational support for customers.

  9. Production of highly pure einsteinium and fermium preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, O.I.; Tarasov, V.A.; Zotov, E.A.; Baranov, A.Yu. [Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' ' State Scientific Center of Russian Federation Research Institute of Atomic Reactors' ' (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Highly pure einsteinium and fermium preparations are in increased demand due to the progress of the following fields of modern sciences: Fundamental and applied nuclear physics. Heavy actinides are necessary for detailed study of structure and decay of a nucleus, as well as initial material both for nuclear synthesis of new superheavy elements and for manufacturing radioactive radiation sources. Fundamental and applied radiochemistry. Einsteinium and fermium preparations are required to investigate chemical properties of these hard-to-obtain elements and to improve technology of their recovery and purification. Nuclear medicine. Biologically active compounds labeled with alpha- emitting einsteinium and fermium may be applied in prospect for a radioimmunotherapy of oncological diseases. The principal method of einsteinium and fermium production is irradiation of curium or californium isotopes in a high-flux nuclear reactor. Large-scale production of transplutonium elements at RIAR enables also to produce regularly significant quantities of einsteinium and fermium. (orig.)

  10. Predictive Analyses of Biological Effects of Natural Products: From Plant Extracts to Biomolecular Laboratory and Computer Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gambari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Year by year, the characterization of the biological activity of natural products is becoming more competitive and complex, with the involvement in this research area of experts belonging to different scientific fields, including chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology and bioinformatics. These fields are becoming of great interest for several high-impact scientific journals, including eCAM. The available literature in general, and a survey of reviews and original articles recently published, establishes that natural products, including extracts from medicinal plants and essential oils, retain interesting therapeutic activities, including antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic and differentiating properties. In this commentary, we focus attention on interest in networks based on complementary activation and comparative evaluation of different experimental strategies applied to the discovery and characterization of bioactive natural products. A representative flow chart is shown in the paper.

  11. Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers: an FDA Perspective on Utilization in Biological Product Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Robert N; Grillo, Joseph A

    2016-05-01

    Precision medicine promises to improve both the efficacy and safety of therapeutic products by better informing why some patients respond well to a drug, and some experience adverse reactions, while others do not. Pharmacogenomics is a key component of precision medicine and can be utilized to select optimal doses for patients, more precisely identify individuals who will respond to a treatment and avoid serious drug-related toxicities. Since pharmacogenomic biomarker information can help inform drug dosing, efficacy, and safety, pharmacogenomic data are critically reviewed by FDA staff to ensure effective use of pharmacogenomic strategies in drug development and appropriate incorporation into product labels. Pharmacogenomic information may be provided in drug or biological product labeling to inform health care providers about the impact of genotype on response to a drug through description of relevant genomic markers, functional effects of genomic variants, dosing recommendations based on genotype, and other applicable genomic information. The format and content of labeling for biologic drugs will generally follow that of small molecule drugs; however, there are notable differences in pharmacogenomic information that might be considered useful for biologic drugs in comparison to small molecule drugs. Furthermore, the rapid entry of biologic drugs for treatment of rare genetic diseases and molecularly defined subsets of common diseases will likely lead to increased use of pharmacogenomic information in biologic drug labels in the near future. In this review, we outline the general principles of therapeutic product labeling and discuss the utilization of pharmacogenomic information in biologic drug labels.

  12. Curriculum and Instructional Validity of the Scientific Literacy Themes Covered in Zambian High School Biology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabalengula, Vivien M.; Mumba, Frackson; Lorsbach, Tony; Moore, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the nature and extent of scientific literacy (SL) themes coverage in Zambian national high school biology curriculum. The three data sources are biology textbooks, biology syllabi, and grade twelve national biology examination papers for a five-year period (2000-2004). These data sources were analyzed…

  13. Evaluating High School Students' Anxiety and Self-Efficacy towards Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Osman; Yilmaz, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and self-efficacy are among the factors that impact students' performance in biology. The current study aims to investigate high school students' perception of biology anxiety and self-efficacy, in relation to gender, grade level, interest in biology, negative experience associated with biology classes, and teachers' approaches in the…

  14. The Effectiveness of an Online Curriculum on High School Students' Understanding of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsteller, Robert B.; Bodzin, Alec M.

    2015-01-01

    An online curriculum about biological evolution was designed to promote increased student content knowledge and evidentiary reasoning. A feasibility study was conducted with 77 rural high school biology students who learned with the online biological evolution unit. Data sources included the Biological Evolution Assessment Measure (BEAM), an…

  15. Evaluating High School Students' Anxiety and Self-Efficacy towards Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Osman; Yilmaz, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and self-efficacy are among the factors that impact students' performance in biology. The current study aims to investigate high school students' perception of biology anxiety and self-efficacy, in relation to gender, grade level, interest in biology, negative experience associated with biology classes, and teachers' approaches in the…

  16. The Effectiveness of an Online Curriculum on High School Students' Understanding of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsteller, Robert B.; Bodzin, Alec M.

    2015-01-01

    An online curriculum about biological evolution was designed to promote increased student content knowledge and evidentiary reasoning. A feasibility study was conducted with 77 rural high school biology students who learned with the online biological evolution unit. Data sources included the Biological Evolution Assessment Measure (BEAM), an…

  17. Metabolic Engineering for Production of Biorenewable Fuels and Chemicals: Contributions of Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Jarboe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemical-based production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibitors, and their target products. Traditional metabolic engineering has made great advances in this area, but synthetic biology has contributed and will continue to contribute to this field, particularly with next-generation biofuels. This work reviews the use of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in biocatalyst engineering for biorenewable fuels and chemicals production, such as ethanol, butanol, acetate, lactate, succinate, alanine, and xylitol. We also examine the existing challenges in this area and discuss strategies for improving biocatalyst tolerance to chemical inhibitors.

  18. DNA assembler: a synthetic biology tool for characterizing and engineering natural product gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zengyi; Zhao, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    The majority of existing antibacterial and anticancer drugs are natural products or their derivatives. However, the characterization and engineering of these compounds are often hampered by limited ability to manipulate the corresponding biosynthetic pathways. Recently, we developed a genomics-driven, synthetic biology-based method, DNA assembler, for discovery, characterization, and engineering of natural product biosynthetic pathways (Shao, Luo, & Zhao, 2011). By taking advantage of the highly efficient yeast in vivo homologous recombination mechanism, this method synthesizes the entire expression vector containing the target biosynthetic pathway and the genetic elements needed for DNA maintenance and replication in individual hosts in a single-step manner. In this chapter, we describe the general guidelines for construct design. By using two distinct biosynthetic pathways, we demonstrate that DNA assembler can perform multiple tasks, including heterologous expression, introduction of single or multiple point mutations, scar-less gene deletion, generation of product derivatives, and creation of artificial gene clusters. As such, this method offers unprecedented flexibility and versatility in pathway manipulations.

  19. Effect of salinity on N₂O production during shortcut biological nitrogen removal from landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mu; Liu, Tiantian; Peng, Yongzhen; Wang, Shuying; Xiao, Han

    2014-05-01

    Three identical SBR adapted to different salinity were applied to investigate the characteristics of the treatment performance and N2O production [Formula: see text] during shortcut biological nitrogen removal from landfill leachate under various operating parameters. Increase of salinity might deteriorate the activity of the microorganisms leading to the increase of [Formula: see text] , however, the system could be gradually adapted to the inhibition and alleviate the detrimental effect to some extent. The system acclimated to high salinity provided better performance under high salinity shock and a lower possibility of [Formula: see text] , while a sudden decrease in salinity can cause a temporary increase in [Formula: see text] . High salinity strengthened the influence of high ammonia nitrogen concentration and low DO concentration on [Formula: see text] while the strengthening effect was unconspicuous at high DO concentration. The anoxic phase did not produce a significant amount of N2O even at the lowest C/N ratio of 0.5 and was less susceptible to salinity. Characterization of the biomass composition using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed that the relative proportion of Nitrosomonas europaea was increased with the increase of the salinity, which may be an important factor for the strengthening effect of salinity on [Formula: see text] .

  20. High-valent iron in chemical and biological oxidations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, John T

    2006-04-01

    Various aspects of the reactivity of iron(IV) in chemical and biological systems are reviewed. Accumulated evidence shows that the ferryl species [Fe(IV)O](2+) can be formed under a variety of conditions including those related to the ferrous ion-hydrogen peroxide system known as Fenton's reagent. Early evidence that such a species could hydroxylate typical aliphatic C-H bonds included regioselectivities and stereospecificities for cyclohexanol hydroxylation that could not be accounted for by a freely diffusing hydroxyl radical. Iron(IV) porphyrin complexes are also found in the catalytic cycles of cytochrome P450 and chloroperoxidase. Model oxo-iron(IV) porphyrin complexes have shown reactivity similar to the proposed enzymatic intermediates. Mechanistic studies using mechanistically diagnostic substrates have implicated a radical rebound scenario for aliphatic hydroxylation by cytochrome P450. Likewise, several non-heme diiron hydroxylases, AlkB (Omega-hydroxylase), sMMO (soluble methane monooxygenase), XylM (xylene monooxygenase) and T4moH (toluene monooxygenase) all show clear indications of radical rearranged products indicating that the oxygen rebound pathway is a ubiquitous mechanism for hydrocarbon oxygenation by both heme and non-heme iron enzymes.

  1. An adapted F-test for homogeneity of variability in follow-on biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Zhang, Nan; Chow, Shein-Chung; Chi, Eric

    2013-02-10

    In recent years, follow-on biological products (biosimilars) have received much attention from both the biotechnology industry and the regulatory agencies, especially after the passage of the 2010 healthcare reform bill. Unlike the traditional small-molecule drug products, the development of biological products is not only more complicated but also sensitive to small changes (both mean and variation) in procedure/environment during the manufacturing process because of some fundamental differences between drug products and biological products. A small change will have an impact on the quality of the product and consequently the treatment effect. Thus, in addition to the assessment of biosimilarity in average, it was suggested that biosimilarity in variability between biological products should be assessed. In this article, we propose an adapted F-test for homogeneity of variances to assess biosimilarity in variability. We study the performance and concordance of the proposed adapted F-test and compare it with probability-based method by extensive Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. Future Food Production System Development Pulling from Space Biology Crop Growth Testing in Veggie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, G. D.; Romeyn, M. W.; Fritsche, R. F.

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary crop testing using Veggie indicates the environmental conditions provided by the ISS are generally suitable for food crop production. When plant samples were returned to Earth for analysis, their levels of nutrients were comparable to Earth-grown ground controls. Veggie-grown produce food safety microbiology analysis indicated that space-grown crops are safe to consume. Produce sanitizing wipes were used on-orbit to further reduce risk of foodborne illness. Validation growth tests indicated abiotic challenges of insufficient or excess fluid delivery, potentially reduced air flow leading to excess water, elevated CO2 leading to physiological responses, and microorganisms that became opportunistic pathogens. As NASA works to develop future space food production, several areas of research to define these systems pull from the Veggie technology validation tests. Research into effective, reusable water delivery and water recovery methods for future food production systems arises from abiotic challenges observed. Additionally, impacts of elevated CO2 and refinement of fertilizer and light recipes for crops needs to be assessed. Biotic pulls include methods or technologies to effectively sanitize produce with few consumables and low inputs; work to understand the phytomicrobiome and potentially use it to protect crops or enhance growth; selection of crops with high harvest index and desirable flavors for supplemental nutrition; crops that provide psychosocial benefits, and custom space crop development. Planning for future food production in a deep space gateway or a deep space transit vehicle requires methods of handling and storing seeds, and ensuring space seeds are free of contaminants and long-lived. Space food production systems may require mechanization and autonomous operation, with preliminary testing initiated to identify operations and capabilities that are candidates for automation. Food production design is also pulling from Veggie logistics

  3. Animal protein production modules in biological life support systems: Novel combined aquaculture techniques based on the closed equilibrated biological aquatic system (C.E.B.A.S.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Kreuzberg, K.; Schreibman, M. P.

    Based on the experiences made with the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) which was primarily deveoloped for long-term and multi-generation experiments with aquatic animals and plants in a space station highly effective fresh water recycling modules were elaborated utilizing a combination of ammonia oxidizing bacteria filters and higher plants. These exhibit a high effectivity to eliminate phosphate and anorganic nitrogen compounds and arc. in addidition. able to contribute to the oxygen supply of the aquatic animals. The C.E.B.A.S. filter system is able to keep a closed artificial aquatic ecosystem containing teleost fishes and water snails biologically stable for several month and to eliminate waste products deriving from degraded dead fishes without a decrease of the oxygen concentration down to less than 3.5 mg/l at 25 °C. More advanced C.E.B.A.S. filter systems, the BIOCURE filters, were also developed for utilization in semiintensive and intensive aquaculture systems for fishes. In fact such combined animal-plant aquaculture systems represent highly effective productions sites for human food if proper plant and fish species are selected The present papers elucidates ways to novel aquaculture systems in which herbivorous fishes are raised by feeding them with plant biomass produced in the BIOCURE filters and presents the scheme of a modification which utilizes a plant species suitable also for human nutrition. Special attention is paid to the benefits of closed aquaculture system modules which may be integrated into bioregenerative life support systems of a higher complexity for, e. g.. lunar or planetary bases including some psychologiccal aspects of the introduction of animal protein production into plant-based life support systems. Moreover, the basic reproductive biological problems of aquatic animal breeding under reduced gravity are explained leading to a disposition of essential research programs in this context.

  4. PRODUCTION OF HIGH QUALITY LUBRICATING BASE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@High VI lubricating oil is produced in hydrocracker through hydrocracking (HDC) and hydroisome-rization reactions. In order to effectively produce high VI component, such as iso-pafaffins and monocyclic naphtenes, it is important to load suitable HDC catalysts and operate them in the appropriate reaction conditions.   Nippon Mitsubishi Oil Corporation (NMOC) and its affiliate company, Nippon Mitsubishi Petroleum Refining Company (NMPRC) reported their original HDC catalysts four years ago in this Japan-China joint se-minar in Beijing[1]. NMOC and NMPRC operate their hydrocracker both in fuel oil production mode and in lubricating oil production mode. In lubricating oil production mode, high VI lubricating oil called VHDC are produced.   In this paper, at first, the advantages of high VI lubricating oil are described. And then it is announced that NMOC and NMPRC have developed a new generation of HDC catalyst with higher cracking activity, higher middle distillate selectivity and longer life than the other commercial HDC catalysts. In addition to those properties, the catalyst is able to yield high VI lubricating oil as well.

  5. Removal of disinfection by-products formation potential by biologically intensified process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Dong; LI Wei-guang; CUI Fu-yi; HE Xin; ZHANG Jin-song

    2005-01-01

    The removal of disinfection by-products formation potential(DBPFP) in artificially intensified biological activated carbon(IBAC) process which is developed on the basis of traditional ozone granular activated carbon was evaluated. By IBAC removals of 31% and 68% for THMFP and HAAFP were obtained respectively. Under identical conditions, the removals of the same substances were 4% and 32% respectively only by the granular activated carbon(GAC) process. Compared with GAC, the high removal rates of the two formed potential substances were due to the increasing of bioactivity of the media and the synergistic capabilities of biological degradation cooperating with activated carbon adsorption of organic compounds. A clear linear correlation ( R2 = 0.9562 and R2 = 0.9007) between DOC HAAFP removal rate and Empty Bed Contact Time(EBCT) of IBAC process was observed, while that between THMFP removal rate and EBCT of GAC was R2 = 0.9782. In addition certain linear correlations between THMFP, HAAFP and UV254 ( R2 = 0.855 and R2 = 0.7702) were found for the treated water. For IBAC process there are also more advantages such as long backwashing cycle time, low backwashing intensity and prolonging activated carbon lifetime and so on.

  6. Physicochemical and biological comparison of the first Brazilian biosimilar filgrastim with its reference product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantovani M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Monique Mantovani,1,2 Cecilia Sulzbacher Caruso,1 Fernanda Dell Antonio Facchini,1 Renata Pascon,1,3 Patrícia Ribeiro Vilaça Cagnacci,1 Vanda Dolabela de Magalhães1 1Department of Biotechnology, Eurofarma Laboratórios SA, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2Libbs Farmacêutica Ltda, Embu das Artes, SP, Brazil; 3Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, Diadema, SP, Brazil Abstract: The registration of biosimilars requires comparison studies to reference products to guarantee their safety, purity, efficacy, and potency. In this study, we demonstrate the similarity of a filgrastim produced by Eurofarma (Fiprima® and one produced by Amgen Inc. (commercialized by Hoffman-La Roche Ltd, Granulokine® in terms of drug identity, structure, purity, and bioactivity. The methods used to compare both products were the following: peptide mapping, bidimensional electrophoresis, reduced and nonreduced polyacrylamide electrophoresis, Western blotting, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography, far and near circular dichroism, fluorescence emission, X-ray crystallography, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight, receptor binding, and potency by in vitro cell proliferation. Biosimilarity to Granulokine was demonstrated in terms of identity, structure, purity, and bioactivity. Keywords: filgrastim, biosimilar, biopharmaceutical, G-CSF, comparability, neutropenia

  7. Biological factors influencing production of xanthones in Aphloia theiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danthu, Pascal; Lubrano, Christian; Flavet, Laurence; Rahajanirina, Voninavoko; Behra, Olivier; Fromageot, Claude; Rabevohitra, Raymond; Roger, Edmond

    2010-01-01

    Xanthones, and more specifically mangiferin, are molecules used in cosmetics for their photoprotective and anti-aging properties. The richness in xanthones of Aphloia theiformis leaves, a common shrub in Madagascar, can reach almost 12% (in relation to dry biomass). Amongst the A. theiformis studied, two major groups of individuals have been determined: those presenting a high proportion of mangiferin (up to 80% of the xanthones) and those presenting a high proportion of polar xanthones (not yet identified). Our study shows that: i) for each subject, the xanthone content remains stable over time (no seasonal variation); ii) the majority of the trees developing in the light belong to the first group (rich in mangiferin), whereas the individuals growing in the undergrowth are richer in polar xanthones; iii) the distribution of the two groups seems not to have any correlation with taxonomy and, moreover, with the known varieties of A. theiformis, although the micrantha variety is richer in mangiferin. Overall, this information indicates that A. theiformis is a reservoir of xanthones and makes it possible to define a framework for its reasoned management.

  8. A High-Throughput Biological Calorimetry Core: Steps to Startup, Run, and Maintain a Multiuser Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennawar, Neela H; Fecko, Julia A; Showalter, Scott A; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2016-01-01

    Many labs have conventional calorimeters where denaturation and binding experiments are setup and run one at a time. While these systems are highly informative to biopolymer folding and ligand interaction, they require considerable manual intervention for cleaning and setup. As such, the throughput for such setups is limited typically to a few runs a day. With a large number of experimental parameters to explore including different buffers, macromolecule concentrations, temperatures, ligands, mutants, controls, replicates, and instrument tests, the need for high-throughput automated calorimeters is on the rise. Lower sample volume requirements and reduced user intervention time compared to the manual instruments have improved turnover of calorimetry experiments in a high-throughput format where 25 or more runs can be conducted per day. The cost and efforts to maintain high-throughput equipment typically demands that these instruments be housed in a multiuser core facility. We describe here the steps taken to successfully start and run an automated biological calorimetry facility at Pennsylvania State University. Scientists from various departments at Penn State including Chemistry, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biology, Food Science, and Chemical Engineering are benefiting from this core facility. Samples studied include proteins, nucleic acids, sugars, lipids, synthetic polymers, small molecules, natural products, and virus capsids. This facility has led to higher throughput of data, which has been leveraged into grant support, attracting new faculty hire and has led to some exciting publications. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced biological carbon consumption in a high CO2 ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebesell, U; Schulz, K G; Bellerby, R G J; Botros, M; Fritsche, P; Meyerhöfer, M; Neill, C; Nondal, G; Oschlies, A; Wohlers, J; Zöllner, E

    2007-11-22

    The oceans have absorbed nearly half of the fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted into the atmosphere since pre-industrial times, causing a measurable reduction in seawater pH and carbonate saturation. If CO2 emissions continue to rise at current rates, upper-ocean pH will decrease to levels lower than have existed for tens of millions of years and, critically, at a rate of change 100 times greater than at any time over this period. Recent studies have shown effects of ocean acidification on a variety of marine life forms, in particular calcifying organisms. Consequences at the community to ecosystem level, in contrast, are largely unknown. Here we show that dissolved inorganic carbon consumption of a natural plankton community maintained in mesocosm enclosures at initial CO2 partial pressures of 350, 700 and 1,050 microatm increases with rising CO2. The community consumed up to 39% more dissolved inorganic carbon at increased CO2 partial pressures compared to present levels, whereas nutrient uptake remained the same. The stoichiometry of carbon to nitrogen drawdown increased from 6.0 at low CO2 to 8.0 at high CO2, thus exceeding the Redfield carbon:nitrogen ratio of 6.6 in today's ocean. This excess carbon consumption was associated with higher loss of organic carbon from the upper layer of the stratified mesocosms. If applicable to the natural environment, the observed responses have implications for a variety of marine biological and biogeochemical processes, and underscore the importance of biologically driven feedbacks in the ocean to global change.

  10. Occurrence, pathways and implications of biological production of reactive oxygen species in natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Hansel, C. M.; Voelker, B. M.; Lamborg, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) play a critical role in the redox cycling of both toxic (e.g., Hg) and nutrient (e.g., Fe) metals. Despite the discovery of extracellular ROS production in various microbial cultures, including fungi, algae and bacteria, photo-dependent processes are generally considered as the predominant source of ROS in natural waters. Here we show that biological production of ROS is ubiquitous and occurs at a significant rate in freshwater and brackish water environments. Water samples were collected from three freshwater and one brackish water ponds in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, periodically from 2012 to 2014. Production of O2- and H2O2 were measured in dark incubations of natural water using a chemiluminescent and a colorimetric probe, respectively. Rates of biological ROS production were obtained by comparing unfiltered with 0.2-μm filtered samples. The role of biological activity in ROS production was confirmed by the cessation of ROS production upon addition of formaldehyde. In surface water, production rates of O2- ranged from undetectable to 96.0 ± 30.0 nmol L-1 h-1, and production rates of H2O2 varied between 9.9 ± 1.3 nmol L-1 h-1 and 145.6 ± 11.2 nmol L-1 h-1. The maximum production rates of both ROS were observed in mid-summer 2013, which coincides with peak biological activity. ROS production in the water from aphotic zone was greater than in the water from photic zone. Thus, non-light dependent biological processes are likely the major contributors to ROS production in this system. Moreover, O2- production appeared to be enhanced by NADH and inhibited by proteinase-K, suggesting the possible involvement of NADH oxidoreductases in this process. The potential role of different microbial communities in ROS production, and the implications of biological ROS production for mercury speciation will also be discussed.

  11. A turning point for natural product discovery - ESF-EMBO research conference : synthetic biology of antibiotic production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takano, Eriko; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Breitling, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is in a critical phase of its development: it has finally reached the point where it can move from proof-of-principle studies to real-world applications. Secondary metabolite biosynthesis, especially the discovery and production of antibiotics, is a particularly relevant target are

  12. A turning point for natural product discovery - ESF-EMBO research conference : synthetic biology of antibiotic production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takano, Eriko; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Breitling, Rainer

    Synthetic Biology is in a critical phase of its development: it has finally reached the point where it can move from proof-of-principle studies to real-world applications. Secondary metabolite biosynthesis, especially the discovery and production of antibiotics, is a particularly relevant target

  13. [Highly sensitive detection technology for biological toxins applying sugar epitopes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Hirotaka

    2009-01-01

    The Shiga toxin is a highly poisonous protein produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157. This bacterial toxin causes the hemolytic uremic syndrome. Another plant toxin from castor beans, ricin, is also highly toxic. The toxin was used for assassination in London. Recently, there were several cases of postal matter containing ricin. Both toxins are categorized as biological warfare agents by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. Conventional detection methods based on the antigen-antibody reaction, PCR and other cell-free assays have been proposed. However, those approaches have drawbacks in terms of sensitivity, analytical time, or stability of the detection reagents. Therefore, development of a facile and sensitive detection method is essential. Here we describe new detection methods applying carbohydrate epitopes as the toxin ligands, which is based on the fact that the toxins bind cell-surface oligosaccharides. Namely, the Shiga toxin has an affinity for globobiosyl (Gb(2)) disaccharide, and ricin binds the beta-D-galactose residue. For Shiga toxin detection, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was applied. A polyanionic Gb(2)-glycopolymer was designed for this purpose, and it was used for the assembly of Gb(2)-chips using alternating layer-by-layer technology. The method allowed us to detect the toxin at a low concentration of LD(50). A synthetic carbohydrate ligand for ricin was designed and immobilized on the chips. SPR analysis with the chips allows us to detect ricin in a highly sensitive and facile manner (10 pg/ml, 5 min). Our present approaches provide a highly effective way to counter bioterrorism.

  14. Biological waste by-production costs in forest management and possibilities for their reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kadlec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastes in forestry were observed from view of their by-production in silvicultural and logging operations. There were identified points where biological waste was produced in this paper, waste costs ratio for silvicultural and logging operations and were made suggestions for reduction of these costs. Biological waste costs give 34.4% of total costs of silvicultural operations and 30% of total costs of logging operations. Natural regeneration and minor forest produce operations are opportunities for reduction of these costs.

  15. Optoelectronic method for determining platinum in biological products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Simona; Ionicǎ, Mihai; Macovei, Radu Alexandru; Caragea, Genica; Forje, Mǎrgǎrita; Grecu, Iulia; Vlǎdescu, Marian; Viscol, Oana

    2016-12-01

    Of all platinum metals, platinum has the most uses and it's the most abundant and most easily to be processed. Its use in auto catalysts results in environmental contamination of crowded cities and high-traffic roads. In medicine, Pt is used as a cytostatic drug. In order to study the degree of contamination of the population with Pt or the correctness of treatment with Pt, it has been developed a method for its determination from urine or blood samples with a system Graphite Furnance - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, (GF-AAS) Varian. There are presented the methods of sampling processing for blood or urine that followed the digest of the organic matrix. In the determination of the operating parameters for the system GF-AAS, was aimed the reducing of the nonanatomic absorbance by optimizing the drying temperatures, the calcination and atomization temperatures and the removal of the nonanatomic absorbance with D2 lamp. As a result of the use of the method are presented the concentrations of Pt in the blood or urine of a group of patients in Bucharest, a city with heavy traffic of vehicles. GF-AAS method presented is sensitive, reproducible, and relatively easy to apply with an acceptable cost. With this method, the concentration of Pt can be determined from blood and urine, both in order to establish the degree of contamination with Pt and for monitoring cancer therapy with platinum compounds.

  16. Recent progress in synthetic biology for microbial production of C3-C10 alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna N. Lamsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing need to address current energy and environmental problems has sparked an interest in developing improved biological methods to produce liquid fuels from renewable sources. While microbial ethanol production is well established, higher chain alcohols possess chemical properties that are more similar to gasoline. Unfortunately, these alcohols (except 1-butanol are not produced efficiently in natural microorganisms, and thus economical production in industrial volumes remains a challenge. Synthetic biology, however, offers additional tools to engineer synthetic pathways in user-friendly hosts to help increase titers and productivity of these advanced biofuels. This review concentrates on recent developments in synthetic biology to produce higher-chain alcohols as viable renewable replacements for traditional fuel.

  17. The hydrolytic products of aluminum and their biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, P M

    1990-03-01

    The relative distribution of Al between its various organic and inorganic complexes dictates its mobility in the environment, bioavailability, and toxicity. In recent years, there has been significant progress made in understanding the differential bioavailability and toxicity of various chemical species of Al to plants and certain aquatic organisms. Far less information concerning chemical speciation and differential uptake and transport of Al in humans is available. Among the important inorganic complexes of interest are the hydrolyzed-Al species, particularly the nonequilibrium, metastable polynuclear complexes, which form readily, have a fairly wide stability range, and have been demonstrated toxic to plants and fish. In recent years(27)Al NMR spectroscopy has provided significant direct information on the polynuclear complexes existing in a wide range of aqueous solutions. The [Al12O4(OH)24+n(H2O)12-n]((7-n)+) polynuclear complex is often found to be the predominant species in partially neutralized Al solutions and has recently been demonstrated to be more toxic to certain plants than the hexaaqua Al cation. It is also the principal component of Al-chlorohydrate, a highly soluble antiperspirant, present in many hydrolyzed Al solutions utilized in water and waste water treatment, and, as hypothesized herein, a primary constituent of many hydroxide gels utilized as antacids. This polynuclear has a wide pH stability range, reportedly forms copolynuclears with Si, and contains tetrahedrally coordinated Al within its structure, all features that may be relevant to the recently reported properties of Al associated with neuritic plaque cores.

  18. Next generation high productivity submerged arc welding

    OpenAIRE

    LANGENOJA, MARKUS; Öhrvall Karlsson, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The task of designing concepts for the next generation of submerged arc welding heads was given by ESAB. ESAB is a global company manufacturing welding equipment for a wide span of industries and uses. In October 2011, ESAB introduced a new technology called Integrated Cold Electrode™, abbreviated and trademarked as ICE™. ICE™ is a technique which utilizes three electrodes in a highly productive and stable process. The current state of the ICE™ technique focuses on welding thick plates with c...

  19. Bioinformatics for the synthetic biology of natural products: integrating across the Design–Build–Test cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin, Andrew; Jervis, Adrian J.; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Swainston, Neil; Yan, Cunyu; Breitling, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Covering: 2000 to 2016 Progress in synthetic biology is enabled by powerful bioinformatics tools allowing the integration of the design, build and test stages of the biological engineering cycle. In this review we illustrate how this integration can be achieved, with a particular focus on natural products discovery and production. Bioinformatics tools for the DESIGN and BUILD stages include tools for the selection, synthesis, assembly and optimization of parts (enzymes and regulatory elements), devices (pathways) and systems (chassis). TEST tools include those for screening, identification and quantification of metabolites for rapid prototyping. The main advantages and limitations of these tools as well as their interoperability capabilities are highlighted. PMID:27185383

  20. Influence of organic fertilizer Biopro- ferm on ecological, biological and agrochemical properties of soil and winter wheat productivity

    OpenAIRE

    V. Gnydjuk

    2012-01-01

    Results of research on the effect of organic fertilizer Bioproferm obtained by biological fermentation of organic wastes of livestock and poultry facilities, environmental, biological and agrochemical soil properties and productivity of winter wheat

  1. The JCSG high-throughput structural biology pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsliger, Marc André; Deacon, Ashley M; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A; Wooley, John; Wüthrich, Kurt; Wilson, Ian A

    2010-10-01

    The Joint Center for Structural Genomics high-throughput structural biology pipeline has delivered more than 1000 structures to the community over the past ten years. The JCSG has made a significant contribution to the overall goal of the NIH Protein Structure Initiative (PSI) of expanding structural coverage of the protein universe, as well as making substantial inroads into structural coverage of an entire organism. Targets are processed through an extensive combination of bioinformatics and biophysical analyses to efficiently characterize and optimize each target prior to selection for structure determination. The pipeline uses parallel processing methods at almost every step in the process and can adapt to a wide range of protein targets from bacterial to human. The construction, expansion and optimization of the JCSG gene-to-structure pipeline over the years have resulted in many technological and methodological advances and developments. The vast number of targets and the enormous amounts of associated data processed through the multiple stages of the experimental pipeline required the development of variety of valuable resources that, wherever feasible, have been converted to free-access web-based tools and applications.

  2. Photothermal Microscopy for High Sensitivity and High Resolution Absorption Contrast Imaging of Biological Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Miyazaki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Photothermal microscopy is useful to visualize the distribution of non-fluorescence chromoproteins in biological specimens. Here, we developed a high sensitivity and high resolution photothermal microscopy with low-cost and compact laser diodes as light sources. A new detection scheme for improving signal to noise ratio more than 4-fold is presented. It is demonstrated that spatial resolution in photothermal microscopy is up to nearly twice as high as that in the conventional widefield microscopy. Furthermore, we demonstrated the ability for distinguishing or identifying biological molecules with simultaneous muti-wavelength imaging. Simultaneous photothermal and fluorescence imaging of mouse brain tissue was conducted to visualize both neurons expressing yellow fluorescent protein and endogenous non-fluorescent chromophores.

  3. Frontiers in Microbiology: Envisioning a Curriculum Unit for High School Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Bloom

    2004-06-18

    Microbiology is undergoing a quiet revolution. Techniques such as polymerase chain reaction, high throughput DNA sequencing, whole genome shotgun sequencing, DNA microarrays, and bioinformatics analyses are greatly aiding our understanding of the estimated one billion species of microbes that inhabit the Earth. Unfortunately, the rapid pace of research in microbiology stands in contrast to the much slower pace of change in educational reform. Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) hosted a two-day planning meeting to discuss whether or not a new curriculum unit on microbiology is desirable for the high school audience. Attending the meeting were microbiologists, high school biology teachers, and science educators. The consensus of the participants was that an inquiry-based unit dealing with advances in microbiology should be developed for a high school biology audience. Participants established content priorities for the unit, discussed the unit's conceptual flow, brainstormed potential student activities, and discussed the role of educational technology for the unit. As a result of the planning meeting discussions, BSCS staff sought additional funding to develop, disseminate, and evaluate the Frontiers in Microbiology curriculum unit. This unit was intended to be developed as a replacement unit suitable for an introductory biology course. The unit would feature inquiry-based student activities and provide approximately four weeks of instruction. As appropriate, activities would make use of multimedia. The development and production processes would require about two years for completion. Unfortunately, BSCS staff was not able to attract sufficient funding to develop the proposed curriculum unit. Since there were some unexpended funds left over from the planning meeting, BSCS requested and received permission from DOE to use the balance of the funds to prepare background materials about advances in microbiology that would be useful to teachers. These

  4. Removal of anaerobic soluble microbial products in a biological activated carbon reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing Dong; Weili Zhou; Shengbing He

    2013-01-01

    The soluble microbial products (SMP) in the biological treatment effluent are generally of great amount and are poorly biodegradable.Focusing on the biodegradation of anaerobic SMP,the biological activated carbon (BAC) was introduced into the anaerobic system.The experiments were conducted in two identical lab-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors.The high strength organics were degraded in the first UASB reactor (UASB1) and the second UASB (UASB2,i.e.,BAC) functioned as a polishing step to remove SMP produced in UASB1.The results showed that 90% of the SMP could be removed before granular activated carbon was saturated.After the saturation,the SMP removal decreased to 60% on the average.Analysis of granular activated carbon adsorption revealed that the main role of SMP removal in BAC reactor was biodegradation.A strain of SMP-degrading bacteria,which was found highly similar to Klebsiella sp.,was isolated,enriched and inoculated back to the BAC reactor.When the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 10,000 mg/L and the organic loading rate achieved 10 kg COD/(m3·day),the effluent from the BAC reactor could meet the discharge standard without further treatment.Anaerobic BAC reactor inoculated with the isolated Klebsiella was proved to be an effective,cheap and easy technical treatment approach for the removal of SMP in the treatment of easily-degradable wastewater with COD lower than 10,000 mg/L.

  5. Small phytoplankton contribution to the total primary production in the highly productive Ulleung Basin in the East/Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, HuiTae; Son, SeungHyun; Park, Jung-Woo; Kang, Jae Joong; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Kwon, Jae-Il; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Sang Heon

    2017-09-01

    The Ulleung Basin in the southwestern East/Japan Sea (hereafter East Sea) is known as a biologically productive ;hot spot; but climate-associated changes in the physicochemical oceanographic conditions and some biological changes have been reported. In this study, our main objective was to determine the contribution of small phytoplankton to the total primary production, which is valuable information for detecting marine ecosystem changes in the Ulleung Basin. The small phytoplankton productivity contributions determined by Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived monthly productivities using a phytoplankton community-based productivity algorithm was significantly consistent with the field-measured productivity contributions of small phytoplankton in this study. The daily primary productivity of small phytoplankton ranged from 42.7 to 418.7 mg C m-2 d-1 with an average of 172.9 mg C m-2 d-1 (S.D. = ±61.4 mg C m-2 d-1, n = 120), and the annual contribution of small phytoplankton ranged from 19.6% to 28.4% with an average of 23.6% (S.D. = ±8.1%) in the Ulleung Basin from 2003 to 2012. Overall, large phytoplankton were a major contributor to the total primary production in the Ulleung Basin (76.4 ± 8.2%) from 2003 to 2012, which indicates that the Ulleung Basin is a highly productive region. A significantly negative relationship (p < 0.05) was found between the small phytoplankton primary productivity contribution and the annual primary production in this study. This finding revealed that the recent decreasing annual primary production in the Ulleung Basin could be a consequence of the increasing contribution of small phytoplankton. The response of phytoplankton to ongoing climate change depending on different-size phytoplankton compositions should be a subject for further investigation in the Ulleung Basin as a biologically highly productive region in the East Sea.

  6. The Role of Synthetic Biology in the Design of Microbial Cell Factories for Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Verónica Leticia; Rodríguez, Analía; Cristóbal, Héctor Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Insecurity in the supply of fossil fuels, volatile fuel prices, and major concerns regarding climate change have sparked renewed interest in the production of fuels from renewable resources. Because of this, the use of biodiesel has grown dramatically during the last few years and is expected to increase even further in the future. Biodiesel production through the use of microbial systems has marked a turning point in the field of biofuels since it is emerging as an attractive alternative to conventional technology. Recent progress in synthetic biology has accelerated the ability to analyze, construct, and/or redesign microbial metabolic pathways with unprecedented precision, in order to permit biofuel production that is amenable to industrial applications. The review presented here focuses specifically on the role of synthetic biology in the design of microbial cell factories for efficient production of biodiesel. PMID:22028591

  7. A consilience model to describe N2O production during biological N removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo Felez, Carlos; Smets, Barth F.

    2016-01-01

    (NO) and N2O dynamics have been proposed. Here, a first comprehensive model that considers all relevant NO and N2O production and consumption mechanisms is proposed. The model describes autotrophic NO production by ammonia oxidizing bacteria associated with ammonia oxidation and with nitrite reduction......Nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, is produced during biological nitrogen conversion in wastewater treatment operations. Complex mechanisms underlie N2O production by autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms, which continue to be unravelled. Mathematical models that describe nitric oxide......, followed by NO reduction to N2O. It also considers NO and N2O as intermediates in heterotrophic denitrification in a 4-step model. Three biological NO and N2O production pathways are accounted for, improving the capabilities of existing models while not increasing their complexity. Abiotic contributions...

  8. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  9. 21 CFR 201.56 - Requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... human prescription drug and biological products. 201.56 Section 201.56 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... human prescription drug and biological products. (a) General requirements. Prescription drug labeling... requirements in §§ 201.56(d) and 201.57. (1) The following categories of prescription drug products are...

  10. New approaches to estimation of peat deposits for production of biologically active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepchenko, L. M.; Yurchenko, V. I.; Krasnik, V. G.; Syedykh, N. J.

    2009-04-01

    It is known, that biologically active preparations from peat increase animals productivity as well as resistance against stress-factors and have adaptogeneous, antioxidant, immunomodulative properties. Optymal choice of peat deposits for the production of biologically active preparations supposes the detailed comparative analysis of peat properties from different deposits. For this the cadastre of peat of Ukraine is developed in the humic substances laboratory named after prof. Khristeva L.A. (Dnipropetrovsk Agrarian University, Ukraine). It based on the research of its physical and chemical properties, toxicity and biological activity, and called Biocadastre. The Biocadastre is based on the set of parameters, including the descriptions of physical and chemical properties (active acidity, degree of decomposition, botanical composition etc.), toxicity estimation (by parabyotyc, infusorial, inhibitor and other tests), biological activity indexes (growth-promoting, antioxidative, adaptogeneous, immunomodulative antistress and other actions). The blocks of Biocadastre indexes are differentiated, taking into account their use for creation the preparations for vegetable, animals and microorganisms. The Biocadastre will allow to choose the peat deposits, most suitable for the production of different biologically active preparations, both wide directed and narrow spectrum of action, depending on application fields (medicine, agriculture, veterinary medicine, microbiological industry, balneology, cosmetology).

  11. 78 FR 32668 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Changes to an Approved Application: Biological Products: Human Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Changes to an Approved Application: Biological Products: Human Blood and Blood Components Intended for Transfusion or for Further Manufacture'' dated June 2013. The draft guidance document provides manufacturers of licensed Whole Blood and blood components intended for......

  12. Process for the continuous biological production of lipids, hydrocarbons or mixtures thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Heijnen, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for the continuous biological production of lipids, hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon like material or mixtures thereof by conversion of a suitable substrate using micro-organisms, in which process the said substrate is continuously, anaerobically fermented to

  13. Do biological medicinal products pose a risk to the environment?: a current view on ecopharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühler, Thomas C; Andersson, Mikael; Carlin, Gunnar; Johnsson, Ann; Akerblom, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of active pharmaceutical substances in the environment is of growing concern. The vast majority of the compounds in question are of low molecular weight, intended for oral use and designed to tolerate, for example, the digestive enzymes in the upper alimentary tract, the harsh milieus found in the acidic stomach, or the microbe rich intestine. Accordingly, these xenobiotic compounds may, due to their inherent biological activity, constitute a risk to the environment. Biological medicinal products, for example recombinant human insulin or monoclonal antibodies, however, are different. They are primarily made up of oligomers or polymers of amino acids, sugars or nucleotides and are thus readily metabolized. They are therefore generally not considered to pose any risk to the environment. Certain classes of biological medicinal products, however, are associated with specific safety issues. Genetically modified organisms as vectors in vaccines or in gene therapy products have attracted much attention in this regard. Issues include the degree of attenuation of the live recombinant vaccine, replication restrictions of the vaccine vector, alteration of the host and tissue tropism of the vector, the possibility of reversion to virulence, and risk to the ecosystem. In this review we discuss the fate and the potential environmental impact of biological medicinal products following clinical use from an ecopharmacovigilance point of view, and review relevant policy documents and regulatory statements.

  14. Microwave-ultrasound combined reactor suitable for atmospheric sample preparation procedure of biological and chemical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagha, A.; Chemat, S.; Bartels, P.V.; Chemat, F.

    1999-01-01

    A compact apparatus in which a specific position can be irradiated by microwaves (MW) and ultrasound (US) simultaneously has been developed. The MW-US reactor has been designed for atmospheric pressure digestion and dissolution of biological and chemical products. The reactor can treat a range of th

  15. Dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production using Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use the fermentability test to investigate the feasibility of applying various dilute acids in the pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production. At a fixed acid loading of 1% (w/w dry matter) 28-32% of barley straw was converted to soluble m

  16. Biological control of Alternaria radicina in seed production of carrots with Ulocladium atrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Langerak, C.J.; Meekes, E.T.M.; Molhoek, W.M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Black rot of carrots is caused by seed-borne Alternaria radicina. Biological control of seed infestation by treatments applied to plants in flower during seed production with the fungal antagonist Ulocladium atrum was investigated in laboratory and field experiments resulting in a reduction of seed

  17. Biological productivity and potential resources of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    An assessment of the biological production and the potential fishery resources has been made based on the data collected over a period of 15 years (1976-1991). The entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), measuring 2.02 million km sup(2) was divided...

  18. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: III. Biological efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W

    1995-03-01

    Methods were developed and incorporated into a previously published computer model to predict ME intake and calculate biological efficiencies in terms of grams of empty BW (EBW) and fat-free matter (FFM) gained/megacalorie of ME consumed from weaning to slaughter. Efficiencies were calculated for steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds (Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise) mated to Hereford and Angus dams, grown under nine backgrounding systems, finished at either a low (1.0 kg) or high (1.36 kg) ADG, and slaughtered at 300 kg carcass weight, small or greater degree of marbling, and 28% carcass fat. Backgrounding systems were high ADG (.9 kg) for 111, 167, or 222 d, medium ADG (.5 kg) for 200, 300, or 400 d, and low ADG (.25 kg) for 300 or 400 d, and 0 d backgrounding. The high ADG finishing system was more biologically efficient than the low ADG finishing system, and generally backgrounding systems were less biologically efficient than direct finishing after weaning (0 d backgrounding). Large-framed breeds were more efficient at the constant carcass weight and carcass fatness end point, and breeds that achieved the marbling end point at low levels of carcass fatness were more efficient at this end point. Some small-framed breeds gained EBW more efficiently but gained FFM less efficiently than some of the large-framed breeds. Variation in efficiency between genotypes was greatest with 0 d backgrounding and decreased in the other backgrounding systems.

  19. Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gammino, S

    2013-01-01

    In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS). Multiple ionization is also obtained in laser-generated plasmas (laser ion sources (LIS)), where the high-energy electrons and the extremely high electron density allow step-by-step ionization, but the reproducibility is poor. This chapter discusses the atomic physics background at the basis of the production of highly charged ions and describes the scientific and technological features of the most advanced ion sources. Particular attention is paid to ECRIS and the latest developments, since they now r...

  20. [Special considerations for the regulation of biological medicinal products in individualised medicine. More than stratified medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Berghaus, J; Volkers, P; Scherer, J; Cichutek, K

    2013-11-01

    The term individualised medicine, also called personalised medicine, is commonly used as an equivalent to stratified medicine. However, this is erroneous since quite often it is forgotten that especially biological medicinal products have other aspects of individualization that go beyond mere stratification. The principles of stratified medicine have been applied for biological medicinal products for many years. A historical example is diphtheria antitoxin made from horse serum, while current examples are transfusion of red blood cells and the administration of factor VIII in haemophilia A. The stratifying aspects of these medicinal products are given by the following considerations: diphtheria antitoxin is only administered after a diagnosis of diphtheria and not in other forms of tonsillitis, red blood cells should only be transfused once blood group compatibility as been established and factor VIII replacement is only administered in haemophilia A as opposed to other acquired or hereditary disease of the coagulation system. The peculiarities of biological medicinal products, in particular the inherent variability of the drug, are especially important for autologous cellular medicinal products. In addition to the expected variability of the biological source material there is interindividual variability of patients as cell donors, which make definition of specifications and determination of criteria for pharmaceutical quality and potency tests difficult. Therapy with modified autologous cells, a common and important application of advanced therapy medicinal products, is exemplary for the special considerations that must be made when evaluating pharmaceutical quality, mode of action and toxicological properties of the biological medicine. The clinical investigation of advanced therapy medicinal products with the intent of demonstrating safety and efficacy is particularly challenging because of the complexity of therapy, which often involves invasive interventions

  1. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption: caprolactam production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated: microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. Four microorganisms were isolated from natural soil and water, that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of C and energy for growth. They were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants were developed; those are used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, are unable to metabolize the caprolactone further. Because of a new nylon carpet reycle process and the long time frame for a totally new bioprocess, a limited study was done to evaluate whether a simplified bioprocess to convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone or caprolactone was feasible; growth rates and key enzyme levels were measured in a collection of microorganisms that metabolize cyclohexanol to determine if the bioactivity is high enough to support an economical cyclohexanol bioprocess. Although these microorganisms had sufficient bioactivity, they could tolerate only low levels (<1%) of cyclohexanol and thus are not suitable for developing a cost effective bioprocess because of the high cost of dilute product recovery.

  2. Statistical and regulatory considerations in assessments of interchangeability of biological drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóthfalusi, Lászlo; Endrényi, László; Chow, Shein-Chung

    2014-05-01

    When the patent of a brand-name, marketed drug expires, new, generic products are usually offered. Small-molecule generic and originator drug products are expected to be chemically identical. Their pharmaceutical similarity can be typically assessed by simple regulatory criteria such as the expectation that the 90% confidence interval for the ratio of geometric means of some pharmacokinetic parameters be between 0.80 and 1.25. When such criteria are satisfied, the drug products are generally considered to exhibit therapeutic equivalence. They are then usually interchanged freely within individual patients. Biological drugs are complex proteins, for instance, because of their large size, intricate structure, sensitivity to environmental conditions, difficult manufacturing procedures, and the possibility of immunogenicity. Generic and brand-name biologic products can be expected to show only similarity but not identity in their various features and clinical effects. Consequently, the determination of biosimilarity is also a complicated process which involves assessment of the totality of the evidence for the close similarity of the two products. Moreover, even when biosimilarity has been established, it may not be assumed that the two biosimilar products can be automatically substituted by pharmacists. This generally requires additional, careful considerations. Without declaring interchangeability, a new product could be prescribed, i.e. it is prescribable. However, two products can be automatically substituted only if they are interchangeable. Interchangeability is a statistical term and it means that products can be used in any order in the same patient without considering the treatment history. The concepts of interchangeability and prescribability have been widely discussed in the past but only in relation to small molecule generics. In this paper we apply these concepts to biosimilars and we discuss: definitions of prescribability and interchangeability and

  3. Simultaneous determination of polar pharmaceuticals and personal care products in biological organs and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, Rumi; Nomiyama, Kei; Nakamura, Haruna; Hayashi, Terutake; Kim, Joon-Woo; Isobe, Tomohiko; Shinohara, Ryota; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-08-15

    In the present study, a sensitive and accurate isotope dilution method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 17 polar pharmaceutical and personal care product (PPCP) residues (logKow=1.40-5.74), including 14 pharmaceuticals and 3 personal care products, in biological organs and tissues. The proposed method involved enzymatic hydrolysis, followed by sequential clean-up using silica gel chromatography and gel permeation chromatography, and analysis via ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. This method yielded acceptable absolute recoveries (48-88%) and internal standard-corrected recoveries (90-130%) for 17 PPCPs. Method detection limits were between 0.0092 and 3.2ngg(-1) wet weight, and the limits of quantification were between 0.020 and 8.7ngg(-1) wet weight. The method can be used to readily detect the target compounds at trace levels while minimizing the required sample volume. The developed method was applied to the determination of 17 PPCPs in the liver and kidney of 17 birds collected from Japan and also in the plasma, liver, and brain of 7 cyprinoid fish from an effluent-dominated stream in Japan. Triclosan was detected in 5 of 11 fish-eating birds but not in non-fish-eating birds, suggesting the contamination of prey fish by the chemical. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibacterial agents, and psychotropic agents were frequently detected in the fish tissues. In addition, 7 of the target compounds were found in fish brain. The median brain/plasma ratios of the psychotropic agents ranged from 1.6 (carbamazepine) to 12 (diphenhydramine), indicating high transportability to fish brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High-valent copper in biomimetic and biological oxidations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, William; Gary, J Brannon; Stack, T Daniel P

    2017-04-01

    A long-standing debate in the Cu-O2 field has revolved around the relevance of the Cu(III) oxidation state in biological redox processes. The proposal of Cu(III) in biology is generally challenged as no spectroscopic or structural evidence exists currently for its presence. The reaction of synthetic Cu(I) complexes with O2 at low temperature in aprotic solvents provides the opportunity to investigate and define the chemical landscape of Cu-O2 species at a small-molecule level of detail; eight different types are characterized structurally, three of which contain at least one Cu(III) center. Simple imidazole or histamine ligands are competent in these oxygenation reactions to form Cu(III) complexes. The combination of synthetic structural and reactivity data suggests (1) that Cu(I) should be considered as either a one or two electron reductant reacting with O2, (2) that Cu(III) reduction potentials of these formed complexes are modest and well within the limits of a protein matrix and (3) that primary amine and imidazole ligands are surprisingly good at stabilizing Cu(III) centers. These Cu(III) complexes are efficient oxidants for hydroxylating phenolate substrates with reaction hallmarks similar to that performed in biological systems. The remarkable ligation similarity of the synthetic and biological systems makes it difficult to continue to exclude Cu(III) from biological discussions.

  5. Composition of thermodestruction products of biologically active compounds polluting the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriyev, M.T.; Rastyannikov, Y.G.; Sotnikov, Y.Y.; Volkov, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The most promising method of removal of biologically active compounds such as microorganisms, antibiotics, food and other household waste from industrial waste gases is to destroy them by thermal destruction including burning. In this case, products of thermodestruction enter into the atmosphere along with carbon dioxide and steam and can unfavorably affect the population. Thus, mass spectrometric analyses have determined in the waste gases of antibiotics production aldehydes and ketones (croton- and adipalaldehydes, acetone), alcohols (propanol and butanol), amines, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. The composition of thermodestruction products of biologically active compounds was identified by their pyrolysis at 700/sup 0/C for 2 min. in the presence of air. The main components were proteins and amino acids. The products of pyrolysis were analyzed by chromato-mass-spectrometric and gas-chromatographic methods by means of a two-flame thermionic detector. No significant difference between the thermodestruction products of proteins and amino acids was found. Many of detected substances can be not only toxic but also emit strong unpleasant odors. The studies revealed toxic substances that pollute the atmospheric air during removal of biologically-active compounds from waste gases.

  6. Immobilized Biofilm in Thermophilic Biohydrogen Production using Synthetic versus Biological Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwan Wongthanate

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biohydrogen production was studied from the vermicelli processing wastewater using synthetic and biological materials as immobilizing substrate employing a mixed culture in a batch reactor operated at the initial pH 6.0 and thermophilic condition (55 ± 1ºC. Maximum cumulative hydrogen production (1,210 mL H2/L wastewater was observed at 5% (v/v addition of ring-shaped synthetic material, which was the ring-shaped hydrophobic acrylic. Regarding 5% (v/v addition of synthetic and biological materials, the maximum cumulative hydrogen production using immobilizing synthetic material of ball-shaped hydrophobic polyethylene (HBPE (1,256.5 mL H2/L wastewater was a two-fold increase of cumulative hydrogen production when compared to its production using immobilizing biological material of rope-shaped hydrophilic ramie (609.8 mL H2/L wastewater. SEM observation of immobilized biofilm on a ball-shaped HBPE or a rope-shaped hydrophilic ramie was the rod shape and gathered into group.

  7. Biological Production of Methane from Lunar Mission Solid Waste: An Initial Feasibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard; Garland, Jay; Janine, Captain

    A preliminary assessment was made of the potential for biological production of methane from solid waste generated during an early planetary base mission to the moon. This analysis includes: 1) estimation of the amount of biodegradable solid waste generated, 2) background on the potential biodegradability of plastics given their significance in solid wastes, and 3) calculation of potential methane production from the estimate of biodegradable waste. The completed analysis will also include the feasibility of biological methane production costs associated with the biological processing of the solid waste. NASA workshops and Advanced Life Support documentation have estimated the projected amount of solid wastes generated for specific space missions. From one workshop, waste estimates were made for a 180 day transit mission to Mars. The amount of plastic packaging material was not specified, but our visual examination of trash returned from stocktickerSTS missions indicated a large percentage would be plastic film. This plastic, which is not biodegradable, would amount to 1.526 kgdw crew-1 d-1 or 6.10 kgdw d-1 for a crew of 4. Over a mission of 10 days this would amount to 61 kgdw of plastics and for an 180 day lunar surface habitation it would be nearly 1100 kgdw . Approx. 24 % of this waste estimate would be biodegradable (human fecal waste, food waste, and paper), but if plastic packaging was replaced with biodegradable plastic, then 91% would be biodegradable. Plastics are man-made long chain polymeric molecules, and can be divided into two main groups; thermoplastics and thermoset plastics. Thermoplastics comprise over 90% of total plastic use in the placecountry-regionUnited States and are derived from polymerization of olefins via breakage of the double bond and subsequent formation of additional carbon to carbon bonds. The resulting sole-carbon chain polymers are highly resistant to biodegradation and hydrolytic cleavage. Common thermoplastics include low

  8. Investigation of specificity ensuring of quality of biological medicinal products on example of drugs Cortexin and Retinalamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Vetiutneva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological medical products nowadays are one of the most promising area at the pharmaceutical market. Biopharmaceutical market has significant benefits such as fast and effective development of production facilities, the development of more effective and safer medical products. The aim of our research was, on the example of medical products Cortexin and Retinalamin, examine the specifics of quality of biological medicinal products in the chain from production to sale. The objects of study - original biological medicines Cortexin and Retinalamin. Comparative, systematic, analytical methods and reviews were used. Biological medical products have fundamental differences from synthetic medicines, due to their source - alive cells which are usually used in their production process. Each production cycle results in a unique finished pharmaceutical products and minimal differences in the modes of production can significantly effect on the properties of biological medical products. Therefore, even if the physical, chemical and biological properties of the product thoroughly studied and described, it does not guarantee therapeutic equivalence of two biological products which are manufactured in different conditions. One of the most important issues today is the problem of maintaining properties and quality of biological medicines. These issues are actively resolving on the native pharmaceutical market: quality control system are developing and implementing in accordance with international standards in order to maintain maximum efficiency of biological medicines and to protect consumers from defective products. Biological products require special conditions of storage and transportation. In order to save physical, chemical and therapeutic properties, strict compliance with the relevant conditions of packaging, transport and intermediate storage, related to deviations in temperature during transportation and storage is needed. The production process

  9. Insects: an underrepresented resource for the discovery of biologically active natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Seabrooks

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature has been the source of life-changing and -saving medications for centuries. Aspirin, penicillin and morphine are prime examples of Nature׳s gifts to medicine. These discoveries catalyzed the field of natural product drug discovery which has mostly focused on plants. However, insects have more than twice the number of species and entomotherapy has been in practice for as long as and often in conjunction with medicinal plants and is an important alternative to modern medicine in many parts of the world. Herein, an overview of current traditional medicinal applications of insects and characterization of isolated biologically active molecules starting from approximately 2010 is presented. Insect natural products reviewed were isolated from ants, bees, wasps, beetles, cockroaches, termites, flies, true bugs, moths and more. Biological activities of these natural products from insects include antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

  10. Insects: an underrepresented resource for the discovery of biologically active natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrooks, Lauren; Hu, Longqin

    2017-07-01

    Nature has been the source of life-changing and -saving medications for centuries. Aspirin, penicillin and morphine are prime examples of Nature׳s gifts to medicine. These discoveries catalyzed the field of natural product drug discovery which has mostly focused on plants. However, insects have more than twice the number of species and entomotherapy has been in practice for as long as and often in conjunction with medicinal plants and is an important alternative to modern medicine in many parts of the world. Herein, an overview of current traditional medicinal applications of insects and characterization of isolated biologically active molecules starting from approximately 2010 is presented. Insect natural products reviewed were isolated from ants, bees, wasps, beetles, cockroaches, termites, flies, true bugs, moths and more. Biological activities of these natural products from insects include antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

  11. Apple biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and in postharvest according to production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala', and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'. The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.

  12. Photochemical, thermal, biological and long-term degradation of celecoxib in river water. Degradation products and adsorption to sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan J; Pardo, Rafael; Sánchez, María I; Muñoz, Beatriz E

    2017-08-19

    Celecoxib is an anti-inflammatory drug with antibacterial activity whose fate in surface water is unknown. Thus, some assays have been conducted under forced biological, photochemical and thermal conditions, and non-forced conditions, to establish its persistence and degradation products in river water. The results suggest that celecoxib dissolved in river water is not biologically degraded while it is minimally altered after its exposure to sunlight or high temperature (70°C). Only the irradiation at 254nm promotes its complete degradation. Celecoxib is degraded about 3%, in 36 weeks, when water was kept at room temperature and the exposure to sunlight was partially limited as it happens inside a body of water. Residues were monitored by ultra-pressure liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight/mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction; eleven degradation products were detected and the structures of nine of them were unequivocally proposed from the molecular formulae and fragmentation observed in high-resolution tandem mass spectra. The long-term transformation products under non-forced conditions were 4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzenesulfonic acid, 4-[1-(4-sulfoaminephenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]benzoic acid and a hydroxylated derivative. The degradation over time in presence of sediment was monitored, being slightly higher, about 4%. The adsorption equilibrium constants of celecoxib and degradation products on river sediment were estimated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in Ice Age Nitrate Consumption, Productivity, and Biological Pump Efficiency can be Explained by the Internal Cycling of Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafter, P. A.; Sigman, D. M.; Mackey, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    The biological pump—the surface-to-deep transport of marine organic carbon—is linked to "new" primary production fueled by upwelled nutrients such as nitrate, and incomplete nitrate consumption in High Nutrient, Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions limits the biological pump to 50% of its potential strength. Recent work shows that the intensity and temporal variability of nitrate consumption in iron-limited HNLC regions cannot be explained by the supply of iron or the iron-to-nitrate supply ratio. Instead, this nitrate consumption must be supported by vigorous iron recycling within the euphotic zone. Iron recycling explains observed variability in HNLC nitrate consumption as a function of upwelling water residence time, with slower upwelling rates allowing for more iron recycling. Applying these findings to sediment proxy records answers some outstanding questions about nitrate consumption, productivity, and biological pump efficiency in the equatorial Pacific and Southern Ocean HNLC regions. For example, we will discuss how variable upwelling strength explains changes in equatorial Pacific and Antarctic Zone nitrate consumption and productivity during the last glacial period.

  14. The potential of plants as a system for the development and production of human biologics [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing promise of plant-made biologics is highlighted by the success story of ZMapp™ as a potentially life-saving drug during the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016. Current plant expression platforms offer features beyond the traditional advantages of low cost, high scalability, increased safety, and eukaryotic protein modification. Novel transient expression vectors have been developed that allow the production of vaccines and therapeutics at unprecedented speed to control potential pandemics or bioterrorism attacks. Plant-host engineering provides a method for producing proteins with unique and uniform mammalian post-translational modifications, providing opportunities to develop biologics with increased efficacy relative to their mammalian cell-produced counterparts. Recent demonstrations that plant-made proteins can function as biocontrol agents of foodborne pathogens further exemplify the potential utility of plant-based protein production. However, resolving the technical and regulatory challenges of commercial-scale production, garnering acceptance from large pharmaceutical companies, and obtaining U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for several major classes of biologics are essential steps to fulfilling the untapped potential of this technology.

  15. Interpersonal behaviour in senior high school biology classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Darrell; Henderson, David; Fraser, Barry

    1995-06-01

    This article describes the first use of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction in senior biology classes and describes students' perceptions of their interpersonal relationships with their teachers in the classroom environment. The article also describes associations between students' perceptions of interpersonal relationships with their teachers and student outcomes. The study confirmed the reliability and validity of the QTI when used in senior secondary biology classes. Generally, the dimensions of the QTI were found to be significantly associated with student attitude scores. In particular, students' attitude scores were higher in classrooms in which students perceived greater leadership, helpful/friendly, and understanding behaviours in their teachers.

  16. What controls biological productivity in coastal upwelling systems? Insights from a comparative modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.

    2011-06-01

    The magnitude of the biological productivity in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS) is traditionally viewed as directly reflecting the upwelling intensity. Yet, different EBUS show different sensitivities of productivity to upwelling-favorable winds (Carr and Kearns, 2003). Here, using a comparative modeling study of the California Current System (California CS) and Canary Current System (Canary CS), we show how physical and environmental factors, such as light, temperature and cross-shore circulation modulate the response of biological productivity to upwelling strength. To this end, we made a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the California CS and Canary CS using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), coupled to a nitrogen based Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) ecosystem model. We find the nutrient content of the euphotic zone to be 20 % smaller in the Canary CS relative to the California CS. Yet, the biological productivity is 50 % smaller in the latter. This is due to: (1) a faster nutrient-replete growth in the Canary CS relative to the California CS, related to a more favorable light and temperature conditions in the Canary CS, and (2) the longer nearshore water residence times in the Canary CS which lead to larger buildup of biomass in the upwelling zone, thereby enhancing the productivity. The longer residence times in the Canary CS appear to be associated with the wider continental shelves and the lower eddy activity characterizing this upwelling system. This results in a weaker offshore export of nutrients and organic matter, thereby increasing local nutrient recycling and enhancing the coupling between new and export production in the Northwest African system. Our results suggest that climate change induced perturbations such as upwelling favorable wind intensification might lead to contrasting biological responses in the California CS and the Canary CS, with major implications for the biogeochemical cycles and fisheries

  17. What controls biological productivity in coastal upwelling systems? Insights from a comparative modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lachkar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of the biological productivity in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS is traditionally viewed as directly reflecting the upwelling intensity. Yet, different EBUS show different sensitivities of productivity to upwelling-favorable winds (Carr and Kearns, 2003. Here, using a comparative modeling study of the California Current System (California CS and Canary Current System (Canary CS, we show how physical and environmental factors, such as light, temperature and cross-shore circulation modulate the response of biological productivity to upwelling strength. To this end, we made a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the California CS and Canary CS using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS, coupled to a nitrogen based Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD ecosystem model. We find the nutrient content of the euphotic zone to be 20 % smaller in the Canary CS relative to the California CS. Yet, the biological productivity is 50 % smaller in the latter. This is due to: (1 a faster nutrient-replete growth in the Canary CS relative to the California CS, related to a more favorable light and temperature conditions in the Canary CS, and (2 the longer nearshore water residence times in the Canary CS which lead to larger buildup of biomass in the upwelling zone, thereby enhancing the productivity. The longer residence times in the Canary CS appear to be associated with the wider continental shelves and the lower eddy activity characterizing this upwelling system. This results in a weaker offshore export of nutrients and organic matter, thereby increasing local nutrient recycling and enhancing the coupling between new and export production in the Northwest African system. Our results suggest that climate change induced perturbations such as upwelling favorable wind intensification might lead to contrasting biological responses in the California CS and the Canary CS, with major implications for the biogeochemical cycles

  18. New synthetic strategies towards psammaplin A, access to natural product analogues for biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Matthias G J; Leiser, Thomas; Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef; Fuchter, Matthew J

    2011-02-07

    New synthetic routes towards the natural product psammaplin A were developed with the particular view to preparing diverse analogues for biological assessment. These routes utilize cheap and commercially available starting materials, and allowed access to psammaplin A analogues not accessible via currently reported methods. Preliminary biological studies revealed these compounds to be the most potent non peptidic inhibitors of the enzyme histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1, class I) discovered so far. Interestingly, psammaplin A and our synthetic analogues show class I selectivity in vitro, an important feature for the design and synthesis of future isoform selective inhibitors.

  19. Establishing a cell biology platform: isolation and preservation of human blood products

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Genética Molecular e Biomedicina The use of human primary cells provide researchers in different areas with irrefutable more biologically relevant data than using cell lines or animal blood cells. The work was performed in the scope of the Cell Biology Services @ CEDOC, aiming to provide viable and trustful human primary cells and products. We had three main objectives: protocol optimizations for blood cell isolation, culture and cryopre...

  20. Using a Computer Animation to Teach High School Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotbain, Yosi; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Stavy, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    We present an active way to use a computer animation in secondary molecular genetics class. For this purpose we developed an activity booklet that helps students to work interactively with a computer animation which deals with abstract concepts and processes in molecular biology. The achievements of the experimental group were compared with those…

  1. Oversight of High-Containment Biological Laboratories: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    at BSL-1. Those that may cause disease in healthy humans, but for which immunization or antibiotic treatment is available, should be conducted at BSL... equine encephalitis, and yellow fever. Some of the pathogens that cause these diseases have been considered as biological weapons.104 Expanding the number

  2. Regulatory and information support for evaluation of biological productivity of Ukrainian forests and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakyda, Petro; Vasylyshyn, Roman; Lakyda, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    on 1743 research sections of tree stems, 809 samples of crown branches, 2560 model tree greenery branches, 346 batches of needles and 534 batches of leaves. These materials have high scientific and practical value, forming a basis for quantitative evaluation of biological productivity of forests in Ukraine, which are of great importance for mitigation of climate change. They also can be used as a data source for development of systems of models of various purposes, which find their application in Ukrainian and world forest science and practice.

  3. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk Lee, Sung; Chou, Howard; Ham, Timothy S.; Soon Lee, Taek; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    The ability to generate microorganisms that can produce biofuels similar to petroleum-based transportation fuels would allow the use of existing engines and infrastructure and would save an enormous amount of capital required for replacing the current infrastructure to accommodate biofuels that have properties significantly different from petroleum-based fuels. Several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of manipulating microbes to produce molecules similar to petroleum-derived products, albeit at relatively low productivity (e.g. maximum butanol production is around 20 g/L). For cost-effective production of biofuels, the fuel-producing hosts and pathways must be engineered and optimized. Advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology will provide new tools for metabolic engineers to better understand how to rewire the cell in order to create the desired phenotypes for the production of economically viable biofuels.

  4. The application of residual oats flour in bread production in order to improve its quality and biological value of protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Gambuś

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. High nutritional value of residual oat flour, which is a by-product in the production β-D-glucan concentration BETAVEN, was the reason to make a trial to apply it in the production of wheat and wheat-rye bread. The aim of the study was to establish a formulation for wheat and wheat-rye bread, in which part of wheat flour would be replaced by residual oat flour (at the level 20% of wheat flour, and to check the influence of this additive on sensory and nutritional properties of the products, with special consideration to content and biological value of the proteins. Material and methods. The material consisted of wheat flour, rye flour and residual oat flour, as well as loaves, baked with these flours. The quality of the obtained loaves was analysed taking into account: organoleptic assessment, loaf mass and volume, moisture content crumb and texture profile of the crumb. In the studied raw materials and bread, the following components were determined according to AOAC methods: protein content, fat, fiber and ash. In addition, composition of amino acids was assessed. Basing on the amino acid composition, Chemical Score (CS and Exogenic Amino Acid Index (EAAI were calculated, applying WHO/FAO protein standard (1991. Results. Bread with the share of residual oats flour received high consumer acceptance (37 points, comparable to control bread (38 points despite of lower volume. The applied amounts of oats flour did not influence moisture content and texture profile during storage. Wheat and wheat-rye loaves with the share of residual oats flour were characterised by a significantly higher level of dietary fiber, fat and protein, in comparison to control bread. It was found that biological activity of protein in wheat-rye bread was significantly higher (CS = 53.5, EAAI = 91.5 in comparison to wheat bread (CS = 47.9, EAAI = 89.9. The share of oats flour caused an increase in biological value of all bread types – wheat-oats (CS = 52

  5. Biological ensilage additives as pretreatment for maize to increase the biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervaeren, H.; Hostyn, K.; Willems, B. [Howest, PIH, Environmental Science Department, Graaf K. de Goedelaan, 5, 8500 Kortrijk (Belgium); Ghekiere, G. [POVLT, Ieperseweg 87, 8800 Rumbeke (Belgium)

    2010-09-15

    Several biological ensilage additives were tested on maize substrate for their effect on biogas production and preservation of ODM content. In general, the addition of some biological additives and subsequent storage for 7 weeks could enhance the biogas and biomethane production per ODM when compared to the untreated sample. A common microbial inoculent containing homo-fermentative and hetero-fermentative bacteria (Bonsilage Mais {sup registered}), had no beneficial effect on biogas and biomethane production compared with the non-treated sample (-12.7% and -13.1% per ODM, respectively). More complex additives with hetero- and homo-fermentative activity (Silasil Energy {sup registered}) as well as enzymes (Sil-all 4 x 4 {sup registered}) or bacteria and yeasts (Microferm {sup registered}) did effectively increase the biogas production per ODM (respectively with 11.8, 10.1 and 14.7%). Losses in ODM content were minor in all samples. These results might indicate that more divergent biological additives involving yeasts or enzymes during ensiling are preferred as maize preservation tools for anaerobic digestion instead of a spontaneous ensilage population or to add only homo- and hetero-fermentative strains. The nature of the additive might enhance the hydrolysis step in the anaerobic digestion process by decomposing complex carbohydrate structures. (author)

  6. Efficient high-throughput biological process characterization: Definitive screening design with the ambr250 bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Mitchell; Ly, Amanda; Leung, Inne; Nayar, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    The burgeoning pipeline for new biologic drugs has increased the need for high-throughput process characterization to efficiently use process development resources. Breakthroughs in highly automated and parallelized upstream process development have led to technologies such as the 250-mL automated mini bioreactor (ambr250™) system. Furthermore, developments in modern design of experiments (DoE) have promoted the use of definitive screening design (DSD) as an efficient method to combine factor screening and characterization. Here we utilize the 24-bioreactor ambr250™ system with 10-factor DSD to demonstrate a systematic experimental workflow to efficiently characterize an Escherichia coli (E. coli) fermentation process for recombinant protein production. The generated process model is further validated by laboratory-scale experiments and shows how the strategy is useful for quality by design (QbD) approaches to control strategies for late-stage characterization. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. The SPES High Power ISOL production target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, A.; Corradetti, S.; Ballan, M.; Borgna, F.; Manzolaro, M.; Scarpa, D.; Monetti, A.; Rossignoli, M.; Silingardi, R.; Mozzi, A.; Vivian, G.; Boratto, E.; De Ruvo, L.; Sattin, N.; Meneghetti, G.; Oboe, R.; Guerzoni, M.; Margotti, A.; Ferrari, M.; Zenoni, A.; Prete, G.

    2016-11-01

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is a facility under construction at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro), aimed to produce intense neutron-rich radioactive ion beams (RIBs). These will be obtained using the ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method, bombarding a uranium carbide target with a proton beam of 40MeV energy and currents up to 200μA. The target configuration was designed to obtain a high number of fissions, up to 1013 per second, low power deposition and fast release of the produced isotopes. The exotic isotopes generated in the target are ionized, mass separated and re-accelerated by the ALPI superconducting LINAC at energies of 10AMeV and higher, for masses in the region of A = 130 amu , with an expected rate on the secondary target up to 109 particles per second. In this work, recent results on the R&D activities regarding the SPES RIB production target-ion source system are reported.

  8. Strangeness production in high density baryon matter

    CERN Document Server

    Ganz, R E

    1999-01-01

    Strangeness production in heavy-ion collisions, when compared to proton proton collisions, is potentially a sensitive probe for collective energy deposition and therefore for reaction mechanisms in general. It may therefore provide insight into possible QGP formation in dense nuclear matter. To establish an understanding of the observed yields, a systematic study of high density baryon matter at different beam energies is essential. This might also reveal possible discontinuities in the energy dependence of the reaction mechanism. We present preliminary results for kaon production in Au+Au collisions at beam kinetic energies of 6, 8, and 10.7 GeV/u obtained by the E917 experiment at the AGS (BNL). These measurements complement those carried out by the E866 collaboration at 2, 4, and 10.7 GeV/u with a significantly enlarged data sample. In both experiments a large range of rapidities was covered by taking data at different angular settings of the magnetic spectrometer.

  9. Recovery of Phenolic Acid and Enzyme Production from Corn Silage Biologically Treated by Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucić-Kojić, Ana; Šelo, Gordana; Zelić, Bruno; Planinić, Mirela; Tišma, Marina

    2017-03-01

    Corn silage is used as high-energy forage for dairy cows and more recently for biogas production in a process of anaerobic co-digestion with cow manure. In this work, fresh corn silage after the harvest was used as a substrate in solid-state fermentations with T. versicolor with the aim of phenolic acid recovery and enzyme (laccase and manganese peroxidase) production. During 20 days of fermentation, 10.4-, 3.4-, 3.0-, and 1.8-fold increments in extraction yield of syringic acid, vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and caffeic acid, respectively, were reached when compared to biologically untreated corn silage. Maximal laccase activity was gained on the 4th day of fermentation (V.A. = 180.2 U/dm(3)), and manganese peroxidase activity was obtained after the 3rd day of fermentation (V.A. = 30.1 U/dm(3)). The addition of copper(II) sulfate as inducer during solid state fermentation resulted in 8.5- and 7-fold enhancement of laccase and manganese peroxidase activities, respectively. Furthermore, the influence of pH and temperature on enzyme activities was investigated. Maximal activity of laccase was obtained at T = 50 °C and pH = 3.0, while manganese peroxidase is active at temperature range T = 45-70 °C with the maximal activity at pH = 4.5.

  10. Wine as a biological fluid: history, production, and role in disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleas, G J; Diamandis, E P; Goldberg, D M

    1997-01-01

    Wine has been part of human culture for 6,000 years, serving dietary and socio-religious functions. Its production takes place on every continent, and its chemical composition is profoundly influenced by enological techniques, the grape cultivar from which it originates, and climatic factors. In addition to ethanol, which in moderate consumption can reduce mortality from coronary heart disease by increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and inhibiting platelet aggregation, wine (especially red wine) contains a range of polyphenols that have desirable biological properties. These include the phenolic acids (p-coumaric, cinnamic, caffeic, gentisic, ferulic, and vanillic acids), trihydroxy stilbenes (resveratrol and polydatin), and flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, and quercetin). They are synthesized by a common pathway from phenylalanine involving polyketide condensation reactions. Metabolic regulation is provided by competition between resveratrol synthase and chalcone synthase for a common precursor pool of acyl-CoA derivatives. Polymeric aggregation gives rise, in turn to the viniferins (potent antifungal agents) and procyanidins (strong antioxidants that also inhibit platelet aggregation). The antioxidant effects of red wine and of its major polyphenols have been demonstrated in many experimental systems spanning the range from in vitro studies (human low-density lipoprotein, liposomes, macrophages, cultured cells) to investigations in healthy human subjects. Several of these compounds (notably catechin, quercetin, and resveratrol) promote nitric oxide production by vascular endothelium; inhibit the synthesis of thromboxane in platelets and leukotriene in neutrophils, modulate the synthesis and secretion of lipoproteins in whole animals and human cell lines, and arrest tumour growth as well as inhibit carcinogenesis in different experimental models. Target mechanisms to account for these effects include inhibition of phospholipase A2 and cyclo

  11. High Throughput Extraction of Plant, Marine and Fungal Specimens for Preservation of Biologically Active Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. McCloud

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP of the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI, at its NCI-Frederick facility, has built perhaps the largest and most diverse natural products screening library in the world for drug discovery. Composed of plant, marine organism and microbial extracts, it currently contains in excess of 230,000 unique materials. From the inception of this program to identify new anticancer chemotherapeutics from natural products sources in 1987, two extracts have been sequentially prepared from each specimen: one produced by organic solvent extraction, which yields a complex material that contains non- to moderately polar small molecules, and a water-soluble extract, a milieu largely unexplored for useful drugs in earlier years, which contains polar small to medium-sized molecules. Plant specimens and microbial ferments are extracted by modified traditional methods, while the method developed to produce extracts from marine organisms is unique and very different from that used by marine natural products chemists previously, but again yields both an organic solvent soluble and a water soluble material for inclusion into the screening library. Details of high throughput extract production for preservation of biologically active molecules are presented.

  12. [Microbiological and biological methods of the European Pharmacopoeia. Relevant for each medicinal product].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwig, J

    2014-10-01

    According to the EU Directive 2001/83 the European Pharmacopoeia is the official Pharmacopoeia of the European Union. Therefore the European Pharmacopoeia is one of the legal pharmacopoeial compendia in Germany. Any licensed medicinal product on the German market complies with the requirements of the compendial monographs, if applicable. Because the general monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia on Dosage Forms, Substances for Pharmaceutical Use and Pharmaceutical Preparations refer to the microbiological and biological methods of the Pharmacopoeia, the methods are relevant for medicinal products, too. This article presents a rough summary of the microbiological and biological methods of the European Pharmacopoeia and is intended to be a stimulus for the reader to better understand the original compendia. The short description of the methods mentioned, here, is a summary from the Pharmacopoeia and the non-official collection of comments on the texts of the European Pharmacopoeia.

  13. High abundances of oxalic, azelaic, and glyoxylic acids and methylglyoxal in the open ocean with high biological activity: Implication for secondary OA formation from isoprene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikkina, Srinivas; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Miyazaki, Yuzo; Fu, Pingqing

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric dicarboxylic acids (DCA) are a ubiquitous water-soluble component of secondary organic aerosols (SOA), which can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), affecting the Earth's climate. Despite the high abundances of oxalic acid and related compounds in the marine aerosols, there is no consensus on what controls their distributions over the open ocean. Marine biological productivity could play a role in the production of DCA, but there is no substantial evidence to support this hypothesis. Here we present latitudinal distributions of DCA, oxoacids and α-dicarbonyls in the marine aerosols from the remote Pacific. Their concentrations were found several times higher in more biologically influenced aerosols (MBA) than less biologically influenced aerosols. We propose isoprene and unsaturated fatty acids as sources of DCA as inferred from significantly higher abundances of isoprene-SOA tracers and azelaic acid in MBA. These results have implications toward the reassessment of climate forcing feedbacks of marine-derived SOA.

  14. [Biologic age as a criterion for work evaluation (exemplified by titanium alloys production)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanas'eva, R F; Prokopenko, L V

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with results of studies concerning biologic age of workers (males) under occupational hazards of titanium alloys (jeopardy classes 3.3, 3.4.4) in Verkhne-Saldinsky metallurgic production association. Based on mathematic statistic analysis, the authors worked out an equation of multiple regression for ageing pace to forecast the ageing with consideration of age, length of service, occupation. The authors determined occupational groups characterized by premature ageing and increased risk of health disorders.

  15. Is the biological productivity in the Bay of Bengal light limited?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Narvekar, J.; Nuncio, M.; Kumar, A.; Ramaiah, N.; Sardessai, S.; Gauns, M.; Fernandes, V.; Paul, J.

    of river influx and eddy- pumping. In addition to turbidity-driven reduction in the light penetration in the northern BOB, cloud cover could also reduce the availability of light for photosynthesis. Since the BOB comes under the summer monsoon regime... in the northern bay overwhelms that of cloud-cover in curtailing the availability of light for photosynthesis. Summary and conclusions The BOB is traditionally considered to be biologically a less productive basin compared to its western counterpart...

  16. Fungi as chemical industries and genetic engineering for the production of biologically active secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid; Ali; Khan; Nafees; Bacha; Bashir; Ahmad; Ghosia; Lutfullah; Umar; Farooq; Russell; John; Cox

    2014-01-01

    Fungi is somewhere in between the micro and macro organisms which is a good source of producing biologically active secondary metabolites.Fungi have been used as tool for producing different types of secondary metabolites by providing different nutrients at different laboratory conditions.The fungi have been engineered for the desired secondary metabolites by using different laboratory techniques,for example,homologous and heterologous expressions.This review reported how the fungi are used as chemical industry for the production of secondary metabolites and how they are engineered in laboratory for the production of desirable metabolites:also the biosynthetic pathways of the bio-organic-molecules were reported.

  17. Fungi as chemical industries and genetic engineering for the production of biologically active secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid Ali Khan; Nafees Bacha; Bashir Ahmad; Ghosia Lutfullah; Umar Farooq; Russell John Cox

    2014-01-01

    Fungi is somewhere in between the micro and macro organisms which is a good source of producing biologically active secondary metabolites. Fungi have been used as tool for producing different types of secondary metabolites by providing different nutrients at different laboratory conditions. The fungi have been engineered for the desired secondary metabolites by using different laboratory techniques, for example, homologous and heterologous expressions. This review reported how the fungi are used as chemical industry for the production of secondary metabolites and how they are engineered in laboratory for the production of desirable metabolites;also the biosynthetic pathways of the bio-organic-molecules were reported.

  18. Just Working with the Cellular Machine: A High School Game for Teaching Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fernanda Serpa; Dumpel, Renata; Gomes da Silva, Luisa B.; Rodrigues, Carlos R.; Santos, Dilvani O.; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; Castro, Helena C.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular biology is a difficult comprehension subject due to its high complexity, thus requiring new teaching approaches. Herein, we developed an interdisciplinary board game involving the human immune system response against a bacterial infection for teaching molecular biology at high school. Initially, we created a database with several…

  19. Microbial production of amino acids and derived chemicals: synthetic biology approaches to strain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Volker F

    2014-12-01

    Amino acids are produced at the multi-million-ton-scale with fermentative production of l-glutamate and l-lysine alone being estimated to amount to more than five million tons in the year 2013. Metabolic engineering constantly improves productivities of amino acid producing strains, mainly Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli strains. Classical mutagenesis and screening have been accelerated by combination with intracellular metabolite sensing. Synthetic biology approaches have allowed access to new carbon sources to realize a flexible feedstock concept. Moreover, new pathways for amino acid production as well as fermentative production of non-native compounds derived from amino acids or their metabolic precursors were developed. These include dipeptides, α,ω-diamines, α,ω-diacids, keto acids, acetylated amino acids and ω-amino acids.

  20. Construction of a microbial natural product library for chemical biology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Naoki; Takahashi, Shunji; Nogawa, Toshihiko; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2012-04-01

    The RIKEN Natural Products Depository (NPDepo) is a public depository of small molecules. Currently, the NPDepo chemical library contains 39,200 pure compounds, half of which are natural products and their derivatives. In order to reinforce the uniqueness of our chemical library, we have improved our strategies for the collection of microbial natural products. Firstly, a microbial metabolite fraction library coupled with an MP (microbial products) plot database provides a powerful resource for the efficient isolation of microbial metabolites. Secondly, biosynthetic studies of microbial metabolites have enabled us to not only access ingenious biosynthetic machineries, but also obtain a variety of biosynthetic intermediates. Our chemical library contributes to the discovery of molecular probes for increasing our understanding of complex biological processes and for eventually developing new drug leads.

  1. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasekan, Adeseye [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, Fatimah, E-mail: fatim@putra.upm.edu.my [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, Dzulkifly [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-03-15

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications.

  2. Current good manufacturing practice in plant automation of biological production processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorresteijn, R C; Wieten, G; van Santen, P T; Philippi, M C; de Gooijer, C D; Tramper, J; Beuvery, E C

    1997-01-01

    The production of biologicals is subject to strict governmental regulations. These are drawn up in current good manufacturing practices (cGMP), a.o. by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. To implement cGMP in a production facility, plant automation becomes an essential tool. For this purpose Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) have been developed that control all operations inside a production facility. The introduction of these recipe-driven control systems that follow ISA S88 standards for batch processes has made it possible to implement cGMP regulations in the control strategy of biological production processes. Next to this, an MES offers additional features such as stock management, planning and routing tools, process-dependent control, implementation of software sensors and predictive models, application of historical data and on-line statistical techniques for trend analysis and detection of instrumentation failures. This paper focuses on the development of new production strategies in which cGMP guidelines are an essential part.

  3. Biogas production from substrates with high amounts of organic nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prechtl, S.; Faulstich, M. [ATZ-EVUS Development Center for Process Engineering, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Thermophilic fermentation is a favoured method for treating animal by-products because of its short hydraulic retention time and hygienic features. However, substrates with high organic nitrogen content can create problems in the fermentation process due to the high ammonium concentration produced during anaerobic degradation. More economical and ecological solutions for treating animal by-products are also needed to address concerns of the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) crisis. This study considered a recycling concept based on the Thermal Pressure Hydrolysis (TPH) process with subsequent anaerobic digestion. A heat exchange system was also developed. The sterilization in the TPH reactor guarantees complete disinfection. The study examined the reactor temperature, pH-value, hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate and degradation performance. The amount of volatile fatty acids in the effluent of the anaerobic reactor suggests good biological degradation. A combined heat and power station with an electrical efficiency of 38 per cent made it possible to produce up to 780 kWh of electricity from 1,000 kg of raw material. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  4. Mimicking/extracting structure and functions of natural products: synthetic approaches that address unexplored needs in chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Go

    2015-04-01

    Natural products are often attractive and challenging targets for synthetic chemists, and many have interesting biological activities. However, synthetic chemists need to be more than simply suppliers of compounds to biologists. Therefore, we have been seeking ways to actively apply organic synthetic methods to chemical biology studies of natural products and their activities. In this personal review, I would like to introduce our work on the development of new biologically active compounds inspired by, or extracted from, the structures of natural products, focusing on enhancement of functional activity and specificity and overcoming various drawbacks of the parent natural products.

  5. Structural biology facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s high flux beam reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korszun, Z.R.; Saxena, A.M.; Schneider, D.K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The techniques for determining the structure of biological molecules and larger biological assemblies depend on the extent of order in the particular system. At the High Flux Beam Reactor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, the Biology Department operates three beam lines dedicated to biological structure studies. These beam lines span the resolution range from approximately 700{Angstrom} to approximately 1.5{Angstrom} and are designed to perform structural studies on a wide range of biological systems. Beam line H3A is dedicated to single crystal diffraction studies of macromolecules, while beam line H3B is designed to study diffraction from partially ordered systems such as biological membranes. Beam line H9B is located on the cold source and is designed for small angle scattering experiments on oligomeric biological systems.

  6. High-resolution satellite imagery is an important yet underutilized resource in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah A; Kennedy, Christina M; Torres, Julio; Colman, Karen; Pérez-Estigarribia, Pastor E; de la Sancha, Noé U

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances and increasing availability of high-resolution satellite imagery offer the potential for more accurate land cover classifications and pattern analyses, which could greatly improve the detection and quantification of land cover change for conservation. Such remotely-sensed products, however, are often expensive and difficult to acquire, which prohibits or reduces their use. We tested whether imagery of high spatial resolution (≤5 m) differs from lower-resolution imagery (≥30 m) in performance and extent of use for conservation applications. To assess performance, we classified land cover in a heterogeneous region of Interior Atlantic Forest in Paraguay, which has undergone recent and dramatic human-induced habitat loss and fragmentation. We used 4 m multispectral IKONOS and 30 m multispectral Landsat imagery and determined the extent to which resolution influenced the delineation of land cover classes and patch-level metrics. Higher-resolution imagery more accurately delineated cover classes, identified smaller patches, retained patch shape, and detected narrower, linear patches. To assess extent of use, we surveyed three conservation journals (Biological Conservation, Biotropica, Conservation Biology) and found limited application of high-resolution imagery in research, with only 26.8% of land cover studies analyzing satellite imagery, and of these studies only 10.4% used imagery ≤5 m resolution. Our results suggest that high-resolution imagery is warranted yet under-utilized in conservation research, but is needed to adequately monitor and evaluate forest loss and conversion, and to delineate potentially important stepping-stone fragments that may serve as corridors in a human-modified landscape. Greater access to low-cost, multiband, high-resolution satellite imagery would therefore greatly facilitate conservation management and decision-making.

  7. High-Resolution Satellite Imagery Is an Important yet Underutilized Resource in Conservation Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah A.; Kennedy, Christina M.; Torres, Julio; Colman, Karen; Pérez-Estigarribia, Pastor E.; de la Sancha, Noé U.

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances and increasing availability of high-resolution satellite imagery offer the potential for more accurate land cover classifications and pattern analyses, which could greatly improve the detection and quantification of land cover change for conservation. Such remotely-sensed products, however, are often expensive and difficult to acquire, which prohibits or reduces their use. We tested whether imagery of high spatial resolution (≤5 m) differs from lower-resolution imagery (≥30 m) in performance and extent of use for conservation applications. To assess performance, we classified land cover in a heterogeneous region of Interior Atlantic Forest in Paraguay, which has undergone recent and dramatic human-induced habitat loss and fragmentation. We used 4 m multispectral IKONOS and 30 m multispectral Landsat imagery and determined the extent to which resolution influenced the delineation of land cover classes and patch-level metrics. Higher-resolution imagery more accurately delineated cover classes, identified smaller patches, retained patch shape, and detected narrower, linear patches. To assess extent of use, we surveyed three conservation journals (Biological Conservation, Biotropica, Conservation Biology) and found limited application of high-resolution imagery in research, with only 26.8% of land cover studies analyzing satellite imagery, and of these studies only 10.4% used imagery ≤5 m resolution. Our results suggest that high-resolution imagery is warranted yet under-utilized in conservation research, but is needed to adequately monitor and evaluate forest loss and conversion, and to delineate potentially important stepping-stone fragments that may serve as corridors in a human-modified landscape. Greater access to low-cost, multiband, high-resolution satellite imagery would therefore greatly facilitate conservation management and decision-making. PMID:24466287

  8. A systems biology approach to study high-grade osteosarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijjer, Marieke Lydia

    2013-01-01

    High-grade osteosarcoma is a primary bone tumor with complex genetic alterations, for which targeted therapy is lacking. The aim of this thesis was to use high-throughput molecular data analysis of high-grade osteosarcoma specimens and model systems, in order to learn more on osteosarcomagenesis and

  9. A systems biology approach to study high-grade osteosarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijjer, Marieke Lydia

    2013-01-01

    High-grade osteosarcoma is a primary bone tumor with complex genetic alterations, for which targeted therapy is lacking. The aim of this thesis was to use high-throughput molecular data analysis of high-grade osteosarcoma specimens and model systems, in order to learn more on osteosarcomagenesis and

  10. Evolution of the biological productivity during the last deglaciations using the triple isotopic composition of oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Violaine; Extier, Thomas; Landais, Amaelle; Kageyama, Masa; Bopp, Laurent; Blunier, Thomas; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie

    2017-04-01

    The last deglaciation is probably the best documented large climatic changes of the Quaternary. It is associated with global temperature increases of 4-5°C, significant increase of the sea level by 120 m and an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration by 80 ppm. Understanding the combination of biochemical and physical factors responsible for this 80 ppm increase and the link with climate change is essential in the current evolution of greenhouse gases concentration. Biological productivity plays a role in the change of CO2 concentration during the last deglaciation. However, the lack of direct and global tracers of biological productivity makes it difficult to quantify and date the global change of productivity over the last deglaciation. Here, we use the triple isotopic composition of oxygen (δ17O of O2) over the last deglaciation obtained with a 300 years resolution on the NEEM ice core to depict the change of global productivity on this period. δ17O of O2 is indeed responding to the variations of O2 flux from the biosphere albeit in a complex manner. To help its interpretation, we thus combine these measurements with O2 fluxes obtained from the coupled climate model of IPSL over the last deglaciation. Finally, we compare the dynamic and amplitude of the δ17O of O2 change over the last deglaciation with variations obtained on previous deglaciations using new δ17O of O2 data obtained from the Dome C ice core.

  11. Biological detection and tagging using tailorable, reactive, highly fluorescent chemosensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Zifer, Thomas; McElhanon, James Ross; Rahn, Larry A.

    2006-11-01

    This program was focused on the development of a fluorogenic chemosensor family that could tuned for reaction with electrophilic (e.g. chemical species, toxins) and nucleophilic (e.g. proteins and other biological molecules) species. Our chemosensor approach utilized the fluorescent properties of well-known berberine-type alkaloids. In situ chemosensor reaction with a target species transformed two out-of-plane, weakly conjugated, short-wavelength chromophores into one rigid, planar, conjugated, chromophore with strong long wavelength fluorescence (530-560 nm,) and large Stokes shift (100-180 nm). The chemosensor was activated with an isourea group which allowed for reaction with carboxylic acid moieties found in amino acids.

  12. Changes in biological productivity along the northwest African margin over the past 20,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradtmiller, Louisa I.; McGee, David; Awalt, Mitchell; Evers, Joseph; Yerxa, Haley; Kinsley, Christopher W.; deMenocal, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    The intertropical convergence zone and the African monsoon system are highly sensitive to climate forcing at orbital and millennial timescales. Both systems influence the strength and direction of the trade winds along northwest Africa and thus directly impact coastal upwelling. Sediment cores from the northwest African margin record upwelling-related changes in biological productivity connected to changes in regional and hemispheric climate. We present records of 230Th-normalized biogenic opal and Corg fluxes using a meridional transect of four cores from 19°N-31°N along the northwest African margin to examine changes in paleoproductivity since the last glacial maximum. We find large changes in biogenic fluxes synchronous with changes in eolian fluxes calculated using end-member modeling, suggesting that paleoproductivity and dust fluxes were strongly coupled, likely linked by changes in wind strength. Opal and Corg fluxes increase at all sites during Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Younger Dryas, consistent with an overall intensification of the trade winds, and changes in the meridional flux gradient indicate a southward wind shift at these times. Biogenic fluxes were lowest, and the meridional flux gradients were weakest during the African Humid Period when the monsoon was invigorated due to precessional changes, with greater rainfall and weaker trade winds over northwest Africa. These results expand the spatial coverage of previous paleoproxy studies showing similar changes, and they provide support for modeling studies showing changes in wind strength and direction consistent with increased upwelling during abrupt coolings and decreased upwelling during the African Humid Period.

  13. A review of biological delignification and detoxification methods for lignocellulosic bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio D; Ibarra, David; Alvira, Pablo; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Future biorefineries will integrate biomass conversion processes to produce fuels, power, heat and value-added chemicals. Due to its low price and wide distribution, lignocellulosic biomass is expected to play an important role toward this goal. Regarding renewable biofuel production, bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks is considered the most feasible option for fossil fuels replacement since these raw materials do not compete with food or feed crops. In the overall process, lignin, the natural barrier of the lignocellulosic biomass, represents an important limiting factor in biomass digestibility. In order to reduce the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose, biological pretreatments have been promoted as sustainable and environmentally friendly alternatives to traditional physico-chemical technologies, which are expensive and pollute the environment. These approaches include the use of diverse white-rot fungi and/or ligninolytic enzymes, which disrupt lignin polymers and facilitate the bioconversion of the sugar fraction into ethanol. As there is still no suitable biological pretreatment technology ready to scale up in an industrial context, white-rot fungi and/or ligninolytic enzymes have also been proposed to overcome, in a separated or in situ biodetoxification step, the effect of the inhibitors produced by non-biological pretreatments. The present work reviews the latest studies regarding the application of different microorganisms or enzymes as useful and environmentally friendly delignification and detoxification technologies for lignocellulosic biofuel production. This review also points out the main challenges and possible ways to make these technologies a reality for the bioethanol industry.

  14. A regulatory perspective of clinical trial applications for biological products with particular emphasis on Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David R; McBlane, James W; McNaughton, Graham; Rajakumaraswamy, Nishanthan; Wydenbach, Kirsty

    2013-08-01

    The safety of trial subjects is the tenet that guides the regulatory assessment of a Clinical Trial Authorization application and applies equally to trials involving small molecules and those with biological/biotechnological products, including Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products. The objective of a regulator is to ensure that the potential risk faced by a trial subject is outweighed by the potential benefit to them from taking part in the trial. The focus of the application review is to assess whether risks have been identified and appropriate steps taken to alleviate these as much as possible. Other factors are also taken into account during a review, such as regulatory requirements, and emerging non-clinical and clinical data from other trials on the same or similar products. This paper examines the regulatory review process of a Clinical Trial Authorization application from the perspectives of Quality, Non-Clinical and Clinical Regulatory Assessors at the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. It should be noted that each perspective has highlighted specific issues from their individual competence and that these can be different between the disciplines.

  15. [Employee participation by patients with rheumatoid arthritis and spondylarthritis. Biologicals may have an effect on the loss of productivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Annelies; ter Wee, Marieke M

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the various types of spondylarthritis (SpA) contribute significantly to employee disability. Each of these inflammatory diseases has a great impact on physical and mental health, thereby restricting one's ability to participate in one's social roles. This may result in decreased productivity during working hours (sickness presenteeism), absenteeism and eventually, disablement, with financial consequences for the patient as well as society. By incorporating biologicals into treatment strategies, the health of patients with RA and SpA can be better regulated; however, the cost of such treatment has risen considerably. There are indications that part of these high treatment expenditures can be regained by improved employee productivity of these patients.

  16. Alien Biochemistries and Their Metabolic By-Products. Lessons from Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, S.

    2014-03-01

    While the metabolisms of terran organisms are accessible for study and their byproducts are, for the most part, well known, the "diversity" of terran biology arises (as far as we know) from a single common ancestor, represents only a small fraction of possible chemical difersity, and may reflect only a fraction of the possible chemical diversity that might support Darwinian evolution [1]. This talk will consider laboratory experiments on origins [2] and synthetic biology [3], asking how they might inform us about alternative biochemistries, and whether we have any chance of observing remotely their by-products, recognizing the uncertanties in both our models for "weird life" and our models of abiotic processes in incompletely defined planetary environments.

  17. Enzyme and metabolic engineering for the production of novel biopolymers: crossover of biological and chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Taguchi, Seiichi

    2013-12-01

    The development of synthetic biology has transformed microbes into useful factories for producing valuable polymers and/or their precursors from renewable biomass. Recent progress at the interface of chemistry and biology has enabled the production of a variety of new biopolymers with properties that substantially differ from their petroleum-derived counterparts. This review touches on recent trials and achievements in the field of biopolymer synthesis, including chemo-enzymatically synthesized aliphatic polyesters, wholly biosynthesized lactate-based polyesters, polyhydroxyalkanoates and other unusual bacterially synthesized polyesters. The expanding diversities in structure and the material properties of biopolymers are key for exploring practical applications. The enzyme and metabolic engineering approaches toward this goal are discussed by shedding light on the successful case studies.

  18. The reduction of biological production induced by mesoscale mixing: a modelling study in the Benguela upwelling

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Carrasco, Ismael; Hernández-García, Emilio; Garçon, Veronique; López, Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies, both based on remote sensed data and coupled models, showed a reduction of biological productivity due to vigorous horizontal mixing in upwelling systems. In order to better understand this phenomenon, we have considered a system of oceanic flow in the Benguela area coupled with a simple biogeochemical model of Nutrient-Phyto-Zooplankton (NPZ) type. For the flow three different surface velocity fields are considered: one derived from satellite altimetry data, and the other two from a regional numerical model at two different spatial resolutions. We computed horizontal particle dispersion in terms of Lyapunov Exponents, and analyzed their correlations with phytoplankton concentrations. Our modelling approach confirms that in the south Benguela, there is a reduction of biological activity when stirring is increased. Two-dimensional offshore advection seems to be the dominant process involved. In the northern area, other factors not taken into account in our simulation are influencing the ecosyst...

  19. Penetration and propagation into biological matter and biological effects of high-power ultra-wideband pulses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunck, Thérèse; Bieth, François; Pinguet, Sylvain; Delmote, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Systems emitting ultra-wideband high power microwave (HP/UWB) pulses are developed for military and civilian applications. HP/UWB pulses typically have durations on the order of nanoseconds, rise times of picoseconds and amplitudes around 100 kV m(-1). This article reviews current research on biological effects from HP/UWB exposure. The different references were classified according to endpoints (cardiovascular system, central nervous system, behavior, genotoxicity, teratology …). The article also reviews the aspects of mechanisms of interactions and tissue damage as well as the numerical work that has been done for studying HP/UWB pulse propagation and pulse energy deposition inside biological tissues. The mechanisms proposed are the molecular conformation change, the modification of chemical reaction rates, membrane excitation and breakdown and direct electrical forces on cells or cell constituents, and the energy deposition. As regards the penetration of biological matter and the deposited energy, mainly computations were published. They have shown that the EM field inside the biological matter is strongly modified compared to the incident EM field and that the energy absorption for HP/UWB pulses occurs in the same way as for continuous waves. However, the energy carried by a HP/UWB pulse is very low and the deposited energy is low. The number of published studies dealing with the biological effects is small and only a few pointed out slight effects. It should be further noted that the animal populations used in the studies were not always large, the statistical analyses not always relevant and the teams involved in this research rather limited in number.

  20. Productivity management in the high complexity laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, John P

    2006-01-01

    Productivity improvement is fast becoming an imperative for all healthcare operations as labor cost continue to increase while third party insurance reimbursements declines. All service industries in general, and health services in particular, are notorious for poor productivity gains as compared to manufacturing industries. In many areas of health services there has actually been negative productivity, where more labor is required to do the same things. The additive processes often used in health services will be a major problem if not reversed as the population ages and consumes more health services per capita.

  1. Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership: Using Chemistry and Biology Concepts to Educate High School Students about Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Elizabeth A.; Kwiek, Nicole; Sikes, Suzanne S.; Halpin, Myra J.; Weinbaum, Carolyn A.; Burgette, Lane F.; Reiter, Jerome P.; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D.

    2014-01-01

    We developed the Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership (APEP), a set of modules designed to integrate a topic of interest (alcohol) with concepts in chemistry and biology for high school students. Chemistry and biology teachers (n = 156) were recruited nationally to field-test APEP in a controlled study. Teachers obtained professional…

  2. Preparing High School Students for the Interdisciplinary Nature of Modern Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Fostering interdisciplinary learning in biology will require significant changes in the way one teaches science to K-12 students. The perspective on interdisciplinary biology teaching and learning in this essay is based on the author's experiences as a former research cell biologist, high school science teacher, and developer of secondary science…

  3. Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership: Using Chemistry and Biology Concepts to Educate High School Students about Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Elizabeth A.; Kwiek, Nicole; Sikes, Suzanne S.; Halpin, Myra J.; Weinbaum, Carolyn A.; Burgette, Lane F.; Reiter, Jerome P.; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D.

    2014-01-01

    We developed the Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership (APEP), a set of modules designed to integrate a topic of interest (alcohol) with concepts in chemistry and biology for high school students. Chemistry and biology teachers (n = 156) were recruited nationally to field-test APEP in a controlled study. Teachers obtained professional…

  4. The scientific production in health and biological sciences of the top 20 Brazilian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zorzetto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian scientific output exhibited a 4-fold increase in the last two decades because of the stability of the investment in research and development activities and of changes in the policies of the main funding agencies. Most of this production is concentrated in public universities and research institutes located in the richest part of the country. Among all areas of knowledge, the most productive are Health and Biological Sciences. During the 1998-2002 period these areas presented heterogeneous growth ranging from 4.5% (Pharmacology to 191% (Psychiatry, with a median growth rate of 47.2%. In order to identify and rank the 20 most prolific institutions in these areas, searches were made in three databases (DataCAPES, ISI and MEDLINE which permitted the identification of 109,507 original articles produced by the 592 Graduate Programs in Health and Biological Sciences offered by 118 public universities and research institutes. The 20 most productive centers, ranked according to the total number of ISI-indexed articles published during the 1998-2003 period, produced 78.7% of the papers in these areas and are strongly concentrated in the Southern part of the country, mainly in São Paulo State.

  5. Degeneration of penicillin production in ethanol-limited chemostat cultivations of Penicillium chrysogenum: A systems biology approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, R.D.; Batista, J.M.; Touw, K.M.; Kiel, J.A.K.W.; Krikken, A.M.; Zhao, Z.; Veiga, T.; Klaassen, P.; Bovenberg, R.A.L.; Daran, J.M.; Heijnen, J.J.; Van Gulik, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background In microbial production of non-catabolic products such as antibiotics a loss of production capacity upon long-term cultivation (for example chemostat), a phenomenon called strain degeneration, is often observed. In this study a systems biology approach, monitoring changes from gene to pro

  6. Degeneration of penicillin production in ethanol-limited chemostat cultivations of Penicillium chrysogenum: A systems biology approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, R.D.; Batista, J.M.; Touw, K.M.; Kiel, J.A.K.W.; Krikken, A.M.; Zhao, Z.; Veiga, T.; Klaassen, P.; Bovenberg, R.A.L.; Daran, J.M.; Heijnen, J.J.; Van Gulik, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background In microbial production of non-catabolic products such as antibiotics a loss of production capacity upon long-term cultivation (for example chemostat), a phenomenon called strain degeneration, is often observed. In this study a systems biology approach, monitoring changes from gene to

  7. Production technology of high strength reinforcement rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ At present JSC "ZSMK" is the largest producer of building reinforcement steel in Russia. One of the most essential conditions for holding our positions on this products market is the increase of assortment and quality of rolled metal.

  8. Eco-friendly process combining physical-chemical and biological technics for the fermented dairy products waste pretreatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Mariam; Hamdi, Moktar; Trabelsi, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Residual fermented dairy products resulting from process defects or from expired shelf life products are considered as waste. Thus, dairies wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) suffer high input effluents polluting load. In this study, fermented residuals separation from the plant wastewater is proposed. In the aim to meet the municipal WWTP input limits, a pretreatment combining physical-chemical and biological processes was investigated to reduce residual fermented dairy products polluting effect. Yoghurt (Y) and fermented milk products (RL) were considered. Raw samples chemical oxygen demand (COD) values were assessed at 152 and 246 g.L(-1) for Y and RL products, respectively. Following the thermal coagulation, maximum removal rates were recorded at 80 °C. Resulting whey stabilization contributed to the removal rates enhance to reach 72% and 87% for Y and RL samples; respectively. Residual whey sugar content was fermented using Candida strains. Bacterial growth and strains degrading potential were discussed. C. krusei strain achieved the most important removal rates of 78% and 85% with Y and RL medium, respectively. Global COD removal rates exceeded 93%.

  9. The contribution of biological particles to observed particulate organic carbon at a remote high altitude site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedinmyer, Christine; Bowers, Robert M.; Fierer, Noah; Horanyi, Eszter; Hannigan, Michael; Hallar, A. Gannet; McCubbin, Ian; Baustian, Kelly

    Although a significant fraction of atmospheric particulate mass is organic carbon, the sources of particulate organic carbon (POC) are not always apparent. One potential source of atmospheric POC is biological particles, such as bacteria, pollen, and fungal spores. Measurements of POC and biological particles, including bacteria, fungal spores, and pollen, were made as part of the Storm Peak Aerosol and Cloud Characterization Study in Steamboat Springs, CO in March-April 2008. Biological particles were identified and characterized using several methods. The results suggest that biological particles could account for an average of 40% of the organic carbon mass in particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 μm. These estimates of POC mass from biological particles are highly uncertain; however, the results suggest that biological particles could be a significant source of organic aerosol in the background continental atmosphere and further observations are needed to better constrain these estimates.

  10. Droplet microfluidics for high-throughput biological assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mira T; Rotem, Assaf; Heyman, John A; Weitz, David A

    2012-06-21

    Droplet microfluidics offers significant advantages for performing high-throughput screens and sensitive assays. Droplets allow sample volumes to be significantly reduced, leading to concomitant reductions in cost. Manipulation and measurement at kilohertz speeds enable up to 10(8) samples to be screened in one day. Compartmentalization in droplets increases assay sensitivity by increasing the effective concentration of rare species and decreasing the time required to reach detection thresholds. Droplet microfluidics combines these powerful features to enable currently inaccessible high-throughput screening applications, including single-cell and single-molecule assays.

  11. High-end encroachment patterns of new products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhee, van der B.; Schmidt, G.; Orden, van J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research describes two key ways in which a new product may encroach on an existing market. In high-end encroachment, the new product first sells to high-end customers and then diffuses down-market; in low-end encroachment, the new product enters at the low end and encroaches up-market. This

  12. Linking neuroethology to the chemical biology of natural products: interactions between cone snails and their fish prey, a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera, Baldomero M; Raghuraman, Shrinivasan; Schmidt, Eric W; Safavi-Hemami, Helena

    2017-05-27

    From a biological perspective, a natural product can be defined as a compound evolved by an organism for chemical interactions with another organism including prey, predator, competitor, pathogen, symbiont or host. Natural products hold tremendous potential as drug leads and have been extensively studied by chemists and biochemists in the pharmaceutical industry. However, the biological purpose for which a natural product evolved is rarely addressed. By focusing on a well-studied group of natural products-venom components from predatory marine cone snails-this review provides a rationale for why a better understanding of the evolution, biology and biochemistry of natural products will facilitate both neuroscience and the potential for drug leads. The larger goal is to establish a new sub-discipline in the broader field of neuroethology that we refer to as "Chemical Neuroethology", linking the substantial work carried out by chemists on natural products with accelerating advances in neuroethology.

  13. [The pharmaceutical company Choay: an history linked to research and commercialization of biological products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Eugène Choay, when he created his own company in 1911, had already a large experience in pharmaceutical industry obtained with Maison Frère where he discovered the famous Dentol, well known thank to Poulbot's publicity drawings for this product. But, convinced of the future of biological products and Opotherapy, he decided to invest himself in this area with a totally new process for cold desiccation of organs. The success will be there and several pharmacists from Choay family will take care of the company and bring it to the top of its specialty in Opotherapy. At the beginning of the 1970's, Choay in in full development and has the products, the sites and the human resources for the future. In 1975, 4 therapeutic areas are covered by Choay's products: coagulation, inflammation, dermatology and hepatology. After more than 65 years of independence, Choay group will be finally bought partially and then totally by Sanofi. With the support of Sanofi, Choay created, in 1981, their US subsidiary called Choay Laboratories Inc;, after the NDA approval of sub-cutaneous Calciparine by the FDA. In 1985 Fraxiparine, a low molecular weight heparin discovered by Jean Choay's team, is lauched on the market. All these developments represent an outstanding record a longevity which indicates how perceptive was Eugène Choay and his successors when choosing to invest totally in the therapeutic use of hormones and products acting on coagulation factors.

  14. Suppressing and enhancing effects of mesoscale dynamics on biological production in the Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, Y. S.; Penven, P.; Aumont, O.; Machu, E.; Moloney, C. L.; Shillington, F.; Maury, O.

    2016-06-01

    We used a coupled physical-biogeochemical model to investigate how the strong eddy activity typical of the Mozambique Channel affects biological production. A numerical experiment was carried out, in which mesoscale dynamics were suppressed by cancelling the nonlinear terms for horizontal momentum in the Naviers-Stokes equation. Mesoscale dynamics were found to be responsible for (1) increased offshore production in the Mozambique Channel as a result of net eddy-induced offshore transport of nutrient-rich coastal waters; (2) decreased shelf production along the central Mozambican and south-west Madagascar coast caused by a reduction in nutrient availability related to the net eddy-induced lateral transport of nutrients; (3) increased coastal production along the northern Mozambican coast caused by eddy-induced nutrient supply. The model results also showed an intensification and shallowing of the subsurface production, related to increased upper layer nutrient concentrations caused by eddy activity. In addition, by driving the detachment of the East Madagascar Current at the southern tip of the island, inertial processes intensify the southern Madagascar upwelling and causes offshore diffusion of the upwelled waters. These results emphasize the complex role played by eddy activity and, more generally, inertial processes on marine ecosystems in this region.

  15. Population biology and secondary production of the stout razor clam Tagelus plebeius (Bivalvia, Solecurtidae on a sandflat in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolnnye R. Abrahão

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The population biology and production of the stout razor clam Tagelus plebeius Lightfoot, 1786 were investigated on an intertidal sandflat on the southeast coast of Brazil (Enseada Beach, São Sebastião, state of São Paulo between April 1997 and April 1998. Two rectangular sites of 50 X 10 m parallel to the waterline were established, site A (upper intertidal level and site B (middle intertidal level, where the samples were taken in an 0.5 x 0.5 m quadrat. High abundances were recorded in winter and spring, with no significant differences between the sites. The high bivalve abundances were related to the presence of very fine homogeneous sediment with low salinities. Tagelus plebeius had negative allometric growth, characteristic of deep burrowers for the relationships DM/SL and AFDM/SL. Parameters of the modified von Bertalanffy growth function were: L∞ = 67.01 mm, K = 1.73 year-1, t0 = -0.11 year, C = 0.43, WP = 0.96. The instantaneous mortality (Z was 3.12 year-1, relatively high in comparison to other tropical bivalve populations. Secondary production was 1.53 g AFDM m-2 year-1, with a P/B ratio reaching 1.37 year-1. This high turnover ratio (P/B was related to a rapid population replacement, connected with the short life span and high mortality of the species.

  16. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Fatty Hydrazides of By-products of Oil Processing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toliwal, S; Jadav, K; Patel, K

    2009-03-01

    Some new 2-alkyl-5-mercapto-1,3,4-Oxadiazoles and 3-alkyl-5-mercapto-1,2,3-4H triazoles were synthesized from hydrazides of acid oil and oil recovered from spent bleaching earth. These newly synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis and evaluated for biological properties. Certain derivatives exhibited fairly high antibacterial and antifungal activities when compared with streptomycin and immidil used as standard antibacterial and antifungal agents respectively.

  17. Long-term organic farming fosters below and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkhofer, K.; Bezemer, T.M.; Bloem, J.; Bonkowski, M.; Christensen, S.; Dubois, D.; Ekelund, F.; Fliessbach, A.; Gunst, L.; Hedlund, K.; Mäder, P.; Mikola, J.; Robin, C.; Setälä, H.; Tatin-Froux, F.; Putten, van der W.H.; Scheu, S.

    2008-01-01

    Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production worldwide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental impacts of conventional farming. We investigated in a comprehensive way soil chemical, as well as below and aboveground biological param

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors in high-need psoriasis patients and its implications for biological therapies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, R.J.B.; Boezeman, J.B.M.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Jong, E.M.G.J. de

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The associations between psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors are reported to be stronger as psoriasis severity increases. This makes studying cardiovascular risk factors in high-need psoriasis patients, eligible for biological therapy, interesting. OBJECTIVE: To survey the prevalen

  19. How-to-Do-It: Teaching Recombinant DNA Technology in High School Biology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Reports on the teaching of recombinant DNA technology in high school biology courses. Explains reactions of the public, students, and colleagues to the molecular genetics unit. Indicates equipment, curricular materials, training, workshops, and availability. (RT)

  20. Highly Productive Tools For Turning And Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilko, Karol

    2015-12-01

    Beside cutting speed, shift is another important parameter of machining. Its considerable influence is shown mainly in the workpiece machined surface microgeometry. In practice, mainly its combination with the radius of cutting tool tip rounding is used. Options to further increase machining productivity and machined surface quality are hidden in this approach. The paper presents variations of the design of productive cutting tools for lathe work and milling on the base of the use of the laws of the relationship among the highest reached uneveness of machined surface, tool tip radius and shift.

  1. Dimesoatoms production in high energy collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasyev, L; Voskresenskaya, O

    2016-01-01

    The production of two meson electromagnetic bound states and free meson pairs $\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $K^+K^-$, $\\pi^+ K^{\\mp}$ in relativistic collisions has been considered. It was shown that making use of the exact Coulomb wave function for dimesoatom (DMA) allows one to calculate the yield of any nS state with desired accuracy. The relative probabilities of production of DMA and meson pairs in the free state are estimated. The amplitude of DMA transition from 1S to 2P state, which is essential for the pionium Lamb shift measurements, has been obtained.

  2. High-Speed Coherent Raman Fingerprint Imaging of Biological Tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Camp, Charles H; Heddleston, John M; Hartshorn, Christopher M; Walker, Angela R Hight; Rich, Jeremy N; Lathia, Justin D; Cicerone, Marcus T

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a coherent Raman imaging platform using broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (BCARS) that provides an unprecedented combination of speed, sensitivity, and spectral breadth. The system utilizes a unique configuration of laser sources that probes the Raman spectrum over 3,000 cm$^{-1}$ and generates an especially strong response in the typically weak Raman "fingerprint" region through heterodyne amplification of the anti-Stokes photons with a large nonresonant background (NRB) while maintaining high spectral resolution of $<$ 13 cm$^{-1}$. For histology and pathology, this system shows promise in highlighting major tissue components in a non-destructive, label-free manner. We demonstrate high-speed chemical imaging in two- and three-dimensional views of healthy murine liver and pancreas tissues and interfaces between xenograft brain tumors and the surrounding healthy brain matter.

  3. A high-efficiency cellular extraction system for biological proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in quantitative high-resolution mass spectrometry have led to significant improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of biochemical analyses of cellular reactions, protein-protein interactions, and small molecule drug discovery. These approaches depend on cellular proteome extraction that preserves native protein activities. Here, we systematically analyzed mechanical methods of cell lysis and physical protein extraction to identify those that maximize the extraction ...

  4. Biological characteristics of marine bacterium S - 9801 strain and its culture conditions of pigment production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田黎; 何培青; 武洪庆; 温占波; 刘晨临; 李光友

    2002-01-01

    Strain of Flavobacterium sp. (S- 9801), was screened from 207 strains of marine bacteria isolated from the Bohai Sea continental shelf and the Zhujiang Estuary, for its red pigment production. The biological characteristics of strain S- 9801 and culture conditions of pigment production have been checked out in this study. The color of the bacterial colony on 2216E medium was from coccineus to rose bengal. Optimum culture conditions were sodium chloride concentration(g/dm3), 10~30; pH,3~8; temperature, 25~28℃; tryptone and yeast extract as nitrogen sources and gluccse as carbon source. Under optimum conditions, pigment accumulation started after 12 h, reaching a maximum rate of synthesis at 36 h.

  5. Proof of concept for a banding scheme to support risk assessments related to multi-product biologics manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Jeffrey W; Fikree, Hana; Haighton, Lois A; Blackwell, James; Felice, Brian; Wright, Teresa L

    2015-11-01

    A banding scheme theory has been proposed to assess the potency/toxicity of biologics and assist with decisions regarding the introduction of new biologic products into existing manufacturing facilities. The current work was conducted to provide a practical example of how this scheme could be applied. Information was identified for representatives from the following four proposed bands: Band A (lethal toxins); Band B (toxins and apoptosis signals); Band C (cytokines and growth factors); and Band D (antibodies, antibody fragments, scaffold molecules, and insulins). The potency/toxicity of the representative substances was confirmed as follows: Band A, low nanogram quantities exert lethal effects; Band B, repeated administration of microgram quantities is tolerated in humans; Band C, endogenous substances and recombinant versions administered to patients in low (interferons), intermediate (growth factors), and high (interleukins) microgram doses, often on a chronic basis; and Band D, endogenous substances present or produced in the body in milligram quantities per day (insulin, collagen) or protein therapeutics administered in milligram quantities per dose (mAbs). This work confirms that substances in Bands A, B, C, and D represent very high, high, medium, and low concern with regard to risk of cross-contamination in manufacturing facilities, thus supporting the proposed banding scheme.

  6. Degeneration of penicillin production in ethanol-limited chemostat cultivations of Penicillium chrysogenum: A systems biology approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daran Jean-Marc

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In microbial production of non-catabolic products such as antibiotics a loss of production capacity upon long-term cultivation (for example chemostat, a phenomenon called strain degeneration, is often observed. In this study a systems biology approach, monitoring changes from gene to produced flux, was used to study degeneration of penicillin production in a high producing Penicillium chrysogenum strain during prolonged ethanol-limited chemostat cultivations. Results During these cultivations, the biomass specific penicillin production rate decreased more than 10-fold in less than 22 generations. No evidence was obtained for a decrease of the copy number of the penicillin gene cluster, nor a significant down regulation of the expression of the penicillin biosynthesis genes. However, a strong down regulation of the biosynthesis pathway of cysteine, one of the precursors of penicillin, was observed. Furthermore the protein levels of the penicillin pathway enzymes L-α-(δ-aminoadipyl-L-α-cystenyl-D-α-valine synthetase (ACVS and isopenicillin-N synthase (IPNS, decreased significantly. Re-cultivation of fully degenerated cells in unlimited batch culture and subsequent C-limited chemostats did only result in a slight recovery of penicillin production. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the observed degeneration is attributed to a significant decrease of the levels of the first two enzymes of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway, ACVS and IPNS. This decrease is not caused by genetic instability of the penicillin amplicon, neither by down regulation of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore no indications were obtained for degradation of these enzymes as a result of autophagy. Possible causes for the decreased enzyme levels could be a decrease of the translation efficiency of ACVS and IPNS during degeneration, or the presence of a culture variant impaired in the biosynthesis of functional proteins of these enzymes

  7. Production technology of high strength reinforcement rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yurev; A.; B.; Chinokalov; V.; Y.; Efimov; O.; Y.; Zezikov; M.; V.; Myskova; N.; V.

    2005-01-01

    At present JSC "ZSMK" is the largest producer of building reinforcement steel in Russia. One of the most essential conditions for holding our positions on this products market is the increase of assortment and quality of rolled metal.……

  8. Understanding the biological activity of high rate algae ponds through the calculation of oxygen balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Zouhayr; de Godos Crespo, Ignacio; Corona, Enrique Lara; Rogalla, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae culture in high rate algae ponds (HRAP) is an environmentally friendly technology for wastewater treatment. However, for the implementation of these systems, a better understanding of the oxygenation potential and the influence of climate conditions is required. In this work, the rates of oxygen production, consumption, and exchange with the atmosphere were calculated under varying conditions of solar irradiance and dilution rate during six months of operation in a real scale unit. This analysis allowed determining the biological response of these dynamic systems. The rates of oxygen consumption measured were considerably higher than the values calculated based on the organic loading rate. The response to light intensity in terms of oxygen production in the bioreactor was described with one of the models proposed for microalgae culture in dense concentrations. This model is based on the availability of light inside the culture and the specific response of microalgae to this parameter. The specific response to solar radiation intensity showed a reasonable stability in spite of the fluctuations due to meteorological conditions. The methodology developed is a useful tool for optimization and prediction of the performance of these systems.

  9. Statistical analysis of highly correlated systems in biology and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hector Garcia

    In this dissertation, I present my work on the statistical study of highly correlated systems in three fields of science: ecology, microbial ecology and physics. I propose an explanation for how the highly correlated distribution of species individuals, and an abundance distribution commonly observed in ecological systems, give rise to a power law dependence between a given area and the number of unique species it harbors. This is one of the oldest known ecological patterns: the power-law Species Area Rule. As a natural extension of my studies in ecology, I have undertaken both theoretical research and field work in the developing field of microbial ecology. In particular, I participated in a multidisciplinary study of the impact of microbes on the formation of macroscopic calcium carbonate terraces at Yellowstone National Park Hot Springs. I have used ecological techniques to characterize the biodiversity of our study site and developed a new bootstrap method for extracting abundance information from clone libraries. This has singled out the most abundant microorganisms and paved the way for future studies of the possible non-passive role of microorganisms in carbonate precipitation. The third part of my thesis uses statistical techniques to explore the correlations in rotating Bose-Einstein condensates. I have used finite difference techniques to solve the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in order to obtain the structure of a vortex in a lattice. Surprisingly, I have found that, in order to understand this structure, it is necessary to add a correction to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation which introduces a dependence on the particle scattering length. I have also used Path Integral Monte Carlo techniques to explore the limit of rapid rotations, where the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is no longer valid. Interestingly, the Gross-Pitaevskii equation seems to be valid for much higher densities than expected if properly renormalized. I show that, in accord with the prediction of

  10. Connecting marine productivity to sea-spray via nanoscale biological processes: Phytoplankton Dance or Death Disco?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dowd, Colin; Ceburnis, Darius; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bialek, Jakub; Stengel, Dagmar B.; Zacharias, Merry; Nitschke, Udo; Connan, Solene; Rinaldi, Matteo; Fuzzi, Sandro; Decesari, Stefano; Cristina Facchini, Maria; Marullo, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Tangherlini, Michael; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Bursting bubbles at the ocean-surface produce airborne salt-water spray-droplets, in turn, forming climate-cooling marine haze and cloud layers. The reflectance and ultimate cooling effect of these layers is determined by the spray’s water-uptake properties that are modified through entrainment of ocean-surface organic matter (OM) into the airborne droplets. We present new results illustrating a clear dependence of OM mass-fraction enrichment in sea spray (OMss) on both phytoplankton-biomass, determined from Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP). The correlation coefficient for OMss as a function of Chl-a increased form 0.67 on a daily timescale to 0.85 on a monthly timescale. An even stronger correlation was found as a function of NPP, increasing to 0.93 on a monthly timescale. We suggest the observed dependence is through the demise of the bloom, driven by nanoscale biological processes (such as viral infections), releasing large quantities of transferable OM comprising cell debris, exudates and other colloidal materials. This OM, through aggregation processes, leads to enrichment in sea-spray, thus demonstrating an important coupling between biologically-driven plankton bloom termination, marine productivity and sea-spray modification with potentially significant climate impacts.

  11. Genome Engineering and Modification Toward Synthetic Biology for the Production of Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xuan; Wang, Lianrong; Li, Zhiqiang; Luo, Jie; Wang, Yunfu; Deng, Zixin; Du, Shiming; Chen, Shi

    2017-03-15

    Antibiotic production is often governed by large gene clusters composed of genes related to antibiotic scaffold synthesis, tailoring, regulation, and resistance. With the expansion of genome sequencing, a considerable number of antibiotic gene clusters has been isolated and characterized. The emerging genome engineering techniques make it possible towards more efficient engineering of antibiotics. In addition to genomic editing, multiple synthetic biology approaches have been developed for the exploration and improvement of antibiotic natural products. Here, we review the progress in the development of these genome editing techniques used to engineer new antibiotics, focusing on three aspects of genome engineering: direct cloning of large genomic fragments, genome engineering of gene clusters, and regulation of gene cluster expression. This review will not only summarize the current uses of genomic engineering techniques for cloning and assembly of antibiotic gene clusters or for altering antibiotic synthetic pathways but will also provide perspectives on the future directions of rebuilding biological systems for the design of novel antibiotics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. High throughput instruments, methods, and informatics for systems biology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Cowie, Jim R. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Wylie, Brian Neil; Davidson, George S.; Haaland, David Michael; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Aragon, Anthony D. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Keenan, Michael Robert; Boyack, Kevin W.; Thomas, Edward Victor; Werner-Washburne, Margaret C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Mosquera-Caro, Monica P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, M. Juanita (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Shawn Bryan; Willman, Cheryl L. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-12-01

    High throughput instruments and analysis techniques are required in order to make good use of the genomic sequences that have recently become available for many species, including humans. These instruments and methods must work with tens of thousands of genes simultaneously, and must be able to identify the small subsets of those genes that are implicated in the observed phenotypes, or, for instance, in responses to therapies. Microarrays represent one such high throughput method, which continue to find increasingly broad application. This project has improved microarray technology in several important areas. First, we developed the hyperspectral scanner, which has discovered and diagnosed numerous flaws in techniques broadly employed by microarray researchers. Second, we used a series of statistically designed experiments to identify and correct errors in our microarray data to dramatically improve the accuracy, precision, and repeatability of the microarray gene expression data. Third, our research developed new informatics techniques to identify genes with significantly different expression levels. Finally, natural language processing techniques were applied to improve our ability to make use of online literature annotating the important genes. In combination, this research has improved the reliability and precision of laboratory methods and instruments, while also enabling substantially faster analysis and discovery.

  13. A High-Efficiency Cellular Extraction System for Biological Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhabaria, Avantika; Cifani, Paolo; Reed, Casie; Steen, Hanno; Kentsis, Alex

    2015-08-07

    Recent developments in quantitative high-resolution mass spectrometry have led to significant improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of the biochemical analyses of cellular reactions, protein-protein interactions, and small-molecule-drug discovery. These approaches depend on cellular proteome extraction that preserves native protein activities. Here, we systematically analyzed mechanical methods of cell lysis and physical protein extraction to identify those that maximize the extraction of cellular proteins while minimizing their denaturation. Cells were mechanically disrupted using Potter-Elvehjem homogenization, probe- or adaptive-focused acoustic sonication, and were in the presence of various detergents, including polyoxyethylene ethers and esters, glycosides, and zwitterions. Using fluorescence spectroscopy, biochemical assays, and mass spectrometry proteomics, we identified the combination of adaptive focused acoustic (AFA) sonication in the presence of a binary poloxamer-based mixture of octyl-β-glucoside and Pluronic F-127 to maximize the depth and yield of the proteome extraction while maintaining native protein activity. This binary poloxamer extraction system allowed for native proteome extraction comparable in coverage to the proteomes extracted using denaturing SDS or guanidine-containing buffers, including the efficient extraction of all major cellular organelles. This high-efficiency cellular extraction system should prove useful for a variety of cell biochemical studies, including structural and functional proteomics.

  14. High-throughput sequencing in veterinary infection biology and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belák, S; Karlsson, O E; Leijon, M; Granberg, F

    2013-12-01

    Sequencing methods have improved rapidly since the first versions of the Sanger techniques, facilitating the development of very powerful tools for detecting and identifying various pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria and other microbes. The ongoing development of high-throughput sequencing (HTS; also known as next-generation sequencing) technologies has resulted in a dramatic reduction in DNA sequencing costs, making the technology more accessible to the average laboratory. In this White Paper of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Centre for the Biotechnology-based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases in Veterinary Medicine (Uppsala, Sweden), several approaches and examples of HTS are summarised, and their diagnostic applicability is briefly discussed. Selected future aspects of HTS are outlined, including the need for bioinformatic resources, with a focus on improving the diagnosis and control of infectious diseases in veterinary medicine.

  15. High pt identified particle production in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE experiment is a dedicated heavy ion physics detector at the LHC with unique capabilities for studying identified particle production. In this proceeding preliminary results for RAA for pi and K+p (sum), are reported, based on measurements in pp at sqrt(s) = 2.76 TeV and Pb-Pb at sqrt(sNN) = 2.76 TeV. The results are compared to theoretical predictions and measurements at RHIC.

  16. Mammoth steppe: a high-productivity phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimov, S. A.; Zimov, N. S.; Tikhonov, A. N.; Chapin, F. S.

    2012-12-01

    At the last deglaciation Earth's largest biome, mammoth-steppe, vanished. Without knowledge of the productivity of this ecosystem, the evolution of man and the glacial-interglacial dynamics of carbon storage in Earth's main carbon reservoirs cannot be fully understood. Analyzes of fossils 14C dates and reconstruction of mammoth steppe climatic envelope indicated that changing climate wasn't a reason for extinction of this ecosystem. We calculate, based on animal skeleton density in frozen soils of northern Siberia, that mammoth-steppe animal biomass and plant productivity, even in these coldest and driest of the planet's grasslands were close to those of an African savanna. Numerous herbivores maintained ecosystem productivity. By reducing soil moisture and permafrost temperature, accumulating carbon in soils, and increasing the regional albedo, mammoth-steppe amplified glacial-interglacial climate variations. The re-establishment of grassland ecosystems would slow permafrost thawing and reduce the current warming rate. Proposed methods can be used to estimate animal density in other ecosystems.

  17. Biological effects of activation products and other chemicals released from fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Poston, T.M.

    1976-09-01

    Literature reviews indicate that existing information is incomplete, often contradictory, and of questionable value for the prediction and assessment of ultimate impact from fusion-associated activation products and other chemical releases. It is still uncertain which structural materials will be used in the blanket and first wall of fusion power plants. However, niobium, vanadium, vanadium-chromium alloy, vanadium-titanium alloy, sintered aluminum product, and stainless steel have been suggested. The activation products of principal concern will be the longer-lived isotopes of /sup 26/Al, /sup 49/V, /sup 51/Cr, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 93/Nb, and /sup 94/Nb. Lithium released to the environment either during the mining cycle, from power plant operation or accident, may be in the form of a number of compound types varying in solubility and affinity for biological organisms. The effects of a severe liquid metal fire or explosion involving Na or K will vary according to inherent abiotic and biotic features of the affected site. Saline, saline-alkaline, and sodic soils of arid lands would be particularly susceptible to alkaline stress. Beryllium released to the environment during the mining cycle or reactor accident situation could be in the form of a number of compound types. Adverse effects to aquatic species from routine chemical releases (biocides, corrosion inhibitors, dissolution products) may occur in the discharge of both fission and fusion power plant designs.

  18. Biological water contamination in some cattle production fields of Argentina subjected to runoff and erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio I. Chagas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain production has displaced livestock to marginal lands in most of the productive regions in Argentina since 1990. In the fertile Rolling Pampa region, extensive cattle production has been concentrated in lowlands subjected to flooding, salt excess, erosion and sedimentation processes but also in some feedlots recently located in sloping arable lands prone to soil erosion. We studied the concentration of microbiological contamination indicators in runoff water and sediments accumulated in depressions along the tributary network from these lands devoted to cattle production. The aims of this work were: (i to gather a reliable set of data from different monitoring periods and scales, (ii to search for simple and sensible variables to be used as indicators for surface water quality advising purposes and (iii to corroborate previous biological contamination conceptual models for this region. Concentration of pollution indicators in these ponds was related to mean stocking rates from nearby fields and proved to depend significantly on the accumulated water and sediments. Viable mesophiles and total coliforms were found mainly attached to large sediments rather than in the runoff water phase. Seasonal sampling showed that the time period between the last significant runoff event and each sampling date regarding enterococci proved to be a sensible variable for predicting contamination. Enterococci concentration tended to increase gradually until the next extraordinary runoff event washed away contaminants. The mentioned relationship may be useful for designing early warning surface water contamination programs regarding enterococci dynamics and other related microbial pollutants as well.

  19. Photolytic transformation products and biological stability of the hydrological tracer Uranine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, Lukasz, E-mail: gutowski@leuphana.de; Olsson, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.olsson@leuphana.de; Lange, Jens, E-mail: jens.lange@hydrology.uni-freiburg.de; Kümmerer, Klaus, E-mail: Klaus.Kuemmerer@uni.leuphana.de

    2015-11-15

    Among many fluorescence tracers, Uranine (sodium fluorescein, UR) has most widely been used in hydrological research. Extensive use of UR for tracing experiments or commercial use might cause a potential risk of long-term environmental contamination. As any organic substance released to the environment, also UR is subjected to chemical and physical reactions that can be chemical, biological and photolysis processes. These processes transform the parent compound (PC) and have not been extensively investigated for UR. This study applies two OECDs (301 D and 301 F) tests and a screening water sediment test (WST) to investigate the biodegradability of the PC. Photolysis in water was explored by Xe lamp irradiation. Subsequently, the biodegradability of the photolysis mixtures was examined. The primary elimination of UR was monitored and structures of its transformation products (TPs) were elucidated by HPLC–FLD–MS/MS. UR was found not readily biodegradable, although small degradation rates could be observed in the OECD 301 D and WST. HPLC–FLD analysis showed high primary elimination of the tracer during photolysis. However, the low degree of mineralization found indicates that the UR was not fully degraded, instead transformed to TPs. A total of 5 photo-TPs were identified. According to MS/MS data, chemical structures could be proposed for all identified photo-TPs. Likewise the parent compound it was demonstrated that photo-TPs were largely recalcitrant to microbial degradation. Although we did not find indications for toxicity, target-oriented studies on the environmental impact of these photo-TPs are warranted. Results obtained in this study show that deeper investigations are necessary to fully understand fate and risk connected to the use of UR. - Highlights: • Uranine (UR) was not biodegraded in water and water-sediment system (WST). • Only small degradation rate occurred in OECD 301 D and WST. • Photolysis leads to incomplete mineralization of UR.

  20. The great 2012 Arctic Ocean summer cyclone enhanced biological productivity on the shelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinlun; Ashjian, Carin; Campbell, Robert; Hill, Victoria; Spitz, Yvette H; Steele, Michael

    2014-01-01

    [1] A coupled biophysical model is used to examine the impact of the great Arctic cyclone of early August 2012 on the marine planktonic ecosystem in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean (PSA). Model results indicate that the cyclone influences the marine planktonic ecosystem by enhancing productivity on the shelves of the Chukchi, East Siberian, and Laptev seas during the storm. Although the cyclone's passage in the PSA lasted only a few days, the simulated biological effects on the shelves last 1 month or longer. At some locations on the shelves, primary productivity (PP) increases by up to 90% and phytoplankton biomass by up to 40% in the wake of the cyclone. The increase in zooplankton biomass is up to 18% on 31 August and remains 10% on 15 September, more than 1 month after the storm. In the central PSA, however, model simulations indicate a decrease in PP and plankton biomass. The biological gain on the shelves and loss in the central PSA are linked to two factors. (1) The cyclone enhances mixing in the upper ocean, which increases nutrient availability in the surface waters of the shelves; enhanced mixing in the central PSA does not increase productivity because nutrients there are mostly depleted through summer draw down by the time of the cyclone's passage. (2) The cyclone also induces divergence, resulting from the cyclone's low-pressure system that drives cyclonic sea ice and upper ocean circulation, which transports more plankton biomass onto the shelves from the central PSA. The simulated biological gain on the shelves is greater than the loss in the central PSA, and therefore, the production on average over the entire PSA is increased by the cyclone. Because the gain on the shelves is offset by the loss in the central PSA, the average increase over the entire PSA is moderate and lasts only about 10 days. The generally positive impact of cyclones on the marine ecosystem in the Arctic, particularly on the shelves, is likely to grow with increasing

  1. Importance of copper for nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Florian Benedikt

    When anoxic groundwater is treated to produce drinking water, ammonium is commonly removed through nitrification in rapid sand filters. Nitrification is a biological process, and is mediated by chemoautotrophic microorganisms. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) oxidize ammonium......, the reaction rate is sometimes not high enough. This results in incomplete nitrification, with residual ammonium and nitrite concentrations in the finished water, which are problematic for the biological stability of the drinking water. In Denmark, 11 % of the larger water works (>350,000 m3/year) fail...... to remove ammonium to below the national drinking water quality standard of 0.05 mg NH4+/L. A better process understanding of nitrifying biofilters is needed to optimize treatment performance, remediate existing filters, and to prevent future nitrification problems. The frequent incidents of insufficient...

  2. Systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species for the production of secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Hyun Uk; Charusanti, Pep; Palsson, Bernhard Ø; Lee, Sang Yup

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces species continue to attract attention as a source of novel medicinal compounds. Despite a long history of studies on these microorganisms, they still have many biochemical mysteries to be elucidated. Investigations of novel secondary metabolites and their biosynthetic gene clusters have been more systematized with high-throughput techniques through inspections of correlations among components of the primary and secondary metabolisms at the genome scale. Moreover, up-to-date information on the genome of Streptomyces species with emphasis on their secondary metabolism has been collected in the form of databases and knowledgebases, providing predictive information and enabling one to explore experimentally unrecognized biological spaces of secondary metabolism. Herein, we review recent trends in the systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species.

  3. Determination of production biology of cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor. [Par Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigerstad, T J

    1980-01-01

    The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were studied. Rates of cladoceran population production were compared at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS) and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). A non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, was used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in spectra composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species.

  4. Teaching Mathematical Biology in High School Using Adapted Primary Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Stelnicki, Nathan; de Vries, Gerda

    2012-08-01

    The study compared the effect of two adaptations of a scientific article on students' comprehension and use of scientific inquiry skills. One adaptation preserved as much as possible the canonical form of the original article (APL, Adapted Primary Literature) and the other was written in a more narrative mode typical of secondary literature (SL). Both adaptations contained the same content. Two hundred and eleven senior high school students in a Western Canadian school district participated. The numbers of males and females were approximately equal, and all students were registered in an introductory calculus course. All students were given a 90 min class by their teachers that introduced them to the basic mathematical concepts needed to read the articles. Students were randomly assigned to read either the APL or the SL and afterwards to complete a questionnaire, which was common to both groups. Major findings showed that the SL students better understood the article, that the APL students thought more critically about the article, that females understood the article better than males, and that students' attitudes towards reading the articles, regardless of group, were positively associated with their comprehension and use of inquiry skills. The results coincide in important ways with those of similar studies in Israel, and show that asking students to read text that resembles scientific writing increases their use of critical thinking skills when reading.

  5. Biological fingerprint of high LET radiation. Brenner hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Yoshiaki; Awa, Akio; Nakamura, Nori [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    Hypothesis by Brenner et al. (1994) that in chromosome aberrations in human peripheral lymphocytes induced by radiation exposure, F value (dicentrics/rings) differs dependently on the LET and can be a biomarker of high LET radiation like neutron and {alpha}-ray was reviewed and evaluated as follows. Radiation and chromosome aberrations; in this section, unstable aberrations like dicentric and rings (r) and stable ones like translocation and pericentric inversions were described. F value. Brenner hypothesis. Bauchinger`s refutation. F value determined by FISH method; here, FISH is fluorescence in situ hybridization. F value in studies by author`s Radiation Effect Research Facility. Frequency of chromosome aberration in A-bomb survivors and ESR (ESR: electron spin resonance). The cause for fluctuation of F values. The Brenner hypothesis could not be supported by studies by author`s facility, suggesting that the rate of inter-chromosomal and intra-chromosomal exchange abnormalities can not be distinguishable by the radiation LET. This might be derived from the difference in detection technology of r rather than in LET. (K.H.)

  6. A retrosynthetic biology approach to metabolic pathway design for therapeutic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulon Jean-Loup

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic biology is used to develop cell factories for production of chemicals by constructively importing heterologous pathways into industrial microorganisms. In this work we present a retrosynthetic approach to the production of therapeutics with the goal of developing an in situ drug delivery device in host cells. Retrosynthesis, a concept originally proposed for synthetic chemistry, iteratively applies reversed chemical transformations (reversed enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the metabolic space starting from a target product to reach precursors that are endogenous to the chassis. So far, a wider adoption of retrosynthesis into the manufacturing pipeline has been hindered by the complexity of enumerating all feasible biosynthetic pathways for a given compound. Results In our method, we efficiently address the complexity problem by coding substrates, products and reactions into molecular signatures. Metabolic maps are represented using hypergraphs and the complexity is controlled by varying the specificity of the molecular signature. Furthermore, our method enables candidate pathways to be ranked to determine which ones are best to engineer. The proposed ranking function can integrate data from different sources such as host compatibility for inserted genes, the estimation of steady-state fluxes from the genome-wide reconstruction of the organism's metabolism, or the estimation of metabolite toxicity from experimental assays. We use several machine-learning tools in order to estimate enzyme activity and reaction efficiency at each step of the identified pathways. Examples of production in bacteria and yeast for two antibiotics and for one antitumor agent, as well as for several essential metabolites are outlined. Conclusions We present here a unified framework that integrates diverse techniques involved in the design of heterologous biosynthetic pathways through a retrosynthetic approach in the reaction signature space

  7. Engineering cyanobacteria to generate high-value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducat, Daniel C; Way, Jeffrey C; Silver, Pamela A

    2011-02-01

    Although many microorganisms have been used for the bioindustrial generation of valuable metabolites, the productive potential of cyanobacterial species has remained largely unexplored. Cyanobacteria possess several advantages as organisms for bioindustrial processes, including simple input requirements, tolerance of marginal agricultural environments, rapid genetics, and carbon-neutral applications that could be leveraged to address global climate change concerns. Here, we review recent research involving the engineering of cyanobacterial species for the production of valuable bioindustrial compounds, including natural cyanobacterial products (e.g. sugars and isoprene), biofuels (e.g. alcohols, alkanes and hydrogen), and other commodity chemicals. Biological and economic obstacles to scaled cyanobacterial production are highlighted, and methods for increasing cyanobacterial production efficiencies are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Charm production in high multiplicity pp events

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, K; Karpenko, Iu; Pierog, T; Sophys, G

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies of the multiplicity dependence of heavy quark (HQ) production in proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV showed a strong non-linear increase of the HQ multiplicity as a function of the charged particle multiplicity. We try to understand this behavior using the EPOS3 approach. Two issues play an important role: multiple scattering, in particular its impact on multiplicity fluctuations, and the collective hydrodynamic expansion. The results are very robust with respect to many details of the modeling, which means that these data contain valuable information about very basic features of the reaction mechanism in proton-proton collisions.

  9. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    1995-01-01

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  10. Biomedical Requirements for High Productivity Computing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    operations performed by embedded C ++ libraries. While Python is not currently used directly for numerically intensive work it would be quite desirable if...performed by embedded C ++ libraries. The availability of a higher performance python solution is highly desirable, i.e. – a python compiler or better JIT...be desirable. - Virtually all high-level programming is now done in Python with numerically intensive operations performed by embedded C ++ libraries

  11. Biological re-cultivation of industrial technological waste banks after steel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovska, Maria; Zhiyanski, Miglena; Bech, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    The problem of re-cultivation of disturbed lands, after the creation of waste banks, is very important and of great scientific interest. The studies on the effectiveness of biological re-cultivation are focused mainly on activities and techniques for the acceleration of soil formation processes as. The relationship between substrate and plants is also studied, in order to create modern biotechnologies and contributes to the remediation of the re-cultivated lands within the territorial system. In this work we have studied three parts of an industrial waste bank named "The 7th of September" located in the green system of Sofia - Pernik agglomeration in Bulgaria. It consists of technological wastes produced by the steel industry. Its area of 20 dca is of special local importance. The aim of this study was to propose an appropriate technology for the biological re-cultivation, which could take place after all production activities had ceased. To achieve this aim a detailed study on the characteristics of climatic elements was carried out focusing on precipitation - limiting factor for future afforestation of waste banks. Analyses on hydro-physical and chemical parameters of substrates were undertaken in order to elaborate recommendations for their improvement and utility in biological re-cultivation. Here we present the characteristics of the vegetation which existed before the production activities and the approaches for choice of tree species in afforestation with different schemes and methods applied. On the basis of this study we were able to establish that the hydrological properties of substrates are quite similar to those of natural soils in the region. The variations obtained for some soil substrate layers were not significant. In relation to this we also outlined the quantity of organic matter and nutrient elements in waste banks as determining parameters for further biological re-cultivation. The studied site is located in the lower forest zone of the country

  12. Inferring biological tasks using Pareto analysis of high-dimensional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Yuval; Sheftel, Hila; Hausser, Jean; Szekely, Pablo; Ben-Moshe, Noa Bossel; Korem, Yael; Tendler, Avichai; Mayo, Avraham E; Alon, Uri

    2015-03-01

    We present the Pareto task inference method (ParTI; http://www.weizmann.ac.il/mcb/UriAlon/download/ParTI) for inferring biological tasks from high-dimensional biological data. Data are described as a polytope, and features maximally enriched closest to the vertices (or archetypes) allow identification of the tasks the vertices represent. We demonstrate that human breast tumors and mouse tissues are well described by tetrahedrons in gene expression space, with specific tumor types and biological functions enriched at each of the vertices, suggesting four key tasks.

  13. Implementation of an Automated High-Throughput Plasmid DNA Production Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeci, Karen; Suh, Christopher; Di Ioia, Tina; Singh, Lovejit; Abraham, Ryan; Baldwin, Anne; Monteclaro, Stephen

    2016-12-01

    Biologics sample management facilities are often responsible for a diversity of large-molecule reagent types, such as DNA, RNAi, and protein libraries. Historically, the management of large molecules was dispersed into multiple laboratories. As methodologies to support pathway discovery, antibody discovery, and protein production have become high throughput, the implementation of automation and centralized inventory management tools has become important. To this end, to improve sample tracking, throughput, and accuracy, we have implemented a module-based automation system integrated into inventory management software using multiple platforms (Hamilton, Hudson, Dynamic Devices, and Brooks). Here we describe the implementation of these systems with a focus on high-throughput plasmid DNA production management.

  14. When do tissues and cells become products? Regulatory oversight of emerging biological therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Although therapeutics derived from biological sources have been subjected to regulatory oversight for some time, the products used in transplantation procedures have historically been exempt from this oversight. These products have been viewed as being part of medical practice rather than as the result of mainstream pharmaceutical manufacture. Furthermore, their unique source makes them difficult to assess in traditional regulatory systems based on the tenets of pharmaceutical quality control. With the increasing use of transplantation therapies to both replace dysfunctional organs and to influence genetic and metabolic processes, public health concerns on these therapies have increased. In addition, it is recognized that therapeutic claims for some of these interventions need to be properly assessed. These considerations have led the established regulatory agencies of the developed world to develop new regulatory paradigms for the products of transplantation practice. While a number of concerns have driven these developments, the minimization of infectious disease risk remains the paramount driver for introducing these regulatory systems. More than the regulation of medicines and medical devices manufactured in traditional pharmaceutical modes, the regulation of cell and tissue products is intimately linked to areas of public health policy and funding. This places regulators in a challenging position as they attempt to reconcile their roles as independent assessors with the needs of the overall public health framework. This is particularly difficult when considering measures which may affect access to life saving therapies. Regulators have recognized the need to assess these therapies through systems which incorporate consideration of risk-benefit ratios and include mechanisms for transparent and accountable release of products when full compliance to traditional concepts of manufacturing practice is not possible.

  15. Biological and Energy Productivity of Natural Spruce Forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Vasilishyn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern practice of forestry production in Ukraine, which is in the process of implementing the conceptual changes in forest management and harmonization of its basic approaches to the basics of sustainable development, requires a significant expansion of the current regulatory and informational tools used to assess the ecological functions of forests. For this purpose, during the 2012–2014, as part of an international project GESAPU, models and tables of bioproductivity for forest tree species in Ukraine were completed. The article presents the results of modeling the dynamics of the conversion coefficients for the main components of phytomass of modal natural spruce forests of the Carpathian region of Ukraine based on information from 32 plots in the database of «Forest Phytomass of Ukraine». According to the state forest accounting of Ukraine as of January 1, 2011, the spruce forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians cover an area of 426.2 thousand ha, 45 % of which are spruce of natural origin. To evaluate the productivity of modal dynamics of pure and mixed spruce stands, the study developed models of the stock and overall productivity, derived by Bertalanffy growth function. On the basis of these models, normative reference tables of biological productivity of natural modal spruce forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians were developed. To successfully meet the challenges of evaluating the energy possibilities of forestry of Ukraine, the study used tables of energetic productivity of investigated stands. Built on the basis of the tables of bioproductivity, they reflect the dynamic processes of energy storage in the phytomass components and can be used in forest management to predict volumes of energetic woods.

  16. Use of chemicals and biological products in Asian aquacultire and their potential environmental risks: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.; Satapornvanit, K.; Haque, M.M.; Min, J.; Nguyen, P.T.; Telfer, T.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades, Asian aquaculture production has intensified rapidly through the adoption of technological advances, and the use of a wide array of chemical and biological products to control sediment and water quality and to treat and prevent disease outbreaks. The use of chemicals in aq

  17. Biologically templated assembly of hybrid semiconducting nanomesh for high performance field effect transistors and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Hye-Hyeon; Lee, Seung-Woo; Lee, Eun-Hee; Kim, Woong; Yi, Hyunjung

    2016-10-01

    Delicately assembled composites of semiconducting nanomaterials and biological materials provide an attractive interface for emerging applications, such as chemical/biological sensors, wearable health monitoring devices, and therapeutic agent releasing devices. The nanostructure of composites as a channel and a sensing material plays a critical role in the performance of field effect transistors (FETs). Therefore, it is highly desirable to prepare elaborate composite that can allow the fabrication of high performance FETs and also provide high sensitivity and selectivity in detecting specific chemical/biological targets. In this work, we demonstrate that high performance FETs can be fabricated with a hydrodynamically assembled composite, a semiconducting nanomesh, of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (S-SWNTs) and a genetically engineered M13 phage to show strong binding affinity toward SWNTs. The semiconducting nanomesh enables a high on/off ratio (~104) of FETs. We also show that the threshold voltage and the channel current of the nanomesh FETs are sensitive to the change of the M13 phage surface charge. This biological gate effect of the phage enables the detection of biologically important molecules such as dopamine and bisphenol A using nanomesh-based FETs. Our results provide a new insight for the preparation of composite material platform for highly controllable bio/electronics interfaces.

  18. Biologically templated assembly of hybrid semiconducting nanomesh for high performance field effect transistors and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Hye-Hyeon; Lee, Seung-Woo; Lee, Eun-Hee; Kim, Woong; Yi, Hyunjung

    2016-01-01

    Delicately assembled composites of semiconducting nanomaterials and biological materials provide an attractive interface for emerging applications, such as chemical/biological sensors, wearable health monitoring devices, and therapeutic agent releasing devices. The nanostructure of composites as a channel and a sensing material plays a critical role in the performance of field effect transistors (FETs). Therefore, it is highly desirable to prepare elaborate composite that can allow the fabrication of high performance FETs and also provide high sensitivity and selectivity in detecting specific chemical/biological targets. In this work, we demonstrate that high performance FETs can be fabricated with a hydrodynamically assembled composite, a semiconducting nanomesh, of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (S-SWNTs) and a genetically engineered M13 phage to show strong binding affinity toward SWNTs. The semiconducting nanomesh enables a high on/off ratio (~104) of FETs. We also show that the threshold voltage and the channel current of the nanomesh FETs are sensitive to the change of the M13 phage surface charge. This biological gate effect of the phage enables the detection of biologically important molecules such as dopamine and bisphenol A using nanomesh-based FETs. Our results provide a new insight for the preparation of composite material platform for highly controllable bio/electronics interfaces. PMID:27762315

  19. Extracellular membrane vesicles in blood products-biology and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilija Krstova Krajnc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular membrane vesicles are fragments shed from plasma membranes off all cell types that are undergoing apoptosis or are being subjected to various types of stimulation or stress.  Even in the process of programmed cell death (apoptosis, cell fall apart of varying size vesicles. They expose phosphatidylserine (PS on the outer leaflet of their membrane, and bear surface membrane antigens reflecting their cellular origin. Extracellular membrane vesicles have been isolated from many types of biological fluids, including serum, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, saliva, tears and conditioned culture medium. Flow cytometry is one of the many different methodological approaches that have been used to analyze EMVs. The method attempts to characterize the EMVs cellular origin, size, population, number, and structure. EMVs are present and accumulate in blood products (erythrocytes, platelets as well as in fresh frozen plasma during storage. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of extracellular vesicles as a cell-to-cell communication system and the role in the pathogenesis of different diseases. Special emphasis will be given to the implication of extracellular membrane vesicles in blood products and their clinical relevance. Although our understanding of the role of  EMVs in disease is far from comprehensive, they display promise as biomarkers for different diseases in the future and also as a marker of quality and safety in the quality control of blood products.

  20. Biological butanol production from microalgae-based biodiesel residues by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chan, Kun-Chi; Chung, Man-Chien; Wu, Shu-Hsien; Liu, Cheng-Pin; Tien, Shih-Yuan; Chen, Shan-Yuan; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lee, Wen-Jhy

    2015-05-01

    This study conducted batch experiments to evaluate the potential of butanol production from microalgae biodiesel residues by Clostridium acetobutylicum. The results indicated that with 90 g/L of glucose as the sole substrate the highest butanol yield of 0.2 g/g-glucose was found, but the addition of butyrate significantly enhanced the butanol yield. The highest butanol yield of 0.4 g/g-glucose was found with 60 g/L of glucose and 18 g/L of butyrate. Using microalgae biodiesel residues as substrate, C. acetobutylicum produced 3.86 g/L of butanol and achieved butanol yield of 0.13 g/g-carbohydrate via ABE fermentation, but the results indicated that approximately one third of carbohydrate was not utilized by C. acetobutylicum. Biological butanol production from microalgae biodiesel residues can be possible, but further research on fermentation strategies are required to improve production yield. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. New High in Engineering Degree Production. Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Several of the state's key industry sectors depend heavily on employees with advanced scientific, analytic and technical knowledge. Among the fields closely related to these sectors, engineering degrees have posted the largest gain. This paper presents details on the following facts: (1) 2009 represented a record high for engineering degrees; (2)…

  2. Applying complex models to poultry production in the future--economics and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpaz, H; Cohen, M; Fancher, B; Halley, J

    2013-09-01

    The ability to determine the optimal broiler feed nutrient density that maximizes margin over feeding cost (MOFC) has obvious economic value. To determine optimal feed nutrient density, one must consider ingredient prices, meat values, the product mix being marketed, and the projected biological performance. A series of 8 feeding trials was conducted to estimate biological responses to changes in ME and amino acid (AA) density. Eight different genotypes of sex-separate reared broilers were fed diets varying in ME (2,723-3,386 kcal of ME/kg) and AA (0.89-1.65% digestible lysine with all essential AA acids being indexed to lysine) levels. Broilers were processed to determine carcass component yield at many different BW (1.09-4.70 kg). Trial data generated were used in model constructed to discover the dietary levels of ME and AA that maximize MOFC on a per broiler or per broiler annualized basis (bird × number of cycles/year). The model was designed to estimate the effects of dietary nutrient concentration on broiler live weight, feed conversion, mortality, and carcass component yield. Estimated coefficients from the step-wise regression process are subsequently used to predict the optimal ME and AA concentrations that maximize MOFC. The effects of changing feed or meat prices across a wide spectrum on optimal ME and AA levels can be evaluated via parametric analysis. The model can rapidly compare both biological and economic implications of changing from current practice to the simulated optimal solution. The model can be exploited to enhance decision making under volatile market conditions.

  3. THE USE OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN ABDOMINAL SURGERY AND LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Gabrielyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of new approaches to the prevention of infectious complications of bacterial nature after the high-technology operations in the abdominal surgery, first of all, after liver transplantation. At- tention is drawn to the first positive results of randomized studies on the use of biological preparations - probi- otics, prebiotics and synbiotics in patients after liver transplantation. The authors prove the prospects of further development of this subject based on successful model experiments on animals and various operational interven- tions in abdominal surgery. 

  4. Pricing Policy and Strategies for Consumer High-Tech Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovleac, L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the complex process of price setting for consumer high-tech products. These prices are highly influenced by some external factors from the economic and social environment. The main objective of this paper is to establish the most effective pricing policies and strategies used by high-tech companies of various sizes. Decisions about price fixing for consumer high-technology products are largely influenced by consumer behaviour, too.

  5. Inquiry-based Science Instruction in High School Biology Courses: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Eze

    A lack of research exists about how secondary school science teachers use inquiry-based instruction to improve student learning. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how science teachers used inquiry-based instruction to improve student learning in high school biology courses. The conceptual framework was based on Banchi and Bell's model of increasing levels of complexity for inquiry-based instruction. A multiple case study research design was conducted of biology programs at 3 high schools in an urban school district in the northeastern region of the United States. Participants included 2 biology teachers from each of the 3 high schools. Data were collected from individual interviews with biology teachers, observations of lessons in biology, and documents related to state standards, assessments, and professional development. The first level of data analysis involved coding and categorizing the interview and observation data. A content analysis was used for the documents. The second level of data analysis involved examining data across all sources and all cases for themes and discrepancies. According to study findings, biology teachers used confirmation, structure, and guided inquiry to improve student learning. However, they found open inquiry challenging and frustrating to implement because professional development about scaffolding of instruction over time was needed, and students' reading and writing skills needed to improve. This study contributes to positive social change by providing educators and researchers with a deeper understanding about how to scaffold levels of inquiry-based science instruction in order to help students become scientifically literate citizens.

  6. Optimisation of the biological pretreatment of wheat straw with white-rot fungi for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Abelairas, M; Álvarez Pallín, M; Salvachúa, D; Lú-Chau, T; Martínez, M J; Lema, J M

    2013-09-01

    The biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol is an environmentally friendly alternative to the most frequently used process, steam explosion (SE). However, this pretreatment can still not be industrially implemented due to long incubation times. The main objective of this work was to test the viability of and optimise the biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, which uses ligninolytic fungi (Pleurotus eryngii and Irpex lacteus) in a solid-state fermentation of sterilised wheat straw complemented with a mild alkali treatment. In this study, the most important parameters of the mechanical and thermal substrate conditioning processes and the most important parameters of the fungal fermentation process were optimised to improve sugar recovery. The largest digestibilities were achieved with fermentation with I. lacteus under optimised conditions, under which cellulose and hemicellulose digestibility increased after 21 days of pretreatment from 16 to 100 % and 12 to 87 %, respectively. The maximum glucose yield (84 %) of cellulose available in raw material was obtained after only 14 days of pretreatment with an overall ethanol yield of 74 % of the theoretical value, which is similar to that reached with SE.

  7. Synthetic biology for production of natural and new-to-nature terpenoids in photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Philipp; Pollier, Jacob; Callewaert, Nico; Goossens, Alain

    2016-07-01

    With tens of thousands of characterized members, terpenoids constitute the largest class of natural compounds that are synthesized by all living organisms. Several terpenoids play primary roles in the maintenance of cell membrane fluidity, as pigments or as phytohormones, but most of them function as specialized metabolites that are involved in plant resistance to herbivores or plant-environment interactions. Terpenoids are an essential component of human nutrition, and many are economically important pharmaceuticals, aromatics and potential next-generation biofuels. Because of the often low abundance in their natural source, as well as the demand for novel terpenoid structures with new or improved bioactivities, terpenoid biosynthesis has become a prime target for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology projects. In this review we focus on the creation of new-to-nature or tailor-made plant-derived terpenoids in photosynthetic organisms, in particular by means of combinatorial biosynthesis and the activation of silent metabolism. We reflect on the characteristics of different potential photosynthetic host organisms and recent advances in synthetic biology and discuss their utility for the (heterologous) production of (novel) terpenoids.

  8. Production of Some Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites From Marine-derived Fungus Varicosporina ramulosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalla, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In a screening of fungal isolates associated with marine algae collected from Abou-keer, Alexanderia during the four seasons of 2004, to obtain new biologically active compounds. Varicosporina ramulosa isolate was identified and selected as a producer of 13 compounds. Out of 13 pure compounds produced, compounds 3 and 10 were considered as antibacterial and antifungal compounds, respectively as they were active against gram positive, gram negative bacteria and a fungus. Optimization of conditions (fermentation media, incubation period, temperature, initial pH, aeration levels which activate compounds 3 and 10 production were studied. Also the spectral properties (UV, MS, GC/MS, IR and 1H-NMR of the purified compounds were determined. Compound 3 suggested to be dibutyl phthalate and compound 10 may be ergosterol or one of its isomers. Biological evaluation of the two compounds towards 6 different types of tumor cell lines showed weak effect of compound 3 at different concentrations on the viable cell count of the different tumor cell lines. While compound 10 showed different activities against the viable cell count of the 6 different tumor cell lines. It kills 50% of the viable infected liver and lung cells at concentrations equal to 99.7 µg/mL, 74.9µg/mL, respectively. Compound 10 can be recommended as new anticancer compounds.

  9. Interannual variability of biological production and carbon export in the California Current System from 1979 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Martin; Münnich, Matthias; Gruber, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    As an eastern boundary upwelling system, the California Current System (CalCS) belongs to those highly productive oceanic environments that sustain a complex ecosystem structure and food supply chains of high economic values. The intense coastal biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients inherent in the CalCS experiences substantial year-to-year variability, most of which is associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Here, we assess the response of the coastal cycling of carbon and nutrients to ENSO within the CalCS between 1979 and 2016 based on a high-resolution modeling study. We use the Regional Oceanic Modeling System coupled to a biogeochemical/ecological model with three plankton functional types. Our basin-scale model setup with substantial grid refinement toward coastal regions facilitates an investigation of the complex coastal dynamics while still permitting large-scale connectivity to the tropical Pacific, where ENSO is originating. Our findings underpin the substantial changes in nutrient supply, biological production and carbon export associated with ENSO. Composite means based on all El Niño events falling into the analysis period reveal strong reductions in the upwelling of inorganic nutrients to the coastal euphotic zone (-30%) and a subsequent drop in coastal production (-35%) along central California, consistent with in situ observations for the major events. These changes in nutrient supply and production translate into changes in the redistribution of organic and inorganic matter. In response to the lower production during El Niño events, vertical export (-30%) and offshore transport of organic carbon from coastal to open ocean regions are strongly reduced (-40%) as well. This is essentially a result of the strong decrease in production that is mainly confined to the coastal ocean, but effectively communicates ENSO induced changes along the coast to regions beyond the upwelling front. Reflecting the coastal El Niño response

  10. Probiotic high-fat dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Šebestová, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis was to summarise the current knowledge about application of probiotic culture of microorganisms into high-fat food matrixes (dairy or non-dairy) and their potential for devolepment of probiotic cookies. Probiotics are defined as living microorganisms which provide specific health benefits when consumed in a certain amount. They could be consumed in the form of commercially available food with added value or as nutritional supplements. The most common strains of...

  11. Automatic Compilation from High-Level Biologically-Oriented Programming Language to Genetic Regulatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Jacob; Lu, Ting; Weiss, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Background The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes () and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks. Conclusions/Significance Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems. PMID:21850228

  12. Back to the Roots: Prediction of Biologically Active Natural Products from Ayurveda Traditional Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polur, Honey; Joshi, Tejal; Workman, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine is one of the most ancient, yet living medicinal traditions. In the present work, we developed an in silico library of natural products from Ayurveda medicine, coupled with structural information, plant origin and traditional therapeutic use. Following this....... We hereby present a number of examples where the traditional medicinal use of the plant matches with the medicinal use of the drug that is structurally similar to a plant component. With this approach, we have brought to light a number of obscure compounds of natural origin (e.g. kanugin......, we compared their structures with those of drugs from DrugBank and we constructed a structural similarity network. Information on the traditional therapeutic use of the plants was integrated in the network in order to provide further evidence for the predicted biologically active natural compounds...

  13. Discharge of pharmaceutical products (PPs) through a conventional biological sewage treatment plant: MECs vs PECs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetsier, C M; Spinelli, S; Lin, L; Roig, B; Touraud, E

    2009-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals for human use are consumed in significant quantities and their occurrence in aquatic systems has been reported by a number of authors. In the context of environmental risk assessment, there is an increasing interest in evaluating the discharge of pharmaceutical products to surface waters through sewage treatment plants (STP). This case study was carried out on a conventional biological treatment plant (Alès, France) and focused on a set of eleven drugs representing the main therapeutic classes. Measured environmental concentrations (MECs) range from the low ng L(-1) to 1.5 microg L(-1) in effluent and up to few hundred ng L(-1) in receiving surface waters. There is a good agreement between MEC and predicted environmental concentration (PEC) values for seven of the eleven investigated drugs in STP effluent. There is not such a good match between PEC and MEC values in surface waters, and this highlights the limits of this approach, at the local scale.

  14. Carboxyethylpyrroles: From Hypothesis to the Discovery of Biologically Active Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Robert G

    2017-01-17

    Our research on the roles of lipid oxidation in human disease is guided by chemical intuition. For example, we postulated that 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) derivatives of primary amines would be produced through covalent adduction of a γ-hydroxyalkenal generated, in turn, through oxidative fragmentation of docosahexaenoates. Our studies confirmed the natural occurrence of this chemistry, and the biological activities of these natural products and their extensive involvements in human physiology (wound healing) and pathology (age-related macular degeneration, autism, atherosclerosis, sickle cell disease, and tumor growth) continue to emerge. This perspective recounts these discoveries and proposes new frontiers where further developments are likely. Perhaps more significantly, it depicts an effective chemistry-based approach to the discovery of novel biochemistry.

  15. Advances in microalgae engineering and synthetic biology applications for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimpel, Javier A; Specht, Elizabeth A; Georgianna, D Ryan; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2013-06-01

    Among the technologies being examined to produce renewable fuels, microalgae are viewed by many in the scientific community as having the greatest potential to become economically viable. Algae are capable of producing greater than 50,000 kg/acre/year of biomass [1]. Additionally, most algae naturally accumulate energy-dense oils that can easily be converted into transportation fuels. To reach economic parity with fossil fuels there are still several challenges. These include identifying crop protection strategies, improving harvesting and oil extraction processes, and increasing biomass productivity and oil content. All of these challenges can be impacted by genetic, molecular, and ultimately synthetic biology techniques, and all of these technologies are being deployed to enable algal biofuels to become economically competitive with fossil fuels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Postmarketing safety reports for human drug and biological products; electronic submission requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending its postmarketing safety reporting regulations for human drug and biological products to require that persons subject to mandatory reporting requirements submit safety reports in an electronic format that FDA can process, review, and archive. FDA is taking this action to improve the Agency's systems for collecting and analyzing postmarketing safety reports. The change will help the Agency to more rapidly review postmarketing safety reports, identify emerging safety problems, and disseminate safety information in support of FDA's public health mission. In addition, the amendments will be a key element in harmonizing FDA's postmarketing safety reporting regulations with international standards for the electronic submission of safety information.

  17. Sequential bottomonium production at high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Petreczky, P

    2016-01-01

    Bottomonium production in heavy ion collisions is modified compared with any simple extrapolation from elementary collisions. This modification is most likely caused by the presence of a deconfined system of quarks and gluons for times of several fm/c. In such a medium, bottomonium can be destroyed, but the constituent bottom quarks will likely stay spatially correlated due to small mean free paths in this system. With these facts in mind, we describe bottomonium formation with a coupled set of equations. A rate equation describes the destruction of $\\Upsilon(1S)$ particles, while a Langevin equation describes how the bottom quarks stay correlated for a sufficiently long time so that recombination into bottomonia is possible. We show that within this approach it is possible to understand the magnitude of $\\Upsilon(1S)$ suppression in heavy ion collisions and the larger suppression of the $\\Upsilon(2S)$ state, implying that the reduction in the ratio of $\\Upsilon(1S)/\\Upsilon(2S)$ yield in heavy ion collision ...

  18. The contribution of oxazolidinone frame to the biological activity of pharmaceutical drugs and natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappia, Giovanni; Menendez, Pilar; Monache, Giuliano Delle; Misiti, Domenico; Nevola, Laura; Botta, Bruno

    2007-04-01

    The development of resistance by the antibiotics in the Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria over the last twenty years and continuing today has created a need for new antibiotic classes, which may be unaffected by existing bacterial resistance. The oxazolidin-2-ones represent not only a new class with a novel mechanism of action, but also satisfy the requirement for overcoming the resistance mechanisms. Both linezolid and eperozolid, the first chemical candidates, arose from the piperazine subclass, with the first one being chosen further development because of its enhanced pharmacokinetic properties. The main attractive traits of the oxazolidinone series has encouraged further work in the area, and the patent literature reveals that extensive chemical investigation is currently being made. The unexpected early resistance development emphasizes the need for further exploration of features of the oxazolidinone to eliminate these deficiencies. Recently, several changes, involving the C5 side chain as well the N-phenyl heterocyclic ring, give promise for such improvement. Oxazolidinone antibacterial agents comprise also ketolides, derivatives of macrolides, such as erythromycin A, with a newly formed carbamate cycle, with a largely unexplored potential. The oxazolidinone nucleus does not appear only in the structures of antimicrobial drugs, but a number of biological activities are connected with frameworks including the oxazolidinone ring. A partial list of these activities comprises enzyme inhibitors, agonists and antagonists, with a particular citation for a new generation of selective monoamino oxidase inhibitors (befloxatone). The oxazolidinone moiety was found in the structure of few biologically active natural products, such as (-)-cytoxazone and streptazolin. Moreover, in some cases the oxazolidinone ring has been chosen for the preparation of isosteric aza analogues of natural compounds (podophyllotoxin, pilocarpine) that can be more easily synthesised and more

  19. Evaluation of Mycoplasma inactivation during production of biologics: egg-based viral vaccines as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Selwyn A Wilson; Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Ye, Zhiping; Chizhikov, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Although mycoplasmas are generally considered to be harmless commensals, some mycoplasma species are able to cause infections in pediatric, geriatric, or immunocompromised patients. Thus, accidental contamination of biologics with mycoplasmas represents a potential risk for the health of individuals who receive cell-derived biological and pharmaceutical products. To assess the efficiency of inactivation of mycoplasmas by the agents used in the manufacture of egg-derived influenza vaccines, we carried out a series of experiments aimed at monitoring the viability of mycoplasmas spiked into both chicken allantoic fluid and protein-rich microbiological media and then treated with beta-propiolactone, formalin, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, Triton X-100, and sodium deoxycholate, which are agents that are commonly used for virus inactivation and disruption of viral particles during influenza vaccine production. Twenty-two mycoplasma species (with one to four strains of each species) were exposed to these inactivating agents at different concentrations. The most efficient inactivation of the mycoplasmas evaluated was observed with either 0.5% Triton X-100 or 0.5% sodium deoxycholate. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide at concentrations of >or=0.08% was also able to rapidly inactivate (in less than 30 min) all mycoplasmas tested. In contrast, negligible reductions in mycoplasma titers were observed with 0.0125 to 0.025% formaldehyde. However, increasing the concentration of formaldehyde to 0.1 to 0.2% improved the mycoplasmacidal effect. Incubation of mycoplasmas with 0.1% beta-propiolactone for 1 to 24 h had a marked mycoplasmacidal effect. A comparison of the mycoplasma inactivation profiles showed that strains of selected species (Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma orale, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Acholeplasma laidlawii) represent a set of strains that can be utilized to validate the effectiveness of mycoplasma clearance obtained by inactivation and

  20. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass. Annual report, September 1, 1978-August 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pye, E.K.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1979-01-01

    The production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper were studied. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The process is aimed at achieving total raw material utilization and maximization of high value by-product recovery. Specific goals of the investigation are the demonstration of the process technical feasibility and economic practicality and its optimization for maximum economic yield and efficiency. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150g samples of lignocellulosic feeds has been completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis.

  1. Effects of Fe2+, Co2+and Ni2+Ions on Biological Methane Production from Residual Heavy Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chunshuang; Ma Wenjuan; Zhao Dongfeng; Jia Kuili; Zhao Chaocheng

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of single factor tests, the effect of trace elements—Fe2+, Co2+and Ni2+ions—on biological methane production from heavy oil was investigated by the response surface method. A three-level Box-Behnken design was em-ployed to study the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable by applying initial Fe2+, Co2+and Ni2+concentration as the independent variables (factors) and using the methane production after 270 days of cultivation as the dependent variable (response). A prediction model of quadramatic polynomial regression equation was obtained. The results showed that the methane production could be as high as 240.69 µmol after optimization compared with 235.74 µmol obtained under un-optimized condition. Furthermore, the microbial communities before and after biodegradation were ana-lyzed by PCR-DGGE method. The dominant bands were recovered and sequenced. Three strains were obtained;the strain T1 has 97%similarity with Bacillus thermoamylovorans, the strain H3 has 97%similarity with Bacillus thermoamylovorans and the strain H4 has 99%similarity with Bacillus vietnamensis.

  2. High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

    2013-05-15

    This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

  3. A comparison of Massachusetts and Texas high school biology teachers' attitudes towards the teaching of evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Richard T.

    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is considered to be the unifying theory for all life sciences (American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS, 1990; National Academy of Sciences, 1998; National Research Council, NRC, 1996; National Science Teachers Association, NSTA, 2010a) and as such, the biology topic has been established as a central learning standard by the National Science Education Science Standards (NSES, 2005). The purpose of this study was to compare how Massachusetts and Texas high school biology teachers' attitudes toward the teaching of evolution differ as compared to other biology topics. Texas and Massachusetts are two states that exemplify standards based education yet differ dramatically in their histories surrounding the topic of evolution. A survey was conducted among 217 Massachusetts and 139 Texas in-service high school biology teachers to help provide a sense of the phenomena surrounding biology teachers in respect to how their attitudes towards the teaching of evolution are shaped. Additionally, an open-ended question was asked to help contextualize the results of the survey between teachers of these two states. The findings in this study suggest that community appears to be a powerful persuasive message and socialization experience that shapes the development of attitudes towards evolution for some educators, especially when it is highly intertwined with religion. For biology teachers in the state of Texas, the synergistic result of this relationship has resulted in statistically significant differences in regards to attitudes towards evolution as compared to teachers in Massachusetts. These findings yield implications regarding scientific literacy, student learning, assessment, the quality of science instruction, curriculum, undergraduate biology programs, and the needs of biology teachers in terms of professional development.

  4. How do the high school biology textbooks introduce the nature of science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young H.

    2007-05-01

    Although helping students to achieve an adequate understanding of the nature of science has been a consistent goal for science education for over half a century, current research reveals that the majority of students and teachers have naive views of the nature of science (Abd-El-khalick & Akerson, 2004; Bianchini & Colburn, 2000). This problem could be attributed not only to the complex nature of science, but also to the way the nature of science is presented to students during instruction. Thus, research must be conducted to examine how the science is taught, especially in science textbooks, which are a major instructional resource for teaching science. The aim of this study was to conduct a content analysis of the first chapter of four high school biology textbooks, which typically discusses "What is science?" and "What is biology?" This research used a content analysis technique to analyze the four high school biology textbooks, using a conceptual framework that has been used often for science textbook analysis. This conceptual framework consists of four themes of the nature of science: (a) science as a body of knowledge, (b) science as a way of thinking, (c) science as a way of investigating, and (d) the interaction of science, technology, and society. For this study, the four-theme-framework was modified to incorporate descriptors from national-level documents, such as Science for All Americans (AAAS, 1990) Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993) and the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996), as well as science education research reports. A scoring procedure was used that resulted in good to excellent intercoder agreement with Cohen's kappa (k) ranging from .63 to .96. The findings show that the patterns of presentation of the four themes of the nature of science in the four high school biology textbooks are similar across the different locations of data, text, figures, and assessments. On the other hand, the pattern of presentation of the four

  5. High-Intensity Sweeteners in Alternative Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shida; Beach, Evan S; Sommer, Toby J; Zimmerman, Julie B; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2016-11-01

    Sweeteners in tobacco products may influence use initiation and reinforcement, with special appeal to adolescents. Recent analytical studies of smokeless tobacco products (snuff, snus, dissolvables) detected flavorants identical to those added to confectionary products such as hard candy and chewing gum. However, these studies did not determine the levels of sweeteners. The objective of the present study was to quantify added sweeteners in smokeless tobacco products, a dissolvable product, electronic cigarette liquids and to compare with sweetener levels in confectionary products. Sweetener content of US-sourced smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarette liquid, and confectionary product samples was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). All smokeless products contained synthetic high intensity sweeteners, with snus and dissolvables exceeding levels in confectionary products (as much as 25-fold). All snus samples contained sucralose and most also aspartame, but no saccharin. In contrast, all moist snuff samples contained saccharin. The dissolvable sample contained sucralose and sorbitol. Ethyl maltol was the most common sweet-associated component in electronic cigarette liquids. Sweetener content was dependent on product category, with saccharin in moist snuff, an older category, sucralose added at high levels to more recently introduced products (snus, dissolvable) and ethyl maltol in electronic cigarette liquid. The very high sweetener concentrations may be necessary for the consumer to tolerate the otherwise aversive flavors of tobacco ingredients. Regulation of sweetener levels in smokeless tobacco products may be an effective measure to modify product attractiveness, initiation and use patterns. Dissolvables, snus and electronic cigarettes have been promoted as risk-mitigation products due to their relatively low content of nitrosamines and other tobacco toxicants. This study is the first to quantify high

  6. High-Intensity Sweeteners in Alternative Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shida; Beach, Evan S.; Sommer, Toby J.; Zimmerman, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sweeteners in tobacco products may influence use initiation and reinforcement, with special appeal to adolescents. Recent analytical studies of smokeless tobacco products (snuff, snus, dissolvables) detected flavorants identical to those added to confectionary products such as hard candy and chewing gum. However, these studies did not determine the levels of sweeteners. The objective of the present study was to quantify added sweeteners in smokeless tobacco products, a dissolvable product, electronic cigarette liquids and to compare with sweetener levels in confectionary products. Methods: Sweetener content of US-sourced smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarette liquid, and confectionary product samples was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Results: All smokeless products contained synthetic high intensity sweeteners, with snus and dissolvables exceeding levels in confectionary products (as much as 25-fold). All snus samples contained sucralose and most also aspartame, but no saccharin. In contrast, all moist snuff samples contained saccharin. The dissolvable sample contained sucralose and sorbitol. Ethyl maltol was the most common sweet-associated component in electronic cigarette liquids. Discussion: Sweetener content was dependent on product category, with saccharin in moist snuff, an older category, sucralose added at high levels to more recently introduced products (snus, dissolvable) and ethyl maltol in electronic cigarette liquid. The very high sweetener concentrations may be necessary for the consumer to tolerate the otherwise aversive flavors of tobacco ingredients. Regulation of sweetener levels in smokeless tobacco products may be an effective measure to modify product attractiveness, initiation and use patterns. Implications: Dissolvables, snus and electronic cigarettes have been promoted as risk-mitigation products due to their relatively low content of nitrosamines and other tobacco

  7. Nitrous oxide production from reactive nitrification intermediates: a concerted action of biological and chemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Nicolas; Heil, Jannis; Liu, Shurong; Wei, Jing; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-04-01

    This contribution tries to open up a new perspective on biogeochemical N2O production processes, taking the term bio-geo-chemistry literally. What if a major part of N2O is produced from reactive intermediates of microbiological N turnover processes ("bio…") leaking out of the involved microorganisms into the soil ("…geo…") and then reacting chemically ("…chemistry") with the surrounding matrix? There are at least two major reactive N intermediates that might play a significant role in these coupled biological-chemical reactions, i.e. hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and nitrite (NO2-), both of which are produced during nitrification under oxic conditions, while NO2- is also produced during denitrification under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, NH2OH is assumed to be also a potential intermediate of DNRA and/or anammox. First, this contribution will summarize information about several chemical reactions involving NH2OH and NO2- leading to the formation of N2O. These abiotic reactions are: reactions of NO2- with reduced metal cations, nitrosation reactions of NO2- and soil organic matter (SOM), the reaction between NO2- and NH2OH, and the oxidation of NH2OH by oxidized metal ions. While these reactions can occur over a broad range of soil characteristics, they are ignored in most current N trace gas studies in favor of biological processes only. Disentangling microbiological from purely chemical N2O production is further complicated by the fact that the chemically formed N2O is either undiscernible from N2O produced during nitrification, or shows an intermediate 15N site preference between that of N2O from nitrification and denitrification, respectively. Results from experiments with live and sterilized soil samples, with artificial soil mixtures and with phenolic lignin decomposition model compounds will be presented that demonstrate the potential contribution of these abiotic processes to soil N trace gas emissions, given a substantial leakage rate of these reactive

  8. High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Biological Tissue Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Donald F; Leach, Franklin E; Robinson, Errol W; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Biological tissue imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry has seen rapid development with the commercial availability of polyatomic primary ion sources. Endogenous lipids and other small bio-molecules can now be routinely mapped on the sub-micrometer scale. Such experiments are typically performed on time-of-flight mass spectrometers for high sensitivity and high repetition rate imaging. However, such mass analyzers lack the mass resolving power to ensure separation of isobaric ions and the mass accuracy for elemental formula assignment based on exact mass measurement. We have recently reported a secondary ion mass spectrometer with the combination of a C60 primary ion gun with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) for high mass resolving power, high mass measurement accuracy and tandem mass spectrometry capabilities. In this work, high specificity and high sensitivity secondary ion FT-ICR MS was applied to chemical imaging of biological tissue. An entire rat brain tissu...

  9. Software Synthesis for High Productivity Exascale Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodik, Rastislav [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Over the three years of our project, we accomplished three key milestones: We demonstrated how ideas from generative programming and software synthesis can help support the development of bulk-synchronous distributed memory kernels. These ideas are realized in a new language called MSL, a C-like language that combines synthesis features with high level notations for array manipulation and bulk-synchronous parallelism to simplify the semantic analysis required for synthesis. We also demonstrated that these high level notations map easily to low level C code and show that the performance of this generated code matches that of handwritten Fortran. Second, we introduced the idea of solver-aided domain-specific languages (SDSLs), which are an emerging class of computer-aided programming systems. SDSLs ease the construction of programs by automating tasks such as verification, debugging, synthesis, and non-deterministic execution. SDSLs are implemented by translating the DSL program into logical constraints. Next, we developed a symbolic virtual machine called Rosette, which simplifies the construction of such SDSLs and their compilers. We have used Rosette to build SynthCL, a subset of OpenCL that supports synthesis. Third, we developed novel numeric algorithms that move as little data as possible, either between levels of a memory hierarchy or between parallel processors over a network. We achieved progress in three aspects of this problem. First we determined lower bounds on communication. Second, we compared these lower bounds to widely used versions of these algorithms, and noted that these widely used algorithms usually communicate asymptotically more than is necessary. Third, we identified or invented new algorithms for most linear algebra problems that do attain these lower bounds, and demonstrated large speed-ups in theory and practice.

  10. The impact of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity on natural products research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, Gordon M; Katz, Flora; Newman, David J; Rosenthal, Joshua

    2012-12-01

    The discovery and development of novel, biologically active agents from natural sources, whether they be drugs, agrochemicals or other bioactive entities, involve a high level of interdisciplinary as well as international collaboration. Such collaboration, particularly at the international level, requires the careful negotiation of collaborative agreements protecting the rights of all parties, with special attention being paid to the rights of host (source) country governments, communities and scientific organizations. While many biodiversity-rich source countries currently might not have the necessary resources for in-country drug discovery and advanced development, they provide valuable opportunities for collaboration in this endeavor with research organizations from more high-income nations. This chapter discusses the experiences of the US National Cancer Institute and the US government-sponsored International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups program in the establishment of international agreements in the context of the Convention of Biological Diversity's objectives of promoting fair and equitable collaboration with multiple parties in many countries, and includes some specific lessons of value in developing such collaborations.

  11. An analisys of consumers’ expenditures on high-tech products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovleac, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High – tech products are gradually adopted by consumers, who become to consider them indispensable. Their acquisition requires each time a pretty significant financial investment and a serious decision with a high perceived risk. In this paper we intend to analyse some financial issues related to high-tech products purchased by consumers from Brasov city in 2009, such as: the amount of money spent on high tech products, the financial sources used, the connections between expenditures and consumer’s characteristics.

  12. Model of high-productive varieties in forage pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kosev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A linear equation of regression was used for establishment of the influence of quantitative characteristics on the grain productivity in forage pea and for development of a model for breeding work. The model for pea plant with high productivity was characterized by average height of 60–70 cm, 8–10 formed pods, 30–40 seeds per plant and 160–260 g in regard to 1000-seed weight. The obtained results showed that the greatest effect on grain productivity had the seed number per plant, first pod height and 1000-seed weight. Kristal variety had high ecological plasticity and could be considered as close to an ideal type, suitable for growing under wide range of environments. Pleven 4 and Rezonator were determined as high-productive varieties and with low stability, Kerpo and Pikardi - as low-productive but stable varieties. Druzba was identified as unstable and low-productive variety.

  13. The Effectiveness of an Online Curriculum on High School Students' Understanding of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsteller, Robert B.; Bodzin, Alec M.

    2015-12-01

    An online curriculum about biological evolution was designed to promote increased student content knowledge and evidentiary reasoning. A feasibility study was conducted with 77 rural high school biology students who learned with the online biological evolution unit. Data sources included the Biological Evolution Assessment Measure (BEAM), an analysis of discussion forum posts, and a post-implementation perceptions and attitudes questionnaire. BEAM posttest scores were significantly higher than the pretest scores. However, the findings revealed that the students required additional support to develop evidentiary reasoning. Many students perceived that the Web-based curriculum would have been enhanced by increased immediate interaction and feedback. Students required greater scaffolding to support complex, process-oriented tasks. Implications for designing Web-based science instruction with curriculum materials to support students' acquisition of content knowledge and science process skills in a Web-based setting are discussed.

  14. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Mohagheghi, Ali; Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi; Johnson, David K.

    2015-03-22

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. In recent years a great effort has been made in bacterial production of PHB, yet the production cost of the polymer is still much higher than conventional petrochemical plastics. The high cost of PHB is because the cost of the substrates can account for as much as half of the total product cost in large scale fermentation. Thus searching for cheaper and better substrates is very necessary for PHB production. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB by Cupriavidus necator from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified hydrolysate slurry from pretreated corn stover. Good cell growth was observed on slurry saccharified with advanced enzymes and 40~60% of PHB was accumulated in the cells. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by pretreatment and saccharification of biomass, will be discussed.

  15. Genes influencing milk production traits predominantly affect one of four biological pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goddard Michael

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study we introduce a method that accounts for false positive and false negative results in attempting to estimate the true proportion of quantitative trait loci that affect two different traits. This method was applied to data from a genome scan that was used to detect QTL for three independent milk production traits, Australian Selection Index (ASI, protein percentage (P% and fat percentage corrected for protein percentage (F% – P%. These four different scenarios are attributed to four biological pathways: QTL that (1 increase or decrease total mammary gland production (affecting ASI only; (2 increase or decrease lactose synthesis resulting in the volume of milk being changed but without a change in protein or fat yield (affecting P% only; (3 increase or decrease protein synthesis while milk volume remains relatively constant (affecting ASI and P% in the same direction; (4 increase or decrease fat synthesis while the volume of milk remains relatively constant (affecting F% – P% only. The results indicate that of the positions that detected a gene, most affected one trait and not the others, though a small proportion (2.8% affected ASI and P% in the same direction.

  16. High-Level Language Production in Parkinson's Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori J. P. Altmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses impairments of high-level, complex language production in Parkinson's disease (PD, defined as sentence and discourse production, and situates these impairments within the framework of current psycholinguistic theories of language production. The paper comprises three major sections, an overview of the effects of PD on the brain and cognition, a review of the literature on language production in PD, and a discussion of the stages of the language production process that are impaired in PD. Overall, the literature converges on a few common characteristics of language production in PD: reduced information content, impaired grammaticality, disrupted fluency, and reduced syntactic complexity. Many studies also document the strong impact of differences in cognitive ability on language production. Based on the data, PD affects all stages of language production including conceptualization and functional and positional processing. Furthermore, impairments at all stages appear to be exacerbated by impairments in cognitive abilities.

  17. Proceedings CSR 2010 Workshop on High Productivity Computations

    CERN Document Server

    Ablayev, Farid; Vasiliev, Alexander; 10.4204/EPTCS.52

    2011-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Workshop on High Productivity Computations (HPC 2010) which took place on June 21-22 in Kazan, Russia. This workshop was held as a satellite workshop of the 5th International Computer Science Symposium in Russia (CSR 2010). HPC 2010 was intended to organize the discussions about high productivity computing means and models, including but not limited to high performance and quantum information processing.

  18. The Biological Behaviors of Rat Dermal Fibroblasts Can Be Inhibited by High Levels of MMP9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Neng Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To explore the effects of the high expression of MMP9 on biological behaviors of fibroblasts. Methods. High glucose and hyperhomocysteine were used to induce MMP9 expression in skin fibroblasts. Cell proliferation was detected by flow cytometry and cell viability by CCK-8. ELISA assay was used to detect collagen (hydroxyproline secretion. Scratch test was employed to evaluate horizontal migration of cells and transwell method to evaluate vertical migration of cells. Results. The mRNA and protein expressions of MMP9 and its protease activity were significantly higher in cells treated with high glucose and hyperhomocysteine than those in control group. At the same time, the S-phase cell ratio, proliferation index, cell viability, collagen (hydroxyproline secretion, horizontal migration rate, and the number of vertical migration cells decreased in high-glucose and hyperhomocysteine-treated group. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1, which inhibits the activity of MMP9, recovered the above biological behaviors. Conclusions. High expression of MMP9 in skin fibroblasts could be induced by cultureing in high glucose and hyperhomocysteine medium, which inhibited cell biological behaviors. Inhibitions could be reversed by TIMP1. The findings suggested that MMP9 deters the healing of diabetic foot ulcers by inhibiting the biological behaviors of fibroblasts.

  19. Product engineering by high-temperature flame synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue; Johansen, Johnny; Mosleh, Majid;

    High-temperature flame processes can be applied as a tool for chemical product engineering. The general principle behind flame synthesis is the decomposition/oxidation of evaporated metal-precursors in a flame, thereby forming metal oxide monomers which nucleate, aggregate, and - to some extent...... product gas can be applied directly in additional product engineering concepts. A brief overview of on-going product developments and product engineering projects is outlined below. These projects, which are all founded on flame synthesis of nano-structured materials, include: • Preparation of catalyzed...

  20. Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions

    OpenAIRE

    S. GamminoINFN, LNS, Catania

    2014-01-01

    In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyc...

  1. Structural and functional investigations of biological catalysts for optimization of solar-driven H II production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul W.; Svedruzic, Drazenka; Cohen, Jordi; Schulten, Klaus; Seibert, Michael; Ghirardi, Maria L.

    2006-08-01

    Research efforts to develop efficient systems for H II production encompass a variety of biological and chemical approaches. For solar-driven H II production we are investigating an approach that integrates biological catalysts, the [FeFe] hydrogenases, with a photoelectrochemical cell as a novel bio-hybrid system. Structurally the [FeFe] hydrogenases consist of an iron-sulfur catalytic site that in some instances is electronically wired to accessory iron-sulfur clusters proposed to function in electron transfer. The inherent structural complexity of most examples of these enzymes is compensated by characteristics desired for bio-hybrid systems (i.e., low activation energy, high catalytic activity and solubility) with the benefit of utilizing abundant, less costly non-precious metals. Redesign and modification of [FeFe] hydrogenases is being undertaken to reduce complexity and to optimize structural properties for various integration strategies. The least complex examples of [FeFe] hydrogenase are found in the species of photosynthetic green algae and are being studied as design models for investigating the effects of structural minimization on substrate transfer, catalytic activity and oxygen sensitivity. Redesigning hydrogenases for effective use in bio-hybrid systems requires a detailed understanding of the relationship between structure and catalysis. To achieve better mechanistic understanding of [FeFe] hydrogenases both structural and dynamic models are being used to identify potential substrate transfer mechanisms which are tested in an experimental system. Here we report on recent progress of our investigations in the areas of [FeFe] hydrogenase overexpression, minimization and biochemical characterization.

  2. Nutrient availability affects pigment production but not growth in lichens of biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, M.A.; Koch, G.W.; Belnap, J.; Johnson, N.C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research suggests that micronutrients such as Mn may limit growth of slow-growing biological soil crusts (BSCs) in some of the drylands of the world. These soil surface communities contribute strongly to arid ecosystem function and are easily degraded, creating a need for new restoration tools. The possibility that Mn fertilization could be used as a restoration tool for BSCs has not been tested previously. We used microcosms in a controlled greenhouse setting to investigate the hypothesis that Mn may limit photosynthesis and consequently growth in Collema tenax, a dominant N-fixing lichen found in BSCs worldwide. We found no evidence to support our hypothesis; furthermore, addition of other nutrients (primarily P, K, and Zn) had a suppressive effect on gross photosynthesis (P = 0.05). We also monitored the growth and physiological status of our microcosms and found that other nutrients increased the production of scytonemin, an important sunscreen pigment, but only when not added with Mn (P = 0.01). A structural equation model indicated that this effect was independent of any photosynthesis-related variable. We propose two alternative hypotheses to account for this pattern: (1) Mn suppresses processes needed to produce scytonemin; and (2) Mn is required to suppress scytonemin production at low light, when it is an unnecessary photosynthate sink. Although Mn fertilization does not appear likely to increase photosynthesis or growth of Collema, it could have a role in survivorship during environmentally stressful periods due to modification of scytonemin production. Thus, Mn enrichment should be studied further for its potential to facilitate BSC rehabilitation. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Kinetics of biological hydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U. 001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koku, Harun; Eroglu, I. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Gunduz, U.; Yucel, M. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Biology; Turker, L. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2003-04-01

    The kinetics and the effects of various parameters on hydrogen production by Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U. 001 were investigated in a batch column photobioreactor. In particular, the effect of the inoculum age and the implementation of a light-dark cycle illumination scheme for emulating natural sunlight have been investigated in detail. The possibility of using yeast extract to replace the rather expensive vitamin mixture in the medium was also studied. The results show that hydrogen production is decreased when the initially inoculated bacteria have a high culture age. Exposure of the bacterial culture to light-dark cycles increased the amount of hydrogen compared to continuous illumination, all other parameters remaining the same. Similarly, the use of yeast extract to replace the vitamins increased the growth and hydrogen production rates, however, with a slight reduction in the total amount of gas produced and the hydrogen fraction in the evolved gas. (Author)

  4. Quantitative, high-resolution proteomics for data-driven systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, J.; Mann, M.

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology requires comprehensive data at all molecular levels. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has emerged as a powerful and universal method for the global measurement of proteins. In the most widespread format, it uses liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to high-resolution tandem...... primary structure of proteins including posttranslational modifications, to localize proteins to organelles, and to determine protein interactions. Here, we describe the principles of analysis and the areas of biology where proteomics can make unique contributions. The large-scale nature of proteomics...... data and its high accuracy pose special opportunities as well as challenges in systems biology that have been largely untapped so far. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved....

  5. Genetic and Biological Changes of Newcastle Disease Virus Due to The Development of Chicken Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarisman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, Newcastle Disease (ND is one of the most important diseases of poultry. It causes serious economic losses in poultry industry. Newcastle Disease or pseudo-fowl pest is a highly infectious viral disease that causes very high mortality (up to 100% in severe epidemics in poultry and wild birds around the world. Newcastle Disease remains endemic in many regions and continues to severely limit poultry production in some developing countries. The disease is currently being controlled by routine vaccinations in many countries. However, it was reported that outbreaks of ND in vaccinated flocks often occur on the field may not only be due to differences in the antigenicity of the NDV wild field strains and vaccine strains, but could also be as a result of differences in pathogenicity and virulence between different strains used as vaccine seed in NDV vaccine production.

  6. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are

  7. Metabolic engineering of Cyanobacteria and microalgae for enhanced production of biofuels and high-value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, M A; Al-Haj, L; Abed, R M M

    2016-10-01

    A lot of research has been performed on Cyanobacteria and microalgae with the aim to produce numerous biotechnological products. However, native strains have a few shortcomings, like limitations in cultivation, harvesting and product extraction, which prevents reaching optimal production value at lowest costs. Such limitations require the intervention of genetic engineering to produce strains with superior properties. Promising advancements in the cultivation of Cyanobacteria and microalgae have been achieved by improving photosynthetic efficiency through increasing RuBisCO activity and truncation of light-harvesting antennae. Genetic engineering has also contributed to final product extraction by inducing autolysis and product secretory systems, to enable direct product recovery without going through costly extraction steps. In this review, we summarize the different enzymes and pathways that have been targeted thus far for improving cultivation aspects, harvesting and product extraction in Cyanobacteria and microalgae. With synthetic biology advancements, genetically engineered strains can be generated to resolve demanding process issues and achieve economic practicality. This comprehensive overview of gene modifications will be useful to researchers in the field to employ on their strains to increase their yields and improve the economic feasibility of the production process. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Productivity improvement of high end cnc machines by dmaic methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Veeresh Bhusnur; Dr. Bhimasen Soragaon; Hemanth Kumar C

    2017-01-01

    This research mainly emphasizes on productivity improvement with the application of DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Measure, Improve, Control) which is sub methodology of Six Sigma. It shows the application of Six Sigma in Auma India Pvt. Ltd. to reduce the cycle time and set-up times of High End CNC machines. At Auma, one of the most critical problem is that the existing production rate cannot meet the customer demands. This work was focused on improving the production rate of CNC machines ...

  9. Identifying and Researching Market Opportunities for New High Technology Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Peter

    Using a product called the synchro-pulse welder as a case study example, this paper discusses the activities of CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in identifying and marketing new high-technology products. A general discussion of CSIRO's market research plans includes two goals to be attained within the next 5…

  10. Method for the determination of cobalt from biological products with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamfir, Oana-Liliana; Ionicǎ, Mihai; Caragea, Genica; Radu, Simona; Vlǎdescu, Marian

    2016-12-01

    Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27 and atomic weight 58.93. 59 Co is the only stable cobalt isotope and the only isotope to exist naturally on Earth. Cobalt is the active center of coenzymes called cobalamin or cyanocobalamin the most common example of which is vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 deficiency can potentially cause severe and irreversible damage, especially to the brain and nervous system in the form of fatigue, depression and poor memory or even mania and psychosis. In order to study the degree of deficiency of the population with Co or the correctness of treatment with vitamin B12, a modern optoelectronic method for the determination of metals and metalloids from biological samples has been developed, Graphite Furnace - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (GF- AAS) method is recommended. The technique is based on the fact that free atoms will absorb light at wavelengths characteristic of the element of interest. Free atoms of the chemical element can be produced from samples by the application of high temperatures. The system GF-AAS Varian used as biological samples, blood or urine that followed the digest of the organic matrix. For the investigations was used a high - performance GF-AAS with D2 - background correction system and a transversely heated graphite atomizer. As result of the use of the method are presented the concentration of Co in the blood or urine of a group of patient in Bucharest. The method is sensitive, reproducible relatively easy to apply, with a moderately costs.

  11. The Role of Chitinase Production by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain C3 in Biological Control of Bipolaris sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Yuen, G Y

    2000-04-01

    ABSTRACT The role of chitinase production by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain C3 in biological control of leaf spot on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The filtrate of a broth culture of C3, with chitin as the carbon source, was separated into fractions. A high molecular-weight fraction (>8 kDa) was chitinolytic and more inhibitory than a low-molecular-weight, nonchitinolytic fraction to conidial germination and hyphal growth by B. sorokiniana and to leaf spot development. A protein fraction derived by ammonium sulfate precipitation and a chitinase fraction purified by chitin affinity chromatography also were chitinolytic and highly antifungal. The chitinolytic fractions caused swelling and vacuolation of conidia and discoloration, malformation, and degradation of germ tubes. When boiled, the chitinolytic fractions lost chitinase activity along with most of the antifungal properties. Two chitinase-deficient and two chitinase-reduced mutants of C3 were compared with the wild-type strain for inhibition of germination of B. sorokiniana conidia on tall fescue leaves and for suppression of leaf spot development in vivo. The mutants exhibited reduced antifungal activity and biocontrol efficacy, but did not lose all biocontrol activity. An aqueous extract of leaves colonized by wild-type C3 had higher chitinase activity than that of noncolonized leaves and was inhibitory to conidial germination. The addition of chitin to leaves along with the wild-type strain increased both chitinase and antifungal activity. The chitinase activity level of extracts from leaves colonized by a chitinase-deficient mutant of C3, with and without added chitin, was no higher than the background, and the extracts lacked antifungal activity. Chitinolysis appears to be one mechanism of biological control by strain C3, and it functions in concert with other mechanisms.

  12. Ohio High School Biology Teachers' Views of State Standard for Evolution: Impacts on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    High school biology teachers face many challenges as they teach evolution. State standards for evolution may provide support for sound evolution instruction. This study attempts to build upon previous work by investigating teachers' views of evolution standards and their evolution practices in a state where evolution standards have been…

  13. Highly Adaptable but Not Invulnerable: Necessary and Facilitating Conditions for Research in Evolutionary Developmental Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laudel, Grit; Benninghoff, Martin; Lettkemann, Eric; Håkansson, Elias; Whitley, Richard; Gläser, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary developmental biology is a highly variable scientific innovation because researchers can adapt their involvement in the innovation to the opportunities provided by their environment. On the basis of comparative case studies in four countries, we link epistemic properties of research tas

  14. High School Biology Students' Knowledge and Certainty about Diffusion and Osmosis Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Arthur L.; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students' understanding about scientifically acceptable content knowledge by exploring the relationship between knowledge of diffusion and osmosis and the students' certainty in their content knowledge. Data was collected from a high school biology class with the Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test…

  15. Awareness of Societal Issues among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when…

  16. Taiwan High School Biology Teachers' Acceptance and Understanding of Evolution and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Evolution is the cornerstone of biological sciences, but anti-evolution teaching has become a global controversy since the introduction of evolutionary ideas into the United States high school science curricula in 1914. It is suggested that teachers' attitude toward and acceptance of the theory of evolution will influence their effect of teaching…

  17. The Origin and Evolution of Life in Pakistani High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Anila; Wiles, Jason R.; Alters, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to inform science education practitioners and researchers in the West about apparent attempts to reconcile science and religion in Pakistan's public school curriculum. We analysed the national high school science curriculum and biology textbooks (English) used in the Government schools in Pakistan, where Islamic faith is the…

  18. Taiwan High School Biology Teachers' Acceptance and Understanding of Evolution and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Evolution is the cornerstone of biological sciences, but anti-evolution teaching has become a global controversy since the introduction of evolutionary ideas into the United States high school science curricula in 1914. It is suggested that teachers' attitude toward and acceptance of the theory of evolution will influence their effect of teaching…

  19. The Treatment of Geological Time & the History of Life on Earth in High School Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Gerald; Decker, Todd; Barrow, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the importance of geological time in evolutionary biology, misconceptions about historical events in the history of life on Earth are common. Glenn (1990) has documented a decline from 1960 to 1989 in the amount of space devoted to the history of life in high school earth science textbooks, but we are aware of no similar study in…

  20. Actual problems of protecting highly productive animals farms in the Lipetsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ushkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to more efficient use of feed, many farms, ensuring high productivity, has reached the profitability of milk production 40 % or more. No wonder milk has recently been called "white gold" because it provides the highest profitability among livestock products. However, higher producing cows have higher requirements for balanced feeding. Such cows are more intense metabolism: compared to cows of average productivity, the gas exchange is increased in 1,5-2 times, also increases blood pressure, pulse rate and respiration. This means that the wear and tear of the body is faster. And the consequences of inadequate feeding due to unbalanced diets on nutritional and biological active substances lead to profound metabolic disorders, which leads to disruption of the function of reproduction, diseases, shortening productive use of animals to one or two lactations. Without a system of introduction of achievements of zoo technical and veterinary Sciences, the proper organization of feeding, housing and care, application of progressive forms of work organization - cannot be opened, laid in the animals genetic potential. The main direction in the development of dairy cattle breeding is its intensification. The effectiveness of intensification is the implementation of the following development paths: full implementation and improvement of the genetic potential of dairy cattle; rich, biologically full feeding of animals; preparation of sufficient high-quality feed; implementation of efficient technologies.